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Sample records for a3v star zeta

  1. Interpolation of multiple zeta and zeta-star values

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We define polynomials of one variable t whose values at t=0 and 1 are the multiple zeta values and the multiple zeta-star values, respectively. We give an application to the two-one conjecture of Ohno-Zudilin, and also prove the cyclic sum formula for these polynomials.

  2. Discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the A3V star \\beta{} Circini

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, L C; Peña, C Contreras; Kurtev, R; Marocco, F; Jones, H R A; Beamin, J C; Napiwotzki, R; Borissova, J; Burningham, B; Faherty, J; Pinfield, D J; Gromadzki, M; Ivanov, V D; Minniti, D; Stimson, W; Villanueva, V

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an L dwarf companion to the A3V star \\beta{} Circini. VVV J151721.49-585131.5, or \\beta{} Cir B, was identified in a proper motion and parallax catalogue of the Vista Variables in the V\\'{i}a L\\'{a}ctea survey as having near infrared luminosity and colour indicative of an early L dwarf, and a proper motion and parallax consistent with that of \\beta{} Cir. The projected separation of $\\sim$3.6' corresponds to $6656$ au, which is unusually wide. The most recent published estimate of the age of the primary combined with our own estimate based on newer isochrones yields an age of $370-500$ Myr. The system therefore serves as a useful benchmark at an age greater than that of the Pleiades brown dwarfs and most other young L dwarf benchmarks. We have obtained a medium resolution echelle spectrum of the companion which indicates a spectral type of L1.0$\\pm$0.5 and lacks the typical signatures of low surface gravity seen in younger brown dwarfs. This suggests that signs of low surface gravit...

  3. Discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the A3V star β Circini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.; Lucas, P. W.; Contreras Peña, C.; Kurtev, R.; Marocco, F.; Jones, H. R. A.; Beamin, J. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Borissova, J.; Burningham, B.; Faherty, J.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gromadzki, M.; Ivanov, V. D.; Minniti, D.; Stimson, W.; Villanueva, V.

    2015-12-01

    We report the discovery of an L dwarf companion to the A3V star β Circini. VVV J151721.49-585131.5, or β Cir B, was identified in a proper motion and parallax catalogue of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea survey as having near-infrared luminosity and colour indicative of an early L dwarf, and a proper motion and parallax consistent with that of β Cir. The projected separation of ˜3.6 arcmin corresponds to 6656 au, which is unusually wide. The most recent published estimate of the age of the primary combined with our own estimate based on newer isochrones yields an age of 370-500 Myr. The system therefore serves as a useful benchmark at an age greater than that of the Pleiades brown dwarfs and most other young L dwarf benchmarks. We have obtained a medium resolution echelle spectrum of the companion which indicates a spectral type of L1.0 ± 0.5 and lacks the typical signatures of low-surface gravity seen in younger brown dwarfs. This suggests that signs of low-surface gravity disappear from the spectra of early L dwarfs by an age of ˜370-500 Myr, as expected from theoretical isochrones. The mass of β Cir B is estimated from the BHAC15 isochrones as 0.056 ± 0.007 M⊙.

  4. First detection of a magnetic field in the fast rotating runaway Oe star zeta Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Schoeller, M

    2011-01-01

    The star zeta Ophiuchi is one of the brightest massive stars in the northern hemisphere and was intensively studied in various wavelength domains. The currently available observational material suggests that certain observed phenomena are related to the presence of a magnetic field. We acquired spectropolarimetric observations of zeta Oph with FORS1 mounted on the 8-m Kueyen telescope of the VLT to investigate if a magnetic field is indeed present in this star. Using all available absorption lines, we detect a mean longitudinal magnetic field B_z_all = 141+-45G, confirming the magnetic nature of this star. We review the X-ray properties of zeta Oph with the aim to understand whether the X-ray emission of zeta Oph is dominated by magnetic or by wind instability processes.

  5. Time-series photometry of the O4 I(n)fp star zeta Puppis

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, Ian D.; Stevens, Ian R.

    2014-01-01

    We report a time-series analysis of the O4 I(n)fp star zeta Pup, based on optical photometry obtained with the SMEI instrument on the Coriolis satellite, 2003--2006. A single astrophysical signal is found, with P = (1.780938 \\pm 0.000093) d and a mean semi-amplitude of (6.9 \\pm 0.3) mmag. There is no evidence for persistent coherent signals with semi-amplitudes in excess of ca. 2~mmag on any of the timescales previously reported in the literature. In particular, there is no evidence for a sig...

  6. Giants of eclipse the ζ [Zeta] Aurigae stars and other binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The zeta Aurigae stars are the rare but illustrious sub-group of binary stars that undergo the dramatic phenomenon of "chromospheric eclipse". This book provides detailed descriptions of the ten known systems, illustrates them richly with examples of new spectra, and places them in the context of stellar structure and evolution. Comprised of a large cool giant plus a small hot dwarf, these key eclipsing binaries reveal fascinating changes in their spectra very close to total eclipse, when the hot star shines through differing heights of the "chromosphere", or outer atmosphere, of the giant star. The phenomenon provides astrophysics with the means of analyzing the outer atmosphere of a giant star and how that material is shed into space. The physics of these critical events can be explained qualitatively, but it is more challenging to extract hard facts from the observations, and tough to model the chromosphere in any detail. The book offers current thinking on mechanisms for heating a star's chromosphere an...

  7. The Structural Evolution of Milky-Way-Like Star-Forming Galaxies zeta is approximately 1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Franx, Marun; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; VanDerWel, Arjen; Leja, Joel; Labbe, Ivo; Brammr, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Lundgren, Britt; Muzzin, Adam; Quadri, Ryan F.; Nelson, Erica June; Wake, David A.; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-01-01

    We follow the structural evolution of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) like the Milky Way by selecting progenitors to zeta is approx. 1.3 based on the stellar mass growth inferred from the evolution of the star-forming sequence. We select our sample from the 3D-HT survey, which utilizes spectroscopy from the HST-WFC3 G141 near-IR grism and enables precise redshift measurements for our sample of SFGs. Structural properties are obtained from Sersic profile fits to CANDELS WFC3 imaging. The progenitors of zeta = 0 SFGs with stellar mass M = 10(exp 10.5) solar mass are typically half as massive at zeta is approx. 1. This late-time stellar mass grow is consistent with recent studies that employ abundance matching techniques. The descendant SFGs at zeta is approx. 0 have grown in half-light radius by a factor of approx. 1.4 zeta is approx. 1. The half-light radius grows with stellar mass as r(sub e) alpha stellar mass(exp 0.29). While most of the stellar mass is clearly assembling at large radii, the mass surface density profiles reveal ongoing mass growth also in the central regions where bulges and pseudobulges are common features in present day late-type galaxies. Some portion of this growth in the central regions is due to star formation as recent observations of H(a) maps for SFGs at zeta approx. are found to be extended but centrally peaked. Connecting our lookback study with galactic archeology, we find the stellar mass surface density at R - 8 kkpc to have increased by a factor of approx. 2 since zeta is approx. 1, in good agreement with measurements derived for the solar neighborhood of the Milky Way.

  8. X-ray Observations of Bow Shocks around Runaway O Stars. The case of $\\zeta$ Oph and BD+433654

    CERN Document Server

    Toalá, J A; González-Gaán, A; Guerrero, M A; Ignace, R; Pohl, M

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal radiation has been predicted within bow shocks around runaway stars by recent theoretical works. We present X-ray observations towards the runaway stars $\\zeta$ Oph (Chandra and Suzaku) and BD+433654 (XMM-Newton) to search for the presence of non-thermal X-ray emission. We found no evidence of non-thermal emission spatially coincident with the bow shocks, nonetheless, diffuse emission is detected in the vicinity of $\\zeta$ Oph. After a careful analysis of its spectral characteristics we conclude that this emission has a thermal nature with a plasma temperature of $T \\approx 2 \\times10^{6}$ K. The cometary shape of this emission seems to be in line with recent predictions of radiation-hydrodynamic models of runaway stars. The case of BD+433654 is puzzling as non-thermal emission has been reported in a previous work for this source.

  9. Weak magnetic field, solid-envelope rotation, and wave-induced N-enrichment in the SPB star $\\zeta$ Cassiopeiae

    CERN Document Server

    Briquet, M; Petit, P; Leroy, B; de Batz, B

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The main-sequence B-type star $\\zeta$ Cassiopeiae is known as a N-rich star with a magnetic field discovered with the Musicos spectropolarimeter. We model the magnetic field of the star by means of 82 new spectropolarimetric observations of higher precision to investigate the field strength, topology, and effect. Methods. We gathered data with the Narval spectropolarimeter installed at T\\'elescope Bernard Lyot (TBL, Pic du Midi, France) and applied the least-squares deconvolution technique to measure the circular polarisation of the light emitted from $\\zeta$ Cas. We used a dipole oblique rotator model to determine the field configuration by fitting the longitudinal field measurements and by synthesizing the measured Stokes V profiles. We also made use of the Zeeman-Doppler Imaging technique to map the stellar surface and to deduce the difference in rotation rate between the pole and equator. Results. $\\zeta$ Cas exhibits a polar field strength $B_{\\rm pol}$ of 100-150 G, which is the weakest polar fiel...

  10. Cold dust around nearby stars (DUNES). First results: A resolved exo-Kuiper belt around the solar-like star zeta^2 Ret

    CERN Document Server

    Eiroa, C; Maldonado, J; González-García, B M; Rodmann, J; Heras, A M; Pilbratt, G L; Augereau, J -Ch; Mora, A; Montesinos, B; Ardila, D; Bryden, G; Liseau, R; Stapelfeldt, K; Launhardt, R; Solano, E; Bayo, A; Absil, O; Ar?evalo, M; Barrado, D; Beichmann, C; Danchi, W; del Burgo, C; Ertel, S; Fridlund, M; Fukagawa, M; Gutiérrez, R; Grün, E; Kamp, I; Krivov, A; Lebreton, J; Löhne, T; Lorente, R; Marshall, J; Martínez-Arnáiz, R; Meeus, G; Montes, D; Morbidelli, A; Müller, S; Mutschke, H; Nakagawa, T; Olofsson, G; Ribas, I; Roberge, A; Sanz-Forcada, J; Thébault, P; Walker, H; White, G J; Wolf, S

    2010-01-01

    We present the first far-IR observations of the solar-type stars delta Pav, HR 8501, 51 Peg and zeta^2 Ret, taken within the context of the DUNES Herschel Open Time Key Programme (OTKP). This project uses the PACS and SPIRE instruments with the objective of studying infrared excesses due to exo-Kuiper belts around nearby solar-type stars. The observed 100 um fluxes from delta Pav, HR 8501, and 51 Peg agree with the predicted photospheric fluxes, excluding debris disks brighter than Ldust/Lstar ~ 5 x 10^-7 (1 sigma level) around those stars. A flattened, disk-like structure with a semi-major axis of ~ 100 AU in size is detected around zeta^2 Ret. The resolved structure suggests the presence of an eccentric dust ring, which we interpret as an exo-Kuiper belt with Ldust/Lstar ~ 10^-5.

  11. On the Star Formation-AGN Connection at zeta (is) approximately greater than 0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman, T. M.; Ptak, Andrew; Urry, C. Megan

    2013-01-01

    Using the spectra of a sample of approximately 28,000 nearby obscured active galaxies from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we probe the connection between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation over a range of radial scales in the host galaxy. We use the extinction-corrected luminosity of the [O iii] 5007A line as a proxy of intrinsic AGN power and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion rate. The star formation rates (SFRs) are taken from the MPA-JHU value-added catalog and are measured through the 3 inch SDSS aperture. We construct matched samples of galaxies covering a range in redshifts. With increasing redshift, the projected aperture size encompasses increasing amounts of the host galaxy. This allows us to trace the radial distribution of star formation as a function of AGN luminosity. We find that the star formation becomes more centrally concentrated with increasing AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. This implies that such circumnuclear star formation is associated with AGN activity, and that it increasingly dominates over omnipresent disk star formation at higher AGN luminosities, placing critical constraints on theoretical models that link host galaxy star formation and SMBH fueling. We parameterize this relationship and find that the star formation on radial scales (is) less than 1.7 kpc, when including a constant disk component, has a sub-linear dependence on SMBH accretion rate: SFR in proportion to solar mass(sup 0.36), suggesting that angular momentum transfer through the disk limits accretion efficiency rather than the supply from stellar mass loss.

  12. Cyclic variability of the circumstellar disk of the Be star zetaTau - I. Long-term monitoring observations

    CERN Document Server

    Stefl, S; Carciofi, A C; LeBouquin, J B; Baade, D; Bjorkman, K S; Hesselbach, E; Hummel, C A; Okazaki, A T; Pollmann, E; Rantakyrö, F; Wisniewski, J P

    2009-01-01

    Emission lines formed in decretion disks of Be stars often undergo long-term cyclic variations, especially in the violet-to-red (V/R) ratio of their primary components. From observations of the bright Be-shell star zeta Tau, the possibly broadest and longest data set illustrating the prototype of this behaviour was compiled from our own and archival observations. It comprises optical and infrared spectra, broad-band polarimetry, and interferometric observations. From 3 V/R cycles between 1997 and 2008, a mean cycle length in H alpha of 1400-1430 days was derived. After each minimum in V/R, the shell absorption weakens and splits into two components, leading to 3 emission peaks. This phase makes the strongest contribution to the variability in cycle length. V/R curves of different lines are shifted in phase. Lines formed on average closer to the central star are ahead of the others. The shell absorption lines fall into 2 categories differing in line width, ionization/excitation potential, and variability of th...

  13. Cyclic Variability of the Circumstellar Disc of the Be Star $\\zeta$ Tau. II. Testing the 2D Global Disc Oscillation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Carciofi, A C; Bouquin, J-B le; Štefl, S; Rivinius, Th; Baade, D; Björkman, J E; Hummel, C A

    2009-01-01

    Aims. In this paper we model, in a self-consistent way, polarimetric, photometric, spectrophotometric and interferometric observations of the classical Be star $\\zeta$ Tauri. Our primary goal is to conduct a critical quantitative test of the global oscillation scenario. Methods. We have carried out detailed three-dimensional, NLTE radiative transfer calculations using the radiative transfer code HDUST. For the input for the code we have used the most up-to-date research on Be stars to include a physically realistic description for the central star and the circumstellar disc. We adopt a rotationally deformed, gravity darkened central star, surrounded by a disc whose unperturbed state is given by a steady-state viscous decretion disc model. We further assume that disc is in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. Results. By adopting a viscous decretion disc model for $\\zeta$ Tauri and a rigorous solution of the radiative transfer, we have obtained a very good fit of the time-average properties of the disc. This prov...

  14. The triple system Zeta Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Zeta Aquarii is a bright and nearby (28 pc) triple star with a 26-year astrometric subsystem. Almost a half of the outer 540-year visual orbit has been covered in 238 years of its observations. Both inner and outer orbits are revised here taking into account recent direct resolution of the inner pair Aa,Ab. The inner orbit has a high eccentricity of 0.87 and is inclined to the outer orbit by 140+-10 degrees, suggesting that Kozai-Lidov cycles take place. The masses of the stars Aa, B, and Ab are 1.4, 1.4, and 0.6 solar. The age of the system is about 3 Gyr, and the two main components have just left the main sequence. Hypothetically, this system could have formed by a dynamical capture of the small star Ab in the twin binary Aa,B.

  15. Riemann Zeta Matrix Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kargın, Levent; Kurt, Veli

    2015-01-01

    In this study, obtaining the matrix analog of the Euler's reflection formula for the classical gamma function we expand the domain of the gamma matrix function and give a infinite product expansion of sinπxP.  Furthermore we define Riemann zeta matrix function and evaluate some other matrix integrals. We prove a functional equation for Riemann zeta matrix function.

  16. Degenerate Euler zeta function

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Taekyun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, T. Kim considered Euler zeta function which interpolates Euler polynomials at negative integer (see [3]). In this paper, we study degenerate Euler zeta function which is holomorphic function on complex s-plane associated with degenerate Euler polynomials at negative integers.

  17. The magnetic field of zeta Orionis A

    CERN Document Server

    Blazère, A; Tkachenko, A; Bouret, J -C; Rivinius, Th

    2015-01-01

    Zeta Ori A is a hot star claimed to host a weak magnetic field, but no clear magnetic detection was obtained so far. In addition, it was recently shown to be a binary system composed of a O9.5I supergiant and a B1IV star. We aim at verifying the presence of a magnetic field in zeta Ori A, identifying to which of the two binary components it belongs (or whether both stars are magnetic), and characterizing the field.Very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data were obtained with Narval at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France. Archival HEROS, FEROS and UVES spectroscopic data were also used. The data were first disentangled to separate the two components. We then analyzed them with the Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract the magnetic information. We confirm that zeta Ori A is magnetic. We find that the supergiant component zeta Ori Aa is the magnetic component: Zeeman signatures are observed and rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field is clearly detected with a per...

  18. Remarks on Shintani's zeta function

    OpenAIRE

    Wakayama, Masato

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a zeta function attached to a representation of a group. We show that the multi-dimensional zeta function due to Shintani [Sh 1], which is a generalization of the multiple Hurwitz zeta function, can be obtained in this framework. We also construct a gamma function from the zeta function attached to a representation via zeta regularization. We study then a $q$-analogue of the Shintani zeta function and the corresponding gamma function. A sine function defined via the reflection fo...

  19. Bilateral zeta functions and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shibukawa, Genki

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new type of multiple zeta functions, which we call bilateral zeta functions, analogous to the Barnes zeta functions. The bilateral zeta function is a periodic function and shares certain basic properties of Barnes zeta function. Especially, we prove that the bilateral zeta function has a nice Fourier series expansion and the Barnes zeta function can be expressed as a finite sum of bilateral zeta functions. By these properties of the bilateral zeta functions, We obtain simple pr...

  20. Modeling the Circumstellar Disk of $\\zeta$ Tauri

    OpenAIRE

    Carciofi, A. C.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model for the disk of the classical Be star $\\zeta$ Tauri. The model consists of a Keplerian rotating disk with a power-law surface density and a vertical density distribution that follows from the balance between the thermal gas pressure and the z-component of the stellar gravitation. The opening angle of such a disk is not a fixed value but increases with the distance to the star (flared disk). We use a Monte Carlo code that solves simultaneously the thermal equilibrium, the st...

  1. Masses of the astrometric SB2 \\zeta Ori A

    CERN Document Server

    Rivinius, Th; Stahl, O

    2010-01-01

    We report the first dynamic mass for an O-type supergiant, the interferometrically resolved SB2 system \\zeta Ori A (O9.5Ib+B0/1). The separation of the system excludes any previous mass-transfer, ensuring that the derived masses can be compared to single star evolutionary tracks.

  2. On a new zeta function

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Let m be a positive integer. We introduce a new zeta function zeta_m(s) defined by zeta_m(s) = sum_{n>0(-e^{2*pi*i/m})^{Omega(n)}/n^s for Re(s)>1, where Omega(n) denotes the total number of prime factors of n (counted with multiplicity). We show that sum_{n\\le x}(-e^{2*pi*i/3})^{Omega(n)}/n is asymptotically equivalent to c(log x)^{(1-sqrt{-3})/2} with c a nonzero complex number, and that sum_{n\\le x}(-e^{2*pi*i/m})^{Omega(n)}/n=O(1) for all m=4,5,6,... We note that zeta_m(s)*sum_{n>0}mu_m(n)/n^s=1 for Re(s)>1, where mu_m(n)=e^{2*pi*i*Omega(n)/m} if n is squarefree, and mu_m(n)=0 otherwise. We also prove that sum_{n>0}mu_3(n)/n=0, which is similar to the known identity sum_{n>0}mu(n)/n=0 equivalent to the Prime Number Theorem. In contrast with the Riemann Hypothesis, we raise the following new hypothesis: zeta_m(1):=sum_{n>0}(-e^{2*pi*i/m})^{Omega(n)}/n=0 for all m=5,6,....

  3. Bilateral zeta functions and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shibukawa, Genki

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new type of multiple zeta functions, which we call bilateral zeta functions, analogous to the Barnes zeta functions. The bilateral zeta function is a periodic function and shares certain basic properties of Barnes zeta function. Especially, we prove that the bilateral zeta function has a nice Fourier series expansion and the Barnes zeta function can be expressed as a finite sum of bilateral zeta functions. By these properties of the bilateral zeta functions, We obtain simple proofs of some formulas, for example the reflection formula for the multiple gamma function, the inversion formula of the Dedekind eta function, Ramanujan's formula, Fourier expansion of the Barnes zeta function and multiple Iseki's formula.

  4. X-ray in Zeta-Ori

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, M. A.; López-Santiago, J. L.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.

    2013-05-01

    Nearby star-forming regions are ideal laboratories to study high-energy emission processes but they usually present high absorption what makes difficult to detect the stellar population inside the molecular complex. As young late-type stars show high X-ray emission and X-ray photons are little absorbed by interstellar material, X-ray dedicated surveys are an excellent tool to detect the low-mass stellar population in optically absorbed regions. In this work, we present a study of the star-forming region Zeta-Ori and its surroundings. We combine optical, infrared and X-ray data. Properties of the X-ray emiting plasma and infrared features of the young stellar objects detected in the XMM-Newton observation are determined. The southern part of the Orion B giant molecular cloud complex harbor other star forming regions, as NGC 2023 and NGC 2024, we use this regions to compare. We study the spectral energy distribution of X-ray sources. Combining these results with infrared, the X-ray sources are classified as class I, class II and class III objects. The X-ray spectrum and ligth curve of detected X-ray sources is analyzed to found flares. We use a extincion-independent index to select the stars with circumstellar disk, and study the relationship between the present of disk and the flare energy. The results are similar to others studies and we conclude that the coronal properties of class II and class III objects in this region do not differ significantly from each other and from stars of similar infrared class in the ONC.

  5. Zeta regularized products, Riemann zeta zeros and prime number spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, G; Svaiter, N F

    2013-01-01

    The Riemann hypothesis states that all nontrivial zeros of the zeta function lie in the critical line $\\Re(s)=1/2$. Hilbert and P\\'olya suggested that one possible way to prove the Riemann hypothesis is to interpret the nontrivial zeros in the light of spectral theory. Following this approach, we associate such a numerical sequence with the discrete spectrum of a linear differential operator. We discuss a necessary condition that such a sequence of numbers should obey in order to be associated with the spectrum of a linear differential operator of a system with countably infinite number of degrees of freedom. The sequence of nontrivial zeros is zeta regularizable. Then, functional integrals associated with hypothetical systems described by self-adjoint operators whose spectra is given by the sequence of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function could be constructed. In addition, we demonstrate that if one considers the same situation with primes numbers, the associated functional integral cannot be co...

  6. Bernoulli numbers and zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Arakawa, Tsuneo; Kaneko, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Two major subjects are treated in this book. The main one is the theory of Bernoulli numbers and the other is the theory of zeta functions. Historically, Bernoulli numbers were introduced to give formulas for the sums of powers of consecutive integers. The real reason that they are indispensable for number theory, however, lies in the fact that special values of the Riemann zeta function can be written by using Bernoulli numbers. This leads to more advanced topics, a number of which are treated in this book: Historical remarks on Bernoulli numbers and the formula for the sum of powers of consecutive integers; a formula for Bernoulli numbers by Stirling numbers; the Clausen–von Staudt theorem on the denominators of Bernoulli numbers; Kummer's congruence between Bernoulli numbers and a related theory of p-adic measures; the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula; the functional equation of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet L functions, and their special values at suitable integers; various formulas of ...

  7. The weak magnetic field of the O9.7 supergiant zeta Orionis A

    CERN Document Server

    Bouret, J -C; Martins, F; Escolano, C; Marcolino, W; Lanz, T; Howarth, Ian

    2008-01-01

    We report here the detection of a weak magnetic field of 50 - 100 G on the O9.7 supergiant zeta Ori A, using spectropolarimetric observations obtained with NARVAL at the 2m Telescope Bernard Lyot atop Pic du Midi (France). zeta Ori A is the third O star known to host a magnetic field (along with theta^1 Ori C and HD 191612), and the first detection on a 'normal' rapidly-rotating O star. The magnetic field of zeta Ori A is the weakest magnetic field ever detected on a massive star. The measured field is lower than the thermal equipartition limit (about 100 G). By fitting NLTE model atmospheres to our spectra, we determined that zeta Ori A is a 40 Msun star with a radius of 25 Rsun and an age of about 5 - 6 Myr, showing no surface nitrogen enhancement and losing mass at a rate of about 2x10^(-6) Msol/yr. The magnetic topology of zeta Ori A is apparently more complex than a dipole and involves two main magnetic polarities located on both sides of the same hemisphere; our data also suggest that zeta Ori A rotates...

  8. On multiple zeta values of even arguments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Michael E. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    For k {<=} n, let E(2n,k) be the sum of all multiple zeta values with even arguments whose weight is 2n and whose depth is k. Of course E(2n,1) is the value {zeta}(2n) of the Riemann zeta function at 2n, and it is well known that E(2n,2)=(3)/(4){zeta}(2n). Recently Z. Shen and T. Cai gave formulas for E(2n,3) and E(2n,4) in terms {zeta}(2n) and {zeta}(2){zeta}(2n-2). We give two formulas form E(2n,k), both valid for arbitrary k{<=}n, one of which generalizes the Shen-Cai results; by comparing the two we obtain a Bernoulli-number identity. We also give an explicit generating function for the numbers E(2n,k).

  9. On differences of zeta values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajolet, Philippe; Vepstas, Linas

    2008-10-01

    Finite differences of values of the Riemann zeta function at the integers are explored. Such quantities, which occur as coefficients in Newton series representations, have surfaced in works of Bombieri-Lagarias, Maslanka, Coffey, Báez-Duarte, Voros and others. We apply the theory of Nörlund-Rice integrals in conjunction with the saddle-point method and derive precise asymptotic estimates. The method extends to Dirichlet L-functions and our estimates appear to be partly related to earlier investigations surrounding Li's criterion for the Riemann hypothesis.

  10. Multiple q-Zeta Brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Zudilin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The multiple zeta values (MZVs possess a rich algebraic structure of algebraic relations, which is conjecturally determined by two different (shuffle and stuffle products of a certain algebra of noncommutative words. In a recent work, Bachmann constructed a q-analogue of the MZVs—the so-called bi-brackets—for which the two products are dual to each other, in a very natural way. We overview Bachmann’s construction and discuss the radial asymptotics of the bi-brackets, its links to the MZVs, and related linear (independence questions of the q-analogue.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chemical abundances of zeta Reticuly (Adibekyan+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibekyan, V.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Faria, J. P.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Israelian, G.; Harutyunyan, G.; Suarez-Andres, L.; Hakobyan, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The file table1.dat lists stellar parameters, S/N, and observation dates of zeta1 Ret and zeta2 Ret derived from individual and combined spectra The file ew.dat lists the equivalent widths (EW) of all the spectral lines. The file s_lines.dat lists the lines that were used in this study. The file abund.dat lists the derived abundances of the elements for each star and spectra. (4 data files).

  12. The angular diameter and distance of the Cepheid Zeta Geminorum

    CERN Document Server

    Kervella, P; Perrin, G; Schöller, M; Traub, W A; Lacasse, M D

    2001-01-01

    Cepheids are the primary distance indicators for extragalactic astronomy and therefore are of very high astrophysical interest. Unfortunately, they are rare stars, situated very far from Earth.Though they are supergiants, their typical angular diameter is only a few milliarcseconds, making them very challenging targets even for long-baseline interferometers. We report observations that were obtained in the K prime band (2-2.3 microns), on the Cepheid Zeta Geminorum with the FLUOR beam combiner, installed at the IOTA interferometer. The mean uniform disk angular diameter was measured to be 1.64 +0.14 -0.16 mas. Pulsational variations are not detected at a significant statistical level, but future observations with longer baselines should allow a much better estimation of their amplitude. The distance to Zeta Gem is evaluated using Baade-Wesselink diameter determinations, giving a distance of 502 +/- 88 pc.

  13. Integrals of products of Hurwitz zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Shpot, M A; Paris, R B

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate two integrals over $x\\in [0,1]$ involving products of the function $\\zeta_1(a,x)\\equiv \\zeta(a,x)-x^{-a}$ for $\\Re (a)>1$, where $\\zeta(a,x)$ is the Hurwitz zeta function. The evaluation of these integrals for the particular case of integer $a\\geq 2$ is also presented. As an application we calculate the $O(g)$ weak-coupling expansion coefficient $c_{1}(\\varepsilon)$ of the Casimir energy for a film with Dirichlet-Dirichlet boundary conditions, first stated by Symanzik [Schr\\"odinger representation and Casimir effect in renormalizable quantum field theory, Nucl. Phys. B 190 (1981) 1-44] in the framework of $g\\phi^4_{4-\\varepsilon}$ theory.

  14. Fourier coefficients associated with the Riemann zeta-function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Basiuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the Riemann zeta-function $\\zeta(s$ by a Fourier series method. The summation of $\\log|\\zeta(s|$ with the kernel $1/|s|^{6}$ on the critical line $\\mathrm{Re}\\; s = \\frac{1}{2}$ is the main result of our investigation. Also we obtain a new restatement of the Riemann Hypothesis.

  15. Partial zeta functions of algebraic varieties over finite fields

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, D

    2000-01-01

    By restricting the variables running over various (possibly different) subfields, we introduce the notion of a partial zeta function. We prove that the partial zeta function is rational in an interesting case, generalizing Dwork's well known rationality theorem. In general, the partial zeta function is probably not rational. But a theorem of Faltings says that the partial zeta function is always nearly rational.

  16. Zeta functions in brane world cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachi, Antonino; Knapman, Alan; Naylor, Wade; Sasaki, Misao

    2004-12-01

    We present a calculation of the zeta function and of the functional determinant for a Laplace-type differential operator, corresponding to a scalar field in a higher-dimensional deSitter brane background, which consists of a higher-dimensional anti deSitter bulk spacetime bounded by a deSitter section, representing a brane. Contrary to the existing examples, which all make use of conformal transformations, we evaluate the zeta function working directly with the higher-dimensional wave operator. We also consider a generic mass term and coupling to curvature, generalizing previous results. The massless, conformally coupled case is obtained as a limit of the general result and compared with known calculations. In the limit of large anti deSitter radius, the zeta determinant for the ball is recovered in perfect agreement with known expressions, providing an interesting check of our result and an alternative way of obtaining the ball determinant.

  17. Bernoulli Polynomials, Fourier Series and Zeta Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheufens, Ernst E

    2013-01-01

    Fourier series for Bernoulli polynomials are used to obtain information about values of the Riemann zeta function for integer arguments greater than one. If the argument is even we recover the well-known exact values, if the argument is odd we find integral representations and rapidly convergent...

  18. Euler Polynomials, Fourier Series and Zeta Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheufens, Ernst E

    2012-01-01

    Fourier series for Euler polynomials is used to obtain information about values of the Riemann zeta function for integer arguments greater than one. If the argument is even we recover the well-known exact values, if the argument is odd we find integral representations and rapidly convergent series....

  19. Zeta and q-Zeta Functions and Associated Series and Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, H M

    2011-01-01

    Zeta and q-Zeta Functions and Associated Series and Integrals is a thoroughly revised, enlarged and updated version of Series Associated with the Zeta and Related Functions. Many of the chapters and sections of the book have been significantly modified or rewritten and a new chapter on the theory and applications of the basic (or q-) extensions of various Special Functions is included. This book will be invaluable as it covers not only detailed and systematic presentations of the theory and applications of the various methods and techniques used in dealing with many different classes of ser

  20. Special Uniformity of Zeta Functions I. Geometric Aspect

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Lin

    2012-01-01

    The special uniformity of zeta functions claims that pure non-abelian zeta functions coincide with group zeta functions associated to the special linear groups. Naturally associated are three aspects, namely, the analytic, arithmetic, and geometric aspects. In the first paper of this series, we expose intrinsic geometric structures of our zetas by counting semi-stable bundles on curves defined over finite fields in terms of their automorphism groups and global sections. We show that such a counting maybe read from Artin zetas which are abelian in nature. This paper also contains an appendix written by H. Yoshida, one of the driving forces for us to seek group zetas. In this appendix, Yoshida introduces a new zeta as a function field analogue of the group zeta for SL2 for number fields and establishes the Riemann Hypothesis for it.

  1. Graph Zeta function and gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang-Hui

    2011-03-01

    Along the recently trodden path of studying certain number theoretic properties of gauge theories, especially supersymmetric theories whose vacuum manifolds are non-trivial, we investigate Ihara's Graph Zeta Function for large classes of quiver theories and periodic tilings by bi-partite graphs. In particular, we examine issues such as the spectra of the adjacency and whether the gauge theory satisfies the strong and weak versions of the graph theoretical analogue of the Riemann Hypothesis.

  2. Computing zeta functions of sparse nondegenerate hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Sperber, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Using the cohomology theory of Dwork, as developed by Adolphson and Sperber, we exhibit a deterministic algorithm to compute the zeta function of a nondegenerate hypersurface defined over a finite field. This algorithm is particularly well-suited to work with polynomials in small characteristic that have few monomials (relative to their dimension). Our method covers toric, affine, and projective hypersurfaces and also can be used to compute the L-function of an exponential sum.

  3. A study on the zeta potential of microcapsules during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhasetwar, V D; Dorle, A K

    1991-01-01

    Gelatin, methylcellulose and agar microcapsules were prepared with and without suphadiazine. The zeta potential of these microcapsules was measured at regular intervals during ageing at 45 degrees C. An initial sharp rise in zeta potential is followed by a progressive decrease. Zeta potential could prove to be a useful parameter to study the changes occurring in the encapsulating material of microcapsules during ageing.

  4. Zeta-functions of renormalizable sub-Lorenz templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Nuno, E-mail: nmf@uevora.p [CIMA-UE and Department of Mathematics, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal); Silva, Luis, E-mail: lfs@dec.isel.ipl.p [CIMA-UE and Scientific Area of Mathematics, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    We describe the Williams zeta-functions and the twist zeta-functions of sub-Lorenz templates generated by renormalizable Lorenz maps, in terms of the corresponding zeta-functions of the sub-Lorenz templates generated by the renormalized map and by the map that determines the renormalization type.

  5. Zeta potential in colloid science principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Robert J; Rowell, R L

    2013-01-01

    Zeta Potential in Colloid Science: Principles and Applications covers the concept of the zeta potential in colloid chemical theory. The book discusses the charge and potential distribution at interfaces; the calculation of the zeta potential; and the experimental techniques used in the measurement of electrokinetic parameters. The text also describes the electroviscous and viscoelectric effects; applications of the zeta potential to areas of colloid science; and the influence of simple inorganic ions or more complex adsorbates on zeta potential. Physical chemists and people involved in the stu

  6. Dedekind zeta-functions and Dedekind sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆洪文; 焦荣政; 纪春岗

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we use Dedekind zeta functions of two real quadratic number fields at -1 to denote Dedekind sums of high rank. Our formula is different from that of Siegel's. As an application, we get a polynomial representation of ζK(-1): ζK(-1) =1/45(26n3-41n±9), n ≡±2(mod 5), where K=Q( q),prime q=4n2+1, and the class number of quadratic number field K2=Q(q) is 1.

  7. POLES OF ZETA FUNCTIONS OF COMPLETE INTERSECTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A vanishing theorem is proved for -adic cohomology with compact support on an affine (singular) complete intersection. As an application, it is shown that for an affine complete intersection defined over a finite field of q elements, the reciprocal "poles" of the zeta function are always divisible by q as algebraic integers. A p-adic proof is also given, which leads to further q-divisibility of the poles or equivalently an improvement of the polar part of the AxKatz theorem for an affine complete intersection. Similar results hold for a projective complete intersection.

  8. Zeta function factorisation, Dwork hypersurfaces, hypergeometric hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Goutet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Let $\\mathbb{F}_q$ be a finite field with $q$ elements, $\\psi$ a non-zero element of $\\mathbb{F}_q$, and $n$ an integer $\\geq 3$ prime to $q$. The aim of this article is to show that the zeta function of the projective variety over $\\mathbb{F}_q$ defined by $X_\\psi \\colon x_1^n+...+x_n^n - n \\psi x_1... x_n=0$ has, when $n$ is prime and $X_\\psi$ is non singular (i.e. when $\\psi^n \

  9. Ten physical applications of spectral zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Elizalde, Emilio

    1995-01-01

    Zeta-function regularization is a powerful method in perturbation theory. This book is meant as a guide for the student of this subject. Everything is explained in detail, in particular the mathematical difficulties and tricky points, and several applications are given to show how the procedure works in practice (e.g. Casimir effect, gravity and string theory, high-temperature phase transition, topological symmetry breaking). The formulas some of which are new can be used for accurate numerical calculations. The book is to be considered as a basic introduction and a collection of exercises for those who want to apply this regularization procedure in practice.

  10. Wettability Studies Using Zeta Potential Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Bassioni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wettability studies have been carried out on reservoir rocks using different techniques such as the Amott-Harvey method, the USBM method, and the contact angle method, all with limitations. In this study, the wettability is studied by discussing the surface charge using zeta potential measurements. The study relies on the finding that carbonated reservoir rocks, consisting of CaCO3 mainly, are positively charged and their surface has the potential to adsorb significant quantities of anions. Moreover, heavy fractions such as asphaltenes are reported to remain afloat depending on dispersive forces present in the oil and its various fractions. Experiments are carried out on aqueous limestone suspension with the addition of crude oil. The experiment is repeated with the use of polymeric inhibitors, A and B. The zeta potential is found to alter depending on the sequence of polymeric inhibitor in oil/water addition. The inhibitor is found to adsorb on the limestone surface, with a net negative charge, causing repulsion between crude oil and the inhibitor and, hence, preventing the deposition of heavy fractions and particularly asphaltenes. This study gives a comprehensive insight on the mechanism of polymeric inhibitor interaction with the surface and the effect of wettability on its performance.

  11. Los Zetas and Proprietary Radio Network Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Halverson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The years from 2006 through 2011 were very active years for a number of Mexican drug trafficking organizations. However, the group that probably saw the most meteoric rise in this period, Los Zetas, had a unique and innovative tool at their disposal. It was during these years that the group constructed and utilized a proprietary encrypted radio network that grew to span from Texas to Guatemala through the Gulf States of Mexico and across much of the rest of the country. This network gave the group an operational edge. It also stood as a symbol of the latitude the group enjoyed across vast areas, as this extensive illicit infrastructure stood, in the face of the government and rival cartels, for six years. This investigation explicates the process by which Los Zetas constructed, concealed and utilized this network and attempts to draw conclusions about the motivations and organizational dynamics that brought the network to be, with attention paid to what this case says about the complex engineering capabilities of non-state entities in general.

  12. Zeta Functions and the Casimir Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Blau, Steven K; Wipf, Andreas; 10.1016/0550-3213(88)90059-4

    2009-01-01

    We use zeta function techniques to give a finite definition for the Casimir energy of an arbitrary ultrastatic spacetime with or without boundaries. We find that the Casimir energy is intimately related to, but not identical to, the one-loop effective energy. We show that in general the Casimir energy depends on a normalization scale. This phenomenon has relevance to applications of the Casimir energy in bag models of QCD. Within the framework of Kaluza-Klein theories we discuss the one-loop corrections to the induced cosmological and Newton constants in terms of a Casimir like effect. We can calculate the dependence of these constants on the radius of the compact dimensions, without having to resort to detailed calculations.

  13. Zeta-spectroscopy beyond 40 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.

    1981-01-01

    The zeta-family of bound states, formed by the anticipated t-quark and its antiquark, is discussed. The quantitative connection between the zeta-spectroscopy and the short distance behavior of the quark-antiquark potential is examined. It is pointed out that the next quarkonium system will lead to an accurate determination of the QCD scale parameter ..lambda... Weak zeta-decays are briefly considered.

  14. The multiple zeta value data mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buemlein, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Broadhurst, D.J. [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Physics and Astronomy Dept.; Vermaseren, J.A.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    We provide a data mine of proven results for multiple zeta values (MZVs) of the form {zeta}(s{sub 1},s{sub 2},..,s{sub k}) = sum {sup {infinity}}{sub n{sub 1}}{sub >n{sub 2}}{sub >...>n{sub k}}{sub >0} {l_brace}1/(n{sub 1}{sup s{sub 1}}..n{sub k}{sup s{sub k}}){r_brace} with weight w = sum {sup K}{sub i=1}s{sub i} and depth k and for Euler sums of the form sum {sup {infinity}}{sub n{sub 1}}{sub >n{sub 2}}{sub >...>n{sub k}}{sub >0} {l_brace}({epsilon}{sub 1}{sup n{sub 1}}..{epsilon}{sub 1}{sup n{sub k}})/(n{sub 1}{sup s{sub 1}}..n{sub k}{sup s{sub k}}){r_brace} with signs {epsilon}{sub i} = {+-} 1. Notably, we achieve explicit proven reductions of all MZVs with weights w{<=}22, and all Euler sums with weights w{<=}12, to bases whose dimensions, bigraded by weight and depth, have sizes in precise agreement with the Broadhurst. Kreimer and Broadhurst conjectures. Moreover, we lend further support to these conjectures by studying even greater weights (w{<=}30), using modular arithmetic. To obtain these results we derive a new type of relation for Euler sums, the Generalized Doubling Relations. We elucidate the ''pushdown'' mechanism, whereby the ornate enumeration of primitive MZVs, by weight and depth, is reconciled with the far simpler enumeration of primitive Euler sums. There is some evidence that this pushdown mechanism finds its origin in doubling relations. We hope that our data mine, obtained by exploiting the unique power of the computer algebra language FORM, will enable the study of many more such consequences of the double-shuffle algebra of MZVs, and their Euler cousins, which are already the subject of keen interest, to practitioners of quantum field theory, and to mathematicians alike. (orig.)

  15. Mayer Transfer Operator Approach to Selberg Zeta Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    . In a special situation the dynamical zeta function is defined for a geodesic flow on a hyperbolic plane quotient by an arithmetic cofinite discrete group. More precisely, the flow is defined for the corresponding unit tangent bundle. It turns out that the Selberg zeta function for this group can be expressed...

  16. A pseudo zeta function and the distribution of primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, P R

    2000-07-05

    The Riemann zeta function is given by: [equation, see published text]. Zeta(s) may be analytically continued to the entire s-plane, except for a simple pole at s = 0. Of great interest are the complex zeros of zeta(s). The Riemann hypothesis states that the complex zeros all have real part 1/2. According to the prime number theorem, pn approximately n logn, where pn is the nth prime. Suppose that pn were exactly nlogn. In other words, in the Euler product above, replace the nth prime by nlogn. In this way, we define a pseudo zeta function C(s) for Re s > 1. One can show that C(s) may be analytically continued at least into the half-plane Re s > 0 except for an isolated singularity (presumably a simple pole) at s = 0. It may be shown that the pseudo zeta function C(s) has no complex zeros whatsoever. This means that the complex zeros of the zeta function are associated with the irregularity of the distribution of the primes.

  17. On $p$-adic Hurwitz-type Euler zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Min-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Henri Cohen and Eduardo Friedman constructed the $p$-adic analogue for Hurwitz zeta functions, and Raabe-type formulas for the $p$-adic gamma and zeta functions from Volkenborn integrals satisfying the modified difference equation. In this paper, we define the $p$-adic Hurwitz-type Euler zeta functions. Our main tool is the fermionic $p$-adic integral on $\\mathbb Z_p$. We find that many interesting properties for the $p$-adic Hurwitz zeta functions are also hold for the $p$-adic Hurwitz-type Euler zeta functions, including the convergent Laurent series expansion, the distribution formula, the functional equation, the reflection formula, the derivative formula, the $p$-adic Raabe formula and so on.

  18. Zeta Functions for Elliptic Curves I. Counting Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Lin

    2012-01-01

    To count bundles on curves, we study zetas of elliptic curves and their zeros. There are two types, i.e., the pure non-abelian zetas defined using moduli spaces of semi-stable bundles, and the group zetas defined for special linear groups. In lower ranks, we show that these two types of zetas coincide and satisfy the Riemann Hypothesis. For general cases, exposed is an intrinsic relation on automorphism groups of semi-stable bundles over elliptic curves, the so-called counting miracle. All this, together with Harder-Narasimhan, Desale-Ramanan and Zagier's result, gives an effective way to count semi-stable bundles on elliptic curves not only in terms of automorphism groups but more essentially in terms of their $h^0$'s. Distributions of zeros of high rank zetas are also discussed.

