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Sample records for aa 2024-t3 substrate

  1. Blister Test for Measurements of Adhesion and Adhesion Degradation of Organic Polymers on AA2024-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon Troconis, Brendy Carolina

    A key parameter for the performance of corrosion protective coatings applied to metals is adhesion. Surface preparation prior to coating application is known to be critical, but there is a lack of understanding of what controls adhesion. Numerous techniques have been developed in the last decades to measure the adhesion strength of coatings to metals. Nonetheless, they are generally non-quantitative, non-reproducible, performed in dry conditions, or overestimate adhesion. In this study, a quantitative and reproducible technique, the Blister Test (BT), is used. The BT offers the ability to study the effects of a range of parameters, including the presence or absence of a wetting liquid, and simulates the stress situation in the coating/substrate interface. The effects of roughness and surface topography were studied by the BT and Optical Profilometry, using AA2024-T3 substrates coated with polyvinyl butyral (PVB). Random abrasion generated a surface with lower average roughness than aligned abrasion due to the continual cross abrasion of the grooves. The BT could discern the effects of different mechanical treatments. An adhesion strength indicator was defined and found to be a useful parameter. The effectiveness of standard adhesion techniques such as ASTM D4541 (Pull-off Test) and ASTM D3359 (Tape Test) was compared to the BT. Also, different attempts to measure adhesion and adhesion degradation of organic polymers to AA2024-T3 were tested. The pull-off test does not produce adhesive failure across the entire interface, while the tape test is a very qualitative technique and does not discern between the effects of different coating systems on the adhesion performance. The BT produces adhesive failure of the primer studied, is very reproducible, and is able to rank different coating systems. Therefore, it was found to be superior to the others. The approaches tested for adhesion degradation were not aggressive enough to have a measurable effect. The effects of

  2. Multiple Crack Growth Prediction in AA2024-T3 Friction Stir Welded Joints, Including Manufacturing Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Citarella, Roberto; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    2016-01-01

    2024-T3 alloy was simulated using a thermo-mechanical FEM model to predict the process induced residual stress field and material softening. The computed stress field was transferred to a DBEM environment and superimposed to the stress field produced by a remote fatigue traction load applied...... boundary element method (FEM-DBEM) procedure, coupling the welding process simulation to the subsequent crack growth assessment, is proposed and applied to simulate multiple crack propagation, with allowance for manufacturing effects. The friction stir butt welding process of the precipitation hardened AA...

  3. The corrosion protection of AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy by leaching of lithium-containing salts from organic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Peter; Liu, Yanwen; Zhou, Xiaorong; Hashimoto, Teruo; Thompson, George E; Lyon, Stuart B; van der Ven, Leendert G J; Mol, Arjan J M C; Terryn, Herman A

    2015-01-01

    Lithium carbonate and lithium oxalate were incorporated as leachable corrosion inhibitors in model organic coatings for the protection of AA2024-T3. The coated samples were artificially damaged with a scribe. It was found that the lithium-salts are able to leach from the organic coating and form a protective layer in the scribe on AA2024-T3 under neutral salt spray conditions. The present paper shows the first observation and analysis of these corrosion protective layers, generated from lithium-salt loaded organic coatings. The scribed areas were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy before and after neutral salt spray exposure (ASTM-B117). The protective layers typically consist of three different layered regions, including a relatively dense layer near the alloy substrate, a porous middle layer and a flake-shaped outer layer, with lithium uniformly distributed throughout all three layers. Scanning electron microscopy and white light interferometry surface roughness measurements demonstrate that the formation of the layer occurs rapidly and, therefore provides an effective inhibition mechanism. Based on the observation of this work, a mechanism is proposed for the formation of these protective layers.

  4. Pinless Friction Stir Welding of AA2024-T3 Joint and Its Failure Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文亚; 李锦锋; 张志函; 高大路; 王卫兵; 栾国红

    2014-01-01

    The joining of aluminum alloy sheets with thickness less than 2.0 mm is difficult via conventional friction stir welding owing to the defects in the joint, such as root flaw, keyhole and lazy S. In the present research, a newly designed pinless tool with involute grooves on its shoulder surface was applied to weld 1.5 mm thick AA2024-T3. The effects of the rotating speed and welding speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were ana-lyzed. The experimental results showed that the root flaw and keyhole were successfully eliminated. The lazy S was also eliminated under the optimized welding parameters. The maximum tensile strength of the joints was 326 MPa, which is about 74.1% that of the base material. Moreover, all the tensile samples fractured from the retreating side. Two fracture modes were observed during the tensile tests, which are related with the lazy S.

  5. Anodic galvanostatic polarization of AA2024-T3 aircraft alloy in conventional mineral acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhukharov, S., E-mail: stephko1980@abv.bg [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria); Girginov, Ch. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria); Avramova, I. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 11 “Georgi Bonchev” Str., 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria); Machkova, M. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the determination of the impact of the anodization of AA2024-T3 alloys in HCl, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on the samples’ surface morphology and properties. Subsequent systematic assessments were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). These observations were combined with Linear Voltammetry (LVA) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) after 48 and 168 h of exposure to a 3.5% NaCl model corrosive medium. The main result is, that completely different effects were observed in accordance to the acid used. It was established that the monoprotonic acids have a deep destructive effect due to dissolution of the alloy components, whereas the polyprotonic ones possess either indistinguishable influence, or surface film formation. - Highlights: • AA2024 was polarized anodically in 15%{sub wt} acid solutions at 15 mA cm{sup −2} for 2 h. • Four mineral acids were selected for investigation: HCl, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • SEM, EDX and XPS were applied for morphological description. • Electrochemical characterizations were performed by EIS and linear voltammetry. • The acid used predetermines completely different interaction with the AA2024 alloy.

  6. Numerical modeling of AA2024-T3 friction stir welding process for residual stress evaluation, including softening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Carlone, Pierpaolo; Palazzo, Gaetano S.;

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, a numerical finite element model of the precipitation hardenable AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy, consisting of a heat transfer analysis based on the Thermal Pseudo Mechanical model for heat generation, and a sequentially coupled quasi-static stress analysis is proposed. Metallurgi...

  7. Integrated FEM-DBEM simulation of crack propagation in AA2024-T3 FSW butt joints considering manufacturing effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Carlone, P.; Citarella, R.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a numerical and experimental investigation on the influence of residual stresses on fatigue crack growth in AA2024-T3 friction stir welded butt joints. An integrated FEM-DBEM procedure for the simulation of crack propagation is proposed and discussed. A numerical FEM model...... of the contour method. The computed stress field is transferred to a DBEM environment and superimposed to the stress field produced by a remote fatigue traction load applied on a friction stir welded cracked specimen. Numerical results are compared with experimental data showing good agreement and highlighting...... of the welding process of precipitation hardenable AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy is employed to infer the process induced residual stress field. The reliability of the FEM simulations with respect to the induced residual stresses is assessed comparing numerical outcomes with experimental data obtained by means...

  8. Experimental Study of the Forces Acting on the Tool in the Friction-Stir Welding of AA 2024 T3 Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astarita, A.; Squillace, A.; Carrino, L.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, AA 2024 T3-rolled sheets were joined in butt joint configuration through the friction stir welding process. Different joints were carried out varying the principal process parameters (i.e., tool welding speed and tool rotational speed). The aim of this work was the study and the experimental characterization of the influence of the process parameters on the forces acting on the tool during the FSW process. Furthermore, it was studied the correlation between the forces and the grain size, in particular with the extension of the heat-affected zone. Forces acting along the axis parallel to the tool are actually greater than those acting along welding direction. All the recorded forces are strictly dependant on the process parameters adopted. No correlation has been found between the grain dimension within the weld bead and the recorded forces, while the greater the forces, the narrower the extension of the heat-affected zone.

  9. Protective film formation on AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy by leaching of lithium carbonate from an organic coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Visser, P.; Zhou, X.; Lyon, S.B.; Hashimoto, T.; Curioni, M.; Gholinia, A.; Thompson, G.E.; Smyth, G.; Gibbon, S.R.; Graham, D.; Mol, J.M.C.; Terryn, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    An investigation into corrosion inhibition properties of a primer coating containing lithium carbonate as corrosion inhibitive pigment for AA2024 aluminum alloy was conducted. It was found that, during neutral salt spray exposure, a protective film of about 0.2 to 1.5 μm thickness formed within the

  10. Influence of molybdate species on the tartaric acid/sulphuric acid anodic films grown on AA2024 T3 aerospace alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rubio, M. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain); Ocon, P. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: pilar.ocon@uam.es; Climent-Font, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Smith, R.W. [Unidad de Microanalisis de Materiales, Parque Cientifico de Madrid (PCM), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Curioni, M.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, M60 1QD England (United Kingdom); Lavia, A.; Garcia, I. [Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    AA2024 T3 alloy specimens have been anodised in tartaric acid/sulphuric media and tartaric acid/sulphuric media containing sodium molybdate; molybdate species were added to the anodising bath to enhance further the protection provided by the porous anodic film developed over the macroscopic alloy surface. Morphological characterisation of the anodic films formed in both electrolytes was undertaken using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies; the chemical compositions of the films were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy that was complemented by elemental depth profiling using rf-glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the corrosion performance was examined after salt spray testing. The porous anodic film morphology was little influenced by the addition of molybdate salt, although thinner films were generated in its presence. Chemical composition of the anodic film was roughly similar; however, addition of sodium molybdate in the anodizing bath resulted in residues of molybdate species in the porous skeleton and improved corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical techniques that was confirmed by salt spray testing.

  11. Modelling the residual stresses and microstructural evolution in Friction Stir Welding of AA2024-T3 including the Wagner-Kampmann precipitation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    In this work, a numerical finite element model for friction stir welding of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, consisting of a heat transfer analysis and a sequentially coupled quasi-static stress analysis is proposed. Metallurgical softening of the material is properly considered and included...

  12. Revestimientos a base de sílica e ácido fosfônico para proteção anticorrosiva da liga de alumínio AA2024-T3

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Dalmoro

    2013-01-01

    A liga de alumínio AA2024-T3, extensivamente empregada na indústria aeronáutica, devido as microestruturas heterogêneas intencionalmente desenvolvidas para otimizar as propriedades mecânicas é susceptível a corrosão localizada. Com o intuito de prevenir a corrosão vários tratamentos de superfície têm sido investigados para substituir o tratamento de cromatização, e os filmes a base de sílica podem ser considerados como uma alternativa promissora. O objetivo deste trabalho é a obtenção, desenv...

  13. Corrosion inhibition by inorganic cationic inhibitors on the high strength alumunium alloy, 2024-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Anusha

    alkaline is retarded in the absence of oxygen. As a result precipitation of Zn oxides and hydroxides was suppressed. Impedance in decarbonated chloride solutions showed that the absence of CO 2 reduces inhibition by Zn2+ at pH 4. The carbonate protective layer formed in aerated solutions is essential for providing better protection of the substrate at pH 4. Inhibitor cations were exchanged into insoluble ion-exchanging sodium bentonites and incorporated as pigments in organic coatings applied to AA 2024-T3 substrates. XRD of the pigments ensured ion exchange and UV-visible spectroscopy was used to characterize inhibitor ion release from the bentonites. Salt spray exposure tests on scribed panels were preformed and results were compared to those from SrCrO4 pigmented coatings. Zn-exchanged bentonite pigmented coatings showed better performance compared to the other exchanged bentonites when incorporated into epoxy coatings with total impedance magnitude in the same order as SrCrO4. PVB (Polyvinyl Butyral) coatings containing Zn bentonite, however, did not show superior behaviour in the impedance response due to less or no water uptake. Salt spray exposures for a period of 336 h, showed that Zn bentonite incorporated into PVB suppressed blistering compared to the neat PVB and other pigmented bentonites.

  14. Property of anodic coatings obtained in an organic, environmental friendly electrolyte on aluminum alloy 2024-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. F.; Shi, H. W.; Liu, Z. L.; Zhang, S. F.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Guo, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    Anodic coatings were obtained by micro arc oxidation on aluminum alloy 2024-T3 in a solution containing only 10 g/L sodium phytate. The morphology, composition, structure and corrosion resistance of anodic coatings were systematically investigated. The results show that the working voltage continually increases during 3 min and bright sparks appear after 25 s. Anodic coatings are evenly formed on the substrate and about 2 μm thick. XPS and XRD analyses reveal that the obtained coatings are mainly composed of α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3. Compared with the substrate, the corrosion resistance of the anodized aluminum alloys is improved.

  15. Corrosion inhibition mechanisms of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 by selected non-chromate inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Garrity, Omar A.

    The pursuit to find a chromate-alternative has led to the development of several chromate-free aerospace primers and coating systems that offer good protection. However, fundamental understanding of the functionality of the chromate-free pigments that are embedded within these coating systems is lacking. The objective of this study was to understand the fundamental mechanism of corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 by molybdate (MoO 42-), silicate (SiO32-), and praseodymium (Pr3+) with the goal of developing the kind of understanding that was accomplished for chromate. Furthermore, since most inhibiting conversion coatings and pigments act by releasing soluble species into the local environment, it was of interest to understand the mechanism of inhibition in aqueous 0.1 M NaCl solution. The mechanism of inhibition of AA2024-T3 by the select non-chromate inhibitors was investigated using various electrochemical, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Naturally aerated polarization curves showed that molybdate provided mixed inhibition in near-neutral pH and at a threshold concentration of 0.1 M. The largest effect was a 250 mV increase in the breakdown potential associated with pitting and a 350 mV decrease in the open-circuit potential (OCP). In addition, electrochemical impedance indicated that the corrosion inhibition mechanism is oxygen-dependent owing to the protection afforded by Mo(VI) species. It was proposed that the corrosion inhibition of AA2024-T3 by molybdate may occur following a two-step process whereby molybdate is rapidly reduced to MoO.(OH)2 over the intermetallic particles and is subsequently oxidized to intermediate molybdenum oxides (e.g. Mo4O11) in the presence of oxygen which is reduced. This in turn may lead to a local acidification, promoting the condensation and polymerization of molybdate species in solution to form polymolybdate species (Mo7O24 6- and Mo8O264-). Furthermore, S-phase particle dissolution is decreased

  16. QUANTIFICATION OF SHEAR DAMAGE EVOLUTION IN ALUMINIUM ALLOY 2024T3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Chak-yin; Fan Jianping; Tsui Chi-pong; Lee Tai-chiu; Chan Luen-chow; Rao Bin

    2007-01-01

    Shear damage may occur in the process of metal machining such as blanking and cutting, where localized shear deformation is developed. Experimental findings indicate that microscopic shear damage evolution in aluminium alloy 2024T3 (Al 2024T3) is a multi-stage mechanism, including particle cracking, micro-shear banding, matrix microcracking and coalescence of microcracks. This study is an attempt to use a set of equations to describe the multi-stage shear damage evolution in Al 2024T3. The shear damage variables in terms of multi-couple parameters of a power-law hardening material have been defined. An evolution curve of shearing damage has been calculated from experimental data. The values of the shear damage variable at different stages of damage have also been calculated. By making use of the findings, the relation between the microscopic shear damage evolution and the macroscopic shear response of the material has been discussed.

  17. Temperature distribution study during the friction stir welding process of Al2024-T3 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Y. H.; Hussain, A.; Lalwani, R. K.; Chan, H. K.; Hakimi, N.

    2013-08-01

    Heat flux characteristics are critical to good quality welding obtained in the important engineering alloy Al2024-T3 by the friction stir welding (FSW) process. In the present study, thermocouples in three different configurations were affixed on the welding samples to measure the temperatures: in the first configuration, four thermocouples were placed at equivalent positions along one side of the welding direction; the second configuration involved two equivalent thermocouple locations on either side of the welding path; while the third configuration had all the thermocouples on one side of the layout but with unequal gaps from the welding line. A three-dimensional, non-linear ANSYS computational model, based on an approach applied to Al2024-T3 for the first time, was used to simulate the welding temperature profiles obtained experimentally. The experimental thermal profiles on the whole were found to be in agreement with those calculated by the ANSYS model. The broad agreement between the two kinds of profiles validates the basis for derivation of the simulation model and provides an approach for the FSW simulation in Al2024-T3 and is potentially more useful than models derived previously.

  18. Protection of 2024-T3 aluminium alloy by corrosion resistant phytic acid conversion coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongwei; Han, En-Hou; Liu, Fuchun; Kallip, Silvar

    2013-09-01

    The corrosion protection properties of environmentally friendly phytic acid conversion coatings were studied on 2024-T3 aluminium alloy. The films were prepared under acidic conditions with various pH values and characterised by SEM, EDS, ATR-FTIR and electrochemical techniques. The results indicate that the conversion coatings obtained by immersing the alloy in phytic acid solutions at pH from 3 to 5.5 provide excellent corrosion resistance. ATR-FTIR confirms that the film is formed by deposition of reaction products between Al3+ and phosphate groups in phytic acid molecules. The conformation models of the deposition film are proposed.

  19. Pitting corrosion of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Pitting corrosion behavior of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution was investigated by using potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. When pitting corrosion of the alloy occurs, there exists a passive region in the anodic branch of PDS polarization curve, which is enlarged with the increasing of immersion time due to the competition of the halide ions with OH- ions to adsorb on the oxide film to form the corrosion products film and the increase of pitting corrosion area. Two capacitive semicircles were observed in complex plane plot. For more extensive pitting and general corrosion of Al2024-T3, the passive region in PDS disappeared, while another depressed semicircle was observed in Nyquist plot because of the formation of corrosion products film. On the other hand, the low frequency inductive loop, which had often been regarded as a manifestation of pitting or formation and precipitation of a salt film, was not observed, which indicates that the low frequency inductive loop can not be the characteristic of pitting corrosion or the formation of salt film. The results also show that higher reactant CPE exponent values will correspond to more extensive transformation of a metal surface by very localized corrosion, while general corrosion can result in a smaller CPE exponent value.

  20. Friction stir spot welding of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with SiC nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidar, Moslem; Sarab, Mahsa Laali [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this study, the Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with 1.6 mm thickness was investigated. The effects of the silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles on the metallurgical and mechanical properties were discussed. The effects of particles on tension shear and wear tests were also investigated. The process was conducted at a constant rotational speed of 1000 rpm. Results showed that adding SiC nanoparticles to the weld during FSSW had a major effect on the mechanical properties. In fact, the addition of nanoparticles as barriers prevented grain growth in the Stir zone (SZ). The data obtained in the tensile-shear and wear tests showed that tensile-shear load and wear resistance increased with the addition of SiC nanoparticles, which was attributed to the fine grain size produced in the SZ.

  1. Analysis of the tool plunge in friction stir welding - comparison of aluminium alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, plastic strain and heat generation during the plunge stage of the friction stir welding (FSW of high-strength aluminium alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351 are considered in this work. The plunging of the tool into the material is done at different rotating speeds. A three-dimensional finite element (FE model for thermomechanical simulation is developed. It is based on arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation, and Johnson-Cook material law is used for modelling of material behaviour. From comparison of the numerical results for alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351, it can be seen that the former has more intensive heat generation from the plastic deformation, due to its higher strength. Friction heat generation is only slightly different for the two alloys. Therefore, temperatures in the working plate are higher in the alloy 2024 T3 for the same parameters of the plunge stage. Equivalent plastic strain is higher for 2024 T351 alloy, and the highest values are determined under the tool shoulder and around the tool pin. For the alloy 2024 T3, equivalent plastic strain is the highest in the influence zone of the tool pin. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34016 i br. TR 35006

  2. Influence of friction stir welding parameters on properties of 2024 T3 aluminium alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eramah Abdsalam M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyse the process of friction stir welding (FSW of 3mm thick aluminium plates made of high strength aluminium alloy - 2024 T3, as well as to assess the mechanical properties of the produced joints. FSW is a modern procedure which enables joining of similar and dissimilar materials in the solid state, by the combined action of heat and mechanical work. This paper presents an analysis of the experimental results obtained by testing the butt welded joints. Tensile strength of the produced joints is assessed, as well as the distribution of hardness, micro-and macrostructure through the joints (in the base material, nugget, heat affected zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone. Different combinations of the tool rotation speed and the welding speed are used, and the dependence of the properties of the joints on these parameters of welding technology is determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34018 i br. TR 35006

  3. Investigation on a Sol-gel Coating Containing Inhibitors on 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Hong-wei; LIU Fu-chun; HAN En-hou; SUN Ming-cheng

    2006-01-01

    For a long time, chromate incorporated conversion coatings have been drawn special attention in corrosion protection of aircraft-used aluminum alloys. However,ever-increasing environmental pressures requires that non-chromate conversion coatings be developed because of the detrimental carcinogenic effects of the chromate compounds. In recent years, the sol-gel coatings doped with inhibitors were developed to replace chromate conversion coatings, and showed real promise. A sol-gel coating was prepared and its anti-corrosion behavior was investigated using the potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It is found that the sol-gel coating obtained by the hydrolysis and condensation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) is prone to form defects if cured at the room temperature, whereas if cured at a higher temperature (100 ℃), these flaws can be avoided. Furthermore, it can be seen that addition of anti-foam agents and surfactants will reduce the faults if cured at the room temperature. Effects of the corrosion inhibitors, CeCl3 and mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), in the sol-gel coatings on 2024-T3 aluminum alloy were also investigated. Results show that the corrosion resistance of the sol-gel coatings containing CeCl3 proves to be better than that of the pure and MBT added sol-gel coatings by the electrochemical methods.

  4. Evaluating protection systems against marine corrosion of aeronautic alloy Alclad 2024-T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Aperador Chaparro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  This paper shows how two coating systems were obtained as an alternative for protection against corrosion of al clad 2024-T3which is used in battery compartment manufacture for T-41 aircraft. Such systems consist of three types of organic resin: a first layer of P-115 polyester resin as the first coating on both systems, and a second layer of Hetron 197-3 polyester resin in the first system and vinyl-ester resin in the second one. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for surface morphology analysis, showing the roughness produced by surface treatment. The coatings were electrochemically characterised by electro chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and Tafel polarization curves; it was found that both systems had good performance against corrosion in a marine environment and the chemical surface preparation system had a superior protective pattern for Alodine5700 + 197-3 Hetron, a 1.42x10-12mpycorrosion rate being obtained while substratum rate was 1.59x10-7 mpy. 

  5. Effect of Surface Pretreatment on the Underpaint Corrosion of AA2024-T3 at Various Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    time dependence and contains a constant, which in- cludes a thermal activation term: dl dt ktave = –1 2 2 (3) k ko E RT a = ( )exp – (4) The...Forum 396-402 (2002): p. 1,491-1,496. 16. R.G. Buchheit, R.K. Boger , “Cu Redistribution and Surface Enrichment Due to Dissolution of Al-Cu Alloys

  6. Multiscale approach to micro/macro fatigue crack growth in 2024-T3 aluminum panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    When two contacting solid surfaces are tightly closed and invisible to the naked eye, the discontinuity is said to be microscopic regardless of whether its length is short or long. By this definition, it is not sufficient to distinguish the difference between a micro- and macro-crack by using the length parameter. Microcracks in high strength metal alloys have been known to be several centimeters or longer. Considered in this work is a dual scale fatigue crack growth model where the main crack can be micro or macro but there prevails an inherent microscopic tip region that is damaged depending on the irregularities of the microstructure. This region is referred to as the "micro-tip" and can be simulated by a sharp wedge with different angles in addition to mixed boundary conditions. The combination is sufficient to model microscopic entities in the form of voids, inclusions, precipitations, interfaces, in addition to subgrain imperfections, or cluster of dislocations. This is accomplished by using the method of "singularity representation" such that closed form asymptotic solutions can be obtained for the development of fatigue crack growth rate relations with three parameters. They include: (1) the crack surface tightness σ* represented by σ o/ σ ∞ = 0.3-0.5 for short cracks in region I, and 0.1-0.2 for long cracks in region II, (2) the micro/macro material properties reflected by the shear modulus ratio µ* (=µmicro/µmacro varying between 2 and 5) and (3) the most sensitive parameter d* being the micro-tip characteristic length d* (= d/ d o) whose magnitude decreases in the direction of region I→II. The existing fatigue crack growth data for 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 aluminum sheets are used to reinterpret the two-parameter d a/d N= C(Δ K) n relation where Δ K has now been re-derived for a microcrack with surfaces tightly in contact. The contact force will depend on the mean stress σm or mean stress ratio R as the primary parameter and on the stress

  7. The effect of hardening laws and thermal softening on modeling residual stresses in FSW of aluminum alloy 2024-T3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri;

    2013-01-01

    or kinematic hardening together with the metallurgical softening model were applied in order to give a first impression of the tendencies in residual stresses in friction stir welds when choosing different hardening and softening behaviors. Secondly, real friction stir butt welding of aluminum alloy 2024-T3...... were simulated and compared with experimentally obtained results for both temperatures and residual stresses (using the slitting method). The comparisons showed good agreement regarding temperatures whereas the residual stress comparisons indicated different sensitivities for the cold and hot welding...

  8. Investigation on the corrosion behaviour and microstructure of 2024-T3 Al alloy treated via plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadaee, Hossein; Javidi, Mehdi, E-mail: mjavidi@yahoo.com

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation used to improve corrosion resistance of 2024-T3 alloy. • A conventional DC source with low applied voltage was considered for PEO. • Use of glycerin was effective in enhancement of corrosion resistance. • The surface morphology indicated coatings have a dense structure without cracking. • Degradation of coatings with immersion time was investigated. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation treatment was performed on 2024-T3 aluminium alloy in a simple and inexpensive electrolyte. It was found that treatment time of 30 min resulted in the most noble corrosion potential and lowest corrosion current density. The surface and cross-sectional morphology indicated that the coating has a dense structure without any cracking. Furthermore, the result of X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the coating was formed mainly from α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 3.21}Si{sub 0.47} and small amounts of amorphous phases. The presence of glycerine in the electrolyte composition resulted in not only stabilising the solution but also improving the corrosion resistance.

  9. PREDICTION FOR FORMING LIMIT OF AL2024T3 SHEET BASED ON DAMAGE THEORY USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang C.Y.; Fan Jianping; Tsui C.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the application of anisotropic damage theory to the study of forming limit diagram of Al2024T3 aluminum alloy sheet. In the prediction of limiting strains of the aluminum sheet structure, a finite element cell model has been constructed. The cell model consists of two phases, the aluminum alloy matrix and the intermetallic cluster. The material behavior of the aluminum alloy matrix is described with a fully coupled elasto-plastic damage constitutive equation. The intermetallic cluster is assumed to be elastic and brittle. By varying the stretching ratio, the limiting strains of the sheet under biaxial stretching have been predicted by using the necking criterion proposed. The prediction is in good agreement with the experimental findings. Moreover, the finite element cell model can provide information for understanding the microscopic damage mechanism of the aluminum alloy. Over-estimation of the limit strains may result if the effect of material damage is ignored in the sheet metal forming study.

  10. Effect of multipath laser shock processing on microhardness, surface roughness, and wear resistance of 2024-T3 Al alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Abdulhadi; Salim, Evan T; Fayadh, Saeed M; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) is an innovative surface treatment technique with high peak power, short pulse, and cold hardening for strengthening metal materials. LSP is based on the application of a high intensity pulsed laser beam (I > 1 GW/cm(2); t surface into a high temperature and density plasma that immediately develops inducing a shock wave propagating into the material. The shock wave induces plastic deformation and a residual stress distribution in the target material. In this paper we study the increase of microhardness and surface roughness with the increase of laser pulse energy in 2024-T3 Al alloy. The influence of the thickness of the confining layer (water) on microhardness and surface roughness is also studied. In addition, the effect of LSP treatment with best conditions on wear behaviors of the alloy was investigated.

  11. Effect of Multipath Laser Shock Processing on Microhardness, Surface Roughness, and Wear Resistance of 2024-T3 Al Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Kadhim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser shock processing (LSP is an innovative surface treatment technique with high peak power, short pulse, and cold hardening for strengthening metal materials. LSP is based on the application of a high intensity pulsed laser beam (I>1 GW/cm2;  t<50 ns at the interface between the metallic target and the surrounding medium (a transparent confining material, normally water forcing a sudden vaporization of the metallic surface into a high temperature and density plasma that immediately develops inducing a shock wave propagating into the material. The shock wave induces plastic deformation and a residual stress distribution in the target material. In this paper we study the increase of microhardness and surface roughness with the increase of laser pulse energy in 2024-T3 Al alloy. The influence of the thickness of the confining layer (water on microhardness and surface roughness is also studied. In addition, the effect of LSP treatment with best conditions on wear behaviors of the alloy was investigated.

  12. Numerical analysis of static performance comparison of friction stir welded versus riveted 2024-T3 aluminum alloy stiffened panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qing; He, Yuting; Zhang, Teng; Wu, Liming

    2014-07-01

    Most researches on the static performance of stiffened panel joined by friction stir welding(FSW) mainly focus on the compression stability rather than shear stability. To evaluate the potential of FSW as a replacement for traditional rivet fastening for stiffened panel assembly in aviation application, finite element method(FEM) is applied to compare compression and shear stability performances of FSW stiffened panels with stability performances of riveted stiffened panels. FEMs of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy FSW and riveted stiffened panels are developed and nonlinear static analysis method is applied to obtain buckling pattern, buckling load and load carrying capability of each panel model. The accuracy of each FEM of FSW stiffened panel is evaluated by stability experiment of FSW stiffened panel specimens with identical geometry and boundary condition and the accuracy of each FEM of riveted stiffened panel is evaluated by semi-empirical calculation formulas. It is found that FEMs without considering weld-induced initial imperfections notably overestimate the static strengths of FSW stiffened panels. FEM results show that, buckling patterns of both FSW and riveted compression stiffened panels represent local buckling of plate between stiffeners. The initial buckling waves of FSW stiffened panel emerge uniformly in each plate between stiffeners while those of riveted panel mainly emerge in the mid-plate. Buckling patterns of both FSW and riveted shear stiffened panels represent local buckling of plate close to the loading corner. FEM results indicate that, shear buckling of FSW stiffened panel is less sensitive to the initial imperfections than compression buckling. Load carrying capability of FSW stiffened panel is less sensitive to the initial imperfections than initial buckling. It can be concluded that buckling loads of FSW panels are a bit lower than those of riveted panels whereas carrying capabilities of FSW panels are almost equivalent to those of riveted

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of the residual yield strength of aluminium alloy EN AW-2024-T3 affected by artificially produced pitting corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippig, R.; Schmidl, E.; Steinert, P.; Schubert, A.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the behaviour of the residual yield strength of aluminium alloy EN AW-2024-T3 affected by the morphology and numbers of corrosion pits (defects) is presented. Since specific defect structures are not reproducible during experimental corrosion tests, metal sheets with different numbers of pits and pit shapes are produced using laser micro structuring. The defect structures are measured using laser scanning microscopy. To compare the stress states of the micro structured and real corroded metal sheets, FE-analysis is used. Afterwards, uniaxial tensile tests are carried out and critical defect parameters in terms of yield strength reduction of the investigated aluminium alloy are detected.

  14. Effects of the tool rotational speed and shoulder penetration depth on mechanical properties and failure modes of friction stir spot welds of aluminum 2024-T3 sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidar, Moslem; Khodabandeh, Alireza; Najafi, Hamidreza [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roughaghdam, Alireza Sabour [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, friction stir spot welding with 1.6 mm thickness of the 2024-T3 aluminum alloy is carried out. The effects of the tool rotational speed and shoulder penetration depth on surface appearance, macrostructure, temperature profile, maximum failure load and failure modes are investigated. Results show that, the effect of the tool rotational speed on maximum tensile shear load is similar to the effect of the shoulder penetration depth, increasing tool rotational speed and shoulder penetration depth resulted in the increase of the tensile shear load. Maximum load of about 8282 N is obtained by using 1000 rpm rotational speed and 0.7 mm shoulder penetration depth. Observation of the failed specimens indicates two types of failure modes under tensile shear loading, the shear fracture that occurs in low shoulder penetration depths and tensile shear fracture that occurs in high shoulder penetration depths.

  15. The Effect of the Solution Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Aluminum-Copper Alloy (2024-T3 Using Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairia Salman Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solution heat treatment on the mechanical properties of Aluminum-Copper alloy. (2024-T3 by the rolling process is investigated. The solution heat treatment was implemented by heating the sheets to 480 C° and quenching them by water; then forming by rolling for many passes. And then natural aging is done for one month. Mechanical properties (tensile strength and hardness are evaluated and the results are compared with the metal without treatment during the rolling process. ANSYS analysis is used to show the stresses distribution in the sheet during the rolling process. It has been seen that good mechanical properties are evident in the alloy without heat treatment due to the strain hardening and also the mechanical properties are improved after heat treatment and rolling process but with lower forces and stresses when compared with the untreated.

  16. Failure Mode Analysis of Aluminium Alloy 2024-T3 in Double-Lap Bolted Joints with Single and Double Fasteners; A Numerical and Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Fallahnezhad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the mechanical behaviour and failure mode of Al 2024-T3 in double-lap bolted joints. To accomplish this, the effect of geometric parameters was investigated in both configurations of single and double fasteners. Using ABAQUS/Standard, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed and verified against the experimental results of the joints loaded in tension. In general, double bolt joints were found to have greater load carrying capacities than single bolt joints (by 40%–49%. In single bolt joints, the plate width had insignificant effect on the behaviour of the joint under tensile loading; whereas, increasing the distance of the hole from the edge, considerably enhanced the strength of the joint. In double bolt joints, changing the edge distance had almost no effect on the behaviour of the joint. However, increasing the plate width from 25.4 to 30 mm increased the load carrying capacity by 28%. This study showed that in single bolt connections, with increasing the edge distance, the failure mode can favourably shift from shear-out to bearing. Also, double bolt joints with wider plates (increased width can beneficially shift the failure mode from net-tension to bearing. The geometric parameters were found to play an important role in controlling the failure mode so that catastrophic failure modes of net-tension and shear-out can be prevented in bolted joint.

  17. Prediction of low-cycle fatigue-life by acoustic emission—1: 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, and —2: 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baram, J. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel). Materials Engineering Division; Rosen, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials and Molecular Research Division

    1981-01-01

    1: In this paper, low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted by tension-tension until rupture, on a 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet. Initial crack sizes and orientations in the fatigue specimens were found to be randomly distributed. Acoustic emission was continuously monitored during the tests. Every few hundred cycles, the acoustic signal having the highest peak-amplitude, was recorded as an extremal event for the elapsed period. This high peak-amplitude is related to a fast crack propagation rate through a phenomenological relationship. The extremal peak amplitudes are shown by an ordered statistics treatment, to be extremally distributed. The statistical treatment enables the prediction of the number of cycles left until failure. Predictions performed a posteriori based on results gained early in each fatigue test are in good agreement with actual fatigue lives. Finally, the amplitude distribution analysis of the acoustic signals emitted during cyclic stress appears to be a promising nondestructive method of predicting fatigue life. 2: In this paper, low cycle high stress fatigue tests were conducted by tension-tension on an Alclad 7075-T6 aluminum sheet alloy, until rupture. Initial crack sizes and orientations in the fatigue specimens were randomly distributed. Acoustic emission was continuously monitored during the tests. Extremal peak-amplitudes, equivalent to extremal crack-propagation rates, are shown to be extremally Weibull distributed. The prediction of the number of cycles left until failure is made possible, using an ordered statistics treatment and an experimental equipment parameter obtained in previous experiments (Part 1). The predicted life-times are in good agreement with the actual fatigue lives. Finally, the amplitude distribution analysis of the acoustic signals emitted during cyclic stress has been proven to be a feasible nondestructive method of predicting fatigue life.

  18. Integrated Modelling of Crack Propagation in AA2024-T3 FSW Butt Joints Considering The Residual Stresses from the Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, M. R.; Carlone, P.; Citarella, R.;

    2015-01-01

    conducted to investigate the effect of shunting on nugget size in spot welding of HSLA steel sheets. Different cases with different spacing between weld spots have been examined. The nugget sizes have been measured by metallographic examination and have been compared with 3D finite element simulations....... The results of this study revealed that the shunt effect becomes negligible when the minimum weld spacing is about six times the electrode diameter. The results showed that the weld nugget diameter is more sensitive to shunt effect than the nugget height....

  19. Evaluación de diferentes sistemas de protección contra la corrosión marina en la aleación de aplicación aeronáutica Alclad 2024-T3 Evaluating protection systems against marine corrosion of aeronautic alloy Alclad 2024-T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Londoño Fabian Andrés

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  

    Se muestra la obtención de dos sistemas de recubrimientos protectores como una alternativa de protección contra la corrosión de la aleación de aluminio Alclad 2024-T3, que es utilizada en la fabricación del compartimiento de la batería de los aviones T-41. Dichos sistemas constan de tres tipos de resinas orgánicas: una primera capa de resina poliéster P-115, a manera de imprimante en ambos sistemas de recubrimientos, y una segunda capa de resina de poliéster Hetron 197-3 en el primer caso, o de resina vinil-éster F-010 en el segundo. El análisis de la morfología superficial se realizó mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM, observando la rugosidad generada por el tratamiento superficial. El estudio electroquímico de los recubrimientos se desarrolló mediante la técnica de espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica (EIS y curvas de polarización Tafel; de esta manera se encontró que todos los sistemas presentan un buen desempeño frente a la corrosión en un medio marino, y que el sistema con preparación superficial química muestra un comportamiento protector superior para el Alodine 5700 + Hetron 197-3; se obtuvo una velocidad de corrosión 1,42 x 10-12 mpy, mientras que para el sustrato la velocidad fue de 1,59 x 10-7 mpy.

     

     

  20. Galvanostatic response of AA2024 aluminium alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U DONATUS; G E THOMPSON

    2016-10-01

    Galvanostatic responses of AA2024T3 alloy in de-aerated and naturally aerated 3.5% NaCl solution have been investigated. In the de-aerated condition, two distinct stages of polarization were revealed. From the first stage, the relationships between the pitting incubation time, pitting potential and applied current density for AA2024T3 alloy in the de-aerated condition were established. The curves in the aerated condition showed no particular incubation time-applied current density relationship.

  1. Effect of the Cold-Sprayed Aluminum Coating-Substrate Interface Morphology on Bond Strength for Aircraft Repair Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blochet, Quentin; Delloro, Francesco; N'Guyen, Franck; Jeulin, Dominique; Borit, François; Jeandin, Michel

    2017-03-01

    This article is dealing with the effects of surface preparation of the substrate on aluminum cold-sprayed coating bond strength. Different sets of AA2024-T3 specimens have been coated with pure Al 1050 feedstock powder, using a conventional cold spray coating technique. The sets were grit-blasted (GB) before coating. The study focuses on substrate surface topography evolution before coating and coating-substrate interface morphology after coating. To study coating adhesion by LASAT® technique for each set, specimens with and without preceding GB treatment were tested in load-controlled conditions. Then, several techniques were used to evaluate the effects of substrate surface treatment on the final coating mechanical properties. Irregularities induced by the GB treatment modify significantly the interface morphology. Results showed that particle anchoring was improved dramatically by the presence of craters. The substrate surface was characterized by numerous anchors. Numerical simulation results exhibited the increasing deformation of particle onto the grit-blasted surface. In addition, results showed a strong relationship between the coating-substrate bond strength on the deposited material and surface preparation.

  2. Preparation of thin film nanofibrous composite NF membrane based on EDC/NHS modified PAN-AA nanofibrous substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, X.; Hsiao, B. S.

    2016-07-01

    A novel kind of thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) nanofiltration (NF) membranes consisting of a polyamide (PA) barrier layer were successfully fabricated by interfacial polymerization (IFP) based on electrospun double-layer nanofibrous substrates, which have an ultrathin poly (acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (PAN-AA) nanofibrous layer as top layer and a thicker polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber layer as bottom porous support layer. Immersing PAN/PAN-AA nanofibrous substrates into 1-ethyl-(3-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) aqueous solution and piperazine (PIP) aqueous solution (0.20 wt%) sequentially for a period of time, the carboxyl groups on PAN-AA nanofibers were activated by carbodiimide and then reacted with the amide groups. The as prepared composite membrane has an integrated structure with high rejection rate (98.0%); high permeate flux (40.4 L/m2h) for MgSO4 aqueous solution (2 g/L).

  3. Tensile and shear failure mechanisms of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy%2024-T3铝合金拉伸及剪切断裂行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜薇; 李亚智; 苏杰; 束一秀

    2015-01-01

    2024铝合金材料在拉伸和扭转载荷作用下表现出截然不同的失效机理。结合试验和数值方法,研究了应力状态对2024⁃T3铝合金韧性断裂行为的影响规律。首先,对圆棒和薄壁圆筒试验件分别进行了拉伸和扭转试验,从断面形貌以及断裂应变与应力状态间关系两个方面,考察了应力状态对2024⁃T3铝合金断裂机理的影响规律。然后,基于Gurson理论在商业有限元软件ABAQUS中开发了同时适用于拉伸和剪切断裂模式的细观损伤本构,对2024⁃T3铝合金的弹塑性响应和裂纹扩展路径进行了数值分析。与试验结果对比研究表明,本文发展的细观损伤本构能够较好预测延性金属材料在多种应力状态下的损伤破坏过程。%Under tensile and shear loading conditions, 2024 aluminum alloy exhibits two types of distinctive ductile rupture mechanisms. The growth and internal necking of voids governs the rupture mechanism in tension dominated loading mode, while the internal shearing in the ligaments between voids dominants for shear conditions. To investigate the influence of stress states on the material ductility of 2024⁃T3 aluminum alloy, tensile experiments of a smooth round bar and three notched round bars with different notch root radii as well as a pure torsion experiment were performed. Based on the modification of Gurson model by Nahshon and Hutchinson, a void⁃based meso⁃damage constitutive relationship which can deal with both tensile and shear problems was developed and implemented in commercial software ABAQUS. The tensile and shear fracture behaviors of 2024⁃T3 aluminum alloy including the load⁃displacement response and crack propagation path were analyzed using the proposed approach and compared with experi⁃mental data. It is shown that the proposed approach can be used to predict the failure of ductile materials under complex loading conditions.

