Zeta-Functions and Star-Products
Antonsen, Frank
1998-01-01
We use the definition of a star (or Moyal or twisted) product to give a phasespace definition of the $\\zeta$-function. This allows us to derive new closed expressions for the coefficients of the heat kernel in an asymptotic expansion for operators of the form $\\alpha p^2+v(q)$. For the particular case of the harmonic oscillator we furthermore find a closed form for the Green's function. We also find a relationship between star exponentials, path integrals and Wigner functions, which in a simp...
Zeta Pup: the merger of at least two massive stars
Vanbeveren, Dany
2011-01-01
We first discuss the stellar and wind parameters of zeta Pup resulting from detailed UV diagnostics. These parameters together with the runaway nature of the star can most easily be explained by dynamical binary-binary or binary-single star interactions in dense stellar clusters. In this case zeta Pup is most likely the merger of at least two massive stars.
Discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the A3V star \\beta{} Circini
Smith, L C; Peña, C Contreras; Kurtev, R; Marocco, F; Jones, H R A; Beamin, J C; Napiwotzki, R; Borissova, J; Burningham, B; Faherty, J; Pinfield, D J; Gromadzki, M; Ivanov, V D; Minniti, D; Stimson, W; Villanueva, V
2015-01-01
We report the discovery of an L dwarf companion to the A3V star \\beta{} Circini. VVV J151721.49-585131.5, or \\beta{} Cir B, was identified in a proper motion and parallax catalogue of the Vista Variables in the V\\'{i}a L\\'{a}ctea survey as having near infrared luminosity and colour indicative of an early L dwarf, and a proper motion and parallax consistent with that of \\beta{} Cir. The projected separation of $\\sim$3.6' corresponds to $6656$ au, which is unusually wide. The most recent published estimate of the age of the primary combined with our own estimate based on newer isochrones yields an age of $370-500$ Myr. The system therefore serves as a useful benchmark at an age greater than that of the Pleiades brown dwarfs and most other young L dwarf benchmarks. We have obtained a medium resolution echelle spectrum of the companion which indicates a spectral type of L1.0$\\pm$0.5 and lacks the typical signatures of low surface gravity seen in younger brown dwarfs. This suggests that signs of low surface gravit...
Discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the A3V star β Circini
Smith, L. C.; Lucas, P. W.; Contreras Peña, C.; Kurtev, R.; Marocco, F.; Jones, H. R. A.; Beamin, J. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Borissova, J.; Burningham, B.; Faherty, J.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gromadzki, M.; Ivanov, V. D.; Minniti, D.; Stimson, W.; Villanueva, V.
2015-12-01
We report the discovery of an L dwarf companion to the A3V star β Circini. VVV J151721.49-585131.5, or β Cir B, was identified in a proper motion and parallax catalogue of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea survey as having near-infrared luminosity and colour indicative of an early L dwarf, and a proper motion and parallax consistent with that of β Cir. The projected separation of ˜3.6 arcmin corresponds to 6656 au, which is unusually wide. The most recent published estimate of the age of the primary combined with our own estimate based on newer isochrones yields an age of 370-500 Myr. The system therefore serves as a useful benchmark at an age greater than that of the Pleiades brown dwarfs and most other young L dwarf benchmarks. We have obtained a medium resolution echelle spectrum of the companion which indicates a spectral type of L1.0 ± 0.5 and lacks the typical signatures of low-surface gravity seen in younger brown dwarfs. This suggests that signs of low-surface gravity disappear from the spectra of early L dwarfs by an age of ˜370-500 Myr, as expected from theoretical isochrones. The mass of β Cir B is estimated from the BHAC15 isochrones as 0.056 ± 0.007 M⊙.
The white dwarf companion of the B a 2 star zeta Cap
Boehm-Vitense, E.
1981-01-01
The Ba II star zeta Cap has a white dwarf companion. Its T (sub eff) is determined to be 22000 K, its mass is approximately one solar mass. The importance of this finding for the explanation of abundance peculiarities is discussed.
Giants of eclipse the ζ [Zeta] Aurigae stars and other binary systems
Griffin, Elizabeth
2015-01-01
The zeta Aurigae stars are the rare but illustrious sub-group of binary stars that undergo the dramatic phenomenon of "chromospheric eclipse". This book provides detailed descriptions of the ten known systems, illustrates them richly with examples of new spectra, and places them in the context of stellar structure and evolution. Comprised of a large cool giant plus a small hot dwarf, these key eclipsing binaries reveal fascinating changes in their spectra very close to total eclipse, when the hot star shines through differing heights of the "chromosphere", or outer atmosphere, of the giant star. The phenomenon provides astrophysics with the means of analyzing the outer atmosphere of a giant star and how that material is shed into space. The physics of these critical events can be explained qualitatively, but it is more challenging to extract hard facts from the observations, and tough to model the chromosphere in any detail. The book offers current thinking on mechanisms for heating a star's chromosphere an...
The Structural Evolution of Milky-Way-Like Star-Forming Galaxies zeta is approximately 1.3
Patel, Shannon G.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Franx, Marun; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; VanDerWel, Arjen; Leja, Joel; Labbe, Ivo; Brammr, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Lundgren, Britt; Muzzin, Adam; Quadri, Ryan F.; Nelson, Erica June; Wake, David A.; Rix, Hans-Walter
2013-01-01
We follow the structural evolution of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) like the Milky Way by selecting progenitors to zeta is approx. 1.3 based on the stellar mass growth inferred from the evolution of the star-forming sequence. We select our sample from the 3D-HT survey, which utilizes spectroscopy from the HST-WFC3 G141 near-IR grism and enables precise redshift measurements for our sample of SFGs. Structural properties are obtained from Sersic profile fits to CANDELS WFC3 imaging. The progenitors of zeta = 0 SFGs with stellar mass M = 10(exp 10.5) solar mass are typically half as massive at zeta is approx. 1. This late-time stellar mass grow is consistent with recent studies that employ abundance matching techniques. The descendant SFGs at zeta is approx. 0 have grown in half-light radius by a factor of approx. 1.4 zeta is approx. 1. The half-light radius grows with stellar mass as r(sub e) alpha stellar mass(exp 0.29). While most of the stellar mass is clearly assembling at large radii, the mass surface density profiles reveal ongoing mass growth also in the central regions where bulges and pseudobulges are common features in present day late-type galaxies. Some portion of this growth in the central regions is due to star formation as recent observations of H(a) maps for SFGs at zeta approx. are found to be extended but centrally peaked. Connecting our lookback study with galactic archeology, we find the stellar mass surface density at R - 8 kkpc to have increased by a factor of approx. 2 since zeta is approx. 1, in good agreement with measurements derived for the solar neighborhood of the Milky Way.
X-ray Observations of Bow Shocks around Runaway O Stars. The case of $\\zeta$ Oph and BD+433654
Toalá, J A; González-Gaán, A; Guerrero, M A; Ignace, R; Pohl, M
2016-01-01
Non-thermal radiation has been predicted within bow shocks around runaway stars by recent theoretical works. We present X-ray observations towards the runaway stars $\\zeta$ Oph (Chandra and Suzaku) and BD+433654 (XMM-Newton) to search for the presence of non-thermal X-ray emission. We found no evidence of non-thermal emission spatially coincident with the bow shocks, nonetheless, diffuse emission is detected in the vicinity of $\\zeta$ Oph. After a careful analysis of its spectral characteristics we conclude that this emission has a thermal nature with a plasma temperature of $T \\approx 2 \\times10^{6}$ K. The cometary shape of this emission seems to be in line with recent predictions of radiation-hydrodynamic models of runaway stars. The case of BD+433654 is puzzling as non-thermal emission has been reported in a previous work for this source.
Briquet, M; Petit, P; Leroy, B; de Batz, B
2016-01-01
Aims. The main-sequence B-type star $\\zeta$ Cassiopeiae is known as a N-rich star with a magnetic field discovered with the Musicos spectropolarimeter. We model the magnetic field of the star by means of 82 new spectropolarimetric observations of higher precision to investigate the field strength, topology, and effect. Methods. We gathered data with the Narval spectropolarimeter installed at T\\'elescope Bernard Lyot (TBL, Pic du Midi, France) and applied the least-squares deconvolution technique to measure the circular polarisation of the light emitted from $\\zeta$ Cas. We used a dipole oblique rotator model to determine the field configuration by fitting the longitudinal field measurements and by synthesizing the measured Stokes V profiles. We also made use of the Zeeman-Doppler Imaging technique to map the stellar surface and to deduce the difference in rotation rate between the pole and equator. Results. $\\zeta$ Cas exhibits a polar field strength $B_{\\rm pol}$ of 100-150 G, which is the weakest polar fiel...
Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Kahn, Steven M.; Paerels, Frits B. S.
2006-01-01
We fit the Doppler profiles of the He-like triplet complexes of \\ion{O}{7} and \\ion{N}{6} in the X-ray spectrum of the O star $\\zeta$ Puppis, using XMM-Newton RGS data collected over $\\sim 400$ ks of exposure. We find that they cannot be well fit if the resonance and intercombination lines are constrained to have the same profile shape. However, a significantly better fit is achieved with a model incorporating the effects of resonance scattering, which causes the resonance line to become more...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leutenegger, M.A.; /Columbia U.; Owocki, S.P.; /Bartol Research Inst.; Kahn, S.M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Paerels, F.B.S.; /Columbia U.
2006-10-10
We fit the Doppler profiles of the He-like triplet complexes of O VII and N VI in the X-ray spectrum of the O star {zeta} Pup, using XMM-Newton RGS data collected over {approx} 400 ks of exposure. We find that they cannot be well fit if the resonance and intercombination lines are constrained to have the same profile shape. However, a significantly better fit is achieved with a model incorporating the effects of resonance scattering, which causes the resonance line to become more symmetric than the intercombination line for a given characteristic continuum optical depth {tau}{sub *}. We discuss the plausibility of this hypothesis, as well as its significance for our understanding of Doppler profiles of X-ray emission lines in O stars.
On the Star Formation-AGN Connection at zeta (is) approximately greater than 0.3
LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman, T. M.; Ptak, Andrew; Urry, C. Megan
2013-01-01
Using the spectra of a sample of approximately 28,000 nearby obscured active galaxies from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we probe the connection between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation over a range of radial scales in the host galaxy. We use the extinction-corrected luminosity of the [O iii] 5007A line as a proxy of intrinsic AGN power and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion rate. The star formation rates (SFRs) are taken from the MPA-JHU value-added catalog and are measured through the 3 inch SDSS aperture. We construct matched samples of galaxies covering a range in redshifts. With increasing redshift, the projected aperture size encompasses increasing amounts of the host galaxy. This allows us to trace the radial distribution of star formation as a function of AGN luminosity. We find that the star formation becomes more centrally concentrated with increasing AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. This implies that such circumnuclear star formation is associated with AGN activity, and that it increasingly dominates over omnipresent disk star formation at higher AGN luminosities, placing critical constraints on theoretical models that link host galaxy star formation and SMBH fueling. We parameterize this relationship and find that the star formation on radial scales (is) less than 1.7 kpc, when including a constant disk component, has a sub-linear dependence on SMBH accretion rate: SFR in proportion to solar mass(sup 0.36), suggesting that angular momentum transfer through the disk limits accretion efficiency rather than the supply from stellar mass loss.
Leutenegger, M A; Kahn, S M; Paerels, F B S; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Kahn, Steven M.; Paerels, Frits B. S.
2006-01-01
We fit the Doppler profiles of the He-like triplet complexes of \\ion{O}{7} and \\ion{N}{6} in the X-ray spectrum of the O star $\\zeta$ Puppis, using XMM-Newton RGS data collected over $\\sim 400$ ks of exposure. We find that they cannot be well fit if the resonance and intercombination lines are constrained to have the same profile shape. However, a significantly better fit is achieved with a model incorporating the effects of resonance scattering, which causes the resonance line to become more symmetric than the intercombination line for a given characteristic continuum optical depth $\\tau_*$. We discuss the plausibility of this hypothesis, as well as its significance for our understanding of Doppler profiles of X-ray emission lines in O stars.
Zeta functions of quantum graphs
Harrison, J M
2009-01-01
Spectral problems on quantum graphs are a topic of current interest. Progress has been made with questions of spectral statistics, the spectral determinant, inverse problems, the relationship with operators on thin manifolds, Anderson localization, manipulation of the graph spectrum and many other important areas. In this article, however, we turn to a relatively untouched area of the spectral theory of quantum graphs and construct and analyze the spectral zeta function. Understanding the spectral zeta function has been a notable omission from the analysis of quantum graphs which is particularly striking as the Ihara-Selberg zeta function is known to play a fundamental role in the understanding of the spectral theory of combinatorial graphs and it is known that quantum and combinatorial graph spectra are related. In this article we construct zeta functions of quantum graphs using a contour integral technique based on the argument principle. We start by considering the special case of the star graph with Neuma...
The magnetic field of $\\zeta$ Ori A
Blazère, A; Bouret, J-C; Tkachenko, A
2014-01-01
Magnetic fields play a significant role in the evolution of massive stars. About 7% of massive stars are found to be magnetic at a level detectable with current instrumentation and only a few magnetic O stars are known. Detecting magnetic field in O stars is particularly challenging because they only have few, often broad, lines to measure the field, which leads to a deficit in the knowledge of the basic magnetic properties of O stars. We present new spectropolarimetric Narval observations of $\\zeta$ Ori A. We also provide a new analysis of both the new and older data taking binarity into account. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of a magnetic field in $\\zeta$ Ori A. We identify that it belongs to $\\zeta$ Ori Aa and characterize it.
The magnetic field of zeta Orionis A
Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Tkachenko, A.; Bouret, J. -C.; Rivinius, Th.; collaboration, the MiMeS
2015-01-01
Zeta Ori A is a hot star claimed to host a weak magnetic field, but no clear magnetic detection was obtained so far. In addition, it was recently shown to be a binary system composed of a O9.5I supergiant and a B1IV star. We aim at verifying the presence of a magnetic field in zeta Ori A, identifying to which of the two binary components it belongs (or whether both stars are magnetic), and characterizing the field.Very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data were obtained with Narval at...
The triple system Zeta Aquarii
Tokovinin, Andrei
2016-01-01
Zeta Aquarii is a bright and nearby (28 pc) triple star with a 26-year astrometric subsystem. Almost a half of the outer 540-year visual orbit has been covered in 238 years of its observations. Both inner and outer orbits are revised here taking into account recent direct resolution of the inner pair Aa,Ab. The inner orbit has a high eccentricity of 0.87 and is inclined to the outer orbit by 140+-10 degrees, suggesting that Kozai-Lidov cycles take place. The masses of the stars Aa, B, and Ab are 1.4, 1.4, and 0.6 solar. The age of the system is about 3 Gyr, and the two main components have just left the main sequence. Hypothetically, this system could have formed by a dynamical capture of the small star Ab in the twin binary Aa,B.
The magnetic field of zeta Orionis A
Blazère, A; Tkachenko, A; Bouret, J -C; Rivinius, Th
2015-01-01
Zeta Ori A is a hot star claimed to host a weak magnetic field, but no clear magnetic detection was obtained so far. In addition, it was recently shown to be a binary system composed of a O9.5I supergiant and a B1IV star. We aim at verifying the presence of a magnetic field in zeta Ori A, identifying to which of the two binary components it belongs (or whether both stars are magnetic), and characterizing the field.Very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data were obtained with Narval at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France. Archival HEROS, FEROS and UVES spectroscopic data were also used. The data were first disentangled to separate the two components. We then analyzed them with the Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract the magnetic information. We confirm that zeta Ori A is magnetic. We find that the supergiant component zeta Ori Aa is the magnetic component: Zeeman signatures are observed and rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field is clearly detected with a per...
Kurkov, Maxim A; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Watcharangkool, Apimook
2014-01-01
In this paper we propose a novel definition of the bosonic spectral action using zeta function regularization, in order to address the issues of renormalizability, ultraviolet completeness and spectral dimensions. We compare the zeta spectral action with the usual (cutoff based) spectral action and discuss its purely spectral origin, predictive power, stressing the importance of the issue of the three dimensionful fundamental constants, namely the cosmological constant, the Higgs vacuum expectation value, and the gravitational constant. We emphasize the fundamental role of the neutrino Majorana mass term for the structure of the bosonic action.
Conditional estimates on small distances between ordinates of zeros of $\\zeta(s)$ and $\\zeta'(s)$
Ge, Fan
2016-01-01
Let $\\beta'+i\\gamma'$ be a zero of $\\zeta'(s)$. In \\cite{GYi} Garaev and Y{\\i}ld{\\i}r{\\i}m proved that there is a zero $\\beta+i\\gamma$ of $\\zeta(s)$ with $ \\gamma'-\\gamma \\ll \\sqrt{|\\beta'-1/2|} $. Assuming RH, we improve this bound by saving a factor $\\sqrt{\\log\\log\\gamma'}$.
The 0.1-2.5-KEV X-Ray Spectrum of the O4F-STAR Zeta-Puppis
Hillier, D. J.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Pauldrach, A. W.; Baade, D.; Cassinelli, J. P.; Puls, J.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.
1993-09-01
We have obtained a high quality ROSAT PSPC spectrum of the bright O4f star ζ Pup. Allowing for the wind X-ray opacity, as computed from detailed non-LTE stellar wind models of ζ Pup, and under the assumption that the X-rays arise from shocks distributed throughout the wind, we have been able to match the observed X-ray spectrum (0.1 to 2.5keV). The best model fit is obtained when He++ recombines to He+ in the outer regions of the stellar wind, as predicted by recent detailed cool wind model calculations. With a single temperature plasma, the best model fit indicates a temperature of log Ts(K) = 6.5 to 6.6 corresponding to shock velocities of around 500 km s-1. A 2 temperature plasma yields a significantly improved fit, and indicates temperatures of log Ts(K) = 6.2 and 6.7 for the 2 components. The hotter component accounts for 55% of the intrinsic (75% of the observed) X-ray flux. Due to absorption by the stellar wind, and to a minor extent stellar occultation, less than 5% of the total emitted X-ray flux escapes the star. The models require significant X-ray emission (particularly at energies less than 0.5 keV) from large radii (r > 100R*). In models without recombination, the fits, even with a 2 temperature plasma, are unacceptable. A significant K shell absorption is predicted by these models, but is definitely not present in the observational data. The analysis suggests that the X-ray flux provides an invaluable diagnostic of the ionization of helium in the stellar wind of stars with low reddening.
Finite Mordell-Tornheim multiple zeta values
Kamano, Ken
2016-01-01
We investigate a finite analogue of the Mordell-Tornheim multiple zeta values (the finite Mordell-Tornheim multiple zeta values). These values can be expressed by a linear combination of finite multiple zeta values, and its rules are described by the shuffle product. As a~corollary, we give a certain relation among finite multiple zeta values.
Shuffle product formulas of multiple zeta values
Li, Zhonghua; Chen QIN
2016-01-01
Using the combinatorial description of shuffle product, we prove or reformulate several shuffle product formulas of multiple zeta values, including a general formula of the shuffle product of two multiple zeta values, some restricted shuffle product formulas of the product of two multiple zeta values, and a restricted shuffle product formula of the product of $n$ multiple zeta values.
Deitmar, Anton
2002-01-01
In this essay I will give a strictly subjective selection of different types of zeta functions. Instead of providing a complete list, I will rather try to give the central concepts and ideas underlying the theory. This article is going to appear in the collected works of Erich K\\"ahler.
Bernoulli numbers and zeta functions
Arakawa, Tsuneo; Kaneko, Masanobu
2014-01-01
Two major subjects are treated in this book. The main one is the theory of Bernoulli numbers and the other is the theory of zeta functions. Historically, Bernoulli numbers were introduced to give formulas for the sums of powers of consecutive integers. The real reason that they are indispensable for number theory, however, lies in the fact that special values of the Riemann zeta function can be written by using Bernoulli numbers. This leads to more advanced topics, a number of which are treated in this book: Historical remarks on Bernoulli numbers and the formula for the sum of powers of consecutive integers; a formula for Bernoulli numbers by Stirling numbers; the Clausen–von Staudt theorem on the denominators of Bernoulli numbers; Kummer's congruence between Bernoulli numbers and a related theory of p-adic measures; the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula; the functional equation of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet L functions, and their special values at suitable integers; various formulas of ...
The weak magnetic field of the O9.7 supergiant zeta Orionis A
Bouret, J -C; Martins, F; Escolano, C; Marcolino, W; Lanz, T; Howarth, Ian
2008-01-01
We report here the detection of a weak magnetic field of 50 - 100 G on the O9.7 supergiant zeta Ori A, using spectropolarimetric observations obtained with NARVAL at the 2m Telescope Bernard Lyot atop Pic du Midi (France). zeta Ori A is the third O star known to host a magnetic field (along with theta^1 Ori C and HD 191612), and the first detection on a 'normal' rapidly-rotating O star. The magnetic field of zeta Ori A is the weakest magnetic field ever detected on a massive star. The measured field is lower than the thermal equipartition limit (about 100 G). By fitting NLTE model atmospheres to our spectra, we determined that zeta Ori A is a 40 Msun star with a radius of 25 Rsun and an age of about 5 - 6 Myr, showing no surface nitrogen enhancement and losing mass at a rate of about 2x10^(-6) Msol/yr. The magnetic topology of zeta Ori A is apparently more complex than a dipole and involves two main magnetic polarities located on both sides of the same hemisphere; our data also suggest that zeta Ori A rotates...
On multiple zeta values of even arguments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffmann, Michael E. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2012-06-15
For k {<=} n, let E(2n,k) be the sum of all multiple zeta values with even arguments whose weight is 2n and whose depth is k. Of course E(2n,1) is the value {zeta}(2n) of the Riemann zeta function at 2n, and it is well known that E(2n,2)=(3)/(4){zeta}(2n). Recently Z. Shen and T. Cai gave formulas for E(2n,3) and E(2n,4) in terms {zeta}(2n) and {zeta}(2){zeta}(2n-2). We give two formulas form E(2n,k), both valid for arbitrary k{<=}n, one of which generalizes the Shen-Cai results; by comparing the two we obtain a Bernoulli-number identity. We also give an explicit generating function for the numbers E(2n,k).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wadim Zudilin
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The multiple zeta values (MZVs possess a rich algebraic structure of algebraic relations, which is conjecturally determined by two different (shuffle and stuffle products of a certain algebra of noncommutative words. In a recent work, Bachmann constructed a q-analogue of the MZVs—the so-called bi-brackets—for which the two products are dual to each other, in a very natural way. We overview Bachmann’s construction and discuss the radial asymptotics of the bi-brackets, its links to the MZVs, and related linear (independence questions of the q-analogue.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chemical abundances of zeta Reticuly (Adibekyan+, 2016)
Adibekyan, V.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Faria, J. P.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Israelian, G.; Harutyunyan, G.; Suarez-Andres, L.; Hakobyan, A. A.
2016-05-01
The file table1.dat lists stellar parameters, S/N, and observation dates of zeta1 Ret and zeta2 Ret derived from individual and combined spectra The file ew.dat lists the equivalent widths (EW) of all the spectral lines. The file s_lines.dat lists the lines that were used in this study. The file abund.dat lists the derived abundances of the elements for each star and spectra. (4 data files).
The angular diameter and distance of the Cepheid Zeta Geminorum
Kervella, P; Perrin, G; Schöller, M; Traub, W A; Lacasse, M D
2001-01-01
Cepheids are the primary distance indicators for extragalactic astronomy and therefore are of very high astrophysical interest. Unfortunately, they are rare stars, situated very far from Earth.Though they are supergiants, their typical angular diameter is only a few milliarcseconds, making them very challenging targets even for long-baseline interferometers. We report observations that were obtained in the K prime band (2-2.3 microns), on the Cepheid Zeta Geminorum with the FLUOR beam combiner, installed at the IOTA interferometer. The mean uniform disk angular diameter was measured to be 1.64 +0.14 -0.16 mas. Pulsational variations are not detected at a significant statistical level, but future observations with longer baselines should allow a much better estimation of their amplitude. The distance to Zeta Gem is evaluated using Baade-Wesselink diameter determinations, giving a distance of 502 +/- 88 pc.
Rational convex cones and cyclotomic multiple zeta values
TERASOMA, Tomohide
2004-01-01
In this paper, we introduce zeta values of rational convex cones, which is a generalization of cyclotomic multiple zeta values. These zeta values have integral expressions. The main theorem asserts that zeta values of cones can be expressed as linear combinations of cyclotomic multiple zeta values over some cyclotomic field.
Integrals of products of Hurwitz zeta functions
Shpot, M A; Paris, R B
2016-01-01
We evaluate two integrals over $x\\in [0,1]$ involving products of the function $\\zeta_1(a,x)\\equiv \\zeta(a,x)-x^{-a}$ for $\\Re (a)>1$, where $\\zeta(a,x)$ is the Hurwitz zeta function. The evaluation of these integrals for the particular case of integer $a\\geq 2$ is also presented. As an application we calculate the $O(g)$ weak-coupling expansion coefficient $c_{1}(\\varepsilon)$ of the Casimir energy for a film with Dirichlet-Dirichlet boundary conditions, first stated by Symanzik [Schr\\"odinger representation and Casimir effect in renormalizable quantum field theory, Nucl. Phys. B 190 (1981) 1-44] in the framework of $g\\phi^4_{4-\\varepsilon}$ theory.
Mean-periodicity and zeta functions
Suzuki, Masatoshi; Ricotta, Guillaume; Fesenko, Ivan
2008-01-01
This paper establishes new bridges between number theory and modern harmonic analysis, namely between the class of complex functions, which contains zeta functions of arithmetic schemes and closed with respect to product and quotient, and the class of mean-periodic functions in several spaces of functions on the real line. In particular, the meromorphic continuation and functional equation of the zeta function of arithmetic scheme with its expected analytic shape is shown to correspond to mea...
Partial zeta functions of algebraic varieties over finite fields
Wan, D
2000-01-01
By restricting the variables running over various (possibly different) subfields, we introduce the notion of a partial zeta function. We prove that the partial zeta function is rational in an interesting case, generalizing Dwork's well known rationality theorem. In general, the partial zeta function is probably not rational. But a theorem of Faltings says that the partial zeta function is always nearly rational.
Renormalization of Multiple q-Zeta Values
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jianqiang ZHAO
2008-01-01
In this paper, we shall define the renormalization of the multiple q-zeta values (MqZV)which are special values of multiple q-zeta functions ζq(S1,..., sd) when the arguments are all positive integers or all non-positive integers. This generalizes the work of Guo and Zhang (Renormalization of Multiple Zeta Values, arxiv:math/0606076v3). We show that our renormalization process produces the same values if the MqZVs are well-defined originally and that these renormalizations of MqZV satisfy the q-stuffle relations if we use shifted-renormalizations for all divergent ζq(S1,..., Sd) (i.e., S1≤1). Moreover, when q 1 our renormalizations agree with those of Guo and Zhang.
Bernoulli Polynomials, Fourier Series and Zeta Numbers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scheufens, Ernst E
2013-01-01
Fourier series for Bernoulli polynomials are used to obtain information about values of the Riemann zeta function for integer arguments greater than one. If the argument is even we recover the well-known exact values, if the argument is odd we find integral representations and rapidly convergent...
Euler Polynomials, Fourier Series and Zeta Numbers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scheufens, Ernst E
2012-01-01
Fourier series for Euler polynomials is used to obtain information about values of the Riemann zeta function for integer arguments greater than one. If the argument is even we recover the well-known exact values, if the argument is odd we find integral representations and rapidly convergent series....
The magnetic field of $\\zeta$ Ori A
Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Bouret, J-C.; Tkachenko, A.; MiMeS collaboration
2014-01-01
Magnetic fields play a significant role in the evolution of massive stars. About 7% of massive stars are found to be magnetic at a level detectable with current instrumentation and only a few magnetic O stars are known. Detecting magnetic field in O stars is particularly challenging because they only have few, often broad, lines to measure the field, which leads to a deficit in the knowledge of the basic magnetic properties of O stars. We present new spectropolarimetric Narval observations of...
Computing zeta functions of sparse nondegenerate hypersurfaces
Sperber, Steven
2011-01-01
Using the cohomology theory of Dwork, as developed by Adolphson and Sperber, we exhibit a deterministic algorithm to compute the zeta function of a nondegenerate hypersurface defined over a finite field. This algorithm is particularly well-suited to work with polynomials in small characteristic that have few monomials (relative to their dimension). Our method covers toric, affine, and projective hypersurfaces and also can be used to compute the L-function of an exponential sum.
Zeta potential in colloid science principles and applications
Hunter, Robert J; Rowell, R L
2013-01-01
Zeta Potential in Colloid Science: Principles and Applications covers the concept of the zeta potential in colloid chemical theory. The book discusses the charge and potential distribution at interfaces; the calculation of the zeta potential; and the experimental techniques used in the measurement of electrokinetic parameters. The text also describes the electroviscous and viscoelectric effects; applications of the zeta potential to areas of colloid science; and the influence of simple inorganic ions or more complex adsorbates on zeta potential. Physical chemists and people involved in the stu
The first spectropolarimetric monitoring of the peculiar O4Ief supergiant zeta Puppis
Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Schöller, M; Oskinova, L M
2016-01-01
The origin of the magnetic field in massive O-type stars is still under debate. To model the physical processes responsible for the generation of O star magnetic fields, it is important to understand whether correlations between the presence of a magnetic field and stellar evolutionary state, rotation velocity, kinematical status, and surface composition can be identified. The O4Ief supergiant zeta Pup is a fast rotator and a runaway star, which may be a product of a past binary interaction, possibly having had an encounter with the cluster Trumper 10 some 2Myr ago. The currently available observational material suggests that certain observed phenomena in this star may be related to the presence of a magnetic field. We acquired spectropolarimetric observations of zeta Pup with FORS2 mounted on the 8-m Antu telescope of the VLT to investigate if a magnetic field is indeed present in this star. We show that many spectral lines are highly variable and probably vary with the recently detected period of 1.78d. No ...
Dedekind zeta-functions and Dedekind sums
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陆洪文; 焦荣政; 纪春岗
2002-01-01
In this paper we use Dedekind zeta functions of two real quadratic number fields at -1 to denote Dedekind sums of high rank. Our formula is different from that of Siegel's. As an application, we get a polynomial representation of ζK(-1): ζK(-1) =1/45(26n3-41n±9), n ≡±2(mod 5), where K=Q( q),prime q=4n2+1, and the class number of quadratic number field K2=Q(q) is 1.
Los Zetas and Proprietary Radio Network Development
James Halverson
2016-01-01
The years from 2006 through 2011 were very active years for a number of Mexican drug trafficking organizations. However, the group that probably saw the most meteoric rise in this period, Los Zetas, had a unique and innovative tool at their disposal. It was during these years that the group constructed and utilized a proprietary encrypted radio network that grew to span from Texas to Guatemala through the Gulf States of Mexico and across much of the rest of the country. This network gave the ...
Zeta function factorisation, Dwork hypersurfaces, hypergeometric hypersurfaces
Goutet, Philippe
2009-01-01
Let $\\mathbb{F}_q$ be a finite field with $q$ elements, $\\psi$ a non-zero element of $\\mathbb{F}_q$, and $n$ an integer $\\geq 3$ prime to $q$. The aim of this article is to show that the zeta function of the projective variety over $\\mathbb{F}_q$ defined by $X_\\psi \\colon x_1^n+...+x_n^n - n \\psi x_1... x_n=0$ has, when $n$ is prime and $X_\\psi$ is non singular (i.e. when $\\psi^n \
Wettability Studies Using Zeta Potential Measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghada Bassioni
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Wettability studies have been carried out on reservoir rocks using different techniques such as the Amott-Harvey method, the USBM method, and the contact angle method, all with limitations. In this study, the wettability is studied by discussing the surface charge using zeta potential measurements. The study relies on the finding that carbonated reservoir rocks, consisting of CaCO3 mainly, are positively charged and their surface has the potential to adsorb significant quantities of anions. Moreover, heavy fractions such as asphaltenes are reported to remain afloat depending on dispersive forces present in the oil and its various fractions. Experiments are carried out on aqueous limestone suspension with the addition of crude oil. The experiment is repeated with the use of polymeric inhibitors, A and B. The zeta potential is found to alter depending on the sequence of polymeric inhibitor in oil/water addition. The inhibitor is found to adsorb on the limestone surface, with a net negative charge, causing repulsion between crude oil and the inhibitor and, hence, preventing the deposition of heavy fractions and particularly asphaltenes. This study gives a comprehensive insight on the mechanism of polymeric inhibitor interaction with the surface and the effect of wettability on its performance.
Los Zetas and Proprietary Radio Network Development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Halverson
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The years from 2006 through 2011 were very active years for a number of Mexican drug trafficking organizations. However, the group that probably saw the most meteoric rise in this period, Los Zetas, had a unique and innovative tool at their disposal. It was during these years that the group constructed and utilized a proprietary encrypted radio network that grew to span from Texas to Guatemala through the Gulf States of Mexico and across much of the rest of the country. This network gave the group an operational edge. It also stood as a symbol of the latitude the group enjoyed across vast areas, as this extensive illicit infrastructure stood, in the face of the government and rival cartels, for six years. This investigation explicates the process by which Los Zetas constructed, concealed and utilized this network and attempts to draw conclusions about the motivations and organizational dynamics that brought the network to be, with attention paid to what this case says about the complex engineering capabilities of non-state entities in general.
Distinguishing graphs with zeta functions and generalized spectra
Durfee, Christina; Martin, Kimball
2014-01-01
Conjecturally, almost all graphs are determined by their spectra. This problem has also been studied for variants such as the spectra of the Laplacian and signless Laplacian. Here we consider the problem of determining graphs with Ihara and Bartholdi zeta functions, which are also computable in polynomial time. These zeta functions are geometrically motivated, but can be viewed as certain generalizations of characteristic polynomials. After discussing some graph properties determined by zeta ...
The November 1987 eclipse of the zeta-Aur system HR 2554
Ake, Thomas B., III; Parsons, Sidney B.
1988-01-01
It is confirmed that HR 2554 (G6 II + A0 V) is an atmospheric eclipsing system of the zeta-Aur type. The IUE observations of the Nov. 1987 eclipse indicate that the eclipse of the A star lasts 4 days and is not total. Absorption lines due to the extended atmosphere of the primary can be seen a day before and after the eclipse and are missing 2 days from first and 4th contact. Thus the outer envelope of the primary extends to less than 1 stellar radius beyond the photosphere. Compared to 22 Vul (G3 Ib-II + B9 V), where the absorption can be traced to a few stellar radii, HR 2554 is a more moderate case of mass outflow, which implies there is reduced interaction of the secondary within the wind from the primary as is seen in the other zeta-Aur systems.
The multiple zeta value data mine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buemlein, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Broadhurst, D.J. [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Physics and Astronomy Dept.; Vermaseren, J.A.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2009-07-15
We provide a data mine of proven results for multiple zeta values (MZVs) of the form {zeta}(s{sub 1},s{sub 2},..,s{sub k}) = sum {sup {infinity}}{sub n{sub 1}}{sub >n{sub 2}}{sub >...>n{sub k}}{sub >0} {l_brace}1/(n{sub 1}{sup s{sub 1}}..n{sub k}{sup s{sub k}}){r_brace} with weight w = sum {sup K}{sub i=1}s{sub i} and depth k and for Euler sums of the form sum {sup {infinity}}{sub n{sub 1}}{sub >n{sub 2}}{sub >...>n{sub k}}{sub >0} {l_brace}({epsilon}{sub 1}{sup n{sub 1}}..{epsilon}{sub 1}{sup n{sub k}})/(n{sub 1}{sup s{sub 1}}..n{sub k}{sup s{sub k}}){r_brace} with signs {epsilon}{sub i} = {+-} 1. Notably, we achieve explicit proven reductions of all MZVs with weights w{<=}22, and all Euler sums with weights w{<=}12, to bases whose dimensions, bigraded by weight and depth, have sizes in precise agreement with the Broadhurst. Kreimer and Broadhurst conjectures. Moreover, we lend further support to these conjectures by studying even greater weights (w{<=}30), using modular arithmetic. To obtain these results we derive a new type of relation for Euler sums, the Generalized Doubling Relations. We elucidate the ''pushdown'' mechanism, whereby the ornate enumeration of primitive MZVs, by weight and depth, is reconciled with the far simpler enumeration of primitive Euler sums. There is some evidence that this pushdown mechanism finds its origin in doubling relations. We hope that our data mine, obtained by exploiting the unique power of the computer algebra language FORM, will enable the study of many more such consequences of the double-shuffle algebra of MZVs, and their Euler cousins, which are already the subject of keen interest, to practitioners of quantum field theory, and to mathematicians alike. (orig.)
Computational Derivation to Zeta Zeros and Prime Numbers
Chalmers, Gordon
2005-01-01
A route to the derivation of the numbers $s$ to the transcendental equation $\\zeta(s)=0$ is presented. The solutions to this equation require the solving of a geodesic flow in an infinite dimensional manifold. These solutions enable one approach to a formula generating the prime numbers.
Riemann zeta function from wave-packet dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mack, R.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Moya-Cessa, H.;
2010-01-01
We show that the time evolution of a thermal phase state of an anharmonic oscillator with logarithmic energy spectrum is intimately connected to the generalized Riemann zeta function zeta(s, a). Indeed, the autocorrelation function at a time t is determined by zeta (sigma + i tau, a), where sigma...... is governed by the temperature of the thermal phase state and tau is proportional to t. We use the JWKB method to solve the inverse spectral problem for a general logarithmic energy spectrum; that is, we determine a family of potentials giving rise to such a spectrum. For large distances, all potentials...... display a universal behavior; they take the shape of a logarithm. However, their form close to the origin depends on the value of the Hurwitz parameter a in zeta (s, a). In particular, we establish a connection between the value of the potential energy at its minimum, the Hurwitz parameter and the Maslov...
Zeta Functions for Elliptic Curves I. Counting Bundles
Weng, Lin
2012-01-01
To count bundles on curves, we study zetas of elliptic curves and their zeros. There are two types, i.e., the pure non-abelian zetas defined using moduli spaces of semi-stable bundles, and the group zetas defined for special linear groups. In lower ranks, we show that these two types of zetas coincide and satisfy the Riemann Hypothesis. For general cases, exposed is an intrinsic relation on automorphism groups of semi-stable bundles over elliptic curves, the so-called counting miracle. All this, together with Harder-Narasimhan, Desale-Ramanan and Zagier's result, gives an effective way to count semi-stable bundles on elliptic curves not only in terms of automorphism groups but more essentially in terms of their $h^0$'s. Distributions of zeros of high rank zetas are also discussed.
Fundamental stellar parameters of $\\zeta$ Pup and $\\gamma^2$ Vel from HIPPARCOS data
Schärer, D; Grenon, Michel; Schaerer, Daniel; Schmutz, Werner; Grenon, Michel
1997-01-01
We report parallax measurements by the HIPPARCOS satellite of zeta Puppis and gamma^2 Velorum. The distance of zeta Pup is d=429 (+120/ -77) pc, in agreement with the commonly adopted value to Vela OB2. However, a significantly smaller distance is found for the gamma^2 Vel system: d=258 (+41/-31) pc. The total mass of gamma^2 Vel derived from its parallax, the angular size of the semi-major axis as measured with intensity interferometry, and the period is M(WR+O)=29.5 (+/-15.9) Msun. This result favors the orbital solution of Pike et al. (1983) over that of Moffat et al. (1986). The stellar parameters for the O star companion derived from line blanketed non-LTE atmosphere models are: Teff=34000 (+/-1500) K, log L/Lsun=5.3 (+/-0.15) from which an evolutionary mass of M=29 (+/-4) Msun and an age of 4.0 (+0.8/-0.5) Myr is obtained from single star evolutionary models. With non-LTE model calculations including He and C we derive a luminosity log L/Lsun~4.7 (+/-0.2) for the WR star. The mass-luminosity relation of...
Resonance scattering in the X-ray emission line profiles of Zeta Puppis
Leutenegger, M. A.; Cohen, D. H.; Kahn, S. M.; Owocki, S. P.; Paerels, F. B. S.
2007-01-01
We present XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observations of pairs of X-ray emission line profiles from the O star Zeta Pup that originate from the same He-like ion. The two profiles in each pair have different shapes and cannot both be consistently fit by models assuming the same wind parameters. We show that the differences in profile shape can be accounted for in a model including the effects of resonance scattering, which affects the resonance line in the pair but not the interco...