  19. Fundamental stellar parameters of $\\zeta$ Pup and $\\gamma^2$ Vel from HIPPARCOS data

    CERN Document Server

    Schärer, D; Grenon, Michel; Schaerer, Daniel; Schmutz, Werner; Grenon, Michel

    1997-01-01

    We report parallax measurements by the HIPPARCOS satellite of zeta Puppis and gamma^2 Velorum. The distance of zeta Pup is d=429 (+120/ -77) pc, in agreement with the commonly adopted value to Vela OB2. However, a significantly smaller distance is found for the gamma^2 Vel system: d=258 (+41/-31) pc. The total mass of gamma^2 Vel derived from its parallax, the angular size of the semi-major axis as measured with intensity interferometry, and the period is M(WR+O)=29.5 (+/-15.9) Msun. This result favors the orbital solution of Pike et al. (1983) over that of Moffat et al. (1986). The stellar parameters for the O star companion derived from line blanketed non-LTE atmosphere models are: Teff=34000 (+/-1500) K, log L/Lsun=5.3 (+/-0.15) from which an evolutionary mass of M=29 (+/-4) Msun and an age of 4.0 (+0.8/-0.5) Myr is obtained from single star evolutionary models. With non-LTE model calculations including He and C we derive a luminosity log L/Lsun~4.7 (+/-0.2) for the WR star. The mass-luminosity relation of...

  20. A study on zeta potential and dielectric constant of liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhasetwar, V; Mohan, M S; Dorle, A K

    1994-01-01

    Zeta potential and dielectric constant of the liposomes were measured to study the effect of some of the formulation factors and in vitro ageing. Sonication affects zeta potential and dielectric constant of the liposomes. The ageing study showed an increase in the dielectric constant and zeta potential of liposomes at different storage temperatures. These two electrical parameters could be useful in studying structural alterations in liposomal vesicles and system as a function of different conditions. Particle size distribution and optical density were also measured, for comparison.

  1. Generation of directional EOF by interactive oscillatory zeta potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Yu; Wang, Chang-Yi; Chang, Chien-Cheng

    2008-11-01

    A steady directional EOF due to a nonlinear interaction between oscillatory axial electrical fields and oscillatory wall potentials (zeta potentials) is presented. This is a new mechanism to produce such a mean flow. It is found that the flow velocity depends not on the external driving frequency but on the phase angle difference between the electric fields and the zeta potentials. The formulation can also be reduced to the static EOF straightforwardly. For the purpose of theoretical demonstration, we use the Debye-Huckel approximation for the zeta potential. Results of planar and cylindrical capillaries are given.

  2. Dynamics and zeta functions on conformally compact manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlett, Julie; Tapie, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In this note, we study the dynamics and associated zeta functions of conformally compact manifolds with variable negative sectional curvatures. We begin with a discussion of a larger class of manifolds known as convex co-compact manifolds with variable negative curvature. Applying results from dynamics on these spaces, we obtain optimal meromorphic extensions of weighted dynamical zeta functions and asymptotic counting estimates for the number of weighted closed geodesics. A meromorphic extension of the standard dynamical zeta function and the prime orbit theorem follow as corollaries. Finally, we investigate interactions between the dynamics and spectral theory of these spaces.

  3. Characterization of zeta (zeta): a new opioid receptor involved in growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagon, I S; Goodman, S R; McLaughlin, P J

    1989-03-20

    Endogenous opioid systems (i.e., opioids and opioid receptors) are known to play a role in neural cancer. Using [3H]-[Met5]enkephalin, a potent ligand involved in growth, specific and saturable binding was detected in homogenates of S20Y neuroblastoma transplanted into A/Jax mice; the data fit a single binding site. Scatchard analysis yielded a Kd of 0.49 nM and a binding capacity of 5.32 fmol/mg protein. Binding was dependent on protein concentration, time, temperature, and pH, and was sensitive to Na+ and guanine nucleotides. Optimal binding required protease inhibitors, and pretreatment of the tumor homogenates with trypsin markedly reduced [3H]-[Met5]enkephalin binding, suggesting that the binding site was proteinaceous in character. Displacement experiments indicated that [Met5]enkephalin was the most potent displacer of [3H]-[Met5]enkephalin; other ligands selective for mu, delta, kappa, epsilon, and sigma were not highly competitive. Given the functional significance of [Met5]enkephalin as a potent regulator of normal and abnormal growth, and that the receptor recognized by [Met5]enkephalin does not resemble any previously described, the present study has demonstrated the presence of a new opioid receptor termed zeta (zeta) (from the Greek 'Zoe', life) related to the proliferation of cells and tissues.

  4. Explicit bounds on the logarithmic derivative and the reciprocal of the Riemann zeta-function

    OpenAIRE

    Trudgian, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is consider $|\\zeta'(\\sigma + it)/\\zeta(\\sigma + it)|$ and $|\\zeta(\\sigma + it)|^{-1}$ when $\\sigma$ is close to unity. We prove that $|\\zeta'(\\sigma + it)/\\zeta(\\sigma + it)| \\leq 87\\log t$ and $|\\zeta(\\sigma + it)|^{-1} \\leq 6.9\\times 10^{6} \\log t$ for $\\sigma \\geq 1-1/(8 \\log t)$ and $t\\geq 45$.

  5. Seiberg Duality, Quiver Gauge Theories, and Ihara Zeta Function

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Da; He, Yang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We study Ihara zeta function for graphs in the context of quivers arising from gauge theories, especially under Seiberg duality transformations. The distribution of poles is studied as we proceed along the duality tree, in light of the weak and strong graph versions of the Riemann Hypothesis. As a by-product, we find a refined version of Ihara zeta function to be the generating function for the generic superpotential of the gauge theory.

  6. On the Zeta Function of a Family of Quintics

    CERN Document Server

    Goutet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we give a proof of the link between the zeta function of two families of hypergeometric curves and the zeta function of a family of quintics that was observed numerically by Candelas, de la Ossa, and Rodriguez Villegas. The method we use is based on formulas of Koblitz and various Gauss sums identities; it does not give any geometric information on the link.

  7. Conservation of $\\zeta$ with radiative corrections from heavy field

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address a possible impact of radiative corrections from a heavy scalar field $\\chi$ on the curvature perturbation $\\zeta$. Integrating out $\\chi$, we derive the effective action for $\\zeta$, which includes the loop corrections of the heavy field $\\chi$. When the mass of $\\chi$ is much larger than the Hubble scale $H$, the loop corrections of $\\chi$ only yield a local contribution in the effective action and hence the effective action simply gives an action for $\\zeta$ in a single field model, where, as is widely known, $\\zeta$ is conserved in time after the Hubble crossing time. Meanwhile, when the mass of $\\chi$ is comparable to $H$, the loop corrections of $\\chi$ can give a non-local contribution to the effective action. Because of the non-local contribution from $\\chi$, in general, $\\zeta$ may not be conserved, even if the classical background trajectory is determined only by the evolution of the inflaton. In this paper, we derive the condition that $\\zeta$ is conserved in time in the pre...

  8. Zeta potential of microfluidic substrates: 2. Data for polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Brian J; Hasselbrink, Ernest F

    2004-01-01

    Zeta potential data are reviewed for a variety of polymeric microfluidic substrate materials. Many of these materials currently used for microchip fabrication have only recently been employed for generation of electroosmotic flow. Despite their recent history, polymeric microfluidic substrates are currently used extensively for microchip separations and other techniques, and understanding of the surface zeta potential is crucial for experimental design. This paper proposes the use of pC (the negative logarithm of the counterion concentration) as a useful normalization for the zeta potential on polymer substrates in contact with indifferent univalent counterions. Normalizing zeta by pC facilitates comparison of results from many investigators. The sparseness of available data for polymeric substrates prevents complete and rigorous justification for this normalization; however, it is consistent with double layer and adsorption theory. For buffers with indifferent univalent cations, normalization with the logarithm of the counterion concentration in general collapses data onto a single zeta/pC vs. pH curve, and (with the exception of PMMA) the repeatability of the data is quite encouraging. Normalization techniques should allow improved ability to predict zeta potential performance on microfluidic substrates and compare results observed with different parameters.

  9. A proof of the Riemann hypothesis by using the series representation of the Riemann zeta function

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Shanguang

    2011-01-01

    The Riemann hypothesis was proved in this paper. First, a curve integral of the Riemann zeta function zeta(s) was formed, which is along a horizontal line from s to 1-\\bar{s} which are two nontrivial zeros of zeta(s) and symmetric about the vertical line Re s=1/2. Next, the result of the curve integral was derived and proved equal to zero. Then, by proving a lemma of central dissymmetry of the Riemann zeta function zeta(s), two nontrivial zeros s and 1-\\bar{s} were proved being a same zero or satisfying 1-\\bar{s}=s. Hence, the nontrivial zeros of zeta(s) all have real part Re s=1/2, that is, the Riemann hypothesis was proved.

  10. Generalised root identities for zeta functions of curves over finite fields

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalised root identities for zeta functions of curves over finite fields, \\zeta_{k}, and compare with the corresponding analysis for the Riemann zeta function. We verify numerically that, as for \\zeta, the \\zeta_{k} do satisfy the generalised root identities and we investigate these in detail for the special cases of \\mu=0,-1\\:\\&\\:-2. Unlike for \\zeta, however, we show that in the setting of zeta functions of curves over finite fields the \\mu=-2 root identity is consistent with the Riemann hypothesis (RH) proved by Weil. Comparison of this analysis with the corresponding calculations for \\zeta illuminates the fact that, even though both \\zeta and \\zeta_{k} have both Euler and Hadamard product representations, it is the detailed structure of the counting function, N(T), which drives the Cesaro computations on the root side of these identities and thereby determines the implications of the root identities for RH in each setting.

  11. On the breakdown of the curvature perturbation $\\zeta$ during reheating

    CERN Document Server

    Algan, Merve Tarman; Kutluk, Emine Seyma

    2015-01-01

    It is known that in single scalar field inflationary models the standard curvature perturbation \\zeta, which is supposedly conserved at superhorizon scales, diverges during reheating at times d\\Phi/dt=0, i.e. when the time derivative of the background inflaton field vanishes. This happens because the comoving gauge \\phi=0, where \\phi\\ denotes the inflaton perturbation, breaks down when d\\Phi/dt=0. The issue is usually bypassed by averaging out the inflaton oscillations but strictly speaking the evolution of \\zeta\\ is ill posed mathematically. We solve this problem by introducing a family of smooth gauges that still eliminates the inflaton fluctuation \\phi\\ in the Hamiltonian formalism and gives a well behaved curvature perturbation \\zeta, which is now rigorously conserved at superhorizon scales. In the linearized theory, this conserved variable can be used to unambiguously propagate the inflationary perturbations from the end of inflation to subsequent epochs. We discuss the implications of our results for th...

  12. Zeta Potential and Rheological Behavior of ULC Castables Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuanchao; WANG Zhanmin; CAO Xiying

    2008-01-01

    Effects of starting materials and four dispersants (STP, SHP, FDN and FS60) on Zeta potential and rheological behavior of alumina based ULC castables matrix were investigated. The results show that: characteristics of silica fume and alumina cements play a very important role in Zeta potential and viscosity of suspensions of the castables matrix; the dispersants STP and SHP can change Zeta potential values of the matrix suspensions remarkably; the four dispersants can effectively improve the rheological properties of matrix suspensions. For the point of lower viscosity of the matrix suspensions, the suitable additions of the three dispersants (SHP, FDN and FS60) are about 0.2% while that of STP is about 0.3%.

  13. Analytic continuation of the Hurwitz Zeta Function with physical application

    CERN Document Server

    Barone-Adesi, V; Adesi, Vittorio Barone; Zerbini, Sergio

    2001-01-01

    A new formula relating the analytic continuation ofthe Hurwitz zeta function to the Euler gamma function and a "Schwinger" type series is presented. In particular, the value of the derivative of the real part of the analytic continuation of the Hurwitz zeta function for even negative integers and the imaginary one for odd negative integers are explicitly given. The result can be of interest both on mathematical and physical side, because we are able to apply our new formulas in the context of the Spectral Zeta Function regularization of one-loop Quantum Field Theory, computing the exact pair production rate per space-time unit of massive Dirac particles interacting with a purely electric background field.

  14. A new generalization of the Riemann zeta function and its difference equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadir Asghar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have introduced a new generalization of the Riemann zeta function. A special case of our generalization converges locally uniformly to the Riemann zeta function in the critical strip. It approximates the trivial and non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. Some properties of the generalized Riemann zeta function are investigated. The relation between the function and the general Hurwitz zeta function is exploited to deduce new identities.

  15. From Fourier Series to Rapidly Convergent Series for Zeta(3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheufens, Ernst E

    2011-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical study which investigates the exact values of the Riemann zeta (ζ) function. It states that exact values can be determined from Fourier series for periodic versions of even power functions. It notes that using power series for logarithmic functions on this such ......The article presents a mathematical study which investigates the exact values of the Riemann zeta (ζ) function. It states that exact values can be determined from Fourier series for periodic versions of even power functions. It notes that using power series for logarithmic functions...

  16. Zeta Regularized Product Expressions for Multiple Trigonometric Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Nobushige; Wakayama, Masato

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a multiple analogue of the gamma function which differs from the one defined by Barnes [B]. Using this function, we give expressions of the multiple sine and cosine functions in terms of zeta regularized products. The expression of the multiple sine function can be interpreted as a reflection formula of this new multiple analogue of the gamma function.

  17. On the zeros of the Epstein zeta function

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Srinivas, Kotyada

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we count the number of consecutive zeros of the Epstein zeta-function, associated to a certain quadratic form, on the critical line with ordinates lying in $[0,T], T$ sufficiently large and which are separated apart by a given positive number $V$.

  18. Zeta-potential of fouled thin film composite membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Hachisuka, H.; Nakamura, T. [Nitto denko Corp., Ibaraki, (Japan); Kimura, S. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Environ. Chemical Engineering; Ueyama, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-10-01

    The surface zeta-potential of a cross-linked polyamide thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane was measured using an electrophoresis method. It was confirmed that this method could be effectively applied to analyze the fouling of such membranes. It is known that the water flux of membranes drastically decreases as a result of fouling by surfactants. Although the surfactants adsorbed on reverse osmosis membranes could not be detected by conventional methods such as SEM, EDX and FT-IR, their presence could be clarified by the profile measurements of the surface zeta-potential. The profiles of the membrane surface zeta-potentials changed to more positive values in the measured pH range as a result of fouling by cationic or amphoteric surfactants. This measuring method of surface zeta-potentials allowed us to analyze a very small amount of fouling of a thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane. This method could be used to analyze the fouled surface of the thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane which is used for production of ultrapure water and shows a remarkable decrease in flux. It also became clear that this method is easy and effective for the reverse osmosis membrane surface analysis of adsorbed materials such as surfactants. (author)

  19. TC Trends And Terrestrial Planet Formation: The Case of Zeta Reticuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardan, Adibekyan; Delgado-Mena, Elisa; Figueira, Pedro; Sousa, Sergio; Santos, Nuno; Faria, Joao; González Hernández, Jonay; Israelian, Garik; Harutyunyan, Gohar; Suárez-Andrés, Lucia; Hakobyan, Arthur

    2016-11-01

    During the last decade astronomers have been trying to search for chemical signatures of terrestrial planet formation in the atmospheres of the hosting stars. Several studies suggested that the chemical abundance trend with the condensation temperature, Tc, is a signature of rocky planet formation. In particular, it was suggested that the Sun shows 'peculiar' chemical abundances due to the presence of the terrestrial planets in our solar-system. However, the rocky material accretion or the trap of rocky materials in terrestrial planets is not the only explanation for the chemical 'peculiarity' of the Sun, or other Sun-like stars with planets. In this talk I madea very brief review of this topic, and presented our last results for the particular case of Zeta Reticuli binary system: A very interesting and well-known system (known in science fiction and ufology as the world of Grey Aliens, or Reticulans) where one of the components hosts an exo-Kuiper belt, and the other component is a 'single', 'lonely' star.

  20. Lecture notes: string theory and zeta-function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppan, Francesco [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: toppan@cbpf.br

    2001-11-01

    These lecture notes are based on a revised and LaTexed version of the Master thesis defended at ISAS. The research part being omitted, they included a review of the bosonic closed string a la Polyakov and of the one-loop background field method of quantisation defined through the zeta-function. In an appendix some basic features of the Riemann zeta-function are also reviewed. The pedagogical aspects of the material here presented are particularly emphasized. These notes are used, together with the Scherk's article in Rev. Mod. Phys. and the first volume of the Polchinski book, for the mini-course on String Theory (16-hours of lectures) held at CBPF. In this course the Green-Schwarz-Witten two-volumes book is also used for consultative purposes. (author)

  1. Zeta-function approach to Casimir energy with singular potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Khusnutdinov, N R

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of zeta-function approach the Casimir energy for three simple model system: single delta potential, step function potential and three delta potentials is analyzed. It is shown that the energy contains contributions which are peculiar to the potentials. It is suggested to renormalize the energy using the condition that the energy of infinitely separated potentials is zero which corresponds to subtraction all terms of asymptotic expansion of zeta-function. The energy obtained in this way obeys all physically reasonable conditions. It is finite in the Dirichlet limit and it may be attractive or repulsive depending on the strength of potential. The effective action is calculated and it is shown that the surface contribution appears. The renormalization of the effective action is discussed.

  2. Well-rounded zeta-function of planar arithmetic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Fukshansky, Lenny

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the zeta-function of well-rounded sublattices of a fixed arithmetic lattice in the plane. In particular, we show that this function has abscissa of convergence at $s=1$ with a real pole of order 2, improving upon a recent result of S. Kuehnlein. We use this result to show that the number of well-rounded sublattices of a planar arithmetic lattice of index less or equal $N$ is $O(N \\log N)$ as $N \\to \\infty$. To obtain these results, we produce a description of integral well-rounded sublattices of a fixed planar integral well-rounded lattice and investigate convergence properties of a zeta-function of similarity classes of such lattices, building on some previous results of the author.

  3. Transient zeta-potential measurements in hydrophobic, TOPAS microfluidic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Vishal; Bhagavatula, Sharath K; Kirby, Brian J

    2009-08-01

    We utilize time-resolved electrokinetic measurements in order to study the electrokinetic properties of silica and TOPAS microfluidic channels as a function of the time history of the fluid-solid interface. In pressure-driven flow through TOPAS microchannels, the zeta-potential as inferred from streaming potential measurements decays exponentially by a factor of 1.5 with a characteristic decay time of 3 h after the initial formation of the fluid-solid interface. A similar exponential decay is observed immediately after water is exchanged for ethanol as the solvent in the system. In electroosmotically driven flow through TOPAS microchannels, the zeta-potential as inferred through current monitoring experiments was constant in time. No electrokinetic transients were observed in silica microchannels under these flow conditions.

  4. Consistency relations and conservation of $\\zeta$ in holographic inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that, in single clock inflation, the curvature perturbation $\\zeta$ is constant in time on superhorizon scales. In the standard bulk description this follows quite simply from the local conservation of the energy momentum tensor in the bulk. On the other hand, in a holographic description, the constancy of the curvature perturbation must be related to the properties of the RG flow in the boundary theory. Here, we show that, in single clock holographic inflation, the time independence of correlators of $\\zeta$ follows from the cut-off independence of correlators of the energy momentum tensor in the boundary theory, and from the so-called consistency relations for vertex functions with a soft leg.

  5. On A Rapidly Converging Series For The Riemann Zeta Function

    CERN Document Server

    Pichler, Alois

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate Riemann's zeta function is important for many investigations related to the area of number theory, and to have quickly converging series at hand in particular. We investigate a class of summation formulae and find, as a special case, a new proof of a rapidly converging series for the Riemann zeta function. The series converges in the entire complex plane, its rate of convergence being significantly faster than comparable representations, and so is a useful basis for evaluation algorithms. The evaluation of corresponding coefficients is not problematic, and precise convergence rates are elaborated in detail. The globally converging series obtained allow to reduce Riemann's hypothesis to similar properties on polynomials. And interestingly, Laguerre's polynomials form a kind of leitmotif through all sections.

  6. The Zeta Functions of Complexes from $\\Sp(4)$

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Yang; Wang, Chian-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Let $F$ be a non-archimedean local field with a finite residue field. To a 2-dimensional finite complex $X_\\Gamma$ arising as the quotient of the Bruhat-Tits building $X$ associated to $\\Sp_4(F)$ by a discrete torsion-free cocompact subgroup $\\Gamma$ of $\\PGSp_4(F)$, associate the zeta function $Z(X_{\\Gamma}, u)$ which counts geodesic tailless cycles contained in the 1-skeleton of $X_{\\Gamma}$. Using a representation-theoretic approach, we obtain two closed form expressions for $Z(X_{\\Gamma}, u)$ as a rational function in $u$. Equivalent statements for $X_{\\Gamma}$ being a Ramanujan complex are given in terms of vertex, edge, and chamber adjacency operators, respectively. The zeta functions of such Ramanujan complexes are distinguished by satisfying the Riemann Hypothesis.

  7. Lowest Landau level on a cone and zeta determinants

    CERN Document Server

    Klevtsov, Semyon

    2016-01-01

    We consider the integer QH state on Riemann surfaces with conical singularities, with the main objective of detecting the effect of the gravitational anomaly directly from the form of the wave function on a singular geometry. We suggest the formula expressing the normalisation factor of the holomorphic state in terms of the regularized zeta determinant on conical surfaces and check this relation for some model geometries. We also comment on possible extensions of this result to the fractional QH states.

  8. Distribution of zeta zeroes of Artin--Schreier curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Alina; Feigon, Brooke; Lalin, Matilde; Sinha, Kaneenika

    2011-01-01

    We study the distribution of the zeroes of the zeta functions of the family of Artin-Schreier curves over $\\mathbb{F}_q$ when $q$ is fixed and the genus goes to infinity. We consider both the global and the mesoscopic regimes, proving that when the genus goes to infinity, the number of zeroes with angles in a prescribed interval of $[-\\pi,\\pi)$ has a standard Gaussian distribution (when properly normalized).

  9. Can Eccentric Debris Disks Be Long-lived? A First Numerical Investigation and Application to Zeta(exp 2) Reticuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramaz, V.; Beust, H.; Thebault, P.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bonsor, A.; delBurgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Milli, J.; Montesinos, B.; Mora, A.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, William C.; Eiroa, C.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Imaging of debris disks has found evidence for both eccentric and offset disks. One hypothesis is that they provide evidence for massive perturbers, for example, planets or binary companions, which sculpt the observed structures. One such disk was recently observed in the far-IR by the Herschel Space Observatory around Zeta2 Reticuli. In contrast with previously reported systems, the disk is significantly eccentric, and the system is several Gyr old. Aims. We aim to investigate the long-term evolution of eccentric structures in debris disks caused by a perturber on an eccentric orbit around the star. We hypothesise that the observed eccentric disk around Zeta2 Reticuli might be evidence of such a scenario. If so, we are able to constrain the mass and orbit of a potential perturber, either a giant planet or a binary companion. Methods. Analytical techniques were used to predict the effects of a perturber on a debris disk. Numerical N-body simulations were used to verify these results and further investigate the observable structures that may be produced by eccentric perturbers. The long-term evolution of the disk geometry was examined, with particular application to the Zeta2 Reticuli system. In addition, synthetic images of the disk were produced for direct comparison with Herschel observations. Results. We show that an eccentric companion can produce both the observed offsets and eccentric disks. These effects are not immediate, and we characterise the timescale required for the disk to develop to an eccentric state (and any spirals to vanish). For Zeta2 Reticuli, we derive limits on the mass and orbit of the companion required to produce the observations. Synthetic images show that the pattern observed around Zeta2 Reticuli can be produced by an eccentric disk seen close to edge-on, and allow us to bring additional constraints on the disk parameters of our model (disk flux and extent). Conclusions. We conclude that eccentric planets or stellar companions

  10. On the Laurent series for the Epstein zeta function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    The Epstein zeta function ζ d [ M ; s ] ≡ ∑ n ∈ Z d ‧ ( n M n T ) - s 2 , where {M} is a real symmetric and invertible d × d matrix and {n} is a d-dimensional row vector ({n}1,{n}2,\\ldots ,{n}d) with integer coordinates {n}i, is considered. (The prime on the sum indicates that the term {n}={0} should be excluded.) It is known that {\\zeta }d[{M};s] has a Laurent series expansion about the singular point s = d which can be written in the form ζ d [ M ; s ] = ∑ ν = - 1 ∞ A ν [ M ; d ] ( s - d ) ν . In this paper we shall show that the coefficient {A}ν [{M};d] can be accurately calculated using rapidly convergent series which involve the Meijer G-function. Exact formulae are also derived for {A}ν [{M};2] when M = U N ≡ 1 0 0 N , with N=1,2,\\ldots . The results for {A}0[{{U}}N;2] are then used to establish several mathematical identities involving summations of generalized Stieltjes constants. Next the Laurent series for {\\zeta }d[{{I}}d;s], where {{I}}d is the d × d unit matrix, is briefly discussed for the cases d=3,4,6 and 8. Finally, a new application of the results in lattice statistics is described.

  11. The cyclic AMP response element modulator regulates transcription of the TCR zeta-chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenbrock, K; Kyttaris, VC; Ahlmann, M; Ehrchen, JA; Tolnay, M; Melkonyan, H; Mawrin, C; Roth, J; Sorg, C; Juang, YT; Tsokos, GC

    2005-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematusus T cells display decreased amounts of TCR zeta mRNA that results in part from limited binding of the transcriptional enhancer Elf-1 to the TCR zeta promoter. We have identified a new cis-binding site for the cAMP response element (CRE) modulator (CREM) on the TCR zeta pro

  12. Landau-Siegel zeros and zeros of the derivative of the Riemann zeta function

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, David W

    2010-01-01

    We show that if the derivative of the Riemann zeta function has sufficiently many zeros close to the critical line, then the zeta function has many closely spaced zeros. This gives a condition on the zeros of the derivative of the zeta function which implies a lower bound of the class numbers of imaginary quadratic fields.

  13. A detailed X-ray investigation of {\\zeta} Puppis III. A spectral analysis of the whole RGS spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Hervé, A; Nazé, Y

    2013-01-01

    Context. Zeta Pup is the X-ray brightest O-type star of the sky. This object was regularly observed with the RGS instrument aboard XMM-Newton for calibration purposes, leading to an unprecedented set of high-quality spectra. Aims. We have previously reduced and extracted this data set and combined it into the most detailed high-resolution X-ray spectrum of any early-type star so far. Here we present the analysis of this spectrum accounting for the presence of structures in the stellar wind. Methods. For this purpose, we use our new modeling tool that allows fitting the entire spectrum with a multi-temperature plasma. We illustrate the impact of a proper treatment of the radial dependence of the X-ray opacity of the cool wind on the best-fit radial distribution of the temperature of the X-ray plasma. Results. The best fit of the RGS spectrum of Zeta Pup is obtained assuming no porosity. Four plasma components at temperatures between 0.10 and 0.69 keV are needed to adequately represent the observed spectrum. Wh...

  14. Proof of generalized Riemann hypothesis for Dedekind zetas and Dirichlet L-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Mcadrecki, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    A short proof of the generalized Riemann hypothesis (gRH in short) for zeta functions $\\zeta_{k}$ of algebraic number fields $k$ - based on the Hecke's proof of the functional equation for $\\zeta_{k}$ and the method of the proof of the Riemann hypothesis derived in [$M_{A}$] (algebraic proof of the Riemann hypothesis) is given. The generalized Riemann hypothesis for Dirichlet L-functions is an immediately consequence of (gRH) for $\\zeta_{k}$ and suitable product formula which connects the Dedekind zetas with L-functions.

  15. Understanding the photometric variability of {\\zeta} Ori Aa

    CERN Document Server

    Buysschaert, B; Ramiaramanantsoa, T; Richardson, N D; David-Uraz, A; Moffat, A F J

    2016-01-01

    We studied the variability of the magnetic O-type supergiant $\\zeta$ Ori Aa using multi-colour BRITE photometry. We confirmed the known rotation frequency $f_{\\rm rot} = 0.15 \\pm 0.02$ c/d, and detected some of its higher harmonics, of which $4f_{\\rm rot}$ is compatible with the known DAC recurrence timescale. Thanks to simultaneous high-resolution CHIRON spectroscopy, we could identify another frequency $f_{\\rm env} = 0.10 \\pm 0.02$ c/d, caused by the circumstellar environment. Variations in the circumstellar environment are believed to cause the observed difference between the BRITE lightcurves.

  16. Local zeta factors and geometries under Spec Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manin, Yu I.

    2016-08-01

    The first part of this note shows that the odd-period polynomial of each Hecke cusp eigenform for the full modular group produces via the Rodriguez-Villegas transform ([1]) a polynomial satisfying the functional equation of zeta type and having non-trivial zeros only in the middle line of its critical strip. The second part discusses the Chebyshev lambda-structure of the polynomial ring as Borger's descent data to \\mathbf{F}_1 and suggests its role in a possible relation of the Γ\\mathbf{R}-factor to 'real geometry over \\mathbf{F}_1' (cf. [2]).

  17. Riemann zeta function from wave-packet dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mack, R.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Moya-Cessa, H.

    2010-01-01

    is governed by the temperature of the thermal phase state and tau is proportional to t. We use the JWKB method to solve the inverse spectral problem for a general logarithmic energy spectrum; that is, we determine a family of potentials giving rise to such a spectrum. For large distances, all potentials...... index of JWKB. We compare and contrast exact and approximate eigenvalues of purely logarithmic potentials. Moreover, we use a numerical method to find a potential which leads to exact logarithmic eigenvalues. We discuss possible realizations of Riemann zeta wave-packet dynamics using cold atoms...

  18. Binding of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) to phospholipid membranes: potential role of an unstructured cluster of basic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikos, Michail; Mulgrew-Nesbitt, Anna; Pallavi, Payal; Mihalyne, Gyongyi; Zaitseva, Irina; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony; Murray, Diana; McLaughlin, Stuart

    2007-06-01

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) is a sperm-specific enzyme that initiates the Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs that activate embryo development. It shares considerable sequence homology with PLC-delta1, but lacks the PH domain that anchors PLC-delta1 to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, PIP2. Thus it is unclear how PLC-zeta interacts with membranes. The linker region between the X and Y catalytic domains of PLC-zeta, however, contains a cluster of basic residues not present in PLC-delta1. Application of electrostatic theory to a homology model of PLC-zeta suggests this basic cluster could interact with acidic lipids. We measured the binding of catalytically competent mouse PLC-zeta to phospholipid vesicles: for 2:1 phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS) vesicles, the molar partition coefficient, K, is too weak to be of physiological significance. Incorporating 1% PIP2 into the 2:1 PC/PS vesicles increases K about 10-fold, to 5x10(3) M-1, a biologically relevant value. Expressed fragments corresponding to the PLC-zeta X-Y linker region also bind with higher affinity to polyvalent than monovalent phosphoinositides on nitrocellulose filters. A peptide corresponding to the basic cluster (charge=+7) within the linker region, PLC-zeta-(374-385), binds to PC/PS vesicles with higher affinity than PLC-zeta, but its binding is less sensitive to incorporating PIP2. The acidic residues flanking this basic cluster in PLC-zeta may account for both these phenomena. FRET experiments suggest the basic cluster could not only anchor the protein to the membrane, but also enhance the local concentration of PIP2 adjacent to the catalytic domain.

  19. Potencial zeta de sulfatos de de bario y de estroncio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Delgado M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de la electroforesis se determinó las movilidades electroforéticas y los potenciales zeta del sulfato de bario a 25,0 °C como función de la fuerza iónica de NaCI, así como del Sulfato de estroncio en función de la fuerza iónica del cloruro de sodio y del pH. Se encontró que el amento de la fuerza iónica de NaCI causa un cambio del Potencial Zeta negativo del sulfato de estroncio a positivo con valor cero a aprox. 0,06 de fuerza iónica. El P.Z. del sulfato de estroncio es positivo a pH inferiores a aprox. 2,5 y negativo a pH superiores. El sulfato de bario presenta P.Z. negativas a fuerza iónicas de NaCI inferiores a aprox. 0.06 y PZ positivos a fuerzas iónicas mayores

  20. Measuring the zeta potential. The relationships with sandstone fineness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of the zeta potential technique in the area of construction materials and Portland cement is quite recent. The initial research work involved the study of cement suspensions or suspensions of one of the components of cement, such as alite, tricalcium alumínate, in the presence of additives and, more specifically, superplasticizers. The studies of this sort were extended with the mixing of active additions into cement (fly ashes, etc.. The present study discusses the application of siliceous materials (sandstone as a basis of the research into the behaviour of sandstone mortars containing repair products.

    La aplicación de la técnica del potencial zeta en el campo de los materiales de construcción y del cemento portland es muy reciente. Las primeras investigaciones se refieren al estudio de suspensiones de cemento o de alguno de sus compuestos que lo forman como alita, aluminato tricálcico, en presencia de aditivos y, más concretamente, de superfluidificantes. Con la incorporación de adiciones activas al cemento (cenizas volantes,... se amplían los estudios de este tipo de cementos. En este trabajo se considera la aplicación a los materiales silíceos (arenisca como base para la investigación del comportamiento de los morteros de arenisca conteniendo productos de reparación.

  1. Riemann Hypothesis and Random Walks: the Zeta case

    CERN Document Server

    LeClair, André

    2016-01-01

    In previous work it was shown that if certain series based on sums over primes of non-principal Dirichlet characters have a conjectured random walk behavior, then the Euler product formula for its $L$-function is valid to the right of the critical line $\\Re (s) > 1/2$, and the Riemann Hypothesis for this class of $L$-functions follows. Building on this work, here we propose how to extend this line of reasoning to the Riemann zeta function and other principal Dirichlet $L$-functions. We use our results to argue that $ S_\\delta (t) \\equiv \\lim_{\\delta \\to 0^+} \\dfrac{1}{\\pi} \\arg \\zeta (\\tfrac{1}{2}+ \\delta + i t ) = O(1)$, and that it is nearly always on the principal branch. We conjecture that a 1-point correlation function of the Riemann zeros has a normal distribution. This leads to the construction of a probabilistic model for the zeros. Based on these results we describe a new algorithm for computing very high Riemann zeros as a kind of stochastic process, and we calculate the $10^{100}$-th zero to over 1...

  2. Measuring zeta potential of protein nano-particles using electroacoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhin, A S; Parlia, S

    2014-09-01

    Electroacoustic spectroscopy offers a simple way for measuring the zeta potential of proteins in physiological solutions with high ionic strength. Ultrasound as a driving force does not generate the heat effects which complicate traditional electrophoretic measurements at high ionic strength. In addition, measurements can be conducted with concentrated protein dispersions without dilution, as is required by electrophoretic methods. This paper presents results for electroacoustic measurements of 5wt.% bovine serum albumin suspended in aqueous solutions. In these suspensions the proteins are not completely dissolved; they form nano-particles with a median size of about 180nm. We studied the dependence of zeta potential on ionic strength within a wide range of salt molarities, up to as high as 0.5mol/L. Dialysis was used for performing measurements at lower ionic strength range. We also conducted pH titrations of this system and titrations with Ca(2+) ions. Our results agree well with published data for samples where such data is available.

  3. Diacylglycerol kinase-zeta localization in skeletal muscle is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with syntrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H

    2003-11-01

    Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis.

  4. Zeta diversity as a concept and metric that unifies incidence-based biodiversity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cang; McGeoch, Melodie A

    2014-11-01

    Patterns in species incidence and compositional turnover are central to understanding what drives biodiversity. Here we propose zeta (ζ) diversity, the number of species shared by multiple assemblages, as a concept and metric that unifies incidence-based diversity measures, patterns, and relationships. Unlike other measures of species compositional turnover, zeta diversity partitioning quantifies the complete set of diversity components for multiple assemblages, comprehensively representing the spatial structure of multispecies distributions. To illustrate the application and ecological value of zeta diversity, we show how it scales with sample number, grain, and distance. Zeta diversity reconciles several different biodiversity patterns, including the species accumulation curve, the species-area relationship, multispecies occupancy patterns, and scaling of species endemism. Exponential and power-law forms of zeta diversity are associated with stochastic versus niche assembly processes. Zeta diversity may provide new insights on biodiversity patterns, the processes driving them, and their response to environmental change.

  5. Central Binomial Sums, Multiple Clausen Values and Zeta Values

    CERN Document Server

    Borwein, J M; Kamnitzer, J

    2000-01-01

    We find and prove relationships between Riemann zeta values and central binomial sums. We also investigate alternating binomial sums (also called Ap\\'ery sums). The study of non-alternating sums leads to an investigation of different types of sums which we call multiple Clausen values. The study of alternating sums leads to a tower of experimental results involving polylogarithms in the golden ratio. In the non-alternating case, there is a strong connection to polylogarithms of the sixth root of unity, encountered in the 3-loop Feynman diagrams of {\\tt hep-th/9803091} and subsequently in hep-ph/9910223, hep-ph/9910224, cond-mat/9911452 and hep-th/0004010.

  6. Where do the tedious products of zetas come from?

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, D J

    2003-01-01

    Lamentably, the full analytical content of the epsilon-expansion of the master two-loop two-point function, with arbitrary self-energy insertions in 4-2epsilon dimensions, is still unknown. Here we show that multiple zeta values (MZVs) of weights up to 12 suffice through O(epsilon^9). Products of primitive MZVs are generated by a processes of "pseudo-exponentiation"" whose combinatorics faithfully accord with expectations based on Kreimer's modified shuffle product and on the Drinfeld-Deligne conjecture. The existence of such a mechanism, relating thousands of complicated rational numbers, enables us to identify precise and simple combinations of MZVs specific to quantum field theories in even numbers of spacetime dimensions.

  7. Zeta function zeros, powers of primes, and quantum chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhr, Jamal; Bhaduri, Rajat K; van Zyl, Brandon P

    2003-08-01

    We present a numerical study of Riemann's formula for the oscillating part of the density of the primes and their integer powers. The formula consists of an infinite series of oscillatory terms, one for each zero of the zeta function on the critical line, and was derived by Riemann in his paper on primes, assuming the Riemann hypothesis. We show that high-resolution spectral lines can be generated by the truncated series at all integer powers of primes and demonstrate explicitly that the relative line intensities are correct. We then derive a Gaussian sum rule for Riemann's formula. This is used to analyze the numerical convergence of the truncated series. The connections to quantum chaos and semiclassical physics are discussed.

  8. On the local zeta functions and the b-functions of certain hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Budur, Nero; Yuzvinsky, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Conjectures of J. Igusa for p-adic local zeta functions and of J. Denef and F. Loeser for topological local zeta functions assert that (the real part of) the poles of these local zeta functions are roots of the Bernstein-Sato polynomials (i.e. the b-functions). We prove these conjectures for certain hyperplane arrangements, including the case of reduced hyperplane arrangements in three-dimensional affine space.

  9. Zeta Potential of Modified Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Presence of poly (vinyl alcohol) Hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    de la Cruz, EF; Zheng, Y.; Torres, E; Li, W.; Song, W; Burugapalli, K

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is investigate the behavior of the Zeta Potential of the MWCNT modified with SDS(Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) and CTAB(Cetyl Tetraethyl Ammonium Bromide) in presence of PVA. Full hydrolyzed PVA was used. As a result, adding PVA in the CNT solution led to decrease the Zeta Potential. The Zeta Potential of suspended colloid varied from 42.00mV to 6.48mV and -45.00mV to -6.4mV at 1.5% concentration of PVA; according with the changing pH, the Zeta Potential dropped to ...

  10. An elementary and real approach to values of the Riemann zeta function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasaryan, A. G.

    2010-02-01

    An elementary approach for computing the values at negative integers of the Riemann zeta function is presented. The approach is based on a new method for ordering the integers. We show that the values of the Riemann zeta function can be computed, without using the theory of analytic continuation and any knowledge of functions of complex variable.

  11. Random matrix theory and discrete moments of the Riemann zeta function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, C P [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2003-03-28

    We calculate the discrete moments of the characteristic polynomial of a random unitary matrix, evaluated a small distance away from an eigenangle. Such results allow us to make conjectures about similar moments for the Riemann zeta function, and provide a uniform approach to understanding moments of the zeta function and its derivative.

  12. Zeta Function Expression of Spin Partition Functions on Thermal AdS3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floyd L.Williams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We find a Selberg zeta function expression of certain one-loop spin partition functions on three-dimensional thermal anti-de Sitter space. Of particular interest is the partition function of higher spin fermionic particles. We also set up, in the presence of spin, a Patterson-type formula involving the logarithmic derivative of zeta.

  13. Multi-loop zeta function regularization and spectral cutoff in curved spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilal, Adel, E-mail: adel.bilal@lpt.ens.fr [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l' École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ferrari, Frank, E-mail: frank.ferrari@ulb.ac.be [Service de Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine, CP 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2013-12-21

    We emphasize the close relationship between zeta function methods and arbitrary spectral cutoff regularizations in curved spacetime. This yields, on the one hand, a physically sound and mathematically rigorous justification of the standard zeta function regularization at one loop and, on the other hand, a natural generalization of this method to higher loops. In particular, to any Feynman diagram is associated a generalized meromorphic zeta function. For the one-loop vacuum diagram, it is directly related to the usual spectral zeta function. To any loop order, the renormalized amplitudes can be read off from the pole structure of the generalized zeta functions. We focus on scalar field theories and illustrate the general formalism by explicit calculations at one-loop and two-loop orders, including a two-loop evaluation of the conformal anomaly.

  14. Influence of surface conductivity on the apparent zeta potential of calcite

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shuai; Heberling, Frank; Devau, Nicolas; Jougnot, Damien; Chiaberge, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Zeta potential is a physicochemical parameter of particular importance in describing the surface electrical properties of charged porous media. However, the zeta potential of calcite is still poorly known because of the difficulty to interpret streaming potential experiments. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation is widely used to estimate the apparent zeta potential from these experiments. However, this equation neglects the influence of surface conductivity on streaming potential. We present streaming potential and electrical conductivity measurements on a calcite powder in contact with an aqueous NaCl electrolyte. Our streaming potential model corrects the apparent zeta potential of calcite by accounting for the influence of surface conductivity and flow regime. We show that the HS equation seriously underestimates the zeta potential of calcite, particularly when the electrolyte is diluted (ionic strength < 0.01 M) because of calcite surface conductivity. The basic Stern model successfully predicted ...

  15. DNA polymerase zeta (polζ) in higher eukaryotes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregory N Gan; John P Wittschieben; Birgitte φ Wittschieben; Richard D Wood

    2008-01-01

    Most current knowledge about DNA polymerase zeta (pol ζ) comes from studies of the enzyme in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where polζ consists of a complex of the catalytic subunit Rev3 with Rev7, which associates with Rev1. Most spontaneous and induced mutagenesis in yeast is dependent on these gene products, and yeast pol can mediate translesion DNA synthesis past some adducts in DNA templates. Study of the homologous gene products in higher eukaryotes is in a relatively early stage, but additional functions for the eukaryotic proteins are already appar-ent. Suppression of vertebrate REV3L function not only reduces induced point mutagenesis but also causes larger-scale genuine instability by raising the frequency of spontaneous chromosome translocations. Disruption of Rev3L function is tolerated in Drosophila, Arabidopsis, and in vertebrate cell lines under some conditions, but is incompatible with mouse embryonic development. Functions for REV3L and REV7(MAD2B) in higher eukaryotes have been suggested not only in translesion DNA synthesis but also in some forms of homologous recombination, repair ofinterstrand DNA erosslinks, somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes and cell-cycle control. This review discusses recent devel-opments in these areas.

  16. Intermediate- and High-Velocity Ionized Gas toward zeta Orionis

    CERN Document Server

    Welty, D E; Raymond, J C; Mallouris, C; York, D G

    2002-01-01

    We combine UV spectra obtained with the HST/GHRS echelle, IMAPS, and Copernicus to study the abundances and physical conditions in the predominantly ionized gas seen at high (-105 to -65 km/s) and intermediate velocities (-60 to -10 km/s) toward zeta Ori. We have high resolution (FWHM ~ 3.3-4.5 km/s) and/or high S/N spectra for at least two significant ions of C, N, Al, Si, S, and Fe -- enabling accurate estimates for both the total N(H II) and the elemental depletions. C, N, and S have essentially solar relative abundances; Al, Si, and Fe appear to be depleted by about 0.8, 0.3-0.4, and 0.95 dex, respectively. While various ion ratios would be consistent with collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) for T ~ 25,000-80,000 K, the widths of individual high-velocity absorption components indicate that T ~ 9000 K -- so the gas is not in CIE. Analysis of the C II fine-structure excitation equilibrium yields estimated densities (n_e ~ n_H ~ 0.1-0.2 cm^{-3}), thermal pressures (2 n_H T ~ 2000-4000 cm^{-3}K), and thi...