  4. Microstructure and anisotropic mechanical behavior of friction stir welded AA2024 alloy sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhihan [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Li, Wenya, E-mail: liwy@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Li, Jinglong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Chao, Y.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Vairis, A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, TEI of Crete, Heraklion, Crete 71004 (Greece)

    2015-09-15

    The anisotropic mechanical properties of friction stir welded (FSW) AA2024-T3 alloy joints were investigated based on the uniaxial tensile tests. The joint microstructure was examined by using electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Results show that the evident anisotropic failure and yielding are present in the FSW joints. With the increase of loading angle from 0° to 90° the ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the specimens consistently decrease, or at first decrease and then increase, depending on the FSW process parameters. The specimen cut from the weld direction, i.e. a loading angle of 0°, exhibits the highest strength and elongation. - Highlights: • Microstructure and anisotropy of friction stir welded joints were studied. • The evident anisotropic failure and yielding are present in joints. • The lowest yield stress and UTS are at 45° and 60° loadings, respectively. • Rotation speed heavily impact on the anisotropy of joints.

  5. Sol-gel hybrid films based on organosilane and montmorillonite for corrosion inhibition of AA2024.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmoro, V; dos Santos, J H Z; Armelin, E; Alemán, C; Azambuja, D S

    2014-07-15

    The present work reports the production of films on AA2024-T3 composed of vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS)/tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) with incorporation of montmorillonite (sodium montmorillonite and montmorillonite modified with quaternary ammonium salt, abbreviated Na and 30B, respectively), generated by the sol-gel process. According to FT-IR analyses the incorporation of montmorillonite does not affect silica network. Electrochemical characterization was performed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement in 0.05 mol L(-1) NaCl solution. Results indicate that montmorillonite incorporation improves the corrosion protection compared to the non-modified system. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs reveal that high concentrations of montmorillonite provide agglomerations on the metallic surface, which is in detriment of the anticorrosive performance. The VTMS/TEOS/30B films with the lowest concentration (22 mg L(-1)) of embedded clay provide the highest corrosion protection.

  6. Localised corrosion in aluminium alloy 2024-T3 using in situ TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malladi, S.; Shen, C.; Xu, Q.; De Kruijff, T.; Yücelen, E.; Tichelaar, F.; Zandbergen, H.

    2013-01-01

    An approach to carry out chemical reactions using aggressive gases in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), at ambient pressures of 1.5 bar using a windowed environmental cell, called a nanoreactor, is presented here. The nanoreactor coupled with a specially developed holder with platinu

  7. Review and Study of Physics Driven Pitting Corrosion Modeling in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    measuring the maximum pit size and its effect on the fatigue life. Microstructure and corrosion currents were neglected. In this paper we present the...Figure 2 Appearance of the pits on the surface of 7075 -T6 (Wang et al., 2003) Proc. of SPIE Vol. 9437 94372E-2 2 Distribution Statement A. Approved... density (Harlow and Wei, 1994). It can be seen that the definition of pitting current Ip is the key element in the pitting corrosion modeling, which

  8. An evaluation of the pressure proof test concept for 2024-T3 aluminium alloy sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Poe, C. C., Jr.; Newman, J. C.; Harris, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of pressure proof testing of fuselage structures with fatigue cracks to insure structural integrity was evaluated from a fracture mechanics viewpoint. A generic analytical and experimental investigation was conducted on uniaxially loaded flat panels with crack configurations and stress levels typical of longitudinal lap splice joints in commercial transport aircraft fuselages. The results revealed that the remaining fatigue life after a proof cycle was longer than that without the proof cycle because of crack growth retardation due to increased crack closure. However, based on a crack length that is slightly less than the critical value at the maximum proof stress, the minimum assured life or proof test interval must be no more than 550 pressure cycles for a 1.33 proof factor and 1530 pressure cycles for a 1.5 proof factor to prevent in-flight failures.

  9. Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior at Corrosion Pit in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    aluminum alloy is used. It is a commonly used aircraft structure material . Tables 3.1 and 3.2 show the chemical composition and the material ...different materials and different stress ratios. Additionally, when we compare the results of the experiments done by Hunt [14] on 7075 -T6 with the...In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Materials Science

  10. Mineralogical Transformation and Electrochemical Nature of Magnesium-Rich Primers during Natural Weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi S. Pathak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-rich primers (MgRP have generated great interest as a promising alternative to chromium-based primers for the protection of aluminum substrates but their performance during exterior exposure has not been well documented. This paper focuses on the evaluation of MgRP during natural weathering to gain insight into its mineralogical phase transformation and electrochemical nature. Control studies were conducted on Mg and AA2024-T3 coupons. The results indicate that Mg particles in MgRP transform into a variety of hydroxide, carbonate, and hydroxy carbonates. During natural weathering, CO2 inhibited the dissolution of both Mg and AA2024-T3 as a result of protective carbonate layer formation in the coating.

  11. Site-saturation engineering of lysine 47 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans to enhance substrate specificity towards maltodextrin for enzymatic synthesis of 2-O-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruizhi; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the site-saturation engineering of lysine 47 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Paenibacillus macerans was conducted to improve the specificity of CGTase towards maltodextrin, which can be used as a cheap and easily soluble glycosyl donor for the enzymatic synthesis of 2-O-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) by CGTase. When using maltodextrin as glycosyl donor, four mutants K47F (lysine→ phenylalanine), K47L (lysine→ leucine), K47V (lysine→ valine) and K47W (lysine→ tryptophan) showed higher AA-2G yield as compared with that produced by the wild-type CGTase. The transformation conditions (temperature, pH and the mass ratio of L-ascorbic acid to maltodextrin) were optimized and the highest titer of AA-2G produced by the mutant K47L could reach 1.97 g/l, which was 64.2% higher than that (1.20 g/l) produced by the wild-type CGTase. The reaction kinetics analysis confirmed the enhanced maltodextrin specificity, and it was also found that compared with the wild-type CGTase, the four mutants had relatively lower cyclization activities and higher disproportionation activities, which was favorable for AA-2G synthesis. The mechanism responsible for the enhanced substrate specificity was further explored by structure modeling and it was indicated that the enhancement of maltodextrin specificity may be due to the short residue chain and the removal of hydrogen bonding interactions between the side chain of residue 47 and the sugar at -3 subsite. Here the obtained mutant CGTases, especially the K47L, has a great potential in the production of AA-2G with maltodextrin as a cheap and easily soluble substrate.

  12. Finite element modelling of shot peening and peen forming processes and characterisation of peened AA2024-T351 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, Alexandre

    The main purpose of this thesis was to develop and validate finite element (FE) simulation tools for shot peening and peen forming. The specific aim was to achieve quantitatively accurate predictions for both processes and demonstrate the potential of reliable FE modelling for scientific investigation and industrial applications. First, an improved dynamic impact model that takes into account the stochastic nature of shot peening was proposed by carefully studying its dimensions, introducing a dispersion of shot sizes and significantly reducing its computational cost. In addition, cyclic mechanical testing was conducted to define a suitable material constitutive theory for aluminium alloy (AA) 2024-T3/T351 subjected to shot peening. By combining a realistic shot peening model with an appropriate material law, fairly good residual stress predictions were achieved for three different sets of shot peening parameters. Second, an experimental and numerical characterization of AA2024-T351 shot peened with parameters representative of fatigue life improvement applications was conducted. Multiple techniques, such as micro-indentation, residual stress determination and electron backscatter diffraction, were combined to gain a better understanding of the influence of shot peening on the material. The potential uses of finite element simulation to complement experimental data were also studied. The material heterogeneity arising from the random impact sequence was investigated and it was found that the impact modelling methodology could provide useful information on such heterogeneities. Third, a novel peen forming simulation methodology was introduced. The impact model provided the necessary input data as part of a multiscale approach. Numerically calculated unbalanced induced stress profiles were input into shell elements and the deformed shape after peen forming was computed as a springback analysis. In addition, a simple interpolation method was proposed to model the

  13. Microstructure of AA 2024 fixed joints formed by friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, A. A.; Kalashnikova, T. A.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Rubtsov, V. E.; Fortuna, S. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    Friction stir welded butt joints on 2024T3 alloy have been obtained using different process parameters. The microstructures of all the weld joint zones have been examined and such structural parameters as grain size, particle size and volume content of particles have been determined in order to find correlations with the microhardness of the corresponding zones of the weld.

  14. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  15. The Effects of Net-Shape Machining on the Performance of Al 2024-T3 Subjected to Axial Tension-Tension Fatigue Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Tang, C. C. The Effect of Different Profiling Techniques on the Fatigue Performance of Metallic Membranes of AISI 301 and Inconel 718...for homogeneous materials (Arola and Williams, 2002). Using AISI 4130 CR steel Arola and Williams, 2002 were able to show that during cyclic

  16. Rating AAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Why alternative investments? In a word: performance. Many higher education endowment and foundation managers are making increasing commitments to alternative investments, or AAs, in order to obtain higher returns and broader diversification for their investment portfolios than public securities instruments can usually provide. Learn how to handle…

  17. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Akira [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Bainy, Afonso C.D. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Departamento de Bioquímica, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily, CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs. On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map onto CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificities. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in the intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in the kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In the liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1 expression, but not CYP2AA2 in the liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. - Highlights: • A tandemly duplicated cluster of ten CYP2AA genes was described in zebrafish. • Parsimony and duplication analyses suggest pathways to CYP2AA diversity. • Homology models reveal amino acid positions possibly related to functional diversity. • The CYP2AA locus does not share synteny with

  18. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  19. Adhesion and Long-Term Barrier Restoration of Intrinsic Self-Healing Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolah Zadeh, Mina; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Garcia, Santiago J

    2016-02-17

    Self-healing polymeric coatings aiming at smart and on-demand protection of metallic substrates have lately attracted considerable attention. In the present paper, the potential application of a dual network hybrid sol-gel polymer containing reversible tetrasulfide groups as a protective coating for the AA2024-T3 substrate is presented. Depending on the constituent ratio, the developed polymer exhibited a hydrophobic surface, high adhesion strength, and an effective long-term corrosion protection in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Upon thermal treatment, the healable hybrid sol-gel coating demonstrated full restoration of the barrier properties as well as recovery of the coating adhesion and surface properties (e.g., hydrophobicity and surface topology) necessary for lifetime extension of corrosion protective coatings. Excellent long-term barrier restoration of the coating was only obtained if the scratch width was less than the coating thickness.

  20. AA magnet measurement team

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    Quickly improvised measurement equipment for the AA (Antiproton Accumulator) was all the tight schedule permitted, but the high motivation of the team made up for the lack of convenience. From left to right: Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, the other one was Simon van der Meer); Bruno Autin, Brian Pincott, Colin Johnson.

  1. AAS 228: Welcome!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Greetings from the 228th American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, California! This week, along with a team of fellow authorsfrom astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre at the meeting, come stop by the AAS booth (Booth #211-213) to learn about the newly-announced partnership between AAS and astrobites and pick up some swag.And dont forget to visit the IOP booth in the Exhibit Hall (Booth #223) to learn more about the new corridors for AAS Journals and to pick up a badge pin to representyour corridor!

  2. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  3. AAS 227: Welcome!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Greetings from the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting in Kissimmee, Florida! This week, along with several fellow authors from astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre an author or referee (or plan to be!) and youre here at the meeting, consider joining us at our Author and Referee Workshop on Wednesday in the Tallahassee room, where well be sharingsome of the exciting new features of the AAS journals. You can drop intoeither of the two-hour sessions(10 AM 12 PM or 1 PM 3 PM), and there will be afree buffet lunch at noon.Heres the agenda:Morning SessionTopic Speaker10:00 am 10:05 amIntroductionsJulie Steffen10:05 am 10:35 amChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac10:35 am 11:00 amThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton11:00 am 11:15 amAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler11:15 am 11:30 amFixing Software and Instrumentation Publishing: New Paper Styles in AAS JournalsChris Lintott11:30 am 11:45 amMaking Article Writing Easier with the New AASTeX v6.0Greg Schwarz11:45 am 12:00 pmBringing JavaScript and Interactivity to Your AAS Journal FiguresGus MuenchLunch SessionTopic Speaker12:00 pm 12:15 pmUnified Astronomy ThesaurusKatie Frey12:15 pm 12:30 pmAAS/ADS ORCID Integration ToolAlberto Accomazzi12:30 pm 12:45 pmWorldWide Telescope and Video AbstractsJosh Peek12:45 pm 01:00 pmArizona Astronomical Data Hub (AADH)Bryan HeidornAfternoon SessionTopic Speaker01:00 pm 01:05 pmIntroductionsJulie Steffen01:05 pm 01:35 pmChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac01:35 pm 02:00 pmThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton02:00 pm 02:15 pmAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler02:15 pm 02:30 pm

  4. Competition and allostery govern substrate selectivity of cyclooxygenase-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchener, Michelle M.; Hermanson, Daniel J.; Shockley, Erin M.; Brown, H. Alex; Lindsley, Craig W.; Reese, Jeff; Rouzer, Carol A.; Lopez, Carlos F.; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) oxygenates arachidonic acid (AA) and its ester analog, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), to prostaglandins (PGs) and prostaglandin glyceryl esters (PG-Gs), respectively. Although the efficiency of oxygenation of these substrates by COX-2 in vitro is similar, cellular biosynthesis of PGs far exceeds that of PG-Gs. Evidence that the COX enzymes are functional heterodimers suggests that competitive interaction of AA and 2-AG at the allosteric site of COX-2 might result in differential regulation of the oxygenation of the two substrates when both are present. Modulation of AA levels in RAW264.7 macrophages uncovered an inverse correlation between cellular AA levels and PG-G biosynthesis. In vitro kinetic analysis using purified protein demonstrated that the inhibition of 2-AG oxygenation by high concentrations of AA far exceeded the inhibition of AA oxygenation by high concentrations of 2-AG. An unbiased systems-based mechanistic model of the kinetic data revealed that binding of AA or 2-AG at the allosteric site of COX-2 results in a decreased catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward 2-AG, whereas 2-AG binding at the allosteric site increases COX-2’s efficiency toward AA. The results suggest that substrates interact with COX-2 via multiple potential complexes involving binding to both the catalytic and allosteric sites. Competition between AA and 2-AG for these sites, combined with differential allosteric modulation, gives rise to a complex interplay between the substrates, leading to preferential oxygenation of AA. PMID:26392530

  5. Experimentation and Theoretical Study of the Combined Influence of Mechanical and Chemical Stress on Pit Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    34Characterization of Zr(IV)-Phosphonate Thin Films Which Inhibit 0-2 Reduction on AA2024-T3", Dufek EJ, Buttry DA; Journal Of The Electrochemical Society , 2009, 156...Board of Directors for Society of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Member at Large for Physical Electrochemistry Division of the Electrochemical Society .

  6. Effect of shot peening and grain refinement on the fatigue life and strength of commercially pure Al and two of its alloys: Al-2024-T3 and Al-7075-T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qandil, A.; Zaid, Adnan I. O.

    2016-08-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are widely used materials in automobile, aircraft and space craft industries due to their high strength- to- weight ratio and corrosion resistance beside their other useful properties. They are the second materials in use after steel alloys. Most of the failures in parts of aircrafts and space vehicles are mainly caused by fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. In this paper, the effect of shot peening on the fatigue life of commercially pure aluminumand two of its alloys namely:Al-2024 and Al-7075-T6 is presented and discussed. Furthermore, the effect of addition of vanadium to Al and Al grain refined by Ti and Ti+Bon Its fatigue life and strengthis also presented and discussed using scanning electron microscope, SEM. It was that shot peening and the addition of V toAl and Al onAl grain refined by Ti and Ti+B have resulted in enhancement of the fatigue life and strength. Ffinally, the effect of shot peening on the surface quality of the peened parts is also presented and discussed.

  7. NANOPARTICULAS DE CIRCONIA DOPADAS CON NITRATO DE CERIO EN UN RECUBRIMIENTO HIBRIDO SOL GEL: EFECTO EN LA PROTECCION CONTRA LA CORROSION DE LA ALEACION DE ALUMINIO 2024-T3

    OpenAIRE

    GONZALEZ SANCHEZ; EVELYN ANDREA

    2011-01-01

    En esta tesis se sintetizó un recubrimiento híbrido sol-gel a partir de los precursores tetraetoxiortosilicato (TEOS) y trietoxi(octil)silano (TEOCS) en propano!. El recubrimiento híbrido fue modificado con nanopartículas de circonia, nitrato de cerio(lll) y con nanopartículas de circonia dopadas previamente con nitrato de cerio(lll). Las nanopartículas de circonia fueron sintetizadas mediante la técnica sol gel utilizando como precursor propóxido de circonio (TPOZ) en propano! y en ...

  8. NANOPARTICULAS DE CIRCONIA DOPADAS CON NITRATO DE CERIO EN UN RECUBRIMIENTO HIBRIDO SOL GEL: EFECTO EN LA PROTECCION CONTRA LA CORROSION DE LA ALEACION DE ALUMNIO 2024-T3

    OpenAIRE

    GONZALEZ SANCHEZ, EVELYN ANDREA

    2011-01-01

    En esta tesis se sintetizó un recubrimiento híbrido sol-gel a partir de los precursores tetraetoxiortosilicato (TEOS) y trietoxi(octil)silano (TEOCS) en propanol. El recubrimiento híbrido fue modificado con nanopartículas de circonia, nitrato de cerio(III) y con nanopartículas de circonia dopadas previamente con nitrato de cerio(III). Las nanopartículas de circonia fueron sintetizadas mediante la técnica sol gel utilizando como precursor propóxido de circonio (TPOZ) en propanol...

  9. Role(s) of pretreatment, inhibitors, and other process steps that effect surface composition on the under-paint corrosion of an aluminum-copper-magnesium alloy 2024-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Daryl A.

    2006-12-01

    Under-paint corrosion is a surface corrosion that grows under a coating. The composition of an aluminum alloy, particularly Cu and Fe content, has a direct and dominant effect on the growth rate of filiform corrosion (FFC) and scribe-creep. The Cu and Fe content leads to formation of galvanic cells between intermetallic compounds (IMCs) or replated Cu and the aluminum-rich matrix. However, there is no model which describes scribe-creep behavior and can be used to predict the effect of material and surface pretreatment parameters such as inhibitors, chemical surface pretreatment, and alloy microstructure. Surface pretreatments and aging which control the amount of surface copper and alter IMC distributions decrease the growth rate of scribe-creep. Scribe-creep was observed to be enhanced by temperature, regardless of surface pretreatment, as well as by artificial aging and surface pretreatments. Scribe-creep was accelerated by pretreatments that increased surface copper or left a high capacity for Cu-replating such as Cu-containing IMCs. Pretreatment was rationalized to decrease the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) rate, which supports anodic undercutting at the head of the corrosion front. In this galvanic corrosion mechanism, the scribe-creep rate will be proportional to the rate of the anodic dissolution at the head. This, in turn, is proportional to the galvanic corrosion rate. Both charge transfer controlled and mass transport controlled cathodic reaction rates occurred at the fastest rates at the scratch and tail. The charge transfer controlled cathodic reaction rate was directly proportional to the surface coverage of Cu (thetaCu) while the mass transport limited rate was a complex nonlinear function of thetaCu . Based on enhanced understanding a galvanic couple model that describes scribe-creep rates in terms of the relevant processes at the tail and head as well as ohmic voltage between the head and tail was developed in order to explain scribe-creep propagation. Utilizing a galvanic corrosion model it is possible to predict the effect of material, pretreatment, inhibitors, and physical parameters on the under-paint galvanic corrosion rate and scribe-creep rate. This can be used to predict the under-paint corrosion rate as well as help to identify and clarify methods which can be utilized to slow down the rate of under-paint corrosion.

  10. AAS Career Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2012-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society provides substantial programs in the area of Career Services.Motivated by the Society's mission to enhance and share humanity's understanding of the Universe, the AAS provides a central resource for advertising positions, interviewing opportunities at its annual winter meeting and information, workshops and networks to enable astronomers to find employment.The programs of the Society in this area are overseen by an active committee on employment and the AAS Council itself.Additional resources that help characterize the field, its growth and facts about employment such as salaries and type of jobs available are regularly summarized and reported on by the American Institute of Physics.

  11. AAS Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  12. Offshore Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This shapefile displays the distribution of substrate types from Pt. Arena to Pt. Sal in central/northern California. Originally this data consisted of seven paper...

  13. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  14. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  15. Transformation from AA to AB-Stacked Bilayer Graphene on α-SiO2 under an Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; AO Zhi-Min; WANG Tao; WANG Wen-Bo; SHENG Kuang; YU Bin

    2011-01-01

    @@ The energetic and electronic structure of bilayered graphene(BLG) with AA stacking arrangement on a SiO2 substrate is investigated in the presence of an electric field F of different intensities by ab initio density functional calculations.The AA-stacked bilayer graphene is stable on the SiO2 substrate in the absence of an electric field.However, as F increases, the AA-stacked bilayer graphenes are gradually shifted with each other and finally transfers into AB-stacked bilayer graphenes.The bandgap is accordingly changed.

  16. AAS 227: Day 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  17. AAS 227: Day 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  18. AAS 227: Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  19. Self-polymerization of Eu(TTA)3AA in rubber and their fluorescence effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚璐; 温世鹏; 段雪; 胡晓丹; 车明生; 景文峰; 刘浩亮; 刘力

    2013-01-01

    A simple europium complex, Eu(TTA)3AA (TTA=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione, AA=acrylic acid) was syn-thesized by a simple solution method. Then, two kinds of rubber matrix, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) and silicone rubber (SiR) were used as the substrate for Eu(TTA)3AA to prepare fluorescence composites. The neat Eu(TTA)3AA complex showed the ability of self-polymerization when it was heated at 145 °C. It was found that the fluorescence intensity of the neat Eu(TTA)3AA decreased over 70%when the polymerization time was over 25 min at 145 °C. The results also revealed that the polymerizated Eu(TTA)3AA could be dispersed in nano-scale in two matrices and the luminescent intensities decreased 52%in NBR matrix, and 95%in SiR ma-trix compared with two relative compounds without crosslinking. To optimize the luminescence intensity of the composites, the Eu(TTA)3AA polymerization kinetic process in matrix was investigated in detail by controlling the temperature, the crosslinking agent, etc. The results showed that the peroxide could accelerate Eu(TTA)3AA self-polymerization in the rubber matrix, and therefore improved the dispersion, but not be helpful for the luminescence intensity enhancement. In addition, the relatively higher luminescence intensity in Eu(TTA)3AA/NBR in comparison to that of Eu(TTA)3AA/SiR might contribute to the interaction between nitrile group (-CN) in NBR and Eu-complexes, suggesting that the luminescence intensity of the composites also depended on the matrix characteristics.

  20. AAS 228: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  1. FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this investigation is to understand the structure of trapped intermetallics particles and localized composition changes in the anodized anodic oxide film on AA1050 aluminium substrates. Design/methodology/approach - The morphology and composition of Fe-containing intermet...

  2. AAS 227: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  3. Power electronics substrate for direct substrate cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Khiet [Mission Viejo, CA; Ward, Terence G [Redondo Beach, CA; Mann, Brooks S [Redondo Beach, CA; Yankoski, Edward P [Corona, CA; Smith, Gregory S [Woodland Hills, CA

    2012-05-01

    Systems and apparatus are provided for power electronics substrates adapted for direct substrate cooling. A power electronics substrate comprises a first surface configured to have electrical circuitry disposed thereon, a second surface, and a plurality of physical features on the second surface. The physical features are configured to promote a turbulent boundary layer in a coolant impinged upon the second surface.

  4. Morphology and Mechanism of Benign Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    the water response of vanadate inhibitor films can be determined. Because the absorbed water usually resides in molecular-level free space inside...Schaefer, Water absorption and transport in bis- silane films. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2009. 11(1), p. 161 - 166. 23. Y. Wang, E. Watkins, J...Ooij, Effects of addition of corrosion inhibitors to silane films on the performance of AA2024-T3 in a 0.5M NaCl solution. Progress in Organic

  5. Numerical simulation of friction stir welding (FSW): Prediction of the heat affect zone using a softening model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, R. M. F.; Carlone, P.; Valente, R. A. F.; Teixeira-Dias, F.; Palazzo, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    In this work a numerical model is proposed to simulate Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process in AA2024-T3 plates. This model included a softening model that account for the temperature history and the hardness distribution on a welded plate can thus be predicted. The validation of the model was performed using experimental measurements of the hardness in the plate cross-section. There is an acceptable prediction of the material softening in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) using the adopted model.

  6. Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Combined Influence of Mechanical and Chemical Stress on Pit Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    Langmuir, member of Board of Directors for Society of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Member at Large for Physical Electrochemistry Division of the Electrochemical Society . ...Characterization of Zr(IV)-Phosphonate Thin Films Which Inhibit O-2 Reduction on AA2024-T3”, Dufek EJ, Buttry DA; Journal Of The Electrochemical ... Society , 2009, 156(9), C322-C330. 3. “Repassivation Behavior of Stressed Aluminum Electrodes in Aqueous Chloride Solutions, Changwen Mi, Nishant Lakhera

  7. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  8. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction Stir-Welded AA5083-AA7B04 Butt Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Ding, Hua; Cai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jingwei; Li, Jizhong

    2017-02-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been used for joining AA5083 and AA7B04 alloy sheets with the aim of studying the microstructure and the mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints obtained by varying the initial base metal state of AA7B04 alloy. The results show that the initial base metal state has a significant impact on the material flow during dissimilar FSW. As compared with the joints placing hard alloy (artificially aged AA7B04-AA or naturally aged AA7B04-NA) on the retreating side, it becomes easier transporting AA5083 from advancing side to retreating side when soft alloy (annealed AA7B04-O) is placed on the retreating side. The atomic diffusion does not occur at the interface between AA5083 and AA7B04, indicating that the mixing of the two materials is merely mechanical. Grain refinement is observed in the stir zone. The failure location during tensile tests is different depending on the initial base metal state. The joints (AA5083/AA7B04-AA and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the base metal on the soft material side which corresponds to the minimum values in hardness profiles. Differently, the joints (AA5083/AA5083 and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the stir zone due to the presence of defects including "zigzag line," kissing bond and discontinuous voids.

  9. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction Stir-Welded AA5083-AA7B04 Butt Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Ding, Hua; Cai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jingwei; Li, Jizhong

    2016-12-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been used for joining AA5083 and AA7B04 alloy sheets with the aim of studying the microstructure and the mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints obtained by varying the initial base metal state of AA7B04 alloy. The results show that the initial base metal state has a significant impact on the material flow during dissimilar FSW. As compared with the joints placing hard alloy (artificially aged AA7B04-AA or naturally aged AA7B04-NA) on the retreating side, it becomes easier transporting AA5083 from advancing side to retreating side when soft alloy (annealed AA7B04-O) is placed on the retreating side. The atomic diffusion does not occur at the interface between AA5083 and AA7B04, indicating that the mixing of the two materials is merely mechanical. Grain refinement is observed in the stir zone. The failure location during tensile tests is different depending on the initial base metal state. The joints (AA5083/AA7B04-AA and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the base metal on the soft material side which corresponds to the minimum values in hardness profiles. Differently, the joints (AA5083/AA5083 and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the stir zone due to the presence of defects including "zigzag line," kissing bond and discontinuous voids.

  10. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  11. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  12. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  13. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  14. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  15. Investigation of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide deposited on metallic substrates by DC magnetron sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Canulescu, Stela; Dirscherl, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) coating in the anatase crystalline structure deposited on aluminium AA1050 alloy and stainless steel S316L substrates were investigated. The coating was prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and surface morphology...

  16. The Strica Homolog AaCASPS16 Is Involved in Apoptosis in the Yellow Fever Vector, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kun; Li, Xiaomei; Wang, Shengya; Zhong, Chunyan; Yang, Zhouning; Feng, Lingyan; Liu, Qingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases playing essential roles during apoptosis. Seven caspases identified in Drosophila were Dronc, Dredd, Strica, Dcp-1, Decay, Drice and Damm. Among them, Strica is an insect-specific caspase containing a long serine- and threonine- rich prodomain, of which function is not yet well studied. Here we identified a homolog of strica from Aedes albopictus, named as Aacasps16. Aacasps16 encoded a protein containing a putative serine- and threonine-rich prodomain and a well conserved caspase catalytic domain. AaCASPS16 shared high identity with dipteran insects Strica homologs. Alignment showed that the closest relative of AaCASPS16 was Aedes aegypti AeCASPS16. The expression profiles of Aacasps16 during developmental and adult stages were analyzed. Purified recombinant AaCASPS16 exhibited the highest caspase activity to WEHD, which is the substrate preferred by human caspase-9. AaCASPS16 induced apoptosis when over-expressed in C6/36 cells. AaCASPS16 was processed during apoptosis induced by actinomycin D and ultraviolet irradiation treatment, whereas partial silencing of Aacasps16 reduced actinomycin D- and ultraviolet irradiation-triggered apoptosis in C6/36 cells. Taken together, our study identified AaCASPS16 as a novel apoptotic caspase in Aedes albopictus. PMID:27351972

  17. The Strica Homolog AaCASPS16 Is Involved in Apoptosis in the Yellow Fever Vector, Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Meng

    Full Text Available Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases playing essential roles during apoptosis. Seven caspases identified in Drosophila were Dronc, Dredd, Strica, Dcp-1, Decay, Drice and Damm. Among them, Strica is an insect-specific caspase containing a long serine- and threonine- rich prodomain, of which function is not yet well studied. Here we identified a homolog of strica from Aedes albopictus, named as Aacasps16. Aacasps16 encoded a protein containing a putative serine- and threonine-rich prodomain and a well conserved caspase catalytic domain. AaCASPS16 shared high identity with dipteran insects Strica homologs. Alignment showed that the closest relative of AaCASPS16 was Aedes aegypti AeCASPS16. The expression profiles of Aacasps16 during developmental and adult stages were analyzed. Purified recombinant AaCASPS16 exhibited the highest caspase activity to WEHD, which is the substrate preferred by human caspase-9. AaCASPS16 induced apoptosis when over-expressed in C6/36 cells. AaCASPS16 was processed during apoptosis induced by actinomycin D and ultraviolet irradiation treatment, whereas partial silencing of Aacasps16 reduced actinomycin D- and ultraviolet irradiation-triggered apoptosis in C6/36 cells. Taken together, our study identified AaCASPS16 as a novel apoptotic caspase in Aedes albopictus.

  18. Molecular basis for substrate discrimination by glycine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Robert J; Shaddick, Kim; Ju, Pengchu

    2007-05-11

    Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brain stem, where it acts on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, and is also an excitatory neurotransmitter throughout the brain and spinal cord, where it acts on the N-methyl-d-aspartate family of receptors. There are two Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent glycine transporters, GLYT1 and GLYT2, which control extracellular glycine concentrations and these transporters show differences in substrate selectivity and blocker sensitivity. A bacterial Na(+)-dependent leucine transporter (LeuT(Aa)) has recently been crystallized and its structure determined. When the amino acid residues within the leucine binding site of LeuT(Aa) are aligned with residues of the two glycine transporters there are a number of identical residues and also some key differences. In this report, we demonstrate that the LeuT(Aa) structure represents a good working model of the Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitters and that differences in substrate selectivity can be attributed to a single difference of a glycine residue in transmembrane domain 6 of GLYT1 for a serine residue at the corresponding position of GLYT2.

  19. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  20. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.56 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are too numerous to name them all, but the 3 most prominent ones are at the centre (left to right): Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, with his hand on the control box), Eifionydd Jones (white shirt), Simon van der Meer (spiritus rector and Joint AA Project Leader). The first antiprotons were injected, made to circulate and cooled soon after, on 14 July 1980.

  1. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg e

  2. Friction Stir Weldabilities of AA1050-H24 and AA6061-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijie LIU; Hidetoshi FUJIN; Masakatsu MAEDA; Kiyoshi NOGI

    2005-01-01

    The friction stir weldabilities of the strain-hardened AA1050-H24 and precipitate-hardened AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys were examined to reveal the effects of material properties on the friction stir welding behavior. The experimental results are obtlained. (1) For AA1050-H24, the weld can possess smoother surface ripples; there is no elliptical weld nugget in the weld; there is no discernible interface between the stir zone and the thermomechanically affected zone;and the internal defect of the weld looks like a long crack and is located in the lower part of the weld. (2) For AA6061-T6, the weld usually possesses slightly rougher surface ripples; an elliptical weld nugget clearly exists in the weld; there are discernible interfaces among the weld nugget, thermomechanically affected zone and heat affected zone; and the internal defect of the weld is similar to that of the AA1050-H24 weld. (3) The effective range of welding parameters for AA1050-H24 is narrow, while the one for AA6061-T6 is very wide. (4) The maximum tensile strength efficiency of the AA1050-H24 joints is similar to that of the AA6061-T6 joints, i.e. 79% and 77%, respectively.

  3. The power of alternative assessments (AAs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张千茜

    2013-01-01

    This article starts by discussing the potential disadvantages of traditional assessment towards young English as a Second Language (ESL) learners within the American public school education system. In response to such disadvantages, researchers ’call for the implementation of alternative assessments (AAs) is therefore introduced along with the various benefits of AAs. However, the current mainstream education policy in the US, namely No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Policy, is still largely based on the tra-ditional ways of testing, making policy-oriented implementation of AAs on large scales remarkably difficult. After careful analysis, the author points out several implications concerning how, under such an existing policy of NCLB, can practitioners effectively accommodate young ESL learners by applying the power of AAs.

  4. Magnetic horn of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1988-01-01

    In the 1960s, the invention of this "current sheet lens" has helped to greatly improve the flux of neutrino beams. It was used again at the AA, collecting antiprotons from the production target at angles too large to fit into the acceptance of the AA. It was machined from aluminium to a thickness of 1.4 mm and pulsed at 400 kA for 15 microseconds (half-sine).

  5. Robust plasmonic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    substrates is presented, which relies on the coverage of gold nanostructures with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films of thicknesses 25, 55 and 105 nm. DLC thin films were grown by direct hydrocarbon ion beam deposition. In order to find the optimum balance between optical and mechanical properties...... and breaking. DLC coating with thicknesses between 25 and 105 nm is found to considerably increase the mechanical strength of the substrates while at the same time ensuring conservation of sufficient field enhancements of the gold plasmonic substrates....

  6. Chromium-free conversion coatings based on inorganic salts (Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo) for aluminum alloys used in aircraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Coloma, P., E-mail: patricia.santacoloma@tecnalia.com [TECNALIA Research & Innovation, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, E-20009 Donostia-San Sebastián, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Izagirre, U.; Belaustegi, Y.; Jorcin, J.B.; Cano, F.J. [TECNALIA Research & Innovation, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, E-20009 Donostia-San Sebastián, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Lapeña, N. [Boeing Research & Technology Europe, S.L.U., Avenida Sur del Aeropuerto de Barajas 38, Building 4 – 3rd Floor, E-28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Chromium-free conversion coatings for corrosion protection of aluminum alloys. • Salt spray and potentiodynamic sweep tests to study the corrosion behavior. • Local deposits on Cu-rich intermetallic particles enhanced corrosion resistance. • Surface characterization to relate bath's composition and corrosion resistance. • Best corrosion protection with conversion baths without titanium salts. - Abstract: Novel chromium-free conversion coatings based on Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo compounds were developed at a pilot scale to improve the corrosion resistance of the AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys for aircraft applications. The influence of the presence of Zr and Ti in the Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo conversion bath's formulation on the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys was investigated. The corrosion resistance provided by the conversion coatings was evaluated by salt spray exposure and potentiodynamic sweeps. Optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating in the Kelvin Probe mode (SKPFM) were used to provide microstructural information of the coated samples that achieved the best results in the corrosion tests. The salt spray test evidenced the higher corrosion resistance of the coated samples compared to the bare surfaces for both alloys. The potentiodynamic tests showed that the corrosion current density decreased for coated AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys, which indicated an obvious improvement of the corrosion resistance with all the processes for both alloys. Although the corrosion resistance of the coated samples appeared to be higher for the alloy AA7075-T6 than for the alloy AA2024-T3, both alloys achieved the best corrosion protection with the coatings deposited from conversion bath formulations containing no titanium salts. The microscopy analysis on the coated AA7075-T6 samples revealed that a local deposition of Zr compounds and, possibly, an

  7. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  8. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  9. The AA disappearing under concrete shielding

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    When the AA started up in July 1980, the machine stood freely in its hall, providing visitors with a view through the large window in the AA Control Room. The target area, in which the high-intensity 26 GeV/c proton beam from the PS hit the production target, was heavily shielded, not only towards the outside but also towards the AA-Hall. However, electrons and pions emanating from the target with the same momentum as the antiprotons, but much more numerous, accompanied these through the injection line into the AA ring. The pions decayed with a half-time corresponding to approximately a revolution period (540 ns), whereas the electrons lost energy through synchrotron radiation and ended up on the vacuum chamber wall. Electrons and pions produced the dominant component of the radiation level in the hall and the control room. With operation times far exceeding original expectations, the AA had to be buried under concrete shielding in order to reduce the radiation level by an order of magnitude.

  10. AAS Nova and Astrobites: Making current astronomy research accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team

    2016-10-01

    AAS Nova and Astrobites are two resources available for astronomers, astronomy students, and astronomy enthusiasts to keep up with some of the most recent research published across the field of astronomy. Both supported by the AAS, these two daily astrophysical literature blogs provide accessible summaries of recent publications on the arXiv and in AAS journals. We present the goals, content, and readership of AAS Nova and Astrobites, and discuss how they might be used as tools in the undergraduate classroom.

  11. Flow Injection and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FI-AAS) -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    of (especially HG- forming) elements. In the words of the one of the authorities of AAS and foremost pioneers of FI-AAS - Professor Z. L. Fang, who is the author on two recently published monographs on this hyphenated technique - the impact of FI on AAS is "so dramatic" that it has brought "new vitality...

  12. Multiple alternative substrate kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vernon E

    2015-11-01

    The specificity of enzymes for their respective substrates has been a focal point of enzyme kinetics since the initial characterization of metabolic chemistry. Various processes to quantify an enzyme's specificity using kinetics have been utilized over the decades. Fersht's definition of the ratio kcat/Km for two different substrates as the "specificity constant" (ref [7]), based on the premise that the important specificity existed when the substrates were competing in the same reaction, has become a consensus standard for enzymes obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The expansion of the theory for the determination of the relative specificity constants for a very large number of competing substrates, e.g. those present in a combinatorial library, in a single reaction mixture has been developed in this contribution. The ratio of kcat/Km for isotopologs has also become a standard in mechanistic enzymology where kinetic isotope effects have been measured by the development of internal competition experiments with extreme precision. This contribution extends the theory of kinetic isotope effects to internal competition between three isotopologs present at non-tracer concentrations in the same reaction mix. This article is part of a special issue titled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment.

  13. Dopamine transporter comparative molecular modeling and binding site prediction using the LeuT(Aa) leucine transporter as a template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indarte, Martín; Madura, Jeffry D; Surratt, Christopher K

    2008-02-15

    Pharmacological and behavioral studies indicate that binding of cocaine and the amphetamines by the dopamine transporter (DAT) protein is principally responsible for initiating the euphoria and addiction associated with these drugs. The lack of an X-ray crystal structure for the DAT or any other member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family has hindered understanding of psychostimulant recognition at the atomic level; structural information has been obtained largely from mutagenesis and biophysical studies. The recent publication of a crystal structure for the bacterial leucine transporter LeuT(Aa), a distantly related NSS family homolog, provides for the first time a template for three-dimensional comparative modeling of NSS proteins. A novel computational modeling approach using the capabilities of the Molecular Operating Environment program MOE 2005.06 in conjunction with other comparative modeling servers generated the LeuT(Aa)-directed DAT model. Probable dopamine and amphetamine binding sites were identified within the DAT model using multiple docking approaches. Binding sites for the substrate ligands (dopamine and amphetamine) overlapped substantially with the analogous region of the LeuT(Aa) crystal structure for the substrate leucine. The docking predictions implicated DAT side chains known to be critical for high affinity ligand binding and suggest novel mutagenesis targets in elucidating discrete substrate and inhibitor binding sites. The DAT model may guide DAT ligand QSAR studies, and rational design of novel DAT-binding therapeutics.

  14. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  15. Activity of vegetative insecticidal proteins Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 of Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Jakub; Kaznowski, Adam; Konecka, Edyta; Naimov, Samir

    2015-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) secreted by some isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis show activity against insects and are regarded as insecticides against pests. A number of B. thuringiensis strains harbouring vip3A genes were isolated from different sources and identified by using a PCR based approach. The isolates with the highest insecticidal activity were indicated in screening tests, and their vip genes were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed two polymorphic Vip protein forms, which were classified as Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59. After expression of the vip genes, the proteins were isolated and characterized. The activity of both toxins was estimated against economically important lepidopteran pests of woodlands (Dendrolimus pini), orchards (Cydia pomonella) and field crops (Spodoptera exigua). Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 were highly toxic and their potency surpassed those of many Cry proteins used in commercial bioinsecticides. Vip3Aa59 revealed similar larvicidal activity as Vip3Aa58 against S. exigua and C. pomonella. Despite 98% similarity of amino acid sequences of both proteins, Vip3Aa59 was significantly more active against D. pini. Additionally the effect of proteolytic activation of Vip58Aa and Vip3Aa59 on toxicity of D. pini and S. exigua was studied. Both Vip3Aa proteins did not show any activity against Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) larvae. The results suggest that the Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 toxins might be useful for controlling populations of insect pests of crops and forests.