Higgs interpretation of zeta (8.3 GeV)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We interpret the recently observed zeta (8.3 GeV) to be a Higgs boson of the SU(2) x U(1) model with two Higgs doublets. If zeta is a Nambu-Goldstone boson of a new approximate symmetry, then a second light neutral Higgs of mass less than 25 GeV is expected. Our fermion couplings enhance the rate for UPSILON → γ + zeta by approx. 100 compared to the standard one Higgs model. Other experimental tests are suggested
Generation of directional EOF by interactive oscillatory zeta potential.
Kuo, Chih-Yu; Wang, Chang-Yi; Chang, Chien-Cheng
2008-11-01
A steady directional EOF due to a nonlinear interaction between oscillatory axial electrical fields and oscillatory wall potentials (zeta potentials) is presented. This is a new mechanism to produce such a mean flow. It is found that the flow velocity depends not on the external driving frequency but on the phase angle difference between the electric fields and the zeta potentials. The formulation can also be reduced to the static EOF straightforwardly. For the purpose of theoretical demonstration, we use the Debye-Huckel approximation for the zeta potential. Results of planar and cylindrical capillaries are given.
Zeta Functions of the Dirac Operator on Quantum Graphs
Harrison, J M; Kirsten, K
2016-01-01
We construct spectral zeta functions for the Dirac operator on metric graphs. We start with the case of a rose graph, a graph with a single vertex where every edge is a loop. The technique is then developed to cover any finite graph with general energy independent matching conditions at the vertices. The regularized spectral determinant of the Dirac operator is also obtained as the derivative of the zeta function at a special value. In each case the zeta function is formulated using a contour integral method, which extends results obtained for Laplace and Schrodinger operators on graphs.
Pure red cell aplasia induced by epoetin zeta.
Panichi, Vincenzo; Ricchiuti, Guido; Scatena, Alessia; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Locatelli, Francesco
2016-08-01
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) may develop in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA). We report on a 72-year-old patient who developed hypo-proliferative anaemia unresponsive to ESA following the administration of epoetin zeta subcutaneously for 7 months. On the basis of severe isolated hypoplasia of the erythroid line in the bone marrow and high-titre neutralizing anti-erythropoietin antibodies (Ab), a diagnosis of Ab-mediated PRCA was made. Epoetin zeta was discontinued and the patient was given steroids. This was associated with anaemia recovery. To our knowledge this is the first PRCA case related to epoetin zeta. PMID:27478604
Two-parametric zeta function regularization in superstring theory
Motl, Lubos
1995-01-01
In this paper some quite simple examples of applications of the zeta-function regularization to superstring theories are presented. It is shown that the Virasoro anomaly in the BRST formulation of (super)strings can be directly computed from the original expressions of the operators as well as normal ordering constants and masses of ground levels. Hawking's zeta regularization is recognized as an efficient tool for direct calculations, bringing no ambiguities. Possible implications for global...
Zeta potential of microfluidic substrates: 2. Data for polymers.
Kirby, Brian J; Hasselbrink, Ernest F
2004-01-01
Zeta potential data are reviewed for a variety of polymeric microfluidic substrate materials. Many of these materials currently used for microchip fabrication have only recently been employed for generation of electroosmotic flow. Despite their recent history, polymeric microfluidic substrates are currently used extensively for microchip separations and other techniques, and understanding of the surface zeta potential is crucial for experimental design. This paper proposes the use of pC (the negative logarithm of the counterion concentration) as a useful normalization for the zeta potential on polymer substrates in contact with indifferent univalent counterions. Normalizing zeta by pC facilitates comparison of results from many investigators. The sparseness of available data for polymeric substrates prevents complete and rigorous justification for this normalization; however, it is consistent with double layer and adsorption theory. For buffers with indifferent univalent cations, normalization with the logarithm of the counterion concentration in general collapses data onto a single zeta/pC vs. pH curve, and (with the exception of PMMA) the repeatability of the data is quite encouraging. Normalization techniques should allow improved ability to predict zeta potential performance on microfluidic substrates and compare results observed with different parameters.
The problem of the barium stars
Bohm-Vitense, E.; Nemec, J.; Proffitt, C.
1984-01-01
Ultraviolet observations of barium stars and other cool stars with peculiar element abundances are reported. Those observations attempted to find hot white dwarf companions. Among six real barium stars studied, only Zeta Cap was found to have a white dwarf companion. Among seven mild, or marginal, barium stars studied, at least three were found to have hot subluminous companions. It is likely that all of them have white dwarf companions.
Linear differential equations and multiple zeta-values. III. Zeta(3)
Zakrzewski, Michał; Żoładek, Henryk
2012-01-01
We consider the hypergeometric equation (1 - t)∂t∂t∂g + x3g = 0, whose unique analytic solution φ1(t; x) = 1 + O(t) near t = 0 for t = 1 becomes a generating function for multiple zeta values φ1(1; x) = f3(x) = 1 - ζ(3)x3 + ζ(3, 3)x6 - …. We apply the so-called WKB method to study solutions of the hypergeometric equation for large x and we calculate corresponding Stokes matrices. We prove that the function f3(x) near x = ∞ is also expressed via WKB type functions which subject to some Stokes phenomenon. This implies that f3(x) satisfies a sixth order linear differential equation with irregular singularity at infinity.
Structural, Magnetic, and Optical Properties of A3V4(PO4)6 (A = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni).
Porter, Spencer H; Xiong, Jie; Avdeev, Maxim; Merz, David; Woodward, Patrick M; Huang, Zhenguo
2016-06-20
Combined synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction indicates that A3V4(PO4)6 (A = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) compounds crystallize with triclinic P1̅ symmetry. Lattice parameters expand as expected with successive increases in the ionic radius of the A(2+) ion. Cation disorder on the octahedral sites increases as the ionic radii of A(2+) ion decreases. Direct-current magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that all compounds with magnetic A(2+) ions order anti-ferromagnetically with transition temperatures ranging from 12 to 15 K. Effective magnetic moments for A3V4(PO4)6 (A = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) are 5.16, 11.04, 10.08, 9.76, and 7.96 μB per formula unit, respectively, in line with calculated values for high-spin transition metal ions. With the exception of Co3V4(PO4)6 the ultraviolet-visible spectra are dominated by d-d transitions of the V(3+) ions. The striking emerald green color of Co3V4(PO4)6 arises from the combined effects of d-d transitions involving both V(3+) and Co(2+). PMID:27227553
Analytic continuation of the Hurwitz Zeta Function with physical application
Barone-Adesi, V; Adesi, Vittorio Barone; Zerbini, Sergio
2001-01-01
A new formula relating the analytic continuation ofthe Hurwitz zeta function to the Euler gamma function and a "Schwinger" type series is presented. In particular, the value of the derivative of the real part of the analytic continuation of the Hurwitz zeta function for even negative integers and the imaginary one for odd negative integers are explicitly given. The result can be of interest both on mathematical and physical side, because we are able to apply our new formulas in the context of the Spectral Zeta Function regularization of one-loop Quantum Field Theory, computing the exact pair production rate per space-time unit of massive Dirac particles interacting with a purely electric background field.
On the breakdown of the curvature perturbation $\\zeta$ during reheating
Algan, Merve Tarman; Kutluk, Emine Seyma
2015-01-01
It is known that in single scalar field inflationary models the standard curvature perturbation \\zeta, which is supposedly conserved at superhorizon scales, diverges during reheating at times d\\Phi/dt=0, i.e. when the time derivative of the background inflaton field vanishes. This happens because the comoving gauge \\phi=0, where \\phi\\ denotes the inflaton perturbation, breaks down when d\\Phi/dt=0. The issue is usually bypassed by averaging out the inflaton oscillations but strictly speaking the evolution of \\zeta\\ is ill posed mathematically. We solve this problem by introducing a family of smooth gauges that still eliminates the inflaton fluctuation \\phi\\ in the Hamiltonian formalism and gives a well behaved curvature perturbation \\zeta, which is now rigorously conserved at superhorizon scales. In the linearized theory, this conserved variable can be used to unambiguously propagate the inflationary perturbations from the end of inflation to subsequent epochs. We discuss the implications of our results for th...
On the rate of accumulation of $\\alpha\\zeta^{n}$ mod 1 to 0
Schleischitz, Johannes
2014-01-01
In this paper we study the distribution of the sequence $(\\alpha \\zeta^{n})_{n\\geq 1}$ mod $1$, where $\\alpha,\\zeta$ are fixed positive real numbers, with special focus on the accumulation point $0$. For this purpose we introduce approximation constants $\\underline{\\sigma}(\\alpha,\\zeta),\\overline{\\sigma}(\\alpha, \\zeta)$ and study their properties in dependence of $\\alpha,\\zeta$, distinguishing in particular the cases of Pisot numbers, algebraic non Pisot numbers and transcendental values of $...
Two-parametric $\\zeta$ function regularization in superstring theory
Motl, L
1995-01-01
In this paper some quite simple examples of applications of the zeta-function regularization to superstring theories are presented. It is shown that the Virasoro anomaly in the BRST formulation of (super)strings can be directly computed from the original expressions of the operators as well as normal ordering constants and masses of ground levels. Hawking's zeta regularization is recognized as an efficient tool for direct calculations, bringing no ambiguities. Possible implications for global GSO operators' phases definitions (maybe ensuring modular invariance) will be discussed elsewhere.
On a Reciprocity Law for Finite Multiple Zeta Values
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus Kuba
2010-01-01
Full Text Available It was shown by Kirschenhofer and Prodinger (1998 and Kuba et al. (2008 that harmonic numbers satisfy certain reciprocity relations, which are in particular useful for the analysis of the quickselect algorithm. The aim of this work is to show that a reciprocity relation from Kirschenhofer and Prodinger (1998 and Kuba et al. (2008 can be generalized to finite variants of multiple zeta values, involving a finite variant of the shuffle identity for multiple zeta values. We present the generalized reciprocity relation and furthermore a combinatorial proof of the shuffle identity based on partial fraction decomposition. We also present an extension of the reciprocity relation to weighted sums.
Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II
Kayoya, J. B.
2005-02-01
Using the Jordan algebras methods, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of studied by Gelbart [Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 108 (1971)] and Godement and Jacquet [Zeta functions of simple algebras, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 260, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972], and the case of studied by Muro [Adv. Stud. Pure Math. 15 (1989) 429]. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one-to-one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras [Local Zeta Functions Attached to the Minimal Spherical Series for a Class of Symmetric Spaces, IRMA, Strasbourg, 2003]. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of type II.
Kabat's Surface Terms in the $\\zeta$-Function approach
Iellici, D; Iellici, Devis; Moretti, Valter
1997-01-01
The thermal partition functions of photons in any covariant gauge and gravitons in the harmonic gauge, propagating in a Rindler wedge, are computed using a local zeta-function approach. The relation with the surface terms previously obtained by D. Kabat is studied. The results are discussed in relation to the quantum corrections to the black hole entropy.
Crossing the entropy barrier of dynamical zeta functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aurich, R.; Bolte, J.; Matthies, C.; Sieber, M.; Steiner, F. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)
1992-01-01
Dynamical zeta functions are an important tool to quantize chaotic dynamical systems. The basic quantization rules require the computation of the zeta functions on the real energy axis, where the Euler product representations running over the classical periodic orbits usually do not converge due to the existence of the so-called entropy barrier determined by the topological entropy of the classical system. We shown that the convergence properties of the dynamical zeta functions rewritten as Dirichlet series are governed not only by the well-known topological and metric entropy, but depend crucially on subtle statistical properties of the Maslow indices and of the multiplicities of the periodic orbits that are measured by a new parameter for which we introduce the notion of a third entropy. If and only if the third entropy is nonvanishing, one can cross the entropy barrier; if it exceeds a certain value, one can even compute the zeta function in the physical region by means of a convergent Dirichlet series. A simple statistical model is presented which allows to compute the third entropy. Four examples of chaotic systems are studied in detail to test the model numerically. (orig.).
Mayer Transfer Operator Approach to Selberg Zeta Function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei
in terms of a Fredholm determinant of a classical transfer operator of the flow. The transfer operator is defined in a certain space of holomorphic functions and its matrix representation in a natural basis is given in terms of the Riemann zeta function and the Euler gamma function....
Renormdynamics, multiparticle production, negative binomial distribution, and Riemann zeta function
Makhaldiani, N. V.
2013-09-01
After short introduction, we consider different aspects of the renormdynamics. Then scaling functions of the multiparticle production processes and corresponding stochastic dynamics are considered. Nonperturbative quasi-particle dynamics is considered on the base of the toy QCD- O( N)-sigma model. Last section concerns to the NBD-Riemann zeta function connection.
Renormdynamics, multiparticle production, negative binomial distribution, and Riemann zeta function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Makhaldiani, N. V., E-mail: mnv@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)
2013-09-15
After short introduction, we consider different aspects of the renormdynamics. Then scaling functions of the multiparticle production processes and corresponding stochastic dynamics are considered. Nonperturbative quasi-particle dynamics is considered on the base of the toy QCD-O(N)-sigma model. Last section concerns to the NBD-Riemann zeta function connection.
From Fourier Series to Rapidly Convergent Series for Zeta(3)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scheufens, Ernst E
2011-01-01
The article presents a mathematical study which investigates the exact values of the Riemann zeta (ζ) function. It states that exact values can be determined from Fourier series for periodic versions of even power functions. It notes that using power series for logarithmic functions...... on this such series, a rapidly convergent series for ζ (3) is obtained....
Crossing the entropy barrier of dynamical zeta functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dynamical zeta functions are an important tool to quantize chaotic dynamical systems. The basic quantization rules require the computation of the zeta functions on the real energy axis, where the Euler product representations running over the classical periodic orbits usually do not converge due to the existence of the so-called entropy barrier determined by the topological entropy of the classical system. We shown that the convergence properties of the dynamical zeta functions rewritten as Dirichlet series are governed not only by the well-known topological and metric entropy, but depend crucially on subtle statistical properties of the Maslow indices and of the multiplicities of the periodic orbits that are measured by a new parameter for which we introduce the notion of a third entropy. If and only if the third entropy is nonvanishing, one can cross the entropy barrier; if it exceeds a certain value, one can even compute the zeta function in the physical region by means of a convergent Dirichlet series. A simple statistical model is presented which allows to compute the third entropy. Four examples of chaotic systems are studied in detail to test the model numerically. (orig.)
Some bounds and limits in the theory of Riemann's zeta function
de Reyna, J Arias
2011-01-01
For any real a>0 we determine the supremum of the real \\sigma\\ such that \\zeta(\\sigma+it) = a for some real t. For 0 1 the results turn out to be quite different.} We also determine the supremum E of the real parts of the `turning points', that is points \\sigma+it where a curve Im \\zeta(\\sigma+it) = 0 has a vertical tangent. This supremum E (also considered by Titchmarsh) coincides with the supremum of the real \\sigma\\ such that \\zeta'(\\sigma+it) = 0 for some real t. We find a surprising connection between the three indicated problems: \\zeta(s) = 1, \\zeta'(s) = 0 and turning points of \\zeta(s). The almost extremal values for these three problems appear to be located at approximately the same height.
Cardelli, Jason A.; Savage, Blair D.; Ebbets, Dennis C.
1991-01-01
An analysis of weak (less than 10 mA) UV interstellar absorption line data obtained for the line of sight to the O9.5 IV star Zeta Oph is presented. Measurements of weak semiforbidden lines of N I, O I, Cu II, and a new UV detection of Na I are reported along with a small upper limit for C II. Interstellar detections of Ga II, Ge II, and Kr I are also presented. Ga, Ge, and Kr represent the heaviest elements detected in the ISM. A comparison of the derived column densities to cosmic abundances shows Ga to be depleted by about -1.2 dex while Ge is overabundant by +0.2 dex. Assuming Kr to be undepleted, a logarithmic cosmic abundance of Kr/H = 2.95 is obtained on the scale where H = 12.00.
Evidence for Resonance Scattering in the X-ray Spectrum of Zeta Puppis
Leutenegger, Maurice
2008-01-01
We present XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observations of pairs of X-ray emission line profiles from the 0 star Zeta Pup that originate from the same He-like ion. The two profiles in each pair have different shapes and cannot both be consistently fit by models assuming the same wind parameters. We show that the differences in profile shape can be accounted for in a model including the effects of resonance scattering, which affects the resonance line in the pair but not the intercombination line. This implies that resonance scattering is also important in single resonance lines, where its effect is difficult to distinguish from a low effective continuum optical depth in the wind. Thus, resonance scattering may help reconcile X-ray line profile shapes with literature mass-loss rates.
Resonance scattering in the X-ray emission line profiles of Zeta Puppis
Leutenegger, M A; Kahn, S M; Owocki, S P; Paerels, F B S
2007-01-01
We present XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observations of pairs of X-ray emission line profiles from the O star Zeta Pup that originate from the same He-like ion. The two profiles in each pair have different shapes and cannot both be consistently fit by models assuming the same wind parameters. We show that the differences in profile shape can be accounted for in a model including the effects of resonance scattering, which affects the resonance line in the pair but not the intercombination line. This implies that resonance scattering is also important in single resonance lines, where its effect is difficult to distinguish from a low effective continuum optical depth in the wind. Thus, resonance scattering may help reconcile X-ray line profile shapes with literature mass-loss rates.
A note on the real part of the Riemann zeta-function
de Reyna, Juan Arias; van de Lune, Jan
2011-01-01
We consider the real part Re(zeta(s)) of the Riemann zeta-function zeta(s) in the half-plane Re(s) >= 1. We show how to compute accurately the constant sigma_0 = 1.19... which is defined to be the supremum of sigma such that Re(zeta(sigma+it)) can be negative (or zero) for some real t. We also consider intervals where Re(zeta(1+it)) <= 0 and show that they are rare. The first occurs for t approximately 682112.9, and has length about 0.05. We list the first fifty such intervals.
Kahn, S. M.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Cottam, J.; Rauw, G.; Vreux, J. -M.; Boggende, A.J.F. den; Mewe, R.; Guedel, M.
2000-01-01
We present the first high resolution X-ray spectrum of the bright O4Ief supergiant star Zeta Puppis, obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on-board XMM-Newton. The spectrum exhibits bright emission lines of hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and silicon, as well as neon-like ions of iron. The lines are all significantly resolved, with characteristic velocity widths of order 1000-1500 km s^{-1}. The nitrogen lines are especially strong, and ind...
Lecture notes: string theory and zeta-function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toppan, Francesco [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: toppan@cbpf.br
2001-11-01
These lecture notes are based on a revised and LaTexed version of the Master thesis defended at ISAS. The research part being omitted, they included a review of the bosonic closed string a la Polyakov and of the one-loop background field method of quantisation defined through the zeta-function. In an appendix some basic features of the Riemann zeta-function are also reviewed. The pedagogical aspects of the material here presented are particularly emphasized. These notes are used, together with the Scherk's article in Rev. Mod. Phys. and the first volume of the Polchinski book, for the mini-course on String Theory (16-hours of lectures) held at CBPF. In this course the Green-Schwarz-Witten two-volumes book is also used for consultative purposes. (author)
Consistency relations and conservation of $\\zeta$ in holographic inflation
Garriga, Jaume
2016-01-01
It is well known that, in single clock inflation, the curvature perturbation $\\zeta$ is constant in time on superhorizon scales. In the standard bulk description this follows quite simply from the local conservation of the energy momentum tensor in the bulk. On the other hand, in a holographic description, the constancy of the curvature perturbation must be related to the properties of the RG flow in the boundary theory. Here, we show that, in single clock holographic inflation, the time independence of correlators of $\\zeta$ follows from the cut-off independence of correlators of the energy momentum tensor in the boundary theory, and from the so-called consistency relations for vertex functions with a soft leg.
Avdispahic, Muharem; Gusic, Dzenan
2014-01-01
We derive approximate formulas for the logarithmic de- rivative of the Selberg and Ruelle zeta functions over compact, even- dimensional, locally symmetric spaces of rank one. The obtained for- mulas are given in terms of the zeta-singularities.
Lowest Landau level on a cone and zeta determinants
Klevtsov, Semyon
2016-01-01
We consider the integer QH state on Riemann surfaces with conical singularities, with the main objective of detecting the effect of the gravitational anomaly directly from the form of the wave function on a singular geometry. We suggest the formula expressing the normalisation factor of the holomorphic state in terms of the regularized zeta determinant on conical surfaces and check this relation for some model geometries. We also comment on possible extensions of this result to the fractional QH states.
Landau-Siegel zeros and zeros of the derivative of the Riemann zeta function
Farmer, David W
2010-01-01
We show that if the derivative of the Riemann zeta function has sufficiently many zeros close to the critical line, then the zeta function has many closely spaced zeros. This gives a condition on the zeros of the derivative of the zeta function which implies a lower bound of the class numbers of imaginary quadratic fields.
Langer, William D.; Glassgold, Alfred E.; Wilson, Robert W.
1987-01-01
This paper presents a small-scale map of the molecular gas around the line of sight toward Zeta Oph made with measurements of the (C-12)O (1-0) emission obtained at high signal-to-noise ratio and high velocity resolution. In addition, a measurement of the (C-12)O (2-1) line emission and a detection of (C-13)O along the line of sight to the star are reported. The results show that the CO emission toward the star is composed from at least four components with peak velocities at -2.0, -0.7, 0.0, and +0.6 km/s. The radio observations yield a total CO column density of 1.4 x 10 to the 15th/sq cm, with about one-half of the total CO column density being in the main component at -0.7 km/s. The main cmponent is uniform over the map, but the other components are variable, suggesting that the cloud is clumpy. The data on the two CO transitions imply that the excitation temperature and the density of the main component are about 7 K and 800/cu cm, respectively.
Ros-Oton, Xavier
2012-01-01
Let $K$ be a quadratic field, and let $\\zeta_K$ its Dedekind zeta function. In this paper we introduce a factorization of $\\zeta_K$ into two functions, $L_1$ and $L_2$, defined as partial Euler products of $\\zeta_K$, which lead to a factorization of Riemann's $\\zeta$ function into two functions, $p_1$ and $p_2$. We prove that these functions satisfy a functional equation which has a unique solution, and we give series of very fast convergence to them. Moreover, when $\\Delta_K>0$ the general t...
Detection of Doppler Shifted X-ray Line Profiles from the Wind of Zeta Puppis (O4f)
Cassinelli, J P; Waldron, W L; MacFarlane, J J; Cohen, D H
2001-01-01
We report on a 67 ks HETG observation of the optically brightest early O-star, Zeta Pup (O4 f). Many resolved X-ray lines are seen in the spectra over a wavelength range of 5 to 25 A. Chandra has sufficient spectral resolution to study the velocity structure of isolated X-ray line profiles, and to distinguish the individual forbidden, intercombination, and resonance (fir) emission lines in several He-like ions even where the individual components are strongly Doppler broadened. In contrast with X-ray line profiles in other hot stars, Zeta Pup shows blue-shifted and skewed line profiles, providing the clearest and most direct evidence that the X-ray sources are embedded in the stellar wind. The broader the line, the greater the blueward centroid shift tends to be. The N VII line at 24.78 A is a special case, showing a flat-topped profile. This indicates it is formed in regions beyond most of the wind attenuation. The sensitivity of the He-like ion fir lines to a strong UV radiation field is used to derive the ...
The Riemann zeta-function theory and applications
Ivic, Aleksandar
2003-01-01
""A thorough and easily accessible account.""-MathSciNet, Mathematical Reviews on the Web, American Mathematical Society. This extensive survey presents a comprehensive and coherent account of Riemann zeta-function theory and applications. Starting with elementary theory, it examines exponential integrals and exponential sums, the Voronoi summation formula, the approximate functional equation, the fourth power moment, the zero-free region, mean value estimates over short intervals, higher power moments, and omega results. Additional topics include zeros on the critical line, zero-density estim
Logarithmic Fourier integrals for the Riemann Zeta Function
Kunik, Matthias
2008-01-01
We use symmetric Poisson-Schwarz formulas for analytic functions $f$ in the half-plane ${Re}(s)>\\frac12$ with $\\bar{f(\\bar{s})}=f(s)$ in order to derive factorisation theorems for the Riemann zeta function. We prove a variant of the Balazard-Saias-Yor theorem and obtain explicit formulas for functions which are important for the distribution of prime numbers. In contrast to Riemann's classical explicit formula, these representations use integrals along the critical line ${Re}(s)=\\frac12$ and ...
Local zeta factors and geometries under Spec Z
Manin, Yu I.
2016-08-01
The first part of this note shows that the odd-period polynomial of each Hecke cusp eigenform for the full modular group produces via the Rodriguez-Villegas transform ([1]) a polynomial satisfying the functional equation of zeta type and having non-trivial zeros only in the middle line of its critical strip. The second part discusses the Chebyshev lambda-structure of the polynomial ring as Borger's descent data to \\mathbf{F}_1 and suggests its role in a possible relation of the Γ\\mathbf{R}-factor to 'real geometry over \\mathbf{F}_1' (cf. [2]).
Understanding the photometric variability of {\\zeta} Ori Aa
Buysschaert, B; Ramiaramanantsoa, T; Richardson, N D; David-Uraz, A; Moffat, A F J
2016-01-01
We studied the variability of the magnetic O-type supergiant $\\zeta$ Ori Aa using multi-colour BRITE photometry. We confirmed the known rotation frequency $f_{\\rm rot} = 0.15 \\pm 0.02$ c/d, and detected some of its higher harmonics, of which $4f_{\\rm rot}$ is compatible with the known DAC recurrence timescale. Thanks to simultaneous high-resolution CHIRON spectroscopy, we could identify another frequency $f_{\\rm env} = 0.10 \\pm 0.02$ c/d, caused by the circumstellar environment. Variations in the circumstellar environment are believed to cause the observed difference between the BRITE lightcurves.
The Stokes phenomenon and the Lerch zeta function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. B. Paris
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We examine the exponentially improved asymptotic expansion of the Lerch zeta function $L(\\lambda,a,s=\\sum_{n=0}^\\infty \\exp (2\\pi ni\\lambda/(n+a^s$ for large complex values of $a$, with $\\lambda$ and $s$ regarded as parameters. It is shown that an infinite number of subdominant exponential terms switch on across the Stokes lines $\\arg\\,a=\\pm\\fs\\pi$. In addition, it is found that the transition across the upper and lower imaginary $a$-axes is associated, in general, with unequal scales. Numerical calculations are presented to confirm the theoretical predictions.
High moments of the Riemann zeta-function
Conrey, J. Brian; Gonek, Steven M.
1999-01-01
In 1918 G. Hardy and J. Littlewood proved an asymptotic estimate for the Second moment of the modulus of the Riemann zeta-function on the segment [1/2,1/2+iT] in the complex plane, as T tends to infinity. In 1926 Ingham proved an asymptotic estimate for the fourth moment. However, since Ingham's result, nobody has proved an asymptotic formula for any higher moment. Recently J. Conrey and A. Ghosh conjectured a formula for the sixth moment. We develop a new heuristic metho...
On the Riemann zeta-function, Part III
Csizmazia, Anthony
2007-01-01
An odd meromorphic function f(s) is constructed from the Riemann zeta-function evaluated at one-half plus s. The partial fraction expansion, p(s), of f(s) is obtained using the conjunction of the Riemann hypothesis and hypotheses advanced by the author. That compound hypothesis and the expansion p(s) are employed in Part IV to derive the two-sided Laplace transform representation of f(s) on the open vertical strip of all s with real part between zero and four.
Nomikos, Michail; Mulgrew-Nesbitt, Anna; Pallavi, Payal; Mihalyne, Gyongyi; Zaitseva, Irina; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony; Murray, Diana; McLaughlin, Stuart
2007-06-01
Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) is a sperm-specific enzyme that initiates the Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs that activate embryo development. It shares considerable sequence homology with PLC-delta1, but lacks the PH domain that anchors PLC-delta1 to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, PIP2. Thus it is unclear how PLC-zeta interacts with membranes. The linker region between the X and Y catalytic domains of PLC-zeta, however, contains a cluster of basic residues not present in PLC-delta1. Application of electrostatic theory to a homology model of PLC-zeta suggests this basic cluster could interact with acidic lipids. We measured the binding of catalytically competent mouse PLC-zeta to phospholipid vesicles: for 2:1 phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS) vesicles, the molar partition coefficient, K, is too weak to be of physiological significance. Incorporating 1% PIP2 into the 2:1 PC/PS vesicles increases K about 10-fold, to 5x10(3) M-1, a biologically relevant value. Expressed fragments corresponding to the PLC-zeta X-Y linker region also bind with higher affinity to polyvalent than monovalent phosphoinositides on nitrocellulose filters. A peptide corresponding to the basic cluster (charge=+7) within the linker region, PLC-zeta-(374-385), binds to PC/PS vesicles with higher affinity than PLC-zeta, but its binding is less sensitive to incorporating PIP2. The acidic residues flanking this basic cluster in PLC-zeta may account for both these phenomena. FRET experiments suggest the basic cluster could not only anchor the protein to the membrane, but also enhance the local concentration of PIP2 adjacent to the catalytic domain.
Measuring the zeta potential. The relationships with sandstone fineness
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de Luxán, M. P.
1989-09-01
Full Text Available The application of the zeta potential technique in the area of construction materials and Portland cement is quite recent. The initial research work involved the study of cement suspensions or suspensions of one of the components of cement, such as alite, tricalcium alumínate, in the presence of additives and, more specifically, superplasticizers. The studies of this sort were extended with the mixing of active additions into cement (fly ashes, etc.. The present study discusses the application of siliceous materials (sandstone as a basis of the research into the behaviour of sandstone mortars containing repair products.
La aplicación de la técnica del potencial zeta en el campo de los materiales de construcción y del cemento portland es muy reciente. Las primeras investigaciones se refieren al estudio de suspensiones de cemento o de alguno de sus compuestos que lo forman como alita, aluminato tricálcico, en presencia de aditivos y, más concretamente, de superfluidificantes. Con la incorporación de adiciones activas al cemento (cenizas volantes,... se amplían los estudios de este tipo de cementos. En este trabajo se considera la aplicación a los materiales silíceos (arenisca como base para la investigación del comportamiento de los morteros de arenisca conteniendo productos de reparación.
Potencial zeta de sulfatos de de bario y de estroncio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edgar Delgado M.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Por medio de la electroforesis se determinó las movilidades electroforéticas y los potenciales zeta del sulfato de bario a 25,0 °C como función de la fuerza iónica de NaCI, así como del Sulfato de estroncio en función de la fuerza iónica del cloruro de sodio y del pH. Se encontró que el amento de la fuerza iónica de NaCI causa un cambio del Potencial Zeta negativo del sulfato de estroncio a positivo con valor cero a aprox. 0,06 de fuerza iónica. El P.Z. del sulfato de estroncio es positivo a pH inferiores a aprox. 2,5 y negativo a pH superiores. El sulfato de bario presenta P.Z. negativas a fuerza iónicas de NaCI inferiores a aprox. 0.06 y PZ positivos a fuerzas iónicas mayores
The distributional zeta-function in disordered field theory
Svaiter, B. F.; Svaiter, N. F.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we present a new mathematical rigorous technique for computing the average free energy of a disordered system with quenched randomness, using the replicas. The basic tool of this technique is a distributional zeta-function, a complex function whose derivative at the origin yields the average free energy of the system as the sum of two contributions: the first one is a series in which all the integer moments of the partition function of the model contribute; the second one, which cannot be written as a series of the integer moments, can be made as small as desired. This result supports the use of integer moments of the partition function, computed via replicas, for expressing the average free energy of the system. One advantage of the proposed formalism is that it does not require the understanding of the properties of the permutation group when the number of replicas goes to zero. Moreover, the symmetry is broken using the saddle-point equations of the model. As an application for the distributional zeta-function technique, we obtain the average free energy of the disordered λφ4 model defined in a d-dimensional Euclidean space.
Riemann Hypothesis and Random Walks: the Zeta case
LeClair, André
2016-01-01
In previous work it was shown that if certain series based on sums over primes of non-principal Dirichlet characters have a conjectured random walk behavior, then the Euler product formula for its $L$-function is valid to the right of the critical line $\\Re (s) > 1/2$, and the Riemann Hypothesis for this class of $L$-functions follows. Building on this work, here we propose how to extend this line of reasoning to the Riemann zeta function and other principal Dirichlet $L$-functions. We use our results to argue that $ S_\\delta (t) \\equiv \\lim_{\\delta \\to 0^+} \\dfrac{1}{\\pi} \\arg \\zeta (\\tfrac{1}{2}+ \\delta + i t ) = O(1)$, and that it is nearly always on the principal branch. We conjecture that a 1-point correlation function of the Riemann zeros has a normal distribution. This leads to the construction of a probabilistic model for the zeros. Based on these results we describe a new algorithm for computing very high Riemann zeros as a kind of stochastic process, and we calculate the $10^{100}$-th zero to over 1...
Moreira, A.; S. C. de Siqueira; A. A. da Silva
1995-01-01
Com o objetivo de estimar a dose do herbicida "Zeta" que inibe 50% I50) do crescimento de plantas bioindicadoras em solos com diferentes texturas e teores de matéria orgânica, podendo estes ter uma influência marcante sobre a bioatividade do herbicida testado, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com 7 tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 e 300 g i.a./ha) e 4 repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em 5 tipos de texturas de solo. Os parâmetros avaliados foram:...
Zeta potential of soils with surfactants and its relevance to electrokinetic remediation.
Kaya, Abidin; Yukselen, Yeliz
2005-04-11
There are numerous studies on the application of electrokinetic decontamination technique to remediate heavy metal contaminated fine-grained soils. In recent studies, surfactants have been used to increase the efficiency of contaminant removal. However, there is limited data available on how physicochemical parameters such as zeta potential (zeta) of soils changes in the presence of surfactants. Understanding the zeta potential variations of soils with surfactant addition is important because it controls the direction and magnitude of electro-osmotic permeability, which plays important role on the efficiency of electrokinetic remediation. In this study, zeta potentials of kaolinite, montmorillonite and quartz powder with Li+, Ca+2, Cu+2, Pb+2 and Al+3 in the presence of anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants were determined. The results indicate that anionic surfactants produce negative zeta potentials. The other surfactants produce both positive and negative zeta potentials depending on soil type and ion present in the system. The results also indicate that the zeta potential of kaolinite and quartz powder with surfactants showed similar trends; however, the absolute magnitude of the zeta potential of quartz powder is higher than that of kaolinite. The zeta potential of montmorillonite commonly shows a different trend from those of kaolinite and quartz powder. Based on the test results, it is recommended that zeta potential of soils be determined before the electrokinetic decontamination in order to maximize the efficiency of the technique. PMID:15811672
Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H
2003-11-01
Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis. PMID:14551255
Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H
2003-11-01
Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis.
Central Binomial Sums, Multiple Clausen Values and Zeta Values
Borwein, J M; Kamnitzer, J
2000-01-01
We find and prove relationships between Riemann zeta values and central binomial sums. We also investigate alternating binomial sums (also called Ap\\'ery sums). The study of non-alternating sums leads to an investigation of different types of sums which we call multiple Clausen values. The study of alternating sums leads to a tower of experimental results involving polylogarithms in the golden ratio. In the non-alternating case, there is a strong connection to polylogarithms of the sixth root of unity, encountered in the 3-loop Feynman diagrams of {\\tt hep-th/9803091} and subsequently in hep-ph/9910223, hep-ph/9910224, cond-mat/9911452 and hep-th/0004010.
Where do the tedious products of zetas come from?
Broadhurst, D J
2003-01-01
Lamentably, the full analytical content of the epsilon-expansion of the master two-loop two-point function, with arbitrary self-energy insertions in 4-2epsilon dimensions, is still unknown. Here we show that multiple zeta values (MZVs) of weights up to 12 suffice through O(epsilon^9). Products of primitive MZVs are generated by a processes of "pseudo-exponentiation"" whose combinatorics faithfully accord with expectations based on Kreimer's modified shuffle product and on the Drinfeld-Deligne conjecture. The existence of such a mechanism, relating thousands of complicated rational numbers, enables us to identify precise and simple combinations of MZVs specific to quantum field theories in even numbers of spacetime dimensions.
Lage, Olga Maria; Bondoso, Joana; Catita, José A M
2012-10-01
Zeta potential of Planctomycetes was evaluated under different environmental conditions and correlated to cell viability. Phylogenetically distinct strains of the Planctomycetes presented different negative zeta potential values. More negative values were associated with Rhodopirellula spp. and related to the great amount of fimbriae in these species. Milli-Q water was chosen as the best dispersion media to perform the measurements. Zeta potential increased with ionic strength and varied with pH. In the physiological range of pH 5.0-9, zeta potential remained low and Rhodopirellula sp. strain LF2 cells were viable. Out of this range, zeta potential increased significantly and viability decreased. The effect on zeta potential of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc was assessed in Rhodopirellula sp. strain LF2. Zeta potential increased with increasing toxicity of the heavy metals in a dose-response way. This result was confirmed by the results observed for Rhodopirellula baltica strain SH1 under copper toxicity. Lead was the most toxic metal and zinc was the least toxic as observed by zeta potential and viability. The results support a correlation between zeta potential and cell viability which seem to indicate the possibility to use it as a viability predictor for the effects of heavy metals toxicity. PMID:22576374
Lima, F M S
2009-01-01
In a recent work [JNT \\textbf{118}, 192 (2006)], Dancs and He have found new "Euler-type" formulas for $ \\ln{2} $ and $ \\zeta{(2 n+1)}$, $ n $ being a positive integer, each containing a series that apparently can not be evaluated in closed form, providing some insight into why the odd case is more difficult than the even, for which the Euler's formula applies, showing that $ \\zeta{(2 n)} $ is a rational multiple of $\\pi^{2 n}$. There, however, the formulas are derived through certain series manipulations, by following Tsumura's strategy, which makes it unclear (\\emph{curious}, in the words of the authors themselves) the appearance of the numbers $ \\ln{2} $ and $ \\zeta{(2 n+1)}$. In this short paper, I show how some known $\\zeta$-series can be used to elucidate the origin of the Dancs' series for these numbers.
The genus zeta function of hereditary orders in central simple algebras over global fields
Denert, M.
1990-01-01
Louis Solomon introduced the notion of a zeta function {ζ_θ }(s) of an order θ in a finite-dimensional central simple K-algebra A, with K a number field or its completion {K_P} (P a non-Archimedean prime in K). In several papers, C. J. Bushnell and I. Reiner have developed the theory of zeta functions and they gave explicit formulae in some special cases. One important property of these zeta functions is the Euler product, which implies that in order to calculate {ζ_θ }(s) , it is sufficient to consider the zeta function of local orders {θ _P} . However, since these local orders {θ _P} are in general not principal ideal domains, their zeta function is a finite sum of so-called 'partial zeta functions'. The most complicated term is the 'genus zeta function', {Z_{{θ _P}}}(s) , which is related to the free {θ _P} -ideals. I. Reiner and C. J. Bushnell calculated the genus zeta function for hereditary orders in quaternion algebras (i.e., [A:K] = 4 ). The authors mention the general case but they remark that the calculations are cumbersome. In this paper we derive an explicit method to calculate the genus zeta function {Z_{{θ _P}}}(s) of any local hereditary order {θ _P} in a central simple algebra over a local field. We obtain {Z_{{θ _P}}}(s) as a finite sum of explicit terms which can be calculated with a computer. We make some remarks on the programming of the formula and give a short list of examples. The genus zeta function of the minimal hereditary orders (corresponding to the partition (1, 1, ... , 1) of n) seems to have a surprising property. In all examples, the nominator of this zeta function is a generating function for the q-Eulerian polynomials. We conclude with some remarks on a conjectured identity.
Kahn, S M; Cottam, J; Rauw, G; Vreux, J M; Den Boggende, A J F; Mewe, R; Güdel, M
2000-01-01
We present the first high resolution X-ray spectrum of the bright O4Ief supergiant star Zeta Puppis, obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on-board XMM-Newton. The spectrum exhibits bright emission lines of hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and silicon, as well as neon-like ions of iron. The lines are all significantly resolved, with characteristic velocity widths of order 1000-1500 km s^{-1}. The nitrogen lines are especially strong, and indicate that the shocked gas in the wind is mixed with CNO-burned material, as has been previously inferred for the atmosphere of this star from ultraviolet spectra. We find that the forbidden to intercombination line ratios within the helium-like triplets are anomalously low for N VI, O VII, and Ne IX. While this is sometimes indicative of high electron density, we show that in this case, it is instead caused by the intense ultraviolet radiation field of the star. We use this interpretation to derive constraints on the loc...