  17. Standard Model with extra dimensions and its zeta function regularization

    CERN Document Server

    García-Jiménez, I; Martínez-Pascual, E; Nápoles-Cañedo, G I; Novales-Sánchez, H; Toscano, J J

    2016-01-01

    We start from a field theory governed by the extra-dimensional $ISO(1,3+n)$ Poincar\\'e group and by the extended SM gauge group, $G({\\cal M}^{4+n})$. Then we construct an effective field theory whose symmetry groups are $ISO(1,3)$ and $G({\\cal M}^{4})$. The transition is carried out via two canonical transformations: a map that preserves, but it hides, the $SO(1,3+n)$ symmetry; and a transformation, given by Fourier series, that explicitly breaks $ISO(1,3+n)$ into $ISO(1,3)$, but conserves and hides the gauge symmetry $G({\\cal M}^{4+n})$, which manifests through nonstandard gauge transformations. From the 4-dimensional perspective, a particle that propagates in compact extra dimensions unfolds into a family of fields that reduces to the SM field if the size of the compact manifold is negligible. We include a full catalogue of Lagrangian terms that can be used to derive Feynman rules. The divergent character of the theory at one-loop is studied. A regularization scheme, based on the Epstein zeta function (EZF)...

  18. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T C; Sarnak, P; Pugh, M C

    2000-11-21

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues ("the energy levels") follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks.

  19. Zeta potentials in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerstenau, D W; Pradip

    2005-06-30

    Adsorption of collectors and modifying reagents in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals is controlled by the electrical double layer at the mineral-water interface. In systems where the collector is physically adsorbed, flotation with anionic or cationic collectors depends on the mineral surface being charged oppositely. Adjusting the pH of the system can enhance or prevent the flotation of a mineral. Thus, the point of zero charge (PZC) of the mineral is the most important property of a mineral in such systems. The length of the hydrocarbon chain of the collector is important because of chain-chain association enhances the adsorption once the surfactant ions aggregate to form hemimicelles at the surface. Strongly chemisorbing collectors are able to induce flotation even when collector and the mineral surface are charged similarly, but raising the pH sufficiently above the PZC can repel chemisorbing collectors from the mineral surface. Zeta potentials can be used to delineate interfacial phenomena in these various systems.

  20. HST-WFC3 Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Quenched Galaxies at zeta approx 1.5 from the WISP Survey: Stellar Populations Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, A. G.; Scarlata, C.; Henry, A. L.; Atek, H.; Rafelski, M.; Teplitz, H. I.; Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Colbert, J. W.; Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R.; Martin, C. L.; Dressler, A.; Bridge, C.; Hathi, N. P.; Masters, D.; McCarthy, P. J.; Rutkowski, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope (HST) G102 and G141 near-IR (NIR) grism spectroscopy with HST/WFC3- UVIS, HST/WFC3-IR, and Spitzer/IRAC [3.6 microns] photometry to assemble a sample of massive (log(Mstar/M solar mass) at approx 11.0) and quenched (specific star formation rate population properties. We find that their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are well fitted with exponentially decreasing star formation histories and short star formation timescales (tau less than or equal to 100 M/yr). Quenched galaxies also show a wide distribution in ages, between 1 and 4 G/yr. In the (u - r)0-versus-mass space quenched galaxies have a large spread in rest-frame color at a given mass. Most quenched galaxies populate the zeta appro. 1.5 red sequence (RS), but an important fraction of them (32%) have substantially bluer colors. Although with a large spread, we find that the quenched galaxies on the RS have older median ages (3.1 G/yr) than the quenched galaxies off the RS (1.5 G/yr). We also show that a rejuvenated SED cannot reproduce the observed stacked spectra of (the bluer) quenched galaxies off the RS. We derive the upper limit on the fraction of massive galaxies on the RS at zeta approx 1.5 to be 2 and the zeta approx 1.5 RS. According to their estimated ages, the time required for quenched galaxies off the RS to join their counterparts on the z approx. 1.5 RS is of the order of approx. 1G/yr.

  1. On the minima and convexity of Epstein zeta function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. C.; Teo, L. P.

    2008-07-01

    Let Zn(s ;a1,…,an) be the Epstein zeta function defined as the meromorphic continuation of the function ∑k εZn{0}(∑i =1n[aiki]2)-s, Re s>n/2 to the complex plane. We show that for fixed s ≠n/2, the function Zn(s ;a1,…,an) as a function of (a1,…,an)ε(R+)n with fixed ∏i =1nai has a unique minimum at the point a1=⋯=an. When ∑i =1nci is fixed, the function (c1,…,cn)↦Zn(s ;ec1,…,ecn) can be shown to be a convex function of any (n -1) of the variables {c1,…,cn}. These results are then applied to the study of the sign of Zn(s ;a1,…,an) when s is in the critical range (0,n/2). It is shown that when 1≤n≤9, Zn(s ;a1,…,an) as a function of (a1,…,an)ε(R+)n can be both positive and negative for every s ε(0,n/2). When n ≥10, there are some open subsets In,+ of s ε(0,n/2), where Zn(s ;a1,…,an) is positive for all (a1,…,an)ε(R+)n. By regarding Zn(s ;a1,…,an) as a function of s, we find that when n ≥10, the generalized Riemann hypothesis is false for all (a1,…,an).

  2. Determinations of rational Dedekind-$\\zeta$ invariants of hyperbolic manifolds and Feynman knots and links

    CERN Document Server

    Borwein, J M

    1998-01-01

    We identify 998 closed hyperbolic 3-manifolds whose volumes are rationally related to Dedekind zeta values, with coprime integers $a$ and $b$ giving $a/b vol(M)=(-D)^{3/2}/(2\\pi)^{2n-4} (\\zeta_K(2))/(2\\zeta(2))$ for a manifold M whose invariant trace field $K$ has a single complex place, discriminant $D$, degree $n$, and Dedekind zeta value $\\zeta_K(2)$. The largest numerator of the 998 invariants of Hodgson-Weeks manifolds is, astoundingly, $a=2^4\\times23\\times37\\times691 =9,408,656$; the largest denominator is merely b=9. We also study the rational invariant a/b for single-complex-place cusped manifolds, complementary to knots and links, both within and beyond the Hildebrand-Weeks census. Within the censi, we identify 152 distinct Dedekind zetas rationally related to volumes. Moreover, 91 census manifolds have volumes reducible to pairs of these zeta values. Motivated by studies of Feynman diagrams, we find a 10-component 24-crossing link in the case n=2 and D=-20. It is one of 5 alternating platonic links,...

  3. Influence of surface conductivity on the apparent zeta potential of calcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Leroy, Philippe; Heberling, Frank; Devau, Nicolas; Jougnot, Damien; Chiaberge, Christophe

    2016-04-15

    Zeta potential is a physicochemical parameter of particular importance in describing the surface electrical properties of charged porous media. However, the zeta potential of calcite is still poorly known because of the difficulty to interpret streaming potential experiments. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation is widely used to estimate the apparent zeta potential from these experiments. However, this equation neglects the influence of surface conductivity on streaming potential. We present streaming potential and electrical conductivity measurements on a calcite powder in contact with an aqueous NaCl electrolyte. Our streaming potential model corrects the apparent zeta potential of calcite by accounting for the influence of surface conductivity and flow regime. We show that the HS equation seriously underestimates the zeta potential of calcite, particularly when the electrolyte is diluted (ionic strength ⩽ 0.01 M) because of calcite surface conductivity. The basic Stern model successfully predicted the corrected zeta potential by assuming that the zeta potential is located at the outer Helmholtz plane, i.e. without considering a stagnant diffuse layer at the calcite-water interface. The surface conductivity of calcite crystals was inferred from electrical conductivity measurements and computed using our basic Stern model. Surface conductivity was also successfully predicted by our surface complexation model.

  4. A trio of Bernoulli relations, their implications for the Ramanujan polynomials and the zeta constants

    CERN Document Server

    Lettington, Matthew C

    2012-01-01

    We study the interplay between recurrences for zeta related functions at integer values, `Minor Corner Lattice' Toeplitz determinants and integer composition based sums. Our investigations touch on functional identities due to Ramanujan and Grosswald, the transcendence of the zeta function at odd integer values, the Li Criterion for the Riemann Hypothesis and pseudo-characteristic polynomials for zeta related functions. We begin with a result of Lettington's and some seemingly new Bernoulli relations, which we use to obtain a generalised Ramanujan polynomial and properties thereof.

  5. Jacob's ladders and some unbounded decomposition of the $\\zeta$-oscillating systems on products of other $\\zeta$-oscillating systems as an $\\zeta$-analogue of the prime decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce new class of multiplicative interactions of the $\\zeta$-oscillating systems generated by a subset of power functions. The main result obtained expresses an analogue of prime decomposition (without the property of uniqueness). Dedicated to recalling of Nicola Tesla's oscillators

  6. On the sign of the real part of the Riemann zeta-function

    CERN Document Server

    de Reyna, Juan Arias; van de Lune, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We consider the distribution of $\\arg\\zeta(\\sigma+it)$ on fixed lines $\\sigma > \\frac12$, and in particular the density \\[d(\\sigma) = \\lim_{T \\rightarrow +\\infty} \\frac{1}{2T} |\\{t \\in [-T,+T]: |\\arg\\zeta(\\sigma+it)| > \\pi/2\\}|\\,,\\] and the closely related density \\[d_{-}(\\sigma) = \\lim_{T \\rightarrow +\\infty} \\frac{1}{2T} |\\{t \\in [-T,+T]: \\Re\\zeta(\\sigma+it) < 0\\}|\\,.\\] Using classical results of Bohr and Jessen, we obtain an explicit expression for the characteristic function $\\psi_\\sigma(x)$ associated with $\\arg\\zeta(\\sigma+it)$. We give explicit expressions for $d(\\sigma)$ and $d_{-}(\\sigma)$ in terms of $\\psi_\\sigma(x)$. Finally, we give a practical algorithm for evaluating these expressions to obtain accurate numerical values of $d(\\sigma)$ and $d_{-}(\\sigma)$.

  7. Granulometric structure, zeta potential and differential scanning calorimetry of native starch powders from Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildas K. Gbassi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Starch powders from two cultivars of Dioscorea rotundata (DR were analysed on the physicochemical aspect. Granulometric structure, zeta potential and differential scanning calorimetry of starch powders showed the following properties. Various shapes with predominance of granule ranging from 10 to 40 μm were noted. The zeta potential of DR went from positive values to negative values as the pH was increasing from 2 to 8. From pH 2 to 4, the zeta potential was positive. A significant difference was obtained between each value (p > 0.05. The zeta potential took a negative value from pH 5 and above. The results of thermal analysis show that starches start swelling at 68.91.5 C. Enthalpy of gelatinization was about 15 J.g-1 .

  8. Random matrix theory and the zeros of {zeta}'(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezzadri, Francesco [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TW, UK (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-28

    We study the density of the roots of the derivative of the characteristic polynomial Z(U, z) of an N x N random unitary matrix with distribution given by Haar measure on the unitary group. Based on previous random matrix theory models of the Riemann zeta function {zeta}(s), this is expected to be an accurate description for the horizontal distribution of the zeros of {zeta}'(s) to the right of the critical line. We show that as N {yields} {infinity} the fraction of the roots of Z'(U, z) that lie in the region 1 - x/(N - 1) {<=} vertical bar z vertical bar < 1 tends to a limit function. We derive asymptotic expressions for this function in the limits x {yields} {infinity} and x {yields} 0 and compare them with numerical experiments.

  9. Isotypic Decomposition of the Cohomology and Factorization of the Zeta Functions of Dwork Hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Goutet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate, on the example of Dwork hypersurfaces, how the study of the representation of a finite group of automorphisms of a hypersurface in its etale cohomology allows to factor its zeta function.

  10. Physical properties of nanofluid suspension of ferromagnetic graphite with high Zeta potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, N. S.; Rodrigues, A. D.; Cardoso, C. A.; Pardo, H.; Faccio, R.; Mombru, A. W.; Galzerani, J. C.; de Lima, O. F.; Sergeenkov, S.; Araujo-Moreira, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the magnetic properties and stability of nanofluid ferromagnetic graphite (NFMG) studied through the measurements of its magnetization hysteresis curves, Raman spectrum and the so-called Zeta potential. The obtained results suggest a robust ferromagnetic behavior of NFMG even at room temperature along with a good stability of the dispersed solution (with Zeta potential around 41.3 mV) and a good reactivity between magnetic graphite and CTAB type cationic surfactant.

  11. Seiberg duality, quiver gauge theories, and Ihara’s zeta function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Da; Xiao, Yan; He, Yang-Hui

    2015-07-01

    We study Ihara’s zeta function for graphs in the context of quivers arising from gauge theories, especially under Seiberg duality transformations. The distribution of poles is studied as we proceed along the duality tree, in light of the weak and strong graph versions of the Riemann Hypothesis. As a by-product, we find a refined version of Ihara’s zeta function to be the generating function for the generic superpotential of the gauge theory.

  12. A3V2(PO4)3 (A = Na or Li) probed by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivko, Maja; Arcon, Iztok; Bele, Marjan; Dominko, Robert; Gaberscek, Miran

    2012-10-01

    Two stable modifications of A3V2(PO4)3 (A = Na or Li) were synthesized by citric acid assisted modified sol-gel synthesis. The obtained samples were phase pure Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 materials embedded in a carbon matrix. The samples were tested as half cells against lithium or sodium metal. Both samples delivered about 90 mAh g-1 at a C/10 cycling rate. The change of vanadium oxidation state and changes in the local environment of redox center for both materials were probed by in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Oxidation state of vanadium was determined by energy shift of the absorption edge. The reversible change of valence from trivalent to tetravalent oxidation state was determined in the potential window used in our experiments. Small reversible changes in the interatomic distances due to the relaxation of the structure in the process of alkali metal extraction and insertion were observed. Local environment (vanadium-oxygen bond distances) after 1st cycle were found to be the same as in the starting material. Both structures have been found very rigid without significant changes during alkali metal extraction.

  13. Zeta potential of mica covered by colloid particles: a streaming potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Zaucha, Maria; Zembala, Maria

    2010-06-15

    The streaming potential of mica covered by monodisperse latex particles was measured using the parallel-plate channel, four-electrode cell. The zeta potential of latex bearing amidine charged groups was regulated by the addition of NaCl (10(-4)-10(-2) M) and MgCl(2) (10(-4)-10(-2) M) at a constant pH 5.5 and by the change in pH (4-12) at 10(-2) M NaCl. The size of the latex particles, determined by dynamic light scattering, varied between 502 and 540 nm for the above electrolyte concentration range. Mica sheets have been covered with latex particles under diffusion transport conditions. The latex coverage was regulated by the bulk suspension concentration in the channel and the deposition time. The coverage was determined, with a relative precision of 2%, by the direct enumeration of particles by optical microscopy and AFM. The streaming potential of mica was then determined for a broad range of particle coverage 0 < theta < 0.5, the particle-to-substrate zeta potential ratio zeta(p)/zeta(i), and 8.8 < kappa a < 143 (thin double-layer limit). These experimental data confirmed that the streaming potential of covered surfaces is well reflected by the theoretical approach formulated in ref 32. It was also shown experimentally that variations in the substrate streaming potential with particle coverage for theta < 0.3 and zeta(p)/zeta(i) < 0 are characterized by a large slope, which enables the precise detection of particles attached to interfaces. However, measurements at high coverage and various pH values revealed that the apparent zeta potential of covered surfaces is 1/2(1/2) smaller than the bulk zeta potential of particles (in absolute terms). This is valid for arbitrary zeta potentials of substrates and particles, including the case of negative particles on negatively charged substrates that mimics rough surfaces. Therefore, it was concluded that the streaming potential method can serve as an efficient tool for determining bulk zeta potentials of colloids and

  14. Zeta functions and regularized determinants related to the Selberg trace formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    For a general Fuchsian group of the first kind with an arbitrary unitary representation we define the zeta functions related to the contributions of the identity, hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic conjugacy classes in Selberg's trace formula. We present Selberg's zeta function in terms of a regu......For a general Fuchsian group of the first kind with an arbitrary unitary representation we define the zeta functions related to the contributions of the identity, hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic conjugacy classes in Selberg's trace formula. We present Selberg's zeta function in terms...... determinants of one dimensional Schroedinger operator for harmonic oscillator. We decompose the determinant of the automorphic Laplacian into a product of the determinants where each factor is a determinant representation of a zeta function related to Selberg's trace formula. Then we derive an identity...... connecting the determinants of the automorphic Laplacians on different Riemannian surfaces related to the arithmetical groups. Finally, by using the Jacquet-Langlands correspondence we connect the determinant of the automorphic Laplacian for the unit group of quaternions to the product of the determinants...

  15. Identification and characterization of the interaction between tuberin and 14-3-3zeta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellist, Mark; Goedbloed, Miriam A; de Winter, Christa; Verhaaf, Brenda; Jankie, Anita; Reuser, Arnold J J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van der Sluijs, Peter; Halley, Dicky J J

    2002-10-18

    Tuberous sclerosis is caused by mutations to either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor gene. The disease is characterized by a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes seizures, mental retardation, renal dysfunction, and dermatological abnormalities. TSC1 encodes a 130-kDa protein called hamartin, and TSC2 encodes a 200-kDa protein called tuberin. Although it has been shown that hamartin and tuberin form a complex and mediate phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6, it is not yet clear how inactivation of either protein leads to tuberous sclerosis. Therefore, to obtain additional insight into tuberin and hamartin function, yeast two-hybrid screening experiments were performed to identify proteins that interact with tuberin. One of the proteins identified was 14-3-3zeta, a member of the 14-3-3 protein family. The interaction between tuberin and 14-3-3zeta was confirmed in vitro and by co-immunoprecipitation; multiple sites within tuberin for 14-3-3zeta binding were identified; and it was determined that 14-3-3zeta associated with the tuberin-hamartin complex. Finally, it was shown that the tuberin/14-3-3zeta interaction is regulated by Akt-mediated phosphorylation of tuberin, providing insight into how tuberin may regulate phosphorylation of S6.

  16. Proof of Analytic Extension Theorem for Zeta Function Using Abel Transformation and Euler Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbaitiga Zacharie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the prime number the Riemann zeta function is unquestionable and undisputable one of the most important questions in mathematics whose many researchers are still trying to find answer to some unsolved problems such as Riemann Hypothesis. In this study we proposed a new method that proves the analytic extension theorem for zeta function. Approach: Abel transformation was used to prove that the extension theorem is true for the real part of the complex variable that is strictly greater than one and consequently provides the required analytic extension of the zeta function to the real part greater than zero and Euler product was used to prove the real part of the complex that are less than zero and greater or equal to one. Results: From this proposed study we noted that the real values of the complex variable are lying between zero and one which may help to understand the relation between zeta function and its properties and consequently can pay the way to solve some complex arithmetic problems including the Riemann Hypothesis. Conclusion: The combination of Abel transformation and Euler product is a powerful tool for proving theorems and functions related to Zeta function including other subjects such as radio atmospheric occultation.

  17. Riemann Zeta Zeros and Prime Number Spectra in Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, G.; Svaiter, B. F.; Svaiter, N. F.

    2013-10-01

    The Riemann hypothesis states that all nontrivial zeros of the zeta function lie in the critical line Re(s) = 1/2. Hilbert and Pólya suggested that one possible way to prove the Riemann hypothesis is to interpret the nontrivial zeros in the light of spectral theory. Using the construction of the so-called super-zeta functions or secondary zeta functions built over the Riemann nontrivial zeros and the regularity property of one of this function at the origin, we show that it is possible to extend the Hilbert-Pólya conjecture to systems with countably infinite number of degrees of freedom. The sequence of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function can be interpreted as the spectrum of a self-adjoint operator of some hypothetical system described by the functional approach to quantum field theory. However, if one considers the same situation with numerical sequences whose asymptotic distributions are not "far away" from the asymptotic distribution of prime numbers, the associated functional integral cannot be constructed. Finally, we discuss possible relations between the asymptotic behavior of a sequence and the analytic domain of the associated zeta function.

  18. A3V5O14 (A = K+, Rb+, or Tl+), new polar oxides with a tetragonal tungsten bronze related structural topology: synthesis, structure, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jeongho; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Halasyamani, P Shiv

    2010-08-02

    Three polar noncentrosymmetric (NCS) oxide materials, A(3)V(5)O(14) (A = K(+), Rb(+), or Tl(+)), have been synthesized by hydrothermal and conventional solid state techniques. Their crystal structures and functional properties (second-harmonic generation, piezoelectricity, and polarization) have been determined. The iso-structural materials exhibit a layered structural topology that consists of corner-sharing VO(4) tetrahedra and VO(5) square pyramids. The layers stack parallel to the c-axis direction and are separated by the K(+), Rb(+), or Tl(+) cations. Powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements using 1064 nm radiation indicate the materials exhibit moderate SHG efficiencies of approximately 100 x alpha-SiO(2). Additional SHG measurements, that is, particle size versus SHG efficiency, indicate the materials are type-I phase-matchable. Converse piezoelectric measurements for K(3)V(5)O(14), Rb(3)V(5)O(14), and Tl(3)V(5)O(14) revealed d(33) values of 28, 22, and 26 pm/V, respectively. Pyroelectric measurements, that is, temperature-dependent polarization measurements, resulted in pyroelectric coefficients of -2.2, -2.9, and -2.8 microC/m(2) x K at 65 degrees C, for K(3)V(5)O(14), Rb(3)V(5)O(14), and Tl(3)V(5)O(14) respectively. Frequency-dependent polarization measurements confirmed that all of the materials are nonferroelectric, consistent with our first principle density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations. Infrared, UV-vis, thermogravimetric, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also performed. Crystal data: K(3)V(5)O(14), trigonal, space group P31m (No. 157), a = 8.6970(16) A, c = 4.9434(19) A, V = 323.81(15), and Z = 1; Rb(3)V(5)O(14), trigonal, space group P31m (No. 157), a = 8.7092(5) A, c = 5.2772(7) A, V = 346.65(5), and Z = 1; Tl(3)V(5)O(14), trigonal, space group P31m (No. 157), a = 8.7397(8) A, c = 5.0846(10) A, V = 336.34(8), and Z = 1.

  19. EFFECTS OF PROCESSING OPERATIONS ON ZETA POTENTIAL AND CATIONIC DEMAND OF PULPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nishi K. Bhardwaj; Sanjay Kumar; Pramod K. Bajpai

    2004-01-01

    Thc zeta potential and cationic demands of various kraft pulps - unbleached, bleached and beaten to different freeness levels were determined in the laboratory. The zeta potential of pulp where the final stage was a lignin degrading and dissolving treatment such as alkaline extraction or hypochlorite was lower than the unbleached pulp. The cationic demand of unbleached pulp was higher compared to that of bleached pulp. Beaten pulps showed larger cationic demands than the unbeaten pulps, which can be attributed to the larger specific surface area of pulp components. Fibres become increasingly electronegative when beaten and therefore cationic demand of pulps increases with beating. When the zeta potential method is used with furnishes of different freeness,the linear relationship is observed. However, the slope is decreasing with the decrease in freeness of the pulp.

  20. Zeta potential change of Neuro-2a tumor cells after exposure to alumina nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantsev, Sergey O.; Fomenko, Alla N.; Korovin, Matvey S.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, researches have paid much attention to the physical, chemical, biophysical and biochemical properties of a cell surface. It is known that most of the cells' surfaces are charged. This charge depends on the biochemical structure of the cell membranes. Therefore, measurement of a cell surface charge is a significant criterion that gives information about the cell surface. Evaluation of the cells zeta-potential is important to understand the interaction mechanisms of various drugs, antibiotics, as well as the interaction of nanoparticles with the cell surface. In this study, we use the dynamic light scattering method to detect the zeta-potential change of Neuro-2a tumor cells. It has been observed that zeta-potential shifted to negative values after exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles and inducing apoptosis.

  1. Regularizations of the Euler product representation for zeta functions and the Birch--Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    We consider a variant expression to regularize the Euler product representation of the zeta functions, where we mainly apply to that of the Riemann zeta function in this paper. The regularization itself is identical to that of the zeta function of the summation expression, but the non-use of the M\\"oebius function enable us to confirm a finite behavior of residual terms which means an absence of zeros except for the critical line. Same technique can be applied to the $L$-function associated to the elliptic curve, and we can deal with the Taylor expansion at the pole in critical strip which is deeply related to the Birch--Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture.

  2. Physical properties of nanofluid suspension of ferromagnetic graphite with high Zeta potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, N.S. [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, A.D. [Raman Spectroscopy in Nanostructured Materials, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Cardoso, C.A. [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Pardo, H.; Faccio, R.; Mombru, A.W. [Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DEQUIFIM, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, P.O. Box 1157, CP 11800, Montevideo (Uruguay); Galzerani, J.C. [Raman Spectroscopy in Nanostructured Materials, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lima, O.F. de [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin”, UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sergeenkov, S., E-mail: sergei@df.ufscar [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Araujo-Moreira, F.M. [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-01-09

    We report on the magnetic properties and stability of nanofluid ferromagnetic graphite (NFMG) studied through the measurements of its magnetization hysteresis curves, Raman spectrum and the so-called Zeta potential. The obtained results suggest a robust ferromagnetic behavior of NFMG even at room temperature along with a good stability of the dispersed solution (with Zeta potential around 41.3 mV) and a good reactivity between magnetic graphite and CTAB type cationic surfactant. -- Highlights: ► Magnetic properties and stability of nanofluid ferromagnetic graphite (NFMG) are studied. ► The magnetization hysteresis curves suggest a robust ferromagnetic behavior of NFMG even at room temperature. ► NFMG is found to have Zeta potential around 41.3 mV indicating a good stability of the dispersed solution.

  3. Zeta-Functions for Families of Calabi--Yau n-folds with Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Frühbis-Krüger, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We consider families of Calabi-Yau n-folds containing singular fibres and study relations between the occurring singularity structure and the decomposition of the local Weil zeta-function. For 1-parameter families, this provides new insights into the combinatorial structure of the strong equivalence classes arising in the Candelas - de la Ossa - Rodrigues-Villegas approach for computing the zeta-function. This can also be extended to families with more parameters as is explored in several examples, where the singularity analysis provides correct predictions for the changes of degree in the decomposition of the zeta-function when passing to singular fibres. These observations provide first evidence in higher dimensions for Lauder's conjectured analogue of the Clemens-Schmid exact sequence.

  4. Uniform asymptotics for the full moment conjecture of the Riemann zeta function

    CERN Document Server

    Hiary, Ghaith A

    2011-01-01

    Conrey, Farmer, Keating, Rubinstein, and Snaith recently conjectured formulas for the full asymptotics of the moments of $L$-functions. In the case of the Riemann zeta function, their conjecture states that the $2k$-th absolute moment of zeta on the critical line is asymptotically given by a certain $2k$-fold residue integral. This residue integral can be expressed as a polynomial of degree $k^2$, whose coefficients are given in exact form by elaborate and complicated formulas. In this article, uniform asymptotics for roughly the first $k$ coefficients of the moment polynomial are derived. Numerical data to support our asymptotic formula are presented. An application to bounding the maximal size of the zeta function is considered.

  5. Can Time-Dependent Zeta Correlators be Swept under the Rug?

    CERN Document Server

    Boran, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    We discuss quantum gravitational loop effects to observable quantities such as curvature power spectrum and primordial non-gaussianity of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. We first review the previously shown case where one gets a time dependence for zeta-zeta correlator due to loop corrections. Then we investigate the effect of these loop corrections to primordial non-gaussianity of CMB. We conclude that with a single scalar inflaton one gets a huge value for non-gaussianity which exceeds the observed value by at least 30 orders of magnitude. Finally we discuss the consequences of this result for scalar driven inflationary models.

  6. Analytic renormalization of multiple zeta functions. Geometry and combinatorics of generalized Euler reflection formula for MZV

    OpenAIRE

    Vieru, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    The renormalization of MZV was until now carried out by algebraic means. In this paper, we show that renormalization in general, and in particular of the multiple zeta functions, is more than just a pure algebraic convention. We give a simple analytic method of computing the regularized values of multiple zeta functions in any dimension for arguments of the form (1,...,1), where the series do not converge. These values happen to be the coefficients of the asymptotic expansion of the inverse G...

  7. Zeta Function Regularization in Casimir Effect Calculations and J. S. Dowker's Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, Emilio

    2012-07-01

    A summary of relevant contributions, ordered in time, to the subject of operator zeta functions and their application to physical issues is provided. The description ends with the seminal contributions of Stephen Hawking and Stuart Dowker and collaborators, considered by many authors as the actual starting point of the introduction of zeta function regularization methods in theoretical physics, in particular, for quantum vacuum fluctuation and Casimir effect calculations. After recalling a number of the strengths of this powerful and elegant method, some of its limitations are discussed. Finally, recent results of the so called operator regularization procedure are presented.

  8. Finding zeros of the Riemann zeta function by periodic driving of cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creffield, C. E.; Sierra, G.

    2015-06-01

    The Riemann hypothesis, which states that the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function all lie on a certain line in the complex plane, is one of the most important unresolved problems in mathematics. We propose here an approach to finding a physical system to study the Riemann zeros, which is based on applying a time-periodic driving field. This driving allows us to tune the quasienergies of the system (the analog of the eigenenergies for static systems), so that they are directly governed by the zeta function. We further show by numerical simulations that this allows the Riemann zeros to be measured in currently accessible cold-atom experiments.

  9. Roots of the derivative of the Riemann zeta function and of characteristic polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Dueñez, Eduardo; Froehlich, Sara; Hughes, Chris; Mezzadri, Francesco; Phan, Toan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the horizontal distribution of zeros of the derivative of the Riemann zeta function and compare this to the radial distribution of zeros of the derivative of the characteristic polynomial of a random unitary matrix. Both cases show a surprising bimodal distribution which has yet to be explained. We show by example that the bimodality is a general phenomenon. For the unitary matrix case we prove a conjecture of Mezzadri concerning the leading order behavior, and we show that the same follows from the random matrix conjectures for the zeros of the zeta function.

  10. A search for weak ultraviolet interstellar absorption features in IUE spectra of Rho Ophiuchi and Zeta Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, D. E.; Thorburn, J. A.; Hobbs, L. M.; York, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    We have applied procedures designed to reduce substantially the nonrandom, so-called 'fixed-pattern' noise present in IUE spectra to archival long-wavelength high-dispersion spectra of Rho Ophiuchi and Zeta Ophiuchi. Substantial elimination of the fixed-pattern noise via flat fielding can yield 2sigma equivalent width limits of 5-10 mA from the sum of a small number (about less than 5) of well-exposed archival spectra, and increases confidence in the reality of any weak features found. Examination of complete long-wavelength (about 2200-3250 A) spectra of these two stars has revealed, in addition to many known strong absorption lines, several lines of Fe I and Si I which had not previously been reported, as well as a small number of possible unidentified lines. We also present substantially improved upper limits to the equivalent widths of a number of other weak lines; limits an order of magnitude smaller, now achievable with the HST GHRS, should produce detections of some of these.

  11. Interaction of nucleosome assembly proteins abolishes nuclear localization of DGK{zeta} by attenuating its association with importins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Masashi; Hozumi, Yasukazu [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Ichimura, Tohru [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takahashi, Nobuya [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Iseki, Ken [Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Yagisawa, Hitoshi [Laboratory of Biological Signaling, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Shinkawa, Takashi; Isobe, Toshiaki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Goto, Kaoru, E-mail: kgoto@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan)

    2011-12-10

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is involved in the regulation of lipid-mediated signal transduction through the metabolism of a second messenger diacylglycerol. Of the DGK family, DGK{zeta}, which contains a nuclear localization signal, localizes mainly to the nucleus but translocates to the cytoplasm under pathological conditions. However, the detailed mechanism of translocation and its functional significance remain unclear. To elucidate these issues, we used a proteomic approach to search for protein targets that interact with DGK{zeta}. Results show that nucleosome assembly protein (NAP) 1-like 1 (NAP1L1) and NAP1-like 4 (NAP1L4) are identified as novel DGK{zeta} binding partners. NAP1Ls constitutively shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in transfected HEK293 cells. The molecular interaction of DGK{zeta} and NAP1Ls prohibits nuclear import of DGK{zeta} because binding of NAP1Ls to DGK{zeta} blocks import carrier proteins, Qip1 and NPI1, to interact with DGK{zeta}, leading to cytoplasmic tethering of DGK{zeta}. In addition, overexpression of NAP1Ls exerts a protective effect against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that NAP1Ls are involved in a novel molecular basis for the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of DGK{zeta} and provide a clue to examine functional significance of its translocation under pathological conditions.

  12. Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gieles, M.

    1993-01-01

    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of stars and star clusters. These complexes share similar properties with giant molecular clouds, from which they are formed. Many (70%) of the young clusters will not survive the fist 10 Myr, due to t...

  13. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  14. The Circumstellar Medium of Massive Stars in Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan; Meyer, Dominique M -A; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Mohamed, Shazrene; Neilson, Hilding R; Mignone, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The circumstellar medium around massive stars is strongly impacted by stellar winds, radiation, and explosions. We use numerical simulations of these interactions to constrain the current properties and evolutionary history of various stars by comparison with observed circumstellar structures. Two- and three-dimensional simulations of bow shocks around red supergiant stars have shown that Betelgeuse has probably only recently evolved from a blue supergiant to a red supergiant, and hence its bow shock is very young and has not yet reached a steady state. We have also for the first time investigated the magnetohydrodynamics of the photoionised H II region around the nearby runaway O star Zeta Oph. Finally, we have calculated a grid of models of bow shocks around main sequence and evolved massive stars that has general application to many observed bow shocks, and which forms the basis of future work to model the explosions of these stars into their pre-shaped circumstellar medium.

  15. Directional flow induced by synchronized longitudinal and zeta-potential controlling AC-electrical fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouden, van der E.J.; Hermes, D.C.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Berg, van den A.

    2006-01-01

    Electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microchannel can be controlled by electronic control of the surface charge using an electrode embedded in the wall of the channel. By setting a voltage to the electrode, the zeta-potential at the wall can be changed locally. Thus, the electrode acts as a "gate" for liq

  16. Measurable operators and the asymptotics of heat kernels and zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In this note we answer some questions inspired by the introduction, by Alain Connes, of the notion of measurable operators using Dixmier traces. These questions concern the relationship of measurability to the asymptotics of $\\zeta-$functions and heat kernels. The answers have remained elusive for some 15 years.

  17. "Armastuse retsepti" tippkokk Zeta Jones ei oska muna keeta / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2007-01-01

    Scott Hicksi romantiline komöödiafilm "Armastuse retsept" ("No Reservations"), mille peaosas Walesist pärit näitlejanna Catherine Zeta Jones. Näitlejanna muljeid oma rolliks ettevalmistustest, mille hulka käis ka praktika pärisrestoranis

  18. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1a-1a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, Christopher D.; Zhong, Guo; Smeltz, Marci; James, Margaret O., E-mail: mojames@ufl.edu; McKenna, Robert, E-mail: mojames@ufl.edu

    2014-01-21

    Crystals of glutathione transferase zeta 1 were grown and shown to diffract X-rays to 3.1 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.0, b = 49.6, c = 54.6 Å, α = 82.9, β = 69.9, γ = 73.4°.

  19. Molecular characterization of zeta class glutathione S-transferases from Pinus brutia Ten.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E. Oztetik; F. Kockar; M. Alper; M. Iscan

    2015-09-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) play important roles in stress tolerance and metabolic detoxification in plants. In higher plants, studies on GSTs have focussed largely on agricultural plants. There is restricted information about molecular characterization of GSTs in gymnosperms. To date, only tau class GST enzymes have been characterized from some pinus species. For the first time, the present study reports cloning and molecular characterization of two zeta class GST genes, namely PbGSTZ1 and PbGSTZ2 from Pinus brutia Ten., which is an economically important pine native to the eastern Mediterranean region and have to cope with several environmental stress conditions. The PbGSTZ1 gene was isolated from cDNA, whereas PbGSTZ2 was isolated from genomic DNA. Sequence analysis of PbGSTZ1 and PbGSTZ2 revealed the presence of an open reading frame of 226 amino acids with typical consensus sequences of the zeta class plant GSTs. Protein and secondary structure prediction analysis of two zeta class PbGSTZs have shared common features of other plant zeta class GSTs. Genomic clone, PbGSTZ2 gene, is unexpectedly intronless. Extensive sequence analysis of PbGSTZ2, with cDNA clone, PbGSTZ1, revealed 87% identity at nucleotide and 81% identity at amino acid levels with 41 amino acids differences suggesting that genomic PbGSTZ2 gene might be an allelic or a paralogue version of PbGSTZ1.

  20. Large gaps between consecutive maxima of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line

    CERN Document Server

    Saker, S H

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we derive new lower bounds for the normalized distances between consecutive maxima of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line subject to the truth of the Riemann hypothesis. The method of our proofs relies on a Sobolev type inequality of one dimension and an Opial type inequality with best possible constants.

  1. A Central Limit Theorem for the Zeroes of the Zeta Function

    CERN Document Server

    Rodgers, Brad

    2012-01-01

    On the assumption of the Riemann hypothesis, we generalize a central limit theorem of Fujii regarding the number of zeroes of Riemann's Zeta function that lie in a mesoscopic interval. The result mirrors results of Soshnikov and others in random matrix theory.

  2. High-concentration zeta potential measurements using light-scattering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba, Michael; Corbett, Jason; Watson, Fraser Mcneil; Jones, Andrew

    2010-09-28

    Zeta potential is the key parameter that controls electrostatic interactions in particle dispersions. Laser Doppler electrophoresis is an accepted method for the measurement of particle electrophoretic mobility and hence zeta potential of dispersions of colloidal size materials. Traditionally, samples measured by this technique have to be optically transparent. Therefore, depending upon the size and optical properties of the particles, many samples will be too concentrated and will require dilution. The ability to measure samples at or close to their neat concentration would be desirable as it would minimize any changes in the zeta potential of the sample owing to dilution. However, the ability to measure turbid samples using light-scattering techniques presents a number of challenges. This paper discusses electrophoretic mobility measurements made on turbid samples at high concentration using a novel cell with reduced path length. Results are presented on two different sample types, titanium dioxide and a polyurethane dispersion, as a function of sample concentration. For both of the sample types studied, the electrophoretic mobility results show a gradual decrease as the sample concentration increases and the possible reasons for these observations are discussed. Further, a comparison of the data against theoretical models is presented and discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are made from the zeta potential values obtained at high concentrations.

  3. Broadway teatrites näeb Denzel Washingtoni ja Catherine Zeta-Jonesi / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2010-01-01

    New Yorgis välja antud Tony teatriauhinna pälvisid filminäitlejad Denzel Washington, Catherine Zeta-Jones ja Scarlett Johansson. Parim lavale naasnud näidend - "Piirdeaed", parim uus näidend - draama "Punane", mis räägib läti päritolu maalikunstnikust Mark Rothkost. Parim muusikal - "Memphis"

  4. Boundary Conditions for the Maintenance of Memory by PKM[zeta] in Neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shema, Reul; Hazvi, Shoshi; Sacktor, Todd C.; Dudai, Yadin

    2009-01-01

    We report here that ZIP, a selective inhibitor of the atypical protein kinase C isoform PKM[zeta], abolishes very long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) associations in the insular cortex of the behaving rat, at least 3 mo after encoding. The effect of ZIP is not replicated by a general serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor that is…

  5. Certain Subclasses of Analytic and Bi-Univalent Functions Involving Double Zeta Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibah Siregar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we introduce two new subclasses of the functions class Σ of bi-univalent functions involving double zeta functions in the open unit disc U={z:zEC, |z|<1}. The estimates on the coefficients |a2| and |a3| for functions in these new subclasses of the function class Σ are obtained in our investigation.

  6. Jacob's ladders and the first asymptotic formula for the expression of the sixth order $|\\zeta(1/2+i\\varphi(t)/2)|^4|\\zeta(1/2+it)|^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, Jan

    2009-01-01

    t is proved in this paper that there is a fine correlation between the values of $|\\zeta(1/2+i\\varphi(t)/2)|^4$ and $|\\zeta(1/2+it)|^2$ which correspond to two segments with gigantic distance each from other. This new asymptotic formula cannot be obtained in known theories of Balasubramanian, Heath-Brown and Ivic.

  7. Integrated module inverter using a zeta DC-DC converter with feedforward MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) control; Inversor modulo integrado utilizando um conversor CC-CC zeta com controle MPPT feedforward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Henrique Fioravanti Miguel

    2009-08-15

    This work presents the study and development of a processing power system that could be used in the connection of renewable energy sources to commercial power grid. The system consists of a ZETA converter associated with a bridge inverter operating at low frequency. The Zeta converter, operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM), plays the main role in this arrangement, producing a rectified sinusoidal current waveform synchronized with the electric grid. The function of the full-bridge inverter, connected in cascade with the Zeta converter, is to reverse every 180 deg the current generated by the Zeta converter. Initially it presents the analysis of the Zeta converter operating in DCM, as well as a design criterion. Following by the control strategy and the experimental results for the proposed system are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Electroviscous effect on fluid drag in a microchannel with large zeta potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Dalei; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    The electroviscous effect has been widely studied to investigate the effect of surface charge-induced electric double layers (EDL) on the pressure-driven flow in a micro/nano channel. EDL has been reported to reduce the velocity of fluid flow and increase the fluid drag. Nevertheless, the study on the combined effect of EDL with large zeta potential up to several hundred millivolts and surface charge depenedent-slip on the micro/nano flow is still needed. In this paper, the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for electrical potential and ion distribution in non-overlapping EDL is first analytically solved. Then, the modified Navier-Stokes equation for the flow considering the effect of surface charge on the electrical conductivity of the electrolyte and slip length is analytically solved. This analysis is used to study the effect of non-overlapping EDL with large zeta potential on the pressure-driven flow in a microchannel with no-slip and charge-dependent slip conditions. The results show that the EDL leads to an increase in the fluid drag, but that slip can reduce the fluid drag. When the zeta potential is large enough, the electroviscous effect disappears for flow in the microchannel under a no-slip condition. However, the retardation of EDL on the flow and the enhancement of slip on the flow counteract each other under a slip condition. The underlying mechanisms of the effect of EDL with large zeta potential on fluid drag are the high net ionic concentration near the channel wall and the fast decay of electrical potential in the EDL when the zeta potential is large enough.

  9. Random matrices, generalized zeta functions and self-similarity of zero distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, O [Bitfone Corporation, 32451 Golden Lantern Ste. 301, Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 (United States)

    2006-11-10

    There is growing evidence for a connection between random matrix theories used in physics and the theory of the Riemann zeta function and L-functions. The theory underlying the location of the zeros of these generalized zeta functions is one of the key unsolved problems. Physicists are interested because of the Hilbert-Polya conjecture, that the non-trivial zeros of the zeta function correspond to the eigenvalues of some positive operator. To complement the continuing theoretical work, it would be useful to study empirically the locations of the zeros by different methods. In this paper we use the rescaled range analysis to study the spacings between successive zeros of these functions. Over large ranges of the zeros the spacings have a Hurst exponent of about 0.095, using sample sizes of 10 000 zeros. This implies that the distribution has a high fractal dimension (1.9), and shows a lot of detailed structure. The distribution is of the anti-persistent fractional Brownian motion type, with a significant degree of anti-persistence. Thus, the high-order zeros of these functions show a remarkable self-similarity in their distribution, over fifteen orders of magnitude for the Riemann zeta function{exclamation_point} We find that the Hurst exponents for the random matrix theories show a different behaviour. A heuristic study of the effect of low-order primes seems to show that this effect is a promising candidate to explain the results that we observe in this study. We study the distribution of zeros for L-functions of conductors 3 and 4, and find that the distribution is similar to that of the Riemann zeta functions.

  10. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  11. Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  12. Metal-Rich SX Phe stars in the Kepler Field

    CERN Document Server

    Nemec, James M; Murphy, Simon J; Kinemuchi, Karen; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2016-01-01

    A spectroscopic and photometric analysis has been carried out for thirty-two candidate SX_Phe variable blue straggler stars in the Kepler-field (Balona & Nemec 2012). Radial velocities (RVs), space motions (U,V,W), projected rotation velocities (v sin i), spectral types, and atmospheric characteristics (T_eff, log g, [Fe/H], xi_t, zeta_RT, etc.) are presented for 30 of the 32 stars. Although several stars are metal-weak with extreme halo orbits, the mean [Fe/H] of the sample is near solar, thus the stars are more metal-rich than expected for a typical sample of Pop.II stars, and more like halo metal-rich A-type stars (Perry 1969). Two thirds of the stars are fast rotators with v sin i > 50 km/s, including four stars with v sin i > 200 km/s. Three of the stars have (negative) RVs > 250 km/s, five have retrograde space motions, and 21 have total speeds (relative to the LSR) > 400 km/s. All but one of the 30 stars have positions in a Toomre diagram consistent with the kinematics of bona fide halo stars (the ...

