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Sample records for a-4 disodium phosphate

  1. Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten D. Ley

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Combretastatin-A4 disodium phosphate (CA4DP is a vascular-disruptive agent that causes an abrupt decrease in tumor blood flow. The direct actions of CA4DP include increases in vascular permeability and destabilization of the endothelial cytoskeleton, which are thought to contribute to occlusion of the tumor vasculature. It has been proposed that increased permeability causes a transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure (IFP, which in turn could collapse intratumoral blood vessels. We examined the immediate effects of CA4DP on tumor IFP in C3H mammary carcinoma. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg CA4DP by intraperitoneal injection. Tumor perfusion was recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry at separate time points, and IFP was recorded continuously by the wickin-needle method. In this study, we found that CA4DP treatment resulted in a rapid reduction in tumor perfusion, followed by a decrease in IFP; no increases in IFP were observed. This suggests that CA4DP-induced reductions in tumor perfusion are not dependent on increases in IFP.

  2. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  4. Efficacy and safety of disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphates in men with moderate dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Vissers, Maud N; Trip, Mieke D; Pritchard, P. Haydn; Tam, Patrick; Lukic, Tatjana; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G.; de Barse, Martina; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor, FM-VP4, comprising disodium ascorbyl sitostanol phosphate (DASP) and disodium ascorbyl campestanol phosphate (DACP). Methods In phase 1, 30 men received a single dose of 100, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, or 2,000 mg FM-VP4 or placebo. In phase 2, 100 men were treated with 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg/day of FM-VP4 or placebo for 4 weeks. Results The drug was well tolera...

  5. Combretastatin A4 phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Catharine M L; Price, Pat

    2004-03-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) is a water-soluble prodrug of combretastatin A4 (CA4). The vascular targeting agent CA4 is a microtubule depolymerizing agent. The mechanism of action of the drug is thought to involve the binding of CA4 to tubulin leading to cytoskeletal and then morphological changes in endothelial cells. These changes increase vascular permeability and disrupt tumor blood flow. In experimental tumors, anti-vascular effects are seen within minutes of drug administration and rapidly lead to extensive ischemic necrosis in areas that are often resistant to conventional anti-cancer treatments. Following single-dose administration a viable tumor rim typically remains from which tumor regrowth occurs. When given in combination with therapies targeted at the proliferating viable rim, enhanced tumor responses are seen and in some cases cures. Results from the first clinical trials have shown that CA4P monotherapy is safe and reduces tumor blood flow. There has been some promising demonstration of efficacy. CA4P in combination with cisplatin is also safe. Functional imaging studies have been used to aid the selection of doses for phase II trials. Both dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and positron emission tomography can measure the anti-vascular effects of CA4P in humans. This review describes the background to the development of CA4P, its proposed mechanism of action, the results from the first clinical trials with CA4P and the role of imaging techniques in its clinical development.

  6. ANALYSIS OF BETAMETHASONE DISODIUM PHOSPHATE INJECTION AND OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION BY HPLC, KINETIC INTERPRETATION AND DETERMINATION OF SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanbarpour

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids are widely used in therapeutics in different formulations. Betamethasone disodium phosphate is one of the most soluble of the adrenocorticosteroidal agents. It is therefore very suitable for intravenous use and particularly for ophthalmic formulations."nAcceleration method is used to determine expiration date of aqueous formulations manufactured in Iran.

  7. Effect of creatine phosphate disodium on postoperative cognitive function under combined intravenous and volatile anesthesia in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-sen JIA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the relationship of perioperative INVOS cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 and postoperative cognition function alteration of geriatric patients under combined intravenous and volatile anesthesia with creatine phosphate disodium to provide guidance for clinical anesthesia. Methods  Sixty ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱpatients aged >60 years scheduled for selective abdominal surgeries or surgeries on lower limb were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 patients: creatine phosphate disodium group 1 (CPD1, creatine phosphate disodium group 2 (CPD2, control group (C. All the patients were not premedicated with atropine 0.5mg until entering the operation room. Anesthesia was induced with intravenous infusion of propofol, fentanyl and cisatracurium slowly, and maintained by inhalational anesthetics sevoflurane 1 MAC plus intravenous infusion of propofol (6-8mg•kg-1•min-1 and remifentanyl (0.2-0.4μg•kg-1•min-1, and intravenous bolus cisatracurium (0.07-0.10mg•kg-1. After tracheal intubation, all the patients were mechanically ventilated with PETCO2 in the normal range. rSO2 was continuously monitored and recorded during the operation. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail-making Test and Grooved Pegboard Test were used to access cognitive function 24h before surgery and 4, 8, 12, 24h after surgery. Results  (1 There were no significant differences in general status between the three groups (P>0.05. (2 The scores of MMSE, Trail-making Test and Grooved Pegboard Test were not different 24h before the operation between the three groups (P>0.05. (3 The scores of cognitive tests were higher in group CPD2 and group CPD1 than in group C (P0.05. Conclusion  CPD can reduce the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in geriatric patients under combined intravenous and inhalational anesthesia. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.07.11