Some relations involving the higher derivatives of the Riemann zeta function
Connon, Donal F.
2015-01-01
We show that the higher derivatives of the Riemann zeta function may be expressed in terms of integrals involving the digamma function. Related integrals for the Stieltjes constants are also shown. We also present a formula for the derivatives of the Riemann zeta function entirely in terms of the Lehmer constants.
Adsorption of urinary components influences the zeta potential of uropathogen surfaces
Habash, MB; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Reid, G
2000-01-01
Zeta potential distributions of five uropathogens were measured in urines collected after increased water intake, consumption of cranberry supplements, or intake of ascorbic acid by volunteers. Zeta potentials of bacteria in urine from ascorbic acid consumption shifted towards less negative values d
Partition function on spheres: how (not) to use zeta function regularization
Monin, A
2016-01-01
It is known that not all summation methods are linear and stable. Zeta function regularization is in general non-linear. However, in some cases formal manipulations with "zeta function" regularization (assuming linearity of sums) lead to correct results. We consider several examples and show why this happens.
Zeta Function Expression of Spin Partition Functions on Thermal AdS3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Floyd L.Williams
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We find a Selberg zeta function expression of certain one-loop spin partition functions on three-dimensional thermal anti-de Sitter space. Of particular interest is the partition function of higher spin fermionic particles. We also set up, in the presence of spin, a Patterson-type formula involving the logarithmic derivative of zeta.
Zeta functions and regularized determinants related to the Selberg trace formula
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei
For a general Fuchsian group of the first kind with an arbitrary unitary representation we define the zeta functions related to the contributions of the identity, hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic conjugacy classes in Selberg's trace formula. We present Selberg's zeta function in terms of a regu......For a general Fuchsian group of the first kind with an arbitrary unitary representation we define the zeta functions related to the contributions of the identity, hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic conjugacy classes in Selberg's trace formula. We present Selberg's zeta function in terms...... determinants of one dimensional Schroedinger operator for harmonic oscillator. We decompose the determinant of the automorphic Laplacian into a product of the determinants where each factor is a determinant representation of a zeta function related to Selberg's trace formula. Then we derive an identity...
Zeta functions and regularized determinants related to the Selberg trace formula
Momeni, Arash
2011-01-01
For a general Fuchsian group of the first kind with an arbitrary unitary representation we define the zeta functions related to the contributions of the identity, hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic conjugacy classes in Selberg's trace formula. We present Selberg's zeta function in terms of a regularized determinant of the automorphic Laplacian. We also present the zeta function for the identity contribution in terms of a regularized determinant of the Laplacian on the two dimensional sphere. We express the zeta functions for the elliptic and parabolic contributions in terms of certain regularized determinants of one dimensional Schroedinger operator for harmonic oscillator. We decompose the determinant of the automorphic Laplacian into a product of the determinants where each factor is a determinant representation of a zeta function related to Selberg's trace formula. Then we derive an identity connecting the determinants of the automorphic Laplacians on different Riemannian surfaces related to the arithmetic...
Multi-loop zeta function regularization and spectral cutoff in curved spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bilal, Adel, E-mail: adel.bilal@lpt.ens.fr [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l' École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ferrari, Frank, E-mail: frank.ferrari@ulb.ac.be [Service de Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine, CP 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2013-12-21
We emphasize the close relationship between zeta function methods and arbitrary spectral cutoff regularizations in curved spacetime. This yields, on the one hand, a physically sound and mathematically rigorous justification of the standard zeta function regularization at one loop and, on the other hand, a natural generalization of this method to higher loops. In particular, to any Feynman diagram is associated a generalized meromorphic zeta function. For the one-loop vacuum diagram, it is directly related to the usual spectral zeta function. To any loop order, the renormalized amplitudes can be read off from the pole structure of the generalized zeta functions. We focus on scalar field theories and illustrate the general formalism by explicit calculations at one-loop and two-loop orders, including a two-loop evaluation of the conformal anomaly.
Influence of surface conductivity on the apparent zeta potential of calcite
Li, Shuai; Heberling, Frank; Devau, Nicolas; Jougnot, Damien; Chiaberge, Christophe
2016-01-01
Zeta potential is a physicochemical parameter of particular importance in describing the surface electrical properties of charged porous media. However, the zeta potential of calcite is still poorly known because of the difficulty to interpret streaming potential experiments. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation is widely used to estimate the apparent zeta potential from these experiments. However, this equation neglects the influence of surface conductivity on streaming potential. We present streaming potential and electrical conductivity measurements on a calcite powder in contact with an aqueous NaCl electrolyte. Our streaming potential model corrects the apparent zeta potential of calcite by accounting for the influence of surface conductivity and flow regime. We show that the HS equation seriously underestimates the zeta potential of calcite, particularly when the electrolyte is diluted (ionic strength < 0.01 M) because of calcite surface conductivity. The basic Stern model successfully predicted ...
Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing.
Hales, T C; Sarnak, P; Pugh, M C
2000-11-21
Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues ("the energy levels") follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks. PMID:11058156
Intermediate- and High-Velocity Ionized Gas toward zeta Orionis
Welty, D E; Raymond, J C; Mallouris, C; York, D G
2002-01-01
We combine UV spectra obtained with the HST/GHRS echelle, IMAPS, and Copernicus to study the abundances and physical conditions in the predominantly ionized gas seen at high (-105 to -65 km/s) and intermediate velocities (-60 to -10 km/s) toward zeta Ori. We have high resolution (FWHM ~ 3.3-4.5 km/s) and/or high S/N spectra for at least two significant ions of C, N, Al, Si, S, and Fe -- enabling accurate estimates for both the total N(H II) and the elemental depletions. C, N, and S have essentially solar relative abundances; Al, Si, and Fe appear to be depleted by about 0.8, 0.3-0.4, and 0.95 dex, respectively. While various ion ratios would be consistent with collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) for T ~ 25,000-80,000 K, the widths of individual high-velocity absorption components indicate that T ~ 9000 K -- so the gas is not in CIE. Analysis of the C II fine-structure excitation equilibrium yields estimated densities (n_e ~ n_H ~ 0.1-0.2 cm^{-3}), thermal pressures (2 n_H T ~ 2000-4000 cm^{-3}K), and thi...
Standard Model with extra dimensions and its zeta function regularization
García-Jiménez, I; Martínez-Pascual, E; Nápoles-Cañedo, G I; Novales-Sánchez, H; Toscano, J J
2016-01-01
We start from a field theory governed by the extra-dimensional $ISO(1,3+n)$ Poincar\\'e group and by the extended SM gauge group, $G({\\cal M}^{4+n})$. Then we construct an effective field theory whose symmetry groups are $ISO(1,3)$ and $G({\\cal M}^{4})$. The transition is carried out via two canonical transformations: a map that preserves, but it hides, the $SO(1,3+n)$ symmetry; and a transformation, given by Fourier series, that explicitly breaks $ISO(1,3+n)$ into $ISO(1,3)$, but conserves and hides the gauge symmetry $G({\\cal M}^{4+n})$, which manifests through nonstandard gauge transformations. From the 4-dimensional perspective, a particle that propagates in compact extra dimensions unfolds into a family of fields that reduces to the SM field if the size of the compact manifold is negligible. We include a full catalogue of Lagrangian terms that can be used to derive Feynman rules. The divergent character of the theory at one-loop is studied. A regularization scheme, based on the Epstein zeta function (EZF)...
Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing.
Hales, T C; Sarnak, P; Pugh, M C
2000-11-21
Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues ("the energy levels") follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks.
DNA polymerase zeta (polζ) in higher eukaryotes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gregory N Gan; John P Wittschieben; Birgitte φ Wittschieben; Richard D Wood
2008-01-01
Most current knowledge about DNA polymerase zeta (pol ζ) comes from studies of the enzyme in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where polζ consists of a complex of the catalytic subunit Rev3 with Rev7, which associates with Rev1. Most spontaneous and induced mutagenesis in yeast is dependent on these gene products, and yeast pol can mediate translesion DNA synthesis past some adducts in DNA templates. Study of the homologous gene products in higher eukaryotes is in a relatively early stage, but additional functions for the eukaryotic proteins are already appar-ent. Suppression of vertebrate REV3L function not only reduces induced point mutagenesis but also causes larger-scale genuine instability by raising the frequency of spontaneous chromosome translocations. Disruption of Rev3L function is tolerated in Drosophila, Arabidopsis, and in vertebrate cell lines under some conditions, but is incompatible with mouse embryonic development. Functions for REV3L and REV7(MAD2B) in higher eukaryotes have been suggested not only in translesion DNA synthesis but also in some forms of homologous recombination, repair ofinterstrand DNA erosslinks, somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes and cell-cycle control. This review discusses recent devel-opments in these areas.
Influence of surface conductivity on the apparent zeta potential of calcite.
Li, Shuai; Leroy, Philippe; Heberling, Frank; Devau, Nicolas; Jougnot, Damien; Chiaberge, Christophe
2016-04-15
Zeta potential is a physicochemical parameter of particular importance in describing the surface electrical properties of charged porous media. However, the zeta potential of calcite is still poorly known because of the difficulty to interpret streaming potential experiments. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation is widely used to estimate the apparent zeta potential from these experiments. However, this equation neglects the influence of surface conductivity on streaming potential. We present streaming potential and electrical conductivity measurements on a calcite powder in contact with an aqueous NaCl electrolyte. Our streaming potential model corrects the apparent zeta potential of calcite by accounting for the influence of surface conductivity and flow regime. We show that the HS equation seriously underestimates the zeta potential of calcite, particularly when the electrolyte is diluted (ionic strength ⩽ 0.01 M) because of calcite surface conductivity. The basic Stern model successfully predicted the corrected zeta potential by assuming that the zeta potential is located at the outer Helmholtz plane, i.e. without considering a stagnant diffuse layer at the calcite-water interface. The surface conductivity of calcite crystals was inferred from electrical conductivity measurements and computed using our basic Stern model. Surface conductivity was also successfully predicted by our surface complexation model.
Borwein, J M
1998-01-01
We identify 998 closed hyperbolic 3-manifolds whose volumes are rationally related to Dedekind zeta values, with coprime integers $a$ and $b$ giving $a/b vol(M)=(-D)^{3/2}/(2\\pi)^{2n-4} (\\zeta_K(2))/(2\\zeta(2))$ for a manifold M whose invariant trace field $K$ has a single complex place, discriminant $D$, degree $n$, and Dedekind zeta value $\\zeta_K(2)$. The largest numerator of the 998 invariants of Hodgson-Weeks manifolds is, astoundingly, $a=2^4\\times23\\times37\\times691 =9,408,656$; the largest denominator is merely b=9. We also study the rational invariant a/b for single-complex-place cusped manifolds, complementary to knots and links, both within and beyond the Hildebrand-Weeks census. Within the censi, we identify 152 distinct Dedekind zetas rationally related to volumes. Moreover, 91 census manifolds have volumes reducible to pairs of these zeta values. Motivated by studies of Feynman diagrams, we find a 10-component 24-crossing link in the case n=2 and D=-20. It is one of 5 alternating platonic links,...
Value-distribution of the Riemann zeta-function and related functions near the critical line
Christ, Thomas
2013-01-01
The Riemann zeta-function forms a central object in multiplicative number theory; its value-distribution encodes deep arithmetic properties of the prime numbers. Here, a crucial role is assigned to the analytic behavior of the zeta-function on the so called critical line. In this thesis we study the value-distribution of the Riemann zeta-function near and on the critical line. Amongst others we focus on the following. PART I: A modified concept of universality, a-points near the critical ...
The phase of the Riemann zeta function and the inverted harmonic oscillator
Bhaduri, R K; Law, J; Avinash Khare
1994-01-01
The Argand diagram is used to display some characteristics of the Riemann Zeta function. The zeros of the Zeta function on the complex plane give rise to an infinite sequence of closed loops, all passing through the origin of the diagram. This leads to the analogy with the scattering amplitude, and an approximate rule for the location of the zeros. The smooth phase of the Zeta function along the line of the zeros is related to the quantum density of states of an inverted oscillator.
The Phase of the Riemann Zeta Function and the Inverted Harmonic Oscillator
Bhaduri, R. K.; Khare, Avinash; Law, J.
1994-01-01
The Argand diagram is used to display some characteristics of the Riemann Zeta function. The zeros of the Zeta function on the complex plane give rise to an infinite sequence of closed loops, all passing through the origin of the diagram. This leads to the analogy with the scattering amplitude, and an approximate rule for the location of the zeros. The smooth phase of the Zeta function along the line of the zeros is related to the quantum density of states of an inverted oscillator.
zeta-COP, a subunit of coatomer, is required for COP-coated vesicle assembly
1993-01-01
cDNA encoding the 20-kD subunit of coatomer, zeta-COP, predicts a protein of 177-amino acid residues, similar in sequence to AP17 and AP19, subunits of the clathrin adaptor complexes. Polyclonal antibody directed to zeta-COP blocks the binding of coatomer to Golgi membranes and prevents the assembly of COP-coated vesicles on Golgi cisternae. Unlike other coatomer subunits (beta-, beta'-, gamma-, and epsilon- COP), zeta-COP exists in both coatomer bound and free pools.
Molecular dynamics (MD) calculation of the real zeta potential of neutral surfaces
Liu, Hongyi
2013-01-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the zeta potential are so poor that it has become common to term their predictions "apparent". Here we demonstrate how MD methods can predict zeta potentials accurate enough they can be termed "real". The critical new aspects of our method are: (1) integrating the net average charge in surface-parallel layers from the midpoint of the fluid layer (where the electrostatic potential is zero) to and then into two solid caps, (2) determining the position of slipping plane with separate Couette flow models, and (3) calculating the charge distribution and electrostatic potential under static conditions. The solids are charge neutral surfaces composed of atoms with zero charge or charge balanced monovalent or divalent ions. The zeta potentials calculated are within a few millivolts of measured values, and the measured values fall within the simulation error bars. The zeta potentials calculated with the Helmholtz and Smoluchowski equation following current practice are 10's of mi...
Goutet, Philippe
2009-01-01
The aim of this article is to illustrate, on the example of Dwork hypersurfaces, how the study of the representation of a finite group of automorphisms of a hypersurface in its etale cohomology allows to factor its zeta function.
On the sign of the real part of the Riemann zeta-function
de Reyna, Juan Arias; van de Lune, Jan
2012-01-01
We consider the distribution of $\\arg\\zeta(\\sigma+it)$ on fixed lines $\\sigma > \\frac12$, and in particular the density \\[d(\\sigma) = \\lim_{T \\rightarrow +\\infty} \\frac{1}{2T} |\\{t \\in [-T,+T]: |\\arg\\zeta(\\sigma+it)| > \\pi/2\\}|\\,,\\] and the closely related density \\[d_{-}(\\sigma) = \\lim_{T \\rightarrow +\\infty} \\frac{1}{2T} |\\{t \\in [-T,+T]: \\Re\\zeta(\\sigma+it) < 0\\}|\\,.\\] Using classical results of Bohr and Jessen, we obtain an explicit expression for the characteristic function $\\psi_\\sigma(x)$ associated with $\\arg\\zeta(\\sigma+it)$. We give explicit expressions for $d(\\sigma)$ and $d_{-}(\\sigma)$ in terms of $\\psi_\\sigma(x)$. Finally, we give a practical algorithm for evaluating these expressions to obtain accurate numerical values of $d(\\sigma)$ and $d_{-}(\\sigma)$.
New computations of the Riemann zeta function on the critical line
Bober, Jonathan W.; Hiary, Ghaith A.
2016-01-01
We present highlights of computations of the Riemann zeta function around large values and high zeros. The main new ingredient in these computations is an implementation of the second author's fast algorithm for numerically evaluating quadratic exponential sums. In addition, we use a new simple multi-evaluation method to compute the zeta function in a very small range at little more than the cost of evaluation at a single point.
Sharma Pushkar Raj; Lewis Shaila Angela
2011-01-01
The study was aimed at evaluating the stability of marketed albendazole suspension through electrokinetic characterization of the particles. The marketed brands of Albendazole suspension that were studied include AVIZOLE®, BENTAL®, BENDEX®, NOWORM® and ZENTAL®.Particle size, zeta potential, sedimentation volume, viscosity and pH of the suspension were the parameters determined and their correlation was established. ZENTAL® showed maximum sedimentation volume and its zeta potential was also f...
Effects of surface conductivity on the apparent zeta potential at the calcite-water interface
Li, Shuai; Leroy, Philippe; Devau, Nicolas
2015-01-01
International audience Carbonates are very reactive minerals that are used in many engineering applications like substance remediation and CO2 geological storage. Surface complexation reactions on calcite have significant effects on transport processes in carbonates. Zeta potential is a critical parameter to characterize the mineral surface electrochemical properties. The zeta potential is defined as the electrical potential at the shear plane between quasi immobile and mobile water at the...
Sembach, Kenneth R.; Savage, Blair D.; Jenkins, Edward B.
1994-01-01
We present Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph observations at 3.5 km/s resolution and signal-to-noise ratios of 30 to 60 for the Al III, Si IV, and N V absorption lines in the far-ultraviolet spectrum of the O9.5 V star zeat Ophiuchi. The measurement reveal three types of highly ionized gas along the 140 pc line of sight. (1) Narrow components of Al III (b = 4.3 km/s, the mean value of (v(helio)) = -7.8 km/s; b = 3.2 km/s, the mean value of (v(sub helio)) = -14.4 km/s) and Si IV (b = 5.3 km/s, the mean value of (v(sub helio)) = -15.0 km/s) trace photionized gas in the expanding H II region surrounding zeta Oph. The observed magnitude and direction of the velocity offset between the Al III and Si IV profiles can be explained by models of H II regions that incorporate expansion. Narrow C IV absorption associated with the H II region is not detected. Predictions of the expected amounts of Si IV and C IV overestimate the column densities of these ions by factors of 30 and more than 10, respectively. The discrepancy may be due to the effects of elemental depletions in the gas and/or to the interaction of the stellar wind with surrounding matter. (2) Broad (b = 15 to 18 km/s) and weak Si IV and C IV absorption components are detected near the mean value of (v(sub helio)) = -26 km/s. The high-ionization species associated with these absorption components are probably produced by electron collisional ionization in a heated gas. This absorption may be physically related to the zeta Oph bow shock ot to a cloud complex situated within the local interstellar medium at d less than 60 pc. The C IV to Si IV column density ratio in this gas is 8, a factor of 6 less than conductive interface models predict, but this discrepancy may be removed by considering the effects of self-photoionization within the cooling gas in the model calculations. (3) A broad (b = 13 km/s) and weak C IV absorption feature detected at the mean value of (v(sub helio)) = -61 km/s is not seen in other
The electrophoretic mobility of montmorillonite. Zeta potential and surface conductivity effects.
Leroy, Philippe; Tournassat, Christophe; Bernard, Olivier; Devau, Nicolas; Azaroual, Mohamed
2015-08-01
Clay minerals have remarkable adsorption properties because of their high specific surface area and surface charge density, which give rise to high electrochemical properties. These electrochemical properties cannot be directly measured, and models must be developed to estimate the electrostatic potential at the vicinity of clay mineral surfaces. In this context, an important model prediction is the zeta potential, which is thought to be representative of the electrostatic potential at the plane of shear. The zeta potential is usually deduced from electrophoretic measurements but for clay minerals, high surface conductivity decreases their mobility, thereby impeding straightforward interpretation of these measurements. By combining a surface complexation, conductivity and electrophoretic mobility model, we were able to reconcile zeta potential predictions with electrophoretic measurements on montmorillonite immersed in NaCl aqueous solutions. The electrochemical properties of the Stern and diffuse layers of the basal surfaces were computed by a triple-layer model. Computed zeta potentials have considerably higher amplitudes than measured zeta potentials calculated with the Smoluchowski equation. Our model successfully reproduced measured electrophoretic mobilities. This confirmed our assumptions that surface conductivity may be responsible for montmorillonite's low electrophoretic mobility and that the zeta potential may be located at the beginning of the diffuse layer. PMID:25875489
A3V2(PO4)3 (A = Na or Li) probed by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy
Pivko, Maja; Arcon, Iztok; Bele, Marjan; Dominko, Robert; Gaberscek, Miran
2012-10-01
Two stable modifications of A3V2(PO4)3 (A = Na or Li) were synthesized by citric acid assisted modified sol-gel synthesis. The obtained samples were phase pure Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 materials embedded in a carbon matrix. The samples were tested as half cells against lithium or sodium metal. Both samples delivered about 90 mAh g-1 at a C/10 cycling rate. The change of vanadium oxidation state and changes in the local environment of redox center for both materials were probed by in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Oxidation state of vanadium was determined by energy shift of the absorption edge. The reversible change of valence from trivalent to tetravalent oxidation state was determined in the potential window used in our experiments. Small reversible changes in the interatomic distances due to the relaxation of the structure in the process of alkali metal extraction and insertion were observed. Local environment (vanadium-oxygen bond distances) after 1st cycle were found to be the same as in the starting material. Both structures have been found very rigid without significant changes during alkali metal extraction.
Protein kinase C-zeta inhibition exerts cardioprotective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Phillipson, Aisha; Peterman, Ellen E; Taormina, Philip; Harvey, Margaret; Brue, Richard J; Atkinson, Norrell; Omiyi, Didi; Chukwu, Uchenna; Young, Lindon H
2005-08-01
Ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) in the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) results in marked cardiac contractile dysfunction. A cell-permeable PKC-zeta peptide inhibitor was used to test the hypothesis that PKC-zeta inhibition could attenuate PMN-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction by suppression of superoxide production from PMNs and increase nitric oxide (NO) release from vascular endothelium. The effects of the PKC-zeta peptide inhibitor were examined in isolated ischemic (20 min) and reperfused (45 min) rat hearts reperfused with PMNs. The PKC-zeta inhibitor (2.5 or 5 microM, n = 6) significantly attenuated PMN-induced cardiac dysfunction compared with I/R hearts (n = 6) receiving PMNs alone in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP (+dP/dt(max)) cardiac function indexes (P < 0.01), and these cardioprotective effects were blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 microM). Furthermore, the PKC-zeta inhibitor significantly increased endothelial NO release 47 +/- 2% (2.5 microM, P < 0.05) and 54 +/- 5% (5 microM, P < 0.01) over basal values from the rat aorta and significantly inhibited superoxide release from phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated rat PMNs by 33 +/- 12% (2.5 microM) and 40 +/- 8% (5 microM) (P < 0.01). The PKC-zeta inhibitor significantly attenuated PMN infiltration into the myocardium by 46-48 +/- 4% (P < 0.01) at 2.5 and 5 microM, respectively. In conclusion, these results suggest that the PKC-zeta peptide inhibitor attenuates PMN-induced post-I/R cardiac contractile dysfunction by increasing endothelial NO release and by inhibiting superoxide release from PMNs thereby attenuating PMN infiltration into I/R myocardium. PMID:15792991
Observing a column-dependent zeta in dense interstellar sources: the case of the Horsehead Nebula
Rimmer, P B; Morata, O; Roueff, E
2011-01-01
Context: Observations of small carbon-bearing molecules such as CCH, C4H, c-C3H2, and HCO in the Horsehead Nebula have shown these species to have higher abundances towards the edge of the source than towards the center. Aims: Given the determination of a wide range of values for zeta (s-1), the total ionization rate of hydrogen atoms, and the proposal of a column-dependent zeta(N_H), where N_H is the total column of hydrogen nuclei, we desire to determine if the effects of zeta(N_H) in a single object with spatial variation can be observable. We chose the Horsehead Nebula because of its geometry and high density. Method: We model the Horsehead Nebula as a near edge-on photon dominated region (PDR), using several choices for zeta, both constant and as a function of column. The column-dependent zeta functions are determined by a Monte Carlo model of cosmic ray penetration, using a steep power-law spectrum and accounting for ionization and magnetic field effects. We consider a case with low-metal elemental abun...
An approach to the Selberg trace formula via the Selberg zeta-function
Fischer, Jürgen
1987-01-01
The Notes give a direct approach to the Selberg zeta-function for cofinite discrete subgroups of SL (2,#3) acting on the upper half-plane. The basic idea is to compute the trace of the iterated resolvent kernel of the hyperbolic Laplacian in order to arrive at the logarithmic derivative of the Selberg zeta-function. Previous knowledge of the Selberg trace formula is not assumed. The theory is developed for arbitrary real weights and for arbitrary multiplier systems permitting an approach to known results on classical automorphic forms without the Riemann-Roch theorem. The author's discussion of the Selberg trace formula stresses the analogy with the Riemann zeta-function. For example, the canonical factorization theorem involves an analogue of the Euler constant. Finally the general Selberg trace formula is deduced easily from the properties of the Selberg zeta-function: this is similar to the procedure in analytic number theory where the explicit formulae are deduced from the properties of the Riemann zeta-f...
Effects of heavy metals and oxalate on the zeta potential of magnetite.
Erdemoğlu, Murat; Sarikaya, Musa
2006-08-15
Zeta potential is a function of surface coverage by charged species at a given pH, and it is theoretically determined by the activity of the species in solution. The zeta potentials of particles occurring in soils, such as clay and iron oxide minerals, directly affect the efficiency of the electrokinetic soil remediation. In this study, zeta potential of natural magnetite was studied by conducting electrophoretic mobility measurements in single and binary solution systems. It was shown that adsorption of charged species of Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+) and precipitation of their hydroxides at the mineral surface are dominant processes in the charging of the surface in high alkaline suspensions. Taking Pb(2+) as an example, three different mechanisms were proposed for its effect on the surface charge: if pH6, precipitation of heavy metal hydroxides prevails. Oxalate anion changed the associated surface charge by neutralizing surface positive charges by complexing with iron at the surface, and ultimately reversed the surface to a negative zeta potential. Therefore the adsorption ability of heavy metal ions ultimately changed in the presence of oxalate ion. The changes in the zeta potentials of the magnetite suspensions with solution pH before and after adsorption were utilized to estimate the adsorption ability of heavy metal ions. The mechanisms for heavy metals and oxalate adsorption on magnetite were discussed in the view of the experimental results and published data. PMID:16707134
Zeta potential change of Neuro-2a tumor cells after exposure to alumina nanoparticles
Kazantsev, Sergey O.; Fomenko, Alla N.; Korovin, Matvey S.
2016-08-01
In recent years, researches have paid much attention to the physical, chemical, biophysical and biochemical properties of a cell surface. It is known that most of the cells' surfaces are charged. This charge depends on the biochemical structure of the cell membranes. Therefore, measurement of a cell surface charge is a significant criterion that gives information about the cell surface. Evaluation of the cells zeta-potential is important to understand the interaction mechanisms of various drugs, antibiotics, as well as the interaction of nanoparticles with the cell surface. In this study, we use the dynamic light scattering method to detect the zeta-potential change of Neuro-2a tumor cells. It has been observed that zeta-potential shifted to negative values after exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles and inducing apoptosis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharma Pushkar Raj
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The study was aimed at evaluating the stability of marketed albendazole suspension through electrokinetic characterization of the particles. The marketed brands of Albendazole suspension that were studied include AVIZOLE®, BENTAL®, BENDEX®, NOWORM® and ZENTAL®.Particle size, zeta potential, sedimentation volume, viscosity and pH of the suspension were the parameters determined and their correlation was established. ZENTAL® showed maximum sedimentation volume and its zeta potential was also found to be the highest. Rheological studies of the suspension displayed maximum viscosity with ZENTAL®. Particle size analysis showed that ZENTAL® had least size. From the study it is evident that particle size, zeta potential and sedimentation volume have an influence on the suspension stability.
Uniform asymptotics for the full moment conjecture of the Riemann zeta function
Hiary, Ghaith A
2011-01-01
Conrey, Farmer, Keating, Rubinstein, and Snaith recently conjectured formulas for the full asymptotics of the moments of $L$-functions. In the case of the Riemann zeta function, their conjecture states that the $2k$-th absolute moment of zeta on the critical line is asymptotically given by a certain $2k$-fold residue integral. This residue integral can be expressed as a polynomial of degree $k^2$, whose coefficients are given in exact form by elaborate and complicated formulas. In this article, uniform asymptotics for roughly the first $k$ coefficients of the moment polynomial are derived. Numerical data to support our asymptotic formula are presented. An application to bounding the maximal size of the zeta function is considered.
Zeta functions of Dirac and Laplace-type operators over finite cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a complete description of the zeta functions and corresponding zeta determinants for Dirac and Laplace-type operators over finite cylinders using the contour integration method, for example described in [K. Kirsten, Spectral Functions in Mathematics and Physics, Chapman and Hall/CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001] is given. Different boundary conditions, local and non-local ones, are considered. The method is shown to be very powerful in that it is easily adapted to each situation and in that answers are very elegantly obtained
On the Singularities of the Zeta and Eta functions of an Elliptic Operator
Loya, Paul; Moroianu, Sergiu; Ponge, Raphaël
2010-01-01
Let P be a selfadjoint elliptic operator of order m>0 acting on the sections of a Hermitian vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold of dimension n. General arguments show that its zeta and eta functions may have poles only at points of the form s=k/m, where k ranges over all non-zero integers less than or equal to n. In this paper, we construct elementary and explicit examples of perturbations of P which make the zeta and eta functions be singular at all the points at which they are ...
Zeta Function Regularization in Casimir Effect Calculations and J. S. Dowker's Contribution
Elizalde, Emilio
2012-07-01
A summary of relevant contributions, ordered in time, to the subject of operator zeta functions and their application to physical issues is provided. The description ends with the seminal contributions of Stephen Hawking and Stuart Dowker and collaborators, considered by many authors as the actual starting point of the introduction of zeta function regularization methods in theoretical physics, in particular, for quantum vacuum fluctuation and Casimir effect calculations. After recalling a number of the strengths of this powerful and elegant method, some of its limitations are discussed. Finally, recent results of the so called operator regularization procedure are presented.
Roots of the derivative of the Riemann zeta function and of characteristic polynomials
Dueñez, Eduardo; Froehlich, Sara; Hughes, Chris; Mezzadri, Francesco; Phan, Toan
2010-01-01
We investigate the horizontal distribution of zeros of the derivative of the Riemann zeta function and compare this to the radial distribution of zeros of the derivative of the characteristic polynomial of a random unitary matrix. Both cases show a surprising bimodal distribution which has yet to be explained. We show by example that the bimodality is a general phenomenon. For the unitary matrix case we prove a conjecture of Mezzadri concerning the leading order behavior, and we show that the same follows from the random matrix conjectures for the zeros of the zeta function.
Dynamic interaction between 14-3-3zeta and bax during TNF-α-induced apoptosis in living cells
Gao, Xuejuan; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongsheng
2006-09-01
Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, localizes largely in the cytoplasm but redistributes to mitochondria and undergoes oligomerization to induce the release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c in response to apoptotic stimuli. Cytoplasmic protein 14-3-3zeta binds to Bax and, upon apoptotic stimulation, releases Bax by a caspase-independent mechanism. However, the direct interaction of the cytoplasmic 14-3-3zeta and Bax in living cells has not been observed. In present study, to monitor the dynamic interaction between 14-3-3zeta and Bax in living cells in real time during apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), DsRed-14-3-3zeta plasmid is constructed. By cotransfecting DsRed- 14-3-3zeta and GFP-Bax plasmids into human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1), we observe the dynamic interaction between Bax and 14-3-3zeta using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique on laser scanning confocal microscope. The results show that 14-3-3zeta remains in the cytoplasm but GFP-Bax translocates to mitochondria completely after TNF-α stimulation. These results reveal that 14-3-3zeta binds directly to Bax in healthy cells, and that 14-3-3zeta negatively regulates Bax translocation to mitochondria during TNF-α-induced apoptosis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okada, Masashi; Hozumi, Yasukazu [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Ichimura, Tohru [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takahashi, Nobuya [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Iseki, Ken [Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Yagisawa, Hitoshi [Laboratory of Biological Signaling, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Shinkawa, Takashi; Isobe, Toshiaki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Goto, Kaoru, E-mail: kgoto@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan)
2011-12-10
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is involved in the regulation of lipid-mediated signal transduction through the metabolism of a second messenger diacylglycerol. Of the DGK family, DGK{zeta}, which contains a nuclear localization signal, localizes mainly to the nucleus but translocates to the cytoplasm under pathological conditions. However, the detailed mechanism of translocation and its functional significance remain unclear. To elucidate these issues, we used a proteomic approach to search for protein targets that interact with DGK{zeta}. Results show that nucleosome assembly protein (NAP) 1-like 1 (NAP1L1) and NAP1-like 4 (NAP1L4) are identified as novel DGK{zeta} binding partners. NAP1Ls constitutively shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in transfected HEK293 cells. The molecular interaction of DGK{zeta} and NAP1Ls prohibits nuclear import of DGK{zeta} because binding of NAP1Ls to DGK{zeta} blocks import carrier proteins, Qip1 and NPI1, to interact with DGK{zeta}, leading to cytoplasmic tethering of DGK{zeta}. In addition, overexpression of NAP1Ls exerts a protective effect against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that NAP1Ls are involved in a novel molecular basis for the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of DGK{zeta} and provide a clue to examine functional significance of its translocation under pathological conditions.
XMM-Newton observations of Zeta Orionis (O9.7 Ib): A Collisional Ionization Equilibrium model
Raassen, A J J; Miller, N A; Cassinelli, J P
2008-01-01
We present XMM-Newton observations of the O supergiant Zeta Orionis (O9.7 Ib). The spectra are rich in emission lines over a wide range of ionization stages. The RGS-spectra show for the first time lines of low ion stages such as C VI, N VI, N VII, and O VII. The line profiles are symmetric and rather broad (FWHM approximately 1500 km/s) and show only a slight blue shift. With the XMM-epic spectrometer several high ions are detected in this star for the first time including Ar XVII and S XV. Simultaneous multi-temperature fits and DEM-modeling were applied to the RGS and EPIC spectra to obtain emission measures, elemental abundances and plasma temperatures. The calculations show temperatures in the range of about 0.07-0.6 keV. According to the derived models the intrinsic source X-ray luminosity at a distance of 251 pc Lx=1.37(.03) times 10^{32} ergs/s, in the energy range 0.3-10 keV. In the best multi-temperature model fit, the abundances of C, N, O, and Fe are near their solar values, while the abundances o...
The Circumstellar Medium of Massive Stars in Motion
Mackey, Jonathan; Meyer, Dominique M -A; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Mohamed, Shazrene; Neilson, Hilding R; Mignone, Andrea
2014-01-01
The circumstellar medium around massive stars is strongly impacted by stellar winds, radiation, and explosions. We use numerical simulations of these interactions to constrain the current properties and evolutionary history of various stars by comparison with observed circumstellar structures. Two- and three-dimensional simulations of bow shocks around red supergiant stars have shown that Betelgeuse has probably only recently evolved from a blue supergiant to a red supergiant, and hence its bow shock is very young and has not yet reached a steady state. We have also for the first time investigated the magnetohydrodynamics of the photoionised H II region around the nearby runaway O star Zeta Oph. Finally, we have calculated a grid of models of bow shocks around main sequence and evolved massive stars that has general application to many observed bow shocks, and which forms the basis of future work to model the explosions of these stars into their pre-shaped circumstellar medium.
Eason, Oliver
Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…
Star Product and Star Exponential
Tomihisa, Toshio; Yoshioka, Akira
2010-01-01
Here we extend the star products by means of complex symmetric matrices. In this way we obtain a family of star products. Next we consider the star exponentials with respect to these star products, and finally we obtain several interesting identities.
Moser, Jan
2009-01-01
t is proved in this paper that there is a fine correlation between the values of $|\\zeta(1/2+i\\varphi(t)/2)|^4$ and $|\\zeta(1/2+it)|^2$ which correspond to two segments with gigantic distance each from other. This new asymptotic formula cannot be obtained in known theories of Balasubramanian, Heath-Brown and Ivic.
Molecular characterization of zeta class glutathione S-transferases from Pinus brutia Ten.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E. Oztetik; F. Kockar; M. Alper; M. Iscan
2015-09-01
Glutathione transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) play important roles in stress tolerance and metabolic detoxification in plants. In higher plants, studies on GSTs have focussed largely on agricultural plants. There is restricted information about molecular characterization of GSTs in gymnosperms. To date, only tau class GST enzymes have been characterized from some pinus species. For the first time, the present study reports cloning and molecular characterization of two zeta class GST genes, namely PbGSTZ1 and PbGSTZ2 from Pinus brutia Ten., which is an economically important pine native to the eastern Mediterranean region and have to cope with several environmental stress conditions. The PbGSTZ1 gene was isolated from cDNA, whereas PbGSTZ2 was isolated from genomic DNA. Sequence analysis of PbGSTZ1 and PbGSTZ2 revealed the presence of an open reading frame of 226 amino acids with typical consensus sequences of the zeta class plant GSTs. Protein and secondary structure prediction analysis of two zeta class PbGSTZs have shared common features of other plant zeta class GSTs. Genomic clone, PbGSTZ2 gene, is unexpectedly intronless. Extensive sequence analysis of PbGSTZ2, with cDNA clone, PbGSTZ1, revealed 87% identity at nucleotide and 81% identity at amino acid levels with 41 amino acids differences suggesting that genomic PbGSTZ2 gene might be an allelic or a paralogue version of PbGSTZ1.
Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1a-1a)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boone, Christopher D.; Zhong, Guo; Smeltz, Marci; James, Margaret O., E-mail: mojames@ufl.edu; McKenna, Robert, E-mail: mojames@ufl.edu
2014-01-21
Crystals of glutathione transferase zeta 1 were grown and shown to diffract X-rays to 3.1 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.0, b = 49.6, c = 54.6 Å, α = 82.9, β = 69.9, γ = 73.4°.
Large gaps between consecutive maxima of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line
Saker, S H
2011-01-01
In this paper, we derive new lower bounds for the normalized distances between consecutive maxima of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line subject to the truth of the Riemann hypothesis. The method of our proofs relies on a Sobolev type inequality of one dimension and an Opial type inequality with best possible constants.
Broadway teatrites näeb Denzel Washingtoni ja Catherine Zeta-Jonesi / Andres Laasik
Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016
2010-01-01
New Yorgis välja antud Tony teatriauhinna pälvisid filminäitlejad Denzel Washington, Catherine Zeta-Jones ja Scarlett Johansson. Parim lavale naasnud näidend - "Piirdeaed", parim uus näidend - draama "Punane", mis räägib läti päritolu maalikunstnikust Mark Rothkost. Parim muusikal - "Memphis"
Indivisibility of special values of zeta functions associated to real quadratic fields
Kimura, Iwao
2007-01-01
We discuss some aspects of indivisibility of the special values of Dedekind zeta functions at negative odd integers associated to real quadratic fields. These values are closely related to the orders of certain cohomology groups and algebraic $\\mathrm{K}$-groups.\
Fractals of the Julia and Mandelbrot sets of the Riemann Zeta Function
Woon, S. C.
1998-01-01
Computations of the Julia and Mandelbrot sets of the Riemann zeta function and observations of their properties are made. In the appendix section, a corollary of Voronin's theorem is derived and a scale-invariant equation for the bounds in Goldbach conjecture is conjectured.
Fractals of the Julia and Mandelbrot sets of the Riemann $zeta$ Function
Woon, S C
1998-01-01
Computations of the Julia and Mandelbrot sets of the Riemann zeta function and observations of their properties are made. In the appendix section, a corollary of Voronin's theorem is derived and a scale-invariant equation for the bounds in Goldbach conjecture is conjectured.
"Armastuse retsepti" tippkokk Zeta Jones ei oska muna keeta / Triin Tael
Tael, Triin
2007-01-01
Scott Hicksi romantiline komöödiafilm "Armastuse retsept" ("No Reservations"), mille peaosas Walesist pärit näitlejanna Catherine Zeta Jones. Näitlejanna muljeid oma rolliks ettevalmistustest, mille hulka käis ka praktika pärisrestoranis
Double zeta values, double Eisenstein series, and modular forms of level 2
Kaneko, Masanobu; Tasaka, Koji
2011-01-01
We study the double shuffle relations satisfied by the double zeta values of level 2, and introduce the double Eisenstein series of level 2 which satisfy the double shuffle relations. We connect the double Eisenstein series to modular forms of level 2.