  13. Hadron star models. [neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.

  14. Non-Commutative Integration, Zeta Functions and the Haar State for SU{sub q}(2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matassa, Marco, E-mail: marco.matassa@gmail.com [SISSA (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    We study a notion of non-commutative integration, in the spirit of modular spectral triples, for the quantum group SU{sub q}(2). In particular we define the non-commutative integral as the residue at the spectral dimension of a zeta function, which is constructed using a Dirac operator and a weight. We consider the Dirac operator introduced by Kaad and Senior and a family of weights depending on two parameters, which are related to the diagonal automorphisms of SU{sub q}(2). We show that, after fixing one of the parameters, the non-commutative integral coincides with the Haar state of SU{sub q}(2). Moreover we can impose an additional condition on the zeta function, which also fixes the second parameter. For this unique choice the spectral dimension coincides with the classical dimension.

  15. Non-Commutative Integration, Zeta Functions and the Haar State for SU q (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matassa, Marco

    2015-12-01

    We study a notion of non-commutative integration, in the spirit of modular spectral triples, for the quantum group SU q (2). In particular we define the non-commutative integral as the residue at the spectral dimension of a zeta function, which is constructed using a Dirac operator and a weight. We consider the Dirac operator introduced by Kaad and Senior and a family of weights depending on two parameters, which are related to the diagonal automorphisms of SU q (2). We show that, after fixing one of the parameters, the non-commutative integral coincides with the Haar state of SU q (2). Moreover we can impose an additional condition on the zeta function, which also fixes the second parameter. For this unique choice the spectral dimension coincides with the classical dimension.

  16. The 4.36-th moment of the Riemann zeta function

    CERN Document Server

    Radziwill, Maksym

    2011-01-01

    Conditionally on the Riemann Hypothesis we obtain bounds of the correct order of magnitude for the 2k-th moment of the Riemann zeta function for all positive real k 2; the case of k = 2 corresponds to a classical result of Ingham. We prove our result by establishing a connection between moments with k > 2 and the so-called "twisted fourth moment". This allows us to appeal to a recent result of Hughes and Young. Furthermore we obtain a point-wise bound for |zeta(1/2 + it)|^{2r} (with 0 < r < 1) that can be regarded as a multiplicative analogue of Selberg's bound for S(T). We also establish asymptotic formulae for moments (k < 2.181) slightly off the half-line.

  17. Phase diagrams of colloidal spheres with a constant zeta-potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallenburg, Frank; Boon, Niels; Kater, Maarten; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René

    2011-02-21

    We study suspensions of colloidal spheres with a constant zeta-potential within Poisson-Boltzmann theory, quantifying the discharging of the spheres with increasing colloid density and decreasing salt concentration. We use the calculated renormalized charge of the colloids to determine their pairwise effective screened-Coulomb repulsions. Bulk phase diagrams in the colloid concentration-salt concentration representation follow, for various zeta-potentials, by a mapping onto published fits of phase boundaries of point-Yukawa systems. Although the resulting phase diagrams do feature face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic phases, they are dominated by the (re-entrant) fluid phase due to the colloidal discharging with increasing colloid concentration and decreasing salt concentration.

  18. New Relations Involving an Extended Multiparameter Hurwitz-Lerch Zeta Function with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive several new expansion formulas involving an extended multiparameter Hurwitz-Lerch zeta function introduced and studied recently by Srivastava et al. (2011. These expansions are obtained by using some fractional calculus methods such as the generalized Leibniz rules, the Taylor-like expansions in terms of different functions, and the generalized chain rule. Several (known or new special cases are also given.

  19. Trace of heat kernel,spectral zeta function and isospectral problem for sub-laplacians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG; Der-Chen; YEUNG; Sai-Kee

    2009-01-01

    In this article,we first study the trace for the heat kernel for the sub-Laplacian operator on the unit sphere in C n+1.Then we survey some results on the spectral zeta function which is induced by the trace of the heat kernel.In the second part of the paper,we discuss an isospectral problem in the CR setting.

  20. On the higher derivatives of Z(t) associated with the Riemann Zeta-Function

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Kaneaki

    2012-01-01

    Let $Z(t)$ be the classical Hardy function in the theory of the Riemann zeta-function. The main result in this paper is that if the Riemann hypothesis is true then for any positive integer $n$ there exists a $t_{n}>0$ such that for $t>t_{n}$ the function $Z^{(n+1)}(t)$ has exactly one zero between consecutive zeros of $Z^{(n)}(t)$.

  1. Variations of the Ramanujan polynomials and remarks on $\\zeta(2j+1)/\\pi^{2j+1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Lalin, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    We observe that five polynomial families have all of their zeros on the unit circle. We prove the statements explicitly for four of the polynomial families. The polynomials have coefficients which involve Bernoulli numbers, Euler numbers, and the odd values of the Riemann zeta function. These polynomials are closely related to the Ramanujan polynomials, which were recently introduced by Murty, Smyth and Wang. Our proofs rely upon theorems of Schinzel, and Lakatos and Losonczi and some generalizations.

  2. Spectral zeta function and non-perturbative effects in ABJM Fermi-gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki

    2015-11-01

    The exact partition function in ABJM theory on three-sphere can be regarded as a canonical partition function of a non-interacting Fermi-gas with an unconventional Hamiltonian. All the information on the partition function is encoded in the discrete spectrum of this Hamiltonian. We explain how (quantum mechanical) non-perturbative corrections in the Fermi-gas system appear from a spectral consideration. Basic tools in our analysis are a Mellin-Barnes type integral representation and a spectral zeta function. From a consistency with known results, we conjecture that the spectral zeta function in the ABJM Fermi-gas has an infinite number of "non-perturbative" poles, which are invisible in the semi-classical expansion of the Planck constant. We observe that these poles indeed appear after summing up perturbative corrections. As a consequence, the perturbative resummation of the spectral zeta function causes non-perturbative corrections to the grand canonical partition function. We also present another example associated with a spectral problem in topological string theory. A conjectured non-perturbative free energy on the resolved conifold is successfully reproduced in this framework.

  3. Spectral zeta function and non-perturbative effects in ABJM Fermi-gas

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The exact partition function in ABJM theory on three-sphere can be regarded as a canonical partition function of a non-interacting Fermi-gas with an unconventional Hamiltonian. All the information on the partition function is encoded in the discrete spectrum of this Hamiltonian. We explain how (quantum mechanical) non-perturbative corrections in the Fermi-gas system appear from a spectral consideration. Basic tools in our analysis are a Mellin-Barnes type integral representation and a spectral zeta function. From a consistency with known results, we conjecture that the spectral zeta function in the ABJM Fermi-gas has an infinite number of "non-perturbative" poles, which are invisible in the semi-classical expansion of the Planck constant. We observe that these poles indeed appear after summing up perturbative corrections. As a consequence, the perturbative resummation of the spectral zeta function causes non-perturbative corrections to the grand canonical partition function. We also present another example as...

  4. Tetracycline adsorption on chitosan: a mechanistic description based on mass uptake and zeta potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, A L P F; de Lima, C R M; Pereira, M R; Fonseca, J L C

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption phenomena occurring at the solid/liquid interface of chitosan particles are of extreme importance in the kinetics of drug release/upload as well as in effluent treatment by adsorption. In this work, equilibrium and kinetic aspects of protonated tetracycline adsorption on chitosan are explored using classic solution depletion method and zeta potential measurements. Equilibrium experiments showed that for solutions with tetracycline initial concentration of ca. 1.2 g L(-1), corresponding to a pH around 3, chitosan structure disrupted, as indicated by an increase in magnitude of tetracycline sorption. Adsorption and zeta potential isotherms before disruption suggested that the process of adsorption had a Langmuir character up to a point at which subsurface was exposed to adsorption; at this point, a second mode of sorption began: zeta potential tended to an equilibrium value, following Sips isotherm and tetracycline sorption had a linear dependence on its continuous phase concentration. The kinetics of tetracycline sorption suggested that sorption of tetracycline was divided between the sorption of protonated and non-protonated tetracycline; tetracycline in its non-protonated form seemed to rule the sorption of tetracycline.

  5. A perturbative approach to the spectral zeta functions of strings, drums, and quantum billiards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)

    2012-12-15

    We show that the spectral zeta functions of inhomogeneous strings and drums can be calculated using Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory. The inhomogeneities that can be treated with this method are small but otherwise arbitrary and include the previously studied case of a piecewise constant density. In two dimensions the method can be used to derive the spectral zeta function of a domain obtained from the small deformation of a square. We also obtain exact sum rules that are valid for arbitrary densities and that correspond to the values taken by the spectral zeta function at integer positive values; we have tested numerically these sum rules in specific examples. We show that the Dirichlet or Neumann Casimir energies of an inhomogeneous string, evaluated to first order in perturbation theory, contain in some cases an irremovable divergence, but that the combination of the two is always free of divergences. Finally, our calculation of the Casimir energies of a string with piecewise constant density and of two perfectly conducting concentric cylinders, of similar radius, reproduce the results previously published.

  6. Computational estimation of the constant beta (1) characterizing the order of zeta (1+it)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik, Tadej

    2008-09-01

    The paper describes a computational estimation of the constant beta (1) characterizing the bounds of left\\vert zeta (1+it)right\\vert . It is known that as trightarrow infty frac{zeta (2)}{2beta (1)e^{gamma }left[ 1+o(1)right] log \\... ... (1+it)right\\vert leq 2beta (1)e^{gamma }left[ 1+o(1) right] log log t with beta (1)geq frac{1}{2} , while the truth of the Riemann hypothesis would also imply that beta (1)leq 1 . In the range 1zeta (1+it)right\\vert . As t increases, the estimates in the first set rapidly fall below 1 and gradually reach values slightly below 0.70 , while the estimates in the second set rapidly exceed frac{1}{2} and gradually reach values slightly above 0.64 . The obtained numerical results are discussed and compared to the implications of recent theoretical work of Granville and Soundararajan.

  7. Hydrophobicity, surface tension, and zeta potential measurements of glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M A; Monteiro, F J; Santos, J D; Serro, A P; Saramago, B

    1999-06-15

    Wettability and zeta potential studies were performed to characterize the hydrophobicity, surface tension, and surface charge of P2O5-glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite composites. Quantitative phase analysis was performed by the Rietveld method using GSAS software applied to X-ray diffractograms. Surface charge was assessed by zeta potential measurements. Protein adsorption studies were performed using vitronectin. Contact angles and surface tensions variation with time were determined by the sessile and pendent drop techniques, respectively, using ADSA-P software. The highest (-18.1 mV) and lowest (-28.7 mV) values of zeta potential were found for hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), respectively, with composite materials presenting values in between. All studied bioceramic materials showed similar solid surface tension. For HA and beta-TCP, solid surface tensions of 46.7 and 45.3 mJ/m2, respectively, were obtained, while composites presented intermediate surface tension values. The dispersive component of surface tension was the predominant one for all materials studied. Adhesion work values between the vitronectin solution and HA and beta-TCP were found to be 79.8 and 88.0 mJ/m2, respectively, while the 4.0 wt % glass composites showed slightly lower values than the 2.5 wt % ones. The presence of beta-TCP influenced surface charge, hydrophobicity, and protein adsorption of the glass-reinforced HA composites, and therefore indirectly affected cell-biomaterial interactions.

  8. Relation between primes and nontrivial zeros in the Riemann hypothesis; Legendre polynomials, modified zeta function and Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seongsoo; Chung, J. W.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2012-12-01

    We study the dependence between prime numbers and the real and imaginary parts of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. The Legendre polynomials and the partial derivatives of the Riemann zeta function are used to investigate the above dependence along with the Riemann hypothesis with physical interpretations. A modified zeta function with finite terms is defined as a new implement for the study of the zeta function and its zeros.

  9. Integral and Series Representations of Riemann's Zeta Function and Dirichlet's Eta Function and a Medley of Related Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Milgram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contour integral representations of Riemann's Zeta function and Dirichlet's Eta (alternating Zeta function are presented and investigated. These representations flow naturally from methods developed in the 1800s, but somehow they do not appear in the standard reference summaries, textbooks, or literature. Using these representations as a basis, alternate derivations of known series and integral representations for the Zeta and Eta function are obtained on a unified basis that differs from the textbook approach, and results are developed that appear to be new.

  10. Star Wreck

    OpenAIRE

    Kusenko, Alexander; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail E.; Tinyakov, P. G.; Tkachev, Igor I.

    1998-01-01

    Electroweak models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking predict the existence of stable non-topological solitons, Q-balls, that can be produced in the early universe. The relic Q-balls can accumulate inside a neutron star and gradually absorb the baryons into the scalar condensate. This causes a slow reduction in the mass of the star. When the mass reaches a critical value, the neutron star becomes unstable and explodes. The cataclysmic destruction of the distant neutron stars may be the or...

  11. Star polygons

    OpenAIRE

    Riosa, Blažka

    2014-01-01

    In mathematics we often encounter polygons, such us triangle, square, hexagon, etc., but we hardly encounter star polygons. Despite the fact that we do not meet them so often in mathematics, in nature they can be traced almost on every step. In this paper the emphasis is on the geometric meaning of regular star polygons. Star polygon is a generalization of the concept of regular polygons. In star polygons also non-adjacent sides intersect. Up to similarity they are determined by Schläfli symb...

  12. CD3zeta down-modulation may explain Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocyte anergy in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Alessandra; Tempestilli, Massimo; Turchi, Federica; Agrati, Chiara; Casetti, Rita; Cimini, Eleonora; Gioia, Cristiana; Martini, Federico

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explain the observed anergy of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. CD3zeta expression and interferon (IFN)-gamma production by Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects were analyzed. We demonstrated that Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from HIV-infected patients expressed a lower level of CD3zeta than did Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from healthy donors. A direct correlation was found between CD3zeta expression and IFN-gamma production capability by Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. However, activation of protein kinase C by phorbol myristate acetate is able to restore CD3zeta expression and IFN-gamma production. Our findings may contribute to clarification of the molecular mechanisms of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell anergy found in HIV-positive patients.

  13. On the distribution of extreme values of zeta and $L$-functions in the strip $1/2<\\sigma<1$

    CERN Document Server

    Lamzouri, Youness

    2010-01-01

    We study the distribution of large (and small) values of several families of $L$-functions on a line $\\text{Re(s)}=\\sigma$ where $1/2<\\sigma<1$. We consider the Riemann zeta function $\\zeta(s)$ in the $t$-aspect, Dirichlet $L$-functions in the $q$-aspect, and $L$-functions attached to primitive holomorphic cusp forms of weight $2$ in the level aspect. For each family we show that the $L$-values can be very well modeled by an adequate random Euler product, uniformly in a wide range. We also prove new $\\Omega$-results for quadratic Dirichlet $L$-functions (predicted to be best possible by the probabilistic model) conditionally on GRH, and other results related to large moments of $\\zeta(\\sigma+it)$.

  14. Quantum corrections to finite-gap solutions for Yang-Mills-Nahm equations via zeta-function technique

    CERN Document Server

    Leble, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional Yang-Mills-Nahm models are considered from algebrogeometric points of view. A quasiclassical quantization of the models based on path integral and its zeta function representation in terms of a Green function diagonal for a heat equation with an elliptic potential is considered. The Green function diagonal and, hence, zeta function and its derivative are expressed via solutions of Hermit equation and, alternatively, by means of Its-Matveev formalism in terms of Riemann teta-functions. For the Nahm model, which field is represented via elliptic (lemniscate) integral by construction, one-loop quantum corrections to action are evaluated as the zeta function derivative in zero point in terms of a hyperelliptic integral. The alternative expression should help to link the representations and continue investigation of the Yang-Mills-Nahm models. Keywords: Nahm model, one-loop quantum corrections, zeta function, elliptic potential, hyperelliptic integral, Its-Matveev formula. MSC numbers: 81Q30, 35J10...

  15. On an analytic estimate in the theory of the Riemann zeta function and a theorem of Báez-Duarte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnol, Jean-François

    2003-01-01

    On the Riemann hypothesis we establish a uniform upper estimate for zeta(s)/zeta (s + A), 0 Riemann Hypothesis. We investigate function-theoretically some of the functions defined by Báez-Duarte in his study and we show that their square-integrability is, in itself, an equivalent formulation of the Riemann Hypothesis. We conclude with a third equivalent formulation which resembles a "causality" statement.

  16. STAR Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, W W, E-mail: jacobsw@indiana.ed [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility and Department of Physics, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington IN 47408 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The main STAR calorimeters comprise a full Barrel EMC and single Endcap EMC plus a Forward Meson Spectrometer. Together they give a nearly complete coverage over the range -1 < pseudorapidity < 4 and provide EM readout and triggering that help drive STAR physics capabilities. Their description, status, performance and operations (and a few physics anecdotes) are briefly presented and discussed.

  17. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  18. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta;

    1997-01-01

    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  19. Silver ion impregnated composite biomaterial optimally prepared using zeta potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, N; Socrates, R; Shanthini, G M; Rajaram, A; Kalkura, S Narayana

    2015-02-01

    Biodegradable, antimicrobial composite of various silver ion concentrations was synthesized using zeta potential and isoelectric point measurements, for a controlled release of silver ions, and in addition to assess the effect of protein adsorption with the increase of the silver ion concentration. The interaction between hydroxyapatite (HAp) and silver incorporated hydroxyapatite (AgHAp) with gelatin was increased by optimally adjusting the zeta potential and isoelectric point of the ceramic (HAp and AgHAp), and bio-polymer individually. The electrostatic interactions between the ceramic and biopolymer were confirmed, through shifts in N-H stretching, decrease in the swelling ratio, and increase in the degradation temperature observed by the derivative thermo-gravimetric analysis (DTG). These results substantiate that, the zeta potential is a novel tool to increase the ceramic-biopolymer interaction. Increasing electrostatic interaction between the biopolymer and ceramic, decreases the release of silver ions in the simulated body fluid, due to the controlled degradation of the biopolymer. The isoelectric point decreases with the increase of the silver ion concentration, which evidenced the change in the net surface charge. With the increase of the silver ion concentration, the protein adsorption decreases due to an increase in hydrophilic character of the composite. This study examines the minimum concentration of silver ion essential for maximum protein adsorption, antimicrobial and hemocompatibility. This study provides a novel route to control the release of silver ions by enhancing the ceramic-polymer interaction and estimate the silver ion concentration suitable for protein adsorption. The prepared composite is nontoxic, degradable, and antimicrobial, with the controlled release of silver ions in the simulated body fluid.

  20. Quantum graphs whose spectra mimic the zeros of the Riemann zeta function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Jack; Hummel, Quirin; Richter, Klaus

    2014-02-21

    One of the most famous problems in mathematics is the Riemann hypothesis: that the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function lie on a line in the complex plane. One way to prove the hypothesis would be to identify the zeros as eigenvalues of a Hermitian operator, many of whose properties can be derived through the analogy to quantum chaos. Using this, we construct a set of quantum graphs that have the same oscillating part of the density of states as the Riemann zeros, offering an explanation of the overall minus sign. The smooth part is completely different, and hence also the spectrum, but the graphs pick out the low-lying zeros.

  1. Quantum scalar fields in the half-line. A heat kernel/zeta function approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos Guilarte, Juan; Muñoz-Castañeda, Jose María; Senosiaín Aramendía, María Jesús

    2009-01-01

    [EN]In this paper we shall study vacuum fluctuations of a single scalar field with Dirichlet boundary conditions in a finite but very long line. The spectral heat kernel, the heat partition function and the spectral zeta function are calculated in terms of Riemann Theta functions, the error function, and hypergeometric PFQ functions. [ES]En este artículo vamos a estudiar las fluctuaciones en el vacío de un campo escalar con las condiciones de contorno de Dirichlet en una línea finita pero muy...

  2. Graph Zeta Function in the Bethe Free Energy and Loopy Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the analysis of Loopy Belief Propagation (LBP) by establishing a formula that connects the Hessian of the Bethe free energy with the edge zeta function. The formula has a number of theoretical implications on LBP. It is applied to give a sufficient condition that the Hessian of the Bethe free energy is positive definite, which shows non-convexity for graphs with multiple cycles. The formula clarifies the relation between the local stability of a fixed point of LBP and local minima of the Bethe free energy. We also propose a new approach to the uniqueness of LBP fixed point, and show various conditions of uniqueness.

  3. Relations between elliptic multiple zeta values and a special derivation algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broedel, Johannes; Matthes, Nils; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    We investigate relations between elliptic multiple zeta values (eMZVs) and describe a method to derive the number of indecomposable elements of given weight and length. Our method is based on representing eMZVs as iterated integrals over Eisenstein series and exploiting the connection with a special derivation algebra. Its commutator relations give rise to constraints on the iterated integrals over Eisenstein series relevant for eMZVs and thereby allow to count the indecomposable representatives. Conversely, the above connection suggests apparently new relations in the derivation algebra. Under https://tools.aei.mpg.de/emzv we provide relations for eMZVs over a wide range of weights and lengths.

  4. Applications of Wirtinger Inequalities on the Distribution of Zeros of the Riemann Zeta-Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saker SamirH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the hypothesis that the th moments of the Hardy -function are correctly predicted by random matrix theory and the moments of the derivative of are correctly predicted by the derivative of the characteristic polynomials of unitary matrices, we establish new large spaces between the zeros of the Riemann zeta-function by employing some Wirtinger-type inequalities. In particular, it is obtained that which means that consecutive nontrivial zeros often differ by at least 6.1392 times the average spacing.

  5. Quantum Graphs Whose Spectra Mimic the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Jack; Hummel, Quirin; Richter, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    One of the most famous problems in mathematics is the Riemann hypothesis: that the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function lie on a line in the complex plane. One way to prove the hypothesis would be to identify the zeros as eigenvalues of a Hermitian operator, many of whose properties can be derived through the analogy to quantum chaos. Using this, we construct a set of quantum graphs that have the same oscillating part of the density of states as the Riemann zeros, offering an explanation of the overall minus sign. The smooth part is completely different, and hence also the spectrum, but the graphs pick out the low-lying zeros.

  6. Horizontal Monotonicity of the Modulus of the Riemann Zeta Function and Related Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Matiyasevich, Yuri; Zvengrowski, Peter

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the absolute values of Riemann's zeta function and two related functions strictly decrease when the imaginary part of the argument is fixed to any number with absolute value at least 8 and the real part of the argument is negative and increases up to 0; extending this monotonicity to the increase of the real part up to 1/2 is shown to be equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis. Another result is a double inequality relating the real parts of the logarithmic derivatives of the three functions under consideration.

  7. Rising Star

    OpenAIRE

    Worley, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    Rising Star is a novel about appearances. Thailand Allen is a girl who thinks she understands what she sees. But when what she sees are cracks in her perfect world, maturation and new sight are not far off. Before growth can occur, Thailand must undergo a painful process of learning that carries with it embarrassment, sorrow, anger and confusion. Thailand lives with her mother in a small Texas town called Rising Star. Rising Star is like every other small town with its community gather...

  8. Stability of fenbendazole suspensions for veterinary use. Correlation between zeta potential and sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, José L; López-Viota, Margarita; Clares, Beatriz; Ruiz, Ma Adolfina

    2008-08-07

    In this paper we have carried out a detailed investigation of the stability and redispersibility characteristics of fenbendazole aqueous suspensions, through a thermodynamic and electrokinetic characterization, considering the effect of both pH and ionic strength. The hydrophobic character of the drug, and the surface charge and electrical double-layer thickness play an essential role in the stability of the system, hence the need for a full characterization of fenbendazole. It was found that the drug suspensions displays "delayed" or "hindered" sedimentation, determined by their hydrophobic character and their low zeta potential (indicating a small electrokinetic charge on the particles). The electrostatic repulsion between the particles is responsible for the low sedimentation volume and poor redispersibility of the drug. However, only low concentrations of AlCl(3) induced a significant effect on both the zeta potential and stability of the drug, leading to a "free-layered" sedimentation and a very easy redispersion which could be of great interest in the design of an oral pharmaceutical dosage form for veterinary.

  9. Multiple zeta functions and double wrapping in planar N=4 SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Leurent, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Using the FiNLIE solution of the AdS/CFT Y-system, we compute the anomalous dimension of the Konishi operator in planar N=4 SYM up to eight loops, i.e. up to the leading double wrapping order. At this order a non reducible Euler-Zagier sum, zeta(1,2,8), appears for the first time. We find that at all orders in perturbation, every spectral-dependent quantity of the Y-system is expressed through multiple Hurwitz zeta functions, hence we provide a Mathematica package to manipulate these functions, including the particular case of Euler-Zagier sums. Furthermore, we conjecture that only Euler-Zagier sums can appear in the answer for the anomalous dimension at any order in perturbation theory. We also resum the leading transcendentality terms of the anomalous dimension at all orders, obtaining a simple result in terms of Bessel functions. Finally, we demonstrate that exact Bethe equations should be related to an absence of poles condition that becomes especially nontrivial at double wrapping.

  10. The Zeta-Function of a p-Adic Manifold, Dwork Theory for Physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Candelas, Philip

    2007-01-01

    In this article we review the observation, due originally to Dwork, that the zeta-function of an arithmetic variety, defined originally over the field with p elements, is a superdeterminant. We review this observation in the context of a one parameter family of quintic threefolds, and study the zeta-function as a function of the parameter \\phi. Owing to cancellations, the superdeterminant of an infinite matrix reduces to the (ordinary) determinant of a finite matrix, U(\\phi), corresponding to the action of the Frobenius map on certain cohomology groups. The parameter-dependence of U(\\phi) is given by a relation U(\\phi)=E^{-1}(\\phi^p)U(0)E(\\phi) with E(\\phi) a Wronskian matrix formed from the periods of the manifold. The periods are defined by series that converge for $|\\phi|_p < 1$. The values of \\phi that are of interest are those for which \\phi^p = \\phi so, for nonzero \\phi, we have |\\vph|_p=1. We explain how the process of p-adic analytic continuation applies to this case. The matrix U(\\phi) breaks up i...

  11. Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis for Determination of Hydrodynamic Diameter, Concentration, and Zeta-Potential of Polyplex Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David R; Green, Jordan J

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) is a recently developed nanoparticle characterization technique that offers certain advantages over dynamic light scattering for characterizing polyplex nanoparticles in particular. Dynamic light scattering results in intensity-weighted average measurements of nanoparticle characteristics. In contrast, NTA directly tracks individual particles, enabling concentration measurements as well as the direct determination of number-weighted particle size and zeta-potential. A direct number-weighted assessment of nanoparticle characteristics is particularly useful for polydisperse samples of particles, including many varieties of gene delivery particles that can be prone to aggregation. Here, we describe the synthesis of poly(beta-amino ester)/deoxyribonucleic acid (PBAE/DNA) polyplex nanoparticles and their characterization using NTA to determine hydrodynamic diameter, zeta-potential, and concentration. Additionally, we detail methods of labeling nucleic acids with fluorophores to assess only those polyplex nanoparticles containing plasmids via NTA. Polymeric gene delivery of exogenous plasmid DNA has great potential for treating a wide variety of diseases by inducing cells to express a gene of interest.

  12. The Zeta Potential of Surface-Functionalized Metallic Nanorod Particles in Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, G M; Rose, K A; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Chuang, F S; Sha, M Y; Chakarova, G; Penn, S G

    2007-05-07

    Metallic nanoparticles suspended in aqueous solutions, and functionalized with chemical and biological surface coatings, are important elements in basic and applied nanoscience research. Many applications require an understanding of the electrokinetic or colloidal properties of such particles. In this paper we describe the results of experiments to measure the zeta potential of metallic nanorod particles in aqueous saline solutions, including the effects of pH, ionic strength, metallic composition, and surface functionalization state. Particle substrates tested include gold, silver, and palladium monometallic particles as well as gold/silver bimetallic particles. Surface functionalization conditions included 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), mercaptoethanol (ME), and mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MESA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), as well as MUA layers subsequently derivatized with proteins. Zeta potential data for typical charge-stabilized polystyrene particles are also presented for comparison. Experimental data are compared with theory. The results of these studies are useful in predicting and controlling the aggregation, adhesion, and transport of functionalized metallic nanoparticles within microfluidic devices and other systems.

  13. Hilbert-P\\'olya Conjecture, Zeta-Functions and Bosonic Quantum Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Julio

    2013-01-01

    The original Hilbert and P\\'olya conjecture is the assertion that the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function can be the spectrum of a self-adjoint operator. So far no such operator was found. However the suggestion of Hilbert and P\\'olya, in the context of spectral theory, can be extended to approach other problems and so it is natural to ask if there is a quantum mechanical system related to other sequences of numbers which are originated and motivated by Number Theory. In this paper we show that the functional integrals associated with a hypothetical class of physical systems described by self-adjoint operators associated with bosonic fields whose spectra is given by three different sequence of numbers cannot be constructed. The common feature of the sequence of numbers considered here, which causes the impossibility of zeta regularization, is that the various Dirichlet series attached to such sequences - such as those which are sums over "primes" of $(\\mathrm{norm} \\ P)^{-s}$ have a natural boundar...

  14. Clinical efficacy and safety of biosimilar epoetin: focus on epoetin zeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ashraf Mikhail , Christopher BrownRenal Unit, Morriston Hospital, Wales, UK Abstract: Biosimilars have been developed for several biologic therapeutic agents, including erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Biosimilars cannot be assumed to be completely identical to the reference product. Several regulatory bodies have issued stringent guidelines to regulate the licensing of biosimilars. These guidelines, although share a unified aim of ensuring the safety and efficacy of biosimilars, show several differences. Such differences may reflect the difficulties facing regulatory bodies in defining a biosimilar, identifying sensitive means to assess equivalence in efficacy, and designing robust methodologies to monitor long-term safety. This review will discuss some of the aspects of differences in licensing requirements for biosimilars, comparing the European Medicines Agency guidelines and the American Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The pathway adopted by the manufacturer of a biosimilar (epoetin zeta to gain licensing within the European market will be assessed, analyzing its compliance with the European Medicines Agency guidelines for the approval process. Since many patients are likely to be switched from original drugs to biosimilars in future, there is a need to establish strict guidelines on interchangeability and substitution of biosimilars and original products and to make it an integral part of the pre-registration assessment of any biosimilar in future. Eventually, long-term, observational post-marketing data will provide further reassurance on safety and tolerability of biosimilars. Keywords: biosimilars, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, epoetin zeta, biologic therapeutic agents

  15. Surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue): zeta potential and surface charge density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravendra; Ming, Hui

    2013-03-15

    The surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue) from different alumina refineries in Australia and China were studied by electrophoresis and measuring surface charge density obtained from acid/base potentiometric titrations. The electrophoretic properties were measured from zeta potentials obtained in the presence of 0.01 and 0.001 M KNO(3) over a wide pH range (3.5-10) by titration. The isoelectric point (IEP) values were found to vary from 6.35 to 8.70 for the red mud samples. Further investigation into the surface charge density of one sample (RRM) by acid/base potentiometric titration showed similar results for pH(PZC) with pH(IEP) obtained from electrokinetic measurements. The pH(IEP) determined from zeta potential measurements can be used as a characteristic property of red mud. The minerals contained in red mud contributed to the different values of pH(IEP) of samples obtained from different refineries. Different relationships of pH(IEP) with Al/Fe and Al/Si ratios (molar basis) were also found for different red mud samples.

  16. Electroosmotic fluid motion and late-time solute transport at non-negligible zeta potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Griffiths; R. H. Nilson

    1999-12-01

    Analytical and numerical methods are employed to determine the electric potential, fluid velocity and late-time solute distribution for electroosmotic flow in a tube and channel when the zeta potential is not small. The electric potential and fluid velocity are in general obtained by numerical means. In addition, new analytical solutions are presented for the velocity in a tube and channel in the extremes of large and small Debye layer thickness. The electroosmotic fluid velocity is used to analyze late-time transport of a neutral non-reacting solute. Zeroth and first-order solutions describing axial variation of the solute concentration are determined analytically. The resulting expressions contain eigenvalues representing the dispersion and skewness of the axial concentration profiles. These eigenvalues and the functions describing transverse variation of the concentration field are determined numerically using a shooting technique. Results are presented for both tube and channel geometries over a wide range of the normalized Debye layer thickness and zeta potential. Simple analytical approximations to the eigenvalues are also provided for the limiting cases of large and small values of the Debye layer thickness. The methodology developed here for electroosmotic flow is also applied to the Taylor problem of late-time transport and dispersion in pressure-driven flows.

  17. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  18. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  19. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  20. STAR POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. von Ferber; Yu.Holovatch

    2002-01-01

    It is our great pleasure to present a collection of papers devoted to theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies in the field of star polymers. Since its introduction in the early 80-ies, this field has attracted increasing interest and has become an important part of contemporary polymer physics. While research papers in this field appear regularly in different physical and chemical journals, the present collection is an attempt to join together the studies of star polymers showing the...

  1. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  2. Measuring microchannel electroosmotic mobility and zeta potential by the current monitoring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chenren; Devoe, Don L

    2013-01-01

    Electroosmotic flow (EOF) is an electrokinetic flow control technique widely used in microfluidic systems for applications including direct electrokinetic pumping, hydrodynamic pressure generation, and counterflow for microfluidic separations. During EOF, an electric field is applied along the length of a microchannel containing an electrolyte, with mobile ions near the charged microchannel walls experiencing a Coulomb force due to electrostatic interactions with the applied electric field that leads to bulk solution movement. The goal of this laboratory is to experimentally determine the fixed channel surface charge (zeta potential) and electroosmotic mobility associated with a given microchannel substrate material and buffer solution, using a simple current monitoring method to measure the average flow velocity within the microchannel. It is a straightforward experiment designed to help students understand EOF physics while gaining hands-on experience with basic world-to-chip interfacing. It is well suited to a 90-min laboratory session for up to 12 students with minimal infrastructure requirements.

  3. Explicit Formulae for Values of Dedekind Zeta Functions of Two Kinds of Cyclotomic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马连荣; 张贤科

    2002-01-01

    @@ Let K = Q(ζm) denote the m-th cyclotomic field, and K+ its maximal real subfield, where ζm =exp( ) is an m-th primary root of unity. Let ζK(s) denote the Dedekind zeta function of K. For prime integers m = p, Fumio Hazama recently in [1] obtained formulae for calculating special values of ζK(s) and ζK+(s), i.e., calculating formulae of ζK+(1 -- n) and ζK(1-n) for ζK+ (1-n)positive integers n, which are the newest results of a series of his work in many years (see [1-3]).

  4. Influence of zeta potential on the flocculation of cyanobacteria cells using chitosan modified soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Honggang; Pan, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Using chitosan modified soil to flocculate and sediment algal cells has been considered as a promising strategy to combat cyanobacteria blooms in natural waters. However, the flocculation efficiency often varies with algal cells with different zeta potential (ZP) attributed to different growth phases or water conditions. This article investigated the relationship between ZP of Microcystis aeruginosa and its influence to the flocculation efficiency using chitosan modified soil. Results suggested that the optimal removal efficiency was obtained when the ZP was between -20.7 and -6.7 mV with a removal efficiency of more than 80% in 30 min and large floc size of >350 μm. When the algal cells were more negatively charged than -20.7 mV, the effect of chitosan modified soil was depressed (flocculation efficiency of chitosan modified soil and an important guidance for practical engineering of cyanobacteria bloom control.

  5. Measuring differential rotation of the K-giant $\\zeta$\\,And

    CERN Document Server

    K\\Hovári, Zs; Kriskovics, L; Vida, K; Donati, J -F; Coroller, H Le; Pedretti, J D Monnier E; Petit, P

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the temporal spot evolution of the K-giant component in the RS CVn-type binary system $\\zeta$\\,Andromedae to establish its surface differential rotation. Doppler imaging is used to study three slightly overlapping spectroscopic datasets, obtained independently at three different observing sites. Each dataset covers one full stellar rotation with good phase coverage, and in total, results in a continuous coverage of almost three stellar rotations ($P_{\\rm rot}=$17.8\\,d). Therefore, these data are well suited for reconstructing surface temperature maps and studying temporal evolution in spot configurations. Surface differential rotation is measured by the means of cross-correlation of all the possible image pairs. The individual Doppler reconstructions well agree in the revealed spot pattern, recovering numerous low latitude spots with temperature contrasts of up to $\\approx$1000\\,K with respect to the unspotted photosphere, and also an asymmetric polar cap which is diminishing with time. Our det...

  6. Newton flow of the Riemann zeta function: separatrices control the appearance of zeros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, J. W.; Feiler, C.; Maier, H.; Schleich, W. P.

    2014-10-01

    A great many phenomena in physics can be traced back to the zeros of a function or a functional. Eigenvalue or variational problems prevalent in classical as well as quantum mechanics are examples illustrating this statement. Continuous descent methods taken with respect to the proper metric are efficient ways to attack such problems. In particular, the continuous Newton method brings out the lines of constant phase of a complex-valued function. Although the patterns created by the Newton flow are reminiscent of the field lines of electrostatics and magnetostatics they cannot be realized in this way since in general they are not curl-free. We apply the continuous Newton method to the Riemann zeta function and discuss the emerging patterns emphasizing especially the structuring of the non-trivial zeros by the separatrices. This approach might open a new road toward the Riemann hypothesis.

  7. Combinatorics of lower order terms in the moment conjectures for the Riemann zeta function

    CERN Document Server

    Dehaye, Paul-Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Conrey, Farmer, Keating, Rubinstein and Snaith have given a recipe that conjecturally produces, among others, the full moment polynomial for the Riemann zeta function. The leading term of this polynomial is given as a product of a factor explained by arithmetic and a factor explained by combinatorics (or, alternatively, random matrices). We explain how the lower order terms arise, and clarify the dependency of each factor on the exponent $k$ that is considered. We use extensively the theory of symmetric functions and representations of symmetric groups, ideas of Lascoux on manipulations of alphabets, and a key lemma, due in a basic version to Bump and Gamburd. Our main result ends up involving dimensions of partitions, as studied by Olshanski, Regev, Vershik, Ivanov and others.

  8. Surfactants, not size or zeta-potential influence blood-brain barrier passage of polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Nadine; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Kockentiedt, Sarah; Hintz, Werner; Tomas, Jürgen; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) can deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but little is known which of the factors surfactant, size and zeta-potential are essential for allowing BBB passage. To this end we designed purpose-built fluorescent polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) NP and imaged the NP's passage over the blood-retina barrier - which is a model of the BBB - in live animals. Rats received intravenous injections of fluorescent PBCA-NP fabricated by mini-emulsion polymerisation to obtain various NP's compositions that varied in surfactants (non-ionic, anionic, cationic), size (67-464nm) and zeta-potential. Real-time imaging of retinal blood vessels and retinal tissue was carried out with in vivo confocal neuroimaging (ICON) before, during and after NP's injection. Successful BBB passage with subsequent cellular labelling was achieved if NP were fabricated with non-ionic surfactants or cationic stabilizers but not when anionic compounds were added. NP's size and charge had no influence on BBB passage and cell labelling. This transport was not caused by an unspecific opening of the BBB because control experiments with injections of unlabelled NP and fluorescent dye (to test a "door-opener" effect) did not lead to parenchymal labelling. Thus, neither NP's size nor chemo-electric charge, but particle surface is the key factor determining BBB passage. This result has important implications for NP engineering in medicine: depending on the surfactant, NP can serve one of two opposite functions: while non-ionic tensides enhance brain up-take, addition of anionic tensides prevents it. NP can now be designed to specifically enhance drug delivery to the brain or, alternatively, to prevent brain penetration so to reduce unwanted psychoactive effects of drugs or prevent environmental nanoparticles from entering tissue of the central nervous system.

  9. Calculations of Isoelectronic Series of He Using Noninteger n-Slater Type Orbitals in Single and Double Zeta Approximations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUSEINOV,Israfil; ERT(U)RK,Murat; SAHIN,Ercan; AKSU,Hüseyin

    2008-01-01

    Using integer and noninteger n-Slater type orbitals in single- and double-zeta approximations, the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan calculations were performed for the ground states of first ten cationic members of the isoelectronic series of He atom. All the noninteger parameters and orbital exponents were fully optimized. In the case of noninteger n-Slater type orbitals in double zeta basis sets, the results of calculations obtained are more close to the numerical Hatree-Fock values and the average deviations of our ground state energies do not exceed 2×10-6 hartrees of their numerical results.

  10. Uncoupling of T Cell Receptor Zeta Chain Function during the Induction of Anergy by the Superantigen, Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Cornwell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins have immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we show that Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA induces a strong proliferative response in a murine T cell clone independent of MHC class II bearing cells. SEA stimulation also induces a state of hypo-responsiveness (anergy. We characterized the components of the T cell receptor (TCR during induction of anergy by SEA. Most interestingly, TCR zeta chain phosphorylation was absent under SEA anergizing conditions, which suggests an uncoupling of zeta chain function. We characterize here a model system for studying anergy in the absence of confounding costimulatory signals.

  11. On the Inference of the Cosmic Ray Ionization Rate $\\zeta$ from the HCO$^+$-to-DCO$^+$ Abundance Ratio: The Effect of Nuclear Spin

    CERN Document Server

    Shingledecker, Christopher N; Gal, Romane Le; Oberg, Karin I; Hincelin, Ugo; Herbst, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The chemistry of dense interstellar regions was analyzed using a time-dependent gas-grain astrochemical simulation and a new chemical network that incorporates deuterated chemistry taking into account nuclear spin-states for the hydrogen chemistry and its deuterated isotopologues. With this new network, the utility of the [HCO$^+$]/[DCO$^+$] abundance ratio as a probe of the cosmic ray ionization rate has been reexamined, with special attention paid to the effect of the initial value of the molecular hydrogen ortho-to-para ratio (OPR). After discussing the use of the probe for cold cores, we then compare our results with previous theoretical and observational results for a molecular cloud close to the supernova remnant W51C, which is thought to have an enhanced cosmic ray ionization rate $\\zeta$ caused by the nearby $\\gamma$-ray source. In addition, we attempt to use our approach to estimate the cosmic ray ionization rate for L1174, a dense core with an embedded star. Beyond the previously known sensitivity o...

  12. Morning Star

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Morning Star comprises a group of paintings and drawings whose imagery derives from photographs of 1960s American hippie communes. The paintings are made using oil paint on linen. Their dimensions vary between 180 x 120, and 228 x 217 centimetres. The drawings are in pencil on watercolour paper and are all 56 x 76 centimetres. The work has been exhibited in conventional form, hanging on gallery walls. For Morning Star I made pencil drawings and oil paintings derived from images in Dick Fa...

  13. Atmospheric Heating and Wind Acceleration in Cool Evolved Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, Vladimir S

    2014-01-01

    A chromosphere is a universal attribute of stars of spectral type later than ~F5. Evolved (K and M) giants and supergiants (including the zeta Aurigae binaries) show extended and highly turbulent chromospheres, which develop into slow massive winds. The associated continuous mass loss has a significant impact on stellar evolution, and thence on the chemical evolution of galaxies. Yet despite the fundamental importance of those winds in astrophysics, the question of their origin(s) remains unsolved. What sources heat a chromosphere? What is the role of the chromosphere in the formation of stellar winds? This chapter provides a review of the observational requirements and theoretical approaches for modeling chromospheric heating and the acceleration of winds in single cool, evolved stars and in eclipsing binary stars, including physical models that have recently been proposed. It describes the successes that have been achieved so far by invoking acoustic and MHD waves to provide a physical description of plasma...

  14. Stars Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean Leyder

    1996-01-01

    An imaginary voyage in time where we were witness of the birth of the universe itself, the time of the Big-Bang 15 billion years ago. Particules from the very first moments of time : protons, neutrons and electrons, and also much more energetic one. These particules are preparing to interact collider and generating others which will be the birth to the stars ........

  15. Pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M?rcio

    2014-01-01

    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  16. STAR Highlights

    OpenAIRE

    Masui, Hiroshi; collaboration, for the STAR

    2011-01-01

    We report selected results from STAR collaboration at RHIC, focusing on jet-hadron and jet-like correlations, quarkonium suppression and collectivity, di-electron spectrum in both p+p and Au+Au, and higher moments of net-protons as well as azimuthal anisotropy from RHIC Beam Energy Scan program.