  16. Rare earth conversion coatings grown on AA6061 aluminum alloys. Corrosion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachetti S, S. B. [Instituto Tecnologico de Ciudad Madero, Av. 1o. de Mayo y Sor Juana I. de la Cruz, Col. Los Mangos, 89440 Ciudad Madero, Tanaulipas (Mexico); Dominguez C, M. A.; Torres H, A. M.; Onofre B, E. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - Altamira, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira Km. 14.5, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); De la Cruz H, W., E-mail: mdominguezc@ipn.mx [UNAM, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Apdo. Postal 2681, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The present work is aimed to investigate the corrosion resistance of rare earth protective coatings deposited by spontaneous deposition on AA6061 aluminum alloy substrates. Coatings were deposited from water-based Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions by varing parameters such as rare earth solution concentration, bath temperature and immersion time. The values of the Tafel slopes indicate that the cathodic process is favored by concentration polarization rather than activation polarization. Chemical and morphological characterizations of the surface before and after electrochemical evaluations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (Author)

  17. Aluminium Alloy AA6060 surface treatment with high temperature steam containing chemical additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Tabrizian, Naja; Jellesen, Morten S.

    2015-01-01

    The steam treatment process was employed to produce a conversion coating on aluminium alloy AA6060. The changes in microstructure and its effect on corrosion resistance properties were investigated. Various concentrations of KMnO4 containing Ce(NO3)3 was injected into the steam and its effect...... on the formation of steam-based conversion coating was evaluated. The use of Mn-Ce into the steam resulted in incorporation of these species into the conversion coating, which resulted in improved corrosion resistance of the alloy substrate....

  18. AA, vacuum tank for stochastic precooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The vaccum tank in which the fast stochastic precooling kicker was installed. It is clad with heating jackets for bake-out to 200 deg C, indispensable for reaching the operational vacuum of 7E-11 Torr. Alain Poncet, responsible for AA vacuum, is looking on. See also 7910268, 8002234.

  19. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    Continuation from 8010293: Finally, the sandwich line with the horn is placed on the ground, for the horn to be inspected and, if needed, exchanged for a new one. The whole procedure was trained with several members of the AA team, for quick and safe handling, and to share the radiation dose amongst them.

  20. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  1. Processing and Optimization of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of AA 2219 and AA 7039 Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, D.; Nageswara rao, P.; Mahapatra, M. M.; Harsha, S. P.; Mandal, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    The present paper discusses the optimization of dissimilar friction stir welding of AA 2219 and AA 7039 alloys with respect to tool design issues including microstructural study of weld. The optimized ultimate tensile strength was ~280 MPa, and % elongation was ~11.5. It was observed that the extent of tool shoulder flat surface and tool rotational speed influenced the weld quality significantly. A mathematical model was also developed using response surface regression analysis to predict the effects of tool geometry and process variables on dissimilar AA 2219 and AA 7039 alloys welds. The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties were investigated by employing electron backscatter diffraction technique, Vickers microhardness, and tensile testing, respectively. The microstructural observations indicated that the grain size obtained at advancing side (AA 2219 alloy side) was much finer compared to the retreating side (AA 7039 alloy side). Hardness distribution in the stir zone was inhomogeneous, which might be due to inadequate mixing of weld zone material. The hardness values observed at the weld zone were lower than that in the base materials.

  2. Microstructure analysis of aluminum extrusion: grain size distribution in AA6060, AA6082 and AA7075 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schikorra, M.; Tekkaya, A. E. [Institute of Forming Technology and Lightweight Construction, Dortmund (Germany); Donate, L.; Iomesani, L. [University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Microstructure and material flow of aluminum alloys have a significant influence on the mechanical properties and surface quality. In extrusion of aluminum billets at high temperatures the microstructure is dependent on the alloy and the forming and temperature history. A prediction of grain size and precipitation is of increasing importance in order to design the process by adjustment of parameters such as punch speed, temperatures, and quenching. To give references for microstructure prediction based on material flow, and with it strain and strain rate history, this paper deals with the microstructure during the extrusion process of AA6060, AA6082, and AA7075 alloys. Billets have been partly extruded to axisymmetric round profiles and the microstructure of the press rests consisting of the billet rests in container and die has been considered. Furthermore, these rests have been analyzed to show the material flow, dynamic and static recrystallization based on macro etchings and visible microstructure under different conditions, e.g. as in the area of high strain rate near the container wall, or in dead zones. To allow an accurate simulation of the extrusion process, punch force and temperature conditions during the tests have been measured and are presented in this paper, too.

  3. Dewetting on microstructured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehong; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-11-01

    A thin liquid film has an equilibrium thickness in such a way as to minimize the free energy. When a liquid film thickness is out of its equilibrium, the film seeks its equilibrium state, resulting in dynamics of liquid film, which are referred to as wetting and dewetting, depending on the flow direction. We here present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of dewetting on a substrate with parallel microstructures. Our experiments show that residue may remain on the substrate after dewetting, and residue morphologies can be classified into three modes. Based on our experimental observations, we elucidate how the modes depend on the pattern morphology and contact angle, and develop a model for the contact line motion. Our results provide a basis for controlling the thickness film, which is important for many practical applications such as oil recovery, detergency, lithography, and cleaning. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No.2015R1A2A2A04006181).

  4. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Shyu, F L, E-mail: fl.shyu@msa.hinet.ne, E-mail: mflin@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Physics, ROC Military Academy, 830 Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  5. Colchicine use in isolated renal AA amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Carlos F; Egües, César A; Uriarte, Miren; Belzunegui, Joaquín; Rezola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 45-year-old woman, with two-year history of chronic renal insufficiency and proteinuria. A kidney biopsy showed the presence of AA amyloidosis (positive Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry). There was no evidence of amyloid deposits in other organs and there was no underlying disease. AA amyloidosis normally is secondary to chronic inflammatory or infectious diseases. High levels of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α play a role in the pathogenesis of amyloidosis and induce the synthesis of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), a precursor of tissue amyloid deposits. We empirically treated the patient with a low dose colchicine. The patient responded well. Colchicine has been used for the treatment of Familiar Mediterranean Fever and related auto-inflammatory diseases. To monitor treatment responses, we measured SAA finding low titers. Soon after treatment onset there were signs of improvement pertaining to proteinuria and stabilization of renal function.

  6. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.5 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are to numerous to name them all. Heribert Koziol, apparently asleep, is answering the call from an impatient director. See also 8007094.

  7. AA, assembly of wide bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.

  8. AAS Oral History Project - Seeking Planetary Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita

    2016-10-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 100 space scientists from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from space scientists at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees' personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one's family, childhood, strong influences on one's scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. We will present preliminary analysis of those interviewed including characterizing career status, age range, nationality, and primary field. Additionally, we will discuss trends beginning to emerge in analysis of participants' responses about data driven science and advice to the next generation. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of space scientists and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are actively recruiting individuals to be interviewed at this meeting from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. We are especially interested in interviewing 40+E members of DPS. Contact Sanlyn Buxner to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (buxner@psi.edu). Contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com).

  9. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  10. Wooden Model of Wide AA Bending Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets: BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see a wooden model, built in 1978, to gain dimensional experience with such a monster.

  11. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  12. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  13. The existence of an insulin-stimulated glucose and non-essential but not essential amino acid substrate interaction in diabetic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijdenes Jan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The generation of energy from glucose is impaired in diabetes and can be compensated by other substrates like fatty acids (Randle cycle. Little information is available on amino acids (AA as alternative energy-source in diabetes. To study the interaction between insulin-stimulated glucose and AA utilization in normal and diabetic subjects, intraportal hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic euaminoacidaemic clamp studies were performed in normal (n = 8 and streptozotocin (120 mg/kg induced diabetic (n = 7 pigs of ~40-45 kg. Results Diabetic vs normal pigs showed basal hyperglycaemia (19.0 ± 2.0 vs 4.7 ± 0.1 mmol/L, P P P P P P P . Essential AA clearance was largely unchanged (72.9 ± 8.5 vs 63.3 ± 8.5 mL/kg· min, however clearances of threonine (P P Conclusions The ratio of insulin-stimulated glucose versus AA clearance was decreased 5.4-fold in diabetic pigs, which was caused by a 3.6-fold decrease in glucose clearance and a 2.0-fold increase in non-essential AA clearance. In parallel with the Randle concept (glucose - fatty acid cycle, the present data suggest the existence of a glucose and non-essential AA substrate interaction in diabetic pigs whereby reduced insulin-stimulated glucose clearance seems to be partly compensated by an increase in non-essential AA clearance whereas essential AA are preferentially spared from an increase in clearance.

  14. Simon van der Meer in the AA Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    1984-01-01

    Simon van der Meer, spiritus rector of the Antiproton Accumulator, in the AA Control Room. Inventor of stochastic cooling, on which the AA was based, and of the magnetic horn, with which the antiprotons were focused, he also wrote most of the software with which the AA was controlled, and spent uncountable numbers of hours in this chair to tickle the AA to top performance. 8 months after this picture was taken, he received, in October 1984, the Nobel prize, together with Carlo Rubbia, the moving force behind the whole Proton-Antiproton Collider project that led to the discovery, in 1983, of the W and Z intermediate bosons.

  15. Surface Treatment for New Engineered Aerospace Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    During this EngD project, two pigmented, anti-corrosion polymer/sol-gel hybrid coatings were developed with the aim of producing an eco-friendly alternative to conventional, toxic hexavalent chromate conversion and anodized anti-corrosion alloy treatments for the aircraft manufacturer; Airbus S.A.S. The polymer/sol-gel hybrid coatings were then tested and validated as anti-corrosion coatings on the AA2024-T3 aluminium aerospace alloy and in certain cases, their performance was compared agains...

  16. Підвищення опору втоми зварювальних сполук високоміцного алюмінієвого сплаву 2024-Т3 високочастотною механічною проковою

    OpenAIRE

    Klochkov, Illia M.; Berezin, Ihor V.; Tunik, Alla Yu.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the post-welding treatment by the high-frequency mechanical hammering (HMT) on the fatigue resistance of the welded joints of the high-strength AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy with thickness of 2 mm has been stiduied. These welded joints are produced with the highly productive welding by the consumable electrode in the inert gas medium (MIG-Pulse). The optimal HMT parameters  are offered which provide the resistance increase of the studied joints fatigue on the base of the 2×106 loadin...

  17. Selective Laser Treatment on Cold-Sprayed Titanium Coatings: Numerical Modeling and Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Astarita, Antonello; Rubino, Felice; Pasquino, Nicola; Aprea, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a selective laser post-deposition on pure grade II titanium coatings, cold-sprayed on AA2024-T3 sheets, was experimentally and numerically investigated. Morphological features, microstructure, and chemical composition of the treated zone were assessed by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Microhardness measurements were also carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of the coating. A numerical model of the laser treatment was implemented and solved to simulate the process and discuss the experimental outcomes. Obtained results highlighted the key role played by heat input and dimensional features on the effectiveness of the treatment.

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0048 gb|AAS74186.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74187.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74231.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74233.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74373.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74186.1 1e-163 91% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74184.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74194.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74236.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74326.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74372.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74184.1 1e-177 97% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0048 gb|AAS74184.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74194.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74236.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74326.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74372.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74184.1 1e-163 91% ...

  1. Endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are substrates for human CYP2J2 epoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougle, Daniel R; Kambalyal, Amogh; Meling, Daryl D; Das, Aditi

    2014-12-01

    The endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives that are known to regulate human cardiovascular functions. CYP2J2 is the primary cytochrome P450 in the human heart and is most well known for the metabolism of AA to the biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. In this study, we demonstrate that both 2-AG and AEA are substrates for metabolism by CYP2J2 epoxygenase in the model membrane bilayers of nanodiscs. Reactions of CYP2J2 with AEA formed four AEA-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, whereas incubations with 2-AG yielded detectable levels of only two 2-AG epoxides. Notably, 2-AG was shown to undergo enzymatic oxidative cleavage to form AA through a NADPH-dependent reaction with CYP2J2 and cytochrome P450 reductase. The formation of the predominant AEA and 2-AG epoxides was confirmed using microsomes prepared from the left myocardium of porcine and bovine heart tissues. The nuances of the ligand-protein interactions were further characterized using spectral titrations, stopped-flow small-molecule ligand egress, and molecular modeling. The experimental and theoretical data were in agreement, which showed that substitution of the AA carboxylic acid with the 2-AG ester-glycerol changes the binding interaction of these lipids within the CYP2J2 active site, leading to different product distributions. In summary, we present data for the functional metabolomics of AEA and 2-AG by a membrane-bound cardiovascular epoxygenase.

  2. Enhancement of wear and ballistic resistance of armour grade AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sudhakar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial applications of aluminium and its alloys are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Thermal spraying, laser surfacing, electron beam welding are the most widely used techniques to alter the surface morphology of base metal. Preliminary studies reveal that the coating and layering of aluminium alloys with ceramic particles enhance the ballistic resistance. Furthermore, among aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy exhibits high strength which can be compared to that of steels and has profound applications in the designing of lightweight fortification structures and integrated protection systems. Having limitations such as poor bond integrity, formation of detrimental phases and interfacial reaction between reinforcement and substrate using fusion route to deposit hard particles paves the way to adopt friction stir processing for fabricating surface composites using different sizes of boron carbide particles as reinforcement on armour grade 7075 aluminium alloy as matrix in the present investigation. Wear and ballistic tests were carried out to assess the performance of friction stir processed AA7075 alloy. Significant improvement in wear resistance of friction stir processed surface composites is attributed to the change in wear mechanism from abrasion to adhesion. It has also been observed that the surface metal matrix composites have shown better ballistic resistance compared to the substrate AA7075 alloy. Addition of solid lubricant MoS2 has reduced the depth of penetration of the projectile to half that of base metal AA7075 alloy. For the first time, the friction stir processing technique was successfully used to improve the wear and ballistic resistances of armour grade high strength AA7075 alloy.

  3. Investigation of decolorization of textile wastewater in an anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon system (A/A BAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S; Gheewala, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon (A/A BAC) system. The experiment was divided into 2 stages; stage I is batch test for preliminary study of dye removal equilibrium time. The preliminary experiment (stage I) provided the optimal data for experimental design of A/A BAC system in SBR (stage II). Stage II is A/A BAC system imitated Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which consist of 5 main periods; fill, react, settle, draw and idle. React period include anaerobic phase followed by aerobic phase. The BAC main media; Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Mixed Cultures (MC) and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) were used for dye and organic substances removal in three different solutions; Desizing Agent Solution (DAS), dye Solution (DS) and Synthetic Textile Wastewater (STW). Results indicate that GAC adsorption plays role in dye removal followed by BAC and MC activities, respectively. In the presence desizing agent, decolorization by MC was improved because desizing agent acts as co-substrates for microorganisms. It was found that 50% of dye removal efficiency was achieved in Fill period by MC. GC/MS analysis was used to identify dye intermediate from decolorization. Dye intermediate containing amine group was found in the solution and on BAC surfaces. The results demonstrated that combination of MC and BAC in the system promotes decolorization and dye intermediate removal. In order to improve dye removal efficiency in an A/A BAC system, replacement of virgin GAC, sufficient co-substrates supply and the appropriate anaerobic: aerobic period should be considered.

  4. Enhancement of wear and ballistic resistance of armour grade AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I. SUDHAKAR; V. MADHU; G. MADHUSUDHAN REDDY; K. SRINIVASA RAO

    2015-01-01

    Industrial applications of aluminium and its alloys are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Thermal spraying, laser surfacing, electron beam welding are the most widely used techniques to alter the surface morphology of base metal. Preliminary studies reveal that the coating and layering of aluminium alloys with ceramic particles enhance the ballistic resistance. Furthermore, among aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy exhibits high strength which can be compared to that of steels and has profound applications in the designing of lightweight fortification structures and integrated protection systems. Having limitations such as poor bond integrity, formation of detrimental phases and interfacial reaction between reinforcement and substrate using fusion route to deposit hard particles paves the way to adopt friction stir processing for fabricating surface composites using different sizes of boron carbide particles as reinforcement on armour grade 7075 aluminium alloy as matrix in the present investigation. Wear and ballistic tests were carried out to assess the performance of friction stir processed AA7075 alloy. Significant improvement in wear resistance of friction stir processed surface composites is attributed to the change in wear mechanism from abrasion to adhesion. It has also been observed that the surface metal matrix composites have shown better ballistic resistance compared to the substrate AA7075 alloy. Addition of solid lubricant MoS2 has reduced the depth of penetration of the projectile to half that of base metal AA7075 alloy. For the first time, the friction stir processing technique was successfully used to improve the wear and ballistic resistances of armour grade high strength AA7075 alloy.

  5. Environmentally Responsive Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates for High Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hongdeok; Jung, Chan Woo; Jalani, Ghulam; Lim, Dong Woo [Hanyang Univ., Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We first report the synthesis and characterization of a new class of thermoresponsive SERS substrates composed of branched GNPs (bGNPs) with sharp features and poly(NIPAM-co-allylamonium chloride) (p(NIPAM-co-AA)) chemically conjugated with 1,10-decanedithiol of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of the gold-patterned microarray chip (Figure 1). As organic-inorganic composites, these SERS substrates were formed by strong ionic interaction between negatively charged bGNPs and positively charged p(NIPAM-co-AA) tethered on the gold pattern. When rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) was introduced to bGNPs as Raman dye, thermally-triggered collapse and aggregation of p(NIPAM-co-AA) chains in aqueous solution above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) produced a SERS signal higher than that seen below LCST, potentially due to the decreased distance between bGNPs or between bGNPs and the gold pattern. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been of growing interest as a powerful tool to study vibrational information of molecules adsorbed on metallic nanoparticles (MNPs)

  6. AAS Special Session: Policy Making in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, J. A.; Massa, D.

    1995-12-01

    The professional astronomical community today is more diverse than at any time in its history. Individuals participating in creative research programs can be found in a wide range of positions. This type of diversity, which mixes research, education, and service (e.g. contract) work, represents the strength of contemporary astronomy. While recognizing the unavoidable reductions in funding and restructuring of organizations like NASA, it is imperative that the significance of the current diversity be considered during these processes. Creative ideas are one of the cornerstones of quality research, and they can originate anywhere. Consequently, it is essential that adequate research resources remain available for free and open competition by all astronomers. Our goal in this session is to bring together officials from the AAS, NASA, and the NSF to discuss how the policy and decision making process operates and whether it should be changed to better serve the general needs of the professional astronomical community. Examples of the issues we believe are important include: In establishing new policy, how can the needs of the average research astronomer be better addressed? How could input from such astronomers be provided to those who craft NASA/NSF policy? How can/should the AAS serve as an interface between policy/decision making bodies and its membership? Should the AAS membership become more actively/effectively involved in the decision making process and, if so, how? More information on this session and related issues can be found at the Association of Research Astronomers Home Page: http://www.phy.vill.edu/astro/faculty/ara/ara_home.htm

  7. Intestinal drug transport via the proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 (SLC36A1) is inhibited by Gly-X(aa) dipeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Sidsel; Langthaler, Louise; Kall, Morten A

    2012-01-01

    The oral absorption of some drug substances is mediated by nutrient transporters. As a consequence, nutrients and drugs may compete for available transporters, and interactions at the level of intestinal absorption are possible. Recently, we have identified δ-aminolevulinic acid, Gly-Gly, and Gly......-Sar as substrates of the amino acid transporter PAT1. The aim of the present study is to investigate if other Gly-containing dipeptides interact with PAT1, and whether they can inhibit PAT1 mediated drug absorption, in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro methods included two-electrode voltage clamp measurements on h......PAT1 expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes, which were used to investigate the PAT1-mediated transport of 17 different Gly-containing dipeptides (Gly-X(aa) or X(aa)-Gly). Also, the transepithelial transport of the PAT1 substrate gaboxadol was investigated across Caco-2 cell monolayers in the presence...

  8. Atlas of Vega: 3850 -- 6860 \\AA

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Valyavin, G; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Shimansky, V; Galazutdinov, G A

    2009-01-01

    We present a high resolving power ($\\lambda$ / $\\Delta\\lambda$ = 90,000) and high signal-to-noise ratio ($\\sim$700) spectral atlas of Vega covering the 3850 -- 6860 \\AA wavelength range. The atlas is a result of averaging of spectra recorded with the aid of the echelle spectrograph BOES fed by the 1.8-m telescope at Bohyunsan observatory (Korea). The atlas is provided only in machine-readable form (electronic data file) and will be available in the SIMBAD database upon publication.

  9. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  10. Swift Observations of SN 2007aa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, S.; Brown, P. J.; Milne, P.

    2007-03-01

    Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observed the type II SN 2007aa (CBET #850, IAUC #8814) on 2007-02-24.63 UT. The following UVOT magnitudes were measured: V = 15.8 (322 s exposure time), B = 16.4 (367 s), U = 16.9 (367 s), UVW1 [181-321nm] = 18.6 (737 s), UVM2 [166-268 nm] > 19.5 (3-sigma upper limit; 236 s), and UVW2 [112-264 nm] = 19.7 (725 s). The magnitudes have not been corrected for extinction.

  11. Wooden Model of Wide AA Bending Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets: BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). A wide one had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. A wooden model was build in 1978, to gain dimensional experience. Here, Peter Zettwoch, one of the largest men at CERN at that time, is putting a hand in the mouth of the wooden BST monster.

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0001 gb|AAS74960.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74962.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74964.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74966.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74970.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74972.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster]... gb|AAS74976.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74978.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila ...melanogaster] gb|AAS74979.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74980.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74981.1| 5-HT2 [Dro

  13. A Novel Radiative Substrate Heater

    OpenAIRE

    CEYLAN, Abdullah; Kaynak, Erdal; ÖZCAN, Şadan; Firat, Tezer

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a new low cost radiative substrate heater for deposition of high-Tc superconducting thin films. It has all the features required for the preparation of high quality superconducting thin films. It is possible to reach ~ 800 °C substrate temperature with it by using only one 250 W halogen projector bulb.

  14. Soft substrates suppress droplet splashing

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Christopher J; Style, Robert W; Castrejón-Pita, A A

    2015-01-01

    Droplets splash when they impact dry, flat substrates above a critical velocity that depends on parameters such as droplet size, viscosity and air pressure. We show that substrate stiffness also impacts the splashing threshold by imaging ethanol drops impacting silicone gels of different stiffnesses. Splashing is significantly suppressed: droplets on the softest substrates need over 70% more kinetic energy to splash than they do on rigid substrates. We show that splash suppression is likely to be due to energy losses caused by deformations of soft substrates during the first few microseconds of impact. We find that solids with Youngs modulus $\\lesssim O(10^5)$Pa suppress splashing, in agreement with simple scaling arguments. Thus materials like soft gels and elastomers can be used as simple coatings for effective splash prevention.

  15. Experimental investigation of hardness of FSW and TIG joints of Aluminium alloys of AA7075 and AA6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports hardness testing conducted on welded butt joints by FSW and TIG welding process on similar and dissimilar aluminium alloys. FSW joints were produced for similar alloys of AA7075T651 and dissimilar alloys of AA7075T651- AA6061T6. The Friction stir welds of AA7075 & AA6061 aluminium alloy were produced at different tool rotational speeds of 650,700, 800, 900, 1000 and transverse speed of 30, 35, 40 mm/min. TIG welding was conducted along the rolling direction of similar and dissimilar aluminium plates. The Brinell hardness testing techniques were employed to conduct the tests; these tests were conducted on the welds to ascertain the joint integrity before characterization to have an idea of the quality of the welds

  16. Substrate noise coupling in RFICs

    CERN Document Server

    Helmy, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Substrate Noise Coupling in RFICs addresses substrate noise coupling in RF and mixed signal ICs when used in a system on chip (SoC) containing digital ICs as well. This trend of integrating RF, mixed signal ICs with large digital ICs is found in many of today's commercial ICs such as single chip Wi-Fi or Bluetooth solutions and is expected to grow rapidly in the future. The book reports modeling and simulation techniques for substrate noise coupling effects in RFICs and introduces isolation structures and design guides to mitigate such effects with the ultimate goal of enhancing the yield of R

  17. Substrate integrated antennas and arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Yu Jian

    2015-01-01

    Substrate Integrated Antennas and Arrays provides a single source for cutting-edge information on substrate integrated circuits (SICs), substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) feeding networks, SIW slot array antennas, SIC traveling-wave antennas, SIW feeding antennas, SIW monopulse antennas, and SIW multibeam antennas. Inspired by the author's extensive research, this comprehensive book:Describes a revolutionary SIC-based antenna technique with the potential to replace existing antenna technologiesExamines theoretical and experimental results connected to electrical and mechanical performanceExp

  18. Droplet dynamics on patterned substrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dupuis; J M Yeomans

    2005-06-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann algorithm which can be used to explore the spreading of droplets on chemically and topologically patterned substrates. As an example we use the method to show that the final configuration of a drop on a substrate comprising hydrophobic and hydrophilic stripes can depend sensitively on the dynamical pathway by which the state is reached. We also consider a substrate covered with micron-scale posts and investigate how this can lead to superhydrophobic behaviour. Finally we model how a Namibian desert beetle collects water from the wind.

  19. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  20. A novel Cry9Aa with increased toxicity for Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimov, S.; Nedyalkova, R.; Staykov, N.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Cry9Aa, produced by Bacillus thuringiensis is reported to be not active against Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). In this study we have cloned a new cry9Aa5 gene encoding a protoxin with increased activity against S. exigua as compared to Cry9Aa1. When aligned to Cry9Aa1, four amino acid substituti

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-08-0315 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-08-0315 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 8e-25 73% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-07-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-07-0022 ref|ZP_01789747.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_08330 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK08473.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_08330 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01789747.1 2e-14 23% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-15-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-15-0027 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 2e-30 98% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-27-0055 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-27-0055 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 8e-09 53% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-13-0071 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-13-0071 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 0.14 37% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-02-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-02-0029 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 5e-11 48% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-02-0026 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-02-0026 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 8e-09 50% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-35-0091 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-35-0091 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 2e-08 34% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0367 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0367 ref|ZP_01790024.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_05974 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK08288.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_05974 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01790024.1 4.0 29% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-02-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-02-0031 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 6e-09 52% ...

  11. Nephrotic Syndrome Associated with Lung Cancer: A Rare Case of Malignancy Associated with AA Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueutin, Victor; Langlois, Anne-Lyse; Shehwaro, Nathalie; Elharraqui, Ryme; Rouvier, Philippe; Izzedine, Hassane

    2013-01-01

    Nonhematologic malignancies are rarely reported to be associated with AA amyloidosis. Although the association between renal cell carcinoma and systemic AA amyloidosis has been established, the evidence linking pulmonary cancer to AA amyloidosis is scarce. Here, a case of biopsy-proven renal AA amyloidosis complicated with nephrotic syndrome associated with lung carcinoma is reported.

  12. Nephrotic Syndrome Associated with Lung Cancer: A Rare Case of Malignancy Associated with AA Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gueutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonhematologic malignancies are rarely reported to be associated with AA amyloidosis. Although the association between renal cell carcinoma and systemic AA amyloidosis has been established, the evidence linking pulmonary cancer to AA amyloidosis is scarce. Here, a case of biopsy-proven renal AA amyloidosis complicated with nephrotic syndrome associated with lung carcinoma is reported.

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-04-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-04-0001 gb|AAS74999.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75013.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS75024.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75026.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS75043.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75052.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster]... gb|AAS75056.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75073.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila ...melanogaster] gb|AAS75095.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74999.1 1e-165 100% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0001 gb|AAS74999.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75013.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS75024.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75026.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS75043.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75052.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster]... gb|AAS75056.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75073.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila ...melanogaster] gb|AAS75095.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74999.1 1e-156 96% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 gb|AAS74383.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74385.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74397.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74398.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74401.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74414.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74416.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74418.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74419.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74424.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 gb|AAS74380.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74382.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74389.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74402.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74403.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74405.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74406.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74411.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74412.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74413.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74185.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74209.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74210.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74211.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74224.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74234.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74254.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74258.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74262.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74278.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 gb|AAS74383.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74385.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74397.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74398.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74401.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74414.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74416.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74418.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74419.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74424.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  2. AA, shims and washers on quadrupole ends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Due to the fact that much of the field of the quadrupoles was outside the iron (in particular with the wide quadrupoles) and that thus the fields of quadrupoles and bending magnets interacted, the lattice properties of the AA could not be predicted with the required accuracy. After a first running period in 1980, during which detailed measurements were made with proton test beams, corrections to the quadrupoles were made in 1981, in the form of laminated shims at the ends of the poles, and with steel washers. With the latter ones, further refinements were made in an iterative procedure with measurements on the circulating beam. This eventually resulted, amongst other things, in a very low chromaticity, with the Q-values being constant to within +- 0.001 over the total momentum range of 6 %. Here we see the shims and washers on a narrow qudrupole (QFN, QDN). See also 8103203, 8103204, 8103205, 8103206.

  3. Corrosion issues of powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Valgarðsson, Smári; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    In this study detailed microstructural investigation of the reason for unexpected corrosion of powder coated aluminium alloy AA6060 windows profiles has been performed. The results from this study reveals that the failure of the window profiles was originated from the surface defects present...... on the extruded AA6060 aluminium profile after metallurgical process prior to powder coating. Surface defects are produced due to intermetallic particles in the alloy, which disturb the flow during the extrusion process. The corrosion mechanism leading to the failure of the powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles...

  4. Effect of pressurized steam on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of pressurized steam on surface changes, structures of intermetallic particles and corrosion behavior of AA1050 aluminium. Design/methodology/approach - Industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) surfaces were exposed...... reactivities was observed due to the formation of the compact oxide layer. Originality/value - This paper reveals a detailed investigation of how pressurized steam can affect the corrosion behaviour of AA1050 aluminium and the structure of Fe-containing intermetallic particles....

  5. The A&A Experience With Impact Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Sandqvist, A

    2004-01-01

    There is a widespread impression that the scientific journal "Astronomy & Astrophysics" (A&A) has a smaller impact, as measured by citations to articles, than some of the other major astronomy journals. This impression was apparently supported - and probably created - by the Journal Citation Report (JCR), which is prepared annually by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge. The published poor impact factor of A&A was in fact wrong and was due to a serious flaw in the method used by ISI Web of Knowledge to determine it. The resulting damage inflicted upon A&A by the JCR is incalculable.

  6. Microstrip antenna on tunable substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, K. A.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Mohanan, P.

    1995-05-01

    The tunable patch antenna configurations are becoming popular and attractive in many aspects. This was mainly due to the advent of ferrite thin film technology and tunable substrate materials. The integration of monolithic microwave circuits and antennas are becoming easy today. In the development of magnetic tuning of microstrip patch on ferrite substrate is presented by Rainville and Harackewiez. Radiation characteristics of such antennas are presented by Pozer. Band width and radiation characteristics of such tunable antennas are measured and compared. Usually the substrate losses are considered in the analysis and metallization losses are assumed to be ideal. The analysis of magnetic tunable radiator including metallization and ferrite substrate losses are presented. However, all such tuning and integration of circuits and antennas are mainly on ferrite substrate due to magnetic tuning. Recently, Varadan et al. established that the BaxSr1-xTiO3 series ferroelectric materials such as Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) are well suited for microwave phase shifter applications. It could be possible to change the dielectric constant of these materials more than 50% depending on the BST composition, by changing the applied bias voltage. Also, the porosity of BST can be controlled during processing to produce dielectric constants in the range of 15 to 1500, with some trade off in tunability. In this paper, we are presenting the possibility of designing a microstrip patch antenna on such tunable substrate. Such antennas are having the major advantage of electronic tunability and compact size.

  7. Scratch Cell Test: A Simple, Cost Effective Screening Tool to Evaluate Self-Healing in Anti-Corrosion Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Amitha; Somaiah, Durga; Megha; Poddar, Mitalee

    2014-09-01

    A quick and simple scratch cell set up to evaluate the self-healing of an hybrid sol-gel (ormosil) coating was fabricated. This methacrylate-based anti-corrosion coating was applied on the aerospace aluminium alloy AA2024-T3, and cured at room temperature. This technique of evaluation requires minimum instrumentation. The inhibitors cerium nitrate, benzotriazole and 8-hydroxy quinoline (8-HQ) were used in the study. The self-healing ability of the inhibitors decreased in the following order: 8-HQ, BTZ and Ce. 8-HQ showed the highest self-healing ability and was comparable to the commercial hexavalent chromium conversion coating—Alodine. Spectroscopic analysis of the electrolyte and EDX of the coatings indicated the movement of the inhibitor from the coating to the site of damage, thereby effecting self-healing. It was observed that an increased inhibitor concentration in the coatings did not accelerate the healing process. Inhibitor release was slower in the coatings doped with inhibitor-loaded nano-containers, when compared to inhibitor-spiked coatings. This property of controlled release is desirable in self-healing coatings. Electro impedance studies further confirmed self-healing efficiency of the coatings. The scratch cell study reported here is the first of its kind with the ormosil under study on AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy. The results are encouraging and warranty a quick and simple qualitative screening of the self-healing potential of the inhibitors with minimum instrumentation.

  8. The OIV 1407.3\\AA /1401.1\\AA\\ emission-line ratio in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Nessib, Nabil Ben; Qindeel, Rabia; Sahal-Bréchot, Sylvie; Dimitrijević, Milan S

    2013-01-01

    Line ratio of O IV 1407.3 \\AA/1401.1 \\AA\\- is calculated using mostly our own atomic and collisional data. Energy levels and oscillator strengths needed for this calculation have been calculated using a Hartree-Fock relativistic (HFR) approach. The electron collision strengths introduced in the statistic equilibrium equations are fitted by Line ratio of O IV 1407.3 \\AA/1401.1 \\AA\\- is calculated using mostly our own atomic and collisional data. Energy levels and oscillator strengths needed for this calculation have been calculated using a Hartree-Fock relativistic (HFR) approach. The electron collision strengths introduced in the statistic equilibrium equations are fitted by polynomials for different energies. Comparison has also been made with available theoretical results. The provided line ratio has been obtained for a set of electron densities from $10^{8}$ cm$^{-3}$ to $10^{13}$ cm$^{-3}$ and for a fixed temperature of 50 000 K.

  9. A synergistic combination of tetraethylorthosilicate and multiphosphonic acid offers excellent corrosion protection to AA1100 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmoro, Viviane [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500 - CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Departament d’Enginyeria Química, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering (CRnE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Campus Sud, Edifici C’, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Santos, João H.Z. dos [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500 - CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Armelin, Elaine, E-mail: elaine.armelin@upc.edu [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering (CRnE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Campus Sud, Edifici C’, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Alemán, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.aleman@upc.edu [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering (CRnE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Campus Sud, Edifici C’, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); and others

    2013-05-15

    This work describes a new mechanism for the incorporation of organophosphonic acid into silane self-assembly monolayers, which has been used to protect AA1100 aluminum alloy. The protection improvement has been attributed to the fact that phosphonic structures promote the formation of strongly bonded and densely packed monolayer films, which show higher surface coverage and better adhesion than conventional silane systems. In order to evaluate the linking chemistry offered by phosphonic groups, two functionalized organophosphonic groups have been employed, 1,2-diaminoethanetetrakis methylenephosphonic acid (EDTPO) and aminotrimethylenephosphonic acid (ATMP), and combined with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) films prepared by sol–gel synthesis. Results suggest that phosphonic acids may interact with the surface through a monodentate and bidentate coordination mode and, in addition, form one or more strong and stable linkages with silicon through non-hydrolysable bonds. Therefore, the incorporation of a very low concentration of phosphonic acids on TEOS solutions favors the complete coverage of the aluminum substrate during the silanization process, which is not possible using TEOS alone. The linking capacity of phosphonic acid has been investigated by FTIR-RA spectroscopy, SEM and EDX analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and quantum mechanical calculations. Finally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been used to study the corrosion protection revealing that EDTPO-containing films afforded more protection to the AA1100 substrate than ATMP-containing films.

  10. A synergistic combination of tetraethylorthosilicate and multiphosphonic acid offers excellent corrosion protection to AA1100 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmoro, Viviane; dos Santos, João H. Z.; Armelin, Elaine; Alemán, Carlos; Azambuja, Denise S.

    2013-05-01

    This work describes a new mechanism for the incorporation of organophosphonic acid into silane self-assembly monolayers, which has been used to protect AA1100 aluminum alloy. The protection improvement has been attributed to the fact that phosphonic structures promote the formation of strongly bonded and densely packed monolayer films, which show higher surface coverage and better adhesion than conventional silane systems. In order to evaluate the linking chemistry offered by phosphonic groups, two functionalized organophosphonic groups have been employed, 1,2-diaminoethanetetrakis methylenephosphonic acid (EDTPO) and aminotrimethylenephosphonic acid (ATMP), and combined with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) films prepared by sol-gel synthesis. Results suggest that phosphonic acids may interact with the surface through a monodentate and bidentate coordination mode and, in addition, form one or more strong and stable linkages with silicon through non-hydrolysable bonds. Therefore, the incorporation of a very low concentration of phosphonic acids on TEOS solutions favors the complete coverage of the aluminum substrate during the silanization process, which is not possible using TEOS alone. The linking capacity of phosphonic acid has been investigated by FTIR-RA spectroscopy, SEM and EDX analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and quantum mechanical calculations. Finally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been used to study the corrosion protection revealing that EDTPO-containing films afforded more protection to the AA1100 substrate than ATMP-containing films.

  11. Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael

    2014-08-19

    A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74195.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74276.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74292.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74298.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74303.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74304.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74321.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74359.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74195.1 1e-176 97% ...

  13. Simulation de la formabilite des alliages d'aluminium AA5754 et AA6063

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljaafari, Samira

    Les besoins de reduction du poids se sont concretement traduits par l'introduction de nouvelles nuances plus legeres dans les structures automobiles. Ainsi, des alliages d'aluminium ont commence a etre integres dans les pieces de structure de plusieurs vehicules. La faible masse volumique des alliages d'aluminium (2,7g/cm3) permet d'alleger le poids du vehicule qui entraine une diminution de la consommation de carburant et, donc, des emissions de gaz a effet de serre. La striction et la rupture sont les principaux modes de defaillance qui entrainent le rebut systematique des pieces. C'est pourquoi, ameliorer la prediction d'apparition de ces defauts lors de la simulation va dans le sens d'une meilleure maitrise du procede. Dans le cadre de ce travail doctoral, deux modeles sont developpes pour simuler le comportement a grandes deformations d'alliages d'aluminium: un modele polycristallin de type Taylor et un modele a un ou plusieurs elements finis par grain. Les diagrammes limites de formage (DLF) pour les deux alliages d'aluminium AA5754 et AA6063 ont ete simules numeriquement en utilisant une formulation par elements finis pour les polycristaux basee sur l'hypothese de Taylor. Les DLF conventionnels et de l'hydroformage ont ete traces. L'effet des chemins de deformation sur la formabilite des alliages d'aluminium a aussi ete etudie. Finalement, des simulations numeriques avec les donnees de diffraction des electrons retrodiffuses (EBSD) pour 1'alliage d'aluminium AA5754 ont ete effectuees en utilisant le modele a un ou plusieurs elements par grain. Ces simulations sont executees avec differents modeles du durcissement (Asaro, Bassani et puissance). Mots-cles: Formabilite; Alliage d'aluminium; Hydroformage; Glissement cristallographique; Durcissement; Calcul parallele; Diagramme limite de formage (DLF); Diffraction electron.

  14. Rupture locations of friction stir welded joints of AA2017-T351 and AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-jie; FENG Ji-cai; H. Fujii; M. Maeda; K. Nogi

    2005-01-01

    The tensile rupture locations of friction stir welded joints of AA2017-T351 and AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys were examined. The experiments show that the rupture locations of the joints are different for the two aluminum alloys, which are influenced by the welding parameters. When the joints are free of welding defects, the AA2017-T351 joints are ruptured in the weld nugget adjacent to the thermo-mechanically affected zone on the advancing side and the rupture surfaces appear as oval contours of the weld nugget, while the AA6061-T6 joints are ruptured in the heat affected zone on the retreating side and the rupture surfaces are inclined at a certain degree to the bottom surfaces of the joints. When welding defects are present in the joints, the AA2017-T351 joints are ruptured in the weld center, while the AA6061-T6 joints are ruptured on the retreating side near the weld center. The rupture locations of the joints are dependent on the internal structures of the joints and can be explained through them.

  15. USAF Inorganic Coating Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    in2 (Marginal Fail) 7 or more pits were seen in a total of 30 in2 (Fail) Aluminum CFCC Screening Test Results Conversion Coating Alloy OC-ALC... 6061 168+ Hours 7075 168+ Hours 2024 48 Hours 5052 48-72 Hours 72-168+ Hours (5 pits on one panel at 48 hours, but then no more ) 6061 72...Dichromate Sealer Test Results Sealer Substrate Quality Thickness Corrosion Primer Dry Tape Adhesion Wet Tape Adhesion Baseline 1 Al 2024-T3 PASS

  16. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevincli, Haldun; Brandbyge, Mads

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance...

  17. Semiconductor films on flexible iridium substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2005-03-29

    A laminate semiconductor article includes a flexible substrate, an optional biaxially textured oxide buffer system on the flexible substrate, a biaxially textured Ir-based buffer layer on the substrate or the buffer system, and an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor. Ir can serve as a substrate with an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor thereon.