Certain Subclasses of Analytic and Bi-Univalent Functions Involving Double Zeta Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saibah Siregar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, we introduce two new subclasses of the functions class Σ of bi-univalent functions involving double zeta functions in the open unit disc U={z:zEC, |z|<1}. The estimates on the coefficients |a2| and |a3| for functions in these new subclasses of the function class Σ are obtained in our investigation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez, Henrique Fioravanti Miguel
2009-08-15
This work presents the study and development of a processing power system that could be used in the connection of renewable energy sources to commercial power grid. The system consists of a ZETA converter associated with a bridge inverter operating at low frequency. The Zeta converter, operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM), plays the main role in this arrangement, producing a rectified sinusoidal current waveform synchronized with the electric grid. The function of the full-bridge inverter, connected in cascade with the Zeta converter, is to reverse every 180 deg the current generated by the Zeta converter. Initially it presents the analysis of the Zeta converter operating in DCM, as well as a design criterion. Following by the control strategy and the experimental results for the proposed system are presented and discussed. (author)
Random matrices, generalized zeta functions and self-similarity of zero distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shanker, O [Bitfone Corporation, 32451 Golden Lantern Ste. 301, Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 (United States)
2006-11-10
There is growing evidence for a connection between random matrix theories used in physics and the theory of the Riemann zeta function and L-functions. The theory underlying the location of the zeros of these generalized zeta functions is one of the key unsolved problems. Physicists are interested because of the Hilbert-Polya conjecture, that the non-trivial zeros of the zeta function correspond to the eigenvalues of some positive operator. To complement the continuing theoretical work, it would be useful to study empirically the locations of the zeros by different methods. In this paper we use the rescaled range analysis to study the spacings between successive zeros of these functions. Over large ranges of the zeros the spacings have a Hurst exponent of about 0.095, using sample sizes of 10 000 zeros. This implies that the distribution has a high fractal dimension (1.9), and shows a lot of detailed structure. The distribution is of the anti-persistent fractional Brownian motion type, with a significant degree of anti-persistence. Thus, the high-order zeros of these functions show a remarkable self-similarity in their distribution, over fifteen orders of magnitude for the Riemann zeta function{exclamation_point} We find that the Hurst exponents for the random matrix theories show a different behaviour. A heuristic study of the effect of low-order primes seems to show that this effect is a promising candidate to explain the results that we observe in this study. We study the distribution of zeros for L-functions of conductors 3 and 4, and find that the distribution is similar to that of the Riemann zeta functions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter
Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....
Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva
2009-11-01
Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.
Non-Commutative Integration, Zeta Functions and the Haar State for SU q (2)
Matassa, Marco
2015-12-01
We study a notion of non-commutative integration, in the spirit of modular spectral triples, for the quantum group SU q (2). In particular we define the non-commutative integral as the residue at the spectral dimension of a zeta function, which is constructed using a Dirac operator and a weight. We consider the Dirac operator introduced by Kaad and Senior and a family of weights depending on two parameters, which are related to the diagonal automorphisms of SU q (2). We show that, after fixing one of the parameters, the non-commutative integral coincides with the Haar state of SU q (2). Moreover we can impose an additional condition on the zeta function, which also fixes the second parameter. For this unique choice the spectral dimension coincides with the classical dimension.
Selberg zeta functions on odd-dimensional hyperbolic manifolds of finite volume
Pfaff, Jonathan
2012-01-01
We study Selberg zeta functions $Z(s,\\sigma)$ associated to locally homogeneous vector bundles over the unit-sphere bundle of a complete odd-dimensional hyperbolic manifold of finite volume. We assume a certain condition on the fundamental group of the manifold. A priori, the Selberg zeta functions are defined only for s in some right half-space of $\\mathbb{C}$. We will prove that for any locally homogeneous bundle the functions $Z(s,\\sigma)$ have a meromorphic continuation to $\\mathbb{C}$ and we will give a complete description of their singularities in terms of spectral data of the underlying manifold. Our work generalizes results of Bunke and Olbrich to the non-compact situation. As an application of our results one can compare the normalized Reidemeister torsions on hyperbolic 3 manifolds with cusps which were introduced by Menal-Ferrer and Porti to the corresponding regularized analytic torsions.
Non-Commutative Integration, Zeta Functions and the Haar State for SU{sub q}(2)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matassa, Marco, E-mail: marco.matassa@gmail.com [SISSA (Italy)
2015-12-15
We study a notion of non-commutative integration, in the spirit of modular spectral triples, for the quantum group SU{sub q}(2). In particular we define the non-commutative integral as the residue at the spectral dimension of a zeta function, which is constructed using a Dirac operator and a weight. We consider the Dirac operator introduced by Kaad and Senior and a family of weights depending on two parameters, which are related to the diagonal automorphisms of SU{sub q}(2). We show that, after fixing one of the parameters, the non-commutative integral coincides with the Haar state of SU{sub q}(2). Moreover we can impose an additional condition on the zeta function, which also fixes the second parameter. For this unique choice the spectral dimension coincides with the classical dimension.
Hadron star models. [neutron stars
Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.
1974-01-01
The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.
Long-Term Radial Velocity Monitoring of the HeI 6678 Line of zeta Tau
Pollmann, E.
2016-06-01
With our investigation period of approximately 15 years we have been able to calculate a new long-term period of the HeI 6678 radial velocity (RV) of the binary system zeta Tau. Such a long investigation period was possible because we were able to combine RV data from Ruzdjak et al. (2009) with our own data of the ARAS group (http://www.astrosurf.com/aras/).
New Relations Involving an Extended Multiparameter Hurwitz-Lerch Zeta Function with Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. M. Srivastava
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We derive several new expansion formulas involving an extended multiparameter Hurwitz-Lerch zeta function introduced and studied recently by Srivastava et al. (2011. These expansions are obtained by using some fractional calculus methods such as the generalized Leibniz rules, the Taylor-like expansions in terms of different functions, and the generalized chain rule. Several (known or new special cases are also given.
Nyren-Erickson, Erin K; Haldar, Manas K.; Totzauer, Jessica R.; Ceglowski, Riley; Patel, Dilipkumar S.; Daniel L. Friesner; Srivastava, D. K.; Mallik, Sanku
2012-01-01
Though the aggregation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the presence of liposomes and divalent cations has been previously reported, the effect of different GAG species, as well as minor changes in GAG composition on the aggregates formed is yet unknown. If minor changes in GAG composition produce observable changes in liposome aggregate diameter or zeta potential, such a phenomenon may be used to detect potentially dangerous over-sulfated contaminants in heparin. We studied the mechanism of t...
Nyren-Erickson, Erin K; Haldar, Manas K; Totzauer, Jessica R; Ceglowski, Riley; Patel, Dilipkumar S; Friesner, Daniel L; Srivastava, D K; Mallik, Sanku
2012-11-20
Though the aggregation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the presence of liposomes and divalent cations has been previously reported, the effects of different GAG species and minor changes in GAG composition on the aggregates that are formed are yet unknown. If minor changes in GAG composition produce observable changes in the liposome aggregate diameter or zeta potential, such a phenomenon may be used to detect potentially dangerous oversulfated contaminants in heparin. We studied the mechanism of the interactions between heparin and its oversulfated glycosaminoglycan contaminants with liposomes. Herein, we demonstrate that Mg(2+) acts to shield the incoming glycosaminoglycans from the negatively charged phosphate groups of the phospholipids and that changes in the aggregate diameter and zeta potential are a function of the glycosaminoglycan species and concentration as well as the liposome bilayer composition. These observations are supported by TEM studies. We have shown that the organizational states of the liposome bilayers are influenced by the presence of GAG and excess Mg(2+), resulting in a stabilizing effect that increases the T(m) value of DSPC liposomes; the magnitude of this effect is also dependent on the GAG species and concentration present. There is an inverse relationship between the percent change in aggregate diameter and the percent change in aggregate zeta potential as a function of GAG concentration in solution. Finally, we demonstrate that the diameter and zeta potential changes in POPC liposome aggregates in the presence of different oversulfated heparin contaminants at low concentrations allow for an accurate detection of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate at concentrations of as low as 1 mol %. PMID:23102026
Single-valued multiple zeta values in genus 1 superstring amplitudes
Zerbini, Federico
2015-01-01
We study the functions $D_{\\underline{l}}$ introduced by Green, Russo, Vanhove in the context of type II superstring scattering amplitudes of 4 gravitons on a torus. In particular we describe a method to algorithmically compute the coefficients in their expansion at the cusp in terms of conical sums. We perform explicit computations for 3-graviton functions, which naturally suggest to conjecture that only single-valued multiple zeta values appear.
On the Singularities of the Zeta and Eta functions of an Elliptic Operator
Loya, Paul; Ponge, Raphaël
2010-01-01
Let P be a selfadjoint elliptic operator of order m>0 acting on the sections of a Hermitian vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold of dimension n. General arguments show that its zeta and eta functions may have poles only at points of the form s=k/m, where k ranges over all non-zero integers less than or equal to n. In this paper, we construct elementary and explicit examples of perturbations of P which make the zeta and eta functions be singular at all the points at which they are allowed to have singularities. We proceed within three classes of operators: Dirac-type operators, selfadjoint first-order differential operators, and selfadjoint elliptic pseudodifferential operators. As a result, we obtain genericity results for the singularities of the zeta and eta functions in those settings. In particular, in the setting of Dirac-type operators we obtain a new proof of a well known result of Branson-Gilkey.
Caroni, A L P F; de Lima, C R M; Pereira, M R; Fonseca, J L C
2012-12-01
Adsorption phenomena occurring at the solid/liquid interface of chitosan particles are of extreme importance in the kinetics of drug release/upload as well as in effluent treatment by adsorption. In this work, equilibrium and kinetic aspects of protonated tetracycline adsorption on chitosan are explored using classic solution depletion method and zeta potential measurements. Equilibrium experiments showed that for solutions with tetracycline initial concentration of ca. 1.2 g L(-1), corresponding to a pH around 3, chitosan structure disrupted, as indicated by an increase in magnitude of tetracycline sorption. Adsorption and zeta potential isotherms before disruption suggested that the process of adsorption had a Langmuir character up to a point at which subsurface was exposed to adsorption; at this point, a second mode of sorption began: zeta potential tended to an equilibrium value, following Sips isotherm and tetracycline sorption had a linear dependence on its continuous phase concentration. The kinetics of tetracycline sorption suggested that sorption of tetracycline was divided between the sorption of protonated and non-protonated tetracycline; tetracycline in its non-protonated form seemed to rule the sorption of tetracycline.
Chun, Myung-Suk; Lee, Sang-Yup; Yang, Seung-Man
2003-10-01
The streaming potential is generated by the electrokinetic flow effect within the electrical double layer of a charged solid surface. Surface charge properties are commonly quantified in terms of the zeta potential obtained by computation with the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (H-S) equation following experimental measurement of streaming potential. In order to estimate a rigorous zeta potential for cone-shaped microchannel, the correct H-S equation is derived by applying the Debye-Hückel approximation and the fluid velocity of diverging flow on the specified position. The present computation provides a correction ratio relative to the H-S equation for straight cylindrical channel and enables us to interpret the effects of the channel geometry and the electrostatic interaction. The correction ratio decreases with increasing of diverging angle, which implies that smaller zeta potential is generated for larger diverging angle. The increase of Debye length also reduces the correction ratio due to the overlapping of the Debye length inside of the channel. It is evident that as the diverging angle of the channel goes to nearly zero, the correction ratio converges to the previous results for straight cylindrical channel. PMID:12957590
A perturbative approach to the spectral zeta functions of strings, drums, and quantum billiards
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)
2012-12-15
We show that the spectral zeta functions of inhomogeneous strings and drums can be calculated using Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory. The inhomogeneities that can be treated with this method are small but otherwise arbitrary and include the previously studied case of a piecewise constant density. In two dimensions the method can be used to derive the spectral zeta function of a domain obtained from the small deformation of a square. We also obtain exact sum rules that are valid for arbitrary densities and that correspond to the values taken by the spectral zeta function at integer positive values; we have tested numerically these sum rules in specific examples. We show that the Dirichlet or Neumann Casimir energies of an inhomogeneous string, evaluated to first order in perturbation theory, contain in some cases an irremovable divergence, but that the combination of the two is always free of divergences. Finally, our calculation of the Casimir energies of a string with piecewise constant density and of two perfectly conducting concentric cylinders, of similar radius, reproduce the results previously published.
Influence of particle/solid surface zeta potential on particle adsorption kinetics.
Savaji, Kunal V; Niitsoo, Olivia; Couzis, Alexander
2014-10-01
In this paper we attempt to understand monolayer formation of spherical particles on a solid surface immersed in a suspension and driven by electrostatic interaction force. The study focuses on the theoretical aspects of the particle adsorption and modeling work based on the random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach is done in order to describe the particle adsorption kinetics and the saturation coverage. The theoretical model is then compared with experimental data obtained under conditions similar to those of the modeling work. Studying the adsorption of polystyrene particles on a silicon wafer in an aqueous system was employed to experimentally validate the theoretical framework. It has been shown both theoretically and experimentally that the particle and solid surface zeta potential values do influence the adsorption kinetics but the effect is too negligible to be of any use in accelerating the kinetics. We have shown that the electrostatically driven particle adsorption is a transport limited process and the rate of transport is not a major function of the zeta potential values of the particle and the solid surface. The faster kinetics seen when the ionic concentration of the suspension is increased is because of the blocking effects and not due to faster approach of particles towards the solid surface. Finally, we have made an important addition to the existing models by incorporating the variation in the flux as a function of particle/solid surface zeta potentials, surface coverage and the randomized position of incidence of an incoming particle on the solid surface. PMID:24996026
T-cell receptor downregulation by ceramide-induced caspase activation and cleavage of the zeta chain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Menné, C; Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Dietrich, J;
2001-01-01
gamma L-based motif-dependent and the tyrosine kinase-dependent pathways. This pathway is dependent on ceramide-induced activation of caspases and correlate with caspase-mediated cleavage of the zeta chain. Thus, a 10--15% downregulation of the TCR was induced following the treatment of the T cells with...... ceramide for 4 h. A close correlation between TCR downregulation, caspase activation, and cleavage of the zeta chain was found. Furthermore, the caspase inhibitors abolished the cleavage of the zeta chain and TCR downregulation in parallel with the inhibition of the caspase activity....
Li, Dan; Yu, Long; Wu, Hai; Shan, Yuxi; Guo, Jinhu; Dang, Yongjun; Wei, Youheng; Zhao, Shouyuan
2003-01-01
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a naturally occurring component of phospholipid and plays a critical role in the regulation of many physiological and pathophysiological processes including cell growth, survival, and pro-angiogenesis. LPA is converted to phosphatidic acid by the action of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT). Five members of the LPAAT gene family have been detected in humans to date. Here, we report the identification of a novel LPAAT member, which is designated as LPAAT-zeta. LPAAT-zeta was predicted to encode a protein consisting of 456 amino acid residues with a signal peptide sequence and the acyltransferase domain. Northern blot analysis showed that LPAAT-zeta was ubiquitously expressed in all 16 human tissues examined, with levels in the skeletal muscle, heart, and testis being relatively high and in the lung being relatively low. The human LPAAT-zeta gene consisted of 13 exons and is positioned at chromosome 8p11.21. PMID:12938015
Leble, Sergey
2011-01-01
One-dimensional Yang-Mills-Nahm models are considered from algebrogeometric points of view. A quasiclassical quantization of the models based on path integral and its zeta function representation in terms of a Green function diagonal for a heat equation with an elliptic potential is considered. The Green function diagonal and, hence, zeta function and its derivative are expressed via solutions of Hermit equation and, alternatively, by means of Its-Matveev formalism in terms of Riemann teta-functions. For the Nahm model, which field is represented via elliptic (lemniscate) integral by construction, one-loop quantum corrections to action are evaluated as the zeta function derivative in zero point in terms of a hyperelliptic integral. The alternative expression should help to link the representations and continue investigation of the Yang-Mills-Nahm models. Keywords: Nahm model, one-loop quantum corrections, zeta function, elliptic potential, hyperelliptic integral, Its-Matveev formula. MSC numbers: 81Q30, 35J10...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.
A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is the object of this article; orbit gathering projects are also presented.
Archimedean zeta integrals on $GL_n \\times GL_m$ and $SO_{2n+1} \\times GL_m$
Ishii, Taku; Stade, Eric
2011-01-01
In this paper, we evaluate archimedean zeta integrals for automorphic $L$-functions on $GL_n \\times GL_{n-1+\\ell}$ and on $ SO_{2n+1} \\times GL_{n+\\ell}$, for $\\ell=-1$, $0$, and $1$. In each of these cases, the zeta integrals in question may be expressed as Mellin transforms of products of class one Whittaker functions. Here, we obtain explicit expressions for these Mellin transforms in terms of Gamma functions and Barnes integrals.
Eduardo Alberto López-Maldonado; Mercedes Teresita Oropeza-Guzmán; Adrián Ochoa-Terán
2014-01-01
Efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process used for semiconductor wastewater treatment was improved by selecting suitable conditions (pH, polyelectrolyte type, and concentration) through zeta potential measurements. Under this scenario the zeta potential, ζ, is the right parameter that allows studying and predicting the interactions at the molecular level between the contaminants in the wastewater and polyelectrolytes used for coagulation-flocculation. Additionally, this parameter is a k...
A Derivation of $pi(n$ Based on a Stability Analysis of the Riemann-Zeta Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harney M.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The prime-number counting function $pi(n$, which is significant in the prime number theorem, is derived by analyzing the region of convergence of the real-part of the Riemann-Zeta function using the unilateral $z$-transform. In order to satisfy the stability criteria of the $z$-transform, it is found that the real part of the Riemann-Zeta function must converge to the prime-counting function.
Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M
1971-09-17
Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta;
1997-01-01
The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter
Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....
Bass-Ihara Zeta functions for non-uniform tree lattices and class number asymptotics
Deitmar, Antonius; Kang, Ming-Hsuan
2014-01-01
It is shown that the Euler product giving the Bass-Ihara zeta function of a finite graph also converges in the case of a non-compact arith- metic quotient graph. Despite the infinite-dimensional setting, it turns out to be a rational function, generally with zeros and poles, in contrast to the compact case. The determinant formulas of Bass and Ihara hold true if one defines the determinant as limit of all finite principal minors. From this analysis, a prime geodesic theorem is derived, which,...
Chan, L C; So, J C; Chui, D H
1995-01-01
AIMS--To compare the haemoglobin (Hb) H inclusion test with immunocytochemical detection of embryonic zeta chains in screening for alpha thalassaemia. METHODS--Blood samples from 115 patients with relevant clinical history and hypochromic microcytic indexes were screened using the HbH inclusion test and the Variant Hemoglobin Testing System (BioRad, Hercules, CA, USA). RESULTS--The HbH inclusion test was positive in 61 of 115 cases, three of whom had HbH disease confirmed by electrophoresis. ...
Relations between elliptic multiple zeta values and a special derivation algebra
Broedel, Johannes; Matthes, Nils; Schlotterer, Oliver
2016-04-01
We investigate relations between elliptic multiple zeta values (eMZVs) and describe a method to derive the number of indecomposable elements of given weight and length. Our method is based on representing eMZVs as iterated integrals over Eisenstein series and exploiting the connection with a special derivation algebra. Its commutator relations give rise to constraints on the iterated integrals over Eisenstein series relevant for eMZVs and thereby allow to count the indecomposable representatives. Conversely, the above connection suggests apparently new relations in the derivation algebra. Under https://tools.aei.mpg.de/emzv we provide relations for eMZVs over a wide range of weights and lengths.
La medida del potencial zeta. Relaciones con la finura en arenisca
Luxán, María Pilar de; Sánchez de Rojas, María Isabel; Frías Rojas, Moisés; Martín Patiño, M. T.
1989-01-01
[ES] Con el fin de ampliar y mejorar las posibilidades de empleo del cemento y de su colocación se ha buscado la incorporación de aditivos que modifiquen sus propiedades reológicas. Con ello se abre un campo de investigación, en el que la estabilidad del sistema coloidal está en función del potencial zeta, por lo que la medida del mismo contribuye al conocimiento del mecanismo de las reacciones de hidratación del cemento. La aparición de trabajos de investigación...
Modeling of Zeta converter based DVR system for power quality improvement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.Velmurugan
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A new development of voltage control scheme for power quality improvement such as voltage sag, swell, harmonics, and transient conditions in three-phase power systems has been proposed. Faults occurring in power distribution systems or amenities can inject the voltage sag or swell. This fault can damage or affect the power transmission and distribution. For sensitive loads, the short duration of voltage sags also cause huge problems in the entire power system. In order to reduce power interruptions, this work proposes a novel Zeta converter based DVR system. This proposed scheme can quickly access the voltage sag and swell under transient condition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doostmohammadi, Ali, E-mail: alidm14@ma.iut.ac.ir [Biomaterials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Monshi, Ahmad [Biomaterials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, Rasoul [Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, M.H. [Biomaterials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karbasi, Saeed [Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Group, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pieles, Uwe [Institute for Chemistry and Bioanalytics, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences of Northwestern Switzerland, Muttenz (Switzerland); Daniels, A.U. [Laboratory of Biomechanics and Biocalorimetry, Coaltion for Clinical Morphology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel Faculty of Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)
2012-02-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natural and relatively pure hydroxyapatite particles can be obtained from bovine bone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Complete characterization of bone-derived HA particles was carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bone-derived HA particles reveal a negative zeta potential in physiological saline at 37 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: Animal bone-derived calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were produced and characterized. Adult bovine femoral bone was boiled, washed, cleaned and heated in air at 700 Degree-Sign C for 2 h. The resulting macro-porous solid was ground, crushed and sieved into particles <50 {mu}m. SEM showed the particles were agglomerations of crystals {approx}50-500 nm across. XRD showed highly crystalline HA with nominal MgO and no detectable CaO. FTIR spectroscopy yielded typical HA absorptions, plus absorptions at 1457 and 1412 cm{sup -1} (MgCO{sub 3} or CaCO{sub 3}) and 874 cm{sup -1} (CaHPO{sub 4}). Main elements by EDXRF were Ca and P (molar ratio 1.93 vs. theoretical ratio 1.67). Minor amounts of Si, Mg and Na were detected, plus traces of K, Sr, Zn, Ba, V, Al, Mn, Pb, Cu and Fe. EDX detected Ca, P, Na and Mg. BET gas adsorption surface area was {approx}2.23 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and theoretical particle size {approx}857 nm. Laser DLS indicated {approx}40% of particles were {approx}952 nm in diameter, plus {approx}50% were {approx}760 nm - in close agreement with BET calculations. By laser Doppler electrophoresis (LDE) the zeta potential of the bone-derived HA particles suspended in 0.154 M NaCl was negative for pH 6-11 and -9.25 {+-} 0.9 mV at pH 7.4. Negative zeta potential is reported to favor attachment and proliferation of bone cells. HA particles produced synthetically are reported to have positive zeta potentials. The source of the negative potential was not determined but may stem from factors peculiar to producing HA particles from bone. The results suggest further investigation for biomedical use.
Hearing the music of the primes: auditory complementarity and the siren song of zeta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A counting function for the primes can be rendered as a sound signal whose harmonies, spanning the gamut of musical notes, are the Riemann zeros. But the individual primes cannot be discriminated as singularities in this ‘music’, because the intervals between them are too short. Conversely, if the prime singularities are detected as a series of clicks, the Riemann zeros correspond to frequencies too low to be heard. The sound generated by the Riemann zeta function itself is very different: a rising siren howl, which can be understood in detail from the Riemann–Siegel formula. (fast track communication)
Hearing the music of the primes: auditory complementarity and the siren song of zeta
Berry, M. V.
2012-09-01
A counting function for the primes can be rendered as a sound signal whose harmonies, spanning the gamut of musical notes, are the Riemann zeros. But the individual primes cannot be discriminated as singularities in this ‘music’, because the intervals between them are too short. Conversely, if the prime singularities are detected as a series of clicks, the Riemann zeros correspond to frequencies too low to be heard. The sound generated by the Riemann zeta function itself is very different: a rising siren howl, which can be understood in detail from the Riemann-Siegel formula.
Abramovici, Hanan; Gee, Stephen H
2007-07-01
The fusion of mononuclear myoblasts into multinucleated myofibers is essential for the formation and growth of skeletal muscle. Myoblast fusion follows a well-defined sequence of cellular events, from initial recognition and adhesion, to alignment, and finally plasma membrane fusion. These processes depend upon coordinated remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Our recent studies suggest diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), an enzyme that metabolizes diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid, plays an important role in actin reorganization. Here, we investigated whether DGK-zeta has a role in the fusion of cultured C2C12 myoblasts. We show that DGK-zeta and syntrophins, scaffold proteins of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex that bind directly to DGK-zeta, are spatially regulated during fusion. Both proteins accumulated with the GTPase Rac1 at sites where fine filopodia mediate the initial contact between myoblasts. In addition, DGK-zeta codistributed with the Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin at nascent, but not previously established cell contacts. We provide evidence that C2 cells are pulled together at cell-cell junctions by N-cadherin-containing filopodia reminiscent of epithelial adhesion zippers, which guide the advance of lamellipodia from apposing cells. At later times, vesicles with properties of macropinosomes formed close to cell-cell junctions. Reconstruction of confocal optical sections showed these form dome-like protrusions from the dorsal surface of contacting cells. Collectively, these results suggest DGK-zeta and syntrophins play a role at multiple stages of the fusion process. Moreover, our findings provide a potential link between changes in the lipid content of the membrane bilayer and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton during myoblast fusion. PMID:17410543
Casimir force in brane worlds: Coinciding results from Green's and zeta function approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casimir force encodes the structure of the field modes as vacuum fluctuations and so it is sensitive to the extra dimensions of brane worlds. Now, in flat spacetimes of arbitrary dimension the two standard approaches to the Casimir force, Green's function, and zeta function yield the same result, but for brane world models this was only assumed. In this work we show that both approaches yield the same Casimir force in the case of universal extra dimensions and Randall-Sundrum scenarios with one and two branes added by p compact dimensions. Essentially, the details of the mode eigenfunctions that enter the Casimir force in the Green's function approach get removed due to their orthogonality relations with a measure involving the right hypervolume of the plates, and this leaves just the contribution coming from the zeta function approach. The present analysis corrects previous results showing a difference between the two approaches for the single brane Randall-Sundrum; this was due to an erroneous hypervolume of the plates introduced by the authors when using the Green's function. For all the models we discuss here, the resulting Casimir force can be neatly expressed in terms of two four-dimensional Casimir force contributions: one for the massless mode and the other for a tower of massive modes associated with the extra dimensions.
Hilbert-P\\'olya Conjecture, Zeta-Functions and Bosonic Quantum Field Theories
Andrade, Julio
2013-01-01
The original Hilbert and P\\'olya conjecture is the assertion that the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function can be the spectrum of a self-adjoint operator. So far no such operator was found. However the suggestion of Hilbert and P\\'olya, in the context of spectral theory, can be extended to approach other problems and so it is natural to ask if there is a quantum mechanical system related to other sequences of numbers which are originated and motivated by Number Theory. In this paper we show that the functional integrals associated with a hypothetical class of physical systems described by self-adjoint operators associated with bosonic fields whose spectra is given by three different sequence of numbers cannot be constructed. The common feature of the sequence of numbers considered here, which causes the impossibility of zeta regularization, is that the various Dirichlet series attached to such sequences - such as those which are sums over "primes" of $(\\mathrm{norm} \\ P)^{-s}$ have a natural boundar...
Zeta potential control in decontamination with inorganic membranes and inorganic adsorbents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The application of some advanced separation processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration, electroosmosis and electrodialysis for treating nuclear waste from different aqueous streams is under examination at the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy. The application of these techniques can be extended to regular industrial wastes when economically advisable. This report deals mainly with electrodialysis, electroosmosis and adsorption with inorganic materials. Special attention is paid to zeta potential control as a driving factor to electroosmosis. For radioactive contaminants that are present in the form of cations, anions, non-ionic solutions, colloids and suspended matter, appropriate combination of the processes may considerably increase the efficiency of processes used. As an example, colloids and suspended particles may be retained in porous ceramic membranes by nanofiltration, ultrafiltration or microfiltration depending on the particle size of the particles. The control of zeta potential by acting in the solid phase or else on the liquid phase has been studied; a mathematical model to predict electrodialysis data has been developed, and finally, the use of a home-made inorganic adsorbent illustrated. The effect of gamma irradiation on the membranes has also been studied. Properties such as salt retention, water flux and pore size diameter determined on both organic and inorganic membranes before and after irradiation indicate deterioration of the organic membrane. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs
Electroosmotic fluid motion and late-time solute transport at non-negligible zeta potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
S. K. Griffiths; R. H. Nilson
1999-12-01
Analytical and numerical methods are employed to determine the electric potential, fluid velocity and late-time solute distribution for electroosmotic flow in a tube and channel when the zeta potential is not small. The electric potential and fluid velocity are in general obtained by numerical means. In addition, new analytical solutions are presented for the velocity in a tube and channel in the extremes of large and small Debye layer thickness. The electroosmotic fluid velocity is used to analyze late-time transport of a neutral non-reacting solute. Zeroth and first-order solutions describing axial variation of the solute concentration are determined analytically. The resulting expressions contain eigenvalues representing the dispersion and skewness of the axial concentration profiles. These eigenvalues and the functions describing transverse variation of the concentration field are determined numerically using a shooting technique. Results are presented for both tube and channel geometries over a wide range of the normalized Debye layer thickness and zeta potential. Simple analytical approximations to the eigenvalues are also provided for the limiting cases of large and small values of the Debye layer thickness. The methodology developed here for electroosmotic flow is also applied to the Taylor problem of late-time transport and dispersion in pressure-driven flows.
Dust-correlated cm-wavelength continuum emission on translucent clouds {\\zeta} Oph and LDN 1780
Vidal, M; Dickinson, C; Witt, A N; Castellanos, P; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; Cabrera, G; Cleary, K; Allison, J R; Bond, J R; Bronfman, L; Bustos, R; Jones, M E; Paladini, R; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; Reeves, R; Sievers, J L; Taylor, A C
2011-01-01
The diffuse cm-wave IR-correlated signal, the "anomalous" CMB foreground, is thought to arise in the dust in cirrus clouds. We present Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) cm-wave data of two translucent clouds, {\\zeta} Oph and LDN 1780 with the aim of characterising the anomalous emission in the translucent cloud environment. In {\\zeta} Oph, the measured brightness at 31 GHz is 2.4{\\sigma} higher than an extrapolation from 5 GHz measurements assuming a free-free spectrum on 8 arcmin scales. The SED of this cloud on angular scales of 1{\\odot} is dominated by free-free emission in the cm-range. In LDN 1780 we detected a 3 {\\sigma} excess in the SED on angular scales of 1{\\odot} that can be fitted using a spinning dust model. In this cloud, there is a spatial correlation between the CBI data and IR images, which trace dust. The correlation is better with near-IR templates (IRAS 12 and 25 {\\mu}m) than with IRAS 100 {\\mu}m, which suggests a very small grain origin for the emission at 31 GHz. We calculated the 31 GHz em...
The Zeta-Function of a p-Adic Manifold, Dwork Theory for Physicists
Candelas, Philip
2007-01-01
In this article we review the observation, due originally to Dwork, that the zeta-function of an arithmetic variety, defined originally over the field with p elements, is a superdeterminant. We review this observation in the context of a one parameter family of quintic threefolds, and study the zeta-function as a function of the parameter \\phi. Owing to cancellations, the superdeterminant of an infinite matrix reduces to the (ordinary) determinant of a finite matrix, U(\\phi), corresponding to the action of the Frobenius map on certain cohomology groups. The parameter-dependence of U(\\phi) is given by a relation U(\\phi)=E^{-1}(\\phi^p)U(0)E(\\phi) with E(\\phi) a Wronskian matrix formed from the periods of the manifold. The periods are defined by series that converge for $|\\phi|_p < 1$. The values of \\phi that are of interest are those for which \\phi^p = \\phi so, for nonzero \\phi, we have |\\vph|_p=1. We explain how the process of p-adic analytic continuation applies to this case. The matrix U(\\phi) breaks up i...
Cisterna, Adolfo; Rinaldi, Massimiliano
2015-01-01
We consider the sector of Horndeski's gravity characterized by a coupling between the kinetic scalar field term and the Einstein tensor. Our goal is to find realistic neutron star configurations in this framework. We show that, in a certain limit, there exist solutions that are identical to the Schwarzschild metric outside the star but change considerably inside, where the scalar field is not trivial. We study numerically the equations and find the region of the parameter space where neutron stars exist. We determine their internal pressure and mass-radius relation, and we compare them with standard general relativity models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woodward, P.R.
1978-09-27
Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
T. Lloyd Evans
2010-12-01
In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张国平
2000-01-01
Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter
Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....
The crystal structure of {zeta}{sub 1}-Al{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gulay, L.D.; Harbrecht, B
2004-03-24
The crystal structure of the {zeta}{sub 1}-phase Al{sub 3}Cu{sub 4} was determined by means of X-ray powder diffraction: a=812.67(3) pm, b=1419.85(5) pm, c=999.28(3) pm, space group Fmm2, Pearson symbol oF88-4.7, R{sub I}=0.0633. The structure represents a distinctive 2ax2{radical}3ax2c superstructure of a metal-deficient Ni{sub 2}In-related structure. The ordering of the minor component and the vacancies in the atomic layers of hexagonal topology fulfill the principle of maximal self-avoidance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maciejewski Oliver
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to analyze the osteogenic potential of a biphasic calcium composite material (BCC with a negative surface charge for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. In a 61 year old patient, the BCC material was used in a bilateral sinus floor augmentation procedure. Six months postoperative, a bone sample was taken from the augmented regions before two titanium implants were inserted at each side. We analyzed bone neoformation by histology, bone density by computed tomography, and measured the activity of voltage-activated calcium currents of osteoblasts and surface charge effects. Control orthopantomograms were carried out five months after implant insertion. The BCC was biocompatible and replaced by new mineralized bone after being resorbed completely. The material demonstrated a negative surface charge (negative Zeta potential which was found to be favorable for bone regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants.
Newton flow of the Riemann zeta function: separatrices control the appearance of zeros
Neuberger, J. W.; Feiler, C.; Maier, H.; Schleich, W. P.
2014-10-01
A great many phenomena in physics can be traced back to the zeros of a function or a functional. Eigenvalue or variational problems prevalent in classical as well as quantum mechanics are examples illustrating this statement. Continuous descent methods taken with respect to the proper metric are efficient ways to attack such problems. In particular, the continuous Newton method brings out the lines of constant phase of a complex-valued function. Although the patterns created by the Newton flow are reminiscent of the field lines of electrostatics and magnetostatics they cannot be realized in this way since in general they are not curl-free. We apply the continuous Newton method to the Riemann zeta function and discuss the emerging patterns emphasizing especially the structuring of the non-trivial zeros by the separatrices. This approach might open a new road toward the Riemann hypothesis.
Analytical Investigation of the Flow Hydrodynamics in Micro-Channels at High Zeta Potentials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Elazhary
2009-05-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the EDL at the solid-liquid interface on the liquid flow through a micro-channel formed by two parallel plates. The complete Poisson-Boltzmann equation (without the frequently used linear approximation was solved analytically in order to determine the EDL field near the solid-liquid interface. The momentum equation was solved analytically taking into consideration the electrical body force resulting from the EDL field. Effects of the channel size and the strength of the zeta-potential on the electrostatic potential, the streaming potential, the velocity profile, the volume flow rate, and the apparent viscosity are presented and discussed. Results of the present analysis, which are based on the complete Poisson-Boltzmann equation, are compared with a simplified analysis that used a linear approximation of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.
Combinatorics of lower order terms in the moment conjectures for the Riemann zeta function
Dehaye, Paul-Olivier
2012-01-01
Conrey, Farmer, Keating, Rubinstein and Snaith have given a recipe that conjecturally produces, among others, the full moment polynomial for the Riemann zeta function. The leading term of this polynomial is given as a product of a factor explained by arithmetic and a factor explained by combinatorics (or, alternatively, random matrices). We explain how the lower order terms arise, and clarify the dependency of each factor on the exponent $k$ that is considered. We use extensively the theory of symmetric functions and representations of symmetric groups, ideas of Lascoux on manipulations of alphabets, and a key lemma, due in a basic version to Bump and Gamburd. Our main result ends up involving dimensions of partitions, as studied by Olshanski, Regev, Vershik, Ivanov and others.
Measuring differential rotation of the K-giant $\\zeta$\\,And
K\\Hovári, Zs; Kriskovics, L; Vida, K; Donati, J -F; Coroller, H Le; Pedretti, J D Monnier E; Petit, P
2012-01-01
We investigate the temporal spot evolution of the K-giant component in the RS CVn-type binary system $\\zeta$\\,Andromedae to establish its surface differential rotation. Doppler imaging is used to study three slightly overlapping spectroscopic datasets, obtained independently at three different observing sites. Each dataset covers one full stellar rotation with good phase coverage, and in total, results in a continuous coverage of almost three stellar rotations ($P_{\\rm rot}=$17.8\\,d). Therefore, these data are well suited for reconstructing surface temperature maps and studying temporal evolution in spot configurations. Surface differential rotation is measured by the means of cross-correlation of all the possible image pairs. The individual Doppler reconstructions well agree in the revealed spot pattern, recovering numerous low latitude spots with temperature contrasts of up to $\\approx$1000\\,K with respect to the unspotted photosphere, and also an asymmetric polar cap which is diminishing with time. Our det...
Subshell momentum splitting and double-zeta description of many-electron atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When two subshell electrons are considered simultaneously in many-electron atoms, the average subshell momentum (p)nl splits into two different momenta, low momentum (p)nl and high momentum (p>)nl, where n and l are the principal and azimuthal quantum numbers. For the 102 atoms He through Lr in their ground states, the momenta (p)nl and (p>)nl, as well as the momentum separation (|p1 - p2|)nl, are systematically examined at the Hartree-Fock limit level. For a subshell nl, two exponents ζnl(est) and ζnl>(est) estimated from the low and high momenta have good linear correlations with variationally determined exponents ζnl(var) and ζnl>(var) used in the double-zeta description of atoms with Slater-type basis functions
Korhonen, H.; Wittkowski, M.; Kovari, Zs.; Granzer, Th.; Hackman, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.
2010-01-01
We have obtained high-resolution spectroscopy, optical interferometry, and long-term broad band photometry of the ellipsoidal primary of the RS CVn-type binary system zeta And. Based on the optical interferometry the apparent limb darkened diameter of zeta And is 2.55 +/- 0.09 mas using a uniform disk fit. The Hipparcos distance and the limb-darkened diameter obtained with a uniform disk fit give stellar radius of 15.9 +/- 0.8 Rsolar, and combined with bolometric luminosity, it implies an eff...
Extended Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein functions with applications to the family of zeta functions
Chaudhry, M Aslam; Tassaddiq, Asifa
2010-01-01
Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integral functions are of importance not only in quantum statistics but for their mathematical properties, in themselves. Here, we have extended these functions by introducing an extra parameter in a way that gives new insights into these functions and their relation to the family of zeta functions. These extensions are "dual" to each other in a sense that is explained. Some identities are proved for them and the relation between them and the general Hurwitz-Lerch zeta function (\\phi(z,s,v) is exploited to deduce new identities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William D. Cornwell
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins have immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we show that Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA induces a strong proliferative response in a murine T cell clone independent of MHC class II bearing cells. SEA stimulation also induces a state of hypo-responsiveness (anergy. We characterized the components of the T cell receptor (TCR during induction of anergy by SEA. Most interestingly, TCR zeta chain phosphorylation was absent under SEA anergizing conditions, which suggests an uncoupling of zeta chain function. We characterize here a model system for studying anergy in the absence of confounding costimulatory signals.
Provirnina, E. V.; Barbin, M. B.
1984-01-01
The value of the zeta-potential does not have an explicit effect, which is expressed by a simple math correlation, on filtration rate when a solution of the tested collector is filtered through a cake prepared under standard conditions from the examined particulate material. The zeta-potential measurements and filtration tests were carried out on silica and galena with solutions contg. a cationic container ANP and Et xanthane, resp. at PH = 6.5, varying concentration of the agent (0-2500 g/ton), and under a vacuum of 100 to 600 mm Hg.