  8. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  9. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production.

  10. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J.; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  11. Heat Storage Performance of Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Dodecahydrate: Prevention of Phase Separation by Thickening and Gelling Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN, Xiao-Zheng; TAN, Zhi-Cheng; YUE, Dan-Ting; SHI, Quan; YANG, Chang-Guang

    2007-01-01

    Disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate (Na2HPO4·12H2O) is an attractive candidate for phase change materials. The main problem for its practical use comes from incongruent melting character during thermal cycling.Additives such as thickening agent or in-situ synthesized polyacrylate sodium in the molten salt can prevent its phase separation to some extent. In the test, sodium alginate 3.0%-5.0% (w/w) thickened mixture containing Optimum conditions composed of sodium acrylate 3.0%-5.0% (w/w), cross-linking agent N,N-methylenebisparticles dispersed in the gel network at room temperature, commonly less than 2 mm. But only those sample particles with sizes less than 0.2 mm may have relatively stable thermal storage property. A problem encountered was the poor reproducibility of the synthesis method: heat storage capacity of the product was often very different even though the synthesis was carried out in the same conditions. An alternative gelling method by sodium alginate grafted sodium acrylate was tried and it showed a fairly good effect. Heat capacities and heat of fusion of

  12. Early effects of combretastatin-A4 disodium phosphate on tumor perfusion and interstitial fluid pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, C.D.; Horsman, Michael Robert; Kristjansen, P.E.G.

    2007-01-01

    of the tumor vasculature. It has been proposed that increased permeability causes a transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), which in turn could collapse intratumoral blood vessels. We examined the immediate effects of CA4DP on tumor IFP in C3H mammary carcinoma. Mice were treated with 100 mg...

  13. The effect of two novel cholesterol-lowering agents, disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphate (DAPP) and nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS) on the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein within Caco-2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs-Barrable, Kristina; Darlington, Jerald W; Wasan, Kishor M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many drugs are substrates for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and interactions involving P-gp may be relevant to clinical practice. Co-administration with P-gp inhibitors or inducers changes the absorption profile as well as the risk for drug toxicity, therefore it is important to evaluate possible P-gp alterations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two novel cholesterol-lowering agents, disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphate (DAPP) and nanostructured aluminium sili...

  14. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal employing EDTA disodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojinova, D.; Velkova, R. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The biological phosphorus removal is a promising alternative to the conventional chemical technologies for processing of phosphate raw materials. The object of this study was the effect of EDTA disodium on the biotreatment of tunisian phosphorite with the strain of Aspergillus niger. The incubation was carried out in two nutritive mediums, with different phosphate content. The experimental results showed that the additives of EDTA disodium in the nutritive medium increased the rate of extraction of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and shortened significantly the time for biological leaching. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.135 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace-tate... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium EDTA. 172.135 Section 172.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium EDTA-copper. 73.2120 Section 73.2120 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The color additive disodium EDTA-copper is disodium ] (4-)-N,N′,O,O′,O N,O N′] cuprate (2-)....

  17. Molecular Aggregation in Disodium Cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gautam; Agra-Kooijman, D.; Collings, P. J.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2012-02-01

    Details of molecular aggregation in the mesophases of the anti-asthmatic drug disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) have been studied using x-ray synchrotron scattering. The results show two reflections, one at wide angles corresponding to π-π stacking (3.32 å) of molecules, and the other at small angles which is perpendicular to the direction of molecular stacking and corresponds to the distance between the molecular aggregates. The latter varies from 35 - 41 å in the nematic (N) phase and 27 -- 32 å in the columnar (M) phase. The temperature evolution of the stack height, positional order correlations in the lateral direction, and orientation order parameter were determined in the N, M, and biphasic regions. The structure of the N and M phases and the nature of the molecular aggregation, together with their dependence on temperature and concentration, will be presented.