  18. Sensor Technologies on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    NASA Ames has developed sensor technologies on flexible substrates integrated into textiles for personalized environment monitoring and human performance evaluation. Current technologies include chemical sensing for gas leak and event monitoring and biological sensors for human health and performance monitoring. Targeted integration include next generation EVA suits and flexible habitats.

  19. Neurobiological Substrates of Tourette's Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leckman, James F.; Bloch, Michael H.; Smith, Megan E.; Larabi, Daouia; Hampson, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews the available scientific literature concerning the neurobiological substrates of Tourette's disorder (TD). Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO were searched for relevant studies using relevant search terms. Results: Neuropathologic

  20. Modeling graphene-substrate interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amlaki, Taher

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I focussed on the interactions between graphene-like materials (grapheme and germanene) and various substrates. The attractive properties of graphene like a high carrier mobility, its single-atomic thickness and its theoretical magic have made graphene a very popular and promising can

  1. Substrates: Chemical characteristics and preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the characteristics of substrates will be discussed with respect to their effects on plant nutrition. Therefore, the chemical composition will be taken into account in the first place, because the mineral elements present in the material can be directly available to plants or can bec

  2. PREFACE: Cell-substrate interactions Cell-substrate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardel, Margaret; Schwarz, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    One of the most striking achievements of evolution is the ability to build cellular systems that are both robust and dynamic. Taken by themselves, both properties are obvious requirements: robustness reflects the fact that cells are there to survive, and dynamics is required to adapt to changing environments. However, it is by no means trivial to understand how these two requirements can be implemented simultaneously in a physical system. The long and difficult quest to build adaptive materials is testimony to the inherent difficulty of this goal. Here materials science can learn a lot from nature, because cellular systems show that robustness and dynamics can be achieved in a synergetic fashion. For example, the capabilities of tissues to repair and regenerate are still unsurpassed in the world of synthetic materials. One of the most important aspects of the way biological cells adapt to their environment is their adhesive interaction with the substrate. Numerous aspects of the physiology of metazoan cells, including survival, proliferation, differentiation and migration, require the formation of adhesions to the cell substrate, typically an extracellular matrix protein. Adhesions guide these diverse processes both by mediating force transmission from the cell to the substrate and by controlling biochemical signaling pathways. While the study of cell-substrate adhesions is a mature field in cell biology, a quantitative biophysical understanding of how the interactions of the individual molecular components give rise to the rich dynamics and mechanical behaviors observed for cell-substrate adhesions has started to emerge only over the last decade or so. The recent growth of research activities on cell-substrate interactions was strongly driven by the introduction of new physical techniques for surface engineering into traditional cell biological work with cell culture. For example, microcontact printing of adhesive patterns was used to show that cell fate depends

  3. Structural determinants of species-selective substrate recognition in human and Drosophila serotonin transporters revealed through computational docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Kristian W; Dawson, Eric S; Henry, L Keith; Field, Julie R; Blakely, Randy D; Meiler, Jens

    2009-02-15

    To identify potential determinants of substrate selectivity in serotonin (5-HT) transporters (SERT), models of human and Drosophila serotonin transporters (hSERT, dSERT) were built based on the leucine transporter (LeuT(Aa)) structure reported by Yamashita et al. (Nature 2005;437:215-223), PBDID 2A65. Although the overall amino acid identity between SERTs and the LeuT(Aa) is only 17%, it increases to above 50% in the first shell of the putative 5-HT binding site, allowing de novo computational docking of tryptamine derivatives in atomic detail. Comparison of hSERT and dSERT complexed with substrates pinpoints likely structural determinants for substrate binding. Forgoing the use of experimental transport and binding data of tryptamine derivatives for construction of these models enables us to critically assess and validate their predictive power: A single 5-HT binding mode was identified that retains the amine placement observed in the LeuT(Aa) structure, matches site-directed mutagenesis and substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) data, complies with support vector machine derived relations activity relations, and predicts computational binding energies for 5-HT analogs with a significant correlation coefficient (R = 0.72). This binding mode places 5-HT deep in the binding pocket of the SERT with the 5-position near residue hSERT A169/dSERT D164 in transmembrane helix 3, the indole nitrogen next to residue Y176/Y171, and the ethylamine tail under residues F335/F327 and S336/S328 within 4 A of residue D98. Our studies identify a number of potential contacts whose contribution to substrate binding and transport was previously unsuspected.

  4. Homology modeling of mosquito cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in pyrethroid metabolism: insights into differences in substrate selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongnoparut Pornpimol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s have been implicated in insecticide resistance. Anopheles minumus mosquito P450 isoforms CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7 are capable of metabolizing pyrethroid insecticides, however CYP6P8 lacks activity against this class of compounds. Findings Homology models of the three An. minimus P450 enzymes were constructed using the multiple template alignment method. The predicted enzyme model structures were compared and used for molecular docking with insecticides and compared with results of in vitro enzymatic assays. The three model structures comprise common P450 folds but differences in geometry of their active-site cavities and substrate access channels are prominent. The CYP6AA3 model has a large active site allowing it to accommodate multiple conformations of pyrethroids. The predicted CYP6P7 active site is more constrained and less accessible to binding of pyrethroids. Moreover the predicted hydrophobic interface in the active-site cavities of CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7 may contribute to their substrate selectivity. The absence of CYP6P8 activity toward pyrethroids appears to be due to its small substrate access channel and the presence of R114 and R216 that may prevent access of pyrethroids to the enzyme heme center. Conclusions Differences in active site topologies among CYPAA3, CYP6P7, and CYP6P8 enzymes may impact substrate binding and selectivity. Information obtained using homology models has the potential to enhance the understanding of pyrethroid metabolism and detoxification mediated by P450 enzymes.

  5. Publication Characteristics of Members of the AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    1990-10-01

    For each of the 4995 persons listed in the 1989 American Astronomical Society Membership Directory, we noted their total 1984-88 publications as listed in the Author Index of Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts. The members are subdivided as retired (mean of 0.61 paper/yr), foreign (3.89), Full (3.34), Division Affiliates (1.76), Associate (1.48), and Junior (0.79) members. For Full members the frequencies of various publication rates are listed; the median is 2.28 papers/yr. The Full members are subdivided by affiliations, namely private institutions (mean of 4.71 papers/yr), university (3.89), government-funded (3.46), commercial company (1.81), and unknown affiliations (0.84). We looked up the listed publications for four high producers who each average 25.7 papers/yr. We found that 55% of those are preprints, abstracts, conference papers, and other secondary material. Furthermore, they average 4.2 authors per original research paper. If we divide each original research paper by the number of authors, these four average only the equivalent of 4.0 single-author research papers/yr. A sample of moderate producers also have 53% of their publications as abstracts, conference papers, etc., and they average 4.2 authors per original research paper. We conclude that the average Full AAS member produces the equivalent of 1/2 single-author original-research paper/yr and 23% of them produce more than 1 such paper/yr.

  6. Graphene folding on flat substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yadong; Ke, Changhong, E-mail: cke@binghamton.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study of graphene folding on flat substrates. The structure and deformation of the folded graphene sheet are experimentally characterized by atomic force microscopy. The local graphene folding behaviors are interpreted based on nonlinear continuum mechanics modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our study on self-folding of a trilayer graphene sheet reports a bending stiffness of about 6.57 eV, which is about four times the reported values for monolayer graphene. Our results reveal that an intriguing free sliding phenomenon occurs at the interlayer van der Waals interfaces during the graphene folding process. This work demonstrates that it is a plausible venue to quantify the bending stiffness of graphene based on its self-folding conformation on flat substrates. The findings reported in this work are useful to a better understanding of the mechanical properties of graphene and in the pursuit of its applications.

  7. Methods of repairing a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedell, James A. (Inventor); Easler, Timothy E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A precursor of a ceramic adhesive suitable for use in a vacuum, thermal, and microgravity environment. The precursor of the ceramic adhesive includes a silicon-based, preceramic polymer and at least one ceramic powder selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron carbide, boron oxide, boron nitride, hafnium boride, hafnium carbide, hafnium oxide, lithium aluminate, molybdenum silicide, niobium carbide, niobium nitride, silicon boride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, tin oxide, tantalum boride, tantalum carbide, tantalum oxide, tantalum nitride, titanium boride, titanium carbide, titanium oxide, titanium nitride, yttrium oxide, zirconium boride, zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, and zirconium silicate. Methods of forming the ceramic adhesive and of repairing a substrate in a vacuum and microgravity environment are also disclosed, as is a substrate repaired with the ceramic adhesive.

  8. Substrate-selective Inhibition of Cyclooxygeanse-2 by Fenamic Acid Derivatives Is Dependent on Peroxide Tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Benjamin J; Malkowski, Michael G

    2016-07-15

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the oxygenation of arachidonic acid (AA) and endocannabinoid substrates, placing the enzyme at a unique junction between the eicosanoid and endocannabinoid signaling pathways. COX-2 is a sequence homodimer, but the enzyme displays half-of-site reactivity, such that only one monomer of the dimer is active at a given time. Certain rapid reversible, competitive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to inhibit COX-2 in a substrate-selective manner, with the binding of inhibitor to a single monomer sufficient to inhibit the oxygenation of endocannabinoids but not arachidonic acid. The underlying mechanism responsible for substrate-selective inhibition has remained elusive. We utilized structural and biophysical methods to evaluate flufenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, mefenamic acid, and tolfenamic acid for their ability to act as substrate-selective inhibitors. Crystal structures of each drug in complex with human COX-2 revealed that the inhibitor binds within the cyclooxygenase channel in an inverted orientation, with the carboxylate group interacting with Tyr-385 and Ser-530 at the top of the channel. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching, continuous-wave electron spin resonance, and UV-visible spectroscopy demonstrate that flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, and tolfenamic acid are substrate-selective inhibitors that bind rapidly to COX-2, quench tyrosyl radicals, and reduce higher oxidation states of the heme moiety. Substrate-selective inhibition was attenuated by the addition of the lipid peroxide 15-hydroperoxyeicosatertaenoic acid. Collectively, these studies implicate peroxide tone as an important mechanistic component of substrate-selective inhibition by flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, and tolfenamic acid.

  9. Ketone Bodies as Brain Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Paula Sofia Valente da

    2015-01-01

    SILVA, Paula Sofia Valente da - Ketone Bodies as Brain Substrates. Coimbra : [s.n.], 2015. Dissertação de Mestrado em Bioquimica. Since their discovery as a marker for diabetic ketoacidosis, ketone bodies have become known for their therapeutic role as effective agents in refractory epilepsy and a diet specifically designed to increase ketone bodies’ levels in circulation has been often prescribed as treatment. In the classical ketogenic diet, intake of even small additional amounts of car...

  10. Nanostructured Substrates for Optical Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kemling, Jonathan W.; Qavi, Abraham J.; Bailey, Ryan C.; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    Sensors that change color have the advantages of versatility, ease of use, high sensitivity, and low cost. The recent development of optically based chemical sensing platforms has increasingly employed substrates manufactured with advanced processing or fabrication techniques to provide precise control over shape and morphology of the sensor micro- and nano-structure. New sensors have resulted with improved capabilities for a number of sensing applications, including the detection of biomolec...

  11. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stremler, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  12. Flexibility Analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xin Min; XIA Li Qiu; YANG Xiao Ping; PENG Xiao Yun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the flexibility and mobility of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Aa. Methods The graph theory-based program Constraint Network Analysis and normal mode-based program NMsim were used to analyze the global and local flexibility indices as well as the fluctuation of individual residues in detail. Results The decrease in Cry1Aa network rigidity with the increase of temperature was evident. Two phase transition points in which the Cry1Aa structure lost rigidity during the thermal simulation were identified. Two rigid clusters were found in domains I and II. Weak spots were found in C-terminal domain III. Several flexible regions were found in all three domains;the largest residue fluctuation was present in the apical loop2 of domain II. Conclusion Although several flexible regions could be found in all the three domains, the most flexible regions were in the apical loops of domain II.

  13. 荧光标记AA-AMPS的荧光性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慰珺

    2009-01-01

    本文研究了荧光标记的AA-AMPS(FP-AA-AMPS)的紫外吸收光谱和荧光激发光谱、发射光谱,实验表明,FP-AA-AMPS的激发波长与发射波长分别为387 nm和523 nm.通过荧光光谱法研究了FP-AA-AMPS的性能,并进行了评价.

  14. Outcomes From AAS Hack Day at the 227th AAS Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This is a final post from the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. This special summary of AAS Hack Day, a meeting of AAS members to collaboratively work on various small projects, was written by Meredith Rawls (@Merrdiff) and was originally posted on astrobites.com.As the 227thAmerican Astronomical Society meeting drew to a close (see highlights from Day 1, Day 2, Day 3, and Day 4), a group of at least 50 attendees spent Day 4working on small projects fondly called hacks. Thanks to sponsorship from LSST and Northrup Grumman, the industrious hackers werewell-caffeinated and fed so we could devote time and energy toworking in groups on one-day projects.TheHack Day beganat 10am with pitches. Anybody with a project idea was welcome to briefly speak and try to convince others to work with them. Only someideas panned out, but the enthusiasm was palpable. Its not every day you get a full room of astronomers and affiliates eager to spend hours working on fun and useful projects to benefit the community.#hackAAS is getting underway! #aas227 pic.twitter.com/yX7jlOnSCK James R A Davenport (@jradavenport) January 8, 2016Here is a rundown of what we accomplished. Pretty impressive for a single day! Many thanks to fellow astrobiter Erika Nesvold (now at Carnegie DTM; @erikanesvold) whose hack was live-documenting all the other hacks. Her tweets as @astrobites appeared with the #hackaas hashtag, and her notes made this recap post infinitely easier to write.Interested in joining the fun? Sign up for Hack Day at the 2017 JanuaryAAS meeting (its free with meeting registration), and consider applying for the .Astronomy conference this summer.Towards Optimal Session Scheduling:Adrian Price-Whelan (Columbia), David Hogg (NYU), and Scott Idem (AAS) began writing a program to take all submitted abstracts to a conference like AAS and sort them using keywords to avoid scheduling similar talks in parallel sessions. Its impossible to make everyone happy, but minimizing conflicts

  15. Characterization of amyloid in equine recurrent uveitis as AA amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostevik, L; de Souza, G A; Wien, T N; Gunnes, G; Sørby, R

    2014-01-01

    Two horses with chronic uveitis and histological lesions consistent with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) were examined. Microscopical findings in the ciliary body included deposits of amyloid lining the non-pigmented epithelium, intracytoplasmic, rod-shaped, eosinophilic inclusions and intraepithelial infiltration of T lymphocytes. Ultrastructural examination of the ciliary body of one horse confirmed the presence of abundant extracellular deposits of non-branching fibrils (9-11 nm in diameter) consistent with amyloid. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong positive labelling for AA amyloid and mass spectrometry showed the amyloid to consist primarily of serum amyloid A1 in both cases. The findings suggest that localized, intraocular AA amyloidosis may occur in horses with ERU.

  16. Precipitation hardening and hydrogen embrittlement of aluminum alloy AA7020

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santosh Kumar; T K G Namboodhiri

    2011-04-01

    AA7020 Al–Mg–Zn, a medium strength aluminium alloy, is used in welded structures in military and aerospace applications. As it may be subjected to extremes of environmental exposures, including high pressure liquid hydrogen, it could suffer hydrogen embrittlement. Hydrogen susceptibility of alloy AA7020 was evaluated by slow strain-rate tensile testing, and delayed failure testing of hydrogen-charged specimens of air-cooled, duplexaged, and water-quenched duplex agedmaterials. The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement of the alloy was found to be in the order of air-cooled duplex aged alloy > as-received (T6 condition) > water quenched duplex aged material.

  17. Wear Behaviour of Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Nanocrystalline AA 4032 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Saravanari, M. S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.; Sivaprasad, K.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper emphasizes the friction and wear properties of Carbon Nanotubes reinforced AA 4032 nanocomposites prepared by powder metallurgy technique. CNTs are multi-wall in nature and prepared by electric arc discharge method. Multi-walled CNTs are blended with AA 4032 elemental powders and compaction followed by sintering to get bulk nanocomposites. The strength of the composites has been evaluated by microhardness and the surface contact between the nanocomposites and EN 32 steel has been evaluated by Pin on disk tester. The results are proven that reinforcement of CNTs play a major role in the enhancement of hardness and wear.

  18. [Expression of mosquitocidal Cyt1Aa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Asticcacaulis excentricus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Da-sheng; Crickmore, Neil; Cai, Ya-jun; Yan, Jian-ping; Yuan, Zhi-ming

    2007-04-01

    Asticcacaulis excentricus, who lives in upper-layer waters providing food resource to the mosquito larvae and has been proven to be a successful host to produce the mosquitocidal binary toxins or Cry11Aa toxin from Bacilli (Liu et al., 1996, Nat Biotech 14: 343; Armengol, et al. , 2005, Curr Microbiol 51: 430), was developed to express cyt1Aa gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti). Two A. excentricus transformants were constructed with the attempt of producing CytlAa alone and alongside with Cry11Aa, repectively. Detection of expressed Cry11Aa and CytlAa proteins by immunoblot in the recombinant A. excentricus clones showed that either cry11Aa or cyt1Aa was expressed well solely but not simultaneously although both restriction analyses of plasmid DNA and DNA sequencing showed that the transformed plasmid was identical to scheme. To investigate the reason why the recombinant A. excentricus harboring both genes and their ribosome binding site (RBS) sequences expressed only Cry11Aa, the total RNA of A. excentricus cells was extracted and revealed three-band pattern in which all RNA molecule weights are not greater than 16S RNA of Escherichia coli by formamide agarose gel electrophoresis, indicating that different RNA systems within these two Gram-negative strains required distinguishingly organised constructs to express multiple foreign genes. It is hypothesized that an extra promoter upstream of RBS sequence is required to express cyt1Aa in the cry11Aa-cyt1Aa tandom plasmid.

  19. Diagnostic performance of amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue of patients with clinical AA amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Bijzet, Johannes; Limburg, Pieter C.; Skinner, Martha; Hawkins, Philip N.; Butrimiene, Irena; Livneh, Avi; Lesnyak, Olga; Nasonov, Evgeney L.; Filipowicz-Sosnowska, Anna; Guel, Ahmet; Merlini, Giampaolo; Wiland, Piotr; Oezdogan, Huri; Gorevic, Peter D.; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Benson, Merrill D.; Direskeneli, Haner; Kaarela, Kalevi; Garceau, Denis; Hauck, Wendy; van Rijswijk, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue is a new immunochemical method for detecting AA amyloidosis, a rare but serious disease. The objective was to assess diagnostic performance in clinical AA amyloidosis. Methods. Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue of patients with AA amyloidosis

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0559 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-100 54% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1306 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-100 79% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0937 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-76 39% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0701 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 5e-93 49% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1761 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-47 62% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-26-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-149 76% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2097 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-54 61% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0143 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-151 86% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0928 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 9e-41 30% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0208 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-67 40% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0507 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-64 69% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0989 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-83 37% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0203 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 4e-58 36% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-32 35% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-03-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-27 40% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-19-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-41 48% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1393 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-45 32% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-24-0040 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-65 43% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1688 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 4e-83 46% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0589 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-74 53% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0087 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-69 50% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-20-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-72 50% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-35-0346 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-97 52% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0364 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-38 26% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0307 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-67 83% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-1505 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-72 85% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0082 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-84 90% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0427 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-126 87% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0378 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 5e-47 36% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-16-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-151 77% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1722 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 5e-52 60% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-16-0043 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-40 49% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0268 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-116 60% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-10-0037 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-60 57% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0071 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-87 63% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1910 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-46 53% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0260 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-111 55% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-26-0240 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-120 58% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0544 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-68 58% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0492 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 6e-80 72% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-04-0079 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 0.0 91% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1384 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-94 74% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0434 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-78 89% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0263 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-113 75% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-23-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-161 56% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-04-0296 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-29 39% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-11-0080 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-65 58% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0443 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-57 61% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-26-0272 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-121 61% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-08-0065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-116 57% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1203 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-58 53% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0191 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-72 42% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0486 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 4e-75 60% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0462 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-65 50% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1765 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-76 59% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-26-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-129 67% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-1471 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 5e-69 49% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 4e-68 81% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1181 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-100 81% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-02-0038 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-24 22% ...

  20. The Effect of Tool Press Force to Weldability of AA5754 and AA6061 Alloys with Friction Stir Welding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Küçükömeroğlu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study AA5754 and A6061 alloys have been butt welded to each other by using friction stir welding (FSW. At constant tool geometry and tool angle experiments were carried out, joints were performed using different welding speed, rotation speed and especially tool press force. The mechanical properties of the welded samples were determined by using tensile test, bending test and micro hardness. Generated microstructure and hardness profile was obtained in the welding zone. In this friction stir welding study the parameters which affect the joint structure are the tool press force, welding speed and tool rotation speed which were determined. At the end of study it is determined that AA5754 and AA6061 alloys can be successfully welded by using Friction Stir Welding method under different tool press forces at least 6kN.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Patterning on a Metal Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A CNT electron source, a method of manufacturing a CNT electron source, and a solar cell utilizing a CNT patterned sculptured substrate are disclosed. Embodiments utilize a metal substrate which enables CNTs to be grown directly from the substrate. An inhibitor may be applied to the metal substrate to inhibit growth of CNTs from the metal substrate. The inhibitor may be precisely applied to the metal substrate in any pattern, thereby enabling the positioning of the CNT groupings to be more precisely controlled. The surface roughness of the metal substrate may be varied to control the density of the CNTs within each CNT grouping. Further, an absorber layer and an acceptor layer may be applied to the CNT electron source to form a solar cell, where a voltage potential may be generated between the acceptor layer and the metal substrate in response to sunlight exposure.

  2. Known Good Substrates Year 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-05

    Monotonic Decrease of VC-VSi, SN1, and SN2 with ↑ ρ (↓ [N])” Known Good Substrates Contractor: Dow Corning Corporation Contract No. N00014-05-C-0324...Vapor Transport (CVT). The key essence of the CVT approach is to control the growth process by strategic controlled chemical reactions of the source...efficacy for its use in 4H n+ SiC crystal growth. The approach consists of the following steps: • Reaction cell design/modeling and chemical

  3. Substrate preparation by contactless mechanochemical polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, S.; Lachish, U.; El-Hanany, U.

    1985-10-01

    A simple, yet effective, polishing technique for substrate preparation is presented. It is contactless chemical polish which does not introduce any defects into the substrate during the process. The method can be readily adopted in all cases where chemical polishing is practical for substrate preparation. Results similar to those obtained by the more sophisticated hydroplaning method can be achieved.

  4. A new lime material for container substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary component in greenhouse potting substrates is sphagnum peatmoss. Substrate solution pH of non-amended peatmoss ranges from 4.0 to 4.5. Ideal pH for most greenhouse floriculture crops ranges from 5.8 to 6.2. Dolomitic lime is most often used to elevate substrate pH in peatmoss-based me...

  5. Influence of environment and substrate quality on the decomposition of wetland plant root in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xuelian; LU Xianguo; TONG Shouzheng; DAI Guohua

    2008-01-01

    The litterbag method was used to study the decomposition of wetland plant root in three wetlands along a water level gradient in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. These wetlands are Calamagrostis angustifolia ( C.aa), Carex meyeriana (C.ma) and Carex lasiocarpa (C.la). The objective of our study is to evaluate the influence of environment and substrate quality on decomposition rates in the three wetlands. Calico material was used as a standard substrate to evaluate environmental influences. Roots native to each wetland were used to evaluate decomposition dynamics and substrate quality influences. Calico mass loss was statistically different among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm). Hydrology, temperature and pH all influence calico decomposition rates in different ways at different depths of the soil profiles. The decomposition rates of native roots declined differentially with the increase of depth in the soil profiles. The mass loss of native roots showed a statistical decrease among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm) as C.ma wetland C.aa wetland C.la wetland. Both the C:P ratio and N:P ratio were positively interrelated with decomposition rates. Decomposition rates were negatively related to initial P concentration in all three wetlands, indicating that P concentration seems to be an important factor controlling the fitter loss.

  6. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. See also 7906190, 7906193.

  7. Dynamical bottomonium-suppression in a realistic AA background

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Gossiaux Pol

    2016-01-01

    We refine our dynamical Schroedinger-Langevin scheme designed for dealing with the suppression of quarkonium states in URHIC in order to allow for feed-downs from higher states and present updated results for the $R_{AA}$ as a function of the centrality.

  8. Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Fejerskov

    Full Text Available In this report, we detail Substrate Mediated Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (SMEPT as a novel approach in drug delivery which relies on enzyme-functionalized cell culture substrates to achieve a localized conversion of benign prodrug(s into active therapeutics with subsequent delivery to adhering cells or adjacent tissues. For proof-of-concept SMEPT, we use surface adhered micro-structured physical hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol, β-glucuronidase enzyme and glucuronide prodrugs. We demonstrate enzymatic activity mediated by the assembled hydrogel samples and illustrate arms of control over rate of release of model fluorescent cargo. SMEPT was not impaired by adhering cells and afforded facile time - and dose - dependent uptake of the in situ generated fluorescent cargo by hepatic cells, HepG2. With the use of a glucuronide derivative of an anticancer drug, SN-38, SMEPT afforded a decrease in cell viability to a level similar to that achieved using parent drug. Finally, dose response was achieved using SMEPT and administration of judiciously chosen concentration of SN-38 glucuronide prodrug thus revealing external control over drug delivery using drug eluting surface. We believe that this highly adaptable concept will find use in diverse biomedical applications, specifically surface mediated drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  9. Small droplets on superhydrophobic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Markus; Varnik, Fathollah; Raabe, Dierk; Steinbach, Ingo

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the wetting behavior of liquid droplets on rough hydrophobic substrates for the case of droplets that are of comparable size to the surface asperities. Using a simple three-dimensional analytical free-energy model, we have shown in a recent letter [M. Gross, F. Varnik, and D. Raabe, EPL 88, 26002 (2009)] that, in addition to the well-known Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states, there exists a further metastable wetting state where the droplet is immersed into the texture to a finite depth, yet not touching the bottom of the substrate. Due to this new state, a quasistatically evaporating droplet can be saved from going over to the Wenzel state and instead remains close to the top of the surface. In the present paper, we give an in-depth account of the droplet behavior based on the results of extensive computer simulations and an improved theoretical model. In particular, we show that releasing the assumption that the droplet is pinned at the outer edges of the pillars improves the analytical results for larger droplets. Interestingly, all qualitative aspects, such as the existence of an intermediate minimum and the "reentrant transition," remain unchanged. We also give a detailed description of the evaporation process for droplets of varying sizes. Our results point out the role of droplet size for superhydrophobicity and give hints for achieving the desired wetting properties of technically produced materials.

  10. Core-corona PSt/P(BA-AA) composite particles by two-stage emulsion polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Delong; Ren, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xinya; Liao, Shijun

    2016-03-01

    Raspberry-shaped composite particles with polystyrene (PSt) as core and poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (P(BA-AA)) as corona were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The random copolymer, P(BA-AA), was pre-prepared and used as a polymeric surfactant, its emulsifying properties adjusted by changing the mass ratio of BA and AA. The morphology of the resulting core-corona composite particles, P(St/P(BA-AA)), could be regulated and controlled by varying the concentrations of P(BA-AA) or the mass ratio of BA:AA in P(BA-AA). The experimental results indicate that 3.0-6.0 wt% of P(BA-AA) is required to obtain stable composite emulsions, and P(BA-AA) with a mass ratio of BA:AA = 1:2 is able to generate distinct core-corona structures. A mechanism of composite particle formation is proposed based on the high affinity between the PSt core and the hydrophobic segments of P(BA-A). The regular morphology of the colloidal film is expected to facilitate potential application of core-corona particles in the field of light scattering. Furthermore, the diversity of core-corona particles can be expanded by replacing P(BA-AA) corona particles with other amphiphilic particles.

  11. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinçli, H., E-mail: haldunsevincli@iyte.edu.tr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gülbahçe Kampüsü, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Micro- and Nano-technology (DTU Nanotech), Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Brandbyge, M., E-mail: mads.brandbyge@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nano-technology (DTU Nanotech), Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Nanostructured Graphene(CNG), Department of Micro- and Nano-technology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-10-13

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance in the range between 5% and 47%. We also consider the transmission across linear kinks formed by adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the bends and find that individual kinks suppress thermal conduction substantially, especially at high temperatures. Our analysis show that substrate irregularities can be detrimental for thermal conduction even for small step heights.

  12. Method For Producing Mechanically Flexible Silicon Substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-08-28

    A method for making a mechanically flexible silicon substrate is disclosed. In one embodiment, the method includes providing a silicon substrate. The method further includes forming a first etch stop layer in the silicon substrate and forming a second etch stop layer in the silicon substrate. The method also includes forming one or more trenches over the first etch stop layer and the second etch stop layer. The method further includes removing the silicon substrate between the first etch stop layer and the second etch stop layer.

  13. Serum amyloid A and protein AA: molecular mechanisms of a transmissible amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermark, Gunilla T; Westermark, Per

    2009-08-20

    Systemic AA-amyloidosis is a complication of chronic inflammatory diseases and the fibril protein AA derives from the acute phase reactant serum AA. AA-amyloidosis can be induced in mice by an inflammatory challenge. The lag phase before amyloid develops can be dramatically shortened by administration of a small amount of amyloid fibrils. Systemic AA-amyloidosis is transmissible in mice and may be so in humans. Since transmission can cross species barriers it is possible that AA-amyloidosis can be induced by amyloid in food, e.g. foie gras. In mice, development of AA-amyloidosis can also be accelerated by other components with amyloid-like properties. A new possible risk factor may appear with synthetically made fibrils from short peptides, constructed for tissue repair.

  14. A Status Report on the AAS Astronomy Ambassadors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienberg, Richard Tresch; Fraknoi, Andrew; Gurton, Suzanne; Hurst, Anna; Schatz, Dennis L.

    2014-06-01

    The American Astronomical Society, in partnership with the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), has launched a series of professional-development workshops and a community of practice designed to improve early-career astronomers’ ability to communicate effectively with students and the public. Called AAS Astronomy Ambassadors, the program provides training and mentoring for young astronomers, from advanced undergraduates to beginning faculty; it also provides them access to resources and a network of contacts within the astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) community. Ambassadors are provided with a library of outreach activities and resource materials suitable for a range of venues and audiences. For much of this library we are using resources developed by organizations such as the ASP, the Pacific Science Center, and the Center for Astronomy Education for other outreach programs, though some resources have been created by one of us (AF) specifically for this program. After a period of evaluation and revision, the program’s “Menu of Outreach Opportunities for Science Education” (MOOSE) is now posted on the AAS website at http://aas.org/outreach/moose-menu-outreach-opportunities-science-education.The first two Astronomy Ambassadors workshops were held at AAS meetings in January 2013 and January 2014; each served 30 young astronomers chosen from about twice that many applicants. Web-based follow-up activities are being provided through a website at the ASP designed to keep cohorts of educators trained in their programs in touch with one another. The AAS is exploring ways to fund additional workshops at future winter meetings; suggestions are most welcome. Meanwhile, the Astronomy Ambassadors trained to date have logged more than 150 outreach events, reaching many thousands of children and adults across the U.S. and Canada.

  15. Automated cassette-to-cassette substrate handling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Joseph Arthur; Boyer, Jeremy James; Mack, Joseph; DeChellis, Michael; Koo, Michael

    2014-03-18

    An automated cassette-to-cassette substrate handling system includes a cassette storage module for storing a plurality of substrates in cassettes before and after processing. A substrate carrier storage module stores a plurality of substrate carriers. A substrate carrier loading/unloading module loads substrates from the cassette storage module onto the plurality of substrate carriers and unloads substrates from the plurality of substrate carriers to the cassette storage module. A transport mechanism transports the plurality of substrates between the cassette storage module and the plurality of substrate carriers and transports the plurality of substrate carriers between the substrate carrier loading/unloading module and a processing chamber. A vision system recognizes recesses in the plurality of substrate carriers corresponding to empty substrate positions in the substrate carrier. A processor receives data from the vision system and instructs the transport mechanism to transport substrates to positions on the substrate carrier in response to the received data.

  16. Stiff substrates enhance cultured neuronal network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan-You; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Xie, Jing; Li, Chen-Xu; Chen, Wei-Yi; Liu, Bai-Lin; Wu, Xiao-an; Li, Shu-Na; Huo, Bo; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Hu-Cheng

    2014-08-28

    The mechanical property of extracellular matrix and cell-supporting substrates is known to modulate neuronal growth, differentiation, extension and branching. Here we show that substrate stiffness is an important microenvironmental cue, to which mouse hippocampal neurons respond and integrate into synapse formation and transmission in cultured neuronal network. Hippocampal neurons were cultured on polydimethylsiloxane substrates fabricated to have similar surface properties but a 10-fold difference in Young's modulus. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel currents determined by patch-clamp recording were greater in neurons on stiff substrates than on soft substrates. Ca(2+) oscillations in cultured neuronal network monitored using time-lapse single cell imaging increased in both amplitude and frequency among neurons on stiff substrates. Consistently, synaptic connectivity recorded by paired recording was enhanced between neurons on stiff substrates. Furthermore, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic activity became greater and more frequent in neurons on stiff substrates. Evoked excitatory transmitter release and excitatory postsynaptic currents also were heightened at synapses between neurons on stiff substrates. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence to show that substrate stiffness is an important biophysical factor modulating synapse connectivity and transmission in cultured hippocampal neuronal network. Such information is useful in designing instructive scaffolds or supporting substrates for neural tissue engineering.

  17. Property Evaluation of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Metals : AA6101-T6 and AA1350 Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran ASHOK KUMAR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Next to copper, aluminium alloys are widely used in electrical industries, because of their high electrical conductivity. AA6101-T6 and AA1350 aluminium alloys are widely used in electrical bus bars. As these alloys are joined by mechanical fasteners in electrical bus bars, the conductive area has been reduced. To avoid this problem, they should be joined without removal of metal as well as their properties. Friction stir welding technique is mainly invented for joining similar and dissimilar aluminium alloys. In this investigation, friction stir welding of AA6101-T6 and AA1350 aluminium alloys was done by varying tool traversing speed, rotational speed and tilt angle with hexagonal pin profiled tool. The analysis of variance was employed to study the effect of above parameters on mechanical properties of welded joints. From the experimental results, it is observed that welded joint with the combination of 1070 rpm rotating speed, 78 mm/min traversing speed and 2° tilt angle provides better mechanical properties. Analysis of variance shows that most significant impact on tensile strength is made by variation in tool rotating speed while tool tilt angle makes the most significant impact on elongation and bending strength.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14132

  18. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Accumulative Roll-Bonded AA1050A/AA5005 Laminated Metal Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Kümmel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laminated metal composites (LMCs with alternating layers of commercial pure aluminum AA1050A and aluminum alloy AA5005 were produced by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB. In order to vary the layer thickness and the number of layer interfaces, different numbers of ARB cycles (4, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 were performed. The microstructure and mechanical properties were characterized in detail. Up to 8 ARB cycles, the ultrafine-grained (UFG microstructure of the layers in the LMC evolves almost equally to those in AA1050A and AA5005 mono-material sheets. However, the grain size in the composites tends to have smaller values. Nevertheless, the local mechanical properties of the individual layers in the LMCs are very similar to those of the mono-material sheets, and the macroscopic static mechanical properties of the LMCs can be calculated as the mean value of the mono-material sheets applying a linear rule of mixture. In contrast, for more than 12 ARB cycles, a homogenous microstructure was obtained where the individual layers within the composite cannot be visually separated any longer; thus, the hardness is at one constant and a high level across the whole sheet thickness. This results also in a significant higher strength in tensile testing. It was revealed that, with decreasing layer thickness, the layer interfaces become more and more dominating.

  19. A Profile Analysis of Raman-scattered O VI Bands at 6825 \\AA\\ and 7082 \\AA\\ in Sanduleak's Star

    CERN Document Server

    Heo, Jeong-Eun; Di Mille, Francesco; Palma, Tali; Lee, Hee-Won

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed modeling of the two broad bands observed at 6825 \\AA\\ and 7082 \\AA\\ in Sanduleak's star, a controversial object in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These bands are known to originate from Raman-scattering of O VI $\\lambda\\lambda$ 1032 and 1038 photons with atomic hydrogen and are only observed in bona fide symbiotic stars. Our high-resolution spectrum obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph at the Magellan-Clay Telescope reveals, quite surprisingly, that the profiles of the two bands look very different: while the Raman 6825 \\AA\\ band shows a single broad profile with a redward extended bump, the Raman 7082 \\AA\\ band exhibits a distinct triple-peak profile. Our model suggests that the O VI emission nebula can be decomposed into a red, blue and central emission regions from an accretion disk, a bipolar outflow and a further compact, optically thick region. We also perform Monte Carlo simulations with the aim of fitting the observed flux ratio $F(6825)/F(7082) \\si...

  20. Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text. Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired. This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Electrosynthesis of hydrogel films on metal substrates for the development of coatings with tunable drug delivery performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, E; Cometa, S; Satriano, C; Sabbatini, L; Zambonin, P G

    2009-03-15

    Novel polyacrylates-based hydrogel thin films were prepared by electrochemical polymerization, a new method to obtain hydrogels directly onto metal substrates. 2-Hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate (HEMA), a macromer poly (ethylene-glycol diacrylate) (PEGDA) and PEGDA copolymerized with acrylic acid (AA) were used to obtain hydrogels. The electrosynthesized coatings were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, to assess their surface chemical composition, and by water content determination measurements, to characterize the swelling behavior. In particular, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring was used to evaluate the pH-dependency of the swelling for AA-containing hydrogels. Moreover, a model protein (bovine serum albumin) and a model drug (caffeine) were entrapped within the hydrogel coatings during electrosynthesis, to examine the release performances and mechanisms of the electrosynthesized hydrogels. It was observed that all the examined polymers showed significant release properties and, in particular, AA-containing hydrogel films confirmed a strong pH-dependence as expected. These coatings seem to be promising in orthopedic field for in situ drug delivery applications.

  2. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants.

  3. Quality Of Electrophotographic Prints On Foil Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrophotographic printing uses many types of substrates, our study focuses on plastic substrates. Six types ofregular and self-adhesive foil substrates were chosen to be printed using two electrophotographic presses: XeroxColour 1000 Press and Canon imagePress C7000VP. A test chart containing tone value scales and a set of samplesfor profiling was created, spectrophotomety and densitometry was applied to obtain the optical and colorimetricproperties of the substrates investigated. Xerox Color 1000 Press produced larger densities and tone value increaseon every type of substrate. The largest TVI values and reproducible colour gamut was observed on the smoothestfoil in case of both presses. Large colour differences were found between patches of full tone process colors on thedifferent substrates investigated.

  4. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  5. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-an; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor

    2015-12-29

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  6. ZnO homoepitaxy on the O polar face of hydrothermal and melt-grown substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D.J. [Nanovation SARL, Orsay (France); Technical Univ. of Troyes (France); CNRS, Troyes (France); Hosseini Teherani, F. [Nanovation SARL, Orsay (France); Largeteau, A.; Demazeau, G. [ICMCB-CNRS, Bordeaux 1 University (Science and Technology), Pessac (France); Moisson, C.; Turover, D. [Novasic, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat. 4, BP 267, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Nause, J. [Cermet Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Garry, G. [Thales Research, Domaine de Corbeville, Orsay (France); Kling, R.; Gruber, T. [Ulm University, Department of Semiconductor Physics, Ulm (Germany); Waag, A. [Braunschweig Technical University, Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig (Germany); Jomard, F.; Galtier, P.; Lusson, A. [LPSC-CNRS, Meudon (France); Monteiro, T.; Soares, M.J.; Neves, A.; Carmo, M.C.; Peres, M. [University of Aveiro, Physics Department, Aveiro (Portugal); Lerondel, G.; Hubert, C. [Technical University of Troyes-CNRS (FRE2671), 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, Troyes (France)

    2007-07-15

    2 cm diameter hydrothermal ZnO crystals were grown and then made into substrates using both mechanical and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP polishing showed superior results with an (0002) {omega} scan full width half maximum (FWHM) of 67 arcsec and an root mean square (RMS) roughness of 2 Aa. In comparison, commercial melt-grown substrates exhibited broader X-ray diffraction (XRD) linewidths with evidence of sub-surface crystal damage due to polishing, including a downward shift of c-lattice parameter. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed strong Li, Fe, Co, Al and Si contamination in the hydrothermal crystals as opposed to the melt-grown substrates, for which glow discharge mass spectroscopy studies had reported high levels of Pb, Fe, Cd and Si. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies indicated that the hydrothermal crystal had high defect and/or impurity concentrations compared with the melt-grown substrate. The dominant bound exciton for the melt-grown substrate was indexed to Al. ZnO films were grown using pulsed laser deposition. The melt-grown substrates gave superior results with XRD (0002) {omega} and 2{theta}/{omega} WHM of 124 and 34 arcsec, respectively. Atomic force microscope measurements indicated a low RMS roughness (1.9 nm) as confirmed by fringes in the XRD 2{theta}/{omega} scan. It was suggested that the improvement in XRD response relative to the substrate might be due to ''healing'' of sub-surface polishing damage due to the elevated T{sub s} used for the growth. Indeed the c-lattice parameter for the homoepitaxial layer on the melt-grown substrate had become that which would be expected for strain-free ZnO. Furthermore, the stability of the PL peak positions relative to bulk ZnO, confirmed that the films appear practically strain free. (orig.)