Pondel, M D; Sharpe, J. A.; Clark, S.; Pearson, L; Wood, W.G.; Proudfoot, N J
1996-01-01
We have investigated the transcriptional regulation of the human embryonic zeta-globin gene promoter. First, we examined the effect that deletion of sequences 5' to zeta-globin's CCAAT box have on zeta-promoter activity in erythroid cell lines. Deletions of sequences between -116 and -556 (cap = 0) had little effect while further deletion to -84 reduced zeta-promoter activity by only 2-3-fold in both transiently and stably transfected erythroid cells. Constructs containing 67, 84 and 556 bp o...
Shingledecker, Christopher N; Gal, Romane Le; Oberg, Karin I; Hincelin, Ugo; Herbst, Eric
2016-01-01
The chemistry of dense interstellar regions was analyzed using a time-dependent gas-grain astrochemical simulation and a new chemical network that incorporates deuterated chemistry taking into account nuclear spin-states for the hydrogen chemistry and its deuterated isotopologues. With this new network, the utility of the [HCO$^+$]/[DCO$^+$] abundance ratio as a probe of the cosmic ray ionization rate has been reexamined, with special attention paid to the effect of the initial value of the molecular hydrogen ortho-to-para ratio (OPR). After discussing the use of the probe for cold cores, we then compare our results with previous theoretical and observational results for a molecular cloud close to the supernova remnant W51C, which is thought to have an enhanced cosmic ray ionization rate $\\zeta$ caused by the nearby $\\gamma$-ray source. In addition, we attempt to use our approach to estimate the cosmic ray ionization rate for L1174, a dense core with an embedded star. Beyond the previously known sensitivity o...
Garattini, Remo
2016-01-01
In recent years, a growing interest on the equilibrium of compact astrophysical objects like white dwarf and neutron stars has been manifested. In particular, various modifications due to Planck scale energy effects have been considered. In this paper we analyze the modification induced by Gravity's Rainbow on the equilibrium configurations described by the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation. Our purpose is to explore the possibility that the Rainbow Planck-scale deformation of space-time could support the existence of different compact stars.
Kaasalainen, Martti; Mäkilä, Ermei; Riikonen, Joakim; Kovalainen, Miia; Järvinen, Kristiina; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Salonen, Jarno
2012-07-15
Recently, highly promising results considering the use of porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles as a controlled and targeted drug delivery system have been published. Drugs are typically loaded into PSi nanoparticles by electrostatic interactions, and the drug-loaded nanoparticles are then administered parenterally in isotonic solutions. Zeta potential has an important role in drug adsorption and overall physical stability of nanosuspensions. In the present study, we used zeta potential measurements to study the impact of the formulation components to the nanosuspension stability. The impact of medium was studied by measuring isoelectric points (IEP) and zeta potentials in isotonic media. The role of drug adsorption was demonstrated with gastrointestinal peptides GLP-1(7-37) and PYY (3-36) and the selection of isotonic additive was demonstrated with peptide-loaded PSi nanoparticles. The results show the notable effect of isotonic solutions and peptide adsorption on zeta potential of PSi nanosuspensions. As a rule of thumb, the sugars (sucrose, dextrose and mannitol) seem to be good media for negatively charged peptide-loaded particles and weak acids (citric- and lactic acid) for positively charged particles. Nevertheless, perhaps the most important rule can be given for isotonic salt solutions which all are very poor media when the stability of nanosuspension is considered.
Wyrzykowska, Ewelina; Mikolajczyk, Alicja; Sikorska, Celina; Puzyn, Tomasz
2016-11-01
Once released into the aquatic environment, nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to interact (e.g. dissolve, agglomerate/aggregate, settle), with important consequences for NP fate and toxicity. A clear understanding of how internal and environmental factors influence the NP toxicity and fate in the environment is still in its infancy. In this study, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was employed to systematically explore factors that affect surface charge (zeta potential) under environmentally realistic conditions. The nano-QSPR model developed with multiple linear regression (MLR) was characterized by high robustness ({{{Q}}{{2}}}{{CV}}=0.90) and external predictivity ({{{Q}}{{2}}}{{EXT}}=0.93). The results clearly showed that zeta potential values varied markedly as functions of the ionic radius of the metal atom in the metal oxides, confirming that agglomeration and the extent of release of free MexOy largely depend on their intrinsic properties. A developed nano-QSPR model was successfully applied to predict zeta potential in an ionized solution of NPs for which experimentally determined values of response have been unavailable. Hence, the application of our model is possible when the values of zeta potential in the ionized solution for metal oxide nanoparticles are undetermined, without the necessity of performing more time consuming and expensive experiments. We believe that our studies will be helpful in predicting the conditions under which MexOy is likely to become problematic for the environment and human health.
Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira
2011-01-01
A family of star products parametrized by complex matrices is defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.
Jean Leyder
1996-01-01
An imaginary voyage in time where we were witness of the birth of the universe itself, the time of the Big-Bang 15 billion years ago. Particules from the very first moments of time : protons, neutrons and electrons, and also much more energetic one. These particules are preparing to interact collider and generating others which will be the birth to the stars ........
Catelan, M?rcio
2014-01-01
The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory. Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.
França, Guilherme
2015-01-01
We consider the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann $\\zeta$-function and two classes of $L$-functions; Dirichlet $L$-functions and those based on level one modular forms. We show that there are an infinite number of zeros on the critical line in one-to-one correspondence with the zeros of the cosine function, and thus enumerated by an integer $n$. From this it follows that the ordinate of the $n$-th zero satisfies a transcendental equation that depends only on $n$. Under weak assumptions, we show that the number of solutions of this equation already saturates the counting formula on the entire critical strip. We compute numerical solutions of these transcendental equations and also its asymptotic limit of large ordinate. The starting point is an explicit formula, yielding an approximate solution for the ordinates of the zeros in terms of the Lambert $W$-function. Our approach is a novel and simple method, that takes into account $\\arg L$, to numerically compute non-trivial zeros of $L$-functions. The method is s...
Heytens, Elke; Schmitt-John, Thomas; Moser, Jakob M; Jensen, Nanna Mandøe; Soleimani, Reza; Young, Claire; Coward, Kevin; Parrington, John; De Sutter, Petra
2010-12-01
Failed fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be due to a reduced oocyte-activation capacity caused by reduced concentrations and abnormal localization of the oocyte-activation factor phospholipase C (PLC) zeta. Patients with this condition can be helped to conceive by artificial activation of oocytes after ICSI with calcium ionophore (assisted oocyte activation; AOA). However some concern still exists about this approach. Mouse models could help to identify potential oocyte-activation strategies and evaluate their safety. In this study, the fertilizing capacity of wobbler sperm cells was tested and the efficiency of AOA with two exposures to ionomycin to restore fertilization and embryo development was studied. The quality of the obtained blastocysts was assessed and embryo transfer was performed to evaluate post-implantation development. The presence of PLCzeta in the spermatozoa and testis of the wobbler mouse was evaluated by PLCzeta immunostaining and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sperm cells from wobbler mice had reduced fertilizing capacity and abnormalities in PLCzeta localization, but not in its expression. Artificially activating the oocytes restored fertilization and embryo development. Therefore, the wobbler mouse can be a model for failed fertilization after ICSI to study PLCzeta dynamics and aid in optimization of the AOA method.
Fermi, Davide
2015-01-01
This is the first one of a series of papers about zeta regularization of the divergences appearing in the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of several local and global observables in quantum field theory. More precisely we consider a quantized, neutral scalar field on a domain in any spatial dimension, with arbitrary boundary conditions and, possibly, in presence of an external classical potential. We analyze, in particular, the VEV of the stress-energy tensor, the corresponding boundary forces and the total energy, thus taking into account both local and global aspects of the Casimir effect. In comparison with the wide existing literature on these subjects, we try to develop a more systematic approach, allowing to treat specific configurations by mere application of a general machinery. The present Part I is mainly devoted to setting up this general framework; at the end of the paper, this is exemplified in a very simple case. In Parts II, III and IV we will consider more engaging applications, indicated in the...
Sierra, M B; Pedroni, V I; Buffo, F E; Disalvo, E A; Morini, M A
2016-06-01
Temperature dependence of the zeta potential (ZP) is proposed as a tool to analyze the thermotropic behavior of unilamellar liposomes prepared from binary mixtures of phosphatidylcholines in the absence or presence of ions in aqueous suspensions. Since the lipid phase transition influences the surface potential of the liposome reflecting a sharp change in the ZP during the transition, it is proposed as a screening method for transition temperatures in complex systems, given its high sensitivity and small amount of sample required, that is, 70% less than that required in the use of conventional calorimeters. The sensitivity is also reflected in the pre-transition detection in the presence of ions. Plots of phase boundaries for these mixed-lipid vesicles were constructed by plotting the delimiting temperatures of both main phase transition and pre-transition vs. the lipid composition of the vesicle. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies, although subject to uncertainties in interpretation due to broad bands in lipid mixtures, allowed the validation of the temperature dependence of the ZP method for determining the phase transition and pre-transition temperatures. The system chosen was dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DPPC), the most common combination in biological membranes. This work may be considered as a starting point for further research into more complex lipid mixtures with functional biological importance. PMID:26954086
Quantum-mechanical tunneling differential operators, zeta-functions and determinants
Casahorrán, J
2002-01-01
We consider in detail the quantum-mechanical problem associated with the motion of a one-dimensional particle under the action of the double-well potential. Our main tool will be the euclidean (imaginary time) version of the path-integral method. Once we perform the Wick rotation, the euclidean equation of motion is the same as the usual one for the point particle in real time, except that the potential at issue is turned upside down. In doing so, our double-well potential becomes a two-humped potential. As required by the semiclassical approximation we may study the quadratic fluctuations over the instanton which represents in this context the localised finite-action solutions of the euclidean equation of motion. The determinants of the quadratic differential operators are evaluated by means of the zeta-function method. We write in closed form the eigenfunctions as well as the energy eigenvalues corresponding to such operators by using the shape-invariance symmetry. The effect of the multi-instantons configu...
Universal Dielectric Enhancement from Externally Induced Double Layer Without $\\zeta$-Potential
Qian, Jiang
2015-01-01
Motivated by recent experiments showing over $10^4$-fold increase in induced polarization from electrochemically inert, conducting materials in dilute saline solutions, we theoretically demonstrate a new mechanism for dielectric enhancement, in the absence of $\\zeta-$potentials at interfaces between non-insulating particles and an electrolyte solution. We further show that the magnitude of such enhancement obeys universal scaling laws, independent of the particle's electrical properties and valid across particle shapes: for a dilute suspension of identical, but arbitrarily shaped particles of a linear dimension $a$ and volume fraction $f$, as $\\omega\\to0$ the effective real dielectric constant of the mixture is enhanced from that of water by a factor $1+f~(P_r+(a/\\lambda)P_i)$, and the frequency-dependent phase shift of its impedance has a scale-invariant maximum $f\\,\\mathsf{\\Theta}$ if particles are much more conductive than the solution. Here $\\lambda$ is the solution's Debye length and $P_r$, $P_i$, $\\math...
Beyond the triangle and uniqueness relations non-zeta counterterms at large N from positive knots
Broadhurst, D J; Kreimer, D
1996-01-01
Counterterms that are not reducible to $\\zeta_{n}$ are generated by ${}_3F_2$ hypergeometric series arising from diagrams for which triangle and uniqueness relations furnish insufficient data. Irreducible double sums, corresponding to the torus knots $(4,3)=8_{19}$ and $(5,3)=10_{124}$, are found in anomalous dimensions at ${\\rm O}(1/N^3)$ in the large-$N$ limit, which we compute analytically up to terms of level 11, corresponding to 11 loops for 4-dimensional field theories and 12 loops for 2-dimensional theories. High-precision numerical results are obtained up to 24 loops and used in Padé resummations of $\\varepsilon$-expansions, which are compared with analytical results in 3 dimensions. The ${\\rm O}(1/N^3)$ results entail knots generated by three dressed propagators in the master two-loop two-point diagram. At higher orders in $1/N$ one encounters the uniquely positive hyperbolic 11-crossing knot, associated with an irreducible triple sum. At 12 crossings, a pair of 3-braid knots is generated, correspon...
DLS and zeta potential - What they are and what they are not?
Bhattacharjee, Sourav
2016-08-10
Adequate characterization of NPs (nanoparticles) is of paramount importance to develop well defined nanoformulations of therapeutic relevance. Determination of particle size and surface charge of NPs are indispensable for proper characterization of NPs. DLS (dynamic light scattering) and ZP (zeta potential) measurements have gained popularity as simple, easy and reproducible tools to ascertain particle size and surface charge. Unfortunately, on practical grounds plenty of challenges exist regarding these two techniques including inadequate understanding of the operating principles and dealing with critical issues like sample preparation and interpretation of the data. As both DLS and ZP have emerged from the realms of physical colloid chemistry - it is difficult for researchers engaged in nanomedicine research to master these two techniques. Additionally, there is little literature available in drug delivery research which offers a simple, concise account on these techniques. This review tries to address this issue while providing the fundamental principles of these techniques, summarizing the core mathematical principles and offering practical guidelines on tackling commonly encountered problems while running DLS and ZP measurements. Finally, the review tries to analyze the relevance of these two techniques from translatory perspective. PMID:27297779
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael
Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....
Turner, JL
2010-01-01
Extreme star formation includes star formation in starbursts and regions forming super star clusters. We survey the current problems in our understanding of the star formation process in starbursts and super star clusters - initial mass functions, cluster mass functions, star formation efficiencies, and radiative feedback into molecular clouds - that are critical to our understanding of the formation and survival of large star clusters, topics that will be the drivers of the observations of t...
Rovelli, Carlo
2014-01-01
A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density --not by size-- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.
Glebbeek, E.; Pols, O.R.
2007-01-01
When two stars collide and merge they form a new star that can stand out against the background population in a star cluster as a blue straggler. In so called collision runaways many stars can merge and may form a very massive star that eventually forms an intermediate mass blackhole. We have perfor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henbest, N.
1984-12-13
The paper concerns the Hertzsprung-Russel (H-R) diagram, which is graph relating the brightness to the surface temperature of the stars. The diagram provides a deep insight into the fundamental properties of the stars. Evolution of the stars; the death of a star; distances; and dating star clusters, are all briefly discussed with reference to the H-R diagram.
Hodgson, Lorna; Thompson, Andrew
2012-03-01
This paper presents the results of a non-HMDS (non-silane) adhesion promoter that was used to reduce the zeta potential for very thin (proprietary) polymer on silicon. By reducing the zeta potential, as measured by the minimum sample required to fully coat a wafer, the amount of polymer required to coat silicon substrates was significantly reduced in the manufacture of X-ray windows used for high transmission of low-energy X-rays. Moreover, this approach used aqueous based adhesion promoter described as a cationic surface active agent that has been shown to improve adhesion of photoresists (positive, negative, epoxy [SU8], e-beam and dry film). As well as reducing the amount of polymer required to coat substrates, this aqueous adhesion promoter is nonhazardous, and contains non-volatile solvents.
Characterization of Ser73 in Arabidopsis thaliana Glutathione S-transferase zeta class
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous detoxifying superfamily enzymes. The zeta class GST from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGSTZ) can efficiently degrade dichloroacetic acid (DCA), which is a common carcinogenic contaminant in drinking water. Ser73 in AtGSTZ is a conserved residue at Glutathione binding site (G-site). Compared with the equivalent residues in other GSTs, the catalytic and structural properties of Ser73 were poorly investigated. In this article, site-saturation mutagenesis was performed to characterize the detailed role of Ser73. The DCA de.chlorinating (DCA-DC) activity showed that most of the mutants had less than 3% of the wild-type activity, except S73T and $73A showing 43.48% and 21.62% of the wild-type activity, respectively, indicating that position 73 in AtGSTZ showed low mutational substitutability. Kinetic experiments revealed that mutants S73T, $73A, and S73G showed low binding affinity and catalytic efficiency toward DCA, 1.8-, 3.1-, and 10.7- fold increases in KmDcA values and 4.0-, 9.6-, and 34.1- fold decreases in KcatDCA/KmDCA values, respectively, compared to the wild type. Thermostability and refolding experiments showed that the wild type maintalned more thermostability and recovered activity. These results demonstrated the important role of Set73 in catalytic activity and structural stability of the enzyme. Such properties of Set73 could be particularly crucial to the molecular evolution of AtGSTZ and might,therefore, help explain why Ser73 is conserved in all GSTs. This conclusion might provide insights into the directed evolution of the DCA-DC activity of AtGSTZ.
Blackburn, Anneke C; Matthaei, Klaus I; Lim, Cindy; Taylor, Matthew C; Cappello, Jean Y; Hayes, John D; Anders, M W; Board, Philip G
2006-02-01
Glutathione S-transferase (GST) zeta (GSTZ1-1) plays a significant role in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine, and a deficiency of GSTZ1-1 results in the accumulation of maleylacetoacetate and its derivatives maleylacetone (MA) and succinylacetone. Induction of GST subunits was detected in the liver of Gstz1(-/-) mice by Western blotting with specific antisera and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of glutathione affinity column-purified proteins. The greatest induction was observed in members of the mu class. Induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and the catalytic and modifier subunits of glutamate-cysteine ligase was also observed. Many of the enzymes that are induced in Gstz1(-/-) mice are regulated by antioxidant response elements that respond to oxidative stress via the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway. It is significant that diminished glutathione concentrations were also observed in the liver of Gstz1(-/-) mice, which supports the conclusion that under normal dietary conditions, the accumulation of electrophilic intermediates such as maleylacetoacetate and MA results in a high level of oxidative stress. Elevated GST activities in the livers of Gstz1(-/-) mice suggest that GSTZ1-1 deficiency may alter the metabolism of some drugs and xenobiotics. Gstz1(-/-) mice given acetaminophen demonstrated increased hepatotoxicity compared with wild-type mice. This toxicity may be attributed to the increased GST activity or the decreased hepatic concentrations of glutathione, or both. Patients with acquired deficiency of GSTZ1-1 caused by therapeutic exposure to dichloroacetic acid for the clinical treatment of lactic acidosis may be at increased risk of drug- and chemical-induced toxicity. PMID:16278372
Reyes Bozo, Lorenzo; Escudey, Mauricio; Vyhmeister, Eduardo; Higueras Higueras, Pablo Leon; Godoy FaÚndez, Alex; Salazar, José Luis; ValdÉs GonzÁlez, HÉctor; Wolf Sepúlveda, Germán; Herrera Urbina, Ronaldo
2015-01-01
Zeta potential measurements were used to assess the electrokinetic characteristics of chalcopyrite, molybdenite and pyrite in the presence of biosolids and their main components (humic acids, glucose and serum albumin) as well as a commercial collector (Aero 6697). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was then used to gain a deeper understanding of the interaction of these compounds with these sulfide minerals. It aims to achieve a better understanding of the surface che...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davis-Ajami ML
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Mary Lynn Davis-Ajami,1 Jun Wu,2 Katherine Downton,3 Emilie Ludeman,3 Virginia Noxon4 1Organizational Systems and Adult Health, University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Greenville, SC, USA; 3Health Sciences and Human Services Library, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Science, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Abstract: Epoetin zeta was granted marketing authorization in October 2007 by the European Medicines Agency as a recombinant human erythropoietin erythropoiesis-stimulating agent to treat symptomatic anemia of renal origin in adult and pediatric patients on hemodialysis and adults on peritoneal dialysis, as well as for symptomatic renal anemia in adult patients with renal insufficiency not yet on dialysis. Currently, epoetin zeta can be administered either subcutaneously or intravenously to correct for hemoglobin concentrations ≤10 g/dL (6.2 mmol/L or with dose adjustment to maintain hemoglobin levels at desired levels not in excess of 12 g/dL (7.5 mmol/L. This review article focuses on epoetin zeta indications in chronic kidney disease, its use in managing anemia of renal origin, and discusses its pharmacology and clinical utility. Keywords: biosimilar, chronic kidney disease, epoetin alfa, erythropoiesis, renal anemia, Retacrit®
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
VENMATHI, M.
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new four-port DC-DC converter topology is proposed to interface renewable energy sources and the load along with the energy storage device. The proposed four-port SEPIC/ZETA bidirectional converter (FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC converter comprises an isolated output port with two unidirectional and one bidirectional input ports. This converter topology is obtained by the fusion of SEPIC/ZETA BDC and full-bridge converter. This converter topology ensures the non-reversal of output voltage hence it is preferred mostly for battery charging applications. In this work, photovoltaic (PV source is considered and the power balance in the system is achieved by means of distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT in the PV ports. The centralized controller is implemented using fuzzy logic controller (FLC and the performance is compared with conventional proportional integral (PI controller. The results offer useful information to obtain the desired output under line and load regulations. Experimental results are also provided to validate the simulation results.
Korhonen, H; Kovari, Zs; Granzer, Th; Hackman, T; Strassmeier, K G
2010-01-01
We have obtained high-resolution spectroscopy, optical interferometry, and long-term broad band photometry of the ellipsoidal primary of the RS CVn-type binary system zeta And. Based on the optical interferometry the apparent limb darkened diameter of zeta And is 2.55 +/- 0.09 mas using a uniform disk fit. The Hipparcos distance and the limb-darkened diameter obtained with a uniform disk fit give stellar radius of 15.9 +/- 0.8 Rsolar, and combined with bolometric luminosity, it implies an effective temperature of 4665 +/- 140 K. The temperature maps obtained from high resolution spectra using Doppler imaging show a strong belt of equatorial spots and hints of a cool polar cap. The equatorial spots show a concentration around the phase 0.75. This spot configuration is reminiscent of the one seen in the earlier published temperature maps of zeta And. Investigation of the Halpha line reveals both prominences and cool clouds in the chromosphere. Long-term photometry spanning 12 years shows hints of a spot activit...
Electrodiffusiophoresis of a large-zeta-potential particle in weak fields.
Tricoli, Vincenzo; Orsini, Gabriele
2015-10-21
The electrodiffusiophoresis of a large-zeta-potential (ζ) particle in weak fields is investigated. In this large-ζ regime, Debye-layer kinetics determines O(1) perturbations to the electric- and concentration fields in the surrounding electroneutral solution. Taking these effects into account, the expressions of the slip-flow coefficient and the effective surface boundary-conditions for the electric- and concentration fields are derived. For binary and symmetric electrolyte where only one ion species carries the current in the electroneutral domain, the far-field salt gradient as related to the electric field is determined. The electrodiffusiophoretic mobility is obtained for three particle geometries: sphere, cylinder and spheroid arbitrarily oriented with respect to the externally applied field. Strong departure from Smoluchowskian behavior is found. If co-ion is the current carrier, the mobility is independent of ζ, regardless of the body shape. Also, the hydrodynamic flow-field is irrotational. If counter-ion is the current carrier, the problem formulated in terms of a properly-defined scalar field (Ω), which embodies both the electric potential (Ψ) and the salt concentration, becomes formally identical to the one addressed in our previous work, concerning the small-ζ regime, with negligible salt gradients. Then, all the results obtained in that study are extended and applied even to the large-ζ regime considered here, provided the new expressions now derived for the surface boundary conditions and the slip-flow coefficient are employed and Ω is used in place of Ψ. The present results are discussed also in comparison with the classical studies of Dukhin et al and O'Brien et al concerning electrophoresis of highly charged particles with no salt gradient at infinity, and with recent studies of electrodiffusiophoresis, which, however, neglected the fields perturbations caused by Debye-layer kinetics. It is found that the effects addressed and incorporated
Electrodiffusiophoresis of a large-zeta-potential particle in weak fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electrodiffusiophoresis of a large-zeta-potential (ζ) particle in weak fields is investigated. In this large-ζ regime, Debye-layer kinetics determines O(1) perturbations to the electric- and concentration fields in the surrounding electroneutral solution. Taking these effects into account, the expressions of the slip-flow coefficient and the effective surface boundary-conditions for the electric- and concentration fields are derived. For binary and symmetric electrolyte where only one ion species carries the current in the electroneutral domain, the far-field salt gradient as related to the electric field is determined. The electrodiffusiophoretic mobility is obtained for three particle geometries: sphere, cylinder and spheroid arbitrarily oriented with respect to the externally applied field. Strong departure from Smoluchowskian behavior is found. If co-ion is the current carrier, the mobility is independent of ζ, regardless of the body shape. Also, the hydrodynamic flow-field is irrotational. If counter-ion is the current carrier, the problem formulated in terms of a properly-defined scalar field (Ω), which embodies both the electric potential (Ψ) and the salt concentration, becomes formally identical to the one addressed in our previous work, concerning the small-ζ regime, with negligible salt gradients. Then, all the results obtained in that study are extended and applied even to the large-ζ regime considered here, provided the new expressions now derived for the surface boundary conditions and the slip-flow coefficient are employed and Ω is used in place of Ψ. The present results are discussed also in comparison with the classical studies of Dukhin et al and O’Brien et al concerning electrophoresis of highly charged particles with no salt gradient at infinity, and with recent studies of electrodiffusiophoresis, which, however, neglected the fields perturbations caused by Debye-layer kinetics. It is found that the effects addressed and
Sekatskii, S. K.
2010-01-01
The following theorem is proven: Both real and imaginary parts of the function F(s) defined as F(s)=zeta(s)*Gamma(s/2)*pi**(-s/2)=xi(s)/(s*(s-1)), and whose zeroes exactly coincide with the non-trivial zeroes of the Riemann zeta-function, have infinitely many zeroes for any value of Re(s).
裂变径迹定年的过渡方法——Zeta法%Transition Method in Fission Track Dating—Zeta Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李小明
2001-01-01
本文对裂变径迹Zeta法定年及应用现状作了简单的介绍。采用国产的铀标准玻璃UB2标定了磷灰石的Zeta常数，并对Zeta法的过渡性进行了分析探讨。最后对Zeta法过渡到绝对法提出了粗浅的看法。%A brief introduction about Zeta method in fission track dating and the present status of application are given, and Zeta value of apatite is calibrated with UB2 uranium standard glass. Then the transition of Zeta method is analyzed and discussed. Finally simple views on Zeta method transition to absolute method is put forward in this paper.
Triggered Star Formation by Massive Stars
Lee, Hsu-Tai; Chen, W. P.
2005-01-01
We present our diagnosis of the role that massive stars play in the formation of low- and intermediate-mass stars in OB associations (the Lambda Ori region, Ori OB1, and Lac OB1 associations). We find that the classical T Tauri stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars tend to line up between luminous O stars and bright-rimmed or comet-shaped clouds; the closer to a cloud the progressively younger they are. Our positional and chronological study lends support to the validity of the radiation-driven implos...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
在生物技术、食品和制药行业的生产工艺中．消毒和方便的清洁是非常重要的。这也正是现代的磁力搅拌器在上述领域不可或缺的原因。这种搅拌器可以带来很多好处，例如：绝对密封、低维护要求等。Zeta BMR系列模块符合GMP标准要求。
Extended Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein functions with applications to the family of zeta functions
Chaudhry, M. Aslam; Qadir, Asghar; Tassaddiq, Asifa
2010-01-01
Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integral functions are of importance not only in quantum statistics but for their mathematical properties, in themselves. Here, we have extended these functions by introducing an extra parameter in a way that gives new insights into these functions and their relation to the family of zeta functions. These extensions are "dual" to each other in a sense that is explained. Some identities are proved for them and the relation between them and the general Hurwitz-Lerc...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Queiroz APS
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Zeta plus filter membranes (ZP60S have been shown to be efficient for rotavirus concentration from wastewater and for the reduction of cytotoxicity for cell cultures. Recently a variability in both properties was observed. In view of the low costs and the high virus recovery rates obtained in the past, we re-evaluated the application of ZP60S filter membranes for virus concentration from environmental samples. Some factors that could interfere with the concentration strategy using ZP60S were also considered and assessed including the type of water to be filtered and the possible release of toxic substances from the membrane matrix during filtration.
The Birth of Massive Stars and Star Clusters
Tan, Jonathan C.
2005-01-01
In the present-day universe, it appears that most, and perhaps all, massive stars are born in star clusters. It also appears that all star clusters contain stars drawn from an approximately universal initial mass function, so that almost all rich young star clusters contain massive stars. In this review I discuss the physical processes associated with both massive star formation and with star cluster formation. First I summarize the observed properties of star-forming gas clumps, then address...
Dust in the inner regions of debris disks around A stars
Akeson, R L; Millan-Gabet, R; Merand, A; Di Folco, E; Monnier, J D; Beichman, C A; Absil, O; Aufdenberg, J; McAlister, H; Brummelaar, T ten; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N
2008-01-01
We present infrared interferometric observations of the inner regions of two A-star debris disks, beta Leo and zeta Lep, using the FLUOR instrument at the CHARA interferometer on both short (30 m) and long (>200 m) baselines. For the target stars, the short baseline visibilities are lower than expected for the stellar photosphere alone, while those of a check star, delta Leo, are not. We interpret this visibility offset of a few percent as a near-infrared excess arising from dust grains which, due to the instrumental field of view, must be located within several AU of the central star. For beta Leo, the near-infrared excess producing grains are spatially distinct from the dust which produces the previously known mid-infrared excess. For zeta Lep, the near-infrared excess may be spatially associated with the mid-infrared excess producing material. We present simple geometric models which are consistent with the near and mid-infrared excess and show that for both objects, the near-infrared producing material is...
The Cambridge Double Star Atlas
MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil
2015-12-01
Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.
Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Deemeh, Mohammad Reza; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Sekhavati, Mohammad Hadi; Gourabi, Hamid
2016-01-01
Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC)/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX) at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1).
Kulsing, Chadin; Yang, Yuanzhong; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W
2015-02-15
In this study, the zeta potentials of a silica hydride stationary phase (Diamond Hydride™) in the presence of different water-acetonitrile mixtures (from 0-80% (v/v) acetonitrile) of different ionic strengths (from 0-40mM) and pH values (from pH 3.0-7.0) have been investigated. Debye-Hückel theory was applied to explain the effect of changes in the pH and ionic strength of these aqueous media on the negative zeta potential of this stationary phase. The experimental zeta potentials of the Diamond Hydride™ particles as a function of acetonitrile content up to 50% (v/v) correlated (R(2)=0.998) with the predicted zeta potential values based on this established theory, when the values of the dissociation constant of all related species, as well as viscosity, dielectric constant and refractive index of the aqueous medium were taken into consideration. Further, the retention behavior of basic, acidic and neutral analytes was investigated under mobile phase conditions of higher pH and lower ionic strength. Under these conditions, the Diamond Hydride™ stationary phase surface became more negative, as assessed from the increasingly more negative zeta potentials, resulting in the ion exchange characteristics becoming more dominant and the basic analytes showing increasing retention. Ionic descriptors were derived from these chromatographic experiments based on the assumption that linear solvation energy relationships prevail. The results were compared with predicted ionic descriptors based on the different calculated zeta potential values resulting in an overall correlation of R(2)=0.888. These studies provide fundamental insights into the impact on the separation performance of changes in the zeta potential of the Diamond Hydride™ surface with the results relevant to other silica hydride and, potentially, to other types of stationary phase materials.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Susanne Zach
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dominant mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease, however, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Several in vitro studies have shown that the most frequent mutation, LRRK2(G2019S, increases kinase activity and impairs neuronal survival. LRRK2 has been linked to the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family and the receptor-interacting protein kinases based on sequence similarity within the kinase domain and in vitro substrate phosphorylation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an unbiased proteomic approach to identify the kinase signaling pathways wherein LRRK2 may be active. By incubation of protein microarrays containing 260 signal transduction proteins we detected four arrayed Ste20 serine/threonine kinase family members (TAOK3, STK3, STK24, STK25 as novel LRRK2 substrates and LRRK2 interacting proteins, respectively. Moreover, we found that protein kinase C (PKC zeta binds and phosphorylates LRRK2 both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ste20 kinases and PKC zeta contribute to neuronal Tau phosphorylation, neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity under physiological conditions. Our data suggest that these kinases may also be involved in synaptic dysfunction and neurite fragmentation in transgenic mice and in human PD patients carrying toxic gain-of-function LRRK2 mutations.
Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech
2016-04-20
Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of -0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Alberto López-Maldonado
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process used for semiconductor wastewater treatment was improved by selecting suitable conditions (pH, polyelectrolyte type, and concentration through zeta potential measurements. Under this scenario the zeta potential, ζ, is the right parameter that allows studying and predicting the interactions at the molecular level between the contaminants in the wastewater and polyelectrolytes used for coagulation-flocculation. Additionally, this parameter is a key factor for assessing the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes based on the optimum dosages and windows for polyelectrolytes coagulation-flocculation effectiveness. In this paper, strategic pH variations allowed the prediction of the dosage of polyelectrolyte on wastewater from real electroplating baths, including the isoelectric point (IEP of the dispersions of water and commercial polyelectrolytes used in typical semiconductor industries. The results showed that there is a difference between polyelectrolyte demand required for the removal of suspended solids, turbidity, and organic matter from wastewater (23.4 mg/L and 67 mg/L, resp.. It was also concluded that the dose of polyelectrolytes and coagulation-flocculation window to achieve compliance with national and international regulations as EPA in USA and SEMARNAT in Mexico is influenced by the physicochemical characteristics of the dispersions and treatment conditions (pH and polyelectrolyte dosing strategy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hilda Parra-Barraza; Daniel Hernandez-Montiel; Jaime Lizardi; Javier Hernandez; Ronaldo Herrera Urbina; Miguel A. Valdez [Universidad de Sonora, Sonora (Mexico). Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas
2003-05-01
We have investigated some surface properties of asphaltenes precipitated from crude oil with different volumes of n-heptane. According to the crude oil/n-heptane proportions used, asphaltenes are identified as 1:5, 1:15 and 1:40. Zeta potential results indicate that the amount of n-heptane determines the electrokinetic behaviour of asphaltenes in aqueous suspensions. Asphaltene 1:5 exhibits an isoelectric point (IEP) at pH 4.5 whereas asphaltenes 1:15 and 1:40 show an IEP at about pH 3. Surface charge on asphaltenes arises from the dissociation of acid functionalities and the protonation of basic functional groups. The presence of resins remaining on the asphaltene molecules may be responsible for the different IEP of asphaltene 1:5. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate (an anionic surfactant) and cetylpyridinium chloride (a cationic surfactant) were found to adsorb specifically onto asphaltenes. They reverse the sign of the zeta potential under certain conditions. These surfactants may be potential candidates to aid in controlling the stability of crude oil dispersions. Critical micelle concentration, interfacial tension measurements, and Langmuir isotherms at the air water interface confirm the different nature of asphaltene 1:5, which also showed more solubility and a larger molecular size. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech
2016-01-01
Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of -0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process. PMID:27104527
Xu, R
2005-01-01
Members of the family of pulsar-like stars are distinguished by their different manifestations observed, i.e., radio pulsars, accretion-driven X-ray pulsars, X-ray bursts, anomalous X-ray pulsars/soft gamma-ray repeaters, compact center objects, and dim thermal neutron stars. Though one may conventionally think that these stars are normal neutron stars, it is still an open issue whether they are actually neutron stars or quark stars, as no convincing work, either theoretical from first principles or observational, has confirmed Baade-Zwicky's original idea that supernovae produce neutron stars. After introducing briefly the history of pulsars and quark stars, the author summarizes the recent achievements in his pulsar group, including quark matter phenomenology at low temperature, starquakes of solid pulsars, low-mass quark stars, and the pulsar magnetospheric activities.
DISCOVERY OF THE HOST CLUSTER FOR THE FUNDAMENTAL CEPHEID CALIBRATOR ZETA GEMINORUM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
New and existing CORAVEL, UBVJHKs , HST, HIP/Tycho, ARO, KPNO, and DAO observations imply that the fundamental Cepheid calibrator ζ Gem is a cluster member. The following parameters were inferred for ζ Gem from cluster membership and are tied to new spectral classifications (DAO) established for 26 nearby stars (e.g., HD53588/B7.5IV, HD54692/B9.5IV): EB–V = 0.02 ± 0.02, log τ = 7.85 ± 0.15, and d = 355 ± 15 pc. The mean distance to ζ Gem from cluster membership and six recent estimates (e.g., IRSB) is d=363±9(σx-bar )±26 (σ) pc. The results presented here support the color-excess and HST parallax derived for the Cepheid by Benedict et al. Forthcoming precise proper motions (DASCH) and Chandra/XMM-Newton observations of the broader field may be employed to identify cluster members, bolster the cluster's existence, and provide stronger constraints on the Cepheid's fundamental parameters.
Fuzzy-PI-based centralised control of semi-isolated FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC in a PV/battery hybrid system
Mahendran, Venmathi; Ramabadran, Ramaprabha
2016-11-01
Multiport converters with centralised controller have been most commonly used in stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)/battery hybrid system to supply the load smoothly without any disturbances. This study presents the performance analysis of four-port SEPIC/ZETA bidirectional converter (FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC) using various types of centralised control schemes like Fuzzy tuned proportional integral controller (Fuzzy-PI), fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and conventional proportional integral (PI) controller. The proposed FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC with various control strategy is derived for simultaneous power management of a PV source using distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT) algorithm, a rechargeable battery, and a load by means of centralised controller. The steady state and the dynamic response of the FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC are analysed using three different types of controllers under line and load regulation. The Fuzzy-PI-based control scheme improves the dynamic response of the system when compared with the FLC and the conventional PI controller. The power balance between the ports is achieved by pseudorandom carrier modulation scheme. The response of the FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC is also validated experimentally using hardware prototype model of 500 W system. The effectiveness of the control strategy is validated using simulation and experimental results.
1987-01-01
Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...
ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...
ENERGY STAR Certified Computers
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers that are effective as of June 2,...
'Polaris, Mark Kummerfeldt's Star, and My Star.'
McLure, John W.
1984-01-01
In most astronomy courses, descriptions of stars and constellations reveal the western European origins of the astronomers who named them. However, it is suggested that a study of non-western views be incorporated into astronomy curricula. Descriptions of various stars and constellations from different cultures and instructional strategies are…
Megeath, S. T.; Gaidos, E.; Hester, J. J.; Adams, F. C.; Bally, J.; Lee, J. -E.; Wolk, S.
2007-01-01
During the last three decades, evidence has mounted that star and planet formation is not an isolated process, but is influenced by current and previous generations of stars. Although cool stars form in a range of environments, from isolated globules to rich embedded clusters, the influences of other stars on cool star and planet formation may be most significant in embedded clusters, where hundreds to thousands of cool stars form in close proximity to OB stars. At the cool stars 14 meeting, ...
Frebel, Anna
2008-01-01
The abundance patterns of metal-poor stars provide us a wealth of chemical information about various stages of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. In particular, these stars allow us to study the formation and evolution of the elements and the involved nucleosynthesis processes. This knowledge is invaluable for our understanding of the cosmic chemical evolution and the onset of star- and galaxy formation. Metal-poor stars are the local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and offer cru...
Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren;
1998-01-01
Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....
Bedding, T R; Bedding, Timothy R.; Kjeldsen, Hans
2000-01-01
The MONS satellite will have two Star Trackers to sense the spacecraft attitude, and we plan to use them as scientific instruments to perform high-precision photometry of thousands of stars. We briefly describe the current plans for the Star Trackers and their expected capabilities.
Langlois, David
2001-01-01
Neutron stars are believed to contain (neutron and proton) superfluids. I will give a summary of a macroscopic description of the interior of neutron stars, in a formulation which is general relativistic. I will also present recent results on the oscillations of neutron stars, with superfluidity explicitly taken into account, which leads in particular to the existence of a new class of modes.
Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry
2009-01-01
"Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…
The Effect of High Zeta Potentials on the Flow Hydrodynamics in Parallel-Plate Micro-Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Elazhary
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the EDL at the solid-liquid interface on theliquid flow through a micro-channel formed by two parallel plates. The completePoisson-Boltzmann equation (without the frequently used linear approximationwas solved analytically in order to determine the EDL field near the solid-liquidinterface. The momentum equation was solved analytically taking intoconsideration the electrical body force resulting from the EDL field. Effects of thechannel size and the strength of the zeta-potential on the electrostatic potential,the streaming potential, the velocity profile, the volume flow rate, the apparentviscosity, and the friction factor are presented and discussed. Results of thepresent analysis, which are based on the complete Poisson-Boltzmann equation,are compared with a simplified analysis that used a linear approximation of thePoisson-Boltzmann equation.