  18. 21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.120 Calcium disodium EDTA. The food additive calcium disodium EDTA (calcium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium disodium EDTA. 172.120 Section 172.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  19. 皮下植入无机三氧化聚合物复合磷酸氢二钠的组织学反应%Histological Reaction to the Subcutaneous Implantation of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Mixed with Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清岭; 徐琛媛; 董波; 赵玥; 孔宇; 赵晶晶

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价大鼠皮下植入无机三氧化聚合物复合15%磷酸氢二钠(Na2HPO4)水溶液后的炎症反应.方法:将2个填有MTA、MTA复合15% Na2 HPO4的硅胶管和1个空硅胶管(空白对照)植入SD大鼠背部皮下组织内,分别于植入后的第1、4和12周处死动物,取出植入体,组织切片观察,并进行炎症分级.结果:1周MTA组与MTA+ Na组及对照组炎症分级情况有明显差异(P<0.05),MTA+Na组与对照组无明显差异,4、12周组间无明显差异.结论:MTA复合15%Na2 HPO4水溶液后具有更好的组织相容性.%Objective: To evaluate the inflammatory reaction subsequent to subcutaneous implantation of mineral trioxide aggregate(MTA) mixed with 15% disodium hydrogen phosphate(Na2 HPO4) in rats. Methods: Silicone tubes filled with MTA mixed with 15% Na2HPO4 and MTA alone and empty tubes serving as control group were implanted into. Subcutaneous tissue on the backs of SD rats and sacrificed after 1,4 and 12 weeks. Histological sections were observed under a light microscope and categorized the inflammatory reactions. Result: After 1 week, MTA alone, was significantly differed from MTA+Na group and control group (P<0. 05) while MTA+Na group had no significant difference from control group. There was no significant difference at 4 and 12 weeks between three groups. Conclusion: MTA mixed with NazHPO4 was more biocompatible than MTA alone.

  20. Disodium cromoglycate inhibits production of immunoglobulin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S B; Park, S J; Park, S T; Cho, C C; Park, B H; Lee, S J; Kim, H M; Kajiuchi, T; Shin, T Y

    2001-05-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) has been shown to inhibit the release of mediators from mast cells. In the present study, the effect of DSCG on active anaphylactic reaction was studied in mice. DSCG dose-dependently inhibited the active systemic anaphylactic reaction and serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E production induced by immunization with ovalbumin, Bordetella pertussis toxin and aluminum hydroxide gel. DSCG strongly inhibited IL-4-dependent IgE production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine whole spleen cells. In the case of U266 human IgE-bearing B cells, DSCG also showed an inhibitory effect on the IgE production. These results suggest that DSCG has an anti-anaphylactic activity by inhibition of IgE production from B cells. PMID:11417850

  1. Reaction of disodium cromoglycate with hydrated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possible mechanism by which disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevents a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow but not hypotension in primates following whole body gamma-irradiation was studied. Several studies have implicated superoxide radicals (O2-.) in intestinal and cerebral vascular disorders following ischemia and ionizing radiation, respectively. O2-. is formed during radiolysis in the reaction between hydrated electrons (e-aq) and dissolved oxygen. For this reason, the efficiency of DSCG to scavenge e-q and possibly prevent the formation of O2-. was studied. Hydrated electrons were produced by photolysis of potassium ferrocyanide solutions. The rate constant, k = 2.92 x 10(10) M-1s-1 for the reaction between e-aq and DSCG was determined in competition experiments using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). This spin trap reacts rapidly with e-aq followed by protonation to yield the ESR observable DMPO-H spin adduct. The results show that DSCG is an efficient e-aq scavenger and may effectively compete with oxygen for e-aq preventing the radiolytic formation of O2-