  7. Co-expression of AaPMT and AaTRI effectively enhances the yields of tropane alkaloids in Anisodus acutangulus hairy roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tropane alkaloids (TA including anisodamine, anisodine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are a group of important anticholinergic drugs with rapidly increasing market demand, so it is significant to improve TA production by biotechnological approaches. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT was considered as the first rate-limiting upstream enzyme while tropinone reductase I (TRI was an important branch-controlling enzyme involved in TA biosynthesis. However, there is no report on simultaneous introduction of PMT and TRI genes into any TA-producing plant including Anisodus acutangulus (A. acutangulus, which is a Solanaceous perennial plant that is endemic to China and is an attractive resource plant for production of TA. Results In this study, 21 AaPMT and AaTRI double gene transformed lines (PT lines, 9 AaPMT single gene transformed lines (P lines and 5 AaTRI single gene transformed lines (T lines were generated. RT-PCR and real-time fluorescence quantitative analysis results revealed that total AaPMT (AaPMT T and total AaTRI (AaTRI T gene transcripts in transgenic PT, P and T lines showed higher expression levels than native AaPMT (AaPMT E and AaTRI (AaTRI E gene transcripts. As compared to the control and single gene transformed lines (P or T lines, PT transgenic hairy root lines produced significantly higher levels of TA. The highest yield of TA was detected as 8.104 mg/g dw in line PT18, which was 8.66, 4.04, and 3.11-times higher than those of the control (0.935 mg/g dw, P3 (highest in P lines, 2.004 mg/g dw and T12 (highest in T lines, 2.604 mg/g dw, respectively. All the tested samples were found to possess strong radical scavenging capacity, which were similar to control. Conclusion In the present study, the co-expression of AaPMT and AaTRI genes in A. acutangulus hairy roots significantly improved the yields of TA and showed higher antioxidant activity than control because of higher total TA content, which is the first

  8. Co-expression of AaPMT and AaTRI effectively enhances the yields of tropane alkaloids in Anisodus acutangulus hairy roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Tropane alkaloids (TA) including anisodamine, anisodine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are a group of important anticholinergic drugs with rapidly increasing market demand, so it is significant to improve TA production by biotechnological approaches. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) was considered as the first rate-limiting upstream enzyme while tropinone reductase I (TRI) was an important branch-controlling enzyme involved in TA biosynthesis. However, there is no report on simultaneous introduction of PMT and TRI genes into any TA-producing plant including Anisodus acutangulus (A. acutangulus), which is a Solanaceous perennial plant that is endemic to China and is an attractive resource plant for production of TA. Results In this study, 21 AaPMT and AaTRI double gene transformed lines (PT lines), 9 AaPMT single gene transformed lines (P lines) and 5 AaTRI single gene transformed lines (T lines) were generated. RT-PCR and real-time fluorescence quantitative analysis results revealed that total AaPMT (AaPMT T) and total AaTRI (AaTRI T) gene transcripts in transgenic PT, P and T lines showed higher expression levels than native AaPMT (AaPMT E) and AaTRI (AaTRI E) gene transcripts. As compared to the control and single gene transformed lines (P or T lines), PT transgenic hairy root lines produced significantly higher levels of TA. The highest yield of TA was detected as 8.104 mg/g dw in line PT18, which was 8.66, 4.04, and 3.11-times higher than those of the control (0.935 mg/g dw), P3 (highest in P lines, 2.004 mg/g dw) and T12 (highest in T lines, 2.604 mg/g dw), respectively. All the tested samples were found to possess strong radical scavenging capacity, which were similar to control. Conclusion In the present study, the co-expression of AaPMT and AaTRI genes in A. acutangulus hairy roots significantly improved the yields of TA and showed higher antioxidant activity than control because of higher total TA content, which is the first report on

  9. AA amyloidosis associated with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijeet; Chopra, Yogiraj; Theis, Jason D; Vrana, Julie A; Sethi, Sanjeev

    2013-10-01

    We report a 12-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome due to renal AA amyloidosis. The AA amyloidosis was associated with a 3-year history of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The presence of serum amyloid A protein was confirmed by laser microdissection of Congo Red-positive glomeruli and vessels followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; this analysis excluded hereditary and familial amyloidosis. Aggressive management of the systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis resulted in improvement in clinical and laboratory parameters. The case represents an unusual cause of nephrotic syndrome in children. Early diagnosis of renal amyloidosis and management of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis is paramount to preventing progression of kidney disease.

  10. Understanding the substrate specificity of conventional calpains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, Hiroyuki; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Ono, Yasuko

    2012-09-01

    Calpains are intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent Cys proteases that play important roles in a wide range of biological phenomena via the limited proteolysis of their substrates. Genetic defects in calpain genes cause lethality and/or functional deficits in many organisms, including humans. Despite their biological importance, the mechanisms underlying the action of calpains, particularly of their substrate specificities, remain largely unknown. Studies show that certain sequence preferences influence calpain substrate recognition, and some properties of amino acids have been related successfully to substrate specificity and to the calpains' 3D structure. The full spectrum of this substrate specificity, however, has not been clarified using standard sequence analysis algorithms, e.g., the position-specific scoring-matrix method. More advanced bioinformatics techniques were used recently to identify the substrate specificities of calpains and to develop a predictor for calpain cleavage sites, demonstrating the potential of combining empirical data acquisition and machine learning. This review discusses the calpains' substrate specificities, introducing the benefits of bioinformatics applications. In conclusion, machine learning has led to the development of useful predictors for calpain cleavage sites, although the accuracy of the predictions still needs improvement. Machine learning has also elucidated information about the properties of calpains' substrate specificities, including a preference for sequences over secondary structures and the existence of a substrate specificity difference between two similar conventional calpains, which has never been indicated biochemically.

  11. Nanowires and nanoneedles nucleation on vicinal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu, E-mail: zhangxubetter@gmail.com [Henan Key Laboratory of Laser and Opto-electric Information Technology, School of Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Xie, Dan; Huang, Genling [Zhengzhou Railway Vocational and Technical College, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Sun, Xiao-Hong [Henan Key Laboratory of Laser and Opto-electric Information Technology, School of Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2015-01-01

    An analytic stress-driven nucleation model of nanowires (NWs) and nanoneedles (NNs) growing on a mismatched vicinal substrate is proposed. It is demonstrated that the formation enthalpy of NWs and NNs is a function of three independent variables, the base radius, aspect ratio and miscut angle of the vicinal surface. Theoretical analysis shows that the minimum nucleation barrier of an island decreases with increment of substrate misorientation, which means the nucleation of islands on a vicinal substrate is more favorable than that on a flat substrate.

  12. Adhesion of rhodium films on metallic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marot, L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)], E-mail: laurent.marot@unibas.ch; Covarel, G.; Tuilier, M.-H. [Laboratoire Mecanique, Materiaux et Procedes de Fabrication, Pole STIC-SPI-Math 61 rue Albert Camus, Universite de Haute-Alsace, F-68093 - Mulhouse Cedex (France); Steiner, R.; Oelhafen, P. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-09-01

    Rhodium coated metallic films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on metallic substrates. All films were elaborated in same conditions on copper, molybdenum and stainless steel. Adhesion strength tests were carried out by scratch test. The results reveal that the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate is influenced by the hardness of the substrate. Increase of deposition temperature improves the adhesion of the coating. In addition, pre-treatment of substrates by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc and the layer thickness have has some effects on the final adhesion strength.

  13. Casimir Forces between Nanoparticles and Substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Román-Velázquez, C E; Villarreal, C; Esquivel-Sirvent, R; Noguez, Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    We study the Casimir force between a nanoparticle and a substrate. We consider the interaction of metal nanoparticles with different substrates within the dipolar approximation. We study the force as a function of the distance for gold and potassium spheres, which are over a substrate of titanium dioxide, sapphire and a perfect conductor. We show that Casimir force is important in systems at the nanometer scale. We study the force as a function of the material properties, radii of the spheres, and the distance between the sphere and the substrate.

  14. Photovoltaic cell with nano-patterned substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Zhou, Xiaowang; Zubia, David

    2016-10-18

    A photovoltaic solar cell comprises a nano-patterned substrate layer. A plurality of nano-windows are etched into an intermediate substrate layer to form the nano-patterned substrate layer. The nano-patterned substrate layer is positioned between an n-type semiconductor layer composed of an n-type semiconductor material and a p-type semiconductor layer composed of a p-type semiconductor material. Semiconductor material accumulates in the plurality of nano-windows, causing a plurality of heterojunctions to form between the n-type semiconductor layer and the p-type semiconductor layer.

  15. Cancer and the metastatic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Seventy percent of cancer patients have detectable metastases when they receive a diagnosis and 90% of cancer deaths result from metastases. These two facts emphasise the urgency for research to study the mechanisms and processes that enable metastasis. We need to develop a greater understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that cause metastasis and also we need to do more. We must also consider the micro- and macro-environmental factors that influence this disease. Studying this environmental context has led us to update the ‘seed and soil’ hypothesis which dates back to the 19th century. This theory describes cancerous cells as seeds and the substrate as the soil in target organs though this may seem antiquated. Nonetheless, the tissue specificity that researchers have recently observed in metastatic colonisation supports the validity of the seed and soil theory. We now know that the metastatic potential of a tumour cell depends on multiple, reciprocal interactions between the primary tumour and distant sites. These interactions determine tumour progression. Studies of metastasis have allowed us to develop treatments that focus on therapeutic effectiveness. These new treatments account for the frequent metastasis of some tumours to target organs such as bones, lungs, brain, and liver. The purpose of this review is first to describe interactions between the cellular and molecular entities and the target organ tumour environment that enables metastasis. A second aim is to describe the complex mechanisms that mediate these interactions. PMID:28105072

  16. AA patterns for point sets with controlled spectral properties

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel technique for the fast production of large point sets with different spectral properties. In contrast to tile-based methods we use so-called AA Patterns: ornamental point sets obtained from quantization errors. These patterns have a discrete and structured number-theoretic nature, can be produced at very low costs, and possess an inherent structural indexing mechanism equivalent to those used in recursive tiling techniques. This allows us to generate, manipulate and store ...

  17. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. Here we see the slotted electrodes partly pulled out of the outer casing. See also 7906189, 7906581X, 7896193.

  18. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning, in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. View down the centre of a pickup or kicker. See also 7906189, 7906190, 7906583.

  19. Wooden models of an AA quadrupole between bending magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    At two points in the AA lattice, a quadrupole (QDN, defocusing, narrow) was tightly wedged between two bending magnets (BST, short, wide). This picture of wooden models lets one imagine the strong interaction between their magnetic fields. There was no way one could calculate with the necessary accuracy the magnetic effects and their consequences for the machine optics. The necessary corrections were made after measurements with a circulating beam, in a tedious iterative procedure, with corrrection coils and shims.

  20. Mexican obsidian samples analysed by PIXE and AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio, D.; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Inst. Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico (Mexico); Lagarde, G.

    1997-12-31

    Proton induced X-ray emission analysis results are reported for obsidian artifacts from different sites of the State of Mexico: Teotenango, Calixtlahuaca, La Marqueza, Malinalco and Tonatico. Twenty elements were analysed by PIXE and some of them were verified by AAS. The results show that the samples came from three different sources: Teotenango and Calixtlahuaca samples from the first, La Marqueza and Malinalco samples from the second and Tonatico samples from the third. (author)

  1. Co-expression and synergism analysis of Vip3Aa29 and Cyt2Aa3 insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiumei; Liu, Tao; Sun, Zhiguang; Guan, Peng; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Shuangcheng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Lingxia; Zheng, Aiping; Li, Ping

    2012-04-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3) from Bacillus thuringiensis shows high activity against lepidopteran insects. Cytolytic δ-endotoxin (Cyt) also has high toxicity to dipteran larvae and synergism with other crystal proteins (Cry), but synergism between Cyt and Vip3 proteins has not been tested. We analyzed for synergism between Cyt2Aa3 and Vip3Aa29. Both cyt2Aa3 and vip3Aa29 genes were co-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 carried on vector pCOLADuet-1. Vip3Aa29 showed insecticidal activity against Chilo suppressalis and Spodoptera exigua, with 50% lethal concentration (LC(50)) at 24.0 and 36.6 μg ml(-1), respectively. It could also inhibit Helicoverpa armigera growth, with 50% inhibition concentration at 22.6 μg ml(-1). While Cyt2Aa3 was toxic to Culex quinquefasciatus (LC(50): 0.53 μg ml(-1)) and Chironomus tepperi (LC(50): 36 μg ml(-1)), it did not inhibit C. suppressalis, S. exigua, and H. armigera. However, the co-expression of Cyt2Aa3 and Vip3Aa29 showed synergistic effect on C. suppressalis and S. exigua, and the individual activities were strengthened 3.35- and 4.34-fold, respectively. The co-expression had no synergism against C. tepperi and H. armigera, but exerted some antagonistic effect on Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synergism between Cyt2Aa and Vip3Aa was thus discovered for the first time, which confirmed that Cyt toxin can enhance the toxicity of other toxins against some non-target insects. By synergism analysis, the effectiveness of microbial insecticides can be verified.

  2. The atmospheric impact trajectory of asteroid 2014 AA

    CERN Document Server

    Farnocchia, D; Brown, P G; Chodas, P W

    2016-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroid 2014 AA entered the Earth's atmosphere on 2014 January 2, only 21 hours after being discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey. In this paper we compute the trajectory of 2014 AA by combining the available optical astrometry, seven ground-based observations over 69 minutes, and the International Monitoring system detection of the atmospheric impact infrasonic airwaves in a least-squares orbit estimation filter. The combination of these two sources of observations results in a tremendous improvement in the orbit uncertainties. The impact time is 3:05 UT with a 1-sigma uncertainty of 6 min, while the impact location corresponds to a west longitude of 44.7 deg and a latitude of 13.1 deg with a 1-sigma uncertainty of 140 km. The minimum impact energy estimated from the infrasound data and the impact velocity result in an estimated minimum mass of 22.6 t. By propagating the trajectory of 2014 AA backwards we find that the only window for finding precovery observations is for the three days before it...

  3. Renal Involvement in AA Amyloidosis: Clinical Outcomes and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murvet Yilmaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural history of AA amyloidosis is typically progressive, leading to multiple organ failure and death. We analyzed the etiology as well as clinical and laboratory features of patients with biopsy-proven AA amyloidosis and evaluated the ultimate outcome. Methods: Seventy-three patients (24 female; mean age 41.85±15.89 years were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic, clinical and laboratory features were studied and the outcome was assessed. Results: Familial Mediterranean Fever and tuberculosis were the most frequent causes of amyloidosis. Mean serum creatinine and proteinuria at diagnosis were 4.65±4.89 mg/dl and 8.04±6.09 g/day, respectively; and stage I, II, III, IV and V renal disease were present in 19.2%, 13.7%, 16.4%, 11%, and 39.7% of the patients, respectively. ESRD developed in 16 patients during the follow-up period. All of the ESRD patients started a dialysis programme. Thirty patients (41% died during the follow-up period; median patient survival was 35.9±6.12 months. Old age, tuberculosis etiology, advanced renal disease and low serum albumin levels were associated with a worse prognosis. Serum albumin was a predictor of mortality in logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The ultimate outcome of the patients with AA amyloidosis is poor, possibly due to the late referral to the nephrology clinics. Early referral may be helpful to improve prognosis.

  4. Effects of Friction Stir Welding Speed on AA2195 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ho-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of friction stir welding (FSW to aerospace has grown rapidly due to the high efficiency and environmental friendly nature of the process. FSW is achieved by plastic flow of frictionally heated material in solid state and offers many advantages of avoiding hot cracking and limiting component distortion. Recently low density, high modulus and high strength AA2195 are used as substitute for conventional aluminum alloys since the weight saving is critical in aerospace applications. One of the problems for this alloy is weld metal porosity formation leading to hot cracking. Combination of FSW and AA2195 provides synergy effect to improve mechanical properties and weight saving of aerospace structure such as cryogenic fuel tanks for launch systems. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of friction stir welding speed on mechanical and microstructural properties of AA2195. The friction stir welded materials were joined with four different tool rotation speeds (350~800 rpm and five welding speeds (120~360 mm/min, which are the two prime welding parameters in this process.

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0807 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0807 pdb|2QW9|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in... The Apo State pdb|2QW9|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Apo State pdb|2QWL|A Chain A, Crystal Structure... Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWL|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of ...Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWM|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of B...ovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State pdb|2QWM|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State 2QW9 1e-139 85% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0305 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0305 pdb|2QW9|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in... The Apo State pdb|2QW9|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Apo State pdb|2QWL|A Chain A, Crystal Structure... Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWL|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of ...Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWM|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of B...ovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State pdb|2QWM|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State 2QW9 1e-117 91% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0919 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0919 pdb|2QW9|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in... The Apo State pdb|2QW9|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Apo State pdb|2QWL|A Chain A, Crystal Structure... Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWL|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of ...Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWM|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of B...ovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State pdb|2QWM|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State 2QW9 1e-155 89% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0749 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0749 pdb|2QW9|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in... The Apo State pdb|2QW9|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Apo State pdb|2QWL|A Chain A, Crystal Structure... Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWL|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of ...Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWM|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of B...ovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State pdb|2QWM|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State 2QW9 1e-116 83% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0154 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0154 pdb|2QW9|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in... The Apo State pdb|2QW9|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Apo State pdb|2QWL|A Chain A, Crystal Structure... Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWL|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of ...Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWM|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of B...ovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State pdb|2QWM|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State 2QW9 0.0 94% ...

  10. Surface Modification of Nanocellulose Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppe, Justin Orazio

    Cellulose fibers constitute an important renewable raw material that is utilized in many commercial applications in non-food, paper, textiles and composite materials. Chemical functionalization is an important approach for improving the properties of cellulose based materials. Different approaches are used to graft polymeric chains onto cellulose substrates, which can be classified by two principal routes, namely 'grafting onto' or 'grafting from' methods. Never-dried cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or nanowhiskers produced from sulfuric acid hydrolysis of ramie fibers were used as substrates for surface chemical functionalization with various macromolecules. In addition, the use of cellulose nanocrystals to reinforce poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers was studied. Chemical grafting with low molecular weight polycaprolactone diol onto cellulose nanocrystals was carried out in an attempt to improve the interfacial adhesion with the fiber matrix. Significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the nanofibers after reinforcement with unmodified cellulose nanocrystals were confirmed. Fiber webs from PCL reinforced with 2.5% unmodified CNCs showed ca. 1.5-fold increase in Young's modulus and ultimate strength compared to PCL webs. The CNCs were also grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NiPAAm)) brushes via surface-initiated single-electron transfer living radical polymerization (SI-SETLRP) under various conditions at room temperature. The grafting process depended on the initiator and/or monomer concentrations used. No observable damage occurred to the CNCs after grafting, as determined by X-ray diffraction. Size exclusion chromatography analyses of polymer chains cleaved from the cellulose nanocrystals indicated that a higher degree of polymerization was achieved by increasing initiator or monomer loading, most likely caused by local heterogeneities yielding higher rates of polymerization. In addition, the colloidal stability and thermo

  11. Aedes cadherin mediates the in vivo toxicity of the Cry11Aa toxin to Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Bum; Chen, Jianwu; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S

    2015-06-01

    Cadherin plays an important role in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins. We previously cloned a full-length cadherin from Aedes aegypti larvae and reported this protein binds Cry11Aa toxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with high affinity, ≈16.7nM. Based on these results, we investigated if Aedes cadherin is involved in the in vivo toxicity of Cry11Aa toxin to Ae. aegypti. We established a mosquito cell line stably expressing the full-length Aedes cadherin and transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression. Cells expressing the Aedes cadherin showed increased sensitivity to Cry11Aa toxin. Cry11Aa toxin at 400nM killed approximately 37% of the cells in 3h. Otherwise, transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed increased tolerance to Cry11Aa toxin. Furthermore, cells expressing Aedes cadherin triggered Cry11Aa oligomerization. These results show the Aedes cadherin plays a pivotal role in Cry11Aa toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae by mediating Cry11Aa oligomerization. However, since high toxicity was not obtained in cadherin-expressing cells, an additional receptor may be needed for manifestation of full toxicity. Moreover, cells expressing Aedes cadherin were sensitive to Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba, but not Cry4Ba. However transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed no tolerance to Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Ba toxins. These results suggest that while Aedes cadherin may mediate Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba toxicity, this cadherin but is not the main receptor of Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Ba toxin in Ae. aegypti.

  12. Through-thickness recrystallization characteristics of a laminated AA3xxx–AA6xxx aluminum alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, L.H., E-mail: l2liao@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Jin, H.; Gallerneault, M. [Formerly Novelis Research and Technology Centre, 945 Princess Street, Kingston, ON K7L 5L9 (Canada); Esmaeili, S., E-mail: shahrzad@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    The through-thickness annealing behavior of a laminated AA3xxx–AA6xxx alloy system at 300 °C has been studied by scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction analysis, electron probe micro-analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and hardness measurement. Results show that the recrystallization process starts at the interface region between the AA3xxx (clad) and AA6xxx (core) layers. Subsequently, the recrystallization process front progresses into the core layer, while the clad layer is the last region to recrystallize. It is also found that precipitation precedes recrystallization in the entire laminate at the investigated temperature. The preferential onset of recrystallization at the interface region is attributed to the net driving pressure being the highest in this region. The factors that lead to such enhanced net driving pressure are (a) deformation incompatibility between the two alloy layers, (b) lower solute content of the interface, which also leads to lower volume fraction of precipitates, and (c) an accelerated rate of precipitate coarsening due to the presence of a higher density of dislocations. The gradual progress of recrystallization from the interface towards the core layer is dictated by precipitate coarsening and the dependence of its rate on the density of deformation-induced dislocations. The lower driving pressure due to lower work hardening capacity, high solute drag pressure due to Mn, and additional Zener drag from precipitates that form due to solute redistribution during annealing explain the late initiation of recrystallization in the clad layer. - Highlights: • The through-thickness recrystallization of a laminated system is investigated. • The early onset of recrystallization at the interface is discussed. • The effects of precipitation and coarsening on recrystallization are analyzed.

  13. Microstructure, mechanical properties and texture of an AA6061/AA5754 composite fabricated by cross accumulative roll bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, K., E-mail: kevin.verstraete@u-psud.fr [Université Paris-Sud, SP2M, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Helbert, A.L. [Université Paris-Sud, SP2M, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Brisset, F. [Université Paris-Sud, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Benoit, A.; Paillard, P. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), UMR 6502, Polytech’Nantes, Nantes Cedex (France); Baudin, T. [Université Paris-Sud, SP2M, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2015-07-29

    AA6061 alloy is a widely used material in the automotive and aerospace industries, but is prone to hot cracking, which limits its weldability. To prevent this phenomenon, the AA6061/AA5754 composite was formed using a severe plastic deformation technique, Cross Accumulative Roll Bonding (CARB), at an elevated temperature (350 °C) to ensure good bonding between layers. This technique was efficient to maintain a small grain size, even under the process temperature conditions, and consequently, preserve good mechanical properties. The composite had better mechanical properties than the initial aluminium alloys. Microstructure and texture remained stable after two cycles and yield stress tended towards an equal value in the rolling and the transverse directions. After two cycles, the main component was the {001}〈110〉 rotated Cube, which was maintained for up to 10 cycles. Diffusion was more effective as the strain increased. Finally, a tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process was performed on the composite and confirmed resistance to hot cracking.

  14. Substrate tolerant direct block copolymer nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars

    2016-01-01

    simplifies the main stream BC lithography process, showing a broad substrate tolerance and allowing for efficient pattern transfer over wafer scale. PDMS-rich poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) copolymers are directly applied on substrates including polymers, silicon and graphene. A single oxygen...

  15. Direct transfer of graphene onto flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Luiz Gustavo; Song, Yi; Zeng, Tingying; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Kong, Jing; Araujo, Paulo

    2014-03-01

    We explore the direct transfer via lamination of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto different flexible substrates. The transfer method investigated here is fast, simple, and does not require an intermediate transfer membrane, such as polymethylmethacrylate. Various substrates of general interest in research and industry were studied including polytetrafluoroethylene filter membranes, PVC, cellulose nitrate/cellulose acetate filter membranes, polycarbonate, paraffin, polyethylene terephthalate, paper, and cloth. By comparing the properties of these substrates, two critical factors to ensure a successful transfer on bare substrates were identified: the substrate's hydrophobicity and good contact between the substrate and graphene. For substrates that do not satisfy those requirements, polymethylmethacrylate can be used as a surface modifier or glue to ensure successful transfer. Our results can be applied to facilitate present processes and open up directions for applications of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene on flexible substrates. A broad range of applications of CVD graphene can be envisioned, including fabrication of graphene devices for opto/organic electronics, graphene membranes for gas/liquid separation, and ubiquitous electronics with graphene.

  16. Buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, Shara S.; Paranthamam, Mariappan; Beach, David B.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  17. Designing specificity of protein-substrate interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coluzza, I.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    One of the key properties of biological molecules is that they can bind strongly to certain substrates yet interact only weakly with the very large number of other molecules that they encounter. Using a simple lattice model, we test several methods to design molecule-substrate binding specificity. W

  18. Immobilization of glucose isomerase onto radiation synthesized P(AA-co-AMPS) hydrogel and its application

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Isomerization of glucose to fructose was carried out using Glucose isomerase (GI) that immobilized by entrapment into Poly(acrylic acid) P(AA) and Poly(acrylic acid-co-2-Acrylamido 2-methyl Propane sulfonic acid) P(AA-co-AMPS) polymer networks, the enzyme carriers were prepared by radiation induced copolymerization in the presence of (Methylene-bisacrylamide) (MBAA) as a crosslinking agent. The maximum gel fraction of pure P(AA) and P(AA-co-AMPS) hydrogel was found to be 95.2% and 89.6% for P...

  19. AA amyloidosis in the renal allograft: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rebecca; Josephson, Michelle A; Chang, Anthony; Meehan, Shane M

    2012-04-01

    AA amyloidosis is a disorder characterized by the abnormal formation, accumulation and systemic deposition of fibrillary material that frequently involves the kidney. Recurrent AA amyloidosis in the renal allograft has been documented in patients with tuberculosis, familial Mediterranean fever, ankylosing spondylitis, chronic pyelonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis. De novo AA amyloidosis is rarely described. We report two cases of AA amyloidosis in the renal allograft. Our first case is a 47-year-old male with a history of ankylosing spondylitis who developed end-stage renal disease reportedly from tubulointerstitial nephritis from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent use. A biopsy was never performed. One year after transplantation, AA amyloidosis was identified in the femoral head and 8 years post-transplantation, AA amyloidosis was identified in the renal allograft. He was treated with colchicine and adalimumab and has stable renal function at 1 year-follow-up. Our second case is a 57-year-old male with a long history of intravenous drug use and hepatitis C infection who developed end-stage kidney disease due to AA amyloidosis. Our second patient's course was complicated by renal adenovirus, pulmonary aspergillosis and hepatitis C with AA amyloidosis subsequently being identified in the allograft 2.5 years post-transplantation. Renal allograft function remains stable 4-years post-transplantation. These reports describe clinical and pathologic features of two cases of AA amyloidosis presenting with proteinuria and focal involvement of the renal allograft.

  20. A signal-substrate match in the substrate-borne component of a multimodal courtship display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian O. ELIAS, Andrew C. MASON, Eileen A. HEBETS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The environment can impose strong limitations on the efficacy of signal transmission. In particular, for vibratory communication, the signaling environment is often extremely heterogeneous at very small scales. Nevertheless, natural selection is expected to select for signals well-suited to effective transmission. Here, we test for substrate-dependent signal efficacy in the wolf spider Schizocosa stridulans Stratton 1991. We first explore the transmission characteristics of this important signaling modality by playing recorded substrate-borne signals through three different substrates (leaf litter, pine litter, and red clay and measuring the propagated signal. We found that the substrate-borne signal of S. stridulans attenuates the least on leaf litter, the substrate upon which the species is naturally found. Next, by assessing mating success with artificially muted and non-muted males across different signaling substrates (leaf litter, pine litter, and sand, we explored the relationship between substrate-borne signaling and substrate for mating success. We found that muted males were unsuccessful in obtaining copulations regardless of substrate, while mating success was dependent on the signaling substrate for non-muted males. For non-muted males, more males copulated on leaf litter than any other substrate. Taken together, these results confirm the importance of substrate-borne signaling in S. stridulans and suggest a match between signal properties and signal efficacy – leaf litter transmits the signal most effectively and males are most successful in obtaining copulations on leaf litter [Current Zoology 56 (3: 370–378, 2010].

  1. Electron mobility calculation for graphene on substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Hideki; Ogawa, Matsuto [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokko-dai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Hideaki, E-mail: tsuchiya@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokko-dai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Kamakura, Yoshinari; Mori, Nobuya [Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-08-28

    By a semiclassical Monte Carlo method, the electron mobility in graphene is calculated for three different substrates: SiO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The calculations account for polar and non-polar surface optical phonon (OP) scatterings induced by the substrates and charged impurity (CI) scattering, in addition to intrinsic phonon scattering in pristine graphene. It is found that HfO{sub 2} is unsuitable as a substrate, because the surface OP scattering of the substrate significantly degrades the electron mobility. The mobility on the SiO{sub 2} and h-BN substrates decreases due to CI scattering. However, the mobility on the h-BN substrate exhibits a high electron mobility of 170 000 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) for electron densities less than 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}. Therefore, h-BN should be an appealing substrate for graphene devices, as confirmed experimentally.

  2. Modelling substrate specificity and enantioselectivity for lipases and esterases by substrate-imprinted docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Sadhna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, ways to adapt docking programs that were developed for modelling inhibitor-receptor interaction have been explored. Two main issues were discussed. First, when trying to model catalysis a reaction intermediate of the substrate is expected to provide more valid information than the ground state of the substrate. Second, the incorporation of protein flexibility is essential for reliable predictions. Results Here we present a predictive and robust method to model substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of lipases and esterases that uses reaction intermediates and incorporates protein flexibility. Substrate-imprinted docking starts with covalent docking of reaction intermediates, followed by geometry optimisation of the resulting enzyme-substrate complex. After a second round of docking the same substrate into the geometry-optimised structures, productive poses are identified by geometric filter criteria and ranked by their docking scores. Substrate-imprinted docking was applied in order to model (i enantioselectivity of Candida antarctica lipase B and a W104A mutant, (ii enantioselectivity and substrate specificity of Candida rugosa lipase and Burkholderia cepacia lipase, and (iii substrate specificity of an acetyl- and a butyrylcholine esterase toward the substrates acetyl- and butyrylcholine. Conclusion The experimentally observed differences in selectivity and specificity of the enzymes were reproduced with an accuracy of 81%. The method was robust toward small differences in initial structures (different crystallisation conditions or a co-crystallised ligand, although large displacements of catalytic residues often resulted in substrate poses that did not pass the geometric filter criteria.

  3. Immobilization of glucose isomerase onto radiation synthesized P(AA-co-AMPS hydrogel and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Isomerization of glucose to fructose was carried out using Glucose isomerase (GI that immobilized by entrapment into Poly(acrylic acid P(AA and Poly(acrylic acid-co-2-Acrylamido 2-methyl Propane sulfonic acid P(AA-co-AMPS polymer networks, the enzyme carriers were prepared by radiation induced copolymerization in the presence of (Methylene-bisacrylamide (MBAA as a crosslinking agent. The maximum gel fraction of pure P(AA and P(AA-co-AMPS hydrogel was found to be 95.2% and 89.6% for P(AA and P(AA-co-AMPS, respectively at a total dose of 20 kGy. Effects of immobilization conditions such as radiation dose, MBAA concentration, comonomer composition and amount of GI were investigated. The influence of reaction conditions on the activity of immobilized GI were studied, the optimum pH value of the reaction solution is 7.5 and reaction temperature is 65 °C. The immobilized GI into P(AA-co-AMPS and P(AA polymer networks retained 81% and 69%, respectively of its initial activity after recycled for 15 times while it retained 87% and 71%, respectively of its initial activity after stored at 4 °C for 48 days. The Km values of free and immobilized GI onto P(AA-co-AMPS and onto P(AA matrices were found to be 34, 29.2 and 14.5 mg/mL, respectively while the Vmax Values calculated to be 3.87, 1.6 and 0.79 mg/mL min, respectively. GI entrapped into P(AA-co-AMPS hydrogel show promising behavior that may be useful as the newly glucose isomerase reactor in biomedical applications.

  4. AaERF1 positively regulates the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms, and they can not move away under abiotic or biotic stresses. Thus plants have evolved a set of genes that response to adverse environment to modulate gene expression. In this study, we characterized and functionally studied an ERF transcription factor from Artemisia annua, AaERF1, which plays an important role in biotic stress responses. The AaERF1 promoter had been cloned and GUS staining results of AaERF1 promoter-GUS transgenic A. annua showed that AaERF1 is expressed ubiquitiously in all organs. Several putative cis-acting elements such as W-box, TGA-box and Py-rich element, which are involved in defense responsiveness, are present in the promoter. The expression of AaERF1 can be induced vigorously by methyl jasmonate as well as by ethephon and wounding, implying that AaERF1 may activate some of the defense genes via the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways of A. annua. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and yeast one-hybrid experiments showed that AaERF1 was able to bind to the GCC box cis-acting element in vitro and in yeast. Ectopic expression of AaERF1 could enhance the expression levels of the defense marker genes PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2 and BASIC CHITINASE (ChiB, and increase the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in the 35S::AaERF1 transgenic Arabidopsis. The down-regulated expression level of AaERF1 evidently reduced the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua. The overall results showed that AaERF1 positively regulated the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua.

  5. Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.; Fincke, James R.

    2008-03-11

    The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

  6. Immunological evaluation of OMV(PagL)+Bap(1-487aa) and AbOmpA(8-346aa)+Bap(1-487aa) as vaccine candidates against Acinetobacter baumannii sepsis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmasti, Farzad; Ajdary, Soheila; Bouzari, Saeid; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Siadat, Seyed Davar

    2015-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that causes a high morbidity and mortality rate in infected patients with sepsis form. The surface exposed virulence proteins and serum resistance factors helping to dissemination of this bacterium to bloodstream are the most promising vaccine candidates against this microorganism. In this project we immunologically evaluated OMV(PagL)+Bap(1-487aa) and AbOmpA (8-346aa)+Bap(1-487aa) as combination forms as well as Bap(1-487aa), AbOmpA(8-346aa) and OMV(PagL) singly, with addition of alum adjuvant as vaccine candidates. The titers of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2c as well as concentration of IL-4 and IFN-γ and survival rates were measured in a C57BL/6 murine model with disseminated sepsis. The ratio of IgG1/IgG2c and profile of IL-4/IFN-γ in OMV (PagL)+Bap (1-487aa) formulation shows the humoral and cellular immune responses have been induced robustly and have created a full protection against A. baumannii ATCC 19606 and MDR AB-44 strains. We found that the two combination vaccine candidates were protective and induced both Th1 and Th2 responses.

  7. Rescue of Drosophila Melanogaster l(2)35Aa lethality is only mediated by polypeptide GalNAc-transferase pgant35A, but not by the evolutionary conserved human ortholog GalNAc-transferase-T11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Eric P; Chen, Ya-Wen; Schwientek, Tilo; Mandel, Ulla; Schjoldager, Katrine ter-Borch Gram; Cohen, Stephen M; Clausen, Henrik

    2010-05-01

    The Drosophila l(2)35Aa gene encodes a UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: Polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, essential for embryogenesis and development (J. Biol. Chem. 277, 22623-22638; J. Biol. Chem. 277, 22616-22). l(2)35Aa, also known as pgant35A, is a member of a large evolutionarily conserved family of genes encoding polypeptide GalNAc-transferases. Phylogenetic and functional analyses have proposed that subfamilies of orthologous GalNAc-transferase genes are conserved in species, suggesting that they serve distinct functions in vivo. Based on sequence alignments, pgant35A and human GALNT11 are thought to belong to a distinct subfamily. Recent in vitro studies have shown that pgant35A and pgant7, encoding enzymes from different subfamilies, prefer different acceptor substrates, whereas the orthologous pgant35A and human GALNT11 gene products possess, 1) conserved substrate preferences and 2) similar acceptor site preferences in vitro. In line with the in vitro pgant7 studies, we show that l(2)35Aa lethality is not rescued by ectopic pgant7 expression. Remarkably and in contrast to this observation, the human pgant35A ortholog, GALNT11, was shown not to support rescue of the l(2)35Aa lethality. By use of genetic "domain swapping" experiments we demonstrate, that lack of rescue was not caused by inappropriate sub-cellular targeting of functionally active GalNAc-T11. Collectively our results show, that fly embryogenesis specifically requires functional pgant35A, and that the presence of this gene product during fly embryogenesis is functionally distinct from other Drosophila GalNAc-transferase isoforms and from the proposed human ortholog GALNT11.

  8. Mass spectrometry-assisted protease substrate screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlüter, Hartmut; Rykl, Jana; Thiemann, Joachim;

    2007-01-01

    Since sequencing of the human genome was completed, more than 500 genes have been annotated as proteases. Exploring the physiological role of each protease requires the identification of their natural substrates. However, the endogenous substrates of many of the human proteases are as yet unknown....... Here we describe a new assay that addresses this problem. The assay, which easily can be automated, is based on the incubation of immobilized protein fractions, which may contain the natural substrate, with a defined protease. After concentrating the proteolytically released peptides by reversed...

  9. Study of Carbon Nanotube-Substrate Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline S. Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental effects are very important in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This work reviews the importance of the substrate in single-wall carbon nanotube properties. Contact with a substrate can modify the nanotube properties, and such interactions have been broadly studied as either a negative aspect or a solution for developing carbon nanotube-based nanotechnologies. This paper discusses both theoretical and experimental studies where the interaction between the carbon nanotubes and the substrate affects the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of the tubes.

  10. Implantable biomedical devices on bioresorbable substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan; Huang, Yonggang; Amsden, Jason

    2014-03-04

    Provided herein are implantable biomedical devices, methods of administering implantable biomedical devices, methods of making implantable biomedical devices, and methods of using implantable biomedical devices to actuate a target tissue or sense a parameter associated with the target tissue in a biological environment. Each implantable biomedical device comprises a bioresorbable substrate, an electronic device having a plurality of inorganic semiconductor components supported by the bioresorbable substrate, and a barrier layer encapsulating at least a portion of the inorganic semiconductor components. Upon contact with a biological environment the bioresorbable substrate is at least partially resorbed, thereby establishing conformal contact between the implantable biomedical device and the target tissue in the biological environment.

  11. Introducing the AAS Working Group on Astroinformatics and Astrostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    In response to two White Papers submitted to the Astro2010 Decadal Survey (1,2), a new AAS Working Group on Astroinformatics and Astrostatistics (WGAA) has been approved by the AAS Council at the 220th Meeting, June 2012, in Anchorage. The motivation for this WG is the growing importance of the interface between astronomy and various branches of applied mathematics, computer science and the emerging field of data science. With the new data-intensive projects envisioned for the coming decade, the need for advice derived from the focused attention of a group of AAS members who work in these areas is bound to increase. The Working Group is charged with spreading awareness of rapidly advancing computational techniques, sophsticated statistical methods, and highly capble software to further the goals of astronomical and astrophysical research. The three main strategic goals adopted by the WGAA Steering Committee for the next few years are to: (i) develop, organize and maintain methodological resources (such as software tools, papers, books, and lectures); (ii) enhance human resources (such as foster the creation of career paths, establish a Speakers' Bureau, establish and maintain an archived discussion forum, enable periodic news distribution); and (iii) organize topical meetings. The WGAA Steering Committee at this time includes twelve members: Kirk Borne, George Djorgovski, Eric Feigelson, Eric Ford, Alyssa Goodman, Joe Hilbe, Zeljko Ivezic (chair), Ashish Mahabal, Aneta Siemiginowska, Alex Szalay, Rick White, and Padma Yanamandra-Fisher. I will summarize our accomplishments since July 2012. (1) Astroinformatics: A 21st Century Approach to Astronomy (Borne & 90 coauthors), (2) The Astronomical Information Sciences: A Keystone for 21st-Century Astronomy (Loredo & 72 coauthors)

  12. Professional Ethics in Astronomy: The AAS Ethics Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    It is fundamental to the advancement of science that practicing scientists adhere to a consistent set of professional ethical principles. Recent violations of these principles have led a decreased trust in the process of science and scientific results. Although astronomy is less in the spotlight on these issues than medical science or climate change research, it is still incumbent on the field to follow sound scientific process guided by basic ethical guidelines. The American Astronomical Society, developed a set of such guidelines in 2010. This contribution summarizes the motivation and process by which the AAS Ethics Statement was produced.

  13. Understanding the photometric variability of {\\zeta} Ori Aa

    CERN Document Server

    Buysschaert, B; Ramiaramanantsoa, T; Richardson, N D; David-Uraz, A; Moffat, A F J

    2016-01-01

    We studied the variability of the magnetic O-type supergiant $\\zeta$ Ori Aa using multi-colour BRITE photometry. We confirmed the known rotation frequency $f_{\\rm rot} = 0.15 \\pm 0.02$ c/d, and detected some of its higher harmonics, of which $4f_{\\rm rot}$ is compatible with the known DAC recurrence timescale. Thanks to simultaneous high-resolution CHIRON spectroscopy, we could identify another frequency $f_{\\rm env} = 0.10 \\pm 0.02$ c/d, caused by the circumstellar environment. Variations in the circumstellar environment are believed to cause the observed difference between the BRITE lightcurves.