Madiedo, José M; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J; Pastor, Sensi; Reyes, José A de los
2016-01-01
On 10 June 2012, an Earth-grazer meteor which lasted over 17 s with an absolute magnitude of -4.0 $\\pm$ 0.5 was observed over Spain. This work focuses on the analysis of this rare event which is, to our knowledge, the faintest Earth-grazing meteor reported in the scientific literature, but also the first one belonging to a meteor shower. Thus, the orbital parameters show that the parent meteoroid belonged to the Daytime $\\zeta$-Perseid meteoroid stream. According to our calculations, the meteor was produced by a meteoroid with an initial mass ranging between 115 and 1.5 kg. During its encounter with Earth, the particle travelled about 510 km in the atmosphere. Around 260 g were destroyed in the atmosphere during the luminous phase of the event as a consequence of the ablation process. The modified orbit of the remaining material, which left our planet with a fusion crust, is also calculated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Srijata Sarkar
Full Text Available Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2 nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™. We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays. Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm and zeta potential (-37 to -41 mV. Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical properties.
Cho, H. T.; Hu, B. L.
2012-09-01
We calculate the expectation values of the stress-energy bitensor defined at two different spacetime points x, x‧ of a massless, minimally coupled scalar field with respect to a quantum state at finite temperature T in a flat N-dimensional spacetime by means of the generalized zeta-function method. These correlators, also known as the noise kernels, give the fluctuations of energy and momentum density of a quantum field which are essential for the investigation of the physical effects of negative energy density in certain spacetimes or quantum states. They also act as the sources of the Einstein-Langevin equations in stochastic gravity which one can solve for the dynamics of metric fluctuations as in spacetime foams. In terms of constitutions these correlators are one rung above (in the sense of the correlation—BBGKY or Schwinger-Dyson—hierarchies) the mean (vacuum and thermal expectation) values of the stress-energy tensor which drive the semiclassical Einstein equation in semiclassical gravity. The low- and the high-temperature expansions of these correlators are also given here: at low temperatures, the leading order temperature dependence goes like TN while at high temperatures they have a T2 dependence with the subleading terms exponentially suppressed by e-T. We also discuss the singular behavior of the correlators in the x‧ → x coincident limit as was done before for massless conformal quantum fields. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker’s 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.
Roche, Ph.
2016-03-01
We recall the relation between zeta function representation of groups and two-dimensional topological Yang-Mills theory through Mednikh formula. We prove various generalisations of Mednikh formulas and define generalization of zeta function representations of groups. We compute some of these functions in the case of the finite group GL(2, 𝔽q) and PGL(2, 𝔽q). We recall the table characters of these groups for any q, compute the Frobenius-Schur indicator of their irreducible representations, and give the explicit structure of their fusion rings.
Roche, Philippe
2015-01-01
We recall the relation between Zeta function representation of groups and two-dimensional topological Yang-Mills theory through Mednikh formula. We prove various generalisations of Mednikh formulas and define generalization of Zeta functions representations of groups. We compute some of these functions in the case of the finite group $GL(2, {\\mathbb F}_q)$ and $PGL(2,{\\mathbb F}_q).$ We recall the table characters of these groups for any $q$, compute the Frobenius-Schur indicator of their irreducible representations and give the explicit structure of their fusion rings
Investigating the Circumstellar Disk of the Be Shell Star 48 Librae
Silaj, J; Carciofi, A C; Escolano, C; Okazaki, A T; Tycner, C; Rivinius, T; Klement, R; Bednarski, D
2016-01-01
A global disk oscillation implemented in the viscous decretion disk (VDD) model has been used to reproduce most of the observed properties of the well known Be star $\\zeta$ Tau. 48 Librae shares several similarities with $\\zeta$ Tau -- they are both early-type Be stars, they display shell characteristics in their spectra, and they exhibit cyclic $V/R$ variations -- but has some marked differences as well, such as a much denser and more extended disk, a much longer $V/R$ cycle, and the absence of the so-called triple-peak features. We aim to reproduce the photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic observables of 48 Librae with a self-consistent model, and to test the global oscillation scenario for this target. Our calculations are carried out with the three-dimensional NLTE radiative transfer code HDUST. We employ a rotationally deformed, gravity-darkened central star, surrounded by a disk whose unperturbed state is given by the VDD model. A two-dimensional global oscillation code is then used to calculate ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stergioulas Nikolaos
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.
Iliadis, Christian
2015-01-01
Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel J. Whalen
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Pop III stars are the key to the character of primeval galaxies, the first heavy elements, the onset of cosmological reionization, and the seeds of supermassive black holes. Unfortunately, in spite of their increasing sophistication, numerical models of Pop III star formation cannot yet predict the masses of the first stars. Because they also lie at the edge of the observable universe, individual Pop III stars will remain beyond the reach of observatories for decades to come, and so their properties are unknown. However, it will soon be possible to constrain their masses by direct detection of their supernovae, and by reconciling their nucleosynthetic yields to the chemical abundances measured in ancient metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, some of which may bear the ashes of the first stars. Here, I review the state of the art in numerical simulations of primordial stars and attempts to directly and indirectly constrain their properties.
Whalen, Daniel J
2012-01-01
Pop III stars are the key to the character of primeval galaxies, the first heavy elements, the onset of cosmological reionization, and the seeds of supermassive black holes. Unfortunately, in spite of their increasing sophistication, numerical models of Pop III star formation cannot yet predict the masses of the first stars. Because they lie at the edge of the observable universe, individual Pop III stars will also remain beyond the reach of telescopes for the foreseeable future, and so their properties remain unknown. However, it will soon be possible to constrain their masses by the direct detection of their supernovae and by reconciling their nucleosynthetic yields to the chemical abundances measured in ancient metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, some of which may be bear the ashes of the first stars. Here, I review current problems on the simulation frontier in Pop III star formation and discuss the best prospects for constraining their properties observationally in the near term.
Frebel, Anna
2008-01-01
The abundance patterns of metal-poor stars provide us a wealth of chemical information about various stages of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. In particular, these stars allow us to study the formation and evolution of the elements and the involved nucleosynthesis processes. This knowledge is invaluable for our understanding of the cosmic chemical evolution and the onset of star- and galaxy formation. Metal-poor stars are the local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and offer crucial observational constraints on the nature of the first stars. This review presents the history of the first discoveries of metal-poor stars that laid the foundation to this field. Observed abundance trends at the lowest metallicities are described, as well as particular classes of metal-poor stars such as r-process and C-rich stars. Scenarios on the origins of the abundances of metal-poor stars and the application of large samples of metal-poor stars to cosmological questions are discussed.
Herwig, Falk
2005-01-01
The ejecta of the first probably very massive stars polluted the Big Bang primordial element mix with the first heavier elements. The resulting ultra metal-poor abundance distribution provided the initial conditions for the second stars of a wide range of initial masses reaching down to intermediate and low masses. The importance of these second stars for understanding the origin of the elements in the early universe are manifold. While the massive first stars have long vanished the second stars are still around and currently observed. They are the carriers of the information about the first stars, but they are also capable of nuclear production themselves. For example, in order to use ultra or extremely metal-poor stars as a probe for the r-process in the early universe a reliable model of the s-process in the second stars is needed. Eventually, the second stars may provide us with important clues on questions ranging from structure formation to how the stars actually make the elements, not only in the early...
Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica
2016-06-01
Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses >[Formula: see text] and luminosities >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars. PMID:27214049
Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica
2016-06-01
Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses >[Formula: see text] and luminosities >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.
Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica
2016-06-01
Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzales-Ormeno, Pablo Guillermo [Computational Materials Science Laboratory, Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463-CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Petrilli, Helena Maria [Departamento de Fisica dos Materiais e Meca-hat nica, Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, CEP 05315-970 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: hmpetril@macbeth.if.usp.br; Schoen, Claudio Geraldo [Computational Materials Science Laboratory, Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463-CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: schoen@usp.br
2005-09-15
The metastable phase diagram of the bcc-based ordering equilibria in the Mo-Al system has been calculated by the cluster expansion method, through the combination of FP-LAPW and CVM. The results are discussed with reference to the structure and stability of the {zeta}{sub 2}-MoAl high temperature phase.
The IUE Mega Campaign: Wind Variability and Rotation in Early-Type Stars
Massa, D.; Fullerton, A. W.; Nichols, J. S.; Owocki, S. P.; Prinja, R. K.; St-Louis, N.; Willis, A. J.; Altner, B.; Bolton, C. T.; Cassinelli, J. P.; Cohen, D.; Cooper, R. G.; Feldmeier, A.; Gayley, K. G.; Harries, T.; Heap, S. R.; Henriksen, R. N.; Howarth, I. D.; Hubeny, I.; Kambe, E.
1995-01-01
Wind variability in OB stars may be ubiquitous and a connection between projected stellar rotation velocity and wind activity is well established. However, the origin of this connection is unknown. To probe the nature of the rotation connection, several of the attendees at the workshop on Instability and Variability of Hot-Star Winds drafted an IUE observing proposal. The goal of this program was to follow three stars for several rotations to determine whether the rotation connection is correlative or causal. The stars selected for monitoring all have rotation periods less than or equal to 5 days. They were HD 50896 (WN5), HD 64760 (BO.5 Ib), and HD 66811 (zeta Pup; 04 If(n)). During 16 days of nearly continuous observations in 1995 January (dubbed the 'MEGA' campaign), 444 high-dispersion IUE spectra of these stars were obtained. This Letter presents an overview of the results of the MEGA campaign and provides an introduction to the three following Letters, which discuss the results for each star.
STAR in CTO PCI: When is STAR not a star?
Hira, Ravi S; Dean, Larry S
2016-04-01
Subintimal tracking and reentry (STAR) has been used as a bailout strategy and involves an uncontrolled dissection and recanalization into the distal lumen to reestablish vessel patency. In the current study, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow < 3 was the only variable which they found to be significantly associated with restenosis and reocclusion after stent placement. It may be reasonable to consider second generation drug eluting stent placement in patients receiving STAR that have TIMI 3 flow, however, this should only be done if there is no compromise of major side branches. If unsure, we recommend to perform balloon angioplasty without stenting.
Yoshida, Naoki
2010-10-01
The standard cosmological model predicts that the first cosmological objects are formed when the age of the universe is a few hundred million years. Recent theoretical studies and numerical simulations consistently suggest that the first objects are very massive primordial stars. We introduce the key physics and explain why the first stars are thought to be massive, rather than to be low-mass stars. The state-of-the-art simulations include all the relevant atomic and molecular physics to follow the thermal evolution of a prestellar gas cloud to very high ``stellar'' densities. Evolutionary calculations of the primordial stars suggest the formation of massive blackholes in the early universe. Finally, we show the results from high-resolution simulations of star formation in a low-metallicity gas. Vigorous fragmentation is triggered in a star-forming gas cloud at a metallicity of as low as Z = 10-5Zsolar.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Safi, B.
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.
En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.
Clark, Natalie; Furth, Paul; Horan, Steven
2000-01-01
We describe our Intelligent Star Tracker System. Our Intelligent Star Tracker System incorporates an adaptive optic catadioptric telescope in a silicon carbide housing. Leveraging off of our active optic technologies, the novel active pixel position sensors (APPS) enable wide dynamic range and allows simultaneous imagery of faint and bright stars in a single image. Moreover, the APPS, in conjunction with the adaptive optics technologies, offer unprecedented accuracy in altitude and navigation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The evolution of stars with masses larger than 15 sun masses is reviewed. These stars have large convective cores and lose a substantial fraction of their matter by stellar wind. The treatment of convection and the parameterisation of the stellar wind mass loss are analysed within the context of existing disagreements between theory and observation. The evolution of massive close binaries and the origin of Wolf-Rayet Stars and X-ray binaries is also sketched. (author)
Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D
1978-01-01
Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid
2015-01-01
We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid
2013-01-01
We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...
Combinations of 148 navigation stars and the star tracker
Duncan, R.
1980-01-01
The angular separation of all star combinations for 148 nav star on the onboard software for space transportation system-3 flight and following missions is presented as well as the separation of each pair that satisfies the viewing constraints of using both star trackers simultaneously. Tables show (1) shuttle star catalog 1980 star position in M 1950 coordinates; (2) two star combination of 148 nav stars; and (3) summary of two star-combinations of the star tracker 5 deg filter. These 148 stars present 10,875 combinations. For the star tracker filters of plus or minus 5 deg, there are 875 combinations. Formalhaut (nav star 26) has the best number of combinations, which is 33.
Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars
Michaud, G
2008-01-01
Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.
Star Position Estimation Improvements for Accurate Star Tracker Attitude Estimation
Delabie, Tjorven
2015-01-01
This paper presents several methods to improve the estimation of the star positions in a star tracker, using a Kalman Filter. The accuracy with which the star positions can be estimated greatly influences the accuracy of the star tracker attitude estimate. In this paper, a Kalman Filter with low computational complexity, that can be used to estimate the star positions based on star tracker centroiding data and gyroscope data is discussed. The performance of this Kalman Filter can be increased...
Cohen, David H; Wollman, Emma E; Zsargó, Janos; Hillier, D John; Townsend, Richard H D; Owocki, Stanley P
2010-01-01
We fit every emission line in the high-resolution Chandra grating spectrum of zeta Pup with an empirical line profile model that accounts for the effects of Doppler broadening and attenuation by the bulk wind. For each of sixteen lines or line complexes that can be reliably measured, we determine a best-fitting fiducial optical depth, tau_* = kappa*Mdot/4{pi}R_{\\ast}v_{\\infty}, and place confidence limits on this parameter. These sixteen lines include seven that have not previously been reported on in the literature. The extended wavelength range of these lines allows us to infer, for the first time, a clear increase in tau_* with line wavelength, as expected from the wavelength increase of bound-free absorption opacity. The small overall values of tau_*, reflected in the rather modest asymmetry in the line profiles, can moreover all be fit simultaneously by simply assuming a moderate mass-loss rate of 3.5 \\pm 0.3 \\times 10^{-6} Msun/yr, without any need to invoke porosity effects in the wind. The quoted unce...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gunter Rappl
Full Text Available Adoptive therapy of malignant diseases with tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells showed remarkable efficacy in recent trials. Repetitive T cell receptor (TCR engagement of target antigen, however, inevitably ends up in hypo-responsive cells with terminally differentiated KLRG-1(+ CD57(+ CD7(- phenotype limiting their therapeutic efficacy. We here revealed that hypo-responsiveness of CMV-specific late-stage CD8(+ T cells is due to reduced TCR synapse formation compared to younger cells. Membrane anchoring of TCR components contributes to T cell hypo-responsiveness since dislocation of galectin-3 from the synapse by swainsonine restored both TCR synapse formation and T cell response. Transgenic expression of a CD3-zeta signaling chimeric antigen receptor (CAR recovered hypo-responsive T cells to full effector functions indicating that the defect is restricted to TCR membrane components while synapse formation of the transgenic CAR was not blocked. CAR engineered late-stage T cells released cytokines and mediated redirected cytotoxicity as efficiently as younger effector T cells. Our data provide a rationale for TCR independent, CAR mediated activation in the adoptive cell therapy to avoid hypo-responsiveness of late-stage T cells upon repetitive antigen encounter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gary P Brennan
Full Text Available 14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitous molecular chaperones that are abundantly expressed in the brain where they regulate cell functions including metabolism, the cell cycle and apoptosis. Brain levels of several 14-3-3 isoforms are altered in diseases of the nervous system, including epilepsy. The 14-3-3 zeta (ζ isoform has been linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER function in neurons, with reduced levels provoking ER stress and increasing vulnerability to excitotoxic injury. Here we report that transgenic overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in mice results in selective changes to the unfolded protein response pathway in the hippocampus, including down-regulation of glucose-regulated proteins 78 and 94, activating transcription factors 4 and 6, and Xbp1 splicing. No differences were found between wild-type mice and transgenic mice for levels of other 14-3-3 isoforms or various other 14-3-3 binding proteins. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were potently protected against cell death caused by intracerebroventricular injection of the ER stressor tunicamycin. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were also potently protected against neuronal death caused by prolonged seizures. These studies demonstrate that increased 14-3-3ζ levels protect against ER stress and seizure-damage despite down-regulation of the unfolded protein response. Delivery of 14-3-3ζ may protect against pathologic changes resulting from prolonged or repeated seizures or where injuries provoke ER stress.
Qian, Jiang
2016-01-01
We solve exactly the dielectric response of a non-insulating sphere of radius $a$ suspended in symmetric, univalent electrolyte solution, with ideally-polarizable interface but without significant $\\zeta$-potential. We then use this solution to derive the dielectric response of a dilute random suspension of such spheres, with volume fraction $f\\ll1$, within the Maxwell-Garnett Effective Medium Approximation. Surprisingly, we discover a huge dielectric enhancement in this bare essential model of dielectric responses of solids in electrolyte solution: at low frequency $\\omega\\tau_D \\ll (\\lambda/a) / (\\sigma_w / \\sigma_s+1/2)$, the real part of the effective dielectric constant of the mixture is $1-(3f/2)+(9f/4)(a/\\lambda)$. Here $\\sigma_{w/s}$ is the conductivity of the electrolyte solution/solids, $\\lambda$ is the Debye screening length in the solution, $\\tau_D=\\lambda^2/D$ is the standard time scale of diffusion and $D$ is the ion diffusion coefficient. As $\\lambda$ is of the order nm even for dilute electrol...
Zhao, Yapei; Lu, Pei; Li, Caiting; Fan, Xiaopeng; Wen, Qingbo; Zhan, Qi; Shu, Xin; Xu, Tieliang; Zeng, Guangming
2013-01-01
Surfactant solutions were propounded to remove fine and hydrophobic carbon black particles from coal-fired flue gas. The adsorption mechanisms between sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS, an anionic surfactant) and carbon black particles in suspension were investigated. The influence of inorganic salt (NaCl) was also considered. As results showed, hydrophobic interactions contributed to the strong adsorption between SDBS and carbon black particles in the absence of NaCl, and adding NaCl affected the adsorption process. The adsorption amount of SDBS significantly increased when NaCl was added into the SDBS solution; however, when SDBS was in low concentration, the amount of adsorbed SDBS, which was responsible for the shift of zeta potentials, varied little under different concentrations of NaCl. This indicated that the adsorption of SDBS was mainly caused by hydrophobic interaction and Na+ could not change the adsorption of SDBS on adsorption site when SDBS was in low concentration. Moreover, the adsorbed SDBS and Na+ were retained in the Stern layer. PMID:23530331
Sun, Peiling; Horton, J. Hugh
2013-04-01
Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is a widely-used polymer in microfluidic devices due to its range of physical and chemical properties suitable for molding micron-sized features. However, its hydrophobicity also leads to some limitations: it poorly supports electro-osmotic flow, and can be incompatible with biomolecules and with many organic solvents. Surface modification is commonly used to vary PDMS surface properties to make it more suitable for specific microfluidic applications. Here, we report on the surface modification of PDMS using perfluoroalkane-triethoxysilanes, via the covalent attachment of triethoxysilane groups on plasma-oxidized PDMS. A device constructed from such fluorinated materials could be used for separating fluorous-tagged proteins or peptides. Modified PDMS were characterized using a range of surface analytical methods. In particular, zeta- (ζ-) potential values at the interfaces of both modified and unmodified PDMS and under varying pH conditions were measured, as ζ-potential is an essential parameter to support electroosmotic flow (EOF), a common pumping method in microfluidic devices. The results showed the length of fluorinated alkane chain has significant effect on the density of surface modifying species and topography following modification. In addition, the perfluorinated modification increases the magnitude of the ζ-potential at the PDMS interface when compared to that of native PDMS, increasing the electro-osmotic flow rate, over a wide pH range. The modified surface is resistant to the diffusion of PDMS oligomers that affects other PDMS surface modification processes.
Poteet, Charles A; Draine, Bruce T
2015-01-01
We investigate the composition of interstellar grains along the line of sight toward Zeta Ophiuchi, a well-studied environment near the diffuse-dense cloud transition. A spectral decomposition analysis of the solid-state absorbers is performed using archival spectroscopic observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope and Infrared Space Observatory. We find strong evidence for the presence of sub-micron-sized amorphous silicate grains, principally comprised of olivine-like composition, with no convincing evidence of H2O ice mantles. However, tentative evidence for thick H2O ice mantles on large (a ~ 2.8 microns) grains is presented. Solid-state abundances of elemental Mg, Si, Fe, and O are inferred from our analysis and compared to standard reference abundances. We find that nearly all of elemental Mg and Si along the line of sight are present in amorphous silicate grains, while a substantial fraction of elemental Fe resides in compounds other than silicates. Moreover, we find that the total abundance of eleme...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, S C [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Teo, L P [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)
2007-09-21
We derive rigorously explicit formulae of the Casimir free energy at finite temperature for massless scalar field and electromagnetic field confined in a closed rectangular cavity with different boundary conditions by a zeta regularization method. We study both the low and high temperature expansions of the free energy. In each case, we write the free energy as a sum of a polynomial in temperature plus exponentially decay terms. We show that the free energy is always a decreasing function of temperature. In the cases of massless scalar field with the Dirichlet boundary condition and electromagnetic field, the zero temperature Casimir free energy might be positive. In each of these cases, there is a unique transition temperature (as a function of the side lengths of the cavity) where the Casimir energy changes from positive to negative. When the space dimension is equal to two and three, we show graphically the dependence of this transition temperature on the side lengths of the cavity. Finally we also show that we can obtain the results for a non-closed rectangular cavity by letting the size of some directions of a closed cavity go to infinity, and we find that these results agree with the usual integration prescription adopted by other authors.
Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars
Minti, Hari
2012-12-01
The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.
Neutron Stars: Formation and Structure
Kutschera, Marek
1998-01-01
A short introduction is given to astrophysics of neutron stars and to physics of dense matter in neutron stars. Observed properties of astrophysical objects containing neutron stars are discussed. Current scenarios regarding formation and evolution of neutron stars in those objects are presented. Physical principles governing the internal structure of neutron stars are considered with special emphasis on the possible spin ordering in the neutron star matter.
Carinhas, P A
1993-01-01
Typical nuclear equations of state and a quark bag model, surprisingly, allow compact stars with alternate layers of neutrons and quarks. One can determine on the basis of the Gibbs free energy which phase, nuclear or quark, is energetically favorable. Using the nuclear equation of state of Wiringa, and a quark equation of state given by Freedman and McLerran, the allowed quark parameter space for such layer stars is searched. This paper differs from past work in that configurations are found in which quark matter is located exterior and interior to shells of nuclear matter, i.e., dependent on quark parameters, a star may contain several alternating layers of quark and nuclear matter. Given the uncertainty in the quark parameter space, one can estimate the probability for finding pure neutron stars, pure quark stars (strange stars), stars with a quark core and a nucleon exterior, or layer stars. Several layer models are presented. The physical characteristics, stability, and results of a thorough search of th...
Neutrostriction in Neutron stars
Ignatovich, V. K.
2003-01-01
It is demonstrated that not only gravity, but also neutrostriction forces due to optical potential created by coherent elastic neutron-neutron scattering can hold a neutron star together. The latter forces can be stronger than gravitational ones. The effect of these forces on mass, radius and structure of the neutron star is estimated.
Watts, Anna L.
2012-01-01
Neutron stars enable us to study both the highest densities and the highest magnetic fields in the known Universe. In this article I review what can be learned about such fundamental physics using magnetar bursts. Both the instability mechanisms that trigger the bursts, and the subsequent dynamical and radiative response of the star, can be used to explore stellar and magnetospheric structure and composition.
Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca
2012-05-01
Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.
Star spot location estimation using Kalman filter for star tracker.
Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jian-kun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Tan, Ji-chun; Li, Xiu-jian
2011-04-20
Star pattern recognition and attitude determination accuracy is highly dependent on star spot location accuracy for the star tracker. A star spot location estimation approach with the Kalman filter for a star tracker has been proposed, which consists of three steps. In the proposed approach, the approximate locations of the star spots in successive frames are predicted first; then the measurement star spot locations are achieved by defining a series of small windows around each predictive star spot location. Finally, the star spot locations are updated by the designed Kalman filter. To confirm the proposed star spot location estimation approach, the simulations based on the orbit data of the CHAMP satellite and the real guide star catalog are performed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can filter out noises from the measurements remarkably if the sampling frequency is sufficient. PMID:21509065
Kohler, Susanna
2016-07-01
How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the
Dubin, M; Dubin, Maurice; Soberman, Robert K.
1997-01-01
Stars accrete near invisible hydrogen dominated agglomerates. This population, the `dark matter,' effects the nature of stars. Measurements show plasma streams impacting Earth, planets, Sun and stars. This mass-energy source contradicts nebula collapse model for stars. The visual derived model, to which later discoveries (e.g., fusion) were appended, is confounded and contradicted by new observations. Discovery of a quantity of beryllium 7 (53 day half-life) in the Earth's upper atmosphere, fusion produced, hence from the solar outer zone, proves core fusion wrong. Magnetically pinched plasmas from aggregates impact stars at hundreds of km/s, create impulsive conditions for nuclear explosions below the surface. Disks with planets aid cluster capture. Planets modulate the influx varying fusion, hence luminosity (e.g., solar cycle). This population, with no assumptions or ad hoc physics, explains mysterious phenomena, e.g., luminosity/wind variation, sunspots, high temperature corona, CMEs, etc. Standard explan...
Becker, Werner
2009-01-01
Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...
Soderblom, David R; Jeffries, Rob D; Mamajek, Eric E; Naylor, Tim
2013-01-01
Determining the sequence of events in the formation of stars and planetary systems and their time-scales is essential for understanding those processes, yet establishing ages is fundamentally difficult because we lack direct indicators. In this review we discuss the age challenge for young stars, specifically those less than ~100 Myr old. Most age determination methods that we discuss are primarily applicable to groups of stars but can be used to estimate the age of individual objects. A reliable age scale is established above 20 Myr from measurement of the Lithium Depletion Boundary (LDB) in young clusters, and consistency is shown between these ages and those from the upper main sequence and the main sequence turn-off -- if modest core convection and rotation is included in the models of higher-mass stars. Other available methods for age estimation include the kinematics of young groups, placing stars in Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams, pulsations and seismology, surface gravity measurement, rotation and activ...
Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Theodorakis, P E [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Avgeropoulos, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kosmas, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlahos, C [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)
2007-11-21
The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.
2006-11-01
ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education are launching today the 2007 edition of 'Catch a Star!', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its fifth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. Students are invited to 'become astronomers' and embark on a journey to explore the Universe. ESO PR Photo 42/06 The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star!' also includes an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. "'Catch a Star!' offers a unique opportunity for students to learn more about astronomy and about the methods scientists use to discover new things about the Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. In teams, students choose an astronomical topic to study and produce an in-depth report. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes or a telescope of the future can contribute to their investigations of the subject. As well as the top prize - a trip to one of ESO's observatory sites in Chile - visits to observatories in Germany, Austria and Spain, and many other prizes are also available to be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners chosen with the help of a public online vote. The first editions of 'Catch a Star!' have attracted several hundred entries from more than 25 countries worldwide. Previous winning entries have included "Star clusters and the structure of the Milky Way" (Budapest, Hungary), "Vega" (Acqui Terme, Italy) and "Venus
Srivastava, H. M.; Chaudhry, M. A.; Qadir, A.; Tassaddiq, A.
2011-03-01
The familiar Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein functions are of importance not only for their rôle in quantum statistics, but also for their several interesting mathematical properties in themselves. Here, in our present investigation, we have extended these functions by introducing an extra parameter in a way that gives new insights into these functions and their relationship to the family of zeta functions. These extensions are dual to each other in a sense that is explained in this paper. Some identities are proved here for each of these general functions and their relationship with the general Hurwitz-Lerch zeta function Φ( z, s, a) is exploited to derive some other (presumably new) identities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharya, Jaydeep; GhoshMoulick, Ranjita; Choudhuri, Utpal; Chakrabarty, Prantar; Bhattacharya, Pranab K.; Lahiri, Prabir; Chakraborti, Bikas; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr
2004-09-27
The unfolding pattern of crystal human hemoglobin and variants of hemoglobin obtained from hemolysate were studied using transverse urea gradient gel electrophoresis (TUGGE). A smooth sigmoid like increase of electrophoretic mobility was observed with increasing urea concentrations. A decrease in electrophoretic mobility resulted, if the protein was unfolded with guanidium hydrochloride (GdnHCl). The anomaly was resolved after the Stoke's radii (obtained using the photon correlation spectroscopy) and zeta potential (measured using laser Doppler velocimetry) measurements were made at different denaturant concentrations. Addition of denaturant led to formation of extended structure, irrespective of the nature of the denaturant, as indicated by increase in Stoke's radii in both cases (urea and GdnHCl). The unexpected increase in electrophoretic mobility in case of urea could be explained in terms of a critical redistribution of negative charge at intermediate stages of the unfolding process. In case of GdnHCl, the higher ionic strength masked the charge effect. The mobility, being solely dependent on size, decreased at higher denaturant concentration. Incidentally, folding loci of other hemoglobin variants (e.g. HbE) or that of post-translationally modified hemoglobin (e.g. HbA1c) could be determined by studying the charge distribution and hydrodynamic radius at varying denaturing stress and in each case the gel migration profile could be approximately scaled by the ratio of charge and hydrodynamic diameter of the protein. While unfolding induced charge effect was most pronounced in HbA0 (and crystal ferrous hemoglobin), the unfolding induced aggregation (manifested by the increase in Stoke's radii) was predominantly observed in the variant forms HbE and HbA1c. Representing the proteins by a plot, in which charge and hydrodynamic diameter are on independent axes, may be a useful way of characterizing protein variants having similar migration profiles on
Making star teams out of star players.
Mankins, Michael; Bird, Alan; Root, James
2013-01-01
Top talent is an invaluable asset: In highly specialized or creative work, for instance, "A" players are likely to be six times as productive as "B" players. So when your company has a crucial strategic project, why not multiply all that firepower and have a team of your best performers tackle it? Yet many companies hesitate to do this, believing that all-star teams don't work: Big egos will get in the way. The stars won't be able to work with one another. They'll drive the team Leader crazy. Mankins, Bird, and Root of Bain & Company believe it's time to set aside that thinking. They have seen all-star teams do extraordinary work. But there is a right way and a wrong way to organize them. Before you can even begin to assemble such a team, you need to have the right talent management practices, so you hire and develop the best people and know what they're capable of. You have to give the team appropriate incentives and leaders and support staffers who are stars in their own right. And projects that are ill-defined or small scale are not for all-star teams. Use them only for critical missions, and make sure their objectives are clear. Even with the right setup, things can still go wrong. The wise executive will take steps to manage egos, prune non-team-players, and prevent average coworkers from feeling completely undervalued. She will also invest a lot of time in choosing the right team Leader and will ask members for lots of feedback to monitor how that leader is doing. PMID:23390743
Mohapatra, Abhishek; Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong
2016-03-01
If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. If the axion mass energy is mc2 =10-4 eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about 10-14M⊙ . We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If mc2 =10-4 4 eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mass ranging from about 10-11M⊙ toabout M⊙.
Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong
2015-01-01
If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure.If the axion mass energy is $mc^2= 10^{-4}$ eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about $10^{-14} M_\\odot$. We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If $mc^2 = 10^{-4}$ eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mas...
Kahn, S. M.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Cottam, J.; Rauw, G.; Vreux, J.-M.; denBoggende, A. J. F.; Mewe, R.; Guedel, M.
2000-01-01
We present the first high resolution X-ray spectrum of the bright O4Ief supergiant star Puppis, obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on- board XMM-Newton. The spectrum exhibits bright emission lines of hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and silicon, as well as neon-like ions of iron. The lines are all significantly resolved, with characteristic velocity widths of order 1000 - 1500 km/ s. The nitrogen lines are especially strong, and indicate that the shocked gas in the wind is mixed with CNO-burned material, as has been previously inferred for the atmosphere of this star from ultraviolet spectra. We find that the forbidden to intercombination line ratios within the helium-like triplets are anomalously low for N VI, O VII, and Ne IX. While this is sometimes indicative of high electron density, we show that in this case, it is instead caused by the intense ultraviolet radiation field of the star. We use this interpretation to derive constraints on the location of the X-ray emitting shocks within the wind that agree remarkably well with current theoretical models for this system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rivero Rodrigo
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is an endocrine-metabolic disorder commonly associated with insulin resistance (IR. Previous studies indicate about the expression of molecules involved in the insulin pathway in endometria of women with PCOS-IR. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of insulin and testosterone in the expression of these proteins in the endometria and immortal endometrial stromal cell line (T-HESCs. Methods We examined the protein levels of Munc18c, PKC zeta, phospho-PKC Zeta, and Syntaxin-4. Protein levels were assessed by Western Blot and/or immunohistochemistry in proliferative endometria (NPE = 6 and in PCOS endometria with insulin resistance (PCOSE-IR = 6. We also evaluated whether high concentrations of insulin (100 nM and/or testosterone (100 nM, during a 24 h stimulatory period, affected the expression of these proteins in an immortal endometrial stromal cell line (T-HESCs. Once stimulated, proteins were extracted from cells and were assessed by Western Blot analysis. Immunocytochemistry was performed to detect AR in T-HESC cells. Results Western Blot data showed decreased expression (p in vitro study, Western Blot analysis showed decreased levels of Munc18c, PKC Zeta and phospho-PKC Zeta with the different hormonal treatments when compared to the control condition (no hormonal stimulation (p Conclusion The conditions of hyperinsulinism and hyperandrogenism present in PCOS-IR patients modulate the expression and/or phosphorylation of the proteins involved in the insulin pathway at the endometrial level. These data extend to the T-HESCs cells results, where insulin and testosterone exert an effect on both the expression and phosphorylation of proteins present in the pathway.
Jin, Emma Yu; Nebel, Markus E
2016-02-01
Various tools used to predict the secondary structure for a given RNA sequence are based on dynamic programming used to compute a conformation of minimum free energy. For structures without pseudoknots, a worst-case runtime proportional to n3, with n being the length of the sequence, results since a table of dimension n2 has to be filled in while a single entry gives rise to a linear computational effort. However, it was recently observed that reformulating the corresponding dynamic programming recursion together with the bookkeeping of potential folding alternatives (a technique called sparsification) may reduce the runtime to n2 on average, assuming that nucleotides of distance d form a hydrogen bond (i..e., are paired) with probability b/d(c) for some constants b > 0, c > 1. The latter is called the polymer-zeta model and plays a crucial role in speeding up the above mentioned algorithm. In this paper we discuss the application of the polymer-zeta property for the analysis of sparsification, showing that it must be applied conditionally on first and last positions to pair. Afterwards, we will investigate the combinatorics of RNA secondary structures assuming that the corresponding conditional probabilities behave according to a polymer-zeta probability model. We show that even if some of the structural parameters exhibit an almost realistic behavior on average, the expected shape of a folding in that model must be assumed to highly differ from those observed in nature. More precisely, we prove our polymer-zeta model to be appropriate for mRNA molecules but to fail in connection with almost every other family of RNA. Those findings explain the huge speedup of the dynamic programming algorithm observed empirically by Wexler et al. when applying sparsification in connection with mRNA data.
A Novel Approach for Star Extraction from Star Image
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENGSheng; LIUJian; TIANJinwen; YANGRuijuan
2005-01-01
Star acquisition is one of the most timeconsuming routines in star tracker operation. One star Point spread function (PSF) forms a near Gaussian distribution in the star image, the star image can be regarded as 2-D intensity surface, and every pixel is the sampled point. The star cluster grouping is to find the highes tintensity pixel among the PSFs and collect the adjacent pixels and group them. The possible highest intensity pixels are the maximum extremum points of the 2-D intensity surface. To efficiently extract star from the star image, a novel star acquisition approach, which uses the simplified least squares support vector machines regression algorithm to find the optimal intensity surface function and predictthe maximum extremum points, is proposed. Comput erexperiments are carried out for the simulated star images.The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has a lot of advantages, including the high efficiency and good robustness over a wide range of sensor noise.
'Syncing' Up with the Quinn-Rand-Strogatz Constant: Hurwitz-ZetaFunctions in Non-Linear physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durgin, Natalie J.; Garcia, Sofia M.; Flournoy, Tamara; Bailey,David H.
2007-12-01
This work extends the analytical and computationalinvestigation of the Quinn-Rand-Strogatz (QRS) constants from non-linearphysics. The QRS constants (c1, c2, ..., cN) are found in a Winfreeoscillator mean-field system used to examine the transition of coupledoscillators as they lose synchronization. The constants are part of anasymptotic expansion of a function related to the oscillatorsynchronization. Previous work used high-precision software packages toevaluate c1 to 42 decimal-digits, which made it possible to recognize andprove that c1 was the root of a certain Hurwitz-zeta function. Thisallowed a value of c2 to beconjectured in terms of c1. Therefore thereis interest in determining the exact values of these constants to highprecision in the hope that general relationships can be establishedbetween the constants and the zeta functions. Here, we compute the valuesof the higher order constants (c3, c4) to more than 42-digit precision byextending an algorithm developed by D.H. Bailey, J.M. Borwein and R.E.Crandall. Several methods for speeding up the computation are exploredand an alternate proof that c1 is the root of a Hurwitz-zeta function isattempted.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahaki, Hanie, E-mail: hanieh.mahaki@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Memarpoor-Yazdi, Mina; Chamani, Jamshidkhan [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza Saberi, Mohammad [Medical Chemistry Department, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-02-15
The aim of the present study was to describe the competition of ropinirole hydrochloride (RP) and aspirin (ASA) in binding to human serum albumin (HSA) in physiological buffer (pH=7.4) using multi-spectroscopic, molecular modeling and zeta-potential measurements. Fluorescence analysis was used to define the binding and quenching properties of drug-HSA complexes in binary and ternary systems. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that in the presence of RP, the binding constant of HSA-ASA was increased. Static quenching was confirmed to result in the fluorescence quenching and FRET. The effect of drugs on the conformation of HSA was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD). The RLS method determined the critical aggregation concentration of drugs on HSA in binary and ternary systems that confirmed the zeta potential results. Structural modeling showed that the affinity of each of the drugs to HSA in binary and ternary systems confirms the spectroscopic results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the interaction of ropinirole hydrochloride and aspirin with HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular modeling and zeta-potential used to describe competitive interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined the critical induced aggregation concentration of both drugs on HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding mechanism of drugs as separate and simultaneous to HSA has been compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding site of both drugs as simultaneous effects on HSA has been determined.
Schuck, W H
1966-04-01
In many applications of star trackers, extremely short acquisition times, as well as accuracy and sensitivity, are required. Tracking systems employing the vidicon as a radiation sensor have been shown to provide the necessary speed of acquisition for such applications. This paper discusses the various theoretical and practical considerations involved in using the vidicon as a sensor in a star tracking system. A typical system configuration including telescope, sensor, and processing electronics is presented. The various optical and sensor parametric relationships required in the design of a vidicon star tracker are fully discussed and analyzed. PMID:20048884
Ehrmann, Ingrid; Fort, Philippe; Elliott, David J
2016-08-15
STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) proteins regulate splicing of target genes that have roles in neural connectivity, survival and myelination in the vertebrate nervous system. These regulated splicing targets include mRNAs such as the Neurexins (Nrxn), SMN2 (survival of motor neuron) and MAG (myelin-associated glycoprotein). Recent work has made it possible to identify and validate STAR protein splicing targets in vivo by using genetically modified mouse models. In this review, we will discuss the importance of STAR protein splicing targets in the CNS (central nervous system). PMID:27528753
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonid M. Martyushev
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.
On the conversion of neutron stars into quark stars
Pagliara, Giuseppe
2013-01-01
The possible existence of two families of compact stars, neutron stars and quark stars, naturally leads to a scenario in which a conversion process between the two stellar objects occurs with a consequent release of energy of the order of $10^{53}$ erg. We discuss recent hydrodynamical simulations of the burning process and neutrino diffusion simulations of cooling of a newly formed strange star. We also briefly discuss this scenario in connection with recent measurements of masses and radii of compact stars.