  2. Reaction of disodium cromoglycate with hydrated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, A.J.; Arroyo, C.M.; Cockerham, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    A possible mechanism by which disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevents a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow but not hypotension in primates following whole body gamma-irradiation was studied. Several studies have implicated superoxide radicals (O/sub 2//sup -/.) in intestinal and cerebral vascular disorders following ischemia and ionizing radiation, respectively. O/sub 2//sup -/. is formed during radiolysis in the reaction between hydrated electrons (e-aq) and dissolved oxygen. For this reason, the efficiency of DSCG to scavenge e-q and possibly prevent the formation of O/sub 2//sup -/. was studied. Hydrated electrons were produced by photolysis of potassium ferrocyanide solutions. The rate constant, k = 2.92 x 10(10) M-1s-1 for the reaction between e-aq and DSCG was determined in competition experiments using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). This spin trap reacts rapidly with e-aq followed by protonation to yield the ESR observable DMPO-H spin adduct. The results show that DSCG is an efficient e-aq scavenger and may effectively compete with oxygen for e-aq preventing the radiolytic formation of O/sub 2//sup -/..

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of disodium 5?-ribonucleotides, disodium 5?-guanylate, disodium 5?-inosinate for all animal species and categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The flavours included in this assessment are widely present in nature as the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In the absence of any information on the microbial strains or substrates used for the production of the additives, and with little information on the manufacturing process, the FEEDAP Panel is unable to ascertain whether the manufacturing process introduces any safety concerns. Disodium 5′-guanylate and disodium 5′-inosinate and their mixture are considered to be safe for the target animals and the consumer. However, considering the lack of information on the production process, these conclusions apply only to the compounds ‘per se’ and their extrapolation to any feed additive containing these compounds is not possible. In the absence of any data related to hazard to the user, it would be prudent to regard disodium 5′-guanylate and disodium 5′-inosinate and their mixture as potentially hazardous to workers by skin or inhalation exposure. The compounds under assessment are naturally present in feed materials; therefore, no risk to the safety for the environment is foreseen. Since these compounds are used in food as flavourings, and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  4. Long-term Efficacy and Safety of Pamidronate Disodium in Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-jun Di; Jun Ren; Ying Yan; Feng-ling Wan; Guo-gong Song; Jing Yu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of pamidronate disodium in patients with bone lesions secondary to advanced breast carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 62 patients receiving intravenous pamidronate disodium for metastatic breast cancer. The proportion of patients experiencing at least one skeletal related event (SRE) after 12 months of therapy was determined.Results: The proportion of patients who had an SRE was 29.00% (18 individuals) and the median time to first event was greater than 350 days. Radiotherapy(11 individuals)and pathologic fracture(6 individuals)were the most frequent type of SRE, while cord compression(1 individuals) and hypercalcaemia(0 individuals) were rare. A total of 37 individuals had transient hypocalcaemia without any clinical symptom. No significant creatinine abnormalities were encountered. There were no clinically relevant changes of calcium ,phosphate and creatinine before and after therapy.Conclusion: Long-term treatment with pamidronate disodium significantly reduces and delays skeletal morbidity from osteolytic metastases . Prolonged therapy was well tolerated. This study suggests that the rate of clinically relevant SREs is substantially lower than the event rate observed in phase III clinical trials.

  5. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  6. Cytoprotective effects of disodium cromoglycate on rat stomach mucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, J.; Van Reempts, J.; Van Wauwe, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The cytoprotective effects of the anti-asthmatic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), on gastric mucosal necrosis induced by ethanol in rats were studied. Subcutaneous, but not oral, DSCG prevented the formation of gastric lesions and this effect was dose-dependent between 1.25 and 40 mg kg-1, with an ED50 value of 6.8 mg kg-1. Maximal cytoprotection occurred 15-30 min after DSCG treatment. Histological examination revealed that DSCG effectively protected the gastric mucosa against ethanol-ind...

  7. Crystal structure studies on plate/shelf like disodium ditungstate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dragana J Jovanović; Ivana Lj Validžić; Miodrag Mitrić; Jovan M Nedeljković

    2013-02-01

    The structure of plate/shelf like disodium ditungstate (Na2W2O7) synthesized by newmethod in the process of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis using acidified aqueous solutions of tungsten (VI) oxide clusters as a precursor was refined down to the -factor of 8.9%. X-ray diffraction analysis undoubtedly confirmed formation of orthorhombic Na2W2O7 and refinement of the diffraction data showed that Na2W2O7 powder belongs to the base-centred orthorhombic type of structure with 64 space group, . The structure of Na2W2O7 can be described as infinite chains formed from tetrahedral (WO4) and octahedral (WO6) building units joined together. It was found that the basic units of the precursor complexes exist in the structure of Na2W2O7. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed formation of plate/shelf like Na2W2O7 particles with an average thickness of about 1.2 m.