  17. Effect of isotonic solutions and peptide adsorption on zeta potential of porous silicon nanoparticle drug delivery formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasalainen, Martti; Mäkilä, Ermei; Riikonen, Joakim; Kovalainen, Miia; Järvinen, Kristiina; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Salonen, Jarno

    2012-07-15

    Recently, highly promising results considering the use of porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles as a controlled and targeted drug delivery system have been published. Drugs are typically loaded into PSi nanoparticles by electrostatic interactions, and the drug-loaded nanoparticles are then administered parenterally in isotonic solutions. Zeta potential has an important role in drug adsorption and overall physical stability of nanosuspensions. In the present study, we used zeta potential measurements to study the impact of the formulation components to the nanosuspension stability. The impact of medium was studied by measuring isoelectric points (IEP) and zeta potentials in isotonic media. The role of drug adsorption was demonstrated with gastrointestinal peptides GLP-1(7-37) and PYY (3-36) and the selection of isotonic additive was demonstrated with peptide-loaded PSi nanoparticles. The results show the notable effect of isotonic solutions and peptide adsorption on zeta potential of PSi nanosuspensions. As a rule of thumb, the sugars (sucrose, dextrose and mannitol) seem to be good media for negatively charged peptide-loaded particles and weak acids (citric- and lactic acid) for positively charged particles. Nevertheless, perhaps the most important rule can be given for isotonic salt solutions which all are very poor media when the stability of nanosuspension is considered.

  18. Development of a novel in silico model of zeta potential for metal oxide nanoparticles: a nano-QSPR approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrzykowska, Ewelina; Mikolajczyk, Alicja; Sikorska, Celina; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-11-01

    Once released into the aquatic environment, nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to interact (e.g. dissolve, agglomerate/aggregate, settle), with important consequences for NP fate and toxicity. A clear understanding of how internal and environmental factors influence the NP toxicity and fate in the environment is still in its infancy. In this study, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was employed to systematically explore factors that affect surface charge (zeta potential) under environmentally realistic conditions. The nano-QSPR model developed with multiple linear regression (MLR) was characterized by high robustness ({{{Q}}{{2}}}{{CV}}=0.90) and external predictivity ({{{Q}}{{2}}}{{EXT}}=0.93). The results clearly showed that zeta potential values varied markedly as functions of the ionic radius of the metal atom in the metal oxides, confirming that agglomeration and the extent of release of free MexOy largely depend on their intrinsic properties. A developed nano-QSPR model was successfully applied to predict zeta potential in an ionized solution of NPs for which experimentally determined values of response have been unavailable. Hence, the application of our model is possible when the values of zeta potential in the ionized solution for metal oxide nanoparticles are undetermined, without the necessity of performing more time consuming and expensive experiments. We believe that our studies will be helpful in predicting the conditions under which MexOy is likely to become problematic for the environment and human health.

  19. Improving the surface-brightness color relation for early-type stars using optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Challouf, M; Mourard, D; Graczyk, D; Aroui, H; Chesneau, O; Delaa, O; Pietrzyński, G; Gieren, W; Ligi, R; Meilland, A; Perraut, K; Tallon-Bosc, I; McAlister, H; Brummelaar, T ten; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N; Farrington, C; Vargas, N; Scott, N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the SBC relation for early-type stars in the $-1 \\leq V-K \\leq 0$ color domain, using optical interferometry. Observations of eight B- and A-type stars were secured with the VEGA/CHARA instrument in the visible. The derived uniform disc angular diameters were converted into limb darkened angular diameters and included in a larger sample of twenty four stars, already observed by interferometry, in order to derive a revised empirical relation for O, B, A spectral type stars with a V-K color index ranging from -1 to 0. We also take the opportunity to check the consistency of the SBC relation up to $V-K \\simeq 4$ using 100 additional measurements. We determined the uniform disc angular diameter for the eight following stars: $\\gamma$ Ori, $\\zeta$ Per, $8$ Cyg, $\\iota$ Her, $\\lambda$ Aql, $\\zeta$ Peg, $\\gamma$ Lyr and $\\delta$ Cyg with V-K color ranging from -0.70 to 0.02 and typical precision of about $1.5\\%$. Using our total sample of 132 stars with $V-K$ colors index ranging f...

  20. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  1. Planck stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density --not by size-- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

  2. Local zeta regularization and the scalar Casimir effect I. A general approach based on integral kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Fermi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This is the first one of a series of papers about zeta regularization of the divergences appearing in the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of several local and global observables in quantum field theory. More precisely we consider a quantized, neutral scalar field on a domain in any spatial dimension, with arbitrary boundary conditions and, possibly, in presence of an external classical potential. We analyze, in particular, the VEV of the stress-energy tensor, the corresponding boundary forces and the total energy, thus taking into account both local and global aspects of the Casimir effect. In comparison with the wide existing literature on these subjects, we try to develop a more systematic approach, allowing to treat specific configurations by mere application of a general machinery. The present Part I is mainly devoted to setting up this general framework; at the end of the paper, this is exemplified in a very simple case. In Parts II, III and IV we will consider more engaging applications, indicated in the...

  3. Hippocampal Infusion of Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Impairs Recent, but Not Remote, Recognition Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena B. Hales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial memory in rodents can be erased following the infusion of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP into the dorsal hippocampus via indwelling guide cannulas. It is believed that ZIP impairs spatial memory by reversing established late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP. However, it is unclear whether other forms of hippocampus-dependent memory, such as recognition memory, are also supported by hippocampal LTP. In the current study, we tested recognition memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP infusion. In order to combat the limited targeting of infusions via cannula, we implemented a stereotaxic approach for infusing ZIP throughout the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral hippocampus. Rats infused with ZIP 3–7 days after training on the novel object recognition task exhibited impaired object recognition memory compared to control rats (those infused with aCSF. In contrast, rats infused with ZIP 1 month after training performed similar to control rats. The ability to form new memories after ZIP infusions remained intact. We suggest that enhanced recognition memory for recent events is supported by hippocampal LTP, which can be reversed by hippocampal ZIP infusion.

  4. Hippocampal Infusion of Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Impairs Recent, but Not Remote, Recognition Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Jena B.; Ocampo, Amber C.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Clark, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial memory in rodents can be erased following the infusion of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) into the dorsal hippocampus via indwelling guide cannulas. It is believed that ZIP impairs spatial memory by reversing established late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP). However, it is unclear whether other forms of hippocampus-dependent memory, such as recognition memory, are also supported by hippocampal LTP. In the current study, we tested recognition memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP infusion. In order to combat the limited targeting of infusions via cannula, we implemented a stereotaxic approach for infusing ZIP throughout the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral hippocampus. Rats infused with ZIP 3–7 days after training on the novel object recognition task exhibited impaired object recognition memory compared to control rats (those infused with aCSF). In contrast, rats infused with ZIP 1 month after training performed similar to control rats. The ability to form new memories after ZIP infusions remained intact. We suggest that enhanced recognition memory for recent events is supported by hippocampal LTP, which can be reversed by hippocampal ZIP infusion. PMID:26380123

  5. Beyond the triangle and uniqueness relations non-zeta counterterms at large N from positive knots

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, D J; Kreimer, D

    1996-01-01

    Counterterms that are not reducible to $\\zeta_{n}$ are generated by ${}_3F_2$ hypergeometric series arising from diagrams for which triangle and uniqueness relations furnish insufficient data. Irreducible double sums, corresponding to the torus knots $(4,3)=8_{19}$ and $(5,3)=10_{124}$, are found in anomalous dimensions at ${\\rm O}(1/N^3)$ in the large-$N$ limit, which we compute analytically up to terms of level 11, corresponding to 11 loops for 4-dimensional field theories and 12 loops for 2-dimensional theories. High-precision numerical results are obtained up to 24 loops and used in Padé resummations of $\\varepsilon$-expansions, which are compared with analytical results in 3 dimensions. The ${\\rm O}(1/N^3)$ results entail knots generated by three dressed propagators in the master two-loop two-point diagram. At higher orders in $1/N$ one encounters the uniquely positive hyperbolic 11-crossing knot, associated with an irreducible triple sum. At 12 crossings, a pair of 3-braid knots is generated, correspon...

  6. Interrelationship between the zeta potential and viscoelastic properties in coacervates complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Andrews, Hugo; Enríquez-Ramírez, Karina Esmeralda; García-Márquez, Eristeo; Ramírez-Santiago, Cesar; Lobato-Calleros, Consuelo; Vernon-Carter, Jaime

    2013-06-05

    The formation of the complex coacervate (CC) phases between gum Arabic (GA) and low molecular weight chitosan (Ch) and the interrelationship between the zeta-potential and viscoelastic properties of the coacervate phase were investigated. The maximum charge difference of biopolymers stock dispersion was displayed in a range of pH between 4.0 and 5.5. Titration experiment between the oppositely charged biopolymers showed that the isoelectric point was found at a biopolymers mass ratio (R[GA:Ch]) of R[5.5:1]. Turbidity, size and ζ-potential of the soluble complexes (SC) showed an interrelation with the complex coacervate yield (CCY). Higher CCY values (82.2-88.1%) were obtained in the range from R[3:1] to R[5.5:1]. Change the R[GA:Ch] in dispersion, make possible to produce CC's phases exhibiting cationic (R[1:1] and R[3:1]), neutral (R[5.5:1]) or anionic (R[9:1] and R[7:1]) charged. All CC's exhibited liquid-viscoelastic behavior at lower frequencies and a crossover between G″ and G' at higher frequencies.

  7. Characterization of PF4-Heparin Complexes by Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Zeta Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Sabrina; Fareed, Jawed; Madaschi, Laura; Risi, Giulia; Torri, Giangiacomo; Naggi, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is associated with antibodies to complexes between heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4), a basic protein usually found in platelet alpha granules. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies preferentially recognize macromolecular complexes formed between positively charged PF4 and polyanionic heparins over a narrow range of molar ratios. The aim of this work was to study the complexes that human PF4 forms with heparins from various species, such as porcine, bovine, and ovine; heparins from various organs, such as mucosa and lung; and different low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) at several stoichiometric ratios to evaluate their sizes and charges by photo correlation spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The resulting data of the PF4 complexes with unfractionated heparins (UFHs), LMWHs and their fractions, and oligosaccharide components suggest that the size of aggregates is not only a simple function of average molecular weight but also of the molecular weight distribution of the sample. Moreover, it was found that lower concentrations of the tested ovine-derived mucosal heparin are required to form the large PF4/heparin complexes as compared to mucosal porcine and bovine heparin.

  8. Quantum-mechanical tunneling differential operators, zeta-functions and determinants

    CERN Document Server

    Casahorrán, J

    2002-01-01

    We consider in detail the quantum-mechanical problem associated with the motion of a one-dimensional particle under the action of the double-well potential. Our main tool will be the euclidean (imaginary time) version of the path-integral method. Once we perform the Wick rotation, the euclidean equation of motion is the same as the usual one for the point particle in real time, except that the potential at issue is turned upside down. In doing so, our double-well potential becomes a two-humped potential. As required by the semiclassical approximation we may study the quadratic fluctuations over the instanton which represents in this context the localised finite-action solutions of the euclidean equation of motion. The determinants of the quadratic differential operators are evaluated by means of the zeta-function method. We write in closed form the eigenfunctions as well as the energy eigenvalues corresponding to such operators by using the shape-invariance symmetry. The effect of the multi-instantons configu...

  9. Universal Dielectric Enhancement from Externally Induced Double Layer Without $\\zeta$-Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments showing over $10^4$-fold increase in induced polarization from electrochemically inert, conducting materials in dilute saline solutions, we theoretically demonstrate a new mechanism for dielectric enhancement, in the absence of $\\zeta-$potentials at interfaces between non-insulating particles and an electrolyte solution. We further show that the magnitude of such enhancement obeys universal scaling laws, independent of the particle's electrical properties and valid across particle shapes: for a dilute suspension of identical, but arbitrarily shaped particles of a linear dimension $a$ and volume fraction $f$, as $\\omega\\to0$ the effective real dielectric constant of the mixture is enhanced from that of water by a factor $1+f~(P_r+(a/\\lambda)P_i)$, and the frequency-dependent phase shift of its impedance has a scale-invariant maximum $f\\,\\mathsf{\\Theta}$ if particles are much more conductive than the solution. Here $\\lambda$ is the solution's Debye length and $P_r$, $P_i$, $\\math...

  10. Dynamical mass of the O-type supergiant in Zeta Orionis A

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, C A; Nieva, M -F; Stahl, O; van Belle, G; Zavala, R T

    2013-01-01

    A close companion of Zeta Orionis A was found in 2000 with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI), and shown to be a physical companion. Because the primary is a supergiant of type O, for which dynamical mass measurements are very rare, the companion was observed with NPOI over the full 7-year orbit. Our aim was to determine the dynamical mass of a supergiant that, due to the physical separation of more than 10 AU between the components, cannot have undergone mass exchange with the companion. The interferometric observations allow measuring the relative positions of the binary components and their relative brightness. The data collected over the full orbital period allows all seven orbital elements to be determined. In addition to the interferometric observations, we analyzed archival spectra obtained at the Calar Alto, Haute Provence, Cerro Armazones, and La Silla observatories, as well as new spectra obtained at the VLT on Cerro Paranal. In the high-resolution spectra we identified a few lines tha...

  11. ζ-potential determination using a ZetaMeter-Dynamic Speckle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Peña, Rolando J.; Sánchez-Muñoz, Orlando L.; Martínez-Celorio, René A.; Cibrián, Rosa M.; Salvador-Palmer, Rosario; Salgado, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    Electrophoretic mobility and ζ-potential are important physical parameters for the characterization of micro- and nanosystems. In this communication we describe a new method for determining the ζ-potential through the assembly of two well known techniques: free electrophoresis and Dynamic Speckle. When coherent light passes through a fluid having scattering centres, the far field interference originates a speckled image. If the scattering centres are contained within the cylindrical electrophoresis cell of a ZetaMeter and are forced to move in an orderly way under the action of an external electric field, the time variation of the light intensity in the far field speckle images follows a temporal autocorrelation function g(τ). The corresponding correlation time can then be obtained and related with the velocity, from which the electrophoretic mobility and the ζ-potential of the scattering centres can be determined. We have applied this method to microparticles, like natural air-floated silica and two classes of bioceramics, hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate. For comparison, we analysed the same samples in parallel using a commercial Zetasizer Nano from Malvern Instruments. The values of ζ-potential determined using the two techniques were the same within ~3% error. These results validate our new method as a useful and efficient alternative for ζ-potential determination of particles, at least within the micrometer scale.

  12. Zeta potential, contact angles, and AFM imaging of protein conformation adsorbed on hybrid nanocomposite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ana C; Piedade, Ana P

    2013-08-28

    The sputtering deposition of gold (Au) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) was used to prepare a nanocomposite hybrid thin film suitable for protein adsorption while maintaining the native conformation of the biological material. The monolithic PTFE and the nanocomposite PTFE/Au thin films, with Au content up to 1 at %, were co-deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering using argon as a discharge gas and deposited onto 316L stainless steel substrates, the most commonly used steel in biomaterials. The deposited thin films, before and after bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, were thoroughly characterized with special emphasis on the surface properties/characteristics by atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential, and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, in order to assess the relationship between structure and conformational changes. The influence of a pre-adsorbed peptide (RGD) was also evaluated. The nanotopographic and chemical changes induced by the presence of gold in the nanocomposite thin films enable RGD bonding, which is critical for the maintenance of the BSA native conformation after adsorption.

  13. Reduced fertilization after ICSI and abnormal phospholipase C zeta presence in spermatozoa from the wobbler mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heytens, Elke; Schmitt-John, Thomas; Moser, Jakob M; Jensen, Nanna Mandøe; Soleimani, Reza; Young, Claire; Coward, Kevin; Parrington, John; De Sutter, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Failed fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be due to a reduced oocyte-activation capacity caused by reduced concentrations and abnormal localization of the oocyte-activation factor phospholipase C (PLC) zeta. Patients with this condition can be helped to conceive by artificial activation of oocytes after ICSI with calcium ionophore (assisted oocyte activation; AOA). However some concern still exists about this approach. Mouse models could help to identify potential oocyte-activation strategies and evaluate their safety. In this study, the fertilizing capacity of wobbler sperm cells was tested and the efficiency of AOA with two exposures to ionomycin to restore fertilization and embryo development was studied. The quality of the obtained blastocysts was assessed and embryo transfer was performed to evaluate post-implantation development. The presence of PLCzeta in the spermatozoa and testis of the wobbler mouse was evaluated by PLCzeta immunostaining and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sperm cells from wobbler mice had reduced fertilizing capacity and abnormalities in PLCzeta localization, but not in its expression. Artificially activating the oocytes restored fertilization and embryo development. Therefore, the wobbler mouse can be a model for failed fertilization after ICSI to study PLCzeta dynamics and aid in optimization of the AOA method.

  14. Phenylalanine-induced leucopenia in genetic and dichloroacetic acid generated deficiency of glutathione transferase Zeta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoratos, Angelo; Tu, Wen Juan; Cappello, Jean; Blackburn, Anneke C; Matthaei, Klaus; Board, Philip G

    2009-04-15

    Glutathione transferase Zeta (GSTZ1-1) is identical to maleylacetoacetate isomerase and catalyses a significant step in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Exposure of GSTZ1-1 deficient mice to high dietary phenylalanine causes a rapid loss of circulating white blood cells (WBCs). The loss was significant (P<0.05) after 2 days and total WBCs were reduced by 60% after 6 days. The rapid loss of WBCs was attributed to the accumulation of the catabolic intermediates maleylacetoacetate or maleylacetone (MA) in the circulation. Serum from GSTZ1-1 deficient mice treated with phenylalanine was cytotoxic to splenocytes from normal BALB/c mice and direct incubation of normal splenocytes with MA caused a rapid loss of viability. Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) has been used therapeutically to treat lactic acidosis and is potentially of use in cancer chemotherapy. Since DCA can inactivate GSTZ1-1 there is a possibility that long-term treatment of patients with DCA could cause GSTZ1-1 deficiency and susceptibility to oxidative stress and phenylalanine/tyrosine-induced WBC loss. However, although we found that DCA at 200mg/(kg day) causes a severe loss of hepatic GSTZ1-1 activity in BALB/c mice, it did not induce WBC cytotoxicity when combined with high dietary phenylalanine.

  15. When stars collide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, E.; Pols, O.R.

    2007-01-01

    When two stars collide and merge they form a new star that can stand out against the background population in a star cluster as a blue straggler. In so called collision runaways many stars can merge and may form a very massive star that eventually forms an intermediate mass blackhole. We have perfor

  16. Measure of the stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henbest, N.

    1984-12-13

    The paper concerns the Hertzsprung-Russel (H-R) diagram, which is graph relating the brightness to the surface temperature of the stars. The diagram provides a deep insight into the fundamental properties of the stars. Evolution of the stars; the death of a star; distances; and dating star clusters, are all briefly discussed with reference to the H-R diagram.

  17. Visualizing the transient electroosmotic flow and measuring the zeta potential of microchannels with a micro-PIV technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Deguang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Yang, Chun; Huang, Xiaoyang

    2006-01-14

    We have demonstrated a transient micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique to measure the temporal development of electroosmotic flow in microchannels. Synchronization of different trigger signals for the laser, the CCD camera, and the high-voltage switch makes this measurement possible with a conventional micro-PIV setup. Using the transient micro-PIV technique, we have further proposed a method on the basis of inertial decoupling between the particle electrophoretic motion and the fluid electroosmotic flow to determine the electrophoretic component in the particle velocity and the zeta potential of the channel wall. It is shown that using the measured zeta potentials, the theoretical predictions agree well with the transient response of the electroosmotic velocities measured in this work.

  18. Influence of temperature, anions and size distribution on the zeta potential of DMPC, DPPC and DMPE lipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morini, M A; Sierra, M B; Pedroni, V I; Alarcon, L M; Appignanesi, G A; Disalvo, E A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to compare the influence of the multilamellarity, phase state, lipid head groups and ionic media on the origin of the surface potential of lipid membranes. With this aim, we present a new analysis of the zeta potential of multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles composed by phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) dispersed in water and ionic solutions of polarizable anions, at temperatures below and above the phase transition. In general, the adsorption of anions seems to explain the origin of the zeta potential in vesicles only above the transition temperature (Tc). In this case, the sign of the surface potential is ascribed to a partial orientation of head group moiety toward the aqueous phase. This is noticeable in PC head groups but not in PEs, due to the strong lateral interaction between PO and NH group in PE.

  19. Characterization of Ser73 in Arabidopsis thaliana Glutathione S-transferase zeta class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous detoxifying superfamily enzymes. The zeta class GST from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGSTZ) can efficiently degrade dichloroacetic acid (DCA), which is a common carcinogenic contaminant in drinking water. Ser73 in AtGSTZ is a conserved residue at Glutathione binding site (G-site). Compared with the equivalent residues in other GSTs, the catalytic and structural properties of Ser73 were poorly investigated. In this article, site-saturation mutagenesis was performed to characterize the detailed role of Ser73. The DCA de.chlorinating (DCA-DC) activity showed that most of the mutants had less than 3% of the wild-type activity, except S73T and $73A showing 43.48% and 21.62% of the wild-type activity, respectively, indicating that position 73 in AtGSTZ showed low mutational substitutability. Kinetic experiments revealed that mutants S73T, $73A, and S73G showed low binding affinity and catalytic efficiency toward DCA, 1.8-, 3.1-, and 10.7- fold increases in KmDcA values and 4.0-, 9.6-, and 34.1- fold decreases in KcatDCA/KmDCA values, respectively, compared to the wild type. Thermostability and refolding experiments showed that the wild type maintalned more thermostability and recovered activity. These results demonstrated the important role of Set73 in catalytic activity and structural stability of the enzyme. Such properties of Set73 could be particularly crucial to the molecular evolution of AtGSTZ and might,therefore, help explain why Ser73 is conserved in all GSTs. This conclusion might provide insights into the directed evolution of the DCA-DC activity of AtGSTZ.

  20. Correlations between the zeta potentials of silica hydride-based stationary phases, analyte retention behaviour and their ionic interaction descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsing, Chadin; Yang, Yuanzhong; Munera, Caesar; Tse, Colby; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2014-03-19

    In this study, the zeta potentials of type-B silica, bare silica hydride, the so-called Diamond Hydride™ and phenyl substituted silica hydride stationary phases have been measured in aqueous-organic media and correction procedures developed to account for the more negative zeta potential values in media containing different acetonitrile contents. Retention studies of 16 basic, acidic and neutral compounds were also performed with these four stationary phases with mobile phases containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid and various acetonitrile-water compositions ranging from 0-90% (v/v) acetonitrile. The retention properties of these analytes were correlated to the corrected stationary phase zeta potentials measured under these different mobile phase conditions with R(2) values ranging from 0.01 to 1.00, depending on the stationary phase and analyte type. Using linear solvation energy relationships, stationary phase descriptors for each stationary phase have been developed for the different mobile phase conditions. Very high correlations of the zeta potentials with the ionic interaction descriptors were obtained for the type-B silica and the Diamond Hydride™ phases and good correlation with bare silica hydride material whilst there was no correlation observed for the phenyl substituted silica hydride phase. The nature of the retention mechanisms which gives rise to these different observations is discussed. The described methods represent a useful new approach to characterize and assess the retention properties of silica-hydride based chromatographic stationary phases of varying bonded-phase coverage and chemistries, as would be broadly applicable to other types of stationary phase used in the separation sciences.

  1. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified.

  2. Epoetin zeta in the management of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease, differential pharmacology and clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis-Ajami ML

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Lynn Davis-Ajami,1 Jun Wu,2 Katherine Downton,3 Emilie Ludeman,3 Virginia Noxon4 1Organizational Systems and Adult Health, University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Greenville, SC, USA; 3Health Sciences and Human Services Library, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Science, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Abstract: Epoetin zeta was granted marketing authorization in October 2007 by the European Medicines Agency as a recombinant human erythropoietin erythropoiesis-stimulating agent to treat symptomatic anemia of renal origin in adult and pediatric patients on hemodialysis and adults on peritoneal dialysis, as well as for symptomatic renal anemia in adult patients with renal insufficiency not yet on dialysis. Currently, epoetin zeta can be administered either subcutaneously or intravenously to correct for hemoglobin concentrations ≤10 g/dL (6.2 mmol/L or with dose adjustment to maintain hemoglobin levels at desired levels not in excess of 12 g/dL (7.5 mmol/L. This review article focuses on epoetin zeta indications in chronic kidney disease, its use in managing anemia of renal origin, and discusses its pharmacology and clinical utility. Keywords: biosimilar, chronic kidney disease, epoetin alfa, erythropoiesis, renal anemia, Retacrit®

  3. Investigation on Fuzzy Logic Based Centralized Control in Four-Port SEPIC/ZETA Bidirectional Converter for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENMATHI, M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new four-port DC-DC converter topology is proposed to interface renewable energy sources and the load along with the energy storage device. The proposed four-port SEPIC/ZETA bidirectional converter (FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC converter comprises an isolated output port with two unidirectional and one bidirectional input ports. This converter topology is obtained by the fusion of SEPIC/ZETA BDC and full-bridge converter. This converter topology ensures the non-reversal of output voltage hence it is preferred mostly for battery charging applications. In this work, photovoltaic (PV source is considered and the power balance in the system is achieved by means of distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT in the PV ports. The centralized controller is implemented using fuzzy logic controller (FLC and the performance is compared with conventional proportional integral (PI controller. The results offer useful information to obtain the desired output under line and load regulations. Experimental results are also provided to validate the simulation results.

  4. Far Ultraviolet Spectra of B Stars near the Ecliptic

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, C; Gómez, J F; Trapero, J; Talavera, A; Bowyer, S; Edelstein, J D; Korpela, E J; Lampton, M; Drake, J J

    2000-01-01

    Spectra of B stars in the wavelength range of 911-1100 A have been obtained with the EURD spectrograph onboard the Spanish satellite MINISAT-01 with ~5 A spectral resolution. IUE spectra of the same stars have been used to normalize Kurucz models to the distance, reddening and spectral type of the corresponding star. The comparison of 8 main-sequence stars studied in detail (alpha Vir, epsilon Tau, lambda Tau, tau Tau, alpha Leo, zeta Lib, theta Oph, and sigma Sgr) shows agreement with Kurucz models, but observed fluxes are 10-40% higher than the models in most cases. The difference in flux between observations and models is higher in the wavelength range between Lyman alpha and Lyman beta. We suggest that Kurucz models underestimate the FUV flux of main-sequence B stars between these two Lyman lines. Computation of flux distributions of line-blanketed model atmospheres including non-LTE effects suggests that this flux underestimate could be due to departures from LTE, although other causes cannot be ruled ou...

  5. Can strange stars mimic dark energy stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Debabrata; Guha, B K; Ray, Saibal

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of strange stars mixed with dark energy to be one of candidates for dark energy stars is the main issue of the present study. Our investigation shows that quark matter is acting as dark energy after certain yet unknown critical condition inside the quark stars. Our proposed model reveals that strange stars mixed with dark energy feature not only a physically acceptable stable model but also mimic characteristics of dark energy stars. The plausible connections are shown through the mass-radius relation as well as the entropy and temperature. We particulary note that two-fluid distribution is the major reason for anisotropic nature of the spherical stellar system.

  6. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  7. Protein adsorption on dopamine-melanin films: role of electrostatic interactions inferred from zeta-potential measurements versus chemisorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsmann, Falk; Frisch, Benoît; Ringwald, Christian; Ball, Vincent

    2010-04-01

    We recently showed the possibility to build dopamine-melanin films of controlled thickness by successive immersions of a substrate in alkaline solutions of dopamine [F. Bernsmann, A. Ponche, C. Ringwald, J. Hemmerlé, J. Raya, B. Bechinger, J.-C. Voegel, P. Schaaf, V. Ball, J. Phys. Chem. C 113 (2009) 8234-8242]. In this work the structure and properties of such films are further explored. The zeta-potential of dopamine-melanin films is measured as a function of the total immersion time to build the film. It appears that the film bears a constant zeta-potential of (-39+/-3) mV after 12 immersion steps. These data are used to calculate the surface density of charged groups of the dopamine-melanin films at pH 8.5 that are mostly catechol or quinone imine chemical groups. Furthermore the zeta-potential is used to explain the adsorption of three model proteins (lysozyme, myoglobin, alpha-lactalbumin), which is monitored by quartz crystal microbalance. We come to the conclusion that protein adsorption on dopamine-melanin is not only determined by possible covalent binding between amino groups of the proteins and catechol groups of dopamine-melanin but that electrostatic interactions contribute to protein binding. Part of the adsorbed proteins can be desorbed by sodium dodecylsulfate solutions at the critical micellar concentration. The fraction of weakly bound proteins decreases with their isoelectric point. Additionally the number of available sites for covalent binding of amino groups on melanin grains is quantified.

  8. The Cambridge Double Star Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil

    2015-12-01

    Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.

  9. On the Distribution of the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta-Function and Existence of Large Gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Saker, S H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a new Wirtinger-type inequality and assuming that the Riemann hypothesis is true we establish a new explicit formula for the gaps between the zeros of the Riemann zeta-function. On the hypothesis that the moments of the Hardy Z-function and its derivatives are correctly predicted we establish new lower bounds for the gaps between the zeros. In particular it is proved that consecutive nontrivial zeros often differ by at least 11.249 times the average spacing.

  10. Factors that can interfere with virus concentration from wastewater when using zeta plus 60S filter membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz APS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeta plus filter membranes (ZP60S have been shown to be efficient for rotavirus concentration from wastewater and for the reduction of cytotoxicity for cell cultures. Recently a variability in both properties was observed. In view of the low costs and the high virus recovery rates obtained in the past, we re-evaluated the application of ZP60S filter membranes for virus concentration from environmental samples. Some factors that could interfere with the concentration strategy using ZP60S were also considered and assessed including the type of water to be filtered and the possible release of toxic substances from the membrane matrix during filtration.

  11. Dust in the inner regions of debris disks around A stars

    CERN Document Server

    Akeson, R L; Millan-Gabet, R; Merand, A; Di Folco, E; Monnier, J D; Beichman, C A; Absil, O; Aufdenberg, J; McAlister, H; Brummelaar, T ten; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N

    2008-01-01

    We present infrared interferometric observations of the inner regions of two A-star debris disks, beta Leo and zeta Lep, using the FLUOR instrument at the CHARA interferometer on both short (30 m) and long (>200 m) baselines. For the target stars, the short baseline visibilities are lower than expected for the stellar photosphere alone, while those of a check star, delta Leo, are not. We interpret this visibility offset of a few percent as a near-infrared excess arising from dust grains which, due to the instrumental field of view, must be located within several AU of the central star. For beta Leo, the near-infrared excess producing grains are spatially distinct from the dust which produces the previously known mid-infrared excess. For zeta Lep, the near-infrared excess may be spatially associated with the mid-infrared excess producing material. We present simple geometric models which are consistent with the near and mid-infrared excess and show that for both objects, the near-infrared producing material is...

  12. Prediction of the zeta potentials and ionic descriptors of a silica hydride stationary phase with mobile phases of different pH and ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsing, Chadin; Yang, Yuanzhong; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the zeta potentials of a silica hydride stationary phase (Diamond Hydride™) in the presence of different water-acetonitrile mixtures (from 0-80% (v/v) acetonitrile) of different ionic strengths (from 0-40mM) and pH values (from pH 3.0-7.0) have been investigated. Debye-Hückel theory was applied to explain the effect of changes in the pH and ionic strength of these aqueous media on the negative zeta potential of this stationary phase. The experimental zeta potentials of the Diamond Hydride™ particles as a function of acetonitrile content up to 50% (v/v) correlated (R(2)=0.998) with the predicted zeta potential values based on this established theory, when the values of the dissociation constant of all related species, as well as viscosity, dielectric constant and refractive index of the aqueous medium were taken into consideration. Further, the retention behavior of basic, acidic and neutral analytes was investigated under mobile phase conditions of higher pH and lower ionic strength. Under these conditions, the Diamond Hydride™ stationary phase surface became more negative, as assessed from the increasingly more negative zeta potentials, resulting in the ion exchange characteristics becoming more dominant and the basic analytes showing increasing retention. Ionic descriptors were derived from these chromatographic experiments based on the assumption that linear solvation energy relationships prevail. The results were compared with predicted ionic descriptors based on the different calculated zeta potential values resulting in an overall correlation of R(2)=0.888. These studies provide fundamental insights into the impact on the separation performance of changes in the zeta potential of the Diamond Hydride™ surface with the results relevant to other silica hydride and, potentially, to other types of stationary phase materials.

  13. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Esfahani Mohammad Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1.

  14. Improving the Efficiency of a Coagulation-Flocculation Wastewater Treatment of the Semiconductor Industry through Zeta Potential Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alberto López-Maldonado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process used for semiconductor wastewater treatment was improved by selecting suitable conditions (pH, polyelectrolyte type, and concentration through zeta potential measurements. Under this scenario the zeta potential, ζ, is the right parameter that allows studying and predicting the interactions at the molecular level between the contaminants in the wastewater and polyelectrolytes used for coagulation-flocculation. Additionally, this parameter is a key factor for assessing the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes based on the optimum dosages and windows for polyelectrolytes coagulation-flocculation effectiveness. In this paper, strategic pH variations allowed the prediction of the dosage of polyelectrolyte on wastewater from real electroplating baths, including the isoelectric point (IEP of the dispersions of water and commercial polyelectrolytes used in typical semiconductor industries. The results showed that there is a difference between polyelectrolyte demand required for the removal of suspended solids, turbidity, and organic matter from wastewater (23.4 mg/L and 67 mg/L, resp.. It was also concluded that the dose of polyelectrolytes and coagulation-flocculation window to achieve compliance with national and international regulations as EPA in USA and SEMARNAT in Mexico is influenced by the physicochemical characteristics of the dispersions and treatment conditions (pH and polyelectrolyte dosing strategy.

  15. The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazan Haddad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated, MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated, MAN158 (phosphate-coated, and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated. All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of −0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration. A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process.

  16. The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-04-20

    Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of -0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process.

  17. The zeta potential and surface properties of asphaltenes obtained with different crude oil/n-heptane proportions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilda Parra-Barraza; Daniel Hernandez-Montiel; Jaime Lizardi; Javier Hernandez; Ronaldo Herrera Urbina; Miguel A. Valdez [Universidad de Sonora, Sonora (Mexico). Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas

    2003-05-01

    We have investigated some surface properties of asphaltenes precipitated from crude oil with different volumes of n-heptane. According to the crude oil/n-heptane proportions used, asphaltenes are identified as 1:5, 1:15 and 1:40. Zeta potential results indicate that the amount of n-heptane determines the electrokinetic behaviour of asphaltenes in aqueous suspensions. Asphaltene 1:5 exhibits an isoelectric point (IEP) at pH 4.5 whereas asphaltenes 1:15 and 1:40 show an IEP at about pH 3. Surface charge on asphaltenes arises from the dissociation of acid functionalities and the protonation of basic functional groups. The presence of resins remaining on the asphaltene molecules may be responsible for the different IEP of asphaltene 1:5. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate (an anionic surfactant) and cetylpyridinium chloride (a cationic surfactant) were found to adsorb specifically onto asphaltenes. They reverse the sign of the zeta potential under certain conditions. These surfactants may be potential candidates to aid in controlling the stability of crude oil dispersions. Critical micelle concentration, interfacial tension measurements, and Langmuir isotherms at the air water interface confirm the different nature of asphaltene 1:5, which also showed more solubility and a larger molecular size. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. On accuracy of mathematical languages used to deal with the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet eta function

    CERN Document Server

    Sergeyev, Yaroslav D

    2012-01-01

    The Riemann Hypothesis has been of central interest to mathematicians for a long time and many unsuccessful attempts have been made to either prove or disprove it. Since the Riemann zeta function is defined as a sum of the infinite number of items, in this paper, we look at the Riemann Hypothesis using a new applied approach to infinity allowing one to easily execute numerical computations with various infinite and infinitesimal numbers in accordance with the principle `The part is less than the whole' observed in the physical world around us. The new approach allows one to work with functions and derivatives that can assume not only finite but also infinite and infinitesimal values and this possibility is used to study properties of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet eta function. A new computational approach allowing one to evaluate these functions at certain points is proposed. Numerical examples are given. It is emphasized that different mathematical languages can be used to describe mathematical...

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Computers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers that are effective as of June 2, 2014....

  2. Fuzzy-PI-based centralised control of semi-isolated FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC in a PV/battery hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Venmathi; Ramabadran, Ramaprabha

    2016-11-01

    Multiport converters with centralised controller have been most commonly used in stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)/battery hybrid system to supply the load smoothly without any disturbances. This study presents the performance analysis of four-port SEPIC/ZETA bidirectional converter (FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC) using various types of centralised control schemes like Fuzzy tuned proportional integral controller (Fuzzy-PI), fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and conventional proportional integral (PI) controller. The proposed FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC with various control strategy is derived for simultaneous power management of a PV source using distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT) algorithm, a rechargeable battery, and a load by means of centralised controller. The steady state and the dynamic response of the FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC are analysed using three different types of controllers under line and load regulation. The Fuzzy-PI-based control scheme improves the dynamic response of the system when compared with the FLC and the conventional PI controller. The power balance between the ports is achieved by pseudorandom carrier modulation scheme. The response of the FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC is also validated experimentally using hardware prototype model of 500 W system. The effectiveness of the control strategy is validated using simulation and experimental results.

  3. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  4. Star operations and Pullbacks

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Marco; Park, Mi Hee

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the star operations on a pullback of integral domains. In particular, we characterize the star operations of a domain arising from a pullback of ``a general type'' by introducing new techniques for ``projecting'' and ``lifting'' star operations under surjective homomorphisms of integral domains. We study the transfer in a pullback (or with respect to a surjective homomorphism) of some relevant classes or distinguished properties of star operations such as $v-, t-, w-, b...

  5. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  6. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  7. Magnetism in massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    Stars with mass more than 8 solar masses end their lives as neutron stars, which we mostly observe as highly magnetized objects. Where does this magnetic field come from? Such a field could be formed during the collapse, or is a (modified) remnant of a fossil field since the birth of the star, or ot

  8. Managing the star performer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Our culture seems to be endlessly fascinated with its stars in entertainment, athletics, politics, and business, and holds fast to the idea that extraordinary talent accounts for an individual's extraordinary performance. At first glance, managing a star performer in your medical practice may seem like it would be an easy task. However, there's much more to managing a star performer than many practice managers realize. The concern is how to keep the star performer happy and functioning at a high level without detriment to the rest of the medical practice team. This article offers tips for practice managers who manage star performers. It explores ways to keep the star performer motivated, while at the same time helping the star performer to meld into the existing medical practice team. This article suggests strategies for redefining the star performer's role, for holding the star performer accountable for his or her behavior, and for coaching the star performer. Finally, this article offers practical tips for keeping the star performer during trying times, for identifying and cultivating new star performers, and for managing medical practice prima donnas.

  9. America's Star Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  10. To rescue a star

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Massless neutrinos are exchanged in a neutron star, leading to long range interactions. Many body forces of this type follow and we resum them. Their net contribution to the total energy is negligible as compared to the star mass. The stability of the star is not in danger, contrary to recent assertions.

  11. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book

  12. Magnetic chemically peculiar stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schöller, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Chemically peculiar (CP) stars are main-sequence A and B stars with abnormally strong or weak lines for certain elements. They generally have magnetic fields and all observables tend to vary with the same period. Chemically peculiar stars provide a wealth of information; they are natural atomic and magnetic laboratories. After a brief historical overview, we discuss the general properties of the magnetic fields in CP stars, describe the oblique rotator model, explain the dependence of the magnetic field strength on the rotation, and concentrate at the end on HgMn stars.

  13. Ground State Energy Calculations of Isoelectronic Series of He in Double-Zeta Approximation Using Coulomb Potential with Noninteger Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUSEINOV I.Israfil; AKSU Hüseyin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Using formulae for one-and two-electron integrals of Coulomb interaction potential fk(r)=r-k with non-integer indices k established by one of the authors with the help of complete orthonormal sets of Ψa-exponential-type orbitals(a=1,0,-1,-2,…),we perform the calculations for isoelectronic series of the He atom containing nuclear charges from 2 to 10,where k=1-μ(-1<μ<0).For this purpose we have used the dogble-zeta approximation,the configuration interaction and coupled-cluster methods employing the integer-n Slater-type orbitals as basis sets.It is demonstrated that the results of calculations obtained are better than the numerical Hartree-Fock values.

  14. Overexpression of DNA polymerase zeta reduces the mitochondrial mutability caused by pathological mutations in DNA polymerase gamma in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Baruffini

    Full Text Available In yeast, DNA polymerase zeta (Rev3 and Rev7 and Rev1, involved in the error-prone translesion synthesis during replication of nuclear DNA, localize also in mitochondria. We show that overexpression of Rev3 reduced the mtDNA extended mutability caused by a subclass of pathological mutations in Mip1, the yeast mitochondrial DNA polymerase orthologous to human Pol gamma. This beneficial effect was synergistic with the effect achieved by increasing the dNTPs pools. Since overexpression of Rev3 is detrimental for nuclear DNA mutability, we constructed a mutant Rev3 isoform unable to migrate into the nucleus: its overexpression reduced mtDNA mutability without increasing the nuclear one.

  15. An Earth-grazing fireball from the Daytime $\\zeta$-Perseid shower observed over Spain on 10 June 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Madiedo, José M; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J; Pastor, Sensi; Reyes, José A de los

    2016-01-01

    On 10 June 2012, an Earth-grazer meteor which lasted over 17 s with an absolute magnitude of -4.0 $\\pm$ 0.5 was observed over Spain. This work focuses on the analysis of this rare event which is, to our knowledge, the faintest Earth-grazing meteor reported in the scientific literature, but also the first one belonging to a meteor shower. Thus, the orbital parameters show that the parent meteoroid belonged to the Daytime $\\zeta$-Perseid meteoroid stream. According to our calculations, the meteor was produced by a meteoroid with an initial mass ranging between 115 and 1.5 kg. During its encounter with Earth, the particle travelled about 510 km in the atmosphere. Around 260 g were destroyed in the atmosphere during the luminous phase of the event as a consequence of the ablation process. The modified orbit of the remaining material, which left our planet with a fusion crust, is also calculated.

  16. Stress-energy tensor correlators in N-dimensional hot flat spaces via the generalized zeta-function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H. T.; Hu, B. L.

    2012-09-01

    We calculate the expectation values of the stress-energy bitensor defined at two different spacetime points x, x‧ of a massless, minimally coupled scalar field with respect to a quantum state at finite temperature T in a flat N-dimensional spacetime by means of the generalized zeta-function method. These correlators, also known as the noise kernels, give the fluctuations of energy and momentum density of a quantum field which are essential for the investigation of the physical effects of negative energy density in certain spacetimes or quantum states. They also act as the sources of the Einstein-Langevin equations in stochastic gravity which one can solve for the dynamics of metric fluctuations as in spacetime foams. In terms of constitutions these correlators are one rung above (in the sense of the correlation—BBGKY or Schwinger-Dyson—hierarchies) the mean (vacuum and thermal expectation) values of the stress-energy tensor which drive the semiclassical Einstein equation in semiclassical gravity. The low- and the high-temperature expansions of these correlators are also given here: at low temperatures, the leading order temperature dependence goes like TN while at high temperatures they have a T2 dependence with the subleading terms exponentially suppressed by e-T. We also discuss the singular behavior of the correlators in the x‧ → x coincident limit as was done before for massless conformal quantum fields. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker’s 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.

  17. An exact trace formula and zeta functions for an infinite quantum graph with a non-standard Weyl asymptotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Sebastian Egger né; Steiner, Frank

    2011-05-01

    We study a quantum Hamiltonian that is given by the (negative) Laplacian and an infinite chain of δ-like potentials with strength κ > 0 on the half line { R}_{\\ge 0} and which is equivalent to a one-parameter family of Laplacians on an infinite metric graph. This graph consists of an infinite chain of edges with the metric structure defined by assigning an interval In = [0, ln], n\\in { N}, to each edge with length l_n=\\frac{\\pi }{n}. We show that the one-parameter family of quantum graphs possesses a purely discrete and strictly positive spectrum for each κ > 0 and prove that the Dirichlet Laplacian is the limit of the one-parameter family in the strong resolvent sense. The spectrum of the resulting Dirichlet quantum graph is also purely discrete. The eigenvalues are given by λn = n2, n\\in { N}, with multiplicities d(n), where d(n) denotes the divisor function. We can thus relate the spectral problem of this infinite quantum graph to Dirichlet's famous divisor problem and infer the non-standard Weyl asymptotics {N}(\\lambda )=\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda }}{2}\\ln \\lambda +\\mathord {{O}}(\\sqrt{\\lambda }) for the eigenvalue counting function. Based on an exact trace formula, the Voronoï summation formula, we derive explicit formulae for the trace of the wave group, the heat kernel, the resolvent and for various spectral zeta functions. These results enable us to establish a well-defined (renormalized) secular equation and a Selberg-like zeta function defined in terms of the classical periodic orbits of the graph for which we derive an exact functional equation and prove that the analogue of the Riemann hypothesis is true.