  14. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AM 050 aluminium surface was investigated using electrochemical polarization, SEM-EDX, FIB-SEM. and XPS. The corona treatment was performed with varying time (1, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after...... the 15 min air corona treatment. A significant reduction in anodic and cathodic reactivities was observed starting from 1 min exposure, which further decreased with prolonged exposure (15 min) and after delayed testing (after 30 days). The reduction in surface reactivity is due to the formation...

  15. Slot-type kicker for the AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" structure was used for both pickups and the kicker of one of the stochastic cooling systems of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA). They served for the cooling of the high-density stack, in momentum and in both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 3 bands, 1-2, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. The kicker of the first generation, shown here, was located where the dispersion was zero and the beam size small, and thus had a quadratic cross-section. The pickups were rectangular and wider in the horizontal plane. See also 7906193

  16. Inside Hall 193 for the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Installation work is in full swing. A model quadrupole on the left shows where the magnet ring will be. The cables wound on drums are part of the pulse-forming network for the injection kicker. See Annual Report 1979 p. 103, Fig. 9 and photo 7911303. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  17. Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid compositions from populations with stable dietary habits but large variations in RBC-arachidonic (AA) and RBC-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided us with insight into relationships between DHA and AA. It also enabled us to estimate the maternal RBC-DHA (mRBC-DHA) status

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0775 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0775 ref|ZP_01789776.1| multidrug resistance protein [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK08502.1| multidrug resistance protein [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01789776.1 0.22 27% ...

  19. RADIATION SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY (AA-CO-NVP)/CLAY HYDROGELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yan Song; Wen-tao Liu; Su-qin He; Ming-cheng Yang; Ya Gao; Cheng-shen Zhu; Liu-suo Wu

    2008-01-01

    The pH-sensitive P(AA-co-NVP)Iclay hydrogels were prepared with the monomers of acrylic acid (AA) andN-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) based on γ-ray irradiation technique. The influence of pH values of buffer solutions andcontents of clay and NVP on the equilibrium swelling ratio (SR) and compressive properties of the hydrogels wasinvestigated in detail. The results of swelling property tests showed that, with the increase of clay content, the SR ofhydrogels increases in the same buffer solution, and the SR of hydrogels with different contents of HTMAB-clay is higherthan that of P(A.A-co-NVP) hydrogels without clay. When the content of clay is 15%, the SR of P(AA-co-NVP)/clayhydrogel is 201 at pH=9.8, which is 1.23 times of that of the P(AA-co-NVP) hydrogel (164). In addition, the SR ofP(AA-co-NVP)/clay hydrogel is higher than that of PAA/clay hydrogel in the same solution. The compressive properties ofthe hydrogel were also examined. The results showed that the compressive properties of the P(AA-co-NVP)/clay hydrogelswere improved distinctly as compared to those of the conventional hydrogels without clay. When the content of clay is 15%,the compression strength of the P(AA-co-NVP)/clay hydrogel is 23 times of that of the P(AA-co-NVP) hydrogel.

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0065 ref|ZP_03493196.1| hypothetical protein AaLAA1DRAFT_0782 [Alicycl...obacillus acidocaldarius LAA1] gb|EED08211.1| hypothetical protein AaLAA1DRAFT_0782 [Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius LAA1] ZP_03493196.1 2.4 30% ...

  1. Lu AA21004, a novel multimodal antidepressantwith activity exerted through serotonergic targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mork, A.; Pehrson, A.; Montezinho, L. C. P.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lu AA21004 is a multimodal antidepressant that functions as a 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter in vitro. Here we investigated preclinical effects of Lu AA21004 1) on target occupancies, 2...

  2. Co-expression of the mosquitocidal toxins Cyt1Aa and Cry11Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Asticcacaulis excentricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dasheng; Valdez-Cruz, Norma Adriana; Armengol, Gemma; Sevrez, Chloe; Munoz-Olaya, Jose Maurilio; Yuan, Zhiming; Orduz, Sergio; Crickmore, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The cyt1Aa gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti), whose product synergizes other mosquitocidal toxins, and functions as a repressor of resistance developed by mosquitoes against Bacilli insecticides, was introduced into the aquatic Gram-negative bacterium Asticcacaulis excentricus alongside the cry11Aa gene. The genes were introduced as an operon, but although mRNA was detected for both genes, no Cyt1Aa toxin was detected. Both proteins were expressed using a construct in which a promoter was inserted upstream of each gene. Recombinant A. excentricus expressing both toxins was found to be approximately twice as toxic to third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus as transformants expressing just Cry11Aa.

  3. Biochemicalmethane potential (BMP) of solid organic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, F.; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; de la Rubia, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, all experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experim...

  4. Iron films deposited on porous alumina substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Tanabe, Kenichi; Nishida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-12-01

    Iron films were deposited on porous alumina substrates using an arc plasma gun. The pore sizes (120 - 250 nm) of the substrates were controlled by changing the temperature during the anodic oxidation of aluminum plates. Iron atoms penetrated into pores with diameters of less than 160 nm, and were stabilized by forming γ-Fe, whereas α-Fe was produced as a flat plane covering the pores. For porous alumina substrates with pore sizes larger than 200 nm, the deposited iron films contained many defects and the resulting α-Fe had smaller hyperfine magnetic fields. In addition, only a very small amount of γ-Fe was obtained. It was demonstrated that the composition and structure of an iron film can be affected by the surface morphology of the porous alumina substrate on which the film is grown.

  5. Influence of Reaction-Induced Phase Decomposition to Dispersion of Samariam Acrylic Acid (Sm (AA)3 ) in Rubber and Shielding Property of Sm(AA) 3/NR Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Li; He Lei; Zhang Wan; Yang Cheng; Liu Yandong; Jin Riguang; Zhang Liqun

    2004-01-01

    According to radiation protection theory, the radiation shielding properties of composites are closely related to dispersion condition of radiation absorbing materials in matrix. The more equably radiation-shielding materials dispersed in the matrix, the better the composites' shielding properties are. Rare earth ions have preferably absorbing ability for radiation due to their special electronic structures. From our early work, we know Sm(AA) 3 has good radiationabsorbing ability and excellent compatibility with polymer matrix. Furthermore, Sm (AA) 3 has double key structures which can in-situ react with polymer matrix in vulcanization process. This in-situ reaction can also help Sm(AA) 3 disperse better in the matrix. Based on these, we studied a new method to prepare Sm( AA)3/NR( nature rubber) composites( NR used as matrix), in which Sm(AA)3 dispersed very equably with tiny particle size. Both sulfur and peroxide exist in the system as crosslinking agent. The vulcanization process occurred at the temperature of 110℃ first and a certain degree crosslinking network formed in this stage, which we called pre-vulcanization process in this paper. In this stage sulfur was used as the crosslinking agent. Then continued the vulcanization process at higher temperature(170℃). The peroxide was used as crosslinking agent in this stage. According to reaction-induced phase decomposition mechanism, we studied the phase decomposition changing mode of Sm(AA) 3 in NR matrix of different crosslinking degrees. We also studied the influence of different degrees of pre-vulcanization to the dispersion condition of Sm (AA) 3 in NR matrix. The crystal-fusion status of both Sm(AA) 3 powder and Sm(AA) 3 in cured rubber were observed by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and XRD (X-rays Diffraction). The dispersion condition of Sm(AA) 3 in cured rubber was observed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope).The studyresults show different

  6. Enhanced substrate conversion efficiency of fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate and the second fermentation product is in a more oxidised state than the substrate yet in less oxidised state than the final oxidation product CO2, such that the concurrent synthesis of the first ...

  7. Substrates and method for determining enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.; Bissell, Eugene R.

    1981-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the presence of an enzyme in a biological fluid, which includes the steps of contacting the fluid with a synthetic chromogenic substrate, which is an amino acid derivative of 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin; incubating the substrate-containing fluid to effect enzymatic hydrolysis; and fluorometrically determining the presence of the free 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin chromophore in the hydrolyzate.

  8. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  9. Direct Printing of Graphene onto Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Daniel; Lock, Evgeniya; Walton, Scott; Baraket, Mira; Laskoski, Matthew; Mulvaney, Shawn; Sheehan, Paul; Lee, Woo; Robinson, Jeremy

    2011-03-01

    Graphene films have been synthesized on metal foils using CVD growth and have the potential to be compatible with roll-to-roll printing. To be usable in electronic devices, these films need to be removed from the metallic substrate. Currently this is accomplished by spin coating a polymer film over the graphene and chemically etching away the metal substrate. We have developed a direct printing method that allows graphene films to be printed off the metal substrate onto a polymer substrate. This printing process does not generate chemical waste, is compatible with roll-to-toll processing and renders the metal foil reusable. Adhesion of the graphene film to the polymer substrate is established by attaching perfluorophenylazides (PFPA) azide linker molecules to a plasma activated polymer surface. The transfer printing was performed by placing the PFPA treated polymer surface in contact with a graphene covered Cu foil and heating under pressure. Graphene films successfully printed onto a polystyrene substrate have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy and electrical measurements revealed the presence of Gr on the polymer surface. Details of the printing process along with characteristics of the graphene film after printing will be presented.

  10. Palladium clusters deposited on the heterogeneous substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Liu, Juanfang; Chen, Qinghua

    2016-07-01

    To improve the performance of the Pd composite membrane prepared by the cold spraying technology, it is extremely essential to give insights into the deposition process of the cluster and the heterogeneous deposition of the big Pd cluster at the different incident velocities on the atomic level. The deposition behavior, morphologies, energetic and interfacial configuration were examined by the molecular dynamic simulation and characterized by the cluster flattening ratio, the substrate maximum local temperature, the atom-embedded layer number and the surface-alloy formation. According to the morphology evolution, three deposition stages and the corresponding structural and energy evolution were clearly identified. The cluster deformation and penetrating depth increased with the enhancement of the incident velocity, but the increase degree also depended on the substrate hardness. The interfacial interaction between the cluster and the substrate can be improved by the higher substrate local temperature. Furthermore, it is found that the surface alloys were formed by exchanging sites between the cluster and substrate atoms, and the cluster atoms rearranged following as the substrate lattice arrangement from bottom to up in the deposition course. The ability and scope of the structural reconstruction are largely determined by both the size and incident energy of the impacted cluster.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of substrate-borne polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng

    2002-08-28

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) have wide application in many industries and in agriculture. Scientific research and industrial applications manifested a need for a method that can quantify substrate-borne PAM. The N-bromination method (a PAM analytical technique based on N-bromination of amide groups and spectrophotometric determination of the formed starch-triiodide complex), which was originally developed for determining PAM in aqueous solutions, was modified to quantify substrate-borne PAM. In the modified method, the quantity of substrate-borne PAM was converted to a concentration of starch-triiodide complex in aqueous solution that was then measured by spectrophotometry. The method sensitivity varied with substrates due to sorption of reagents and reaction intermediates on the substrates. Therefore, separate calibration for each substrate was required. Results from PAM samples in sand, cellulose, organic matter burnt soils, and clay minerals showed that this method had good accuracy and reproducibility. The PAM recoveries ranged from 95.8% to 103.7%, and the relative standard deviations (n = 4) were <7.5% in all cases. The optimum range of PAM in each sample is 10-80 microg. The technique can serve as an effective tool in improving PAM application and facilitating PAM-related research.

  12. Characterization And Study of Friction Stir Welding of AA6101 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Aditya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW combines two plates by frictional heating at the interface with the localized plastic deformation within the material. In friction stir welding heat is generated by the friction between rotating tool shoulder and the plates to be welded. The heat thus generated results in thermal softening of the material. The softened material is then forced to flow by the translation of the tool from the front to the back of the pin. There it cools, consolidates and results in joint formation. In the process, strength of the joint and percentage elongation varies from the parent material. AA6101 is equivalent to AA 6061 and AA6063. At present AA6101 is used by the electrical industries only. A detailed experimental study has been done on AA 6101 to its utility as an Aluminum alloy for structural fabrication

  13. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John Allen (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Adams, David Price (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yeager,John (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Nyugen, Thao D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Corona, Edmundo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Cordill, Megan J. (Erich Schmid Institute, Leoben, Austria)

    2009-09-01

    Development of flexible thin film systems for biomedical, homeland security and environmental sensing applications has increased dramatically in recent years [1,2,3,4]. These systems typically combine traditional semiconductor technology with new flexible substrates, allowing for both the high electron mobility of semiconductors and the flexibility of polymers. The devices have the ability to be easily integrated into components and show promise for advanced design concepts, ranging from innovative microelectronics to MEMS and NEMS devices. These devices often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films where differing properties can lead to large residual stresses [5]. As long as the films remain substrate-bonded, they may deform far beyond their freestanding counterpart. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure where compressive stresses can lead to wrinkling, delamination, and buckling [6,7,8] while tensile stresses can lead to film fracture and decohesion [9,10,11]. In all cases, performance depends on film adhesion. Experimentally it is difficult to measure adhesion. It is often studied using tape [12], pull off [13,14,15], and peel tests [16,17]. More recent techniques for measuring adhesion include scratch testing [18,19,20,21], four point bending [22,23,24], indentation [25,26,27], spontaneous blisters [28,29] and stressed overlayers [7,26,30,31,32,33]. Nevertheless, sample design and test techniques must be tailored for each system. There is a large body of elastic thin film fracture and elastic contact mechanics solutions for elastic films on rigid substrates in the published literature [5,7,34,35,36]. More recent work has extended these solutions to films on compliant substrates and show that increasing compliance markedly changes fracture energies compared with rigid elastic solution results [37,38]. However, the introduction of inelastic substrate response significantly complicates the problem [10,39,40]. As

  14. High level expression, efficient purification and bioactivity assay of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor AA dimer (PDGF-AA) from methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoyan; Yang, Song; Hu, Xing; Tang, Xiaofeng; Li, Peng; Li, Shiwu; Yang, Lijun; Jin, Shouguang; Wang, Yu; Xu, Aimin; Wu, Donghai

    2013-10-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are important biochemical mediators regulating many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including promotion of the chemotactic recruitment and proliferation of cells involved in wound repair. Previously, homodimers of rhPDGF-AA protein were purified from Escherichia coli. However, eukaryotic proteins often contain posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation, that are required for biological functions. In this study, an efficient method was established to purify a glycosylated rhPDGF-AA dimer from P. pastoris culture media by one step CM Sepharose ion exchange chromatography yielding about 20mg/L of over 95% highly purified rhPDGF-AA. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified rhPDGF-AA displayed a molecular weight (MW) of 27,825.513Da, composed of a subunit with MW of 15,042.945Da and a subunit with MW of 12,904.374Da. The size difference is accounted for by differential glycosylation of the monomers. Biological activity of the rhPDGF-AA was confirmed by its ability to induce NIH/3T3 cells proliferation. The experimental procedure we have developed facilitates production of an active glycosylated rhPDGF-AA in large amounts for further research and drug development.

  15. Formation of indium-doped zinc oxide thin films using chemical spray techniques: The importance of acetic acid content in the aerosol solution and the substrate temperature for enhancing electrical transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, L. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Division de Estudios Disciplinares, Universidad Iberoamericana, Av. Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Santa Fe 012100, D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Valenzuela, A. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Zironi, E.P. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, D.F. (Mexico); Canetas-Ortega, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, D.F. (Mexico); Terrones, M. [Advanced Materials Department, IPICYT, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. seccion, San Luis Potosi 78216 (Mexico) and Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Division de Estudios Disciplinares, Universidad Iberoamericana, Av. Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Santa Fe 012100, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: mterrones@ipicyt.edu.mx; Maldonado, A. [Depto. de Ing. Electrica, CINVESTAV IPN, SEES, Ap. Postal 14740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2006-05-01

    Indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were grown on glass substrates using the chemical spray technique. The effects of the acetic acid content in the starting solution (c {sub AA}), as well as the substrate temperature (T {sub S}), were studied. Our results demonstrate that when c {sub AA} is extremely low, the resistivity values of the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films become relatively high (in the order of 4 x 10{sup -2} {omega} cm). When the c {sub AA} is increased at a fixed temperature, the resistivity of the films decreases, reaching values as low as 4 x 10{sup -3} {omega} cm for thin films deposited at 525 deg. C. The electron mobility could also increase to a maximum value of 10.5 cm{sup 2}/(V s) for films deposited at 500 deg. C. We also observed an enhancement in the electrical transport properties of the films by varying T {sub S}; the lowest resistivity values occurred in films deposited at T {sub S} between 475 and 525 deg. C. In addition, the relative intensity of the diffraction peaks associated with the crystallographic planes is strongly affected by the c {sub AA} concentration. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the polycrystalline nature of the films exhibiting a hexagonal wurtzite type, with a preferential orientation of the film depending on the acetic acid concentration. Film morphology was also affected by varying c {sub AA}, as grains with distinct geometrical shapes were observed. Finally, the optical transmittance of all these films was found to be higher than 85%.

  16. Springback analysis on AA 6061 aluminum alloy sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramulu, Perumalla Janaki; Rao, P. Srinivasa; Yimer, Wassihun

    2016-10-01

    In automotive industry, sheet metal forming process play a key role with respect to economy and weight reduction ratio. In sheet metal forming, one of the operations is bending operation in which sheet will not go under sever deformation. The end components are made by applying the continuous load on the sheet in the bending process. In bending process, elastic limits of materials are exceeded, but flow limit thereof cannot be exceeded. Therefore, the material still keeps a portion of its original flexibility character. When the load is released, the material on forcing compress side tries to enlarge, whereas the material on tensile side tries to shrink. As a result, the material tries to spring back and the bended material by flexing slightly tries to open. Springback varies according to thickness of the material, material and process parameters, type of material, period when punch load stays on the material, dimensions of die, force applied, and bending radius. In order to make bending at a desired angle, springback amounts should be avoided. In the present work, experimentation on AA 6061 alloy sheet springback analysis has done with seven different rolling directions. Results are noted with respect to load, displacement, and die angle on the springback effect. It observed that springback affect is existed notably in the AA 6061 alloys with respect to die angle.

  17. Solving the $R_{AA}\\otimes v_2$ puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    For the past ten years $R_{AA}(p_T)$, the nuclear modification factor that encodes the suppression of high $p_T$ particles due to energy loss within the medium was fairly well described by many theoretical models. However, the same models systematically under-predicted the high $p_T$ elliptic flow, $v_2$, which is experimentally measured as the correlation between soft and hard hadrons. All previous calculations neglected the effect of event-by-event fluctuations of an expanding viscous hydrodynamical background as well as the soft-hard flow harmonic correlations in the experimentally measured $v_2$. In this talk I show how event-by-event viscous hydrodynamics (computed using the v-USPhydro code) coupled to an energy loss model (BBMG) is able to simultaneously describe soft physics observables as well as the high-$p_T$ $R_{AA}$ and $v_2$. Suggestions for future more differential calculations at the LHC run2 are made to explore soft-hard flow correlations.

  18. AAS, growth hormone, and insulin abuse: psychological and neuroendocrine effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Graham

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Graham1, Peter Evans2, Bruce Davies1, Julien S Baker11Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom; 2Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Gwent, United KingdomAbstract: The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity.Keywords: AAS, cosmesis, growth hormone, insulin, performance, strength

  19. Astronomy Career Profiles from the AAS Newsletter Archives

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, Travis; McDaid, Liam; Bullock, Blake; Pulliam, Christine; Williams, Peter; Roth, Joshua; Whitney, Barb; Olsen, Knut; Howell, Andy; Keller, Luke

    2011-01-01

    This is a collection of articles that were originally published in the Newsletter of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) between May 2008 and September 2011 by the Committee on Employment. Authors representing a wide range of career paths tell their stories and provide insight and advice that is relevant to success in various job sectors. Although all of these articles are available individually from the AAS archives, we are posting the complete collection here to make them more accessible as a resource for the astronomy community. The collection includes the following articles: (1) Changing Priorities: the Hard Money Wild Card, (2) Beyond Ivory Towers, (3) Astronomers Working in Public Outreach, (4) Bush-Whacking a Career Trail, (5) Science Communication as a Press Officer, (6) Jobs in Industry, (7) Back to School: A Ph.D. Enters the Classroom, (8) Working at a Soft-Money Institute, (9) Balancing Research and Service at NOAO, (10) Succeeding in a Large Research Collaboration, and (11) Preparing for the C...

  20. AAS Publishing News: Preparing Your Manuscript Just Got Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Watermarking using the command watermark{DRAFT, v2}.Are you an astronomer considering submitting a paper to an AAS journal (i.e., AJ, ApJ, ApJ Letters, or ApJ Supplements)? If so, this post is for you! Read on to find out about the exciting new things you can do with the AASs newest LaTeX class file, available for download now.Why the Update?AAS publishing has maintained a consistent class file for LaTeX manuscript preparation for the past decade. But academic publishing is changing rapidly in todays era of electronic journals! Since its journals went fully electronic, the AAS has been continuously adding new publishing capabilities based on the recommendations of the Journals Task Force and the needs and requests of AAS authors. The AASs manuscript preparation tools are now being updated accordingly.Whats New in AASTex 6.0?There are many exciting new features and capabilities in AASTex 6.0. Here are just a few:Tracking options for author revisions include added{text}, deleted{text}, replaced{old}{new}, and explain{text}.Based on emulateapjDo you use the popular class file emulateapj to prepare your manuscripts? AASTex 6.0 is based on emulateapj, rather than on the older AASTex 5.2 (though 5.2 is still supported). This means that it is easy to produce a double-columned, single-spaced, and astro-ph-ready manuscript. Since two thirds of the AAS journals authors use emulateapj, this transition was designed to make manuscript preparation and sharing an easier and more seamless process.Tools for collaborationsDo you work in a large collaboration? AASTex now includes new tools to make preparing a manuscript within a collaboration easier. Drafts can now be watermarked to differentiate between versions. New markup for large author lists streamlines the display so that readers can access article information immediately, yet they can still access the full author list and affiliations at the end of the paper. And author revision markup allows members of a collaboration to

  1. Microstructural characteristics of AA4343/AA3003 Al-alloy sheet brazed joints%AA4343/AA3003铝合金薄板钎焊接头的显微组织特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘春旭; DusanP.Sekulic

    2002-01-01

    采用气氛保护钎焊工艺, 对AA4343/AA3003铝合金复合板材料的钎焊接头组织特征 , 及其与焊接工艺的关系和对接头区显微硬度的影响进行了研究. 实验结果表明, 钎焊过渡区由单相α (Al)固溶体层和Si扩散层组成, 它们的厚度随钎焊条件而发生变化. 远离焊接区有一个α (Al)固溶体残余层, 它的厚度保持20 μm基本不变, 与焊接参数和材料性质无关. 讨论了钎焊接头特征组织的形成机理.

  2. Catalytic irreversible inhibition of bacterial and plant arginine decarboxylase activities by novel substrate and product analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitonti, A J; Casara, P J; McCann, P P; Bey, P

    1987-02-15

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity from Escherichia coli and two plant species (oats and barley) was inhibited by five new substrate (arginine) and product (agmatine) analogues. The five compounds, (E)-alpha-monofluoromethyldehydroarginine (delta-MFMA), alpha-monofluoromethylarginine (MFMA), alpha-monofluoromethylagatine (FMA), alpha-ethynylagmatine (EA) and alpha-allenylagmatine (AA), were all more potent inhibitors of ADC activity than was alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), the only irreversible inhibitor of this enzyme described previously. The inhibition caused by the five compounds was apparently enzyme-activated and irreversible, since the loss of enzyme activity followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, was time-dependent, the natural substrate of ADC (arginine) blocked the effects of the inhibitors, and the inhibition remained after chromatography of inhibited ADC on Sephadex G-25 or on overnight dialysis of the enzyme. DFMA, FMA, delta-MFMA and MFMA were effective at very low concentrations (10 nM-10 microM) at inhibiting ADC activity in growing E. coli. FMA was also shown to deplete putrescine effectively in E. coli, particularly when combined with an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, alpha-monofluoromethyl-putrescine. The potential uses of the compounds for the study of the role of polyamine biosynthesis in bacteria and plants is discussed.

  3. Substrate specificity in enzymatic fluorination. The fluorinase from Streptomyces cattleya accepts 2'-deoxyadenosine substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Steven L; Deng, Hai; McEwan, Andrew R; Naismith, James H; O'Hagan, David; Robinson, David A

    2006-04-21

    The fluorinase enzyme from Streptomyces cattleya displays an unusual ability in biocatalysis in that it forms a C-F bond. We now report that the enzyme will accept 2'-deoxyadenosine in place of adenosine substrates, and structural evidence reveals a reorganisation in hydrogen bonding to accommodate this substrate series. It emerges from this study that the enzyme does not require a planar ribose conformation of the substrate to catalyse C-F bond formation.

  4. Effect of chelating agent acetylacetone on corrosion protection properties of silane-zirconium sol-gel coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Liang, Min; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Songmei; Xue, Bing; Zhao, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The hybrid sol-gel coatings on AA2024-T3 were prepared with a silane coupling agent 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and a metal alkoxide tetra-n-propoxyzirconium (TPOZ) as precursors. The effect of acetylacetone (AcAc) as a chelating agent on the corrosion protection properties of sol-gel coatings were evaluated and the optimal AcAc/TPOZ molar ratio was obtained. The sol-gel coatings were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The corrosion protection properties of the coatings were evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization study (PDS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It is demonstrated that AcAc avoids fast hydrolysis of TPOZ and benefits to form stable sols. The coating with AcAc/TPOZ molar ratio of 3 shows the best corrosion protection performance in 0.05 M NaCl solution.

  5. Stress Analysis of Lap Joints With Embedded Cover Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İşcan Bahattin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of the bonding joints that are partly embedded in the adherent on the tensile behaviour of reinforcing plate adhesive joint have been investigated by 2D finite element method. In the study, the SBT 9244 material was used as the adhesive, and the adherent was the AA2024-T3 material. Three different models were built for the height of the embedded part in the adherent (a and five models for the length of the embedded part (b, while three models were built for the total overlap length (c. Results showed that with the increase of the height of the embedded part and total overlap length, the strength of the joint was considerably increased. The increase of the length of the embedded part was initially led to an increase in the strength of the joints but after 0.25 value of the b/c the strength was reduced.

  6. Modelling the Thermomechanical Conditions in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich

    Friction Stir Welding is a solid-state welding process invented by TWI in 1991. The FSW process is unique in the sense that joining of un-weldable alloys readily can be made. The thermomechanical conditions present in the workpiece during the welding process are of great interest since...... these control the properties of the weld. In the present work, a set of experimental, analytical and numerical analyses are carried out in order to evaluate the thermomechanical conditions descriptive for welding of aluminium, in this case AA2024-T3, under a specific set of welding parameters. Despite...... these specific data, the developed models can be applied for other alloys and welding parameters as well. A detailed experiment is carried out which constitutes the basis for the development and validation of the numerical and analytical models presented in this work. The contact condition at the tool...

  7. 铬酸盐化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [ 篇名] Chromate-free conversion coatings for aluminum, [篇名 ] Chrome-Free Conversion Coating for in Service Repair of Aircraft Components, [ 篇名 ] Chromium remediation or release: effect of iron (Ⅱ)sulfate addition on chromium (Ⅵ) leaching from columns of chromite ore processing residue, [篇名] Coating steel wires by polymers in hydrodynamic drawing, [篇名 ] Composition of chromate conversion coatings formed on multi-layered thin films of AA2024-T3 matrix and Al{sub}2Cu, Al{sub}CuMg and Al{sub}20Cu {sub }2(MnFe){ sub } 3, [篇名] Conversion coating science and technology: is it evolving or is it stuck? [篇名] Corrosion and biofouling control in refinery cooling water system using sewage water as a makeup.

  8. Depletion of spleen macrophages delays AA amyloid development: a study performed in the rapid mouse model of AA amyloidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lundmark

    Full Text Available AA amyloidosis is a systemic disease that develops secondary to chronic inflammatory diseases Macrophages are often found in the vicinity of amyloid deposits and considered to play a role in both formation and degradation of amyloid fibrils. In spleen reside at least three types of macrophages, red pulp macrophages (RPM, marginal zone macrophages (MZM, metallophilic marginal zone macrophages (MMZM. MMZM and MZM are located in the marginal zone and express a unique collection of scavenger receptors that are involved in the uptake of blood-born particles. The murine AA amyloid model that resembles the human form of the disease has been used to study amyloid effects on different macrophage populations. Amyloid was induced by intravenous injection of amyloid enhancing factor and subcutaneous injections of silver nitrate and macrophages were identified with specific antibodies. We show that MZMs are highly sensitive to amyloid and decrease in number progressively with increasing amyloid load. Total area of MMZMs is unaffected by amyloid but cells are activated and migrate into the white pulp. In a group of mice spleen macrophages were depleted by an intravenous injection of clodronate filled liposomes. Subsequent injections of AEF and silver nitrate showed a sustained amyloid development. RPMs that constitute the majority of macrophages in spleen, appear insensitive to amyloid and do not participate in amyloid formation.

  9. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with alopecia areata (AA): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lucy Y; King, Brett A; Craiglow, Brittany G

    2016-10-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common skin disease that is frequently emotionally devastating. Several studies have examined the effect of AA on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We performed a systematic review of all published studies of HRQoL in patients with AA. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria, incorporating data from 1986 patients. Patients with AA consistently demonstrate poor HRQoL scores, with greater extent of scalp involvement associated with lower HRQoL. HRQoL experienced by patients with AA is similar to that seen in patients with other chronic skin diseases including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  10. Colloidal Drop Deposition on Porous Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Pack, Min; Hu, Han; Kim, Dong-Ook; Yang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Printable electronics and in particular paper and textile-based electronics have fueled research in inkjet printing on porous substrates. On nonporous substrates, the particle motion of the particles and evaporation of the solvent are the two main mechanisms that drive the final deposition morphology. For porous substrates another factor, mainly infiltration, adds a layer of complexity to the deposition patterns that has not yet been elucidated in literature. In this study, a high-speed camera was used to capture the imbibition of picoliter-sized polystyrene nanoparticles in water droplets into nano-porous anodic aluminum oxide substrates of various porosities and wettabilities. For water, the infiltration rate is much faster than both evaporation and particle motion and thus when the substrate fully imbibes the droplet, the well-known ``coffee ring'' is suppressed. However, when a residual droplet forms upon the termination of the infiltration regime, the competing particle motion and evaporation regimes, tP and tEI respectively, define the critical time scales for which the coffee ring will be formed (tP /tEI 1). National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1401438.

  11. Proteomic analysis of Cry2Aa-binding proteins and their receptor function in Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Ma, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Lizhen

    2017-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces Crystal (Cry) proteins that are toxic to a diverse range of insects. Transgenic crops that produce Bt Cry proteins are grown worldwide because of their improved resistance to insect pests. Although Bt “pyramid” cotton that produces both Cry1A and Cry2A is predicted to be more resistant to several lepidopteran pests, including Spodoptera exigua, than plants that produce Cry1Ac alone, the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of Cry2Aa in S. exigua are not well understood. We identified several proteins that bind Cry2Aa (polycalin, V-ATPase subunits A and B, actin, 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase [4-HB-CoAT]), and a receptor for activated protein kinase C (Rack), in S. exigua. Recombinant, expressed versions of these proteins were able to bind the Cry2Aa toxin in vitro assays. RNA interference gene knockdown of the Se-V-ATPase subunit B significantly decreased the susceptibility of S. exigua larvae to Cry2Aa, whereas knockdown of the other putative binding proteins did not. Moreover, an in vitro homologous competition assay demonstrated that the Se-V-ATPase subunit B binds specifically to the Cry2Aa toxin, suggesting that this protein acts as a functional receptor of Cry2Aa in S. exigua. This the first Cry2Aa toxin receptor identified in S. exigua brush-border membrane vesicles. PMID:28067269

  12. Substrate recognition by ribonucleoprotein ribonuclease MRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakova, Olga; Perederina, Anna; Quan, Chao; Berezin, Igor; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2011-02-01

    The ribonucleoprotein complex ribonuclease (RNase) MRP is a site-specific endoribonuclease essential for the survival of the eukaryotic cell. RNase MRP closely resembles RNase P (a universal endoribonuclease responsible for the maturation of the 5' ends of tRNA) but recognizes distinct substrates including pre-rRNA and mRNA. Here we report the results of an in vitro selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP substrates starting from a pool of random sequences. The results indicate that RNase MRP cleaves single-stranded RNA and is sensitive to sequences in the immediate vicinity of the cleavage site requiring a cytosine at the position +4 relative to the cleavage site. Structural implications of the differences in substrate recognition by RNases P and MRP are discussed.

  13. Thermal Oxidation of Silicon Carbide Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufang Chen; Li'na Ning; Yingmin Wang; Juan Li; Xiangang Xu; Xiaobo Hu; Minhua Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Thermal oxidation was used to remove the subsurface damage of silicon carbide (SiC) surfaces. The anisotrow of oxidation and the composition of oxide layers on Si and C faces were analyzed. Regular pits were observed on the surface after the removal of the oxide layers, which were detrimental to the growth of high quality epitaxial layers. The thickness and composition of the oxide layers were characterized by Rutherford backscat-tering spectrometry (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Epitaxial growth was performed in a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The substrate surface morphol-ogy after removing the oxide layer and gallium nitride (GaN) epilayer surface were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the GaN epilayer grown on the oxidized substrates was superior to that on the unoxidized substrates.

  14. Methods of selectively incorporating metals onto substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst; Richard D. (Salt Lake City, UT), Eyring; Edward M. (Salt Lake City, UT), Turpin; Gregory C. (Salt Lake City, UT), Dunn; Brian C. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2008-09-30

    A method for forming multi-metallic sites on a substrate is disclosed and described. A substrate including active groups such as hydroxyl can be reacted with a pretarget metal complex. The target metal attached to the active group can then be reacted with a secondary metal complex such that an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction occurs to form a multi-metallic species. The substrate can be a highly porous material such as aerogels, xerogels, zeolites, and similar materials. Additional metal complexes can be reacted to increase catalyst loading or control co-catalyst content. The resulting compounds can be oxidized to form oxides or reduced to form metals in the ground state which are suitable for practical use.

  15. Plasma jet printing for flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Singh, Eric; Diaz-Cartagena, Diana C.; Nordlund, Dennis; Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2016-03-01

    Recent interest in flexible electronics and wearable devices has created a demand for fast and highly repeatable printing processes suitable for device manufacturing. Robust printing technology is critical for the integration of sensors and other devices on flexible substrates such as paper and textile. An atmospheric pressure plasma-based printing process has been developed to deposit different types of nanomaterials on flexible substrates. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were deposited on paper to demonstrate site-selective deposition as well as direct printing without any type of patterning. Plasma-printed nanotubes were compared with non-plasma-printed samples under similar gas flow and other experimental conditions and found to be denser with higher conductivity. The utility of the nanotubes on the paper substrate as a biosensor and chemical sensor was demonstrated by the detection of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, and ammonia, respectively.

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Aa2 toxin disrupts cell membranes by forming large protein aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharad, Sudarat; Toca-Herrera, José L.; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Krittanai, Chartchai

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cyt2Aa2 showed toxicity against Dipteran insect larvae and in vitro lysis activity on several cells. It has potential applications in the biological control of insect larvae. Although pore-forming and/or detergent-like mechanisms were proposed, the mechanism underlying cytolytic activity remains unclear. Analysis of the haemolytic activity of Cyt2Aa2 with osmotic stabilizers revealed partial toxin inhibition, suggesting a distinctive mechanism from the putative pore formation model. Membrane permeability was studied using fluorescent dye entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) at various protein/lipid molar ratios. Binding of Cyt2Aa2 monomer to the lipid membrane did not disturb membrane integrity until the critical protein/lipid molar ratio was reached, when Cyt2Aa2 complexes and cytolytic activity were detected. The complexes are large aggregates that appeared as a ladder when separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Interaction of Cyt2Aa2 with Aedes albopictus cells was investigated by confocal microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF). The results showed that Cyt2Aa2 binds on the cell membrane at an early stage without cell membrane disruption. Protein aggregation on the cell membrane was detected later which coincided with cell swelling. Cyt2Aa2 aggregations on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) were visualized by AFM. The AFM topographic images revealed Cyt2Aa2 aggregates on the lipid bilayer at low protein concentration and subsequently disrupts the lipid bilayer by forming a lesion as the protein concentration increased. These results supported the mechanism whereby Cyt2Aa2 binds and aggregates on the lipid membrane leading to the formation of non-specific hole and disruption of the cell membrane. PMID:27612497

  17. Pentamines as substrate for human spermine oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Koichi; Shirahata, Akira; Samejima, Keijiro; Casero, Robert A.; Igarashi, Kazuei; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Substrate activities of various linear polyamines to human spermine oxidase (hSMO) were investigated. The activities were evaluated by monitoring the amount of H2O2 released from sample polyamines by hSMO. H2O2 was measured by a HPLC method that analyzed fluorescent dimers derived from the oxidation of homovanillic acid in the presence of horseradish peroxidase. Six triamines were tested and were found not to be hSMO substrates. Of sixteen tetramines tested, spermine (Spm) was the most active substrate, followed by homospermine and N-butylated Spm. Pentamines showed a characteristic pattern of substrate activity. Of thirteen pentamines tested, 3343 showed higher substrate activity than Spm, and 4343 showed similar activity to Spm. The activities of the other pentamines were as follows: 3443, 4443, 4344, 3344, 4334, 4444, and 3334 (in decreasing order). Product amines released from these pentamines by hSMO were then analyzed by HPLC. Triamine was the only observed product, and the amount of triamine was nearly equivalent to that of released H2O2. A marked difference in the pH dependency curves between tetramines and pentamines suggested that hSMO favored reactions with a non-protonated secondary nitrogen at the cleavage site. The Km and Vmax values for Spm and 3343 at pH 7.0 and 9.0 were consistent with the higher substrate activity of 3343 compared to Spm, as well as with the concept of a non-protonated secondary nitrogen at the cleavage site being preferred, and 3343 was well degraded at a physiological pH by hSMO. PMID:23449327

  18. Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, R.; Ayers, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2008-12-23

    The goal of the Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate project is to reduce the size and weight of the heat sink for power electronics used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The concept proposed in this project was to develop an innovative power electronics mounting structure, model it, and perform both thermal and mechanical finite-element analysis (FEA). This concept involved integrating cooling channels within the direct-bonded copper (DBC) substrate and strategically locating these channels underneath the power electronic devices. This arrangement would then be directly cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG), essentially eliminating the conventional heat sink and associated heat flow path. The concept was evaluated to determine its manufacturability, its compatibility with WEG, and the potential to reduce size and weight while directly cooling the DBC and associated electronics with a coolant temperature of 105 C. This concept does not provide direct cooling to the electronics, only direct cooling inside the DBC substrate itself. These designs will take into account issues such as containment of the fluid (separation from the electronics) and synergy with the whole power inverter design architecture. In FY 2008, mechanical modeling of substrate and inverter core designs as well as thermal and mechanical stress FEA modeling of the substrate designs was performed, along with research into manufacturing capabilities and methods that will support the substrate designs. In FY 2009, a preferred design(s) will be fabricated and laboratory validation testing will be completed. In FY 2010, based on the previous years laboratory testing, the mechanical design will be modified and the next generation will be built and tested in an operating inverter prototype.

  19. Substrates for clinical applicability of stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjar Enam; Sha Jin

    2015-01-01

    The capability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs)to differentiate into a variety of cells in the human bodyholds great promise for regenerative medicine. Manysubstrates exist on which hPSCs can be self-renewed,maintained and expanded to further the goal of clinicalapplication of stem cells. In this review, we highlightnumerous extracellular matrix proteins, peptide andpolymer based substrates, scaffolds and hydrogelsthat have been pioneered. We discuss their benefitsand shortcomings and offer future directions as well asemphasize commercially available synthetic peptidesas a type of substrate that can bring the benefits ofregenerative medicine to clinical settings.

  20. Method for Producing Substrates for Superconducting Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    There is provided a method for producing a substrate suitable for supporting an elongated superconducting element, wherein one or more elongated strips of masking material are placed on a solid element (202) so as to form one or more exposed elongated areas being delimited on one or two sides...... the portion of filling material and the solid element. The method may further comprise placing buffer material (640) and or superconducting material (642, 644, 646)) on the substrate, so as to provide a superconducting structure (601) with reduced AC losses....

  1. Flexible, light trapping substrates for organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonseok; Berger, Jana; Tang, Zheng; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Lasagni, Andrés Fabián; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl

    2016-08-01

    Micro-structured organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices on polyethylene terephthalate substrates are produced using direct laser interference patterning (DLIP). The performance of organic solar cells on these substrates is improved by a factor of 1.16, and a power conversion efficiency of 7.70% is achieved. We show that a shorter spatial period of the pattern allows for a stronger light trapping effect in solar cell, as it leads to a longer light path. Moreover, since the patterned structures are located on the outside of the fully encapsulated OPV devices, there are no problems with the roughness induced shunts.

  2. Determination of Glucose by Affinity Adsorption Solid Substrate-room Temperature Phosphorimetry Based on Triticum Vulgare Lectin Labeled with Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticle Containing Fiuorescein Isothiocyanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jia-Ming; LIU Zhen-Bo; LI Zhi-Ming; HE Hang-Xia; LIN Wei-Nü; HUANG Ya-Hong; WANG Fang-Mei

    2008-01-01

    In the presence of heavy atom perturber Pb2+,silicon dioxide nanoparticle containing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-SiO2) could emit a strong and stable room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) signal on the surface of acetyl cellulose membrane (ACM).It was found in the research that a quantitative specific affinity adsorption (AA) reaction between triticum vulgare lectin (WGA) labeled with luminescent nanoparticle and glucose (g)could be carried on the surface of ACM.The product (WGA-G-WGA-FITC-SiO2) of the reaction could emit a stronger RTP signal,and the △Ip had linear correlation to the content of G.According to the facts above,a new method to determine G by affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry (AA-SS-RTP) was established,based on WGA labeled with FITC-SiO2.The detection limit (LD) of this method calculated by 3Sb/k was 0.47 pg·spot-1 (corresponding to a concentration value 1.2 × 10-9 g·mL-1,namely 5.3 × 10-9 mol·L-1),the sensitivity was high.Meanwhile,the mechanism for the determination of G by AA-SS-RTP was discussed.