Blurred Star Image Processing for Star Sensors under Dynamic Conditions
Lei Guo; Weina Zhang; Wei Quan
2012-01-01
The precision of star point location is significant to identify the star map and to acquire the aircraft attitude for star sensors. Under dynamic conditions, star images are not only corrupted by various noises, but also blurred due to the angular rate of the star sensor. According to different angular rates under dynamic conditions, a novel method is proposed in this article, which includes a denoising method based on adaptive wavelet threshold and a restoration method based on the large ang...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Theokas, A.
1985-09-19
The paper concerns pairs of stars orbiting one another. The evolutionary path model for close binary stars, involving a mass transfer of gases between the stars, is described. The life history of a single star; cataclysmic variables; the algol paradox, matter and lagranges' point; x-ray binaries and bursters; and pulsars; are all briefly discussed.
X-ray spectral diagnostics of activity in massive stars
Cohen, David H; Leutenegger, Maurice A
2010-01-01
X-rays give direct evidence of instabilities, time-variable structure, and shock heating in the winds of O stars. The observed broad X-ray emission lines provide information about the kinematics of shock-heated wind plasma, enabling us to test wind-shock models. And their shapes provide information about wind absorption, and thus about the wind mass-loss rates. Mass-loss rates determined from X-ray line profiles are not sensitive to density-squared clumping effects, and indicate mass-loss rate reductions of factors of 3 to 6 over traditional diagnostics that suffer from density-squared effects. Broad-band X-ray spectral energy distributions also provide mass-loss rate information via soft X-ray absorption signatures. In some cases, the degree of wind absorption is so high that the hardening of the X-ray SED can be quite significant. We discuss these results as applied to the early O stars zeta Pup (O4 If), 9 Sgr (O4 V((f))), and HD 93129A (O2 If*).
Superbursts from Strange Stars
Page, D; Page, Dany; Cumming, Andrew
2005-01-01
Recent models of carbon ignition on accreting neutron stars predict superburst ignition depths that are an order of magnitude larger than observed. We explore a possible solution to this problem, that the compact stars in low mass X-ray binaries that have shown superbursts are in fact strange stars with a crust of normal matter. We calculate the properties of superbursts on strange stars, and the resulting constraints on the properties of strange quark matter. We show that the observed ignition conditions exclude fast neutrino emission in the quark core, for example by the direct Urca process, which implies that strange quark matter at stellar densities should be in a color superconducting state. For slow neutrino emission in the quark matter core, we find that reproducing superburst properties requires a definite relation between three poorly constrained properties of strange quark matter: its thermal conductivity, its slow neutrino emissivity and the energy released by converting a nucleon into strange quar...
Shkolnik, Evgenya; Cranmer, Steven; Fares, Rim; Fridlund, Malcolm; Pont, Frederic; Schmitt, Juergen; Smith, Alexis; Suzuki, Takeru
2008-01-01
Much effort has been invested in recent years, both observationally and theoretically, to understand the interacting processes taking place in planetary systems consisting of a hot Jupiter orbiting its star within 10 stellar radii. Several independent studies have converged on the same scenario: that a short-period planet can induce activity on the photosphere and upper atmosphere of its host star. The growing body of evidence for such magnetic star-planet interactions includes a diverse array of photometric, spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric studies. The nature of which is modeled to be strongly affected by both the stellar and planetary magnetic fields, possibly influencing the magnetic activity of both bodies, as well as affecting irradiation and non-thermal and dynamical processes. Tidal interactions are responsible for the circularization of the planet orbit, for the synchronization of the planet rotation with the orbital period, and may also synchronize the outer convective envelope of the star with...
Tsuruta, Sachiko
2016-07-01
We start with a brief introduction to the historical background in the early pioneering days when the first neutron star thermal evolution calculations predicted the presence of neutron stars hot enough to be observable. We then report on the first detection of neutron star temperatures by ROSAT X-ray satellite, which vindicated the earlier prediction of hot neutron stars. We proceed to present subsequent developments, both in theory and observation, up to today. We then discuss the current status and the future prospect, which will offer useful insight to the understanding of basic properties of ultra-high density matter beyond the nuclear density, such as the possible presence of such exotic particles as pion condensates.
Interferometric star tracker Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical Physics Company (OPC) proposes to develop a high accuracy version of its interferometric star tracker capable of meeting the milli-arcsecond-level pointing...
Pickard, Roger; Wilson, Andy; Poyner, Gary
2012-06-01
Roger Pickard, Andy Wilson and Gary Poyner describe the online database of the British Astronomical Association Variable Star Section, a treasure trove of observations stretching back nearly 125 years.
Kawaler, Steven; Dahlstrom, Michael
2000-12-01
A white dwarf is a very dense star: The earth-sized remains of a Sun-like star that has burned all of its nuclear fuel. Although it's unable to carry out the workaday activities of a living star, a white dwarf is still an interesting object to astronomers. For one thing, white dwarfs experience "starquakes"—gentle pulsations that allow astronomers to deduce certain physical qualities of the star, such as its mass, rate of rotation, its structure and the strength of its magnetic field. The authors have been studying the starquakes with a global network of instruments, collectively called the Whole Earth Telescope, which provide around-the-clock observations of a white dwarf's seismic activity. Kawaler and Dahlstrom discuss what we know about white dwarfs and their significance for questions concerning the age of our Galaxy and the composition of dark matter.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Yan
2012-01-01
Alive and exciting award ceremony drew the attention of numerous Chinese households on the night of January 15.The most popular Chinese sports stars attended the 2011 CCTV Sports Personality Award Ceremony at the National Indoor Stadium in Beijing.
Krumholz, Mark R
2015-01-01
This book provides an introduction to the field of star formation at a level suitable for graduate students or advanced undergraduates in astronomy or physics. The structure of the book is as follows. The first two chapters begin with a discussion of observational techniques, and the basic phenomenology they reveal. The goal is to familiarize students with the basic techniques that will be used throughout, and to provide a common vocabulary for the rest of the book. The next five chapters provide a similar review of the basic physical processes that are important for star formation. Again, the goal is to provide a basis for what follows. The remaining chapters discuss star formation over a variety of scales, starting with the galactic scale and working down to the scales of individual stars and their disks. The book concludes with a brief discussion of the clearing of disks and the transition to planet formation. The book includes five problem sets, complete with solutions.
Black, David C.
1991-01-01
The possible, though tentative, detection of planetary companions to other stars which may be capable of supporting life as we know it through the use of a new generation of detectors and telescopes, combined with some innovative detection techniques, is discussed. The current view of the origin of the solar system, based on the nebular hypothesis, is discussed as it pertains to the formation of how and where planets form and, hence, how and where to search for them. Both direct methods of search for other planetary systems, which involve detecting reflected light or infrared radiation form the planets themselves, and indirect methods, which involve the scrutinization of a star for signs that it is responding to the gravitational tug of an orbiting planet, are discussed at length. In particular, various methods for detecting minute velocity perturbations of stars are discussed. It is noted that the study of brown dwarfs may also provide clues on the formation of stars and planets.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Yihu
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment has not only increased survival and cure rates in many non-Hodgkin lymphomas, but also has prompted an explosion in the development of novel antibodies and biologically active substances with specific cellular targets in the field of malignancies treatment. Since the robust immune responses are elicited by the gene-modified T cells, gene based T cell therapy may also provide a powerful tool for cancer immunotherapy. Methods In this study, we developed a vector construction encoding a chimeric T cell receptor that recognizes the CD20 antigen and delivers co-stimulatory signals to achieve T cell activation. One non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell line Raji cells co-cultured with peripheral blood-derived T cells were stably transfected with anti-CD20scFvFc/CD28/CD3zeta gene or anti-CD20scFvFc gene. T cells expressing anti-CD20scFvFc/CD28/CD3zeta or anti-CD20scFvFc gene co-cultured with CD20 positive Raji cells for different times. Cell lysis assay was carried by [3H]TdR release assay. The expressions of Fas, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 of Raji cells were detected by flow cytometric. The secretion of IFN-gamma and IL-2 in co-culture medium was tested by ELISA assay. Activity of AP-1 was analyzed by EMSA. Results Following efficient transduction of peripheral blood-derived T cells with anti-CD20scFvFc/CD28/CD3zeta gene, an obvious cell lysis of Raji cells was observed in co-culture. T cells transduced anti-CD20scFvFc/CD28/CD3zeta gene had superior secretion of IFN-gamma and IL-2 compared to T cells transduced anti-CD20scFvFc gene. Also it led to a much stronger Fas-induced apoptosis signaling transduction in target cancer cells. Conclusion So adoptively T cells transduced anti-CD20scFvFc/CD28/CD3zeta gene mediates enhanced anti-tumor activities against CD20 positive tumor cells, suggesting a potential of gene-based immunotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Poster VersionClick on the image for IRAS 4B Inset Located 1,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Perseus, a reflection nebula called NGC 1333 epitomizes the beautiful chaos of a dense group of stars being born. Most of the visible light from the young stars in this region is obscured by the dense, dusty cloud in which they formed. With NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists can detect the infrared light from these objects. This allows a look through the dust to gain a more detailed understanding of how stars like our sun begin their lives. The young stars in NGC 1333 do not form a single cluster, but are split between two sub-groups. One group is to the north near the nebula shown as red in the image. The other group is south, where the features shown in yellow and green abound in the densest part of the natal gas cloud. With the sharp infrared eyes of Spitzer, scientists can detect and characterize the warm and dusty disks of material that surround forming stars. By looking for differences in the disk properties between the two subgroups, they hope to find hints of the star and planet formation history of this region. The knotty yellow-green features located in the lower portion of the image are glowing shock fronts where jets of material, spewed from extremely young embryonic stars, are plowing into the cold, dense gas nearby. The sheer number of separate jets that appear in this region is unprecedented. This leads scientists to believe that by stirring up the cold gas, the jets may contribute to the eventual dispersal of the gas cloud, preventing more stars from forming in NGC 1333. In contrast, the upper portion of the image is dominated by the infrared light from warm dust, shown as red.
Momeni, D; Gholizade, H; Myrzakulov, R
2015-01-01
Modified gravity models have been constantly proposed with the purpose of evading some standard gravity shortcomings. Recently proposed by A.H. Chamseddine and V. Mukhanov, the Mimetic Gravity arises as an optimistic alternative. Our purpose in this work is to derive Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations and solutions for such a gravity theory. We solve them numerically for quark star and neutron star cases. The results are carefully discussed.
De Kertanguy, A
2015-01-01
Giving new insight for line broadening theory for atoms with more structure than hydrogen in most stars. Using symbolic software to build precise wave functions corrected for ds;dp quantum defects. The profiles obtained with that approach, have peculiar trends, narrower than hydrogen, all quantum defects used are taken from atomic database topbase. Illustration of stronger effects of ions and electrons on the alkaline profiles, than neutral-neutral collision mechanism. Keywords : Stars: fundamental parameters - Atomic processes - Line: profiles.
Star trackers for attitude determination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liebe, Carl Christian
1995-01-01
a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star tracker is explained. The obtainable accuracy is calculated, the numbers of stars to be included...... in the star catalogue are discussed and the acquisition of the initial attitude is explained. Finally the commercial market for star trackers is discussed...
Captured older stars as the reason for apparently prolonged star formation in young star clusters
Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel
2006-01-01
The existence of older stars within a young star cluster can be interpreted to imply that star formation occurs on time scales longer than a free-fall time of a pre-cluster cloud core. Here the idea is explored that these older stars are not related to the star formation process forming the young star cluster but rather that the orbits of older field stars are focused by the collapsing pre-cluster cloud core. Two effects appear: The focussing of stellar orbits leads to an enhancement of the d...
Pre-main sequence stars, emission stars and recent star formation in the Cygnus Region
B, Bhavya; Mathew, Blesson; Subramaniam, Annapurni
2008-01-01
The recent star formation history in the Cygnus region is studied using 5 clusters (IC 4996, NGC 6910, Berkeley 87, Biurakan 2 and Berkeley 86). The optical data from the literature are combined with the 2MASS data to identify the pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars as stars with near IR excess. We identified 93 pre-MS stars and 9 stars with H$_\\alpha$ emission spectra. The identified pre-MS stars are used to estimate the turn-on age of the clusters. The duration of star formation was estimated ...
Rassa, A. C.; McAllister, S. M.; Safran, S. A.; Moyer, C. L.
2007-12-01
Loihi Seamount is Hawaii's youngest volcano and one of the earth's most active. Loihi is located 30 km SE of the big island of Hawaii and rises over 3000m above the sea floor and summits at 1100m below sea level. An eruption in 1996 of Loihi led to the formation of Pele's Pit, a 300 meter deep caldera. The current observations have revealed diffuse hydrothermal venting causing low to intermediate temperatures (10 to 65°C). The elevated temperatures, coupled with high concentrations of Fe(II) (ranging from 50 to 750 μM) support conditions allowing for extensive microbial mat formation. The focus of this study was to identify the colonizing populations of bacteria generated by the microbial mats at Loihi Seamount. Twenty-six microbial growth chambers were deployed and recovered after placement in the flow of hydrothermal vents for 3 to 8 days from within Loihi's caldera. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples and analyzed by Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) using eight restriction enzyme treatments to generate fingerprints from bacterial amplicons of small subunit rRNA genes (SSU rDNAs). Pearson product-moment coupled with UPGMA cluster analysis of these T-RFLP fingerprints showed that these communities bifurcated into two primary clusters. The first (Group 1) had an average vent effluent temperature of 44°C, and the second (Group 2) had an average vent effluent temperature of 64°C. Representative samples from within the two clusters (or groups) were chosen for further clone library and sequencing analysis. These libraries revealing a dominance of the recently discovered zeta- Proteobacteria in the lower temperature group (Group 1) indicating that they were the dominant colonizers of the microbial mats. These microaerophilic, obligately lithotrophic, Fe-oxidizing bacteria are most closely related to Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. The higher temperature group (Group 2) was dominated by epsilon- Proteobacteria primarily of the genus
Heber, U.
2016-08-01
Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW
Heber, U.
2016-08-01
Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW
1999-01-01
In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.
Freese, Katherine; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica
2015-01-01
Dark Stars (DS) are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of ordinary atomic material but powered by the heat from Dark Matter (DM) annihilation (rather than by fusion). Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for DM, can be their own antimatter and can accumulate inside the star, with their annihilation products thermalizing with and heating the DS. The resulting DSs are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium. The first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. Though DM constituted only $10^6 M_\\odot$), very bright ($>10^9 L_\\odot$), and potentially detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Once the DM runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus DSs can provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The curre...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Das Gupta
2009-05-01
Full Text Available This article provides a brief introduction to the basics of stars, galaxies and Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs. In stars, the central pressure and temperature must be high in order to halt the stellar gravitational collapse. High temperature leads to thermonuclear fusion in the stellar core, releasing thereby enormous amount of nuclear energy, making the star shine brilliantly. On the other hand, the QSOs are very bright nuclei lying in the centres of some galaxies. Many of these active galactic nuclei, which appear star-like when observed through a telescope and whose power output are more than 1011 times that of the Sun, exhibit rapid time variability in their X-ray emissions. Rapid variability along with the existence of a maximum speed limit, c, provide a strong argument in favour of a compact central engine model for QSOs in which a thick disc of hot gas going around a supermassive blackhole is what makes a QSO appear like a bright point source. Hence, unlike stars, QSOs are powered by gravitational potential energy.
Heber, Ulrich
2016-01-01
Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich vs. He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC~2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope phase of evolution.They provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet purely understood phase of stellar evolution. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW~Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the pulsator V391 ...
2007-08-01
VLTI Snapshots Dusty Puff Around Variable Star Using ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, astronomers from France and Brazil have detected a huge cloud of dust around a star. This observation is further evidence for the theory that such stellar puffs are the cause of the repeated extreme dimming of the star. ESO PR Photo 34a/07 ESO PR Photo 34a/07 Dust Cloud in a R CrB Star (Artist's Impression) R Coronae Borealis stars are supergiants exhibiting erratic variability. Named after the first star that showed such behaviour [1], they are more than 50 times larger than our Sun. R Coronae Borealis stars can see their apparent brightness unpredictably decline to a thousandth of their nominal value within a few weeks, with the return to normal light levels being much slower. It has been accepted for decades that such fading could be due to obscuration of the stellar surface by newly formed dusty clouds. This 'Dust Puff Theory' suggests that mass is lost from the R Coronae Borealis (or R CrB for short) star and then moves away until the temperature is low enough for carbon dust to form. If the newly formed dust cloud is located along our line-of-sight, it eclipses the star. As the dust is blown away by the star's strong light, the 'curtain' vanishes and the star reappears. RY Sagittarii is the brightest member in the southern hemisphere of this family of weird stars. Located about 6,000 light-years away towards the constellation of Sagittarius (The Archer), its peculiar nature was discovered in 1895 by famous Dutch astronomer Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn. In 2004, near-infrared adaptive optics observations made with NACO on ESO's Very Large Telescope allowed astronomers Patrick de Laverny and Djamel Mékarnia to clearly detect the presence of clouds around RY Sagittarii. This was the first direct confirmation of the standard scenario explaining the light variations of R CrB stars by the presence of heterogeneities in their envelope surrounding the star. ESO PR Photo 32e
Boitani, P.
2016-01-01
Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.
Riedel, Adric R; Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle L; Henry, Todd J
2016-01-01
We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT), we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, Lithium 6708\\AA, and Potassium 7699\\AA~equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 parsecs of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, nine members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find fourteen young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star syst...
On the connection between model stars and real stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of identifying real massive stars with models of the interiors and atmospheres of massive stars is reviewed. The usual way to identify a star with a stellar interior model is through the effective temperature estimated from the integrated flux of the star or from spectrum analysis and any two of the parameters log g, Rsub(*), and Msub(*). It is noted that the discrepancies between the observed absorption-line and emission-line spectra of massive stars and spectra predicted using models which represent the continuum forming parts of the atmospheres give information about the physical state of the line forming regions outside the photosphere of the star. This state may be generated by factors additional to the radiation field which is generated in the interior of the star by nuclear reactions. The foundations of two views of the evolutionary status of Wolf-Rayet stars are compared and evaluated. (author)
Gueranger, Quentin; Stary, Anne; Aoufouchi, Saïd; Faili, Ahmad; Sarasin, Alain; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Weill, Jean-Claude
2008-09-01
Genes coding for DNA polymerases eta, iota and zeta, or for both Pol eta and Pol iota have been inactivated by homologous recombination in the Burkitt's lymphoma BL2 cell line, thus providing for the first time the total suppression of these enzymes in a human context. The UV sensitivities and UV-induced mutagenesis on an irradiated shuttle vector have been analyzed for these deficient cell lines. The double Pol eta/iota deficient cell line was more UV sensitive than the Pol eta-deficient cell line and mutation hotspots specific to the Pol eta-deficient context appeared to require the presence of Pol iota, thus strengthening the view that Pol iota is involved in UV damage translesion synthesis and UV-induced mutagenesis. A role for Pol zeta in a damage repair process at late replicative stages is reported, which may explain the drastic UV-sensitivity phenotype observed when this polymerase is absent. A specific mutation pattern was observed for the UV-irradiated shuttle vector transfected in Pol zeta-deficient cell lines, which, in contrast to mutagenesis at the HPRT locus previously reported, strikingly resembled mutations observed in UV-induced skin cancers in humans. Finally, a Pol eta PIP-box mutant (without its PCNA binding domain) could completely restore the UV resistance in a Pol eta deficient cell line, in the absence of UV-induced foci, suggesting, as observed for Pol iota in a Pol eta-deficient background, that TLS may occur without the accumulation of microscopically visible repair factories.
Setiawan, J; Henning, T; Hatzes, A P; Pasquini, L; da Silva, L; Girardi, L; Von der Lühe, O; Dollinger, M P; Weiss, A; Biazzo, K
2007-01-01
We present the results of radial velocity measurements of two samples of active stars. The first sample contains field G and K giants across the Red Giant Branch, whereas the second sample consists of nearby young stars (d < 150 pc) with ages between 10 - 300 Myrs. The radial velocity monitoring program has been carried out with FEROS at 1.52 m ESO telescope (1999 - 2002) and continued since 2003 at 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope. We observed stellar radial velocity variations which originate either from the stellar activity or the presence of stellar/substellar companions. By means of a bisector technique we are able to distinguish the sources of the radial velocity variation. Among them we found few candidates of planetary companions, both of young stars and G-K giants sample.
Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques
2015-01-01
This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling. In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...
Uniformly rotating neutron stars
Boshkayev, Kuantay
2016-01-01
In this chapter we review the recent results on the equilibrium configurations of static and uniformly rotating neutron stars within the Hartle formalism. We start from the Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations formulated and extended by Belvedere et al. (2012, 2014). We demonstrate how to conduct numerical integration of these equations for different central densities ${\\it \\rho}_c$ and angular velocities $\\Omega$ and compute the static $M^{stat}$ and rotating $M^{rot}$ masses, polar $R_p$ and equatorial $R_{\\rm eq}$ radii, eccentricity $\\epsilon$, moment of inertia $I$, angular momentum $J$, as well as the quadrupole moment $Q$ of the rotating configurations. In order to fulfill the stability criteria of rotating neutron stars we take into considerations the Keplerian mass-shedding limit and the axisymmetric secular instability. Furthermore, we construct the novel mass-radius relations, calculate the maximum mass and minimum rotation periods (maximum frequencies) of neutron stars. Eventually, we compare a...
Liebling, Steven L
2012-01-01
The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called {\\em geons}, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name {\\em boson stars}. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.
Harvey, Nate
2016-08-01
Extending results from previous work by Bandikova et al. (2012) and Inacio et al. (2015), this paper analyzes Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) star camera attitude measurement noise by processing inter-camera quaternions from 2003 to 2015. We describe a correction to star camera data, which will eliminate a several-arcsec twice-per-rev error with daily modulation, currently visible in the auto-covariance function of the inter-camera quaternion, from future GRACE Level-1B product releases. We also present evidence supporting the argument that thermal conditions/settings affect long-term inter-camera attitude biases by at least tens-of-arcsecs, and that several-to-tens-of-arcsecs per-rev star camera errors depend largely on field-of-view.
Hekker, S
2016-01-01
The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-interrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences are confronted with predictions from theoretical models to improve our understanding of stellar structure and evolution. Our knowledge and understanding of red giants have indeed increased tremendously using these seismic inferences, and we anticipate that more information is still hidden in the data. Unraveling this will further improve our understanding of stellar evolution. This will also have significant impact on our knowledge of the Milky Way Galaxy as well as on exo-planet host stars. The latter is important for our understanding of the formation and structure of planetary systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven L. Liebling
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.
Carbon neutron star atmospheres
Suleimanov, V F; Pavlov, G G; Werner, K
2013-01-01
The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, atmospheres of thermally - emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in CasA, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho & Heinke (2009). To test such a composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed such a grid using the standard LTE approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10^8 G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra.
2010-11-01
By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the
Pazmino, John
2003-12-01
Over the last couple of decades New York City implemented, and continues to carry out, several schemes of eradicating luminous graffiti. One result has been the gradual recovery of the natural night sky. By 1994 the normal clear sky transparency over Manhattan deepened to fourth magnitude and has been slowly creeping deeper, until in 2002 it is at magnitude 4 to 4.5. In the spring of 1995, during some lazing on a Manhattan rooftop under a sky full of stars, several New York astronomers hatched the idea of letting the whole people celebrate the renewed starry sky. In due course they, through the Amateur Astronomers Association, engaged the New York City Parks Department and the Urban Park Rangers in an evening of quiet picnicking to enjoy the stars in their natural sky. Thus the Urban Star Fest was born. The event thrilled about 3,000 visitors in Central Park's Sheep Meadow on Saturday 30 September 1995. This year's Fest, the eighth in the series demonstrated the City's upper skyline of stars on Saturday 5 October 2002 to about 2,200 enthused visitors. Although the Fest is always noted as cancelable for inclement weather, so far, it has convened every year, with attendance ranging from 4,000 down to a mere 1,000, this latter being under the smoke plume of the World Trade Center in 2001. Despite this swing in attendance, the American Urban Star Fest is America's largest regularly scheduled public astronomy event. Of course, special occasions, like comets or eclipses, can and do attract far larger interest both in the city and elsewhere. The presentation shows the setup and program of the American Urban Star Fest, to illustrate how the general public can actively become aware of the night sky and see for themselves the result of their very own efforts at removing light pollution--and note where improvement is yet to come.
Atmospheres around Neutron Stars
Fryer, Chris L.; Benz, Willy
1994-12-01
Interest in the behavior of atmospheres around neutron stars has grown astronomically in the past few years. Some of this interest arrived in the wake of the explosion of Supernova 1987A and its elusive remnant; spawning renewed interest in a method to insure material ``fall-back'' onto the adolescent neutron star in an effort to transform it into a silent black hole. However, the bulk of the activity with atmospheres around neutron stars is concentrated in stellar models with neutron star, rather than white dwarf, cores; otherwise known as Thorne-Zytkow objects. First a mere seed in the imagination of theorists, Thorne-Zytkow objects have grown into an observational reality with an ever-increasing list of formation scenarios and observational prospects. Unfortunately, the analytic work of Chevalier on supernova fall-back implies that, except for a few cases, the stellar simulations of Thorne-Zytkow objects are missing an important aspect of physics: neutrinos. Neutrino cooling removes the pressure support of these atmospheres, allowing accretion beyond the canonical Eddington rate for these objects. We present here the results of detailed hydrodynamical simulations in one and two dimensions with the additional physical effects of neutrinos, advanced equations of state, and relativity over a range of parameters for our atmosphere including entropy and chemical composition as well as a range in the neutron star size. In agreement with Chevalier, we find, under the current list of formation scenarios, that the creature envisioned by Thorne and Zytkow will not survive the enormous appetite of a neutron star. However, neutrino heating (a physical effect not considered in Chevalier's analysis) can play an important role in creating instabilities in some formation schemes, leading to an expulsion of matter rather than rapid accretion. By placing scrutiny upon the formation methods, we can determine the observational prospects for each.
BETANCUR CORREDORdor, BIBIANA; JIMÉNEZ GARCIA., DAVID MAURICIO; LINARES, BALMES G. GONZAGA
2012-01-01
La calidad del agua cruda del Río Otún que abastece la planta de tratamiento de agua potable de Aguas y Aguas de Pereira puede presentar fluctuaciones en cortos periodos de tiempo, por tanto se requiere un instrumento que permita tomar decisiones rápidas para modificar la dosis de coagulante a utilizar en el tratamiento. Sharp et al. han demostrado un enlace entre el potencial zeta ( ζ ) y un óptimo desempeño de la coagulación y floculación, alcanzando residuales del coagulante bajos y establ...
Son, K K; Tkach, D; Patel, D H
2000-09-29
We have tested the zeta potential (zeta, the surface charge density) of transfection complexes formed in serum-free medium as a rapid and reliable technique for screening transfection efficiency of a new reagent or formulation. The complexes of CAT plasmid DNA (1 microgram) and DC-chol/DOPE liposomes (3-20 nmol) were largely negatively charged (zeta=-15 to -21 mV), which became neutral or positive as 0.5 microgram or a higher amount of poly-L-lysine (PLL, MW 29300 or MW 204000) was added (-3.16+/-3.47 to +6.04+/-2.23 mV). However, the complexes of CAT plasmid DNA (1 microgram) and PLL MW 29300 (0.5 microgram or higher) were neutral or positively charged (-3.22+/-2.3 to +6.55+/-0.64 mV), which remained the same as 6.6 nmol of the liposomes was added. The complexes formed between two positively charged compounds, PLL MW 29300 (0.5 microgram) and the liposomes (3-20 nmol), were as closely positively charged as DNA/PLL or DNA/liposomes/PLL complexes (+3.31+/-0.41 to 7.16+/-1.0 mV). These results indicate that PLL determined the overall charge of the DNA/liposome/PLL ternary complexes. The complexes formed with histone (0.75 microgram or higher) were also positively charged, whose transfection activity was as high as PLL MW 29300. However, the complexes formed with protamine or PLL MW 2400 remained negatively charged. These observations are in good agreement with the transfection activity of the formulation containing each polycationic polymer. The presence of PLL MW 29300 did not change the hydrodynamic diameter of DNA/liposome/PLL complexes (d(H)=275-312 nm). The complexes made of different sizes of PLL (MW 2400 and 204000) also did not significantly change their size. This suggests that DNA condensation may not be critical. Therefore, zeta of the transfection complex can predict the transfection efficiency of a new formulation or reagent. PMID:11018646
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moisini, Ioana; Nguyen, Phuong; Fugger, Lars;
2008-01-01
to selectively redirect therapeutic T cells against myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T lymphocytes implicated in MS. We generated two heterodimeric receptors that genetically link the human MBP(84-102) epitope to HLA-DR2 and either incorporate or lack a TCRzeta signaling domain. The Ag-MHC domain serves...... as a bait, binding the TCR of MBP-specific target cells. The zeta signaling region stimulates the therapeutic cell after cognate T cell engagement. Both receptors were well expressed on primary T cells or T hybridomas using a tricistronic (alpha, beta, green fluorescent protein) retroviral expression system...
Ould Hamoni, Mohamed Abderrahmane
In Quebec, hydraulic represents an undeniable source for energy production and therefore needed an engine for economic development. Therefore, proper design and ongoing inspections are necessary to ensure the stability and safety of these structures. Thus, abnormalities in embankment dams should be located in the shortest time. The internal erosion is the main cause of the failure of embankment dams. Consequently, the infiltration of water in dams, which generates the internal erosion, should be detected. Several non-destructive methods have been developed to auscultate these structures and determine the groundwater level in the embankment works. In this project, the self-potential (SP) method was adopted. This method consists in measuring a passive electric field at the surface of the sail. The phenomenon is defined by the electrofiltration circulation water into the porous matrix of a material which generates a measurable electric current to the ground surface. Laboratory tests at the Universite de Sherbrooke were performed to determine the effect of water flow on the electrical properties for different materials. Plexiglas pipe was used for testing and the theoretical model is the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski. During the tests, the influence of hydraulic loading and temperature on the electrical properties of the materials has been checked. The experiments aim at determining the primary relationship between the coupling coefficient and zeta potential using the self-potential (SP) method. The experimental results were compared with values from the literature to confirm the model and protocol used. Thus since that the experimental data are consequent with those theoretical, experimental model adopted can be considered as reliable. This project is a prerequisite for future research that will develop an inversion algorithm to identify and locate anomalies in the embankment dams. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the hydraulic load had a significant effect on the
Stahler, Steven W
2008-01-01
This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f
Yuuki, Hayato; Ito, Takeharu; Sugimoto, Tetsuo
1991-12-01
We applied an ultrasonic welding method for the bonding of plastic fibers, and obtained many types of optical star couplers for optical communication systems. It enables the manufacturing of optical components with low loss without damaging the clad layer except for the welding surface. Therefore, they have some merits, such as low loss, small size, light weight, and low cost. The 4-ports (2 X 2) star coupler of 1000 micrometers diam APF has 0.7 dB excess loss at most, and the welding length is 20 mm.
Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher
2015-01-01
The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5 and $5\\,M_\\odot$, taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the exc...
Lambrigtsen, B.; Gaier, T.; Tanner, A.; Kangaslahti, P.; Brown, S.
2006-12-01
The Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer, GeoSTAR, is a new concept for a microwave atmospheric sounder intended for geostationary satellites such as the GOES weather satellites operated by NOAA. A small but fully functional prototype has recently been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility of using aperture synthesis in lieu of the large solid parabolic dish antenna that is required with the conventional approach. Spatial resolution requirements dictate such a large aperture in GEO that the conventional approach has not been feasible, and it is only now with the GeoSTAR approach that a GEO microwave sounder can be contemplated. Others have proposed GEO microwave radiometers that would operate at sub-millimeter wavelengths to circumvent the large-aperture problem, but GeoSTAR is the only viable approach that can provide full sounding capabilities equal to or exceeding those of the AMSU systems now operating on LEO weather satellites and which have had tremendous impact on numerical weather forecasting. GeoSTAR will satisfy a number of important measurement objectives, many of them identified by NOAA as unmet needs in their GOES-R pre-planned product improvements (P3I) lists and others by NASA in their research roadmaps and as discussed in a white paper submitted to the NRC Decadal Survey. The performance of the prototype has been outstanding, and this proof of concept represents a major breakthrough in remote sensing capabilities. The GeoSTAR concept is now at a stage of development where an infusion into space systems can be initiated either on a NASA sponsored research mission or on a NOAA sponsored operational mission. GeoSTAR is an ideal candidate for a joint "research to operations" mission, and that may be the most likely scenario. Additional GeoSTAR related technology development and other risk reduction activities are under way, and a GeoSTAR mission is feasible in the GOES-R/S time frame, 2014-2016. This
Phillips, A C
1999-01-01
The Physics of Stars, Second Edition, is a concise introduction to the properties of stellar interiors and consequently the structure and evolution of stars. Strongly emphasising the basic physics, simple and uncomplicated theoretical models are used to illustrate clearly the connections between fundamental physics and stellar properties. This text does not intend to be encyclopaedic, rather it tends to focus on the most interesting and important aspects of stellar structure, evolution and nucleosynthesis. In the Second Edition, a new chapter on Helioseismology has been added, along with a list
Synthetic guide star generation
Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA
2008-06-10
A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.
Harding, Alice K
2013-01-01
Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission.
2007-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light. The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years. As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake. Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence. Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira and its 'whale of a tail' can be
Scowen, Paul A.; Jansen, Rolf; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah
2009-01-01
The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartmann, Betti [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University, Postfach 750 561, D-28725 Bremen (Germany); Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Schaffer, Isabell, E-mail: i.schaffer@jacobs-university.de [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University, Postfach 750 561, D-28725 Bremen (Germany)
2012-07-24
We consider compact boson stars that arise for a V-shaped scalar field potential. They represent a one parameter family of solutions of the scaled Einstein-Gordon equations. We analyze the physical properties of these solutions and determine their domain of existence. Along their physically relevant branch emerging from the compact Q-ball solution, their mass increases with increasing radius. Employing arguments from catastrophe theory we argue that this branch is stable, until the maximal value of the mass is reached. There the mass and size are on the order of magnitude of the Schwarzschild limit, and thus the spiraling respectively oscillating behaviour, well known for compact stars, sets in.
ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...
Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.
Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney
1985-01-01
Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)
ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...
Stellar populations in star clusters
Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai
2016-01-01
Stellar populations contain the most important information about star clus- ter formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ...
ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as...
ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...
ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...
ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...
ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...
ENERGY STAR Certified Water Coolers
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Coolers that are effective as of February...
ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16,...
ENERGY STAR Certified Roof Products
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.3 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Roof Products that are effective as of July 1,...
ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are...
Hot Stars With Cool Companions
Gullikson, Kevin; Kraus, Adam; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah
2014-01-01
Young intermediate-mass stars have become high-priority targets for direct-imaging planet searches following the recent discoveries of planets orbiting e.g. HR 8799 and Beta Pictoris. Close stellar companions to these stars can affect the formation and orbital evolution of any planets, and so a census of the multiplicity properties of nearby intermediate mass stars is needed. Additionally, the multiplicity can help constrain the important binary star formation physics. We report initial resul...
Neutron stars - cooling and transport
Potekhin, A Y; Page, Dany
2015-01-01
Observations of thermal radiation from neutron stars can potentially provide information about the states of supranuclear matter in the interiors of these stars with the aid of the theory of neutron-star thermal evolution. We review the basics of this theory for isolated neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, including most relevant thermodynamic and kinetic properties in the stellar core, crust, and blanketing envelopes.
Ap stars with variable periods
Mikulášek, Zdeněk; Krtička, Jiří; Janík, Jan; Zejda, Miloslav; Henry, Gegory W.; Paunzen, Ernst; Žižňovský, Jozef; Zverko, Juraj
2013-01-01
The majority of magnetic chemically peculiar (mCP) stars exhibit periodic light, magnetic, radio, and spectroscopic variations that can be adequately modelled as a rigidly-rotating main-sequence star with persistent surface structures. Nevertheless, there is a small sample of diverse mCP stars whose rotation periods vary on timescales of decades while the shapes of their phase curves remain unchanged. Alternating period increases and decreases have been suspected in the hot CP stars CU Vir an...
Dynamic stability of compact stars
Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.
2004-01-01
After some historical remarks we discuss different criteria of dynamical stability of stars, and properties of the critical states where dynamical stability is lost, leading to collapse with formation of the neutron star or a black hole. At the end some observational and theoretical problems related to quark stars are discussed.
Supernovae from massive AGB stars
Poelarends, A.J.T.; Izzard, R.G.; Herwig, F.; Langer, N.; Heger, A.
2006-01-01
We present new computations of the final fate of massive AGB-stars. These stars form ONeMg cores after a phase of carbon burning and are called Super AGB stars (SAGB). Detailed stellar evolutionary models until the thermally pulsing AGB were computed using three di erent stellar evolution codes. The
Rotational Deformation of Neutron Stars
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEN De-Hua; CHEN Wei; LIU Liang-Gang
2005-01-01
@@ The rotational deformations of two kinds of neutron stars are calculated by using Hartle's slow-rotation formulism.The results show that only the faster rotating neutron star gives an obvious deformation. For the slow rotating neutron star with a period larger than hundreds of millisecond, the rotating deformation is very weak.
Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
@@ Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park is a Five-star hotel which has developed multi-functions of restaurant, lodge, bath, landscape seeing, leisure,body exercise, recreation, Ecology agriculture,etc. Occupying an area of 500 mu, the park is an environmental friendly five-star hotel.
Massive Hybrid Stars with Strangeness
Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki; Masuda, Kota
2014-01-01
How massive the hybrid stars could be is discussed by a "3-window model" proposed from a new strategy to construct the equation of state with hadron-quark transition. It is found that hybrid stars have a strong potentiality to generate a large mass compatible with two-solar-mass neutron star observations.
The ISM in O-star spectroscopic surveys: GOSSS, OWN, IACOB, NoMaDS, and CAFÉ-BEANS
Maíz Apellániz, J.
I present results on the interstellar medium towards the O stars observed in five optical spectroscopic surveys: GOSSS, OWN, IACOB, NoMaDS, and CAFÉ-BEANS. I have measured both the amount [E(4405-5495)] and type [R5495] of extinction towards several hundreds of Galactic O stars and verified that the \\citet{Maizetal14a} family of extinction laws provides a significantly better fit to optical+NIR Galactic extinction than either the \\citet{Cardetal89} or the \\citet{Fitz99} families. R5495 values are concentrated between 3.0 and 3.5 but for low values of E(4405-5495) there is a significant population with larger R5495 associated with H II regions. I have also measured different DIBs and I have found that EW{5797}/EW{5780} is anticorrelated with R5495, a sign that extreme zeta clouds are characterized not only by low ionization environments (as opposed to sigma clouds) but also by having a larger fraction of small dust grains. The equivalent width of the ``Gaia DIB'' (8621 Å) is strongly correlated with E(4405-5495), as expected, and its behavior appears to be more sigma -like than zeta -like. We have also started analyzing some individual sightlines in detail.
Scowen, Paul A; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah; Rhoads, James; Roberge, Aki; Siegmund, Oswald; Shaklan, Stuart; Smith, Nathan; Stern, Daniel; Tumlinson, Jason; Windhorst, Rogier; Woodruff, Robert
2009-01-01
The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems, and to investigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star and planet formation process. This program addresses the origins and evolution of stars, galaxies, and cosmic structure and has direct relevance for the formation and survival of planetary systems like our Solar System and planets like Earth. We present the design and performance specifications resulting from the implementation study of the camera, conducted ...
Klopfer, Eric; Scheintaub, Hal; Huang, Wendy; Wendel, Daniel
Computational approaches to science are radically altering the nature of scientific investigatiogn. Yet these computer programs and simulations are sparsely used in science education, and when they are used, they are typically “canned” simulations which are black boxes to students. StarLogo The Next Generation (TNG) was developed to make programming of simulations more accessible for students and teachers. StarLogo TNG builds on the StarLogo tradition of agent-based modeling for students and teachers, with the added features of a graphical programming environment and a three-dimensional (3D) world. The graphical programming environment reduces the learning curve of programming, especially syntax. The 3D graphics make for a more immersive and engaging experience for students, including making it easy to design and program their own video games. Another change to StarLogo TNG is a fundamental restructuring of the virtual machine to make it more transparent. As a result of these changes, classroom use of TNG is expanding to new areas. This chapter is concluded with a description of field tests conducted in middle and high school science classes.