  18. THE FIRST STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whalen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pop III stars are the key to the character of primeval galaxies, the first heavy elements, the onset of cosmological reionization, and the seeds of supermassive black holes. Unfortunately, in spite of their increasing sophistication, numerical models of Pop III star formation cannot yet predict the masses of the first stars. Because they also lie at the edge of the observable universe, individual Pop III stars will remain beyond the reach of observatories for decades to come, and so their properties are unknown. However, it will soon be possible to constrain their masses by direct detection of their supernovae, and by reconciling their nucleosynthetic yields to the chemical abundances measured in ancient metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, some of which may bear the ashes of the first stars. Here, I review the state of the art in numerical simulations of primordial stars and attempts to directly and indirectly constrain their properties.

  19. Investigating the Circumstellar Disk of the Be Shell Star 48 Librae

    CERN Document Server

    Silaj, J; Carciofi, A C; Escolano, C; Okazaki, A T; Tycner, C; Rivinius, T; Klement, R; Bednarski, D

    2016-01-01

    A global disk oscillation implemented in the viscous decretion disk (VDD) model has been used to reproduce most of the observed properties of the well known Be star $\\zeta$ Tau. 48 Librae shares several similarities with $\\zeta$ Tau -- they are both early-type Be stars, they display shell characteristics in their spectra, and they exhibit cyclic $V/R$ variations -- but has some marked differences as well, such as a much denser and more extended disk, a much longer $V/R$ cycle, and the absence of the so-called triple-peak features. We aim to reproduce the photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic observables of 48 Librae with a self-consistent model, and to test the global oscillation scenario for this target. Our calculations are carried out with the three-dimensional NLTE radiative transfer code HDUST. We employ a rotationally deformed, gravity-darkened central star, surrounded by a disk whose unperturbed state is given by the VDD model. A two-dimensional global oscillation code is then used to calculate ...

  20. Assembly, intracellular processing, and expression at the cell surface of the human alpha beta T cell receptor/CD3 complex. Function of the CD3-zeta chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Kuhlmann, J; Rubin, B

    1989-01-01

    The TCR/CD3 complex is a multimeric protein complex composed of a minimum of seven transmembrane chains (TCR alpha beta-CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta 2). Whereas earlier studies have demonstrated that both the TCR-alpha and -beta chains are required for the cell surface expression of the TCR/CD3 c...... to form the heptameric complex (TCR alpha beta-CD3 gamma delta epsilon----TCR alpha beta-CD3 gamma delta epsilon 2); and 5) CD3-zeta is required for the export of the TCR/CD3 complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus for subsequent processing....

  1. Star Clusters within FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adrianna; Moreno, Jorge; Naiman, Jill; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the environments surrounding star clusters of simulated merging galaxies. Our framework employs Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. The project focuses on analyzing the properties of the star clusters formed in merging galaxies. The locations of these star clusters are identified with astrodendro.py, a publicly available dendrogram algorithm. Once star cluster properties are extracted, they will be used to create a sub-grid (smaller than the resolution scale of FIRE) of gas confinement in these clusters. Then, we can examine how the star clusters interact with these available gas reservoirs (either by accreting this mass or blowing it out via feedback), which will determine many properties of the cluster (star formation history, compact object accretion, etc). These simulations will further our understanding of star formation within stellar clusters during galaxy evolution. In the future, we aim to enhance sub-grid prescriptions for feedback specific to processes within star clusters; such as, interaction with stellar winds and gas accretion onto black holes and neutron stars.

  2. Multiplicity of massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Preibisch, T; Zinnecker, H; Preibisch, Thomas; Weigelt, Gerd; Zinnecker, Hans

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the observed multiplicity of massive stars and implications on theories of massive star formation. After a short summary of the literature on massive star multiplicity, we focus on the O- and B-type stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster, which constitute a homogenous sample of very young massive stars. 13 of these stars have recently been the targets of a bispectrum speckle interferometry survey for companions. Considering the visual and also the known spectroscopic companions of these stars, the total number of companions is at least 14. Extrapolation with correction for the unresolved systems suggests that there are at least 1.5 and perhaps as much as 4 companions per primary star on average. This number is clearly higher than the mean number of about 0.5 companions per primary star found for the low-mass stars in the general field population and also in the Orion Nebula cluster. This suggests that a different mechanism is at work in the formation of high-mass multiple systems in the dense Orion Nebu...

  3. Dark stars: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  4. Dark stars: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  5. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  6. Touchstone Stars: Highlights from the Cool Stars 18 Splinter Session

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Andrew W; Boyajian, Tabetha; Gaidos, Eric; von Braun, Kaspar; Feiden, Gregory A; Metcalfe, Travis; Swift, Jonathan J; Curtis, Jason L; Deacon, Niall R; Filippazzo, Joseph C; Gillen, Ed; Hejazi, Neda; Newton, Elisabeth R

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary of the splinter session on "touchstone stars" -- stars with directly measured parameters -- that was organized as part of the Cool Stars 18 conference. We discuss several methods to precisely determine cool star properties such as masses and radii from eclipsing binaries, and radii and effective temperatures from interferometry. We highlight recent results in identifying and measuring parameters for touchstone stars, and ongoing efforts to use touchstone stars to determine parameters for other stars. We conclude by comparing the results of touchstone stars with cool star models, noting some unusual patterns in the differences.

  7. STAR in CTO PCI: When is STAR not a star?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Ravi S; Dean, Larry S

    2016-04-01

    Subintimal tracking and reentry (STAR) has been used as a bailout strategy and involves an uncontrolled dissection and recanalization into the distal lumen to reestablish vessel patency. In the current study, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow < 3 was the only variable which they found to be significantly associated with restenosis and reocclusion after stent placement. It may be reasonable to consider second generation drug eluting stent placement in patients receiving STAR that have TIMI 3 flow, however, this should only be done if there is no compromise of major side branches. If unsure, we recommend to perform balloon angioplasty without stenting.

  8. The First Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2010-10-01

    The standard cosmological model predicts that the first cosmological objects are formed when the age of the universe is a few hundred million years. Recent theoretical studies and numerical simulations consistently suggest that the first objects are very massive primordial stars. We introduce the key physics and explain why the first stars are thought to be massive, rather than to be low-mass stars. The state-of-the-art simulations include all the relevant atomic and molecular physics to follow the thermal evolution of a prestellar gas cloud to very high ``stellar'' densities. Evolutionary calculations of the primordial stars suggest the formation of massive blackholes in the early universe. Finally, we show the results from high-resolution simulations of star formation in a low-metallicity gas. Vigorous fragmentation is triggered in a star-forming gas cloud at a metallicity of as low as Z = 10-5Zsolar.

  9. Interactions of surfactants with a water treatment protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in solution studied by zeta-potential and light scattering measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaambwa, Habauka M; Rennie, Adrian R

    2012-04-01

    Protein extracted from Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds has been advocated as a cheap and environmental friendly alternative to ionic flocculants for water purification. However, the nature and mechanism of its interaction with particles in water, as well as with dissolved surface-active molecules, are not well understood. In this article, we report studies of the protein and its interaction with four surfactants using dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential and turbidity measurements. Zeta-potential measurements identified points of charge reversal and the turbidity and DLS measurements were used to characterize the microstructure and size of protein-surfactant complexes. From the points of charge reversal, it was estimated that 7 anions are required to neutralize the positive charges of each protein molecule at pH 7. For protein mixtures with sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl di-acid sodium salt, the peak in turbidity corresponds to concentrations with a large change in zeta-potential. No turbidity was observed for protein mixtures with either the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 or the zwitterionic surfactant N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate. Changes of pH in the range 4-10 have little effect on the zeta-potential, turbidity, and the hydrodynamic radius reflecting the high isoelectric point of the protein. Addition of small amounts of salt has little effect on the size of protein in solution. These results are discussed in the context of the use of the MO protein in water treatment.

  10. Strange nonchaotic stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, John F; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedented light curves of the Kepler space telescope document how the brightness of some stars pulsates at primary and secondary frequencies whose ratios are near the golden mean, the most irrational number. A nonlinear dynamical system driven by an irrational ratio of frequencies generically exhibits a strange but nonchaotic attractor. For Kepler's "golden" stars, we present evidence of the first observation of strange nonchaotic dynamics in nature outside the laboratory. This discovery could aid the classification and detailed modeling of variable stars.

  11. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  12. Strange Nonchaotic Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2015-08-01

    Exploiting the unprecedented capabilities of the planet-hunting Kepler space telescope, which stared at 150 000 stars for four years, we discuss recent evidence that certain stars dim and brighten in complex patterns with fractal features. Such stars pulsate at primary and secondary frequencies whose ratios are near the famous golden mean, the most irrational number. A nonlinear system driven by an irrational ratio of frequencies is generically attracted toward a “strange” behavior that is geometrically fractal without displaying the “butterfly effect” of chaos. Strange nonchaotic attractors have been observed in laboratory experiments and have been hypothesized to describe the electrochemical activity of the brain, but a bluish white star 16 000 light years from Earth in the constellation Lyra may manifest, in the scale-free distribution of its minor frequency components, the first strange nonchaotic attractor observed in the wild. The recognition of stellar strange nonchaotic dynamics may improve the classification of these stars and refine the physical modeling of their interiors. We also discuss nonlinear analysis of other RR Lyrae stars in Kepler field of view and discuss some toy models for modeling these stars.References: 1) Hippke, Michael, et al. "Pulsation period variations in the RRc Lyrae star KIC 5520878." The Astrophysical Journal 798.1 (2015): 42.2) Lindner, John F., et al. "Strange nonchaotic stars." Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 054101 (2015)

  13. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  14. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  15. H{sub 2} EXCITATION STRUCTURE ON THE SIGHTLINES TO {delta} SCORPII AND {zeta} OPHIUCI: FIRST RESULTS FROM THE SUB-ORBITAL LOCAL INTERSTELLAR CLOUD EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Kane, Robert; Green, James C. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Burgh, Eric B. [SOFIA/USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Beasley, Matthew, E-mail: kevin.france@colorado.edu [Planetary Resources, Inc., 93 S Jackson St 50680, Seattle, WA 98104-2818 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We present the first science results from the Sub-orbital Local Interstellar Cloud Experiment (SLICE): moderate resolution 1020-1070 A spectroscopy of four sightlines through the local interstellar medium. High signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of {eta} Uma, {alpha} Vir, {delta} Sco, and {zeta} Oph were obtained during a 2013 April 21 rocket flight. The SLICE observations constrain the density, molecular photoexcitation rates, and physical conditions present in the interstellar material toward {delta} Sco and {zeta} Oph. Our spectra indicate a factor of two lower total N(H{sub 2}) than previously reported for {delta} Sco, which we attribute to higher S/N and better scattered light control in the new SLICE observations. We find N(H{sub 2}) = 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} on the {delta} Sco sightline, with kinetic and excitation temperatures of 67 and 529 K, respectively, and a cloud density of n{sub H} = 56 cm{sup -3}. Our observations of the bulk of the molecular sightline toward {zeta} Oph are consistent with previous measurements (N(H{sub 2}) Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} at T{sub 01}(H{sub 2}) = 66 K and T{sub exc} = 350 K). However, we detect significantly more rotationally excited H{sub 2} toward {zeta} Oph than previously observed. We infer a cloud density in the rotationally excited component of n{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7600 cm{sup -3} and suggest that the increased column densities of excited H{sub 2} are a result of the ongoing interaction between {zeta} Oph and its environment; also manifest as the prominent mid-IR bowshock observed by WISE and the presence of vibrationally excited H{sub 2} molecules observed by the Hubble Space Telescope.

  16. Biosynthesis and characterization of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles – An emphasis of zeta potential behavior due to capping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankhla, Aryan, E-mail: aaryansankhla@gmail.com [Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302015 (India); Sharma, Rajeshwar; Yadav, Raghvendra Singh [Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302015 (India); Kashyap, Diwakar [Department of Biological Chemistry, Ariel University, Ariel, 40700 (Israel); Kothari, S.L. [Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Jaipur, 303002 (India); Kachhwaha, S. [Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302004 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Biological approaches have been amongst the most promising protocols for synthesis of nanomaterials. In this study, Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) were synthesized by incubating their precursor salts with Escherichia coli and zeta potential (ζ-potential) measurement with varying pH was carried out to evaluate stability of the colloidal dispersion. Formation of CdS NPs was studied in synchrony with microbial growth. TEM analysis confirmed the uniform distribution of NPs. Average size (5 ± 0.4 nm) and electron diffraction pattern revealed polycrystalline cubic crystal phase of these nanoparticles. X-ray diffractogram ascertained the formation of CdS nanoparticles with phase formation and particle size distribution in accordance with the particle size obtained from TEM. Absorption edge of biosynthesized CdS NPs showed a blue shift at ∼400 nm in comparison to their bulk counterpart. A hump at 279 nm indicated presence of biomolecules in the solution in addition to the particles. FT-IR spectrum of capped CdS NPs showed peaks of protein. This confirms adsorption of protein molecules on nanoparticle surface. They act as a capping agent hence responsible for the stability of NPs. The enhanced stability of the particles was confirmed by Zeta potential analysis. The presence of charge on the surface of capped CdS NPs gave a detail understanding of dispersion mechanism and colloidal stability at the NP interface. This stability study of biosynthesized semiconductor nanoparticles utilizing microbial cells had not been done in the past by any research group providing an impetus for the same. Surface area of capped CdS NPs and bare CdS NPs were found to be 298 ± 2.65 m{sup 2}/g and 117 ± 2.41 m{sup 2}/g respectively. A possible mechanism is also proposed for the biosynthesis of CdS NPs. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CdS NPs utilizing reproducible molecular machinery viz. Escherichia coli biomass. • Uniform and Polydispersed NPs with high surface area

  17. Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi, B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.

    En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.

  18. Star Trek in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes specific educational programs for using the Star Trek TV program from kindergarten through college. For each grade level lesson plans, ideas for incorporating Star Trek into future classes, and reports of specific programs utilizing Star Trek are provided. (SL)

  19. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  20. Regulation of the Water Channel Aquaporin-2 via 14-3-3 Theta (θ) and Zeta (ζ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Hanne B; Slengerik-Hansen, Joachim; Aroankins, Takwa

    2015-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of proteins are multifunctional proteins that interact with many of their cellular targets in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Here, we determined that 14-3-3 proteins interact with phosphorylated forms of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and modulate its function....... With the exception of sigma (σ), all 14-3-3 isoforms were abundantly expressed in mouse kidney and mouse kidney collecting duct cells (mpkCCD14). Long-term treatment of mpkCCD14 cells with the type 2 vasopressin receptor agonist dDAVP increased mRNA and protein levels of AQP2 alongside 14-3-3 beta (β) and zeta (ζ......256 phosphorylation critical for the interactions. shRNA-mediated knockdown of 14-3-3 ζ in mpkCCD14 cells resulted in increased AQP2 ubiquitylation, decreased AQP2 protein half-life and reduced AQP2 levels. In contrast, knockdown of 14-3-3 θ resulted in increased AQP2 half-life and increased AQP2...

  1. Transgenic overexpression of 14-3-3 zeta protects hippocampus against endoplasmic reticulum stress and status epilepticus in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P Brennan

    Full Text Available 14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitous molecular chaperones that are abundantly expressed in the brain where they regulate cell functions including metabolism, the cell cycle and apoptosis. Brain levels of several 14-3-3 isoforms are altered in diseases of the nervous system, including epilepsy. The 14-3-3 zeta (ζ isoform has been linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER function in neurons, with reduced levels provoking ER stress and increasing vulnerability to excitotoxic injury. Here we report that transgenic overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in mice results in selective changes to the unfolded protein response pathway in the hippocampus, including down-regulation of glucose-regulated proteins 78 and 94, activating transcription factors 4 and 6, and Xbp1 splicing. No differences were found between wild-type mice and transgenic mice for levels of other 14-3-3 isoforms or various other 14-3-3 binding proteins. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were potently protected against cell death caused by intracerebroventricular injection of the ER stressor tunicamycin. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were also potently protected against neuronal death caused by prolonged seizures. These studies demonstrate that increased 14-3-3ζ levels protect against ER stress and seizure-damage despite down-regulation of the unfolded protein response. Delivery of 14-3-3ζ may protect against pathologic changes resulting from prolonged or repeated seizures or where injuries provoke ER stress.

  2. Dielectric Enhancement from Non-Insulating Particles with Ideally Polarized Interfaces and Zero $\\zeta$-Potential I: Exact Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    We solve exactly the dielectric response of a non-insulating sphere of radius $a$ suspended in symmetric, univalent electrolyte solution, with ideally-polarizable interface but without significant $\\zeta$-potential. We then use this solution to derive the dielectric response of a dilute random suspension of such spheres, with volume fraction $f\\ll1$, within the Maxwell-Garnett Effective Medium Approximation. Surprisingly, we discover a huge dielectric enhancement in this bare essential model of dielectric responses of solids in electrolyte solution: at low frequency $\\omega\\tau_D \\ll (\\lambda/a) / (\\sigma_w / \\sigma_s+1/2)$, the real part of the effective dielectric constant of the mixture is $1-(3f/2)+(9f/4)(a/\\lambda)$. Here $\\sigma_{w/s}$ is the conductivity of the electrolyte solution/solids, $\\lambda$ is the Debye screening length in the solution, $\\tau_D=\\lambda^2/D$ is the standard time scale of diffusion and $D$ is the ion diffusion coefficient. As $\\lambda$ is of the order nm even for dilute electrol...

  3. The Composition of Interstellar Grains Toward Zeta Ophiuchi: Constraining the Elemental Budget Near the Diffuse-Dense Cloud Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Poteet, Charles A; Draine, Bruce T

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the composition of interstellar grains along the line of sight toward Zeta Ophiuchi, a well-studied environment near the diffuse-dense cloud transition. A spectral decomposition analysis of the solid-state absorbers is performed using archival spectroscopic observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope and Infrared Space Observatory. We find strong evidence for the presence of sub-micron-sized amorphous silicate grains, principally comprised of olivine-like composition, with no convincing evidence of H2O ice mantles. However, tentative evidence for thick H2O ice mantles on large (a ~ 2.8 microns) grains is presented. Solid-state abundances of elemental Mg, Si, Fe, and O are inferred from our analysis and compared to standard reference abundances. We find that nearly all of elemental Mg and Si along the line of sight are present in amorphous silicate grains, while a substantial fraction of elemental Fe resides in compounds other than silicates. Moreover, we find that the total abundance of eleme...

  4. Finite temperature Casimir energy in closed rectangular cavities: a rigorous derivation based on a zeta function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S C [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Teo, L P [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2007-09-21

    We derive rigorously explicit formulae of the Casimir free energy at finite temperature for massless scalar field and electromagnetic field confined in a closed rectangular cavity with different boundary conditions by a zeta regularization method. We study both the low and high temperature expansions of the free energy. In each case, we write the free energy as a sum of a polynomial in temperature plus exponentially decay terms. We show that the free energy is always a decreasing function of temperature. In the cases of massless scalar field with the Dirichlet boundary condition and electromagnetic field, the zero temperature Casimir free energy might be positive. In each of these cases, there is a unique transition temperature (as a function of the side lengths of the cavity) where the Casimir energy changes from positive to negative. When the space dimension is equal to two and three, we show graphically the dependence of this transition temperature on the side lengths of the cavity. Finally we also show that we can obtain the results for a non-closed rectangular cavity by letting the size of some directions of a closed cavity go to infinity, and we find that these results agree with the usual integration prescription adopted by other authors.

  5. PAHs and star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Peeters, E; Bakes, ELO; Spoon, HWW; Hony, S; Johnstone, D; Adams, FC; Lin, DNC; Neufeld, DA; Ostriker, EC

    2004-01-01

    Strong IR emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 mum are a common characteristic of regions of massive star formation. These features are carried by large (similar to 50 C-atom) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules which are pumped by the strong FUV photon flux from these stars. Thes

  6. Observing Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  7. Ages of young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Soderblom, David R; Jeffries, Rob D; Mamajek, Eric E; Naylor, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Determining the sequence of events in the formation of stars and planetary systems and their time-scales is essential for understanding those processes, yet establishing ages is fundamentally difficult because we lack direct indicators. In this review we discuss the age challenge for young stars, specifically those less than ~100 Myr old. Most age determination methods that we discuss are primarily applicable to groups of stars but can be used to estimate the age of individual objects. A reliable age scale is established above 20 Myr from measurement of the Lithium Depletion Boundary (LDB) in young clusters, and consistency is shown between these ages and those from the upper main sequence and the main sequence turn-off -- if modest core convection and rotation is included in the models of higher-mass stars. Other available methods for age estimation include the kinematics of young groups, placing stars in Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams, pulsations and seismology, surface gravity measurement, rotation and activ...

  8. Gaia and Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Udalski, A; Skowron, D M; Skowron, J; Pietrukowicz, P; Mróz, P; Poleski, R; Szymański, M K; Kozłowski, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Ulaczyk, K; Pawlak, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a comparison of the Gaia DR1 samples of pulsating variable stars - Cepheids and RR Lyrae type - with the OGLE Collection of Variable Stars aiming at the characterization of the Gaia mission performance in the stellar variability domain. Out of 575 Cepheids and 2322 RR Lyrae candidates from the Gaia DR1 samples located in the OGLE footprint in the sky, 559 Cepheids and 2302 RR Lyrae stars are genuine pulsators of these types. The number of misclassified stars is low indicating reliable performance of the Gaia data pipeline. The completeness of the Gaia DR1 samples of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars is at the level of 60-75% as compared to the OGLE Collection dataset. This level of completeness is moderate and may limit the applicability of the Gaia data in many projects.

  9. Revised Anatomy of Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, M; Dubin, Maurice; Soberman, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    Stars accrete near invisible hydrogen dominated agglomerates. This population, the `dark matter,' effects the nature of stars. Measurements show plasma streams impacting Earth, planets, Sun and stars. This mass-energy source contradicts nebula collapse model for stars. The visual derived model, to which later discoveries (e.g., fusion) were appended, is confounded and contradicted by new observations. Discovery of a quantity of beryllium 7 (53 day half-life) in the Earth's upper atmosphere, fusion produced, hence from the solar outer zone, proves core fusion wrong. Magnetically pinched plasmas from aggregates impact stars at hundreds of km/s, create impulsive conditions for nuclear explosions below the surface. Disks with planets aid cluster capture. Planets modulate the influx varying fusion, hence luminosity (e.g., solar cycle). This population, with no assumptions or ad hoc physics, explains mysterious phenomena, e.g., luminosity/wind variation, sunspots, high temperature corona, CMEs, etc. Standard explan...

  10. Mira Symbiotic Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Liang Lü; Chun-Hua Zhu; Zhan-Wen Han

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed study of Mira symbiotic stars by means of a population synthesis code. We estimate the number of Mira symbiotic stars in the Galaxy as 1700 - 3100 and the Galactic occurrence rate of Mira symbiotic novae as from ~ 0.9 to 6.0 yr-1,depending on the model assumptions. The distributions of the orbital periods, the masses of the components, mass-loss rates of cool components, mass-accretion rates of hot components and Mira pulsation periods in Mira symbiotic stars are simulated. By a comparison of the number ratio of Mira symbiotic stars to all symbiotic stars, we find the model with the stellar wind model of Winters et al. to be reasonable.

  11. Producing Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  12. The Carbon Star Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Robert F.

    2000-06-01

    The atmospheres of many stars have chemical compositions that are significantly different from that of the interstellar medium from which they are formed. This symposium considered all kinds of late-type stars showing altered compositions, the carbon stars being simply the best-known of these. All stages of stellar evolution from the main sequence to the ejection of a planetary nebula were considered, with emphasis on the changes that occur on the asymptotic giant branch. The spectroscopic properties of the photospheres and circumstellar envelopes of chemically-peculiar red giant stars, their origins via single-star evolution or mass transfer in binary systems, and the methods currently used to study them were all discussed in detail. This volume includes the full texts of papers given orally at the symposium and abstracts of the posters. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/book.htm/0-7923-6347-7

  13. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, P E [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Avgeropoulos, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kosmas, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlahos, C [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-11-21

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  15. Catch a Star!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education are launching today the 2007 edition of 'Catch a Star!', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its fifth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. Students are invited to 'become astronomers' and embark on a journey to explore the Universe. ESO PR Photo 42/06 The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star!' also includes an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. "'Catch a Star!' offers a unique opportunity for students to learn more about astronomy and about the methods scientists use to discover new things about the Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. In teams, students choose an astronomical topic to study and produce an in-depth report. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes or a telescope of the future can contribute to their investigations of the subject. As well as the top prize - a trip to one of ESO's observatory sites in Chile - visits to observatories in Germany, Austria and Spain, and many other prizes are also available to be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners chosen with the help of a public online vote. The first editions of 'Catch a Star!' have attracted several hundred entries from more than 25 countries worldwide. Previous winning entries have included "Star clusters and the structure of the Milky Way" (Budapest, Hungary), "Vega" (Acqui Terme, Italy) and "Venus

  16. C III] Emission in Star-Forming Galaxies Near and Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, J, R.; Bayliss, M. B.; Gladders, M. D.; Sharon, K.; Wuyts, E.; Dahle, H.; Johnson, T.; Pena-Guerrero, M.

    2015-01-01

    We measure C III Lambda Lambda 1907, 1909 Angstrom emission lines in eleven gravitationally-lensed star-forming galaxies at zeta at approximately 1.6-3, finding much lower equivalent widths than previously reported for fainter lensed galaxies (Stark et al. 2014). While it is not yet clear what causes some galaxies to be strong C III] emitters, C III] emission is not a universal property of distant star-forming galaxies. We also examine C III] emission in 46 star-forming galaxies in the local universe, using archival spectra from GHRS, FOS, and STIS on HST, and IUE. Twenty percent of these local galaxies show strong C III] emission, with equivalent widths less than -5 Angstrom. Three nearby galaxies show C III] emission equivalent widths as large as the most extreme emitters yet observed in the distant universe; all three are Wolf-Rayet galaxies. At all redshifts, strong C III] emission may pick out low-metallicity galaxies experiencing intense bursts of star formation. Such local C III] emitters may shed light on the conditions of star formation in certain extreme high-redshift galaxies.

  17. Hot Subluminous Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW

  18. Dense Axion Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure.If the axion mass energy is $mc^2= 10^{-4}$ eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about $10^{-14} M_\\odot$. We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If $mc^2 = 10^{-4}$ eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mas...

  19. Dense Axion Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-01

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10-14M⊙ if the axion mass is 10-4 eV . We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10-20M⊙ to about M⊙ . If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  20. Dense Axion Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Abhishek; Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. If the axion mass energy is mc2 =10-4 eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about 10-14M⊙ . We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If mc2 =10-4 4 eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mass ranging from about 10-11M⊙ toabout M⊙.

  1. Cooling of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorian H.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the theoretical basis for modeling the cooling evolution of compact stars starting from Boltzmann equations in curved space-time. We open a discussion on observational verification of different neutron star models by consistent statistics. Particular interest has the question of existence of quark matter deep inside of compact object, which has to have a specific influence on the cooling history of the star. Besides of consideration of several constraints and features of cooling evolution, which are susceptible of being critical for internal structure of hot compact stars we have introduced a method of extraction of the mass distribution of the neutron stars from temperature and age data. The resulting mass distribution has been compared with the one suggested by supernove simulations. This method can be considered as an additional checking tool for the consistency of theoretical modeling of neutron stars. We conclude that the cooling data allowed existence of neutron stars with quark cores even with one-flavor quark matter.

  2. A Novel Approach for Star Extraction from Star Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGSheng; LIUJian; TIANJinwen; YANGRuijuan

    2005-01-01

    Star acquisition is one of the most timeconsuming routines in star tracker operation. One star Point spread function (PSF) forms a near Gaussian distribution in the star image, the star image can be regarded as 2-D intensity surface, and every pixel is the sampled point. The star cluster grouping is to find the highes tintensity pixel among the PSFs and collect the adjacent pixels and group them. The possible highest intensity pixels are the maximum extremum points of the 2-D intensity surface. To efficiently extract star from the star image, a novel star acquisition approach, which uses the simplified least squares support vector machines regression algorithm to find the optimal intensity surface function and predictthe maximum extremum points, is proposed. Comput erexperiments are carried out for the simulated star images.The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has a lot of advantages, including the high efficiency and good robustness over a wide range of sensor noise.

  3. Infrared spectroscopy of stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, K. M.; Ridgway, S. T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews applications of IR techniques in stellar classification, studies of stellar photospheres, elemental and isotopic abundances, and the nature of remnant and ejected matter in near-circumstellar regions. Qualitative IR spectral classification of cool and hot stars is discussed, along with IR spectra of peculiar composite star systems and of obscured stars, and IR characteristics of stellar populations. The use of IR spectroscopy in theoretical modeling of stellar atmospheres is examined, IR indicators of stellar atmospheric composition are described, and contributions of IR spectroscopy to the study of stellar recycling of interstellar matter are summarized. The future of IR astronomy is also considered.

  4. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactions in stars is a major topic in the field of nuclear astrophysics, and deals with the topics of how precisely stars generate their energy through nuclear reactions, and how these nuclear reactions create the elements the stars, planets and - ultimately - we humans consist of. The present book treats these topics in detail. It also presents the nuclear reaction and structure theory, thermonuclear reaction rate formalism and stellar nucleosynthesis. The topics are discussed in a coherent way, enabling the reader to grasp their interconnections intuitively. The book serves bo

  5. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  6. Failure to synthesize the human T-cell CD3-zeta chain and its consequence for the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Kuhlmann, J; Plesner, T;

    1989-01-01

    The T-cell antigen receptor is composed of two variable chains (alpha and beta, termed TcR) which confer ligand specificity, and four constant chains (gamma, delta, epsilon, and zeta, collectively termed CD3) whose functions are not fully understood. To explore the role of the individual CD3...... components, the human T-cell tumour line Jurkat was chemically mutagenized followed by negative selection with F101.01 (a monoclonal antibody against the TcR-CD3 complex), and cloning. Growing clones were analysed for TcR-CD3 expression by immunofluorescence. One clone, J79, was found to express greatly...... the normal intracellular fate of the TcR-CD3 complex, and that the CD3-zeta is necessary for the intracellular transport and expression at the cell surface of the TcR-CD3 complex....

  7. Computation of surface electrical potentials of plant cell membranes . Correspondence To published zeta potentials from diverse plant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinraide; Yermiyahu; Rytwo

    1998-10-01

    A Gouy-Chapman-Stern model has been developed for the computation of surface electrical potential (psi0) of plant cell membranes in response to ionic solutes. The present model is a modification of an earlier version developed to compute the sorption of ions by wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Scout 66) root plasma membranes. A single set of model parameters generates values for psi0 that correlate highly with published zeta potentials of protoplasts and plasma membrane vesicles from diverse plant sources. The model assumes ion binding to a negatively charged site (R- = 0.3074 &mgr;mol m-2) and to a neutral site (P0 = 2.4 &mgr;mol m-2) according to the reactions R- + IZ &rlharr; RIZ-1 and P0 + IZ &rlharr; PIZ, where IZ represents an ion of charge Z. Binding constants for the negative site are 21, 500 M-1 for H+, 20,000 M-1 for Al3+, 2,200 M-1 for La3+, 30 M-1 for Ca2+ and Mg2+, and 1 M-1 for Na+ and K+. Binding constants for the neutral site are 1/180 the value for binding to the negative site. Ion activities at the membrane surface, computed on the basis of psi0, appear to determine many aspects of plant-mineral interactions, including mineral nutrition and the induction and alleviation of mineral toxicities, according to previous and ongoing studies. A computer program with instructions for the computation of psi0, ion binding, ion concentrations, and ion activities at membrane surfaces may be requested from the authors.

  8. Electroacoustic and ultrasonic attenuation measurements of droplet size and zeta-potential of alkane-in-water emulsions: effects of oil solubility and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerdjev, Alex M; Beattie, James K

    2008-08-28

    The effects of oil solubility and composition on the zeta potential and drop size of oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied by electroacoustics and ultrasonic attenuation. The zeta-potentials of toluene and alkane emulsions were found to decrease (be less negative) as the water solubility of the dispersed oil phase increased. The zeta-potentials also depended on the composition of mixed oils, becoming more negative with increasing mole fraction of an insoluble oil (hexadecane). As the water solubility of the dispersed oil phase increased, the conductance within the Stern layer relative to the diffuse layer (K/K) increased, which is interpreted as due to the displacement of the shear plane further into the diffuse layer. The shear plane was calculated to increase from approximately 0.50 nm at the insoluble oil-water interface (hexadecane) to approximately 2.5 nm at a soluble oil-water interface of toluene. The lowering of the zeta-potentials of the soluble oils is ascribed to the shift of the shear plane into the diffuse layer, resulting in a more diffuse interface. The total surface conductance of the mixed oils was related to the log of the oil solubility and decreased from approximately 7 x 10(-9) Omega(-1) to 3 x 10(-9) Omega(-1) with increasing oil solubility from hexadecane to toluene, respectively. The lower surface conductance at the soluble oil-water interface is attributed to a reduction in the dielectric constant of the water inside of the shear plane, caused by the presence of the soluble oil.

  9. RNA secondary structures in a polymer-zeta model how foldings should be shaped for sparsification to establish a linear speedup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Emma Yu; Nebel, Markus E

    2016-02-01

    Various tools used to predict the secondary structure for a given RNA sequence are based on dynamic programming used to compute a conformation of minimum free energy. For structures without pseudoknots, a worst-case runtime proportional to n3, with n being the length of the sequence, results since a table of dimension n2 has to be filled in while a single entry gives rise to a linear computational effort. However, it was recently observed that reformulating the corresponding dynamic programming recursion together with the bookkeeping of potential folding alternatives (a technique called sparsification) may reduce the runtime to n2 on average, assuming that nucleotides of distance d form a hydrogen bond (i..e., are paired) with probability b/d(c) for some constants b > 0, c > 1. The latter is called the polymer-zeta model and plays a crucial role in speeding up the above mentioned algorithm. In this paper we discuss the application of the polymer-zeta property for the analysis of sparsification, showing that it must be applied conditionally on first and last positions to pair. Afterwards, we will investigate the combinatorics of RNA secondary structures assuming that the corresponding conditional probabilities behave according to a polymer-zeta probability model. We show that even if some of the structural parameters exhibit an almost realistic behavior on average, the expected shape of a folding in that model must be assumed to highly differ from those observed in nature. More precisely, we prove our polymer-zeta model to be appropriate for mRNA molecules but to fail in connection with almost every other family of RNA. Those findings explain the huge speedup of the dynamic programming algorithm observed empirically by Wexler et al. when applying sparsification in connection with mRNA data.

  10. An Euler-type formula for the Dirichlet beta function at even values and an exact closed-form expression for a class of rational zeta series

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, F M S

    2009-01-01

    In a recent work [JNT \\textbf{118}, 192 (2006)], Dancs and He found an Euler-type formula for $ \\zeta{(2 n+1)}$, $ n $ being a positive integer, which contains an alternating series that seems not to be reducible to a finite closed-form. This certainly reflects a greater complexity in comparison to $\\zeta(2n)$, which is a rational multiple of $\\pi^{2n}$ according to a well-known formula by Euler. For the Dirichlet beta function, the things are "inverse": $\\beta(2n+1)$ is a rational multiple of $\\pi^{2n+1}$, whereas no closed-form expression is known for the numbers $\\beta(2n)$. Here in this work, I use the Dancs-He strategy for deriving an Euler-type formula for the Dirichlet beta function at even values of the argument, including $\\beta{(2)}$, i.e. the Catalan's constant. This yields a new series representation for these numbers. Finally, by converting the summand of these series into even zeta values and then making use of a formula by Milgran, I derive an exact closed-form expression for an important class...

  11. Investigations of the influence of vapour phase inhibitors on the surface charge of iron oxide particles by zeta-potential measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenzelmann, U.; Reinhard, G. (Technische Univ., Dresden (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Chemie); Jacobasch, H.J. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Dresden. Inst. fuer Technologie der Fasern (German Democratic Republic))

    1989-12-01

    Adsorbability of the vapour phase inhibitor dicyclohexylammonium nitrite (Dichan) and its ionic constituents present in aqueous media were investigated by means of zeta-potential measurements in 10{sup -3} M KCl solution in dependence on the pH-value using particles of various iron oxides and oxide hydroxides. It was pointed out, that the interactions between Dichan and iron oxides result in a negativation of the zeta-potential and in a displacement of the isoelectric point of the particles surface (IEPS) due to specific adsorption of anions. By dicyclohexylamine in the primary solution, the zeta-potential of iron oxides is hardly influenced, even when the saturation concentration is established. As nitrite changes the chemical surface properties when concentrations considerably higher than those indicated for Dichan are achieved, a synergism is assumed to be present because of the Dichan's high adsorbability at oxidic iron compounds. This effect probable consist in the promotion of the specific adsorption of nitrite ions at the oxide surface by the amine component. (orig.).

  12. H2 Excitation Structure on the Sightlines to delta Scorpius and zeta Ophiucus - First Results from the Sub-orbital Local Interstellar Cloud Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Kane, Robert; Burgh, Eric B; Beasley, Matthew; Green, James C

    2013-01-01

    We present the first science results from the Sub-orbital Local Interstellar Cloud Experiment (SLICE): moderate resolution 1020-1070A spectroscopy of four sightlines through the local interstellar medium. High signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of eta Uma, alpha Vir, delta Sco, and zeta Oph were obtained during a 21 April 2013 rocket flight. The SLICE observations constrain the density, molecular photoexcitation rates, and physical conditions present in the interstellar material towards delta Sco and zeta Oph. Our spectra indicate a factor of two lower total N(H2) than previously reported for delta Sco, which we attribute to higher S/N and better scattered light control in the new SLICE observations. We find N(H2) = 1.5 x 10^{19} cm^{-2} on the delta Sco sightline, with kinetic and excitation temperatures of 67 and 529 K, respectively, and a cloud density of n_{H} = 56 cm^{-3}. Our observations of the bulk of the molecular sightline toward zeta Oph are consistent with previous measurements (N(H2) ~ 3 x 10^{20} cm^...

  13. 'Syncing' Up with the Quinn-Rand-Strogatz Constant: Hurwitz-ZetaFunctions in Non-Linear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgin, Natalie J.; Garcia, Sofia M.; Flournoy, Tamara; Bailey,David H.

    2007-12-01

    This work extends the analytical and computationalinvestigation of the Quinn-Rand-Strogatz (QRS) constants from non-linearphysics. The QRS constants (c1, c2, ..., cN) are found in a Winfreeoscillator mean-field system used to examine the transition of coupledoscillators as they lose synchronization. The constants are part of anasymptotic expansion of a function related to the oscillatorsynchronization. Previous work used high-precision software packages toevaluate c1 to 42 decimal-digits, which made it possible to recognize andprove that c1 was the root of a certain Hurwitz-zeta function. Thisallowed a value of c2 to beconjectured in terms of c1. Therefore thereis interest in determining the exact values of these constants to highprecision in the hope that general relationships can be establishedbetween the constants and the zeta functions. Here, we compute the valuesof the higher order constants (c3, c4) to more than 42-digit precision byextending an algorithm developed by D.H. Bailey, J.M. Borwein and R.E.Crandall. Several methods for speeding up the computation are exploredand an alternate proof that c1 is the root of a Hurwitz-zeta function isattempted.

  14. Interaction between ropinirole hydrochloride and aspirin with human serum albumin as binary and ternary systems by multi-spectroscopic, molecular modeling and zeta potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaki, Hanie, E-mail: hanieh.mahaki@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Memarpoor-Yazdi, Mina; Chamani, Jamshidkhan [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza Saberi, Mohammad [Medical Chemistry Department, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to describe the competition of ropinirole hydrochloride (RP) and aspirin (ASA) in binding to human serum albumin (HSA) in physiological buffer (pH=7.4) using multi-spectroscopic, molecular modeling and zeta-potential measurements. Fluorescence analysis was used to define the binding and quenching properties of drug-HSA complexes in binary and ternary systems. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that in the presence of RP, the binding constant of HSA-ASA was increased. Static quenching was confirmed to result in the fluorescence quenching and FRET. The effect of drugs on the conformation of HSA was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD). The RLS method determined the critical aggregation concentration of drugs on HSA in binary and ternary systems that confirmed the zeta potential results. Structural modeling showed that the affinity of each of the drugs to HSA in binary and ternary systems confirms the spectroscopic results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the interaction of ropinirole hydrochloride and aspirin with HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular modeling and zeta-potential used to describe competitive interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined the critical induced aggregation concentration of both drugs on HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding mechanism of drugs as separate and simultaneous to HSA has been compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding site of both drugs as simultaneous effects on HSA has been determined.

  15. Temperature of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Sachiko

    2016-07-01

    We start with a brief introduction to the historical background in the early pioneering days when the first neutron star thermal evolution calculations predicted the presence of neutron stars hot enough to be observable. We then report on the first detection of neutron star temperatures by ROSAT X-ray satellite, which vindicated the earlier prediction of hot neutron stars. We proceed to present subsequent developments, both in theory and observation, up to today. We then discuss the current status and the future prospect, which will offer useful insight to the understanding of basic properties of ultra-high density matter beyond the nuclear density, such as the possible presence of such exotic particles as pion condensates.

  16. Stars resembling the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.

    This review is primarily directed to the question whether photometric solar analogues remain such when subjected to detailed spectroscopic analyses and interpreted with the help of internal stucture models. In other words, whether the physical parameters: mass, chemical composition, age (determining effective temperature and luminosity), chromospheric activity, equatorial rotation, lithium abundance, velocity fields etc., we derive from the spectral analysis of a photometric solar analogue, are really close to those of the Sun. We start from 109 photometric solar analogues extracted from different authors. The stars selected had to satisfy three conditions: i) their colour index (B-V) must be contained in the interval: Δ (B-V) = 0.59-0.69, ii) they must possess a trigonometric parallax, iii) they must have undergone a high resolution detailed spectroscopic analysis. First, this review presents photometric and spectrophotometric researches on solar analogues and recalls the pionneering work on these stars by the late Johannes Hardorp. After a brief discussion on low and high resolution spectroscopic researches, a comparison is made between effective temperatures as obtained, directly, from detailed spectral analyses and those obtained, indirectly, from different photometric relations. An interesting point in this review is the discussion on the tantalilizing value of the (B-V)solar of the Sun, and the presentation of a new reliable value of this index. A short restatement of the kinematic properties of the sample of solar analogues is also made. And, finally, the observational ( T eff, M bol) diagram, obtained with 99 of the initially presented 109 analogues, is compared to a theoretical ( T eff, M bol) diagram. This latter has been constructed with a grid of internal structure models for which, (very important for this investigation), the Sun was used as gauge. In analysing the position, with respect to the Sun, of each star we hoped to find a certain number of

  17. Notes on Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the field of star formation at a level suitable for graduate students or advanced undergraduates in astronomy or physics. The structure of the book is as follows. The first two chapters begin with a discussion of observational techniques, and the basic phenomenology they reveal. The goal is to familiarize students with the basic techniques that will be used throughout, and to provide a common vocabulary for the rest of the book. The next five chapters provide a similar review of the basic physical processes that are important for star formation. Again, the goal is to provide a basis for what follows. The remaining chapters discuss star formation over a variety of scales, starting with the galactic scale and working down to the scales of individual stars and their disks. The book concludes with a brief discussion of the clearing of disks and the transition to planet formation. The book includes five problem sets, complete with solutions.

  18. Spectroscopy among the stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnewisser, G

    1996-06-01

    The space between the stars is not void, but filled with interstellar matter, mainly composed of dust and gas, which gather in large interstellar clouds. In our Galaxy these interstellar clouds are distributed along a thin, but extended layer which basically traces out the spiral distribution of matter: the stars, the gas, and the dust component. Up to the present time more than 100 different molecules have been identified in interstellar molecular clouds. The majority of the interstellar molecules constitute carbon containing organic substances. During the past years, overwhelming evidence has been gathered, mainly through spectroscopic observations, that interstellar molecular clouds provide the birthplaces for stars. In fact detailed high spectral and spatial resolution spectroscopic measurements reveal physical and chemical processes of the intricate star formation process.

  19. Interferometric star tracker Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical Physics Company (OPC) proposes to develop a high accuracy version of its interferometric star tracker capable of meeting the milli-arcsecond-level pointing...