  3. High alcohol production by solid substrate fermentation from starchy substrates using thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sree, N.K.; Sridhar, M.; Suresh, K.; Rao, L.V. [Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    1999-06-01

    Solid Substrate Fermentation system (SSF) was used to produce ethanol from various starchy substrates like sweet sorghum, sweet potato, wheat flour, rice starch, soluble starch and potato starch using thermotolerant yeast isolate (VS{sub 3}) by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. Alcohol produced was estimated by gas chromatography after an incubation time of 96 hrs at 37 C and 42 C. More ethanol was produced from rice starch and sweet sorghum. The maximum amount of ethanol produced from these substrates using VS{sub 3} was 10 g/100 g and 3.5 g/100 g substrate (rice starch) and 8.2 g and 7.5 g/100 g substrate (sweet sorghum) at 37 C and 42 C respectively. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs.

  4. Multicomponent He I 10830 {\\AA} profiles in an active filament

    CERN Document Server

    Sasso, C; Solanki, S K

    2011-01-01

    We present new spectropolarimetric observations of the chromospheric He I 10830 {\\AA} multiplet observed in a filament during its phase of activity. The data were recorded with the new Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP-II) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on 2005 May 18. We inverted the He Stokes profiles using multiple atmospheric components. The observed He Stokes profiles display a remarkably wide variety of shapes. Most of the profiles show very broad Stokes I absorptions and complex and spatially variable Stokes V signatures. The inversion of the profiles shows evidence of different atmospheric blue- and redshifted components of the He I lines within the resolution element (1 arcsec), with supersonic velocities of up to 100 km/s. Up to five different atmospheric components are found in the same profile. We show that even these complex profiles can be reliably inverted.

  5. Ultrasonic inspection of AA6013 laser welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Passini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in laser beam welding for aerospace applications is continuously growing, mainly for aluminum alloys. The joints quality is usually assessed by non-destructive inspection (NDI. In this work, bead on plate laser welds on 1.6 mm thick AA6013 alloy sheets, using a 2 kW Yb-fiber laser were obtained and inspected by pulse/echo ultrasonic phased-array technique. Good and poor quality welds were inspected in order to verify the limits of inspection, comparing also to X-ray radiography and metallographic inspections. The results showed that ultrasonic phased array technique was able to identify the presence of grouped porosity, through the attenuation of the amplitude of the echo signal. This attenuation is attributed to the scattering of the waves caused by micro pores, with individual size below the resolution limit of the equipment, but when grouped, can cause a perceptive effect on the reflection spectra.

  6. AA, radiation shielding curtain along the target area

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    At the far left is the beam tube for the high-intensity proton beam from the 26 GeV PS. The tube ends in a thin window and the proton beam continues in air through a hole in the shielding blocks (see also 8010308), behind which the target (see 7905091, 7905094)was located. After the target followed the magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons, and the first part of the injection line with a proton dump. The antiprotons, deflected by a magnet, left the target area through another shielding wall, to make their way to the AA ring. Laterally, this sequence of components was shielded with movable, suspended, concrete blocks: the "curtain". Balasz Szeless, who had constructed it, is standing at its side.

  7. Co-deposition of basement membrane components during the induction of murine splenic AA amyloid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, A W; Narindrasorasak, S; Young, I D

    1991-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that during murine AA amyloid induction there is co-deposition of the AA amyloid peptide and the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The synthesis and accumulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan does not usually occur in the absence of other bas...... enhancing factor induction of amyloid, the period when amyloid is first detected. These observations raise the possibility that an abnormality in basement membrane metabolism is a very early event, and potentially plays an integral part in the process of AA amyloidogenesis....

  8. Renal AA amyloidosis in a patient with hereditary complete complement C4 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Helal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary complete C4 deficiency has until now been reported in 30 cases only. A disturbed clearance of immune- complexes probably predisposes these individuals to systemic lupus erythematosus, other immune- complex diseases and recurrent microbial infections. We present here a 20- year- old female with hereditary complete C4 deficiency. Renal biopsy demonstrated renal AA amyloidosis. This unique case further substantiates that deficiency of classical pathway components predisposes to the development of recurrent microbial infections and that the patients may develop AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, in clinical practice, the nephrotic syndrome occurring in a patient with hereditary complete complement C4 deficiency should lead to the suspicion of renal AA amyloidosis.

  9. Purification of a cytochrome bc1-aa3 supercomplex with quinol oxidase activity from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    OpenAIRE

    Niebisch, A.; Bott, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aerobic respiratory chain of the Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum involves a bc(1) complex with a diheme cytochrome c(1) and a cytochrome aa(3) oxidase but no additional c-type cytochromes. Here we show that the two enzymes form a supercomplex, because affinity chromatography of either strep-tagged cytochrome b (QcrB) or strep-tagged subunit I (CtaD) of cytochrome aa(3) always resulted in the copurification of the subunits of the bc(1) complex (QcrA, QcrB, QcrC) and the aa(3) comp...

  10. Substrate quality alters the microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent, among other factors, on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial decomposition of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days were sufficient to model the decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but were insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality exerts considerable control on the microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and complex substrates.

  11. An Update on the AAS Astronomy Ambassadors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienberg, Richard T.; Gurton, S.; Fraknoi, A.; Prather, E. E.; Hurst, A.; Schatz, D. L.

    2013-06-01

    The American Astronomical Society, partnering with organizations active in science education and public outreach (EPO), has launched a series of professional-development workshops and a community of practice designed to help improve early-career astronomers’ ability to effectively communicate with students and the public. Called Astronomy Ambassadors, the program provides mentoring and training experiences for young astronomers, from advanced undergraduates to beginning faculty; it also provides access to resources and a network of contacts within the astronomy EPO community. By learning how to implement effective education and outreach strategies, Astronomy Ambassadors become better teachers, better presenters at meetings, and better representatives of our science to the public and to government. And because young astronomers are a more diverse group than those who currently do the majority of outreach, they help the astronomical community present a more multicultural and gender-balanced face to the public, enabling members of underserved groups to see themselves as scientists. Ambassadors are provided with a large library of outreach activities and materials that are suitable for a range of venues and audiences and that will grow with time. For much of this library we are using resources developed by organizations such as the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the Pacific Science Center, and the Center for Astronomy Education for other outreach programs, though some resources have been created by one of us (AF) specifically for this program. The first Astronomy Ambassadors workshop was held at the 221st meeting of the AAS in January 2013 and served 30 young astronomers chosen from more than 75 applicants. Incorporating feedback from workshop participants and lessons learned from the reports they’ve submitted after conducting their own outreach events, we are now planning the second annual workshop to be held 4-5 January 2014 at the 223rd AAS meeting in

  12. Spreading of liquid drops over porous substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starov, V M; Zhdanov, S A; Kosvintsev, S R; Sobolev, V D; Velarde, M G

    2003-07-01

    The spreading of small liquid drops over thin and thick porous layers (dry or saturated with the same liquid) has been investigated in the case of both complete wetting (silicone oils of different viscosities) and partial wetting (aqueous SDS solutions of different concentrations). Nitrocellulose membranes of different porosity and different average pore size have been used as a model of thin porous layers, glass and metal filters have been used as a model of thick porous substrates. The first problem under investigation has been the spreading of small liquid drops over thin porous layers saturated with the same liquid. An evolution equation describing the drop spreading has been deduced, which showed that both an effective lubrication and the liquid exchange between the drop and the porous substrates are equally important. Spreading of silicone oils over different nitrocellulose microfiltration membranes was carried out. The experimental laws of the radius of spreading on time confirmed the theory predictions. The spreading of small liquid drops over thin dry porous layers has also been investigated from both theoretical and experimental points of view. The drop motion over a dry porous layer appears caused by the interplay of two processes: (a). the spreading of the drop over already saturated parts of the porous layer, which results in a growth of the drop base, and (b). the imbibition of the liquid from the drop into the porous substrate, which results in a shrinkage of the drop base and a growth of the wetted region inside the porous layer. As a result of these two competing processes the radius of the drop base goes through a maximum as time proceeds. A system of two differential equations has been derived to describe the time evolution of the radii of both the drop base and the wetted region inside the porous layer. This system includes two parameters, one accounts for the effective lubrication coefficient of the liquid over the wetted porous substrate, and

  13. MIXED SUBSTRATES IN ENVIRONMENT AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern literature and own experimental data on the use of substrates’ mixtures for intensification of microbial synthesis technologies of practically valuable fermentation products (ethanol, lactic acid, butanediol, primary (amino acids, n-hydroxybenzoate, triglycerides and secondary (lovastatin, surfactants metabolites as well as for intensification of biodegradation of aromatic xenobiotics (benzene, cresols, phenols, toluene and pesticides (dimethoate are presented. Special attention is paid on the molecular mechanisms that were established in recent years and underlying the phenomenon catabolic repression in Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli bacteria and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and on the use of these data to develop technologies for utilization of plant biomass to produce industrially important metabolites. The survival strategies of heterotrophic microorganisms in natural oligotrophic environments are considered, including the simultaneous use of multiple substrates, allowing improved kinetic characteristics that give them a competitive advantage, also provided significant metabolic/physiological flexibility. The own experimental data on the use of mixtures of growth substrates for the intensification of surfactants’ synthesis of Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017 and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 are summarized. The dependence of the synthesis of surfactants in a mixture of energy excess (hexadecane and energy deficient (glycerol, ethanol substrates on the way of inoculum preparation, concentration of mono-substrates in the mixture, and their molar ratio were determined.

  14. Buckling Behavior of Substrate Supported Graphene Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuijian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm, both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.

  15. Biofunctional Micropatterning of Thermoformed 3D Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterkotte, B.; Bally, F.; Nikolov, P.M.; Waldbaur, A.; Rapp, B.E.; Truckenmuller, R.K.; Lahann, J.; Schmitz, K.; Giselbrecht, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mimicking the in vivo microenvironment of cells is a challenging task in engineering in vitro cell models. Surface functionalization is one of the key components providing biochemical cues to regulate the interaction between cells and their substrate. In this study, two different approaches yield bi

  16. Drying of Pigment-Cellulose Nanofibril Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Timofeev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new substrate containing cellulose nanofibrils and inorganic pigment particles has been developed for printed electronics applications. The studied composite structure contains 80% fillers and is mechanically stable and flexible. Before drying, the solids content can be as low as 20% due to the high water binding capacity of the cellulose nanofibrils. We have studied several drying methods and their effects on the substrate properties. The aim is to achieve a tight, smooth surface keeping the drying efficiency simultaneously at a high level. The methods studied include: (1 drying on a hot metal surface; (2 air impingement drying; and (3 hot pressing. Somewhat surprisingly, drying rates measured for the pigment-cellulose nanofibril substrates were quite similar to those for the reference board sheets. Very high dewatering rates were observed for the hot pressing at high moisture contents. The drying method had significant effects on the final substrate properties, especially on short-range surface smoothness. The best smoothness was obtained with a combination of impingement and contact drying. The mechanical properties of the sheets were also affected by the drying method and associated temperature.

  17. Bicarbonate is a recycling substrate for cyanase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.V.; Anderson, P.M.

    1987-05-01

    Cyanase catalyzes HCO/sub 3//sup -/-dependent decomposition of cyanate to NH/sub 4//sup +/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/. Previous studies provided evidence that carbamate is an initial product and that the kinetic mechanism is rapid equilibrium random (HCO/sub 3//sup -/ serving as substrate as opposed to activator). Direct evidence for this mechanism was obtained in this study by (1) identifying the products formed from (/sup 14/C)HCO/sub 3//sup -/ or (/sup 14/C)OCN/sup -/, (2) identifying the products formed from (/sup 13/C)HCO/sub 3//sup -/ in the presence of (/sup 18/O)H/sub 2/O, and (3) determining whether CO/sub 2/ or HCO/sub 3//sup -/ serve as substrate and are formed as product. Carbon dioxide (not HCO/sub 3//sup -/) is produced in stoichiometric amounts from both HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and OCN/sup -/. Bicarbonate (not CO/sub 2/) is the substrate. Oxygen-18 from (/sup 18/O)H/sub 2/O is not incorporated into CO/sub 2/ formed from either HCO/sub 3//sup -/ or OCN/sup -/. These results indicate that decomposition of cyanate is not a hydrolysis reaction and that HCO/sub 3//sup -/ functions as a substrate.

  18. Bicarbonate is a recycling substrate for cyanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W V; Anderson, P M

    1987-07-01

    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes bicarbonate-dependent decomposition of cyanate to ammonia and bicarbonate. Previous studies provided evidence that carbamate is an initial product and that the kinetic mechanism is rapid equilibrium random (bicarbonate serving as substrate as opposed to activator); the following mechanism was proposed (Anderson, P. M. (1980) Biochemistry 19, 2282-2888; Anderson, P. M., and Little, R. M. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 1621-1626). (formula; see text) Direct evidence for this mechanism was obtained in this study by 1) determining whether CO2 or HCO3- serves as substrate and is formed as product, 2) identifying the products formed from [14C]HCO3- and [14C] OCN-, 3) identifying the products formed from [13C] HCO3- and [12C]OCN- in the presence of [18O]H2O, and 4) determining whether 18O from [18O]HCO3- is incorporated into CO2 derived from OCN-. Bicarbonate (not CO2) is the substrate. Carbon dioxide (not HCO3-) is produced in stoichiometric amounts from both HCO3- and OCN-. 18O from [18O]H2O is not incorporated into CO2 formed from either HCO3- or OCN-. Oxygen-18 from [18O]HCO3- is incorporated into CO2 derived from OCN-. These results support the above mechanism, indicating that decomposition of cyanate catalyzed by cyanase is not a hydrolysis reaction and that bicarbonate functions as a recycling substrate.

  19. Robust fabric substrates for photonic textile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Pieterson, L.; Bouten, P.C.P.; Kriege, J.C.; Bhattacharya, R.

    2010-01-01

    A fabric substrate is described for electronic textile with robust interwoven connections between the conductive yarns in it. The fabric's robustness, as a function of the electrical reliability of its conductive yarn connections, is shown to hold over large deformations.This fabric is then used to

  20. Instabilities of soft films on compliant substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M. A.; Li, B.; Feng, X. Q.; Kuhl, E.

    2017-01-01

    Instabilities in bilayered systems can generate a wide variety of patterns ranging from simple folds, wrinkles, and creases to complex checkerboards, hexagons, and herringbones. Physics-based theories traditionally model these systems as a thin film on a thick substrate under confined compression and assume that the film is orders of magnitude stiffer than the substrate. However, instability phenomena in soft films on soft substrates remain insufficiently understood. Here we show that soft bilayered systems are highly sensitive to the stiffness ratio, boundary conditions, and mode of compression. In a systematic analysis over a wide range of stiffness ratios, from 0.1 domain compression, substrate prestretch, and film growth, we observe significantly different instability characteristics in the low-stiffness-contrast regime, for β domain compression are unstable for a wide range of wrinkling modes, under film-only compression, the same systems display distinct wrinkling modes.Strikingly, these discrepancies disappear when using measures of effective strain, effective stiffness, and effective wavelength. Our study suggests that future instability studies should use these effective measures to standardize their findings. Our results have important applications in soft matter and living matter physics, where stiffness contrasts are low and small environmental changes can have large effects on morphogenesis, pattern tabselection, and the evolution of shape.

  1. Cathodoluminescence Microscopy of nanostructures on glass substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narvaez, A.C.; Weppelman, I.G.C.; Moerland, R.J.; Liv, N.; Zonnevylle, A.C.; Kruit, P.; Hoogenboom, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy is an emerging analysis technique in the fields of biology and photonics, where it is used for the characterization of nanometer sized structures. For these applications, the use of transparent substrates might be highly preferred, but the detection of CL from nan

  2. Characterization of AA7050 aluminium alloy processed by ECAP; Caracterizacao da liga de aluminio AA7050 processada por ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, K.R.; Guido, V. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento; Travessa, D.N. [Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica (EMBRAER), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Jorge Junior, A.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The commercial AA7050 aluminium alloy in the solution heat treated condition (W) was processed by ECAP through route A. Two pressing temperatures (room and 150 deg C and velocities (5 and 30mm/min) were used, as well as different number of passes. The effect of such variables on the microstructure evolution was evaluated using optical and transmission electron microscopy with EDX microanalysis, and xray diffraction. It was found that the microstructure has been refined by ECAP, as a result of subgrains formed within deformation bands. ECAP at 150 deg C resulted in intense precipitation of plate like {eta} phase, which evolves to equiaxial morphology as the number of passes increases. (author)

  3. Potential of enzymatic kinetic resolution using solid substrates suspension: improved yield, productivity, substrate concentration, and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff; van Asperen V; Straathof; Heijnen

    1999-03-01

    In the literature the enzymatic kinetic resolution of a suspension of a solid substrate has largely been treated as a conventional kinetic resolution of a fully dissolved substrate. In this paper it is shown that this type of kinetic resolution is different in several important aspects. Quantitative models are developed for two types of such suspension processes. These models are used to compare the merits of these processes with the conventional kinetic resolution process where fully dissolved substrate is used. In the suspension processes the liquid phase concentration of substrate enantiomer that should be converted can be kept close to the maximum value, i.e., the solubility, when process conditions are properly chosen, whereas in a conventional process this concentration gradually decreases. Calculations show that this leads to a productivity that is about 6-fold higher in the suspension processes. Also, for enzymes with a low enantioselectivity, a severalfold increase in yield of remaining enantiopure substrate is predicted compared to the conventional kinetic resolution of dissolved enantiomers. Other potential advantages of using suspension reactions are that the initial substrate concentration may be higher (up to 25% (w/w)) and that the desired remaining substrate may be recovered by simply filtering off the solid crystals. Experimental evidence that these merits can be exploited is only partly given, using the few available examples from the literature.

  4. Silvering substrates after CO2 snow cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Richard R.

    2005-09-01

    There have been some questions in the astronomical community concerning the quality of silver coatings deposited on substrates that have been cleaned with carbon dioxide snow. These questions center around the possible existence of carbonate ions left behind on the substrate by CO2. Such carbonate ions could react with deposited silver to produce insoluble silver carbonate, thereby reducing film adhesion and reflectivity. Carbonate ions could be produced from CO2 via the following mechanism. First, during CO2 snow cleaning, a small amount of moisture can condense on a surface. This is especially true if the jet of CO2 is allowed to dwell on one spot. CO2 gas can dissolve in this moisture, producing carbonic acid, which can undergo two acid dissociations to form carbonate ions. In reality, it is highly unlikely that charged carbonate ions will remain stable on a substrate for very long. As condensed water evaporates, Le Chatelier's principle will shift the equilibrium of the chain of reactions that produced carbonate back to CO2 gas. Furthermore, the hydration of CO2 reaction of CO2 with H20) is an extremely slow process, and the total dehydrogenation of carbonic acid is not favored. Living tissues that must carry out the equilibration of carbonic acid and CO2 use the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to speed up the reaction by a factor of one million. But no such enzymatic action is present on a clean mirror substrate. In short, the worst case analysis presented below shows that the ratio of silver atoms to carbonate radicals must be at least 500 million to one. The results of chemical tests presented here support this view. Furthermore, film lift-off tests, also presented in this report, show that silver film adhesion to fused silica substrates is actually enhanced by CO2 snow cleaning.

  5. Peaprokurör: kaevake kartellide peale! / Kadri Paas ; kommenteerinud Norman Aas ; Indrek, Kaju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mille kohaselt salajasest kartellileppest esimesena võimudele teatanud ettevõte pääseb vastutasuks karistusest. Kommenteerivad peaprokurör Norman Aas ning Neste Eesti peadirektor Indrek Kaju

  6. Siim Kallas seab Lumani argumendid kahtluse alla / Kadri Paas ; kommenteerinud Norman Aas, Juhan Põldroos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mille eesmärgiks on tõhustada võitlust kartellidega ja muude raskete konkurentsiõiguse rikkumistega nn leebusprogrammi abil. Kommenteerivad peaprokurör Norman Aas ja Juhan Põldroos

  7. Vip3Aa induces apoptosis in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kun; Mei, Si-Qi; Wang, Ting-Ting; Pan, Jin-Hua; Chen, Yue-Hua; Cai, Jun

    2016-09-15

    The vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) secreted by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage are regarded as second generation insecticidal proteins, as they share no sequence or structural homology with known crystal insecticidal proteins (Cry) and have a broad insecticidal spectrum. Compared with insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs), the insecticidal mechanisms of Vips have been little studied. Here we investigated the mechanism responsible for Vip3Aa toxicity in cultured insect cells. Using, flow cytometry analyzes, TUNEL staining and DNA fragmentation assays, we show that Vip3Aa can induce apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and cause cells to arrest at the G2/M phase. We also show that Vip3Aa can disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), leading to the activation of Sf-caspase-1, suggesting that a mitochondrial mediated and caspase dependent pathway may be involved in Vip3Aa-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells.

  8. Gaia16aas, Gaia16ade and Gaia16adz transients confirmed by Euler imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Roelens, M.; Semaan, T.; Palaversa, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Eyer, L.

    2016-02-01

    We report confirmation of Gaia Science Alerts transients Gaia16aas, Gaia16ade and Gaia16adz. Images were obtained through modified Gunn R band filter of the ECAM instrument installed on the Swiss 1.2m Euler telescope at La Silla, on 2016 February 18 - 24 UT. These new sources are cataclysmic variable star candidates and they are not visible in archival 2MASS and DSS images: Gaia16aas, Gaia16ade and Gaia16adz.

  9. Preparation and Characteristics of Corn Straw-Co-AMPS-Co-AA Superabsorbent Hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the corn straw after removing the lignin was grafted with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) to prepare sulfonated cellulose. The grafting copolymerization between the sulfonated cellulose and acrylic acid (AA) was performed using potassium persulfate and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as the initiator and crosslinking agent, respectively, to prepare corn straw-co-AMPS-co-AA hydrogels. The structure and properties of the resulting hydrogels were characterized by Four...

  10. Nanomodeling of Nonlinear Thermoelastic Behavior of AA5454/ Silicon Nitride Nanoparticulate Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennakesava R Alavala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to estimate non-linear thermoelastic behavior of three-phase AA5454/silicon nitride nanoparticle metal matrix composites. The thermal loading was varied from subzero temperature to under recrystallization temperature. The RVE models were used to analyze thermo-elastic behavior. The AA5454/silicon nitride nanoparticle metal matrix composites have gained the elastic modulus below 0oC and lost at high temperatures.

  11. Overall view of the AA hall dominated by the 50 ton crane (Donges).

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A 50 ton, 32 metre span overhead travelling cranre was mounted in one of the bays of Hall 193 (AA). An identical crane was mounted on the other bay. See also photo 8004261. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  12. Friction welding of AA6061 to AISI 4340 using silver interlayer

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh D. Meshram; G. Madhusudhan Reddy

    2015-01-01

    The present work pertains to the study on joining of AA6061 and AISI 4340 through continuous drive friction welding. The welds were evaluated by metallographic examination, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, tensile test and microhardness. The study reveals that the presence of an intermetallic compound layer at the bonded interface exhibits poor tensile strength and elongation. Mg in AA6061 near to the interface is found to be favourable for the formation and growth of Fe2Al5 i...

  13. Influence of process parameters on physical dimensions of AA6063 aluminium alloy coating on mild steel in friction surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vijaya Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made in the present study to obtain the relationships among process parameters and physical dimensions of AA6063 aluminium alloy coating on IS2062 mild steel obtained through friction surfacing and their impact on strength and ductility of the coating. Factorial experimental design technique was used to investigate and select the parameter combination to achieve a coating with adequate strength and ductility. Spindle speed, axial force and table traverse speed were observed to be the most significant factors on physical dimensions. It was observed that the thickness of the coating decreased as the coating width increased. In addition, the width and thickness of the coatings are higher at low and high torques. At intermediate torque values, when the force is high, the width of the coating is high, and its thickness is thin; and when the force is low, the width and thickness are low. The interaction effect between axial force (F – table traverse speed (Vx and spindle speed (N – table traverse speed (Vx produced an increasing effect on coating width and thickness, but other interactions exhibited decreasing influence. It has also been observed that sound coatings could be obtained in a narrow set of parameter range as the substrate-coating materials are metallurgically incompatible and have a propensity to form brittle intermetallics.

  14. [Exposure degree of important non-target arthropods to Cry2Aa in Bt rice fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Ling; Li, Yun-He; Hua, Hong-Xia; Yang, Chang-Ju; Wu, Hong-Jin; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2013-06-01

    Based on the principle of "risk = hazard x exposure", the selected representative nontarget organisms in the assessment of the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops on non-target arthropods in laboratory are generally the arthropod species highly exposed to the insecticidal proteins expressed by the GM crops in farmland ecosystem. In order to understand the exposure degree of the important arthropod species to Cry proteins in Bt rice fields, and to select the appropriate non-target arthropods in the risk assessment of insect-resistant GM crops, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to measure the Cry2Aa protein concentration in the arthropods collected from the cry2Aa rice fields at different rice growth stages. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the Cry2Aa content protein concentration in different arthropod species. Some species did not contain Cry2Aa protein, while some species contained larger amounts of Cry2Aa protein. Relative to the arthropods colleted after rice anthesis, the arthropods colleted in rice anthesis contained relative higher concentrations of Cry2Aa protein, especially for the predacious arthropods. No Cry proteins were detected in parasitic arthropods. This study provided references for the laboratory assessment of the effects of GM rice on nontarget arthropods.

  15. Multiple Dirac particles in AA-stacked graphite and multilayers of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, I.; Partoens, B.

    2011-04-01

    Using the tight-binding formalism we show that in the recently experimentally realized AA-stacked graphite in essence two types of massless relativistic Dirac particles are present with a different effective speed of light. We also investigate how the electronic structure evolves from a single graphene sheet into AA-stacked graphite. It is shown that in contrast to AB-stacked graphene layers, the spectrum of AA-stacked graphene layers can be considered as a superposition of single-layer spectra and only particles with a linear spectrum at the Fermi energy around the K point are present. From the evolution of the band overlap we show that 6 multilayers of AA-stacked graphene already behave as AA-stacked graphite. The evolution of the effective speeds of light of the Dirac particles to their bulk values shows exactly the same behavior. The tight-binding parameters we use to describe AA-stacked graphite and multilayers of graphene are obtained by ab initio calculations.

  16. AA/12-lipoxygenase signaling contributes to inhibitory learning in Hermissenda Type B photoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony L Walker

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned inhibition (CI is a major category of associative learning that occurs when an organism learns that one stimulus predicts the absence of another. In addition to being important in its own right, CI is interesting because its occurrence implies that the organism has formed an association between stimuli that are non-coincident. In contrast to other categories of associative learning that are dependent upon temporal contiguity (pairings of stimuli, the neurobiology of CI is virtually unexplored. We have previously described a simple form of CI learning in Hermissenda, whereby animals’ phototactic behavior is increased by repeated exposures to explicitly unpaired (EU presentations of light and rotation. EU conditioning also produces characteristic reductions in the excitability and light response, and increases several somatic K+ currents in Type B photoreceptors. Type B photoreceptors are a major site of plasticity for classical conditioning in Hermissenda. Because arachidonic acid (AA and/or its metabolites open diverse K+ channels in many cell types, we examined the potential contribution of AA to CI. Our results indicate that AA contributes to one of the major effects of EU-conditioning on Type B photoreceptors: decreases in light-evoked spike activity. We find that AA increases the transient (IA somatic K+ current in Type B photoreceptors, further mimicking CI training. In addition, our results indicate that metabolism of AA by a 12-lipoxygenase enzyme is critical for these effects of AA, and further that 12-lipoxygenase metabolites are apparently generated during CI training.

  17. Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): Adverse effects on non-reproductive organs and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1970s anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused at ever increasing rates in competitive athletics, in recreational sports and in bodybuilding. Exceedingly high doses are often consumed over long periods, in particular by bodybuilders, causing acute or chronic adverse side effects frequently complicated by additional polypharmacy. This review summarizes side effects on non-reproductive organs and functions; effects on male and female reproduction have been recently reviewed in a parallel paper. Among the most striking AAS side effects are increases in haematocrit and coagulation causing thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke as well as other cardiac disturbances including arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies and possibly sudden death. 17α-alkylated AAS are liver toxic leading to cholestasis, peliosis, adenomas and carcinomas. Hyperbilirubinaemia can cause cholemic nephrosis and kidney failure. AAS abuse may induce exaggerated self-confidence, reckless behavior, aggressiveness and psychotic symptoms. AAS withdrawal may be accompanied by depression and suicidal intentions. Since AAS abuse is not or only reluctantly admitted physicians should be aware of the multitude of serious side effects when confronted with unclear symptoms.

  18. A novel Tenebrio molitor cadherin is a functional receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Lorenzen, Marcé D; Morris, Kaley; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2009-07-03

    Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are effective biological insecticides. Cadherin-like proteins have been reported as functional Cry1A toxin receptors in Lepidoptera. Here we present data that demonstrate that a coleopteran cadherin is a functional Cry3Aa toxin receptor. The Cry3Aa receptor cadherin was cloned from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut mRNA, and the predicted protein, TmCad1, has domain structure and a putative toxin binding region similar to those in lepidopteran cadherin B. thuringiensis receptors. A peptide containing the putative toxin binding region from TmCad1 bound specifically to Cry3Aa and promoted the formation of Cry3Aa toxin oligomers, proposed to be mediators of toxicity in lepidopterans. Injection of TmCad1-specific double-stranded RNA into T. molitor larvae resulted in knockdown of the TmCad1 transcript and conferred resistance to Cry3Aa toxicity. These data demonstrate the functional role of TmCad1 as a Cry3Aa receptor in T. molitor and reveal similarities between the mode of action of Cry toxins in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera.

  19. Insecticidal Activity and Histopathological Effects of Vip3Aa Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis on Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feifei; Lin, Yunfeng; Chen, Chen; Shao, Ensi; Guan, Xiong; Huang, Zhipeng

    2016-10-28

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) are insecticidal proteins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative stage of growth. In this study, Vip3Aa protein, obtained by in vitro expression of the vip3Aa gene from B. thuringiensis WB5, displayed high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura aside from Spodoptera exigua and Helicoverpa armigera. Bioassay results showed that the toxicity of Vip3Aa protein against S. litura larvae statistically decreased along with the increase of the age of the larvae, with LC50 = 2.609 ng/cm(2) for neonatal larvae, LC50 = 28.778 ng/cm(2) for first instar larvae, LC50 = 70.460 ng/cm(2) for second instar larvae, and LC50 = 200.627 ng/cm(2) for third instar larvae. The accumulative mortality of 100% larvae appeared at 72 h for all instars of S. litura larvae, when feeding respectively with 83.22, 213.04, 341.40, and 613.20 ng/cm(2) of Vip3Aa toxin to the neonatal and first to third instar larvae. The histopathological effects of Vip3Aa toxin on the midgut epithelial cells of S. litura larvae was also investigated. The TEM observations showed wide damage of the epithelial cell in the midgut of S. litura larvae fed with Vip3Aa toxin.

  20. Optimization of process parameters for friction Stir welding of dissimilar Aluminum alloys (AA2024 -T6 and AA6351-T6 by using Taguchi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramanaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the Taguchi experimental design technique of Friction Stir Welds of dissimilar aluminum alloys (AA2024-T6 and AA6351-T6 for tensile properties. Effect of process parameters, rotational speed, Traverse speed and axial force, on tensile strength was evaluated. Optimized welding conditions for maximize tensile strength were estimated in order to improve the productivity, weld quality. Non-linear regression mathematical model was developed to correlate the process parameters to tensile strength. The results were verified by conducting the confirmation tests at identified optimum conditions.

  1. Multifunctional epitaxial systems on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; Prater, John Thomas; Narayan, Jagdish

    2016-09-01

    Multifunctional heterostructures can exhibit a wide range of functional properties, including colossal magneto-resistance, magnetocaloric, and multiferroic behavior, and can display interesting physical phenomena including spin and charge ordering and strong spin-orbit coupling. However, putting this functionality to work remains a challenge. To date, most of the work reported in the literature has dealt with heterostructures deposited onto closely lattice matched insulating substrates such as DyScO3, SrTiO3 (STO), or STO buffered Si(100) using concepts of lattice matching epitaxy (LME). However, strain in heterostructures grown by LME is typically not fully relaxed and the layers contain detrimental defects such as threading dislocations that can significantly degrade the physical properties of the films and adversely affect the device characteristics. In addition, most of the substrates are incompatible with existing CMOS-based technology, where Si (100) substrates dominate. This review discusses recent advances in the integration of multifunctional oxide and non-oxide materials onto silicon substrates. An alternative thin film growth approach, called "domain matching epitaxy," is presented which identifies approaches for minimizing lattice strain and unwanted defects in large misfit systems (7%-25% and higher). This approach broadly allows for the integration of multifunctional materials onto silicon substrates, such that sensing, computation, and response functions can be combined to produce next generation "smart" devices. In general, pulsed laser deposition has been used to epitaxially grow these materials, although the concepts developed here can be extended to other deposition techniques, as well. It will be shown that TiN and yttria-stabilized zirconia template layers provide promising platforms for the integration of new functionality into silicon-based computer chips. This review paper reports on a number of thin-film heterostructure systems that span a

  2. Self-Assembled Local Artificial Substrates of GaAs on Si Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frigeri C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a self-assembling procedure for the fabrication of GaAs islands by Droplet Epitaxy on silicon substrate. Controlling substrate temperature and amount of supplied gallium is possible to tune the base size of the islands from 70 up to 250 nm and the density from 107 to 109 cm−2. The islands show a standard deviation of base size distribution below 10% and their shape evolves changing the aspect ratio from 0.3 to 0.5 as size increases. Due to their characteristics, these islands are suitable to be used as local artificial substrates for the integration of III–V quantum nanostructures directly on silicon substrate.

  3. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuang; Hauge, Robert H.; Schmidt, Howard K.; Kim, Myung Jong; Kittrell, W. Carter

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  4. Fungal and bacterial utilization of organic substrates depends on substrate complexity and N availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koranda, Marianne; Kaiser, Christina; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Kitzler, Barbara; Sessitsch, Angela; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence of a direct relationship between microbial community composition and function, which implies that distinct microbial communities vary in their functional properties. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences in initial substrate utilization between distinct microbial communities are due to the activities of certain microbial groups. We performed a short-term experiment with beech forest soils characterized by three different microbial communities (winter and summer community, and a community from a tree-girdling plot). We incubated these soils with different (13) C-labelled substrates with or without inorganic N addition and analyzed microbial substrate utilization by (13) C-phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Our results revealed that the fate of labile C (glucose) was similar in the three microbial communities, despite differences in absolute substrate incorporation between the summer and winter community. The active microbial community involved in degradation of complex C substrates (cellulose, plant cell walls), however, differed between girdling and control plots and was strongly affected by inorganic N addition. Enhanced N availability strongly increased fungal degradation of cellulose and plant cell walls. Our results indicate that fungi, at least in the presence of a high N supply, are the main decomposers of polymeric C substrates.

  5. Evaluation of substrates for butanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    The production was evaluated of ethanol, acetone, and butanol from several different carbohydrate materials by five strains of Clostridia and two mixed cultures. The substrates, which were tested at concn ranging between 2.5 and 10% w/v, included pentoses, hexoses, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. The organisms used were Clostridium acetobutylicum strains NRRL B527 and NRRL B3179; Clostridium butylicum strains NRRL B592 and NRRL B593; and Clostridium pasteurianum strain NRRL B598. The mixed cultures contained all of these organisms. Mixed culture 1 contained in addition to the Clostridia, Klebsiella pneumoniae strain NRRL B427. Mixed culture 2 contained mixed culture 1 plus a yeast isolated from kefir culture. Where possible, maxima were found for the conversion of different substrates. 7 tables.

  6. Optical substrate materials for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Paquin, R.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

    1997-06-01

    The authors consider the materials choices available for making optical substrates for synchrotron radiation beam lines. They find that currently the optical surfaces can only be polished to the required finish in fused silica and other glasses, silicon, CVD silicon carbide, electroless nickel and 17-4 PH stainless steel. Substrates must therefore be made of one of these materials or of a metal that can be coated with electroless nickel. In the context of material choices for mirrors they explore the issues of dimensional stability, polishing, bending, cooling, and manufacturing strategy. They conclude that metals are best from an engineering and cost standpoint while the ceramics are best from a polishing standpoint. They then give discussions of specific materials as follows: silicon carbide, silicon, electroless nickel, Glidcop{trademark}, aluminum, precipitation-hardening stainless steel, mild steel, invar and superinvar. Finally they summarize conclusions and propose ideas for further research.

  7. A cellular glass substrate solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, R.; Bell, D.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a second generation point focusing solar concentration is discussed. The design is based on reflective gores fabricated of thin glass mirror bonded continuously to a contoured substrate of cellular glass. The concentrator aperture and structural stiffness was optimized for minimum concentrator cost given the performance requirement of delivering 56 kWth to a 22 cm diameter receiver aperture with a direct normal insolation of 845 watts sq m and an operating wind of 50 kmph. The reflective panel, support structure, drives, foundation and instrumentation and control subsystem designs, optimized for minimum cost, are summarized. The use of cellular glass as a reflective panel substrate material is shown to offer significant weight and cost advantages compared to existing technology materials.

  8. Signal Peptidase Enzymology and Substrate Specificity Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbey, R E; Pei, D; Ekici, Ö D

    2017-01-01

    Signal peptidases are membrane proteases that play crucial roles in the protein transport pathway of bacteria. They cleave off the signal peptide from precursor proteins that are membrane inserted by the SecYEG or Tat translocons. Signal peptide cleavage releases the translocated protein from the inner membrane allowing the protein to be exported to the periplasm, outer membrane, or secreted into the medium. Signal peptidases are very important proteins to study. They are unique serine proteases with a Ser-Lys dyad, catalyze cleavage at the membrane surface, and are promising potential antibacterial drug targets. This chapter will focus on the isolation of signal peptidases and the preprotein substrates, as well as describe a peptide library approach for characterizing the substrate specificity.

  9. Lithographically patterned silicon nanostructures on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megouda, Nacera [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Universite Lille1, Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley-BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, CNRS-8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare-B.P. 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium (UDTS), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Piret, Gaeelle; Galopin, Elisabeth; Coffinier, Yannick [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Universite Lille1, Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley-BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, CNRS-8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare-B.P. 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Hadjersi, Toufik, E-mail: hadjersi@yahoo.com [Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium (UDTS), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Elkechai, Omar [Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); and others

    2012-06-01

    The paper reports on controlled formation of silicon nanostructures patterns by the combination of optical lithography and metal-assisted chemical dissolution of crystalline silicon. First, a 20 nm-thick gold film was deposited onto hydrogen-terminated silicon substrate by thermal evaporation. Gold patterns (50 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 50 {mu}m spaced by 20 {mu}m) were transferred onto the silicon wafer by means of photolithography. The etching process of crystalline silicon in HF/AgNO{sub 3} aqueous solution was studied as a function of the silicon resistivity, etching time and temperature. Controlled formation of silicon nanowire arrays in the unprotected areas was demonstrated for highly resistive silicon substrate, while silicon etching was observed on both gold protected and unprotected areas for moderately doped silicon. The resulting layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  10. Substrate Integrated Evanescent Filters Employing Coaxial Stubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    Evanescent mode substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) is one of the promising technologies for design of light-weight low-cost microwave components. Traditional realization methods used in the standard evanescent waveguide technology are often not directly applicable to SIW due to dielectric filling...... and small height of the waveguide. In this work, one of the realization methods of evanescent mode waveguides using a single layer substrate is considered. The method is based on the use of coaxial stubs as capacitive susceptances externally connected to a SIW. A microwave filter based on these principles...... of the microwave filter are discussed. The approach is useful in applications where a sharp roll-off at the upper stop-band is required....

  11. Standard method for characterizing SERS substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicheteau, Jason A.; Hankus, Mikella E.; Christesen, Steven D.; Fountain, Augustus W., III; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Emmons, Erik D.; Tripathi, Ashish; Wilcox, Phillip; Emge, Darren

    2012-06-01

    We present the methodology and results of a standard assessment protocol to evaluate disparate SERS substrates that were developed for the Defense Advanced Research Programs Agency (DARPA) SERS Science and Technology Fundamentals Program. The results presented are a snapshot of a collaborative effort between the US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, and the US Army Research Laboratory-Aldelphi Laboratory Center to develop a quantitative analytical method with spectroscopic figures of merit to unambiguously compare the sensitivity and reproducibility of various SERS substrates submitted by the program participants. We present the design of a common assessment protocol and the definition of a SERS enhancement value (SEV) in order to effectively compare SERS active surfaces.