Zirkel, Jack
Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson went on a camping trip. As they lay down for the night, Holmes said, “Watson, look up at the sky and tell me what you see.”Watson:“! see millions and millions of stars.”
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Debades Bandyopadhyay
2006-05-01
We discuss -equilibrated and charge neutral matter involving hyperons and $\\bar{K}$ condensates within relativistic models. It is observed that populations of baryons are strongly affected by the presence of antikaon condensates. Also, the equation of state including $\\bar{K}$ condensates becomes softer resulting in a smaller maximum mass neutron star.
Vasiliev, B. V.
2001-01-01
It is a current opinion that thermonuclear fusion is the main source of the star activity. It is shown below that this source is not unique. There is another electrostatic mechanism of the energy generation which accompanies thermonuclear fusion. Probably, this approach can solve the solar neutrino problem.
A.L. Watts
2012-01-01
Neutron stars enable us to study both the highest densities and the highest magnetic fields in the known Universe. In this article I review what can be learned about such fundamental physics using magnetar bursts. Both the instability mechanisms that trigger the bursts, and the subsequent dynamical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uchida, Y.; Ando, A.; Komatsu, A. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamakawa, K. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering
1998-09-01
Sheet steels plated with molten Zn-5 mass % Al alloy are used widely to improve rust preventing strength. The purpose of adding aluminum into a plating bath is to form a thin Al-Fe intermetallic compound layer preferentially on a sheet steel to suppress growth of Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds. A sheet steel on which {zeta} Fe-Zn has been formed was immersed in a Zn-5 mass % Al alloy bath to discuss fundamentally its changing behavior. A change has occurred into particulate products composed mainly of Al5Fe2 with Zn dissolved solidly and a molten liquid phase (with lower aluminum concentration than in the bath composition) at a noticeable speed at which 25 to 30 {mu} m disappears in an immersion time of one second. The change from the {zeta} phase into Al5Fe2 first produces an amorphous phase of the Al-Fe-Zn ternary system having higher aluminum concentration than in the bath composition along the {zeta} phase grain boundary. The change is followed by production and growth of nucleus of crystalline Al5Fe2 within the amorphous phase. The production of the particulate products is thought as a result of Zn discharged into the surrounding in association with growth of Al5Fe2 having been concentrated, remolten, and dissociated. Aluminum is supplied by diffusion of liquid aluminum. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
van der Mei, H C; Léonard, A J; Weerkamp, A H; Rouxhet, P G; Busscher, H J
1988-01-01
To characterize the functional cell surface, the zeta potentials and elemental surface composition of Streptococcus salivarius HB and a range of mutants with known molecular surface structures were determined. Zeta potentials of fully hydrated cells were measured as a function of pH in dilute potassium phosphate solutions, yielding isoelectric points of the strains. Elemental composition (O, C, N, and P) of the outer 2 to 5 nm of the freeze-dried cell surfaces were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An increasing loss of proteinaceous fibrillar surface antigens of the mutants was found to be accompanied by a progressive decrease in the N/C ratio from 0.104 in the parent strain HB to 0.053 in mutant HBC12. Simultaneously, the value of the isoelectric point shifted from 3.0 to 1.3. In a previous study (A.H. Weerkamp, H.C. van der Mei, and J. W. Slot, Infect. Immun. 55:438-455, 1987) on the cell surfaces of the same strains, it was shown that removal of fibrils led to increased exposure of (lipo)teichoic acid at the surface, which explains the low isoelectric point caused by the low pKa of the phosphate groups. PMID:3372474
Ciani, Laura; Ristori, Sandra; Bonechi, Claudia; Rossi, Claudio; Martini, Giacomo
2007-12-01
Lipoplexes with different surface charge were prepared from a short oligonucleotide (20 mer, dsAT) inserted into liposomes of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine (DOPE). The starting liposomes were prepared by two different procedures, i.e. progressive dsAT addition starting from plain liposomes (titration) and direct mixing of dsAT with pure liposomes (point to point preparation). Lipoplexes were characterized from a molecular point of view by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) of a cationic spin probe and by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Structural and surface features were analysed by Zeta potential (zeta) measurements and Cryo-TEM micrographs. The complete set of results allowed to demonstrate that: i) the interactions between dsAT and cationic lipids were strong and occurred at the liposome surface; ii) the overall shape and physicochemical properties of liposomes did not change when short nucleic acid fragments were added before surface charge neutralization; iii) the bilayer structure of the lipids in lipoplexes was substantially preserved at all charge ratios; iv) the physical status of lipoplexes with electrical charge far from neutrality did not depend on the preparation method. PMID:17950520
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mosusova Nadežda
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Petar Konjović (Čurug, May 5, 1883 - Belgrade, October 1, 1970 stands out among Serbian composers as an author of instrumental and vocal compositions. Studies at the Prague Conservatory (1904-1906 acquainted Konjović with Czech music, Wagner's opus, and the Russian national-romantic school, which contributed to the evolution of his talent for both music and stage, enabling him to express his ideas more explicitly in operatic works. It was in the Prague that the second opera - Prince of Zeta - was conceived, with new musical vividness and dramatic appeal (first version composed 1906-1926, the second and final 1929-1939, followed by Koštana (1928, Peasants (1951 and Fatherland (1960. Konjović's mature operas are characterized by his masterful handling of form, both in close-ups and in detail, as well as his deeply individual assimilation of musical folklore into his work. The Prince of Zeta is not to be understood as a folk opera, but some main themes are directly derived from folk music, precisely from the Montenegrin folk songs quoted in the Mokranjac's Ninth Garland and treated in Konjović's post-romantic, almost expressionistic way, interwoven with some Italianate leitmotifs, so as to present the opera's two worlds, Montenegrin and Venetian. In the process of forming Konjović's operatic style, with vocal parts based mainly on the principle of declamation, the opera Prince of Zeta (first performed in Belgrade, 1929, conducted by Lovro von Matačić proved to be a work of great impact. Hardly anyone grasped then the wide sweep of inspiration which allowed the composer to set and to solve several important problems connected with music drama, essential also in his subsequent stage works. First of all, Konjović had to handle in his own way the verbal drama the prototype of his opera, Maxim Crnojević by the Serbian poet Laza Kostić (1841-1910. Permission came from the playwright in the first decade of the 1900, Prince of Zeta being partly
Siegel, Michael H; Hagen, Lea M Z; Hoversten, Erik A
2015-01-01
We present the results of our ongoing investigation into the properties of hot stars and young stellar populations using the Swift/UVOT telescope. We present UVOT photometry of open and globular clusters and show that UVOT is capable of characterizing a variety of rare hot stars, including Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch and Extreme Horizontal Branch Stars. We also present very early reults of our survey of stellar populations in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We find that the SMC has experienced recent bouts of star formation but constraining the exact star formation history will depend on finding an effective model of the reddening within the SMC.
Spectral Diagnostics for Early-Type Stars in Support of High-Resolution Satellite Observation
MacFarlane, Joseph J.
2001-01-01
High-resolution X-ray spectra have recently been obtained using the Chandra X-ray Satellite Observatory for the two hot supergiant stars zeta Pup and delta Ori. The spectra show the presence of strong K-shell line emission from O, Ne, Mg, Si, and S, as well as strong L-shell line emission from Fe. Initial examination of the spectra indicates that the lines are significantly broader than what would be expected for a stationary plasma, and appear to be consistent with Doppler-broadened emission from hot plasma forming in shock-heated regions embedded in the wind (see Figure 1). Chandra has sufficient spectral resolution to study the velocity structure of isolated X-ray line profiles. Our analysis for zeta Pup has shown blue-shifted and skewed line profiles, providing the most direct evidence that the X-ray source is embedded in the stellar wind. The sensitivity of the He-like fir (forbidden-intercombination-resonance) lines to a strong UV radiation field is used to estimate the radial distances at which lines of O VII, Ne IX, Mg XI, Si XIII, and S XV originate.
Ecology of blue straggler stars
Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo
2015-01-01
The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.
Star Cluster Formation and Feedback
Krumholz, Mark R; Arce, Hector G; Dale, James E; Gutermuth, Robert; Klein, Richard I; Li, Zhi-Yun; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Zhang, Qizhou
2014-01-01
Stars do not generally form in isolation. Instead, they form in clusters, and in these clustered environments newborn stars can have profound effects on one another and on their parent gas clouds. Feedback from clustered stars is almost certainly responsible for a number of otherwise puzzling facts about star formation: that it is an inefficient process that proceeds slowly when averaged over galactic scales; that most stars disperse from their birth sites and dissolve into the galactic field over timescales $\\ll 1$ Gyr; and that newborn stars follow an initial mass function (IMF) with a distinct peak in the range $0.1 - 1$ $M_\\odot$, rather than an IMF dominated by brown dwarfs. In this review we summarize current observational constraints and theoretical models for the complex interplay between clustered star formation and feedback.
Neutron Star Science with the NuSTAR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-10-16
The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), launched in June 2012, helped scientists obtain for the first time a sensitive high-energy X-ray map of the sky with extraordinary resolution. This pioneering telescope has aided in the understanding of how stars explode and neutron stars are born. LLNL is a founding member of the NuSTAR project, with key personnel on its optics and science team. We used NuSTAR to observe and analyze the observations of different neutron star classes identified in the last decade that are still poorly understood. These studies not only help to comprehend newly discovered astrophysical phenomena and emission processes for members of the neutron star family, but also expand the utility of such observations for addressing broader questions in astrophysics and other physics disciplines. For example, neutron stars provide an excellent laboratory to study exotic and extreme phenomena, such as the equation of state of the densest matter known, the behavior of matter in extreme magnetic fields, and the effects of general relativity. At the same time, knowing their accurate populations has profound implications for understanding the life cycle of massive stars, star collapse, and overall galactic evolution.
On the Carbon-Star Status of Five Stars in a New Carbon Star Catalog
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
We find that five sources listed in the new carbon star catalog are not really carbon-rich objects but oxygen-rich stars, because they all have the prominent 10μm silicate features in absorption and the 1612 MHz OH maser emission or/and the SiO molecular features. These objects were considered as carbon stars in the catalog based only on their locations in the infrared two-color diagram. Therefore to use the infrared two-color diagram to distinguish carbon-rich stars from oxygenrich stars must be done with caution, because, in general, it has only a statistical meaning.
Simon, Frank
2007-01-01
The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC studies the new state of matter produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions and the spin structure of the nucleon in collisions of polarized protons. In order to improve the capabilities for heavy flavor measurements and the reconstruction of charged vector bosons an upgrade of the tracking system both in the central and the forward region is pursued. The challenging environments of high track multiplicity in heavy ion collisions and of high luminosity in polarized proton collisions require the use of new technologies. The proposed inner tracking system, optimized for heavy flavor identification, is using active pixel sensors close to the collision point and silicon strip technology further outward. Charge sign determination for electrons and positrons from the decay of W bosons will be provide by 6 large-area triple GEM disks currently under development. A prototype of the active pixel detectors has been tested in the STAR experiment, and an e...
Rose, A
2003-01-01
We present the design and performance analysis of a new integrated track reconstruction code developed for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The code is meant to replace multiple previous tracking codes written in FORTRAN many years ago, and to readily enable the integration of new and varied detector components. The new tracker is written from the ground up in C++ using a strong object-oriented model. Key features include an abstract geometry model for representation of detector components, a flexible track representation model, a built-in KALMAN filter for track parameter determination, and a powerful object factory model for fast handling of numerous small objects, such as hits and tracks. The new tracker will be deployed and used for analysis of data aquired during the RHIC year 3 run of the STAR experiment.
Pulsating stars harbouring planets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moya A.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Why bother with asteroseismology while studying exoplanets? There are several answers to this question. Asteroseismology and exoplanetary sciences have much in common and the synergy between the two opens up new aspects in both fields. These fields and stellar activity, when taken together, allow maximum extraction of information from exoplanet space missions. Asteroseismology of the host star has already proved its value in a number of exoplanet systems by its unprecedented precision in determining stellar parameters. In addition, asteroseismology allows the possibility of discovering new exoplanets through time delay studies. The study of the interaction between exoplanets and their host stars opens new windows on various physical processes. In this review I will summarize past and current research in exoplanet asteroseismology and explore some guidelines for the future.
Maselli, Andrea; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele
2016-01-01
Horndeski's theory of gravity is the most general scalar-tensor theory with a single scalar whose equations of motion contain at most second-order derivatives. A subsector of Horndeski's theory known as "Fab Four" gravity allows for dynamical self-tuning of the quantum vacuum energy, and therefore it has received particular attention in cosmology as a possible alternative to the $\\Lambda$CDM model. Here we study compact stars in Fab Four gravity, which includes as special cases general relativity ("George"), Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity ("Ringo"), theories with a nonminimal coupling with the Einstein tensor ("John") and theories involving the double-dual of the Riemann tensor ("Paul"). We generalize and extend previous results in theories of the John class and we show that there are no viable compact star solutions in theories of the Paul class.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Developments in studies on stellar evolution during this century are reviewed. Recent considerations indicate that almost all elements between helium and zinc (a range which comprises more than 99 percent by mass of elements heavier than helium) can be synthesised in nuclear processes occurring during the late violent stages of an exploding star or supernova and a vigorous study in the new field of explosive nucleosynthesis is in progress. The process of nucleosynthesis has been classified into 8 sets of nuclear reactions, namely, (1) hydrogen burning, (2) helium burning, (3) α-process, (4) e-process, (5) s-process, (6) r-process, (7) p-process and (8) x-process. The abundance of helium and heavier elements are explained and the formation of various elements during supernova explosions is discussed. The questions regarding the appropriate astrophysical conditions for the formation of massive stars (3 to 8 times solar mass) is still unanswered. (A.K.)
Eby, Joshua; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L C R
2016-01-01
Axion stars, gravitationally bound states of low-energy axion particles, have a maximum mass allowed by gravitational stability. Weakly bound states obtaining this maximum mass have sufficiently large radii such that they are dilute, and as a result, they are well described by a leading-order expansion of the axion potential. Heavier states are susceptible to gravitational collapse. Inclusion of higher-order interactions, present in the full potential, can give qualitatively different results in the analysis of collapsing heavy states, as compared to the leading-order expansion. In this work, we find that collapsing axion stars are stabilized by repulsive interactions present in the full potential, providing evidence that such objects do not form black holes. These dense configurations, which are the endpoints of collapse, have extremely high binding energy, and as a result, decay through number changing $3\\,a\\rightarrow a$ interactions with an extremely short lifetime.
Rose, A.
2003-01-01
We present the design and performance analysis of a new integrated track reconstruction code developed for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The code is meant to replace multiple previous tracking codes written in FORTRAN many years ago, and to readily enable the integration of new and varied detector components. The new tracker is written from the ground up in C++ using a strong object-oriented model. Key features include an abstract geometry model for representation of detector components, a fle...
Gravitoastronomy with neutron stars
Woan, G.
2005-01-01
Recent advances in gravitational wave detectors mean that we can start to make astrophysically important statements about the physics of neutron stars based on observed upper limits to their gravitational luminosity. Here we consider statements we can already make about a selection of known radio pulsars, based on data from the LIGO and GEO600 detectors, and look forward to what could be learned from the first detections.
Keane, E. F.
2010-01-01
Here I will review the high time resolution radio sky, focusing on millisecond scales. This is primarily occupied by neutron stars, the well-known radio pulsars and the recently identified group of transient sources known as Rotating RAdio Transients (RRATs). The RRATs appear to be abundant in the Galaxy, which at first glance may be difficult to reconcile with the observed supernova rate. However, as I will discuss, it seems that the RRATs can be explained as pulsars which are either extreme...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine
1999-07-01
We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l → 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines IIl+1 from IIl and IIl-1 to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density nc, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)
Parametrising Star Formation Histories
Simha, Vimal; Conroy, Charlie; Dave, Romeel; Fardal, Mark; Katz, Neal; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D
2014-01-01
We examine the star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, compare them to parametric models that are commonly used in fitting observed galaxy spectral energy distributions, and examine the efficacy of these parametric models as practical tools for recovering the physical parameters of galaxies. The commonly used tau-model, with SFR ~ exp(-t/tau), provides a poor match to the SFH of our SPH galaxies, with a mismatch between early and late star formation that leads to systematic errors in predicting colours and stellar mass-to-light ratios. A one-parameter lin-exp model, with SFR ~ t*exp(-t/tau), is much more successful on average, but it fails to match the late-time behavior of the bluest, most actively star-forming galaxies and the passive, "red and dead" galaxies. We introduce a 4-parameter model, which transitions from lin-exp to a linear ramp after a transition time, which describes our simulated galaxies very well. We test the ability of these paramet...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gravastar picture is an alternative model to the concept of a black hole, where there is an effective phase transition at or near where the event horizon is expected to form, and the interior is replaced by a de Sitter condensate. In this work a generalization of the gravastar picture is explored by considering matching of an interior solution governed by the dark energy equation of state, ω ≡ p/ρ < -1/3, to an exterior Schwarzschild vacuum solution at a junction interface. The motivation for implementing this generalization arises from the fact that recent observations have confirmed an accelerated cosmic expansion, for which dark energy is a possible candidate. Several relativistic dark energy stellar configurations are analysed by imposing specific choices for the mass function. The first case considered is that of a constant energy density, and the second choice that of a monotonic decreasing energy density in the star's interior. The dynamical stability of the transition layer of these dark energy stars to linearized spherically symmetric radial perturbations about static equilibrium solutions is also explored. It is found that large stability regions exist that are sufficiently close to where the event horizon is expected to form, so that it would be difficult to distinguish the exterior geometry of the dark energy stars, analysed in this work, from an astrophysical black hole
Arnett, W. David
2009-05-01
John von Neumann speculated that computers might become sufficiently powerful that they could be used to solve analytically intractable problems numerically (he gave turbulence as an example), and that those ``numerical experiments'' could be used to provide the insight necessary to develop analytic solutions. A case study will be presented in which we attempt in this way to use computer simulations of 3D turbulent flow in presupernova stars. We find that we can reproduce the simulations surprisingly well---on average---if we replace the viscous term with an effective damping which turns out to be similar to that inferred by Kolmogorov for a turbulent cascade. Stars are gravitationally-controlled thermonuclear reactors. Abundance change (and hence evolution) occurs because of nuclear burning, and mixing. It is now possible to treat this coupled problem in a self-consistent way, free of astronomically calibrated parameters. Implications for stellar evolution, nucleosynthesis yields, core collapse, supernova explosions, helio-seismology, and solar neutrinos will be discussed. It is argued that advances in the treatment of stellar fluid dynamics, along with new developments in laboratory astrophysics, now allow far more reliable predictions of how stars behave.
Srinivasan, Ganesan
2014-01-01
The outstanding question in astronomy at the turn of the twentieth century was: What are the stars and why are they as they are? In this volume, the story of how the answer to this fundamental question was unravelled is narrated in an informal style, with emphasis on the underlying physics. Although the foundations of astrophysics were laid down by 1870, and the edifice was sufficiently built up by 1920, the definitive proof of many of the prescient conjectures made in the 1920s and 1930s came to be established less than ten years ago. This book discusses these recent developments in the context of discussing the nature of the stars, their stability and the source of the energy they radiate. Reading this book will get young students excited about the presently unfolding revolution in astronomy and the challenges that await them in the world of physics, engineering and technology. General readers will also find the book appealing for its highly accessible narrative of the physics of stars. “... The reade...
Asteroseismology of Pulsating Stars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Santosh Joshi; Yogesh C. Joshi
2015-03-01
The success of helioseismology is due to its capability of measuring -mode oscillations in the Sun. This allows us to extract information on the internal structure and rotation of the Sun from the surface to the core. Similarly, asteroseismology is the study of the internal structure of the stars as derived from stellar oscillations. In this review we highlight the progress in the observational asteroseismology, including some basic theoretical aspects. In particular, we discuss our contributions to asteroseismology through the study of chemically peculiar stars under the 'Nainital-Cape Survey' project being conducted at ARIES, Nainital, since 1999. This survey aims to detect new rapidly-pulsating Ap (roAp) stars in the northern hemisphere. We also discuss the contribution of ARIES towards the asteroseismic study of the compact pulsating variables. We comment on the future prospects of our project in the light of the new optical 3.6-m telescope to be installed at Devasthal (ARIES). Finally, we present a preliminary optical design of the high-speed imaging photometers for this telescope.
Star Formation in Extreme Starburst Environments - "Super" Star Clusters
De Grijs, R
2003-01-01
The currently available empirical evidence on the star formation processes in the extreme, high-pressure environments induced by galaxy encounters, mostly based on high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations, strongly suggests that star CLUSTER formation is an important and perhaps even the dominant mode of star formation in the starburst events associated with galaxy interactions. The production of "super star clusters" (SSCs; luminous, compact star clusters) seems to be a hallmark of intense star formation, particularly in interacting and starburst galaxies. Their sizes, luminosities, and mass estimates are entirely consistent with what is expected for young Milky Way-type globular clusters (GCs). SSCs are important because of what they can tell us about GC formation and evolution (e.g., initial characteristics and early survival rates). They are also of prime importance as probes of the formation and (chemical) evolution of their host galaxies, and of the initial mass function in the extrem...
Approximate Universal Relations for Neutron Stars and Quark Stars
Yagi, Kent
2016-01-01
Neutron stars and quark stars are ideal laboratories to study fundamental physics at supra nuclear densities and strong gravitational fields. Astrophysical observables, however, depend strongly on the star's internal structure, which is currently unknown due to uncertainties in the equation of state. Universal relations, however, exist among certain stellar observables that do not depend sensitively on the star's internal structure. One such set of relations is between the star's moment of inertia ($I$), its tidal Love number (Love) and its quadrupole moment ($Q$), the so-called I-Love-Q relations. Similar relations hold among the star's multipole moments, which resemble the well-known black hole no-hair theorems. Universal relations break degeneracies among astrophysical observables, leading to a variety of applications: (i) X-ray measurements of the nuclear matter equation of state, (ii) gravitational wave measurements of the intrinsic spin of inspiraling compact objects, and (iii) gravitational and astroph...
Runaway Stars in Supernova Remnants
Pannicke, Anna; Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Dinçel, Baha
2016-07-01
Half of all stars and in particular 70 % of the massive stars are a part of a multiple system. A possible development for the system after the core collapse supernova (SN) of the more massive component is as follows: The binary is disrupted by the SN. The formed neutron star is ejected by the SN kick whereas the companion star either remains within the system and is gravitationally bounded to the neutron star, or is ejected with a spatial velocity comparable to its former orbital velocity (up to 500 km/s). Such stars with a large peculiar space velocity are called runaway stars. We present our observational results of the supernova remnants (SNRs) G184.6-5.8, G74.0-8.5 and G119.5+10.2. The focus of this project lies on the detection of low mass runaway stars. We analyze the spectra of a number of candidates and discuss their possibility of being the former companions of the SN progenitor stars. The spectra were obtained with INT in Tenerife, Calar Alto Astronomical Observatory and the University Observatory Jena. Also we investigate the field stars in the neighborhood of the SNRs G74.0-8.5 and G119.5+10.2 and calculate more precise distances for these SNRs.
First stars X. The nature of three unevolved carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sivarani, T.; Beers, T.C.; Bonifacio, P.;
2006-01-01
Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov.......Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov....
Sulphur abundances in halo stars from Multiplet 3 at 1045 nm
Caffau, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Spite, Monique
2010-01-01
Sulphur is a volatile alpha-element which is not locked into dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Hence, its abundance does not need to be corrected for dust depletion when comparing the ISM to the stellar atmospheres. The abundance of sulphur in the photosphere of metal-poor stars is a matter of debate: according to some authors, [S/Fe] versus [Fe/H] forms a plateau at low metallicity, while, according to other studies, there is a large scatter or perhaps a bimodal distribution. In metal-poor stars sulphur is detectable by its lines of Mult.1 at 920 nm, but this range is heavily contaminated by telluric absorptions, and one line of the multiplet is blended by the hydrogen Paschen zeta line. We study the possibility of using Mult. 3 (at 1045 nm) for deriving the sulphur abundance because this range, now observable at the VLT with the infra-red spectrograph CRIRES, is little contaminated by telluric absorption and not affected by blends at least in metal-poor stars. We compare the abundances derived f...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geisler, C; Rubin, B; Caspar-Bauguil, S;
1992-01-01
not fully understood. We locate critical amino acid residues for TCR assembly in the Ti-alpha and -beta extracellular C-domains. A point mutation (phenylalanine195----valine) in a highly conserved residue in the Ti-alpha chain of the Jurkat variant J79 was identified by DNA sequencing. This mutation did......-alpha-deficient Jurkat variant. Computer model analysis showed that the Ti-alpha phenylalanine195 directly contributed to the beta-sheet facing away from the Ti-beta chain, indicating that it could be directly involved in the interactions between one or more of the CD3 chains or the zeta 2 dimer. Site......-directed mutagenesis of the corresponding residue in the Ti-beta chain demonstrated that a phenylalanine216----valine substitution had similar effects on TCR assembly as the Ti-alpha mutation, whereas a phenylalanine216----histidine substitution allowed TCR assembly and expression. Whether the consequences for TCR...
Nuclear Star Clusters and Bulges
Cole, David R
2015-01-01
Nuclear star clusters are among the densest stellar systems known and are common in both early- and late-type galaxies. They exhibit scaling relations with their host galaxy which may be related to those of supermassive black holes. These may therefore help us to unravel the complex physical processes occurring at the centres of galaxies. The properties of nuclear stellar systems suggest that their formation requires both dissipational and dissipationless processes. They have stellar populations of different ages, from stars as old as their host galaxy to young stars formed in the last 100 Myr. Therefore star formation must be happening either directly in the nuclear star cluster or in its vicinity. The secular processes that fuel the formation of pseudobulges very likely also contributes to nuclear star cluster growth.
Braren, Stephen H; Drapala, Damian; Tulloch, Ingrid K; Serrano, Peter A
2014-01-01
Methamphetamine (MA) is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg) on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1), dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ). Within the hippocampus, PKMζ and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKMζ and PKCζ within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKMζ/PKCζ in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA. PMID:25566006
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen H Braren
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1, dopamine transporter (DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ. Within the hippocampus, PKMζ and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKMζ and PKCζ within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKMζ/PKCζ in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA.
Abundances in stars with exoplanets
Israelian, Garik
2003-01-01
Extensive spectroscopic studies of stars with and without planets have concluded that stars hosting planets are significantly more metal-rich than those without planets. More subtle trends of different chemical elements begin to appear as the number of detected extrasolar planetary systems continues to grow. I review our current knowledge concerning the observed abundance trends of various chemical elements in stars with exoplanets and their possible implications.
Helium in Chemically Peculiar Stars
Leone, F.
1998-01-01
For the purpose of deriving the helium abundances in chemically peculiar stars, the importance of assuming a correct helium abundance has been investigated for determining the effective temperature and gravity of main sequence B-type stars, making full use of the present capability of reproducing their helium lines. Even if the flux distribution of main sequence B-type stars appears to depend only on the effective temperature for any helium abundance, the effective temperature, gravity and he...
Massive star clusters in galaxies
Harris, William E
2009-01-01
The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCSs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GCS research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.
2003-06-01
VLT Interferometer Measurements of Achernar Challenge Stellar Theory Summary To a first approximation, planets and stars are round. Think of the Earth we live on. Think of the Sun, the nearest star, and how it looks in the sky. But if you think more about it, you realize that this is not completely true. Due to its daily rotation, the solid Earth is slightly flattened ("oblate") - its equatorial radius is some 21 km (0.3%) larger than the polar one. Stars are enormous gaseous spheres and some of them are known to rotate quite fast, much faster than the Earth. This would obviously cause such stars to become flattened. But how flat? Recent observations with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at the ESO Paranal Observatory have allowed a group of astronomers [1] to obtain by far the most detailed view of the general shape of a fast-spinning hot star, Achernar (Alpha Eridani) , the brightest in the southern constellation Eridanus (The River). They find that Achernar is much flatter than expected - its equatorial radius is more than 50% larger than the polar one! In other words, this star is shaped very much like the well-known spinning-top toy, so popular among young children. The high degree of flattening measured for Achernar - a first in observational astrophysics - now poses an unprecedented challenge for theoretical astrophysics . The effect cannot be reproduced by common models of stellar interiors unless certain phenomena are incorporated, e.g. meridional circulation on the surface ("north-south streams") and non-uniform rotation at different depths inside the star. As this example shows, interferometric techniques will ultimately provide very detailed information about the shapes, surface conditions and interior structure of stars . PR Photo 15a/03 : The VLT Interferometer configuration for the Achernar measurements PR Photo 15b/03 : Achernar's "profile" , as measured by the VLTI. PR Photo 15c/03 : Models of Achernar's spatial shape. VLTI observations of Achernar
The Star Formation History of RCW 36
L. Ellerbroek; L. Kaper; A. Bik; K.M. Maaskant; L. Podio
2014-01-01
Recent studies of massive-star forming regions indicate that they can contain multiple generations of young stars. These observations suggest that star formation in these regions is sequential and/or triggered by a previous generation of (massive) stars. Here we present new observations of the star
Optical filtering for star trackers
Wilson, R. E.
1973-01-01
The optimization of optical filtering was investigated for tracking faint stars, down to the fifth magnitude. The effective wavelength and bandwidth for tracking pre-selected guide stars are discussed along with the results of an all-electronic tracker with a star tracking photomultiplier, which was tested with a simulated second magnitude star. Tables which give the sum of zodiacal light and galactic background light over the entire sky for intervals of five degrees in declination, and twenty minutes in right ascension are included.
Surface abundances of ON stars
Martins, F; Palacios, A; Howarth, I; Georgy, C; Walborn, N R; Bouret, J -C; Barba, R
2015-01-01
Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient, or when mass transfer in binary systems happens, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle or not is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. We perform a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determine the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measure the projected rotational velocities. We compare the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. We show that ON stars are usually helium-rich. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cann...
Apple Valley Double Star Workshop
Brewer, Mark
2015-05-01
The High Desert Astronomical Society hosts an annual double star workshop, where participants measure the position angles and separations of double stars. Following the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS), adopted by the California State Board of Education, participants are assigned to teams where they learn the process of telescope set-up and operation, the gathering of data, and the reduction of the data. Team results are compared to the latest epoch listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) and papers are written for publication in the Journal of Double Star Observations (JDSO). Each team presents a PowerPoint presentation to their peers about actual hands-on astronomical research.
The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator
Wessling, Francis C., III
1993-01-01
The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 degrees each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is 2 to 8 visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arc seconds. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arc seconds and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arc seconds. The purpose of this paper is to describe the LPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.
Stars with Extended Atmospheres
Sterken, C.
2002-12-01
This Workshop consisted of a full-day meeting of the Working Group "Sterren met Uitgebreide Atmosferen" (SUA, Working Group Stars with Extended Atmospheres), a discussion group founded in 1979 by Kees de Jager, Karel van der Hucht and Pik Sin The. This loose association of astronomers and astronomy students working in the Dutch-speaking part of the Low Countries (The Netherlands and Flanders) organised at regular intervals one-day meetings at the Universities of Utrecht, Leiden, Amsterdam and Brussels. These meetings consisted of the presentation of scientific results by junior as well as senior members of the group, and by discussions between the participants. As such, the SUA meetings became a forum for the exchange of ideas, and for asking questions and advice in an informal atmosphere. Kees de Jager has been chairman of the WG SUA from the beginning in 1979 till today, as the leading source of inspiration. At the occasion of Prof. Kees de Jager's 80th birthday, we decided to collect the presented talks in written form as a Festschrift in honour of this well-respected and much beloved scientist, teacher and friend. The first three papers deal with the personality of Kees de Jager, more specifically with his role as a supervisor and mentor of young researchers and as a catalyst in the research work of his colleagues. And also about his remarkable role in the establishment of astronomy education and research at the University of Brussels. The next presentation is a very detailed review of solar research, a field in which Cees was prominently active for many years. Then follow several papers dealing with stars about which Kees is a true expert: massive stars and extended atmospheres.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu
2005-11-01
Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The role of supernovae and their continuing influence on the destiny of the Universe are examined. The detection of supernovae - giant stellar explosions - throughout the ages is discussed. By observing thousands of galaxies and infering from statistical analysis the characteristic intervals and spatial distributions for supernovae in different galaxy types, astronomers now believe that there are two types of supernovae occurring in spiral galaxies in about equal numbers. The mechanisms whereby supernovae create and distribute the elements, contribute to star formation, provide energy input to the galaxies and may influence the climate and life-forms of planetary systems, are discussed. (UK)
Lopes, Luiz L
2014-01-01
In this work we review the formalism normally used in the literature about the effects of density-dependent magnetic fields on the properties of neutron stars, expose some ambiguities that arise and propose a way to solve the related problem. Our approach uses a different prescription for the calculation of the pressure based on the chaotic field formalism for the stress tensor and also a different way of introducing a variable magnetic field, which depends on the energy density rather than on the baryonic density.
Pickover, Clifford A
2004-01-01
Do a little armchair space travel, rub elbows with alien life forms, and stretch your mind to the furthest corners of our uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, you don't have to be an astronomer to explore the mysteries of stars and their profound meaning for human existence. Clifford A. Pickover tackles a range of topics from stellar evolution to the fundamental reasons why the universe permits life to flourish. He alternates sections that explain the mysteries of the cosmos with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialog between futuristic human
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wada Masayuki
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The results of resonance particle productions (ρ0, ω, K*, ϕ, Σ*, and Λ* measured by the STAR collaboration at RHIC from various colliding systems and energies are presented. Measured mass, width, 〈pT〉, and yield of those resonances are reviewed. No significant mass shifts or width broadening beyond the experiment uncertainties are observed. New measurements of ϕ and ω from leptonic decay channels are presented. The yields from leptonic decay channels are compared with the measurements from hadronic decay channels and the two results are consistent with each other.
Dielectron Measurements in STAR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geurts Frank
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions provide a unique environment to study the properties of strongly interacting matter. Dileptons, which are not affected by the strong interactions, are an ideal penetrating probe. We present the dielectron results for p+p and Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV, as measured by the STAR experiment. We discuss the prospects of dilepton measurements with the near-future detector upgrades, and the recent lower beam energy Au+Au measurements.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
去年有一款游戏以惊人的销量。让人们印象深刻，它就是《乐高星球大战》，经过一番传言过后，LucasArts终于发表了《乐高星球大战》的续作《乐高星球大战2：首部曲》（Lego Star Wars Ⅱ：The Original Trilog），而且登陆的平台还包括了任天堂的DS和GBA主机。
TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)
2012-05-20
The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.
Triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853
Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li
2012-01-01
The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853 is studied in molecular emission, infrared emission, as well as radio and HI emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$ and kinematic temperature $\\sim$20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From SED modeling towards the young stellar objects (YSOs), sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the Wolf-Rayet star to the molecular ring. A small scale sequential star formation is revealed towards core A, which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations is thus suggested. The presence of PDR, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, the large scale sequential star formation indicate the "Collect and Collapse" process functions in this region. The star forming activities in core A seem to be affected by the "Radiation-Driven Implosion" (...
Probing neutron star physics using accreting neutron stars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patruno A.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available We give an obervational overview of the accreting neutron stars systems as probes of neutron star physics. In particular we focus on the results obtained from the periodic timing of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in outburst and from the measurement of X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars during quiescence. In the ﬁrst part of this overview we show that the X-ray pulses are contaminated by a large amount of noise of uncertain origin, and that all these neutron stars do not show evidence of spin variations during the outburst. We present also some recent developments on the presence of intermittency in three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars and investigate the reason why only a small number of accreting neutron stars show X-ray pulsations and why none of these pulsars shows sub-millisecond spin periods. In the second part of the overview we introduce the observational technique that allows the study of neutron star cooling in accreting systems as probes of neutron star internal composition and equation of state. We explain the phenomenon of the deep crustal heating and present some recent developments on several quasi persistent X-ray sources where a cooling neutron star has been observed.
Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered
2010-07-01
Using a combination of instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have discovered the most massive stars to date, one weighing at birth more than 300 times the mass of the Sun, or twice as much as the currently accepted limit of 150 solar masses. The existence of these monsters - millions of times more luminous than the Sun, losing weight through very powerful winds - may provide an answer to the question "how massive can stars be?" A team of astronomers led by Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield, has used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as well as archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, to study two young clusters of stars, NGC 3603 and RMC 136a in detail. NGC 3603 is a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust, located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun (eso1005). RMC 136a (more often known as R136) is another cluster of young, massive and hot stars, which is located inside the Tarantula Nebula, in one of our neighbouring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, 165 000 light-years away (eso0613). The team found several stars with surface temperatures over 40 000 degrees, more than seven times hotter than our Sun, and a few tens of times larger and several million times brighter. Comparisons with models imply that several of these stars were born with masses in excess of 150 solar masses. The star R136a1, found in the R136 cluster, is the most massive star ever found, with a current mass of about 265 solar masses and with a birthweight of as much as 320 times that of the Sun. In NGC 3603, the astronomers could also directly measure the masses of two stars that belong to a double star system [1], as a validation of the models used. The stars A1, B and C in this cluster have estimated masses at birth above or close to 150 solar masses. Very massive stars produce very powerful outflows. "Unlike humans, these stars are born heavy and lose weight as
Kissin, Yevgeni
2015-01-01
The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5 and $5\\,M_\\odot$, taking into account mass loss on the giant branches and the partitioning of angular momentum between the outer and inner envelope. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag as well as the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles $\\Omega(r)$ is considered in the deep convective envelope, ranging from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force on the inward pumping of angular momentum, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core ro...
Bednarek, I; Bednarek, Ilona; Manka, Ryszard
1996-01-01
The evolution of a soliton star filled with fermions is studied in the framework of general relativity. Such a system can be described by the surface tension $\\sigma$, the bag constant $B$, and the fermion number density affects the spacetime inside the soliton. Whether it is described by Friedman or de Sitter metric depends on the prevailing parameter. The whole spacetime is devided by the surface of the soliton into the false vacuum region inside the soliton and the true vacuum region outside, the latter being described by the Schwarzschild line element. The aim of this paper is to study the equations of motion of the domain wall in two cases. In the first case the de Sitter metric describes the interior in the first case, and in the second case it is replaced by the Friedman metric. In both of them the Schwarzschild metric is outside the soliton. From the analysis of obtained equations one can draw conclusions concerning further evolution of a soliton star.
,
2013-01-01
In the study of hot and dense nuclear matter, created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, dilepton measurements play an essential role. Leptons, when compared to hadrons, have only little interaction with the strongly interacting system. Thus, dileptons provide ideal penetrating probes that allow the study of such a system throughout its space-time evolution. In the low mass range ($M_{ll}3.0$ GeV/$c^2$), dilepton measurements are expected to see contributions from primordial processes involving heavy quarks, and Drell-Yan production. With the introduction of the Time-of-Flight detector, the STAR detector has been able to perform large acceptance, high purity electron identification. In this contribution, we will present STAR's recent dielectron measurements in the low and intermediate mass range for RHIC beam energies ranging between 19.6 and 200 GeV. Compared to electrons, muon measurements have the advantage of reduced bremsstrahlung radiation in the surrounding detector materials. With the upcoming dete...
Park, Conner; Read, Jocelyn; Flynn, Eric; Lockett-Ruiz, Veronica
2016-03-01
Gravitational waves, predicted by Einstein's Theory of Relativity, are a new frontier in astronomical observation we can use to observe phenomena in the universe. Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) is currently searching for gravitational wave signals, and requires accurate predictions in order to best extract astronomical signals from all other sources of fluctuations. The focus of my research is in increasing the accuracy of Post-Newtonian models of binary neutron star coalescence to match the computationally expensive Numerical models. Numerical simulations can take months to compute a couple of milliseconds of signal whereas the Post-Newtonian can generate similar signals in seconds. However the Post-Newtonian model is an approximation, e.g. the Taylor T4 Post-Newtonian model assumes that the two bodies in the binary neutron star system are point charges. To increase the effectiveness of the approximation, I added in tidal effects, resonance frequencies, and a windowing function. Using these observed effects from simulations significantly increases the Post-Newtonian model's similarity to the Numerical signal.
The First Stars: Final Remarks
Larson, Richard B.
1999-01-01
How did star formation begin in the universe? Some of the questions addressed at this first meeting on "The First Stars" are summarized here from a theoretical perspective, and some brief comments are made on what we may have learned so far.