  20. Sports Stars Shine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alive and exciting award ceremony drew the attention of numerous Chinese households on the night of January 15.The most popular Chinese sports stars attended the 2011 CCTV Sports Personality Award Ceremony at the National Indoor Stadium in Beijing.

  1. Neutron Stars Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Heiselberg, H

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in neutron star theory and observation are discussed. Based on modern nucleon-nucleon potentials more reliable equations of state for dense nuclear matter have been constructed. Furthermore, phase transitions such as pion, kaon and hyperon condensation, superfluidity and quark matter can occur in cores of neutron stars. Specifically, the nuclear to quark matter phase transition and its mixed phases with intriguing structures is treated. Rotating neutron stars with and without phase transitions are discussed and compared to observed masses, radii and glitches. The observations of possible heavy $\\sim 2M_\\odot$ neutron stars in X-ray binaries and QPO's require relatively stiff equation of states and restrict strong phase transitions to occur at very high nuclear densities only.

  2. Worlds around other stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David C.

    1991-01-01

    The possible, though tentative, detection of planetary companions to other stars which may be capable of supporting life as we know it through the use of a new generation of detectors and telescopes, combined with some innovative detection techniques, is discussed. The current view of the origin of the solar system, based on the nebular hypothesis, is discussed as it pertains to the formation of how and where planets form and, hence, how and where to search for them. Both direct methods of search for other planetary systems, which involve detecting reflected light or infrared radiation form the planets themselves, and indirect methods, which involve the scrutinization of a star for signs that it is responding to the gravitational tug of an orbiting planet, are discussed at length. In particular, various methods for detecting minute velocity perturbations of stars are discussed. It is noted that the study of brown dwarfs may also provide clues on the formation of stars and planets.

  3. Chaotic Star Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Poster VersionClick on the image for IRAS 4B Inset Located 1,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Perseus, a reflection nebula called NGC 1333 epitomizes the beautiful chaos of a dense group of stars being born. Most of the visible light from the young stars in this region is obscured by the dense, dusty cloud in which they formed. With NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists can detect the infrared light from these objects. This allows a look through the dust to gain a more detailed understanding of how stars like our sun begin their lives. The young stars in NGC 1333 do not form a single cluster, but are split between two sub-groups. One group is to the north near the nebula shown as red in the image. The other group is south, where the features shown in yellow and green abound in the densest part of the natal gas cloud. With the sharp infrared eyes of Spitzer, scientists can detect and characterize the warm and dusty disks of material that surround forming stars. By looking for differences in the disk properties between the two subgroups, they hope to find hints of the star and planet formation history of this region. The knotty yellow-green features located in the lower portion of the image are glowing shock fronts where jets of material, spewed from extremely young embryonic stars, are plowing into the cold, dense gas nearby. The sheer number of separate jets that appear in this region is unprecedented. This leads scientists to believe that by stirring up the cold gas, the jets may contribute to the eventual dispersal of the gas cloud, preventing more stars from forming in NGC 1333. In contrast, the upper portion of the image is dominated by the infrared light from warm dust, shown as red.

  4. Alkaline broadening in Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Kertanguy, A

    2015-01-01

    Giving new insight for line broadening theory for atoms with more structure than hydrogen in most stars. Using symbolic software to build precise wave functions corrected for ds;dp quantum defects. The profiles obtained with that approach, have peculiar trends, narrower than hydrogen, all quantum defects used are taken from atomic database topbase. Illustration of stronger effects of ions and electrons on the alkaline profiles, than neutral-neutral collision mechanism. Keywords : Stars: fundamental parameters - Atomic processes - Line: profiles.

  5. Extragalactic Backgrounds in the Far UV and Exploring Star Formation at High Redshifts with Gamma-ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of the intergalactic photon densities from the FIR to the UV which is produced by stellar emission and dust reradiation at various redshifts can provide an independent measure of the star formation history of the universe. Using recent Spitzer and GALEX data in conjunction with other observational inputs, Stecker, Malkan and Scully have calculated the intergalactic photon density as a function of both energy and redshift for 0 < zeta < 6 for photon energies from 0.003 eV to the Lyman limit cutoff at 13.6 eV in a ACDM universe with Omega(sub Lambda) = 0.7 and Omega(sub m) = 0.3. Their results are based on backwards evolution models for galaxies which were developed by Malkan and Stecker previously. The calculated background SEDs at zeta = 0 are in good agreement with the present observational data and limits. The calculated intergalactic photon densities as a function of redshift were used to predict to extend the absorption of high energy 7-rays in intergalactic space from sources such as blazars and quasars, this absorption being produced by interactions the y-rays with the intergalactic FIR-UV photons having the calculated densities. The results are in excellent agreement with absorption features found in the low gamma-ray spectra of Mkn 421, Mkn 501 at, zeta = 0.03 and PKS

  6. Zeta-Proteobacteria dominate the formation of microbial mats in low-temperature hydrothermal vents at Loihi Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassa, A. C.; McAllister, S. M.; Safran, S. A.; Moyer, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    Loihi Seamount is Hawaii's youngest volcano and one of the earth's most active. Loihi is located 30 km SE of the big island of Hawaii and rises over 3000m above the sea floor and summits at 1100m below sea level. An eruption in 1996 of Loihi led to the formation of Pele's Pit, a 300 meter deep caldera. The current observations have revealed diffuse hydrothermal venting causing low to intermediate temperatures (10 to 65°C). The elevated temperatures, coupled with high concentrations of Fe(II) (ranging from 50 to 750 μM) support conditions allowing for extensive microbial mat formation. The focus of this study was to identify the colonizing populations of bacteria generated by the microbial mats at Loihi Seamount. Twenty-six microbial growth chambers were deployed and recovered after placement in the flow of hydrothermal vents for 3 to 8 days from within Loihi's caldera. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples and analyzed by Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) using eight restriction enzyme treatments to generate fingerprints from bacterial amplicons of small subunit rRNA genes (SSU rDNAs). Pearson product-moment coupled with UPGMA cluster analysis of these T-RFLP fingerprints showed that these communities bifurcated into two primary clusters. The first (Group 1) had an average vent effluent temperature of 44°C, and the second (Group 2) had an average vent effluent temperature of 64°C. Representative samples from within the two clusters (or groups) were chosen for further clone library and sequencing analysis. These libraries revealing a dominance of the recently discovered zeta- Proteobacteria in the lower temperature group (Group 1) indicating that they were the dominant colonizers of the microbial mats. These microaerophilic, obligately lithotrophic, Fe-oxidizing bacteria are most closely related to Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. The higher temperature group (Group 2) was dominated by epsilon- Proteobacteria primarily of the genus

  7. Zebrafish pronephros tubulogenesis and epithelial identity maintenance are reliant on the polarity proteins Prkc iota and zeta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Gary F; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-12-15

    The zebrafish pronephros provides an excellent in vivo system to study the mechanisms of vertebrate nephron development. When and how renal progenitors in the zebrafish embryo undergo tubulogenesis to form nephrons is poorly understood, but is known to involve a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the acquisition of polarity. Here, we determined the precise timing of these events in pronephros tubulogenesis. As the ternary polarity complex is an essential regulator of epithelial cell polarity across tissues, we performed gene knockdown studies to assess the roles of the related factors atypical protein kinase C iota and zeta (prkcι, prkcζ). We found that prkcι and prkcζ serve partially redundant functions to establish pronephros tubule epithelium polarity. Further, the loss of prkcι or the combined knockdown of prkcι/ζ disrupted proximal tubule morphogenesis and podocyte migration due to cardiac defects that prevented normal fluid flow to the kidney. Surprisingly, tubule cells in prkcι/ζ morphants displayed ectopic expression of the transcription factor pax2a and the podocyte-associated genes wt1a, wt1b, and podxl, suggesting that prkcι/ζ are needed to maintain renal epithelial identity. Knockdown of genes essential for cardiac contractility and vascular flow to the kidney, such as tnnt2a, or elimination of pronephros fluid output through knockdown of the intraflagellar transport gene ift88, was not associated with ectopic pronephros gene expression, thus suggesting a unique role for prkcι/ζ in maintaining tubule epithelial identity separate from the consequence of disruptions to renal fluid flow. Interestingly, knockdown of pax2a, but not wt1a, was sufficient to rescue ectopic tubule gene expression in prkcι/ζ morphants. These data suggest a model in which the redundant activities of prkcι and prkcζ are essential to establish tubule epithelial polarity and also serve to maintain proper epithelial cell type identity in the tubule by

  8. Life Cycle of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  9. Dark Stars: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Freese, Katherine; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Dark Stars (DS) are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of ordinary atomic material but powered by the heat from Dark Matter (DM) annihilation (rather than by fusion). Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for DM, can be their own antimatter and can accumulate inside the star, with their annihilation products thermalizing with and heating the DS. The resulting DSs are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium. The first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. Though DM constituted only $10^6 M_\\odot$), very bright ($>10^9 L_\\odot$), and potentially detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Once the DM runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus DSs can provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The curre...

  10. Stars, Galaxies and Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Das Gupta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief introduction to the basics of stars, galaxies and Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs. In stars, the central pressure and temperature must be high in order to halt the stellar gravitational collapse. High temperature leads to thermonuclear fusion in the stellar core, releasing thereby enormous amount of nuclear energy, making the star shine brilliantly. On the other hand, the QSOs are very bright nuclei lying in the centres of some galaxies. Many of these active galactic nuclei, which appear star-like when observed through a telescope and  whose power output are more than 1011 times that of the Sun, exhibit rapid time variability in their X-ray emissions.  Rapid variability along with the existence of a maximum speed limit, c, provide a strong argument in favour of a compact central engine model for QSOs in which a thick disc of hot gas going around a supermassive blackhole is what makes a QSO appear like a bright point source. Hence, unlike stars, QSOs are powered by gravitational potential energy.

  11. Hot subluminous stars

    CERN Document Server

    Heber, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich vs. He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC~2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope phase of evolution.They provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet purely understood phase of stellar evolution. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW~Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the pulsator V391 ...

  12. Circulation of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  13. Young Stars with SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, Adric R; Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle L; Henry, Todd J

    2016-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT), we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, Lithium 6708\\AA, and Potassium 7699\\AA~equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 parsecs of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, nine members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find fourteen young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star syst...

  14. Stars a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Stars: A Very Short Introduction looks at how stars live, producing all the chemical elements beyond helium, and how they die, leaving remnants such as black holes. Every atom of our bodies has been part of a star. Our very own star, the Sun, is crucial to the development and sustainability of life on Earth. Understanding stars is key to understanding the galaxies they inhabit, the existence of planets, and the history of our entire Universe. This VSI explores the science of stars, the mechanisms that allow them to form, the processes that allow them to shine, and the results of their death.

  15. Time-resolved multicolour photometry of bright B-type variable stars in Scorpius

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G

    2013-01-01

    The first two of a total of six nano-satellites that will constitute the BRITE-Constellation space photometry mission have recently been launched successfully. In preparation for this project, we carried out time-resolved colour photometry in a field that is an excellent candidate for BRITE measurements from space. We acquired 117 h of Stromgren uvy data during 19 nights. Our targets comprised the Beta Cephei stars Kappa and Lambda Sco, the eclipsing binary Mu 1 Sco, and the variable super/hypergiant Zeta 1 Sco. For Kappa Sco, a photometric mode identification in combination with results from the spectroscopic literature suggests a dominant (l, m) = (1, -1) Beta Cephei-type pulsation mode of the primary star. The longer period of the star may be a rotational variation or a g-mode pulsation. For Lambda Sco, we recover the known dominant Beta Cephei pulsation, a longer-period variation, and observed part of an eclipse. Lack of ultraviolet data precludes mode identification for this star. We noticed that the spe...

  16. Dynamical Boson Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Liebling

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.

  17. Giant star seismology

    CERN Document Server

    Hekker, S

    2016-01-01

    The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-interrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences are confronted with predictions from theoretical models to improve our understanding of stellar structure and evolution. Our knowledge and understanding of red giants have indeed increased tremendously using these seismic inferences, and we anticipate that more information is still hidden in the data. Unraveling this will further improve our understanding of stellar evolution. This will also have significant impact on our knowledge of the Milky Way Galaxy as well as on exo-planet host stars. The latter is important for our understanding of the formation and structure of planetary systems.

  18. Carbon neutron star atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, V F; Pavlov, G G; Werner, K

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, atmospheres of thermally - emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in CasA, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho & Heinke (2009). To test such a composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed such a grid using the standard LTE approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10^8 G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra.

  19. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  20. Collapse of axion stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Joshua; Leembruggen, Madelyn; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Axion stars, gravitationally bound states of low-energy axion particles, have a maximum mass allowed by gravitational stability. Weakly bound states obtaining this maximum mass have sufficiently large radii such that they are dilute, and as a result, they are well described by a leading-order expansion of the axion potential. Heavier states are susceptible to gravitational collapse. Inclusion of higher-order interactions, present in the full potential, can give qualitatively different results in the analysis of collapsing heavy states, as compared to the leading-order expansion. In this work, we find that collapsing axion stars are stabilized by repulsive interactions present in the full potential, providing evidence that such objects do not form black holes. In the last moments of collapse, the binding energy of the axion star grows rapidly, and we provide evidence that a large amount of its energy is lost through rapid emission of relativistic axions.

  1. Uniformly rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we review the recent results on the equilibrium configurations of static and uniformly rotating neutron stars within the Hartle formalism. We start from the Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations formulated and extended by Belvedere et al. (2012, 2014). We demonstrate how to conduct numerical integration of these equations for different central densities ${\\it \\rho}_c$ and angular velocities $\\Omega$ and compute the static $M^{stat}$ and rotating $M^{rot}$ masses, polar $R_p$ and equatorial $R_{\\rm eq}$ radii, eccentricity $\\epsilon$, moment of inertia $I$, angular momentum $J$, as well as the quadrupole moment $Q$ of the rotating configurations. In order to fulfill the stability criteria of rotating neutron stars we take into considerations the Keplerian mass-shedding limit and the axisymmetric secular instability. Furthermore, we construct the novel mass-radius relations, calculate the maximum mass and minimum rotation periods (maximum frequencies) of neutron stars. Eventually, we compare a...

  2. General Relativity&Compact Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-08-16

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10{sup 14} times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed.

  3. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the

  4. A search for nearby young stars among the flare stars

    CERN Document Server

    König, B; Hambaryan, V; Neuh\\"auser, Ralph; Hambaryan, Valeri

    2001-01-01

    Flare stars were discovered in the late 1940s in the solar vicinity and were named UV Cet-type variables (classical FSs). Among the FSs within 100 pc we search for young stars. For the search we take spectra with sufficient resolution to resolve Lithium at 6707 \\AA and Calcium at 6718 \\AA of all the stars. The real young stars are prime targets for the search of extra-solar planets by direct imaging.

  5. Really Hot Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Spectacular VLT Photos Unveil Mysterious Nebulae Summary Quite a few of the most beautiful objects in the Universe are still shrouded in mystery. Even though most of the nebulae of gas and dust in our vicinity are now rather well understood, there are some which continue to puzzle astronomers. This is the case of a small number of unusual nebulae that appear to be the subject of strong heating - in astronomical terminology, they present an amazingly "high degree of excitation". This is because they contain significant amounts of ions, i.e., atoms that have lost one or more of their electrons. Depending on the atoms involved and the number of electrons lost, this process bears witness to the strength of the radiation or to the impact of energetic particles. But what are the sources of that excitation? Could it be energetic stars or perhaps some kind of exotic objects inside these nebulae? How do these peculiar objects fit into the current picture of universal evolution? New observations of a number of such unusual nebulae have recently been obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). In a dedicated search for the origin of their individual characteristics, a team of astronomers - mostly from the Institute of Astrophysics & Geophysics in Liège (Belgium) [1] - have secured the first detailed, highly revealing images of four highly ionized nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds, two small satellite galaxies of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, only a few hundred thousand light-years away. In three nebulae, they succeeded in identifying the sources of energetic radiation and to eludicate their exceptional properties: some of the hottest, most massive stars ever seen, some of which are double. With masses of more than 20 times that of the Sun and surface temperatures above 90 000 degrees, these stars are truly extreme. PR Photo 09a/03: Nebula around the hot star AB7 in the SMC. PR Photo 09b/03: Nebula near the hot Wolf-Rayet star BAT99

  6. Atmospheres around Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Benz, Willy

    1994-12-01

    Interest in the behavior of atmospheres around neutron stars has grown astronomically in the past few years. Some of this interest arrived in the wake of the explosion of Supernova 1987A and its elusive remnant; spawning renewed interest in a method to insure material ``fall-back'' onto the adolescent neutron star in an effort to transform it into a silent black hole. However, the bulk of the activity with atmospheres around neutron stars is concentrated in stellar models with neutron star, rather than white dwarf, cores; otherwise known as Thorne-Zytkow objects. First a mere seed in the imagination of theorists, Thorne-Zytkow objects have grown into an observational reality with an ever-increasing list of formation scenarios and observational prospects. Unfortunately, the analytic work of Chevalier on supernova fall-back implies that, except for a few cases, the stellar simulations of Thorne-Zytkow objects are missing an important aspect of physics: neutrinos. Neutrino cooling removes the pressure support of these atmospheres, allowing accretion beyond the canonical Eddington rate for these objects. We present here the results of detailed hydrodynamical simulations in one and two dimensions with the additional physical effects of neutrinos, advanced equations of state, and relativity over a range of parameters for our atmosphere including entropy and chemical composition as well as a range in the neutron star size. In agreement with Chevalier, we find, under the current list of formation scenarios, that the creature envisioned by Thorne and Zytkow will not survive the enormous appetite of a neutron star. However, neutrino heating (a physical effect not considered in Chevalier's analysis) can play an important role in creating instabilities in some formation schemes, leading to an expulsion of matter rather than rapid accretion. By placing scrutiny upon the formation methods, we can determine the observational prospects for each.

  7. Morphodynamics of star dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Narteau, C.; Rozier, O.; Courrech du Pont, S.

    2012-04-01

    Star dunes are among the biggest and the most impressive dunes in Earth sand seas. Nonetheless, they remain poorly studied, probably because of their apparent complexity. They are massive pyramidal dunes with interlaced arms whose slip faces are oriented in various directions. Being large, they can integrate wind properties over a wide range of time scales. Thus, they are observed for wind regimes with multiple directions, and may result from the amalgamation of dunes or from the development of arms on a well-established dune pattern. In both cases, the roles of wind directional variability and secondary flow have been emphasized but not precisely quantified. Here, we report simulations where the star dune shape results from a a combination of longitudinal dunes, which form the star dune arms. These arms may radiate and so interact with the other dunes in the field. This mass exchange, controlled by the morphodynamics of star dunes arms, must play an important role in the large-scale arrangement of star dunes networks. We first demonstrate that star dune arms orientation maximizes the flux in the direction of crests. This is opposed to the usually admit dunes orientation, which maximizes the sediment transport perpendicular to the crest. Indeed, depending on sand availability, dunes development results from the growth of a wave on a sand bed or from a net transport of sediment, which grows and extends an isolated longitudinal dune over a non-erodible soil. These two different mechanisms lead to two different modes of crests orientation. Then, we show that the propagating arms reach a stationary state characterized by constant width, height and growth rate. These are controlled by the frequency at which the wind changes direction. Arm width and height increase, whereas the propagation speed decreases with a decreasing frequency. These morphodynamics properties are helpful to assess from pattern observation the variability of wind directionality over several time

  8. Weighing the Smallest Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    VLT Finds Young, Very Low Mass Objects Are Twice As Heavy As Predicted Summary Thanks to the powerful new high-contrast camera installed at the Very Large Telescope, photos have been obtained of a low-mass companion very close to a star. This has allowed astronomers to measure directly the mass of a young, very low mass object for the first time. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its host star, is still 93 times as massive as Jupiter. And it appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be. This discovery therefore suggests that, due to errors in the models, astronomers may have overestimated the number of young "brown dwarfs" and "free floating" extrasolar planets. PR Photo 03/05: Near-infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion (NACO SDI/VLT) A winning combination A star can be characterised by many parameters. But one is of uttermost importance: its mass. It is the mass of a star that will decide its fate. It is thus no surprise that astronomers are keen to obtain a precise measure of this parameter. This is however not an easy task, especially for the least massive ones, those at the border between stars and brown dwarf objects. Brown dwarfs, or "failed stars", are objects which are up to 75 times more massive than Jupiter, too small for major nuclear fusion processes to have ignited in its interior. To determine the mass of a star, astronomers generally look at the motion of stars in a binary system. And then apply the same method that allows determining the mass of the Earth, knowing the distance of the Moon and the time it takes for its satellite to complete one full orbit (the so-called "Kepler's Third Law"). In the same way, they have also measured the mass of the Sun by knowing the Earth-Sun distance and the time - one year - it takes our planet to make a tour around the Sun. The problem with low-mass objects is that they are very faint and will often be hidden in the glare of the brighter star they orbit, also when viewed

  9. A Real Shooting Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light. The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years. As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake. Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence. Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira and its 'whale of a tail' can be

  10. Synthetic guide star generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  11. The physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, A C

    1999-01-01

    The Physics of Stars, Second Edition, is a concise introduction to the properties of stellar interiors and consequently the structure and evolution of stars. Strongly emphasising the basic physics, simple and uncomplicated theoretical models are used to illustrate clearly the connections between fundamental physics and stellar properties. This text does not intend to be encyclopaedic, rather it tends to focus on the most interesting and important aspects of stellar structure, evolution and nucleosynthesis. In the Second Edition, a new chapter on Helioseismology has been added, along with a list

  12. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  13. AN ATLAS OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF THE ZETA AURIGAE BINARY 31 CYGNI WITH LINE IDENTIFICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Wendy Hagen [Whitin Observatory, Wellesley College, 106 Central Street, Wellesley, MA 02481 (United States); Bennett, Philip D., E-mail: wbauer@wellesley.edu [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    The ζ Aurigae system 31 Cygni (K4 Ib + B4 V) was observed by the FUSE satellite during total eclipse and at three phases during chromospheric eclipse. We present the coadded, calibrated spectra and atlases with line identifications. During total eclipse, emission from high ionization states (e.g., Fe III and Cr III) shows asymmetric profiles redshifted from the systemic velocity, while emission from lower ionization states (e.g., Fe II and O I) appears more symmetric and is centered closer to the systemic velocity. Absorption from neutral and singly ionized elements is detected during chromospheric eclipse. Late in chromospheric eclipse, absorption from the K star wind is detected at a terminal velocity of ∼80 km s{sup –1}. These atlases will be useful for interpreting the far-UV spectra of other ζ Aur systems, as the observed FUSE spectra of 32 Cyg, KQ Pup, and VV Cep during chromospheric eclipse resemble that of 31 Cyg.

  14. Role of DNA polymerases eta, iota and zeta in UV resistance and UV-induced mutagenesis in a human cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueranger, Quentin; Stary, Anne; Aoufouchi, Saïd; Faili, Ahmad; Sarasin, Alain; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Weill, Jean-Claude

    2008-09-01

    Genes coding for DNA polymerases eta, iota and zeta, or for both Pol eta and Pol iota have been inactivated by homologous recombination in the Burkitt's lymphoma BL2 cell line, thus providing for the first time the total suppression of these enzymes in a human context. The UV sensitivities and UV-induced mutagenesis on an irradiated shuttle vector have been analyzed for these deficient cell lines. The double Pol eta/iota deficient cell line was more UV sensitive than the Pol eta-deficient cell line and mutation hotspots specific to the Pol eta-deficient context appeared to require the presence of Pol iota, thus strengthening the view that Pol iota is involved in UV damage translesion synthesis and UV-induced mutagenesis. A role for Pol zeta in a damage repair process at late replicative stages is reported, which may explain the drastic UV-sensitivity phenotype observed when this polymerase is absent. A specific mutation pattern was observed for the UV-irradiated shuttle vector transfected in Pol zeta-deficient cell lines, which, in contrast to mutagenesis at the HPRT locus previously reported, strikingly resembled mutations observed in UV-induced skin cancers in humans. Finally, a Pol eta PIP-box mutant (without its PCNA binding domain) could completely restore the UV resistance in a Pol eta deficient cell line, in the absence of UV-induced foci, suggesting, as observed for Pol iota in a Pol eta-deficient background, that TLS may occur without the accumulation of microscopically visible repair factories.

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Coolers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Coolers that are effective as of February...

  17. Stellar populations in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai

    2016-01-01

    Stellar populations contain the most important information about star clus- ter formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ...

  18. Kepler observations of Am stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, L. A.; Ripepi, V.; Cantanzaro, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of high-resolution spectra for two pulsating Am stars in the Kepler field. The stellar parameters derived in this way are important because parameters derived from narrow-band photometry may be affected by the strong metal lines in these stars. We analyse the Kepler time...... series of ten known Am stars and find that six of them clearly show δ Scuti pulsations. The other four appear to be non-pulsating. We derive fundamental parameters for all known pulsating Am stars from ground-based observations and also for the Kepler Am stars to investigate the location...... of the instability strip for pulsating Am stars. We find that there is not much difference between the Am-star instability strip and the δ Scuti instability strip. We find that the observed location of pulsating Am stars in the HR diagram does not agree with the location predicted from diffusion calculations. Based...

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16, 2015....

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  1. Solid Bare Strange Quark Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, R X

    2003-01-01

    The reason, we need three terms of `strange', `bare', and `solid' before quark stars, is presented concisely though some fundamental issues are not certain. Observations favoring these stars are introduced.

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are...

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...

  5. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  6. Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park is a Five-star hotel which has developed multi-functions of restaurant, lodge, bath, landscape seeing, leisure,body exercise, recreation, Ecology agriculture,etc. Occupying an area of 500 mu, the park is an environmental friendly five-star hotel.

  7. Supernovae from massive AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, A.J.T.; Izzard, R.G.; Herwig, F.; Langer, N.; Heger, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present new computations of the final fate of massive AGB-stars. These stars form ONeMg cores after a phase of carbon burning and are called Super AGB stars (SAGB). Detailed stellar evolutionary models until the thermally pulsing AGB were computed using three di erent stellar evolution codes. The

  8. Hadrons in compact stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2006-05-01

    We discuss -equilibrated and charge neutral matter involving hyperons and $\\bar{K}$ condensates within relativistic models. It is observed that populations of baryons are strongly affected by the presence of antikaon condensates. Also, the equation of state including $\\bar{K}$ condensates becomes softer resulting in a smaller maximum mass neutron star.

  9. First Star I See.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Jaye Andras

    This children's novel tells the story of a young girl with attention deficit disorder (ADD) without hyperactivity and her younger brother who has ADD with hyperactivity. Trying to win a school writing contest on the topic of space and stars helps bright, imaginative Paige Bradley realize that fixing her "focusing knob" will compensate for her ADD.…

  10. Seismology of active stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekker, S.; García, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this review we will discuss the current standing and open questions of seismology in active stars. With the longer photometric time series data that are, and will become, available from space-missions such as Kepler we foresee significant progress in our understanding of stellar internal structur

  11. Trek to the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    "Star Trek", which was aired on television for three years, brought the creatures and conflicts of the "outer reaches" of space into our living rooms. Here its new episodes and reruns are analyzed by elementary students as part of a social studies/elementary science curriculum. (Author/RK)

  12. Magnetic Dynamos and Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleton, P P

    2007-02-15

    Djehuty is a code that has been developed over the last five years by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), from earlier code designed for programmatic efforts. Operating in a massively parallel environment, Djehuty is able to model entire stars in 3D. The object of this proposal was to continue the effort to introduce magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) into Djehuty, and investigate new classes of inherently 3D problems involving the structure, evolution and interaction of stars and planets. However, towards the end of the second year we discovered an unexpected physical process of great importance in the evolution of stars. Consequently for the third year we changed direction and concentrated on this process rather than on magnetic fields. Our new process was discovered while testing the code on red-giant stars, at the 'helium flash'. We found that a thin layer was regularly formed which contained a molecular-weight inversion, and which led therefore to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This in turn led to some deeper-than-expected mixing, which has the property that (a) much {sup 3}He is consumed, and (b) some {sup 13}C is produced. These two properties are closely in accord with what has been observed over the last thirty years in red giants, whereas what was observed was largely in contradiction to what earlier theoretical models predicted. Thus our new 3D models with Djehuty explain a previously-unexplained problem of some thirty years standing.

  13. Housing Star Schools Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushnet, Naida C.

    The Star Schools Program has funded projects to explore innovative educational applications of technology in distance education. Funded projects have applied a variety of technologies, including videodisks, compressed data transmission, fiber optic technology, and computer networks. Program evaluation is a mandated aspect of the program. This…

  14. Reaching for the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Dorothy Givens

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  15. StarLogo TNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Eric; Scheintaub, Hal; Huang, Wendy; Wendel, Daniel

    Computational approaches to science are radically altering the nature of scientific investigatiogn. Yet these computer programs and simulations are sparsely used in science education, and when they are used, they are typically “canned” simulations which are black boxes to students. StarLogo The Next Generation (TNG) was developed to make programming of simulations more accessible for students and teachers. StarLogo TNG builds on the StarLogo tradition of agent-based modeling for students and teachers, with the added features of a graphical programming environment and a three-dimensional (3D) world. The graphical programming environment reduces the learning curve of programming, especially syntax. The 3D graphics make for a more immersive and engaging experience for students, including making it easy to design and program their own video games. Another change to StarLogo TNG is a fundamental restructuring of the virtual machine to make it more transparent. As a result of these changes, classroom use of TNG is expanding to new areas. This chapter is concluded with a description of field tests conducted in middle and high school science classes.

  16. The Star Formation Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Scowen, Paul A; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah; Rhoads, James; Roberge, Aki; Siegmund, Oswald; Shaklan, Stuart; Smith, Nathan; Stern, Daniel; Tumlinson, Jason; Windhorst, Rogier; Woodruff, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems, and to investigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star and planet formation process. This program addresses the origins and evolution of stars, galaxies, and cosmic structure and has direct relevance for the formation and survival of planetary systems like our Solar System and planets like Earth. We present the design and performance specifications resulting from the implementation study of the camera, conducted ...

  17. Sleeping under the stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Jack

    Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson went on a camping trip. As they lay down for the night, Holmes said, “Watson, look up at the sky and tell me what you see.”Watson:“! see millions and millions of stars.”

  18. Star identification methods, techniques and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the research advances in star identification that the author’s team has made over the past 10 years, systematically introducing the principles of star identification, general methods, key techniques and practicable algorithms. It also offers examples of hardware implementation and performance evaluation for the star identification algorithms. Star identification is the key step for celestial navigation and greatly improves the performance of star sensors, and as such the book include the fundamentals of star sensors and celestial navigation, the processing of the star catalog and star images, star identification using modified triangle algorithms, star identification using star patterns and using neural networks, rapid star tracking using star matching between adjacent frames, as well as implementation hardware and using performance tests for star identification. It is not only valuable as a reference book for star sensor designers and researchers working in pattern recognition and othe...

  19. The ISM in O-star spectroscopic surveys: GOSSS, OWN, IACOB, NoMaDS, and CAFÉ-BEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.

    I present results on the interstellar medium towards the O stars observed in five optical spectroscopic surveys: GOSSS, OWN, IACOB, NoMaDS, and CAFÉ-BEANS. I have measured both the amount [E(4405-5495)] and type [R5495] of extinction towards several hundreds of Galactic O stars and verified that the \\citet{Maizetal14a} family of extinction laws provides a significantly better fit to optical+NIR Galactic extinction than either the \\citet{Cardetal89} or the \\citet{Fitz99} families. R5495 values are concentrated between 3.0 and 3.5 but for low values of E(4405-5495) there is a significant population with larger R5495 associated with H II regions. I have also measured different DIBs and I have found that EW{5797}/EW{5780} is anticorrelated with R5495, a sign that extreme zeta clouds are characterized not only by low ionization environments (as opposed to sigma clouds) but also by having a larger fraction of small dust grains. The equivalent width of the ``Gaia DIB'' (8621 Å) is strongly correlated with E(4405-5495), as expected, and its behavior appears to be more sigma -like than zeta -like. We have also started analyzing some individual sightlines in detail.

  20. Swift, UVOT and Hot Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, Michael H; Hagen, Lea M Z; Hoversten, Erik A

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of our ongoing investigation into the properties of hot stars and young stellar populations using the Swift/UVOT telescope. We present UVOT photometry of open and globular clusters and show that UVOT is capable of characterizing a variety of rare hot stars, including Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch and Extreme Horizontal Branch Stars. We also present very early reults of our survey of stellar populations in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We find that the SMC has experienced recent bouts of star formation but constraining the exact star formation history will depend on finding an effective model of the reddening within the SMC.

  1. Predicting the influence of liposomal lipid composition on liposome size, zeta potential and liposome-induced dendritic cell maturation using a design of experiments approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soema, Peter C; Willems, Geert-Jan; Jiskoot, Wim; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon F

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of liposomal lipid composition on the physicochemical characteristics and adjuvanticity of liposomes was investigated. Using a design of experiments (DoE) approach, peptide-containing liposomes containing various lipids (EPC, DOPE, DOTAP and DC-Chol) and peptide concentrations were formulated. Liposome size and zeta potential were determined for each formulation. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of the liposomes was assessed in an in vitro dendritic cell (DC) model, by quantifying the expression of DC maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. The acquired data of these liposome characteristics were successfully fitted with regression models, and response contour plots were generated for each response factor. These models were applied to predict a lipid composition that resulted in a liposome with a target zeta potential. Subsequently, the expression of the DC maturation factors for this lipid composition was predicted and tested in vitro; the acquired maturation responses corresponded well with the predicted ones. These results show that a DoE approach can be used to screen various lipids and lipid compositions, and to predict their impact on liposome size, charge and adjuvanticity. Using such an approach may accelerate the formulation development of liposomal vaccine adjuvants.

  2. Prince of zeta by Petar Konjović: Opera in five/four acts on the 125th anniversary of the composer's birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosusova Nadežda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Petar Konjović (Čurug, May 5, 1883 - Belgrade, October 1, 1970 stands out among Serbian composers as an author of instrumental and vocal compositions. Studies at the Prague Conservatory (1904-1906 acquainted Konjović with Czech music, Wagner's opus, and the Russian national-romantic school, which contributed to the evolution of his talent for both music and stage, enabling him to express his ideas more explicitly in operatic works. It was in the Prague that the second opera - Prince of Zeta - was conceived, with new musical vividness and dramatic appeal (first version composed 1906-1926, the second and final 1929-1939, followed by Koštana (1928, Peasants (1951 and Fatherland (1960. Konjović's mature operas are characterized by his masterful handling of form, both in close-ups and in detail, as well as his deeply individual assimilation of musical folklore into his work. The Prince of Zeta is not to be understood as a folk opera, but some main themes are directly derived from folk music, precisely from the Montenegrin folk songs quoted in the Mokranjac's Ninth Garland and treated in Konjović's post-romantic, almost expressionistic way, interwoven with some Italianate leitmotifs, so as to present the opera's two worlds, Montenegrin and Venetian. In the process of forming Konjović's operatic style, with vocal parts based mainly on the principle of declamation, the opera Prince of Zeta (first performed in Belgrade, 1929, conducted by Lovro von Matačić proved to be a work of great impact. Hardly anyone grasped then the wide sweep of inspiration which allowed the composer to set and to solve several important problems connected with music drama, essential also in his subsequent stage works. First of all, Konjović had to handle in his own way the verbal drama the prototype of his opera, Maxim Crnojević by the Serbian poet Laza Kostić (1841-1910. Permission came from the playwright in the first decade of the 1900, Prince of Zeta being partly

  3. The ClpXP protease is responsible for the degradation of the Epsilon antidote to the Zeta toxin of the streptococcal pSM19035 plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Iwona; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula

    2014-03-14

    Most bacterial genomes contain different types of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. The ω-ε-ζ proteinaceous type II TA cassette from the streptococcal pSM19035 plasmid is a member of the ε/ζ family, which is commonly found in multiresistance plasmids and chromosomes of various human pathogens. Regulation of type II TA systems relies on the proteolysis of antitoxin proteins. Under normal conditions, the Epsilon antidote neutralizes the Zeta toxin through the formation of a tight complex. In this study, we show, using both in vivo and in vitro analyses, that the ClpXP protease is responsible for Epsilon antitoxin degradation. Using in vivo studies, we examined the stability of the plasmids with active or inactive ω-ε-ζ TA cassettes in B. subtilis mutants that were defective for different proteases. Using in vitro assays, the degradation of purified His6-Epsilon by the His6-LonBs, ClpPBs, and ClpXBs proteases from B. subtilis was analyzed. Additionally, we showed that purified Zeta toxin protects the Epsilon protein from rapid ClpXP-catalyzed degradation.

  4. Star Cluster Formation and Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R; Arce, Hector G; Dale, James E; Gutermuth, Robert; Klein, Richard I; Li, Zhi-Yun; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Zhang, Qizhou

    2014-01-01

    Stars do not generally form in isolation. Instead, they form in clusters, and in these clustered environments newborn stars can have profound effects on one another and on their parent gas clouds. Feedback from clustered stars is almost certainly responsible for a number of otherwise puzzling facts about star formation: that it is an inefficient process that proceeds slowly when averaged over galactic scales; that most stars disperse from their birth sites and dissolve into the galactic field over timescales $\\ll 1$ Gyr; and that newborn stars follow an initial mass function (IMF) with a distinct peak in the range $0.1 - 1$ $M_\\odot$, rather than an IMF dominated by brown dwarfs. In this review we summarize current observational constraints and theoretical models for the complex interplay between clustered star formation and feedback.

  5. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  6. Neutron Star Science with the NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), launched in June 2012, helped scientists obtain for the first time a sensitive high-­energy X-­ray map of the sky with extraordinary resolution. This pioneering telescope has aided in the understanding of how stars explode and neutron stars are born. LLNL is a founding member of the NuSTAR project, with key personnel on its optics and science team. We used NuSTAR to observe and analyze the observations of different neutron star classes identified in the last decade that are still poorly understood. These studies not only help to comprehend newly discovered astrophysical phenomena and emission processes for members of the neutron star family, but also expand the utility of such observations for addressing broader questions in astrophysics and other physics disciplines. For example, neutron stars provide an excellent laboratory to study exotic and extreme phenomena, such as the equation of state of the densest matter known, the behavior of matter in extreme magnetic fields, and the effects of general relativity. At the same time, knowing their accurate populations has profound implications for understanding the life cycle of massive stars, star collapse, and overall galactic evolution.

  7. On the Carbon-Star Status of Five Stars in a New Carbon Star Catalog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We find that five sources listed in the new carbon star catalog are not really carbon-rich objects but oxygen-rich stars, because they all have the prominent 10μm silicate features in absorption and the 1612 MHz OH maser emission or/and the SiO molecular features. These objects were considered as carbon stars in the catalog based only on their locations in the infrared two-color diagram. Therefore to use the infrared two-color diagram to distinguish carbon-rich stars from oxygenrich stars must be done with caution, because, in general, it has only a statistical meaning.

  8. Pulsating stars harbouring planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Why bother with asteroseismology while studying exoplanets? There are several answers to this question. Asteroseismology and exoplanetary sciences have much in common and the synergy between the two opens up new aspects in both fields. These fields and stellar activity, when taken together, allow maximum extraction of information from exoplanet space missions. Asteroseismology of the host star has already proved its value in a number of exoplanet systems by its unprecedented precision in determining stellar parameters. In addition, asteroseismology allows the possibility of discovering new exoplanets through time delay studies. The study of the interaction between exoplanets and their host stars opens new windows on various physical processes. In this review I will summarize past and current research in exoplanet asteroseismology and explore some guidelines for the future.

  9. Shooting Star Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

  10. Fab Four Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maselli, Andrea; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Horndeski's theory of gravity is the most general scalar-tensor theory with a single scalar whose equations of motion contain at most second-order derivatives. A subsector of Horndeski's theory known as "Fab Four" gravity allows for dynamical self-tuning of the quantum vacuum energy, and therefore it has received particular attention in cosmology as a possible alternative to the $\\Lambda$CDM model. Here we study compact stars in Fab Four gravity, which includes as special cases general relativity ("George"), Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity ("Ringo"), theories with a nonminimal coupling with the Einstein tensor ("John") and theories involving the double-dual of the Riemann tensor ("Paul"). We generalize and extend previous results in theories of the John class and we show that there are no viable compact star solutions in theories of the Paul class.

  11. Collapse of Axion Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, Joshua; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L C R

    2016-01-01

    Axion stars, gravitationally bound states of low-energy axion particles, have a maximum mass allowed by gravitational stability. Weakly bound states obtaining this maximum mass have sufficiently large radii such that they are dilute, and as a result, they are well described by a leading-order expansion of the axion potential. Heavier states are susceptible to gravitational collapse. Inclusion of higher-order interactions, present in the full potential, can give qualitatively different results in the analysis of collapsing heavy states, as compared to the leading-order expansion. In this work, we find that collapsing axion stars are stabilized by repulsive interactions present in the full potential, providing evidence that such objects do not form black holes. These dense configurations, which are the endpoints of collapse, have extremely high binding energy, and as a result, decay through number changing $3\\,a\\rightarrow a$ interactions with an extremely short lifetime.

  12. Oscillations in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine

    1999-07-01

    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  13. Asteroseismology of Pulsating Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santosh Joshi; Yogesh C. Joshi

    2015-03-01

    The success of helioseismology is due to its capability of measuring -mode oscillations in the Sun. This allows us to extract information on the internal structure and rotation of the Sun from the surface to the core. Similarly, asteroseismology is the study of the internal structure of the stars as derived from stellar oscillations. In this review we highlight the progress in the observational asteroseismology, including some basic theoretical aspects. In particular, we discuss our contributions to asteroseismology through the study of chemically peculiar stars under the 'Nainital-Cape Survey' project being conducted at ARIES, Nainital, since 1999. This survey aims to detect new rapidly-pulsating Ap (roAp) stars in the northern hemisphere. We also discuss the contribution of ARIES towards the asteroseismic study of the compact pulsating variables. We comment on the future prospects of our project in the light of the new optical 3.6-m telescope to be installed at Devasthal (ARIES). Finally, we present a preliminary optical design of the high-speed imaging photometers for this telescope.

  14. What are the stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, Ganesan

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding question in astronomy at the turn of the twentieth century was: What are the stars and why are they as they are? In this volume, the story of how the answer to this fundamental question was unravelled is narrated in an informal style, with emphasis on the underlying physics. Although the foundations of astrophysics were laid down by 1870, and the edifice was sufficiently built up by 1920, the definitive proof of many of the prescient conjectures made in the 1920s and 1930s came to be established less than ten years ago. This book discusses these recent developments in the context of discussing the nature of the stars, their stability and the source of the energy they radiate.  Reading this book will get young students excited about the presently unfolding revolution in astronomy and the challenges that await them in the world of physics, engineering and technology. General readers will also find the book appealing for its highly accessible narrative of the physics of stars.  “... The reade...

  15. Parametrising Star Formation Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Simha, Vimal; Conroy, Charlie; Dave, Romeel; Fardal, Mark; Katz, Neal; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    We examine the star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, compare them to parametric models that are commonly used in fitting observed galaxy spectral energy distributions, and examine the efficacy of these parametric models as practical tools for recovering the physical parameters of galaxies. The commonly used tau-model, with SFR ~ exp(-t/tau), provides a poor match to the SFH of our SPH galaxies, with a mismatch between early and late star formation that leads to systematic errors in predicting colours and stellar mass-to-light ratios. A one-parameter lin-exp model, with SFR ~ t*exp(-t/tau), is much more successful on average, but it fails to match the late-time behavior of the bluest, most actively star-forming galaxies and the passive, "red and dead" galaxies. We introduce a 4-parameter model, which transitions from lin-exp to a linear ramp after a transition time, which describes our simulated galaxies very well. We test the ability of these paramet...

  16. The STAR PXL detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, G.

    2016-12-01

    The PiXeL detector (PXL) of the STAR experiment at RHIC is the first application of the state-of-the-art thin Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technology in a collider environment. Designed to extend the STAR measurement capabilities in the heavy flavor domain, it took data in Au+Au collisions, p+p and p+Au collisions at 0√sNN=20 GeV at RHIC, during the period 2014-2016. The PXL detector is based on 50 μm-thin MAPS sensors with a pitch of 20.7 μm. Each sensor includes an array of nearly 1 million pixels, read out in rolling shutter mode in 185.6 μs. The 170 mW/cm2 power dissipation allows for air cooling and contributes to reduce the global material budget to 0.4% radiation length on the innermost layer. Experience and lessons learned from construction and operations will be presented in this paper. Detector performance and results from 2014 Au+Au data analysis, demonstrating the STAR capabilities of charm reconstruction, will be shown.