  12. Anisotropic artificial substrates for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahvarpour, Attieh

    ) with very low-beam squint, which makes it particularly appropriate for applications in wide band point-to-point communication and radar systems. The antenna is constituted of a mushroom type anisotropic magneto-dielectric artificial grounded slab with uniaxially anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors. A spectral transmission-line model based on Green functions approach is chosen for the analysis of the structure. A rigorous comparison between the isotropic and anisotropic leaky-wave antennas is performed which reveals that as opposed to anisotropic slabs, isotropic slabs show weak performance in leaky-wave antennas. The properties of planar antennas such as low profile, low cost, compatibility with integrated circuits and their conformal nature have made them appropriate antennas for communications systems. In parallel, bandwidth and miniaturization requirements have increased the demand for millimeter-wave wireless systems, such as radar, remote sensors and highspeed local area networks. However, as frequency increases towards millimeter-wave regime, the radiation efficiency of planar antennas becomes an important issue. This is due to the increased electrical thickness of the substrate and therefore increased number of the excited surface modes which carry part of the energy of the system in the substrate without any efficient contribution to radiation. Therefore, these antennas suffer from low radiation efficiency. This has motivated the third contribution of the thesis which is the interpretation and analysis of the radiation efficiency behavior of the planar antennas on electrically thick substrates. A novel substrate dipole approach is introduced for the explanation of the efficiency behavior. This dipole models the substrate and reduces the problem of the horizontal electric source on the substrate to an equivalent dipole radiating in the free-space. In addition, in this work, some efficiency enhancement solutions at the electrical thicknesses where

  13. Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessyca dos Reis Celestino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta, for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335 UI/L using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385 IU/g in solid state fermentation (SSF.

  14. Method for producing substrates for superconducting layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a method for producing a substrate (600) suitable for supporting an elongated superconducting element, wherein, e.g., a deformation process is utilized in order to form disruptive strips in a layered solid element, and where etching is used to form undercut volumes (330, 332......) between an upper layer (316) and a lower layer (303) of the layered solid element. Such relatively simple steps enable providing a substrate which may be turned into a superconducting structure, such as a superconducting tape, having reduced AC losses, since the undercut volumes (330, 332) may be useful...... for separating layers of material. In a further embodiment, there is placed a superconducting layer on top of the upper layer (316) and/or lower layer (303), so as to provide a superconducting structure with reduced AC losses....

  15. Development of Mullite Substrates and Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibold, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The mullite-molten silicon interaction was evaluated through fabrication of a series of bodies made with variations in density, alumina-silica ratio, and glass-crystalline ratio. The materials were tested in a sessile drop technique. None of the variations stood up to extended exposure to molten silicon sufficiently to be recommended as a container material. However, directional solidification experiments suggest that, under proper conditions, contamination of the silicon by mullite containers can be minimized. To improve an already good thermal expansion match between mullite and silicon, compositional variations were studied. Altering of the alumina-silica ratio was determined to give a continuously varying thermal expansion. A standard mullite composition was selected and substrates 40 x 4 x .040 inches were fabricated. Slotted substrates of various configurations and various compositions were also fabricated.

  16. Enhanced photoacoustic detection using photonic crystal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yunfei; Liu, Kaiyang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); McClelland, John [Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Lu, Meng, E-mail: menglu@iastate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    This paper demonstrates the enhanced photoacoustic sensing of surface-bound light absorbing molecules and metal nanoparticles using a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) substrate. The PC structure functions as an optical resonator at the wavelength where the analyte absorption is strong. The optical resonance of the PC sensor provides an intensified evanescent field with respect to the excitation light source and results in enhanced optical absorption by surface-immobilized samples. For the analysis of a light absorbing dye deposited on the PC surface, the intensity of photoacoustic signal was enhanced by more than 10-fold in comparison to an un-patterned acrylic substrate. The technique was also applied to detect gold nanorods and exhibited more than 40 times stronger photoacoustic signals. The demonstrated approach represents a potential path towards single molecule absorption spectroscopy with greater performance and inexpensive instrumentation.

  17. Microorganisms detection on substrates using QCL spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Jiménez, Amira C.; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Ayala, Iris; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2013-05-01

    Recent investigations have focused on the improvement of rapid and accurate methods to develop spectroscopic markers of compounds constituting microorganisms that are considered biological threats. Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) systems have revolutionized many areas of research and development in defense and security applications, including his area of research. Infrared spectroscopy detection based on QCL was employed to acquire mid infrared (MIR) spectral signatures of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Escherichia coli (Ec) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se), which were used as biological agent simulants of biothreats. The experiments were carried out in reflection mode on various substrates such as cardboard, glass, travel baggage, wood and stainless steel. Chemometrics statistical routines such as principal component analysis (PCA) regression and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the recorded MIR spectra. The results show that the infrared vibrational techniques investigated are useful for classification/detection of the target microorganisms on the types of substrates studied.

  18. Hydrogenation of biomass-derived substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John C.; Waidmann, Christopher R.

    2016-06-07

    The .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated ketone moiety of a substrate representative of non-food based biomass was hydrogenated to the corresponding saturated alcohol moiety using a composition including (1) a copper salt; (2) a phosphine; (3) a polar aprotic solvent such as acetonitrile, and (4) a compound suitable for providing hydrogen for the hydrogenation, such as a suitable silane material or a suitable siloxane material.

  19. Purity of targets prepared on Cu substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méens, A.; Rossini, I.; Sens, J. C.

    1993-09-01

    The purity of several elemental self-supporting targets usually prepared by evaporation onto soluble Cu substrates has been studied. The targets were analysed by Rutherford backscattering and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Because of the high percentage of Cu observed in some Si targets, further measurements, including transmission electron microscopy, have been performed on Si targets deposited by e-gun bombardment onto Cu and ion-beam sputtering onto betaine.

  20. Reflections on substrate water and dioxygen formation

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Nicholas; Messinger, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This brief article aims at presenting a concise summary of all experimental findings regarding substrate water-binding to the Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II. Mass spectrometric and spectroscopic results are interpreted in light of recent structural information of the water oxidizing complex (WOC) obtained by x-ray crystallography, spectroscopy and theoretical modeling. Within this framework current proposals for the mechanism of photosynthetic water-oxidation are evaluated. Special Iss...

  1. Electrodeposition on Superalloy Substrates: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyarzadeh, M. H.; Aliofkhazraei, M.; Rouhaghdam, A. Sabour

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reviews various types of coatings, including platinum, platinum alloys, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, nickel, nickel alloys and composite coatings, on superalloy substrates using electrodeposition method. Attempts were carried out to represent an overall view of plating conditions and electrolyte and highlight the importance of the layer regarding to the performance of high-temperature coatings applied on superalloys, which is extensively used on gas-turbine components.

  2. Advanced organics for electronic substrates and packages

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Andrew E

    1992-01-01

    Advanced Organics for Electronic Substrates and Packages provides information on packaging, which is one of the most technologically intensive activities in the electronics industry. The electronics packaging community has realized that while semiconductor devices continue to be improved upon for performance, cost, and reliability, it is the interconnection or packaging of these devices that will limit the performance of the systems. Technology must develop packaging for transistor chips, with high levels of performance and integration providing cooling, power, and interconnection, and yet pre

  3. Preparation of the Superconductor Substrate: Strontium Titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    single crystals of strontium titanate is derived from the original method developed by Verneuil . 16 The general procedure for the growth of single... crystals growth are reported. The growth direction was determined to be 5 degrees away from the [2111 direction. ICP-emission spectroscopy irdicates... Growth of Strontium Titanate Crystals 5 2.4 Preparation of Substrates 8 3. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS 8 REFERENCES 13 Illustrations 1. Schematic Diagram

  4. Substrate-induced strain in carbon nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osváth, Z., E-mail: osvath.zoltan@ttk.mta.hu [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, MFA, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Korea–Hungary Joint Laboratory for Nanosciences (KHJLN), P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Vértesy, Z. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, MFA, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Korea–Hungary Joint Laboratory for Nanosciences (KHJLN), P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lábár, J. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, MFA, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Nemes-Incze, P.; Horváth, Z.E.; Biró, L.P. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, MFA, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Korea–Hungary Joint Laboratory for Nanosciences (KHJLN), P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-08-28

    Graphitic nanodisks of typically 20–50 nm in thickness, produced by the so-called Kvaerner Carbon Black and Hydrogen Process were dispersed on gold substrate and investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The roughness of the gold surface was drastically changed by annealing at 400 °C. AFM measurements show that this change in the surface roughness induces changes also in the topography of the nanodisks, as they closely follow the corrugation of the gold substrate. This leads to strained nanodisks, which is confirmed also by confocal Raman microscopy. We found that the FE-SEM contrast obtained from the disks depends on the working distance used during the image acquisition by In-lens detection, a phenomenon which we explain by the decrease in the amount of electrons reaching the detector due to diffraction. This process may affect the image contrast in the case of other layered materials, like hexagonal boron nitride, and other planar hybrid nanostructures, too. - Highlights: • Bending of carbon nanodisks is induced by the roughness of the gold substrate. • Confocal Raman microscopy shows a compressive strain induced in the nanodisks. • The electron microscopy contrast of nanodisks depends on the working distance.

  5. Effect of streambed substrate on macroinvertebrate biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehua DUAN; Zhaoyin WANG; Shimin TIAN

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates are important components of stream ecosystems, and are often used as indicator spe-cies for the assessment of river ecology. Numerous studies have shown that substrate is the primary physical envir-onmental variable affecting the taxa richness and density of macroinvertebrates. The aim of this work is to study the effects of the characteristics of streambed substrate, such as grain size, shape, and roughness, on the composition and biodiversity of macroinvertebrates. A field experi-ment was done on the Juma River, a second-order moun-tain stream in northern China. Substrata of cobbles, hewn stones, pebbles, coarse sand, and fine sand were used to replace the original gravel and sand bed in a stretch of 30 m in length. The sampling results indicated that the macroinvertebrate assemblage is significantly affected by the grain size, porosity and interstitial dimension of the substrate, while it is rarely affected by the shape and the surface roughness of the experimental substrata. Macroinvertebrate compositions in cobbles and hewn stones were stable and changed least over time. The taxa richness and density of individuals in the substrata of cobbles, hewn stones, and pebbles are much higher than in those of the coarse sand and fine sand.

  6. Method of surface treatment on sapphire substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Xin-huan; LIU Yu-ling; TAN Bai-mei; HAN Li-ying; ZHANG Jian-xin

    2006-01-01

    Sapphire single crystals are widely used in many areas because of the special physic properties and important application value. As an important substrate material,stringent surface quality requirements,i.e. surface finish and flatness,are required. The use of CMP technique can produce high quality surface finishes at low cost and with fast material removal rates. The sapphire substrate surface is treated by using CMP method. According to sapphire substrate and its product properties,SiO2 sol is chosen as abrasive. The particle size is 15-25 nm and the concentration is 40%. According to the experiment results,pH value is 10.5-11.5. After polishing and cleaning the sapphire surface,the surface roughness was measured by using AFM method and the lowest value of Ra 0.1 nm was obtained. From the results,it can be seen that using such method,the optimal sapphire surface can be gotten,which is advantageous for epitaxial growth and device making-up.

  7. Cell-Substrate Adhesion by Amoeboid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Bret; Panta, Krishna

    Amoeboid migration is a rapid (10 μm min-1) mode of migration that some tumor cells exhibit. To permit such rapid movement, the adhesive contacts between the cell and the substrate must be relatively short-lived and weak. In this study, we investigate the basic adhesive character of amoeboid cells (D. discoideum) in contact with silanized glass substrates. We observe the initiation and spreading of the adhesive contacts that these cells establish as they settle under gravity onto the substrate and relax towards mechanical equilibrium. The use of interference reflection microscopy and cellular tethering measurements have allowed us to determine the basic adhesive properties of the cell: the membrane-medium interfacial energy; the bending modulus; the equilibrium contact angle; and the work of adhesion. We find the time scale on which settling occurs to be longer than expected. Implications of these results on adhesion and migration will be discussed. The authors are grateful for support from NSF (CBET-1451903) and NIH (1R21EY026392).

  8. Improvement of mechanical properties of glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbay, Ismail Hakki Cengizhan; Budakoglu, Refika; Zayim, Esra Ozkan

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to enhance the mechanical and optical properties of glass substrates with thin films by the sol-gel method. TiO2-SiO2 binary system and Ta2O5 were deposited on glass substrates with high transparency. Ring-on-ring flexure and scratch tests were the main mechanical characterization tests. Herein, we report that the thin films can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of the glass substrates efficiently and effectively. TiO2-SiO2 binary system shows more than two times and Ta2O5 thin films show nearly three times better ultimate strength in the ring-on-ring flexure test. Besides, Ta2O5 thin film samples show superior scratch resistance. Additionally, the finite element method was also used to check the conformity in the application of mechanical properties of composite materials. It is also worth noting that, the finite element method can be used to accurately analyze the mechanical stability of composite materials. The use of the finite element method can reduce the total number of experimental trials without losing reliability.

  9. Fracture and strain rate behavior of airplane fuselage materials under blast loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Soetens, F.; Kroon, E.; Aanhold, J.E. van; Meulen, O.R. van der; Sagimon, M.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of three commonly used airplane fuselage materials is investigated, namely of Al2024-T3, Glare-3 and CFRP. Dynamic tensile tests using a servo-hydraulic and a light weight shock testing machine (LSM) have been performed. The results showed no strain rate effect on Al2024-T3 and a

  10. AA-PMe, a novel asiatic acid derivative, induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yue; Wang, Gang; Ge, Ying; Xu, Minjie; Tang, Shuainan; Gong, Zhunan

    2016-01-01

    Asiatic acid (AA; 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid) is widely used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries due to its various bioactivities. A series of AA derivatives has been synthesized in attempts to improve its therapeutic potencies. Herein we investigated the anti-tumor activities of N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl)-l-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe), a novel AA derivative. AA-PMe exhibited a stronger anti-cancer activity than its parent compound AA. AA-PMe inhibited the proliferation of SGC7901 and HGC27 human gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner but had no significant toxicity in human gastric mucosa epithelial cells (GES-1). AA-PMe induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and blocked G1-S transition, which correlated well with marked decreases in levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase CKD4, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, and increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P15. Further, AA-PMe induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by affecting Bcl-2, Bax, c-Myc, and caspase-3. Moreover, AA-PMe suppressed the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells (SGC7901 and HGC27) cells by downregulating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Overall, this study investigated the potential anti-cancer activities of AA-PMe including inducing apoptosis and suppressing proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that AA-PMe is a promising anti-cancer drug candidate in gastric cancer therapy. PMID:27073325

  11. AA-PMe, a novel asiatic acid derivative, induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yue; Wang, Gang; Ge, Ying; Xu, Minjie; Tang, Shuainan; Gong, Zhunan

    2016-01-01

    Asiatic acid (AA; 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid) is widely used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries due to its various bioactivities. A series of AA derivatives has been synthesized in attempts to improve its therapeutic potencies. Herein we investigated the anti-tumor activities of N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl)-l-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe), a novel AA derivative. AA-PMe exhibited a stronger anti-cancer activity than its parent compound AA. AA-PMe inhibited the proliferation of SGC7901 and HGC27 human gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner but had no significant toxicity in human gastric mucosa epithelial cells (GES-1). AA-PMe induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and blocked G1-S transition, which correlated well with marked decreases in levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase CKD4, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, and increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P15. Further, AA-PMe induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by affecting Bcl-2, Bax, c-Myc, and caspase-3. Moreover, AA-PMe suppressed the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells (SGC7901 and HGC27) cells by downregulating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Overall, this study investigated the potential anti-cancer activities of AA-PMe including inducing apoptosis and suppressing proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that AA-PMe is a promising anti-cancer drug candidate in gastric cancer therapy.

  12. Spectral Markers of Erythrocytes on Solid Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiziev, Adkhamjon A.; Krakhmalev, V. A.

    Proposed in previous paper [1,2] the new nondestructive method of optical microscopy allows to examine the structures of living cells (human erythrocytes) in their natural colors without its staining by using a specially designed substrate for deposition of biological sample and observing a native blood smears in reflected light. Color interference contrast image is achieved due to special condition of experiment is connected with chose of angle of incidental light, wave length of light of reflected ray, chemical composition of sample, thickness of sample, refractive index of sample, refractive index of substrate, chemical composition of substrate [1,2]. We can identify chemical compounds of erythrocytes after calibration color scale by alternative methods. For comparison we used Synchrotron Radiation based Fourier Transformed Infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy. By focusing of infrared beam of FTIR microscope on cell surface we can screen and distinguish difference erythrocytes by its color. For example on Fig. 49.1 we can see two neighbored erythrocytes where one of them have red color (point 1) and other-green (point 5). To identify their spectral markers we measured IR absorption spectra of cells at different points (1,2,3,4 and 5). Intermediated area (points 3 and 4) correspond to substrate spectra (silicon substrate) and their spectra are same. The peaks at 2,850 and 2,920 cm-1 correspond mainly to the CH2 stretching modes of the methylene chains in membrane lipids. At 1,650 cm-1 the amide I band is observed, which results, principally, from the n(CO) stretching vibrations of the protein amide bonds; the amide II band, near 1,550 cm-1, is a combination of the d(N-H) bending and n(C-N) stretching vibrations of the amide bonds. The peaks at 2,850 and 2,920 cm-1 correspond mainly to the CH2 stretching modes of the methylene chains in membrane lipids [3. The intensities of the absorption bands at 2,920 and 2,850 cm-1 in green erythrocyte (point 5) were also

  13. Renal AA Amyloidosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and a major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality. Inflammation is closely involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM, and reactive amyloidosis occurs in the presence of chronic inflammation. We hypothesized that patients with T2DM may have a higher prevalence of renal AA amyloidosis (RAAA and that this could contribute to worse atherosclerosis and CVD. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 330 autopsy kidneys from patients with a previous T2DM diagnosis. The kidney tissue was evaluated in order to determine the presence of diabetic nephropathy and RAAA, and systemic vessels were evaluated for the presence of atherosclerosis. Results: RAAA was detected in 9% of our study population and was associated with an increased risk for nodular sclerosis [OR (95% CI] [11 (2.04-59.16], for chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy [4.59 (2.02-10.42], for myocardial infarction [3.41 (1.52-7.64] as well as for aortic [4.75 (1.09-20.69], coronary [3.22 (1.47-7.04], and intrarenal atherosclerosis [3.84 (1.46-10.09]. Conclusions: RAAA is prevalent in T2DM and is associated with worse CVD and renal disease, likely because RAAA is a marker of severe chronic inflammation.

  14. Fully Digital: Policy and Process Implications for the AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Biemesderfer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, every scholarly publisher has migrated at least the mechanical aspects of their journal publishing so that they utilize digital means. The academy was comfortable with that for a while, but publishers are under increasing pressure to adapt further. At the American Astronomical Society (AAS), we think that means bringing our publishing program to the point of being fully digital, by establishing procedures and policies that regard the digital objects of publication primarily. We have always thought about our electronic journals as databases of digital articles, from which we can publish and syndicate articles one at a time, and we must now put flesh on those bones by developing practices that are consistent with the realities of article at a time publication online. As a learned society that holds the long-term rights to the literature, we have actively taken responsibility for the preservation of the digital assets that constitute our journals, and in so doing we have not forsaken t...

  15. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: kerurbrk@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, and Karnataka, India – 585106 (India)

    2015-08-28

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health.

  16. Cylindrical diffractive lenses recorded on PVA/AA photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R.; Gallego, S.; Márquez, A.; Navarro-Fuster, V.; Francés, J.; Neipp, C.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.

    2016-04-01

    Photopolymers are optical recording materials appealing for many different applications such as holography, data storage, interconnectors, solar concentrations, or wave-guides fabrication. Recently the capacity of photopolymers to record diffractive optical elements (DOE's) has been investigated. Different authors have reported proposes to record DOE like fork gratings, photonics structures, lenses, sinusoidal, blazed or fork gratings. In these experiments there are different experimental set-ups and different photopolymers. In this work due to the improvement in the spatial light modulation technology together with the photopolymer science we propose a recording experimental system of DOE using a Liquid Cristal based on Silicon (LCoS) display as a master to store complex DOE like cylindrical lenses. This technology permits us an accurate control of the phase and the amplitude of the recording beam, with a very small pixel size. The main advantage of this display is that permit us to modify the DOE automatically, we use the software of the LCoS to send the voltage to each pixel In this work we use a photopolymer composed by acrylamide (AA) as polymerizable monomer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). We use a coverplated and index matched photopolymer to avoid the influence of the thickness variation on the transmitted light. In order to reproduce the material behaviour during polymerization, we have designed our model to simulate cylindrical lenses and used Fresnel propagation to simulate the light propagation through the DOE and analyze the focal plane and the properties of the recorded lenses.

  17. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R.

    2015-08-01

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health

  18. Hybrid manufacturing processes for fusion welding and friction stir welding of aerospace grade aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegesky, Megan Alexandra

    Friction stir welding and processing can provide for joints in aerospace grade aluminum alloys that have preferable material properties as compared to fusion welding techniques. Aerospace grade aluminum alloys such as AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 are considered non-weldable by traditional fusion welding techniques. Improved mechanical properties over previously used techniques are usually preferable for aerospace applications. Therefore, by combining traditional fusion welding and friction stir processing techniques, it could be plausible to create more difficult geometries in manufactured parts instead of using traditional techniques. While this combination of fusion welding and friction stir processing is not a new technology, its introduction to aerospace grade aluminum alloys as well as non-weldable alloys, is new. This is brought about by a lowered required clamping force required by adding a fusion weld before a friction stir processing technique. The changes in properties associated with joining techniques include: microstructural changes, changes in hardness, tensile strength, and corrosion resistance. This thesis illustrates these changes for the non-weldable AA2024-T351 and AA7075-T651 as well as the weldable alloy AA5052-H32. The microhardness, tensile strength and corrosion resistance of the four processing states: base material, fusion welded material, friction stir welded material, and friction stir processed fusion welded material is studied. The plausibility of this hybrid process for the three different materials is characterized, as well as plausible applications for this joining technique.

  19. Modeling substrate-bacteria-grazer interactions coupled to substrate transport in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Bijendra M.; Lu, Chuanhe; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2014-05-01

    Models of microbial dynamics coupled to solute transport in aquifers typically require the introduction of a bacterial capacity term to prevent excessive microbial growth close to substrate-injection boundaries. The factors controlling this carrying capacity, however, are not fully understood. In this study, we propose that grazers or bacteriophages may control the density of bacterial biomass in continuously fed porous media. We conceptualize the flow-through porous medium as a series of retentostats, in which the dissolved substrate is advected with water flow whereas the biomasses of bacteria and grazers are considered essentially immobile. We first model a single retentostat with Monod kinetics of bacterial growth and a second-order grazing law, which shows that the system oscillates but approaches a stable steady state with nonzero concentrations of substrate, bacteria, and grazers. The steady state concentration of the bacteria biomass is independent of the substrate concentration in the inflow. When coupling several retentostats in a series to mimic a groundwater column, the steady state bacteria concentrations thus remain at a constant level over a significant travel distance. The one-dimensional reactive transport model also accounts for substrate dispersion and a random walk of grazers influenced by the bacteria concentration. These dispersive-diffusive terms affect the oscillations until steady state is reached, but hardly the steady state value itself. We conclude that grazing, or infection by bacteriophages, is a possible explanation of the maximum biomass concentration frequently needed in bioreactive transport models. Its value depends on parameters related to the grazers or bacteriophages and is independent of bacterial growth parameters or substrate concentration, provided that there is enough substrate to sustain bacteria and grazers.

  20. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  1. Expression and function of anew angiogenic factor AA98 target molecule at the maternal-embryonic boundary ofrhesus monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The target molecule of monoclonal antibody AA98 (AA for short) is a new vascular endothelial cell related factor and plays a role in angiogenesis as indicated by the previous data. To investigate its role in angiogenesis and placentation in primate, we examined its expression in the implantation sites on D17, 19, 28 and 34 of gestation in rhesus monkey by immunohistochemistry and Western immunoblot. Western blot analysis showed that the primary antibody used in this study was specific for its epitope. AA protein was mainly expressed in small blood vessels and in some cytotrophoblast cells. The AA staining was found mainly in the endothelial cells and vascular small muscle.This observation supported the AA's role in angiogenesis. AA was spatio-temporarily expressed in cytotrophoblasts: weak in proliferating trophoblast within cell column and endovascular trophoblast, strong in trophoblastic subpopulation within the basal plate and vascular trophoblast; AA staining within the basal plate was down-regulated during early placentation. The shift of AA98 expression in extravillous trophoblasts suggestes a role of this new factor during the course of cytotrophoblast metastasis and spiral artery remodeling. The spatio-temporarily expression indicats that AA98 could be also used as a trophoblast cellular marker to characterize the acquisition of a vascular endothelial and invasive phenotype.

  2. Modulation spectroscopy of InAs semiconductor nanostructures grown on (631) high index substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Velis, I.; Rojas-Ramirez, J.S.; Contreras-Guerrero, R.; Ramirez-Lopez, M.; Hernandez-Rosas, J. [Physics Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Linan, G.; Gorbatchev, A.Yu. [Optical Communications Research Institute (IICO), Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi(Mexico); Zamora-Peredo, L. [Universidad Politecnica de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Lopez-Lopez, M. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Mendez-Garcia, Victor H.

    2009-05-15

    The molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of InAs nanostructures on GaAs(631)-oriented substrates is studied by photoluminescence (PL) and photoreflectance spectroscopy (PR). First, a corrugated surface conformed by regularly spaced grooves aligned along the [ anti 593] azimuth was formed by the GaAs homoepitaxial growth on the (631) substrate. On this template, we proceeded with the deposition of InAs at several thicknesses in the range of 1 to 4.5 monolayers (MLs). An atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of samples without GaAs capping, revealed that assemblage of QDs occurs only after the deposition of the equivalent to {proportional_to}1.9 ML of InAs. On these samples, we observed changes on the PR line-shape in the near-bandgap GaAs region linked to the quantity of InAs deposited. The intensity of the built in electric fields was correlated with the strain state at the heterointerface, as a consequence of the self induced piezoelectric effect, typical from high index surfaces. On the other hand, when the samples were capped with a 100 Aa thick GaAs layer, strong emission of the nanostructures occurs even for deposited quantities of InAs as low as 1 ML. Since for this InAs thickness the self-assemblage of QDs is not observed, the optical transitions observed were associated with the optical emission of self assembled semiconductor quantum wires, promoted by surface diffusion anisotropy, characteristic of the (631) plane. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Effect of substrate roughness on the contact damage of thin brittle films on brittle substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, Mirko [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales NSW 2052, Sydney (Australia); Institute for Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Borrero-Lopez, Oscar [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales NSW 2052, Sydney (Australia); Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071, Badajoz (Spain); Hoffman, Mark, E-mail: mark.hoffman@unsw.edu.a [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales NSW 2052, Sydney (Australia); Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Phil J. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The effect of substrate and surface roughness on the contact fracture of diamond-like carbon coatings on brittle soda-lime glass substrates has been investigated. The average surface roughness (R{sub a}) of the examined samples ranged from 15 nm to 571 nm. Contact damage was simulated by means of spherical nanoindentation, and fracture was subsequently assessed by focused ion beam microscopy. It was found that, in the absence of sub-surface damage in the substrate, fracture occurs in the coating in the form of radial, and ring/cone cracks during loading, and lateral cracks during unloading. Increasing the surface roughness results in a decrease in the critical load for crack initiation during loading, and in the suppression of fracture modes during unloading from high loads. When sub-surface damage (lateral cracks) is present in the substrate, severe spalling takes place during loading, causing a large discontinuity in the load-displacement curve. The results have implications concerning the design of damage-tolerant coated systems consisting of a brittle film on a brittle substrate.

  4. Enzyme analysis for Pompe disease in leukocytes; superior results with natural substrate compared with artificial substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diggelen, O P; Oemardien, L F; van der Beek, N A M E; Kroos, M A; Wind, H K; Voznyi, Y V; Burke, D; Jackson, M; Winchester, B G; Reuser, A J J

    2009-06-01

    Enzyme analysis for Pompe disease in leukocytes has been greatly improved by the introduction of acarbose, a powerful inhibitor of interfering alpha-glucosidases, which are present in granulocytes but not in lymphocytes. Here we show that the application of acarbose in the enzymatic assay employing the artificial substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D: -glucoside (MU-alphaGlc) is insufficient to clearly distinguish patients from healthy individuals in all cases. Also, the ratios of the activities without/with acarbose only marginally discriminated Pompe patients and healthy individuals. By contrast, when the natural substrate glycogen is used, the activity in leukocytes from patients (n = 82) with Pompe disease is at most 17% of the lowest control value. The use of artificial substrate in an assay with isolated lymphocytes instead of total leukocytes is a poor alternative as blood samples older than one day invariably yield lymphocyte preparations that are contaminated with granulocytes. To diagnose Pompe disease in leukocytes we recommend the use of glycogen as substrate in the presence of acarbose. This assay unequivocally excludes Pompe disease. To also exclude pseudo-deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase caused by the sequence change c.271G>A (p.D91N or GAA2; homozygosity in approximately 1:1000 caucasians), a second assay employing MU-alphaGlc substrate plus acarbose or DNA analysis is required.

  5. Association of endogenous substrate with solubilized bovine brain sialidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schengrund, C L; Repman, M A

    1986-01-01

    Nonidet P40 solubilized up to 90% of the sialidase, active towards added ganglioside substrate, that was associated with the total membrane fraction prepared from gray matter of bovine brains. Solubilized sialidase acted upon endogenous substrate (sialic acid containing compounds solubilized with the enzyme), hydrolyzing approximately 50% of the readily available sialosyl residues within 20 min. During a 2-hr reaction time 80% of the polysialylated gangliosides solubilized with the enzyme were acted upon. A 20-min lag was observed before sialidase acted upon added ganglioside substrate. The lag could be reduced to less than 2 min when the enzyme was allowed to act on endogenous substrate prior to exposure to exogenous substrate, suggesting that the solubilized enzyme acted preferentially on endogenous substrate. A protease inhibitor prevented much of the 86% loss of activity towards added substrate that was seen when the enzyme was stored at 4 degrees C for 6 days; activity towards endogenous substrate decreased only 34%.

  6. A sparse scattering model for nanoparticles on rough substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Wriedt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present and validate an efficient forward scattering model for nanoparticles on rough contaminated substrates.......We present and validate an efficient forward scattering model for nanoparticles on rough contaminated substrates....

  7. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of dissimilar friction stir welded joints between AA1100-B{sub 4}C MMC and AA6063 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J. [Department of Applied Science, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Saguenay (QC) G7H 2B1 (Canada); Aluminium Technology Centre, National Research Council Canada, Saguenay (QC) G7H 8C3 (Canada); Gougeon, P. [Aluminium Technology Centre, National Research Council Canada, Saguenay (QC) G7H 8C3 (Canada); Chen, X.-G., E-mail: xgrant_chen@uqac.ca [Department of Applied Science, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Saguenay (QC) G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures and mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW between AA1100-B{sub 4}C and AA6063 alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of the welding parameters on the interface bonding, joint microstructure and mechanical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural evolution of dissimilar joints revealed by the electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good material mixing and seamless bonding around the interfaces between Al-B{sub 4}C and the AA6063 alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 100% joint efficiencies (UTS) achieved by all dissimilar joints. - Abstract: The feasibility of dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) between the AA1100-16 vol.% B{sub 4}C metal matrix composite and the AA6063 alloy has been evaluated. The effect of the welding parameters on the interface bonding, joint microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated. The results revealed that all dissimilar joints produced under welding conditions investigated were stronger than the base materials of the Al-B{sub 4}C composite. Analysis of the Mg concentration and the B{sub 4}C particle distribution indicates that good material mixing and seamless bonding was achieved around the interface between the Al-B{sub 4}C composite and the Al 6063 alloy during FSW. The electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD) shows that during dissimilar FSW, there was a gradual microstructural evolution on both material sides, resulting in a variety of grain structures in the different weld zones. In the weld zones of FSW joints, the materials underwent dynamic recovery and recrystallization to different extents depending on their thermal mechanical history. The grain refinement of both materials in the nugget zone was observed. It is recommended that the 6063 aluminum alloy should be fixed on the advancing side and the use of an appropriate offset to the 6063 aluminum side is preferred.

  8. Quantifying the relative contributions of different solute carriers to aggregate substrate transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimifar, Mehdi; Oparija, Lalita; Verrey, Francois; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Olgac, Ufuk; Makrides, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Determining the contributions of different transporter species to overall cellular transport is fundamental for understanding the physiological regulation of solutes. We calculated the relative activities of Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters using the Michaelis-Menten equation and global fitting to estimate the normalized maximum transport rate for each transporter (Vmax). Data input were the normalized measured uptake of the essential neutral amino acid (AA) L-leucine (Leu) from concentration-dependence assays performed using Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our methodology was verified by calculating Leu and L-phenylalanine (Phe) data in the presence of competitive substrates and/or inhibitors. Among 9 potentially expressed endogenous X. laevis oocyte Leu transporter species, activities of only the uniporters SLC43A2/LAT4 (and/or SLC43A1/LAT3) and the sodium symporter SLC6A19/B0AT1 were required to account for total uptake. Furthermore, Leu and Phe uptake by heterologously expressed human SLC6A14/ATB0,+ and SLC43A2/LAT4 was accurately calculated. This versatile systems biology approach is useful for analyses where the kinetics of each active protein species can be represented by the Hill equation. Furthermore, its applicable even in the absence of protein expression data. It could potentially be applied, for example, to quantify drug transporter activities in target cells to improve specificity. PMID:28091567

  9. Nemesia Root Hair Response to Paper Pulp Substrate for Micropropagation

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Labrousse; David Delmail; Raphaël Decou; Michel Carlué; Sabine Lhernould; Pierre Krausz,

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy....

  10. Nanostructured surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates for explosives detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbaek; Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Boisen, Anja;

    2010-01-01

    Here we present a method for trace detection of explosives in the gas phase using novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy substrates. Novel substrates that produce an exceptionally large enhancement of the Raman effect were used to amplify the Raman signal of explosives molecu...... process compared to existing commercial substrates. Therefore it is believed that these novel substrates will be able to make SERS more applicable in mobile explosives detection systems to be deployed in for example landmine clearance actions....

  11. Rich variety of substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van; Nhung Tran, Hong

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of the application of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique to each specified purpose significantly depends on the choice of the SERS substrate with an appropriate structure as well as on its performance. Until the present time a rich variety of SERS substrates was fabricated. They can be classified according to their structures. The present work is a review of main types of SERS substrates for using in the trace analysis application. They can be classified into 4 groups: (1) Substrates using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with spherical shape such as colloidal AuNPs, AuNPs fabricated by pulsed laser deposition, by sputtering or by capillary force assembly (CFA), substrates fabricated by electrospinning technique, substrates using metallic nanoparticle arrays fabricated by electron beam lithography combined with CFA method, substrates using silver nanoparticle (AgNP) arrays grain by chemical seeded method, substrates with tunable surface plasmon resonance, substrates based on precies subnanometer plasmonic junctions within AuNP assemblies, substrates fabricated by simultaneously immobilizing both AuNPs and AgNPs on the same glass sides etc. (2) Substrates using nanostructures with non-spherical shapes such as gold nanowire (NW), or highly anisotropic nickel NW together with large area, free-standing carpets, substrates with obviously angular, quasi-vertically aligned cuboid-shaped TiO2 NW arrays decorated with AgNPs, substrates using gold nanoprism monolayer films, substrates using silver nanocube dimmers or monodisperse close-packed gold nanotriangle monolayers. (3) Substrates using multiparticle complex nanostructure such as nanoparticle cluster arrays, gold nanoflowers and nanodendrites. (4) Flexible substrate such as paper-based swab with gold nanorods, adhesive polymer tapes fabricated by inkjet printing method and flexible and adhesive SERS tapes fabricated by decorating AuNPs via the conventional drop-dry method.

  12. Substrate influences ecophysiological performance of tree seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröll, Gisela; Hietz, Peter; Delaney, Christina M; Katzensteiner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Unfavourable soil conditions frequently limit tree regeneration in mountain forests on calcareous bedrock. Rocky, shallow organic soils on dolomite pose a particular problem for tree regeneration due to commonly restricted water and nutrient supplies. Moreover, an often dense layer of understorey vegetation competes for the limited resources available. Hence, an array of interacting factors impairs tree seedlings' performance on dolomite, but there is little information on the ecophysiological mechanisms. We studied the effects of substrate, competing vegetation and foliar nutrient concentrations on the photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potentials (ψ) of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and larch (Larix decidua Mill.) under controlled (well-watered/drought-stressed) conditions and under prevailing field conditions. While A and gs of well-watered spruce in the pot experiment were reduced by the mineral substrate, the organic dolomite substrate with dense competing vegetation reduced gs and ψ of sycamore, spruce and larch under drought-stressed conditions in the field. For sycamore and spruce, A and gs were strongly correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) concentrations in the pot experiment. In contrast, soil water primarily affected beech and larch. Finally, dense competing vegetation negatively affected A and gs of spruce and A of larch on dolomite. Our results highlight the critical role of N, K and water availability for tree seedlings in shallow soils on calcareous bedrock. On these sites, natural tree regeneration is at particular risk from episodic drought, a likely consequence of climate change.

  13. Thin film reactions on alloy semiconductor substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, D.A.

    1990-11-01

    The interactions between Pt and In{sub .53}Ga{sub .47}As have been studied. In{sub .53}Ga{sub .47}As substrates with 70nm Pt films were encapsulated in SiO{sub 2}, and annealed up to 600{degree}C in flowing forming gas. The composition and morphology of the reaction product phases were studied using x-ray diffraction, Auger depth profiling, and transmission electron microscopy. The reaction kinetics were examined with Rutherford Backscattering. Results show that Pt/In{sub .53}Ga{sub .47}As reacts to form many of the reaction products encountered in the Pt/GaAs and Pt/InP reactions: PtGa, Pt{sub 3}Ga, and PtAs{sub 2}. In addition, a ternary phase, Pt(In:Ga){sub 2}, develops, which is a solid solution between PtIn{sub 2} and PtGa{sub 2}. The amount of Ga in the ternary phase increases with annealing temperature, which causes a decrease in the lattice parameter of the phase. The reaction products show a tendency to form layered structures, especially for higher temperatures and longer annealing times. Unlike the binary case, the PtAs{sub 2}, phase is randomly oriented on the substrate, and is intermingle with a significant amount of Pt(In:Ga){sub 2}. Following Pt/In{sub .53}Ga{sub .47}As reactions, two orientation relationships between the Pt(In:Ga){sub 2} product phase and the substrate were observed, despite the large mismatch with the substrate ({approximately}8%). For many metal/compound semiconductor interactions, the reaction rate is diffusion limited, i.e. exhibits a parabolic dependence on time. An additional result of this study was the development of an In-rich layer beneath the reacted layer. The Auger depth profile showed a substantial increase in the sample at this layer. This is a significant result for the production of ohmic contacts, as the Schottky barrier height in this system lower for higher In concentrations. 216 refs.

  14. Improved Barrier Properties in Flexible Plastic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    adhesion. We also tried double-sided adhesive tape ( thickness 10jim), UV curable adhesive and heat- curable adhesive65 to form a bond between mica and...Figure 3.9. Picture of stack (2.5"x2.5") made with UV curable adhesive- two PEN substrates (125nm thick ) sandwich 4 mica films (5^m thick each...double layer coating by simultaneously evaporating Al203 and Si02 by one e-beam-gun. 22 For a thickness of 50nm, the oxygen transmission rate achieved

  15. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  16. Metallic substrates for high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchan, Thomas G.; Miller, Dean J.; Goretta, Kenneth C.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Foley, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A biaxially textured face-centered cubic metal article having grain boundaries with misorientation angles greater than about 8.degree. limited to less than about 1%. A laminate article is also disclosed having a metal substrate first rolled to at least about 95% thickness reduction followed by a first annealing at a temperature less than about 375.degree. C. Then a second rolling operation of not greater than about 6% thickness reduction is provided, followed by a second annealing at a temperature greater than about 400.degree. C. A method of forming the metal and laminate articles is also disclosed.

  17. Methods for both coating a substrate with aluminum oxide and infusing the substrate with elemental aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Weil, Kenneth Scott

    2016-11-01

    Methods of aluminizing the surface of a metal substrate. The methods of the present invention do not require establishment of a vacuum or a reducing atmosphere, as is typically necessary. Accordingly, aluminization can occur in the presence of oxygen, which greatly simplifies and reduces processing costs by allowing deposition of the aluminum coating to be performed, for example, in air. Embodiments of the present invention can be characterized by applying a slurry that includes a binder and powder granules containing aluminum to the metal substrate surface. Then, in a combined step, a portion of the aluminum is diffused into the substrate and a portion of the aluminum is oxidized by heating the slurry to a temperature greater than the melting point of the aluminum in an oxygen-containing atmosphere.

  18. Single-crystal semiconductor films grown on foreign substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohl, P.

    1966-01-01

    Intermediate alloy formed between foreign substrates and semiconductor material enable the growth of single crystal semiconductor films on the alloy layer. The melted film must not ball up on the surface of the substrate and neither chemically react nor alloy with the intermediate alloy formed on the substrate.

  19. Substrate-induced bulk alignment of liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhengping; Chakrabarti, A.; Mouritsen, Ole G.;

    1996-01-01

    The Gay-Berne model for liquid crystals in the presence of a substrate surface is studied using the hybrid Monte Carlo method. A simple non-mean-field substrate-molecule potential is proposed to describe the effects of rubbed polymer-coated substrates on the liquid crystals. Effects...

  20. Preparation of Porosity-Graded SOFC Anode Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtappels, P.; Sorof, C.; Verbraeken, M.C.; Rambert, S.; Vogt, U.

    2006-01-01

    Porosity graded anode substrates for solid oxide fuel cells are considered to optimise the gas transport through the substrate by maintaining a high electrochemical activity for fuel oxidation at the anode/solid electrolyte interface. In this work, the fabrication of porosity graded anode substrates