  17. Magnetic fields in star formation: from galaxies to stars

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Daniel J; Dobbs, Clare L

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important at every scale in the star formation process: from the dynamics of the ISM in galaxies, to the collapse of turbulent molecular clouds to form stars and in the fragmentation of individual star forming cores. The recent development of a robust algorithm for MHD in the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method has enabled us to perform simulations of star formation including magnetic fields at each of these scales. This paper focusses on three questions in particular: What is the effect of magnetic fields on fragmentation in star forming cores? How do magnetic fields affect the collapse of turbulent molecular clouds to form stars? and: What effect do magnetic fields have on the dynamics of the interstellar medium?

  18. Approximate Universal Relations for Neutron Stars and Quark Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Neutron stars and quark stars are ideal laboratories to study fundamental physics at supra nuclear densities and strong gravitational fields. Astrophysical observables, however, depend strongly on the star's internal structure, which is currently unknown due to uncertainties in the equation of state. Universal relations, however, exist among certain stellar observables that do not depend sensitively on the star's internal structure. One such set of relations is between the star's moment of inertia ($I$), its tidal Love number (Love) and its quadrupole moment ($Q$), the so-called I-Love-Q relations. Similar relations hold among the star's multipole moments, which resemble the well-known black hole no-hair theorems. Universal relations break degeneracies among astrophysical observables, leading to a variety of applications: (i) X-ray measurements of the nuclear matter equation of state, (ii) gravitational wave measurements of the intrinsic spin of inspiraling compact objects, and (iii) gravitational and astroph...

  19. Runaway Stars in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannicke, Anna; Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Dinçel, Baha

    2016-07-01

    Half of all stars and in particular 70 % of the massive stars are a part of a multiple system. A possible development for the system after the core collapse supernova (SN) of the more massive component is as follows: The binary is disrupted by the SN. The formed neutron star is ejected by the SN kick whereas the companion star either remains within the system and is gravitationally bounded to the neutron star, or is ejected with a spatial velocity comparable to its former orbital velocity (up to 500 km/s). Such stars with a large peculiar space velocity are called runaway stars. We present our observational results of the supernova remnants (SNRs) G184.6-5.8, G74.0-8.5 and G119.5+10.2. The focus of this project lies on the detection of low mass runaway stars. We analyze the spectra of a number of candidates and discuss their possibility of being the former companions of the SN progenitor stars. The spectra were obtained with INT in Tenerife, Calar Alto Astronomical Observatory and the University Observatory Jena. Also we investigate the field stars in the neighborhood of the SNRs G74.0-8.5 and G119.5+10.2 and calculate more precise distances for these SNRs.

  20. First stars X. The nature of three unevolved carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivarani, T.; Beers, T.C.; Bonifacio, P.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov.......Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov....

  1. Mixtures of latex particles and the surfactant of opposite charge used as interface stabilizers--influence of particle contact angle, zeta potential, flocculation and shear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleurence, Rémi; Parneix, Caroline; Monteux, Cécile

    2014-09-28

    We investigate the stabilization of air-water interfaces by mixtures of negatively charged latex particles (sulfate polystyrene) and cationic surfactants (alkyl trimethylammonium bromides). First we report results concerning the binding of surfactant molecules to the latex particles. As the surfactant concentration increases, the charge of the particles reverses, from negative to positive, because CnTAB first binds electrostatically to the latex particles and then through hydrophobic interaction with the monolayer already adsorbed on the particles as well as directly with the hydrophobic surface of the latex. Over a large range of surfactant concentrations around the charge inversion, a strong flocculation is observed and 100 μm large aggregates form in the suspension. Unlike previous studies published on mixtures of inorganic particles with oppositely charged surfactants, we show that we can vary the sign of the zeta potential of the particles without changing the contact angle of the particles over a large range of surfactant concentrations. Indeed, the latex particles that we study are more hydrophobic than inorganic particles, hence adding moderate concentrations of the surfactant results in a weak variation of the contact angle while the charge of the particles can be reversed. This enables decoupling of the effect of zeta potential and contact angle on the interfacial properties of the mixtures. Our study shows that the contact angle and the charge of the particles are not sufficient parameters to control the foam properties, and the key-parameters are the flocculation state and the shear energy applied to produce the foam. Indeed, flocculated samples, whatever the sign of the zeta potential, enable production of a stable armour at the interface. The large aggregates do not adsorb spontaneously at the interface because of their large size, however when a large shear energy is used to produce the foam very stable foam is obtained, where particles are trapped

  2. Star centroiding error compensation for intensified star sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie; Xiong, Kun; Yu, Wenbo; Yan, Jinyun; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-12-26

    A star sensor provides high-precision attitude information by capturing a stellar image; however, the traditional star sensor has poor dynamic performance, which is attributed to its low sensitivity. Regarding the intensified star sensor, the image intensifier is utilized to improve the sensitivity, thereby further improving the dynamic performance of the star sensor. However, the introduction of image intensifier results in star centroiding accuracy decrease, further influencing the attitude measurement precision of the star sensor. A star centroiding error compensation method for intensified star sensors is proposed in this paper to reduce the influences. First, the imaging model of the intensified detector, which includes the deformation parameter of the optical fiber panel, is established based on the orthographic projection through the analysis of errors introduced by the image intensifier. Thereafter, the position errors at the target points based on the model are obtained by using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization method. Last, the nearest trigonometric interpolation method is presented to compensate for the arbitrary centroiding error of the image plane. Laboratory calibration result and night sky experiment result show that the compensation method effectively eliminates the error introduced by the image intensifier, thus remarkably improving the precision of the intensified star sensors.

  3. 2-(6-Phenyl-1H-indazol-3-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazoles: Design and synthesis of a potent and isoform selective PKC-[zeta] inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, John I.; Kiefer, James R.; Huang, Wei; Thorarensen, Atli; Xing, Li; Caspers, Nicole L.; Day, Jacqueline E.; Mathis, Karl J.; Kretzmer, Kuniko K.; Reitz, Beverley A.; Weinberg, Robin A.; Stegeman, Roderick A.; Wrightstone, Ann; Christine, Lori; Compton, Robert; Li, Xiong; (Pfizer)

    2009-03-16

    The inhibition of PKC-{zeta} has been proposed to be a potential drug target for immune and inflammatory diseases. A series of 2-(6-phenyl-1H indazol-3-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazoles with initial high crossover to CDK-2 has been optimized to afford potent and selective inhibitors of protein kinase c-zeta (PKC-{zeta}). The determination of the crystal structures of key inhibitor:CDK-2 complexes informed the design and analysis of the series. The most selective and potent analog was identified by variation of the aryl substituent at the 6-position of the indazole template to give a 4-NH{sub 2} derivative. The analog displays good selectivity over other PKC isoforms ({alpha}, {beta}II, {gamma}, {delta}, {epsilon}, {mu}, {theta}, {eta} and {ell}/{lambda}) and CDK-2, however it displays marginal selectivity against a panel of other kinases (37 profiled).

  4. Flattest Star Ever Seen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    VLT Interferometer Measurements of Achernar Challenge Stellar Theory Summary To a first approximation, planets and stars are round. Think of the Earth we live on. Think of the Sun, the nearest star, and how it looks in the sky. But if you think more about it, you realize that this is not completely true. Due to its daily rotation, the solid Earth is slightly flattened ("oblate") - its equatorial radius is some 21 km (0.3%) larger than the polar one. Stars are enormous gaseous spheres and some of them are known to rotate quite fast, much faster than the Earth. This would obviously cause such stars to become flattened. But how flat? Recent observations with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at the ESO Paranal Observatory have allowed a group of astronomers [1] to obtain by far the most detailed view of the general shape of a fast-spinning hot star, Achernar (Alpha Eridani) , the brightest in the southern constellation Eridanus (The River). They find that Achernar is much flatter than expected - its equatorial radius is more than 50% larger than the polar one! In other words, this star is shaped very much like the well-known spinning-top toy, so popular among young children. The high degree of flattening measured for Achernar - a first in observational astrophysics - now poses an unprecedented challenge for theoretical astrophysics . The effect cannot be reproduced by common models of stellar interiors unless certain phenomena are incorporated, e.g. meridional circulation on the surface ("north-south streams") and non-uniform rotation at different depths inside the star. As this example shows, interferometric techniques will ultimately provide very detailed information about the shapes, surface conditions and interior structure of stars . PR Photo 15a/03 : The VLT Interferometer configuration for the Achernar measurements PR Photo 15b/03 : Achernar's "profile" , as measured by the VLTI. PR Photo 15c/03 : Models of Achernar's spatial shape. VLTI observations of Achernar

  5. First stars evolution and nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahena, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Academy of Sciences, Bocni II 1401, 14131 Praha 4, (Czech Republic); Klapp, J. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Dehnen, H. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitat Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)]. e-mail: bahen@hotmail.com

    2007-12-15

    The first stars in the universe were massive and luminous with typical masses M {>=} 100M. Metal-free stars have unique physical characteristics and exhibit high effective temperatures and small radii. These so called Population III stars were responsible for the initial enrichment of the intergalactic medium with heavy elements. In this work, we study the structure, evolution and nucleosynthesis of 100, 200, 250 and 300M galactic and pregalactic Population III mass losing stars with metallicities Z 10{sup -6} and Z = 10{sup -9}, during the hydrogen and helium burning phases. Using a stellar evolution code, a system of 10 structure and evolution equations together with boundary conditions, and a set of 30 nuclear reactions, are solved simultaneously, obtaining the star's structure, evolution, isotopic abundances and their ratios. Motivated by recent stability analysis, almost all very massive star (VMS) calculations during the past few years have been performed with no mass loss. However, it has recently been claimed that VMS should have strong mass loss. We present in this work new VMS calculations that includes mass loss. The main difference between zero-metal and metal-enriched stars lies in the nuclear energy generation mechanism. For the first stars, nuclear burning proceeds in a non-standard way. Since Population III stars can reach high central temperatures, this leads to the first synthesis of primary carbon through the 3 {alpha} reaction activating the CNO-cycles. Zero-metal stars produce light elements, such as He, C, N and O. Thus, very massive pregalactic Population III stars experienced self-production of C, either at the zero-age main sequence or in later phases of central hydrogen burning. In advanced evolutionary phases, these stars contribute to the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium through supernova explosions. (Author)

  6. Quantitative spectroscopy of hot stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudritzki, R. P.; Hummer, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    A review on the quantitative spectroscopy (QS) of hot stars is presented, with particular attention given to the study of photospheres, optically thin winds, unified model atmospheres, and stars with optically thick winds. It is concluded that the results presented here demonstrate the reliability of Qs as a unique source of accurate values of the global parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and elemental abundances) of hot stars.

  7. Properties of Rotating Neutron Star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh K. Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the nuclear equation of states for a large variety of relativistic and non-relativistic force parameters, we calculate the static and rotating masses and radii of neutron stars. From these equation of states, we evaluate the properties of rotating neutron stars, such as rotational frequencies, moment of inertia, quadrupole deformation parameter, rotational ellipticity and gravitational wave strain amplitude. The estimated gravitational wave strain amplitude of the star is found to be~sim 10-23.

  8. Massive star clusters in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William E

    2009-01-01

    The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCSs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GCS research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.

  9. The Star Formation History of RCW 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ellerbroek; L. Kaper; A. Bik; K.M. Maaskant; L. Podio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of massive-star forming regions indicate that they can contain multiple generations of young stars. These observations suggest that star formation in these regions is sequential and/or triggered by a previous generation of (massive) stars. Here we present new observations of the star

  10. Sobre los ceros de polinomios de Dirichlet, en general, y los de las sumas parciales de la función zeta de Riemann, en particular

    OpenAIRE

    Dubon, Eric

    2015-01-01

    En el primer capítulo se introduce la función $H_{n}(z)=1+2^{iz}+3^{iz}+...+n^{iz}$ como aproximación de la función zeta de Riemann y se pondrá de relieve una de sus principales propiedades, que es la de ser una función entera de tipo exponencial de clase C. Se presenta, utilizando la noción de distribución de Levinson, una demostración de la densidad de ceros de este tipo de funciones distinta a la obtenida por los autores de [41]. Se dará también, con la condición de existencia de ceros sob...

  11. Signatures of quantum-like chaos in spacing intervals of non-trivial Riemann zeta zeros and in turbulent fluid flows

    CERN Document Server

    Selvam, A M

    2001-01-01

    The spacing intervals of adjacent Riemann zeta zeros(non-trivial) exhibit fractal(irregular) fluctuations generic to dynamical systems in nature such as fluid flows, heart beat patterns, stock market price index, etc., and are associated with unpredictability or chaos. The power spectra of such fractal space-time fluctuations exhibit universal inverse power law form and signify long-range correlations, identified as self-organized criticality . A cell dynamical system model developed by the author for turbulent fluid flows provides a unique quantification for the observed power spectra in terms of the statistical normal distribution, such that the variance represents the statistical probability densities. Such a result that the additive amplitudes of eddies when squared, represent the statistical probabilities is an observed feature of the subatomic dynamics of quantum systems such as an electron or photon. Self-organized criticality is therefore a signature of quantum-like chaos in dynamical systems. The mod...

  12. Redirecting Therapeutic T Cells against Myelin-Specific T Lymphocytes Using a Humanized Myelin Basic Protein-HLA-DR2-{zeta} Chimeric Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moisini, Ioana; Nguyen, Phuong; Fugger, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Therapies that Ag-specifically target pathologic T lymphocytes responsible for multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases would be expected to have improved therapeutic indices compared with Ag-nonspecific therapies. We have developed a cellular immunotherapy that uses chimeric receptors...... to selectively redirect therapeutic T cells against myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T lymphocytes implicated in MS. We generated two heterodimeric receptors that genetically link the human MBP(84-102) epitope to HLA-DR2 and either incorporate or lack a TCRzeta signaling domain. The Ag-MHC domain serves...... as a bait, binding the TCR of MBP-specific target cells. The zeta signaling region stimulates the therapeutic cell after cognate T cell engagement. Both receptors were well expressed on primary T cells or T hybridomas using a tricistronic (alpha, beta, green fluorescent protein) retroviral expression system...

  13. Structural mutations of C-domains in members of the Ig superfamily. Consequences for the interactions between the T cell antigen receptor and the zeta 2 homodimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Rubin, B; Caspar-Bauguil, S;

    1992-01-01

    not fully understood. We locate critical amino acid residues for TCR assembly in the Ti-alpha and -beta extracellular C-domains. A point mutation (phenylalanine195----valine) in a highly conserved residue in the Ti-alpha chain of the Jurkat variant J79 was identified by DNA sequencing. This mutation did......-alpha-deficient Jurkat variant. Computer model analysis showed that the Ti-alpha phenylalanine195 directly contributed to the beta-sheet facing away from the Ti-beta chain, indicating that it could be directly involved in the interactions between one or more of the CD3 chains or the zeta 2 dimer. Site......-directed mutagenesis of the corresponding residue in the Ti-beta chain demonstrated that a phenylalanine216----valine substitution had similar effects on TCR assembly as the Ti-alpha mutation, whereas a phenylalanine216----histidine substitution allowed TCR assembly and expression. Whether the consequences for TCR...

  14. Apple Valley Double Star Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The High Desert Astronomical Society hosts an annual double star workshop, where participants measure the position angles and separations of double stars. Following the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS), adopted by the California State Board of Education, participants are assigned to teams where they learn the process of telescope set-up and operation, the gathering of data, and the reduction of the data. Team results are compared to the latest epoch listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) and papers are written for publication in the Journal of Double Star Observations (JDSO). Each team presents a PowerPoint presentation to their peers about actual hands-on astronomical research.

  15. Stellar populations in star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Yuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Li-Cai

    2016-12-01

    Stellar populations contain the most important information about star cluster formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ages. We present the history and progress of research in this active field, as well as some of the most recent improvements, including observational results and scenarios that have been proposed to explain the observations. Although our current ability to determine the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters is unsatisfactory, we propose a number of promising projects that may contribute to a significantly improved understanding of this subject.

  16. Surface abundances of ON stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, F; Palacios, A; Howarth, I; Georgy, C; Walborn, N R; Bouret, J -C; Barba, R

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient, or when mass transfer in binary systems happens, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle or not is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. We perform a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determine the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measure the projected rotational velocities. We compare the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. We show that ON stars are usually helium-rich. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cann...

  17. Organelles and chromatin fragmentation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell influence by the effects of zeta potential and size of silver nanoparticles in different manners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Shima; Hoveizi, Elham; Kharrazi, Sharmin; Tavakol, Behnaz; Karimi, Shabnam; Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2017-06-01

    Recently, it has been disclosed that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have the potential to inhibit infection and cancerous cells and eventually penetrate through injected site into the capillary due to their small size. This study focuses on the effect of size and zeta potential of bare and citrate-coated AgNPs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as main capillary cells. AgNPs with high and low concentrations and no citrate coating were synthesized by using simple wet chemical method and named as AgNP/HC, AgNP/LC, and AgNP, respectively. Citrate coated particles showed larger zeta potential of -22 mV and AgNp/HC showed the smallest size of 13.2 nm. UV-Visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were performed to evaluate particle size and hydrodynamic diameter of NPs in water and cell culture media. Results indicated that higher concentrations of citrate decreased hydrodynamic diameter and NP agglomeration. reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of all AgNPs was similar at 28 ppm although it was significantly higher than control group. Their effects on cell membrane and chromosomal structure were studied using LDH measurement and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, as well. Results demonstrated that AgNP/LC was less toxic to cells owing to higher value of IC50, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and less release of LDH. Cancerous (Human Caucasian neuroblastoma) and immortal cells (Mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line) were about twice more sensitive than HUVECs to toxic effects of AgNPs. DAPI staining results showed that AgNP and AgNP/HC induced highest and lowest breaking of chromosome. Overall results suggest that viability of HUVECs will be higher than 90% when viability of cancerous cells is 50% in AgNPs chemotherapy.

  18. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of Bacteriophage K/nano-emulsion formulations against S. aureus via measurement of particle size and zeta potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Patricia Perez; Jenkins, A Toby A; Arnot, Tom C

    2016-03-01

    In earlier work we have demonstrated the effect that nano-emulsions have on bacterial growth, and most importantly the enhanced bacteriophage infectivity against Staphylococcus aureus in planktonic culture when phage are carried in nano-emulsions. However, the mechanisms of enhancement of the bacteriophage killing effect are not specifically understood. This work focuses on the investigation of the possible interactions between emulsion droplets and bacterial cells, between emulsion droplets and bacteriophages, and finally interactions between all three components: nano-emulsion droplets, bacteria, and bacteriophages. The first approach consists of simple calculations to determine the spatial distribution of the components, based on measurements of particle size. It was found that nano-emulsion droplets are much more numerous than bacteria or bacteriophage, and due to their size and surface area they must be covering the surface of both cells and bacteriophage particles. Stabilisation of bacteriophages due to electrostatic forces and interaction with nano-emulsion droplets is suspected, since bacteriophages may be protected against inactivation due to 'charge shielding'. Zeta potential was measured for the individual components in the system, and for all of them combined. It was concluded that the presence of nano-emulsions could be reducing electrostatic repulsion between bacterial cells and bacteriophage, both of which are very negatively 'charged'. Moreover, nano-emulsions lead to more favourable interaction between bacteriophages and bacteria, enhancing the anti-microbial or killing effect. These findings are relevant since the physicochemical properties of nano-emulsions (i.e. particle size distribution and zeta potential) are key in determining the efficacy of the formulation against infection in the context of responsive burn wound dressings-which is the main target for this work.

  19. Stars with Extended Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.

    2002-12-01

    This Workshop consisted of a full-day meeting of the Working Group "Sterren met Uitgebreide Atmosferen" (SUA, Working Group Stars with Extended Atmospheres), a discussion group founded in 1979 by Kees de Jager, Karel van der Hucht and Pik Sin The. This loose association of astronomers and astronomy students working in the Dutch-speaking part of the Low Countries (The Netherlands and Flanders) organised at regular intervals one-day meetings at the Universities of Utrecht, Leiden, Amsterdam and Brussels. These meetings consisted of the presentation of scientific results by junior as well as senior members of the group, and by discussions between the participants. As such, the SUA meetings became a forum for the exchange of ideas, and for asking questions and advice in an informal atmosphere. Kees de Jager has been chairman of the WG SUA from the beginning in 1979 till today, as the leading source of inspiration. At the occasion of Prof. Kees de Jager's 80th birthday, we decided to collect the presented talks in written form as a Festschrift in honour of this well-respected and much beloved scientist, teacher and friend. The first three papers deal with the personality of Kees de Jager, more specifically with his role as a supervisor and mentor of young researchers and as a catalyst in the research work of his colleagues. And also about his remarkable role in the establishment of astronomy education and research at the University of Brussels. The next presentation is a very detailed review of solar research, a field in which Cees was prominently active for many years. Then follow several papers dealing with stars about which Kees is a true expert: massive stars and extended atmospheres.

  20. Stars and Star Clusters: A Look at Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Lau, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Star-forming regions hosting intermediate-mass stars straddle the boundary separating the the low- and high-mass regimes. These intermediate-mass star-forming regions can be used to probe this transition from low- to high-mass star formation. Our team has assembled an all-sky catalog of 616 candidate intermediate-mass star forming regions (IMSFRs) selected by IRAS colors and refined by visual inspection of WISE imagery. We present here two outer-Galaxy star-forming regions, IRAS22451+6154 and IRAS23448+6010, that despite having similar IRAS colors and mid-infrared morphologies, have vastly different stellar content. We combine Gemini and IRTF NIR spectroscopy with WIYN and SOFIA imaging for a thorough look at the stellar content of these two regions.

  1. LEGO STAR WARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    去年有一款游戏以惊人的销量。让人们印象深刻,它就是《乐高星球大战》,经过一番传言过后,LucasArts终于发表了《乐高星球大战》的续作《乐高星球大战2:首部曲》(Lego Star Wars Ⅱ:The Original Trilog),而且登陆的平台还包括了任天堂的DS和GBA主机。

  2. The guide star catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Barry M.; Jenkner, Helmut; Russell, Jane L.

    1987-01-01

    Part 1 of the catalog presents an astronomical overview of the Guide Star Catalog, together with its history, the properties of its current implementation, and the prospects for enhancement. Part 2 presents the algorithms used in photometric and astrometric calibration of the catalog, as well as the analyses of the related errors. Part 3 presents the current structure and content, as well as future enhancements in this area. An overview of the forthcoming publications is given, both with regard to scientific papers and electronic media.

  3. On Magnetized Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Luiz L

    2014-01-01

    In this work we review the formalism normally used in the literature about the effects of density-dependent magnetic fields on the properties of neutron stars, expose some ambiguities that arise and propose a way to solve the related problem. Our approach uses a different prescription for the calculation of the pressure based on the chaotic field formalism for the stress tensor and also a different way of introducing a variable magnetic field, which depends on the energy density rather than on the baryonic density.

  4. Stars of heaven

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    2004-01-01

    Do a little armchair space travel, rub elbows with alien life forms, and stretch your mind to the furthest corners of our uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, you don't have to be an astronomer to explore the mysteries of stars and their profound meaning for human existence. Clifford A. Pickover tackles a range of topics from stellar evolution to the fundamental reasons why the universe permits life to flourish. He alternates sections that explain the mysteries of the cosmos with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialog between futuristic human

  5. SIRTF autonomous star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bezooijen, Roelof W. H.

    2003-03-01

    Two redundant AST-301 autonomous star trackers (AST) serve as the primary attitude sensors for JPL's space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF). These units, which employ a 1553B interface to output their attitude quaternions and uncertainty at a 2 Hz rate, provide a 1 σaccuracy of better than 0.18, 0.18, and 5.1 arcsec about their X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. This is a factor 5.5 better than the accuracy of the flight-proven AST-201 from which the trackers were derived. To obtain this improvement, the field of view (FOV) was reduced to 5 by 5 degrees, the accurate Tycho-1 and ACT catalogs were used for selecting the 71,830 guide stars, star image centroiding was improved to better than 1/50th of a pixel, and optimal attitude estimation was implemented. In addition, the apparent direction to each guide star in the FOV is compensated for proper motion, parallax, velocity aberration, and optical distortion. The AST-301 employs autonomous time-delayed integration (TDI) to achieve image motion compensation (IMC) about its X axis that prevents accuracy degradation, even at rates of 2.1 deg/s, making it actually suitable for use on spinning spacecraft. About the Y axis, a software function called "image motion accommodation" (IMA) processes smeared images to maximize the signal to noise ratio of the resulting synthetic images, which enables robust and accurate tracking at rates tested up to 0.42 deg/s. The AST-301 is capable of acquiring its attitude anywhere in the sky in less than 3 seconds with a 99.98% probability of success, without requiring any a priori attitude knowledge. Following a description of the 7.1 kg AST-301, its operation and IMA, the methodology for translating the night sky test data into performance numbers is presented, while, in addition, the results of tests used to measure alignment stability over temperature are included.

  6. Dielectron Measurements in STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geurts Frank

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions provide a unique environment to study the properties of strongly interacting matter. Dileptons, which are not affected by the strong interactions, are an ideal penetrating probe. We present the dielectron results for p+p and Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV, as measured by the STAR experiment. We discuss the prospects of dilepton measurements with the near-future detector upgrades, and the recent lower beam energy Au+Au measurements.

  7. Hadronic Resonances from STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Masayuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of resonance particle productions (ρ0, ω, K*, ϕ, Σ*, and Λ* measured by the STAR collaboration at RHIC from various colliding systems and energies are presented. Measured mass, width, 〈pT〉, and yield of those resonances are reviewed. No significant mass shifts or width broadening beyond the experiment uncertainties are observed. New measurements of ϕ and ω from leptonic decay channels are presented. The yields from leptonic decay channels are compared with the measurements from hadronic decay channels and the two results are consistent with each other.

  8. Probing neutron star physics using accreting neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patruno A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We give an obervational overview of the accreting neutron stars systems as probes of neutron star physics. In particular we focus on the results obtained from the periodic timing of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in outburst and from the measurement of X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars during quiescence. In the first part of this overview we show that the X-ray pulses are contaminated by a large amount of noise of uncertain origin, and that all these neutron stars do not show evidence of spin variations during the outburst. We present also some recent developments on the presence of intermittency in three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars and investigate the reason why only a small number of accreting neutron stars show X-ray pulsations and why none of these pulsars shows sub-millisecond spin periods. In the second part of the overview we introduce the observational technique that allows the study of neutron star cooling in accreting systems as probes of neutron star internal composition and equation of state. We explain the phenomenon of the deep crustal heating and present some recent developments on several quasi persistent X-ray sources where a cooling neutron star has been observed.

  9. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  10. Triggered Star Formation Surrounding Wolf-Rayet Star HD 211853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 103 cm-3 and kinematic temperature ~20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core "A," which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the "collect and collapse" process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core "A" seem to be affected by the "radiation-driven implosion" process.

  11. Triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853 is studied in molecular emission, infrared emission, as well as radio and HI emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$ and kinematic temperature $\\sim$20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From SED modeling towards the young stellar objects (YSOs), sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the Wolf-Rayet star to the molecular ring. A small scale sequential star formation is revealed towards core A, which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations is thus suggested. The presence of PDR, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, the large scale sequential star formation indicate the "Collect and Collapse" process functions in this region. The star forming activities in core A seem to be affected by the "Radiation-Driven Implosion" (...

  12. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  13. Stars For Citizens With Urban Star Parks and Lighting Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-08-01

    General contextOne hundred years ago, almost nobody imagine a life without stars every night even in the urban areas. Now, to see a starry sky is a special event for urban citizens.It is possible to see the stars even inside cities? Yes, but for that we need star parks and lighting specialists as partners.Educational aspectThe citizens must be able to identify the planets, constellations and other celestial objects in their urban residence. This is part of a basic education. The number of the people living in the urban area who never see the main constellations or important stars increase every year. We must do something for our urban community.What is an urban star park?An urban public park where we can see the main constellations can be considered an urban star park. There can be organized a lot of activities as practical lessons of astronomy, star parties, etc.Classification of the urban star parksA proposal for classification of the urban star parks taking in consideration the quality of the sky and the number of the city inhabitants:Two categories:- city star parks for cities with inhabitants- metropolis star parks for cities with > 100.000 inhabitantsFive levels of quality:- 1* level = can see stars of at least 1 magnitude with the naked eyes- 2* level = at least 2 mag- 3* level = at least 3 mag- 4* level= at least 4 mag- 5* level = at least 5 magThe urban star urban park structure and lighting systemA possible structure of a urban star park and sky-friend lighting including non-electric illumination are descripted.The International Commission on IlluminationA description of this structure which has as members national commissions from all over the world.Dark-sky activists - lighting specialistsNational Commissions on Illumination organize courses of lighting specialist. Dark-sky activists can become lighting specialists. The author shows his experience in this aspect as a recent lighting specialist and his cooperation with the Romanian National Commission on

  14. The star formation history of the Large Magellanic Cloud as seen by star clusters and stars

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test to what extent the star cluster population of a galaxy can be utilised to constrain or estimate the star formation history, with the Large Magellanic Cloud as our testbed. We follow two methods to extract information about the star formation rate from star clusters, either using only the most massive clusters (Maschberger & Kroupa 2007) or using the whole cluster population, albeit this is only possible for a shorter age span. We compare these results with the ...

  15. Star Products for Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Henselder, P.

    2007-01-01

    The star product formalism has proved to be an alternative formulation for nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. We want introduce here a covariant star product in order to extend the star product formalism to relativistic quantum mechanics in the proper time formulation.

  16. Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Using a combination of instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have discovered the most massive stars to date, one weighing at birth more than 300 times the mass of the Sun, or twice as much as the currently accepted limit of 150 solar masses. The existence of these monsters - millions of times more luminous than the Sun, losing weight through very powerful winds - may provide an answer to the question "how massive can stars be?" A team of astronomers led by Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield, has used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as well as archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, to study two young clusters of stars, NGC 3603 and RMC 136a in detail. NGC 3603 is a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust, located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun (eso1005). RMC 136a (more often known as R136) is another cluster of young, massive and hot stars, which is located inside the Tarantula Nebula, in one of our neighbouring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, 165 000 light-years away (eso0613). The team found several stars with surface temperatures over 40 000 degrees, more than seven times hotter than our Sun, and a few tens of times larger and several million times brighter. Comparisons with models imply that several of these stars were born with masses in excess of 150 solar masses. The star R136a1, found in the R136 cluster, is the most massive star ever found, with a current mass of about 265 solar masses and with a birthweight of as much as 320 times that of the Sun. In NGC 3603, the astronomers could also directly measure the masses of two stars that belong to a double star system [1], as a validation of the models used. The stars A1, B and C in this cluster have estimated masses at birth above or close to 150 solar masses. Very massive stars produce very powerful outflows. "Unlike humans, these stars are born heavy and lose weight as

  17. Rotation of Giant Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kissin, Yevgeni

    2015-01-01

    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5 and $5\\,M_\\odot$, taking into account mass loss on the giant branches and the partitioning of angular momentum between the outer and inner envelope. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag as well as the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles $\\Omega(r)$ is considered in the deep convective envelope, ranging from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force on the inward pumping of angular momentum, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core ro...

  18. The soliton stars evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, I; Bednarek, Ilona; Manka, Ryszard

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of a soliton star filled with fermions is studied in the framework of general relativity. Such a system can be described by the surface tension $\\sigma$, the bag constant $B$, and the fermion number density affects the spacetime inside the soliton. Whether it is described by Friedman or de Sitter metric depends on the prevailing parameter. The whole spacetime is devided by the surface of the soliton into the false vacuum region inside the soliton and the true vacuum region outside, the latter being described by the Schwarzschild line element. The aim of this paper is to study the equations of motion of the domain wall in two cases. In the first case the de Sitter metric describes the interior in the first case, and in the second case it is replaced by the Friedman metric. In both of them the Schwarzschild metric is outside the soliton. From the analysis of obtained equations one can draw conclusions concerning further evolution of a soliton star.

  19. Morphogenesis of star dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Narteau, C.; Rozier, O.

    2010-12-01

    Dunes constantly adapt their shapes in response to the flow. Under multi-modal wind orientation, this permanent reorganization may result in the formation of star dunes, a highly complex structure with multiple arms, crests and slip faces oriented in different directions. Here, we show that this majestic dune feature can be described as a superposition of longitudinal dunes. In a 3D cellular automaton for sediment transport, star dunes form by amalgamation or by nucleation and growth of secondary longitudinal dunes. When the dune shape reaches a steady state, individual arms continue to propagate and detach from the main structure to feed other dunes in the neighborhood. From the sedimentary structures produced by the model we show that arm elongation is strongly dependent on the frequency at which the wind oscillates. This demonstrates that the elongation/propagation of dunes is a highly non-linear process that should account for crest reorientation over different time scales. We conclude that such a behavior needs to be taken into account when estimating climatic conditions from sedimentary structures on Earth or satellite images on other planetary bodies.

  20. Stars and Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    'Estrelas e Planetas' (Stars and Planets) project was developed during the academic year 2009/2010 and was tested on three 3rd grade classes of one school in Quarteira, Portugal. The aim was to encourage the learning of science and the natural and physical phenomena through the construction and manipulation of materials that promote these themes - in this case astronomy. Throughout the project the students built a small book containing three themes of astronomy: differences between stars and planets, the solar system and the phases of the Moon. To each topic was devoted two sessions of about an hour each: the first to teach the theoretical aspects of the theme and the second session to assembly two pages of the book. All materials used (for theoretical sessions and for the construction of the book) and videos of the finished book are available for free use in www.miguelneta.pt/estrelaseplanetas. So far there is only a Portuguese version but soon will be published in English as well. This project won the Excellency Prize 2011 of Casa das Ciências, a portuguese site for teachers supported by the Calouste Gulbenkian Fundation (www.casadasciencias.org).

  1. The Stars of Heaven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    2004-05-01

    Do a little armchair space travel, rub elbows with alien life forms, and stretch your mind to the furthest corners of our uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, you don't have to be an astronomer to explore the mysteries of stars and their profound meaning for human existence. Clifford A. Pickover tackles a range of topics from stellar evolution to the fundamental reasons why the universe permits life to flourish. He alternates sections that explain the mysteries of the cosmos with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialog between futuristic humans and their alien peers (who embark on a journey beyond the reader's wildest imagination). This highly accessible and entertaining approach turns an intimidating subject into a scientific game open to all dreamers. Told in Pickover's inimitable blend of fascinating state-of-the-art science and whimsical science fiction, and packed with numerous diagrams and illustrations, The Stars of Heaven unfolds a world of paradox and mystery, one that will intrigue anyone who has ever pondered the night sky with wonder.

  2. STARS: A Year in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System[TM] (STARS) is a program of AASHE, the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education. AASHE is a member-driven organization with a mission to empower higher education to lead the sustainability transformation. STARS was developed by AASHE with input and insight from…

  3. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamel Nicolas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  4. Star formation in Galactic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilgys, Romas; Bonnell, Ian A.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the triggering of star formation in clouds that form in Galactic scale flows as the interstellar medium passes through spiral shocks. We use the Lagrangian nature of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations to trace how the star-forming gas is gathered into self-gravitating cores that collapse to form stars. Large-scale flows that arise due to Galactic dynamics create shocks of the order of 30 km s-1 that compress the gas and form dense clouds (n > several × 102 cm-3) in which self-gravity becomes relevant. These large-scale flows are necessary for creating the dense physical conditions for gravitational collapse and star formation. Local gravitational collapse requires densities in excess of n > 103 cm-3 which occur on size scales of ≈1 pc for low-mass star-forming regions (M 103 M⊙). Star formation in the 250 pc region lasts throughout the 5 Myr time-scale of the simulation with a star formation rate of ≈10-1 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. In the absence of feedback, the efficiency of the star formation per free-fall time varies from our assumed 100 per cent at our sink accretion radius to values of <10-3 at low densities.

  5. Possible Post-AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wallerstein, G; Shetrone, M D

    2003-01-01

    Radial velocities were measured for 5 potential post-AGB stars, two in the globular cluster NGC 1851 and three in the dSph galaxy Ursa Minor. All five potential PAGB stars were found to be radial velocity non-members.

  6. Mathematics Teaching with the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Sueanne E.; Bol, Linda; Berube, Clair

    2010-01-01

    The mathematics instructional approaches of effective elementary teachers in urban high- poverty schools were investigated. Approximately 99 urban elementary teachers were administered the Star Teacher Selection Interview; a total of 31 were identified as star teachers. These teachers were then administered the Instructional Practices…

  7. Stars get dizzy after lunch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Michael [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 5491 Frist Center, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Penev, Kaloyan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Exoplanet searches have discovered a large number of {sup h}ot Jupiters{sup —}high-mass planets orbiting very close to their parent stars in nearly circular orbits. A number of these planets are sufficiently massive and close-in to be significantly affected by tidal dissipation in the parent star, to a degree parameterized by the tidal quality factor Q {sub *}. This process speeds up their star's rotation rate while reducing the planet's semimajor axis. In this paper, we investigate the tidal destruction of hot Jupiters. Because the orbital angular momenta of these planets are a significant fraction of their star's rotational angular momenta, they spin up their stars significantly while spiraling to their deaths. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, we predict that for Q {sub *} = 10{sup 6}, 3.9 × 10{sup –6} of stars with the Kepler Target Catalog's mass distribution should have a rotation period shorter than 1/3 day (8 hr) due to accreting a planet. Exoplanet surveys such as SuperWASP, HATnet, HATsouth, and KELT have already produced light curves of millions of stars. These two facts suggest that it may be possible to search for tidally destroyed planets by looking for stars with extremely short rotational periods, then looking for remnant planet cores around those candidates, anomalies in the metal distribution, or other signatures of the recent accretion of the planet.

  8. Stars Get Dizzy After Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Michael; Penev, Kaloyan

    2014-06-01

    Exoplanet searches have discovered a large number of "hot Jupiters"—high-mass planets orbiting very close to their parent stars in nearly circular orbits. A number of these planets are sufficiently massive and close-in to be significantly affected by tidal dissipation in the parent star, to a degree parameterized by the tidal quality factor Q *. This process speeds up their star's rotation rate while reducing the planet's semimajor axis. In this paper, we investigate the tidal destruction of hot Jupiters. Because the orbital angular momenta of these planets are a significant fraction of their star's rotational angular momenta, they spin up their stars significantly while spiraling to their deaths. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, we predict that for Q * = 106, 3.9 × 10-6 of stars with the Kepler Target Catalog's mass distribution should have a rotation period shorter than 1/3 day (8 hr) due to accreting a planet. Exoplanet surveys such as SuperWASP, HATnet, HATsouth, and KELT have already produced light curves of millions of stars. These two facts suggest that it may be possible to search for tidally destroyed planets by looking for stars with extremely short rotational periods, then looking for remnant planet cores around those candidates, anomalies in the metal distribution, or other signatures of the recent accretion of the planet.

  9. Axion emission from neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, N.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that axion emission from neutron stars is the dominant energy-loss mechanism for a range of values of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry-breaking scale (F) not excluded by previous constraints. This gives the possibility of obtaining a better bound on F from measurements of surface temperature of neutron stars.

  10. Gravitational Stability of Boson Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kusmartsev, Fjodor V; Schunck, Franz E

    1991-01-01

    We investigate the stability of general-relativistic boson stars by classifying singularities of differential mappings and compare it with the results of perturbation theory. Depending on the particle number, the star has the following regimes of behavior: stable, metastable, pulsation, and collapse.

  11. The Finslerian compact star model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook; Paul, Nupur [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); De, S.S. [University of Calcutta, Department of Applied Mathematics, Kolkata (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Jafry, M.A.K. [Shibpur Dinobundhoo Institution, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)

    2015-11-15

    We construct a toy model for compact stars based on the Finslerian structure of spacetime. By assuming a particular mass function, we find an exact solution of the Finsler-Einstein field equations with an anisotropic matter distribution. The solutions are revealed to be physically interesting and pertinent for the explanation of compact stars. (orig.)

  12. Opdriftsbaserede modeller for Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten

    Formålet med dette skrift er at få en forhåndsvurdering af mulige effektforøgelser for Wave Star ved anvendelse af aktiv akkumulatordrift. Disse vurderinger baseres på simuleringsmodeller for driften af Wave Star i uregelmæssige bølger. Modellen er udarbejdet i programmeringssproget Delphi og er en...

  13. NSCool: Neutron star cooling code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Dany

    2016-09-01

    NSCool is a 1D (i.e., spherically symmetric) neutron star cooling code written in Fortran 77. The package also contains a series of EOSs (equation of state) to build stars, a series of pre-built stars, and a TOV (Tolman- Oppenheimer-Volkoff) integrator to build stars from an EOS. It can also handle “strange stars” that have a huge density discontinuity between the quark matter and the covering thin baryonic crust. NSCool solves the heat transport and energy balance equations in whole GR, resulting in a time sequence of temperature profiles (and, in particular, a Teff - age curve). Several heating processes are included, and more can easily be incorporated. In particular it can evolve a star undergoing accretion with the resulting deep crustal heating, under a steady or time-variable accretion rate. NSCool is robust, very fast, and highly modular, making it easy to add new subroutines for new processes.

  14. Grand unification of neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-04-20

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical "grand unification" of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  15. Grand unification of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical “grand unification” of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra’s next decade in this field. PMID:20404205

  16. Physics of primordial star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2012-09-01

    The study of primordial star formation has a history of nearly sixty years. It is generally thought that primordial stars are one of the key elements in a broad range of topics in astronomy and cosmology, from Galactic chemical evolution to the formation of super-massive blackholes. We review recent progress in the theory of primordial star formation. The standard theory of cosmic structure formation posits that the present-day rich structure of the Universe developed through gravitational amplification of tiny matter density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang. It has become possible to study primordial star formation rigorously within the framework of the standard cosmological model. We first lay out the key physical processes in a primordial gas. Then, we introduce recent developments in computer simulations. Finally, we discuss prospects for future observations of the first generation of stars.

  17. Grand Unification in Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to `isolated neutron stars,' from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, in celebration of its tenth anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical `grand unification' of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  18. A Swarm of Ancient Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This stellar swarm is M80 (NGC 6093), one of the densest of the 147 known globular star clusters in the Milky Way galaxy. Located about 28,000 light-years from Earth, M80 contains hundreds of thousands of stars, all held together by their mutual gravitational attraction. Globular clusters are particularly useful for studying stellar evolution, since all of the stars in the cluster have the same age (about 15 billion years), but cover a range of stellar masses. Every star visible in this image is either more highly evolved than, or in a few rare cases more massive than, our own Sun. Especially obvious are the bright red giants, which are stars similar to the Sun in mass that are nearing the ends of their lives.

  19. Star trackers for attitude determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian

    1995-01-01

    One problem comes to all spacecrafts using vector information. That is the problem of determining the attitude. This paper describes how the area of attitude determination instruments has evolved from simple pointing devices into the latest technology, which determines the attitude by utilizing...... a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star tracker is explained. The obtainable accuracy is calculated, the numbers of stars to be included...... in the star catalogue are discussed and the acquisition of the initial attitude is explained. Finally the commercial market for star trackers is discussed...

  20. StarGuides Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.

    StarGuides Plus represents the most comprehensive and accurately validated collection of practical data on organizations involved in astronomy, related space sciences and other related fields. This invaluable reference source (and its companion volume, StarBriefs Plus) should be on the reference shelf of every library, organization or individual with any interest in these areas. The coverage includes relevant universities, scientific committees, institutions, associations, societies, agencies, companies, bibliographic services, data centers, museums, dealers, distributors, funding organizations, journals, manufacturers, meteorological services, national norms & standard institutes, parent associations & societies, publishers, software producers & distributors, and so on. Besides astronomy and associated space sciences, related fields such as aeronautics, aeronomy, astronautics, atmospheric sciences, chemistry, communications, computer sciences, data processing, education, electronics, engineering, energetics, environment, geodesy, geophysics, information handling, management, mathematics, meteorology, optics, physics, remote sensing, and so on, are also covered where appropriate. After some thirty years in continuous compilation, verification and updating, StarGuides Plus currently gathers together some 6,000 entries from 100 countries. The information is presented in a clear, uncluttered manner for direct and easy use. For each entry, all practical data are listed: city, postal and electronic-mail addresses, telephone and fax numbers, URLs for WWW access, foundation years, numbers of members and/or numbers of staff, main activities, publications titles (with frequencies, ISS-Numbers and circulations), names and geographical coordinates of observing sites, names of planetariums, awards (prizes and/or distinctions) granted, etc. The entries are listed alphabetically in each country. An exhaustive index gives a breakdown not only by different designations and