  8. Columnar molecular aggregation in the aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra-Kooijman, Dena M.; Singh, Gautam; Lorenz, Alexander; Collings, Peter J.; Kitzerow, Heinz-S.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2014-06-01

    Stack, chimneylike, and threadlike assemblies have previously been proposed for the structure of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) aggregates in aqueous solutions. The results of the synchrotron x-ray scattering investigations reported here reveal the formation of simple columnar assemblies with π-π stacking at a separation of 3.4 Å between the DSCG molecules. Lateral separation between the assemblies is concentration and temperature dependent, varying from ˜35 to 42 Å in the orientationally ordered nematic (N) phase and from 27 to 32 Å in the columnar or middle (M) phase having long range lateral positional order. The assemblies' length depends on concentration and consists of ˜23 molecules in the N phase, becoming three to ten times larger in the M phase. The scission energy is concentration dependent in the N phase with values ˜7.19 ± 0.14 kBT (15 wt %), 2.73 ± 0.4 kBT (20 wt %), and 3.05 ± 0.2 kBT (25 wt %). Solutions of all concentrations undergo a spinodal decomposition at temperatures above ˜40 °C, resulting in DSCG-rich regions with the M phase and water-rich regions in the N and isotropic phases.

  9. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduces the body's ability to absorb phosphate and iron. To avoid this interaction, phosphate should be taken at least 2 hours before or after taking iron.MagnesiumPhosphate can combine with magnesium. This reduces ... phosphate and magnesium. To avoid this interaction, phosphate should ...

  10. Effects of phosphate addition on methane fermentation in the batch and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sho; Shintani, Masaki; Sanchez, Zoe Kuizon; Kimura, Kohei; Numata, Mitsuru; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia inhibition of methane fermentation is one of the leading causes of failure of anaerobic digestion reactors. In a batch anaerobic digestion reactor with 429 mM NH3-N/L of ammonia, the addition of 25 mM phosphate resulted in an increase in methane production rate. Similar results were obtained with the addition of disodium phosphate in continuous anaerobic digestion using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. While methane content and production rate decreased in the presence of more than 143 mM NH3-N/L of ammonium chloride in UASB, the addition of 5 mM disodium phosphate suppressed ammonia inhibition at 214 mM NH3-N/L of ammonium chloride. The addition prevented acetate/propionate accumulation, which might be one of the effects of the phosphate on the ammonia inhibition. The effects on the microbial community in the UASB reactor was also assessed, which was composed of Bacteria involved in hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and dehydrogenation, as well as Archaea carrying out methanogenesis. The change in the microbial community was observed by ammonia inhibition and the addition of phosphate. The change indicates that the suppression of ammonia inhibition by disodium phosphate addition could stimulate the activity of methanogens, reduce shift in bacterial community, and enhance hydrogen-producing bacteria. The addition of phosphate will be an important treatment for future studies of methane fermentation.

  11. Phosphate sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Human phosphate homeostasis is regulated at the level of intestinal absorption of phosphate from the diet, release of phosphate through bone resorption, and renal phosphate excretion and involves the actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2-D), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) to maintain circulating phosphate levels within a narrow normal range, which is essential for numerous cellular functions, for the growth of tissues and for bone mineralization. ...

  12. SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY CA2+- TOLERANT DISODIUM 2-(SULFATOMETHYL)-1-ALKYLSULFATE SURFACTANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOREMAN, PA; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis, critical micelle concentrations (CMC) and Krafft temperatures (T(Krafft)) of a series of disodium 2-(sulfatomethyl)-1-alkylsulfates (2a-d) are presented, with alkyl being n-tetradecyl (C-14), n-hexadecyl (C-16), n-octadecyl (C18) and n-eicosyl(C20). The surfactants exhibit a large Ca2

  13. Inhaled disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) as maintenance therapy in children with asthma: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.A. Tasche (Marjolein); J.H.J.M. Uijen (Hans); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is included in the BTS guidelines on the treatment of asthma for use in children, but is now used only infrequently. We have identified and interpreted the findings of all published randomised, placebo controlled tria

  14. Bronchodilator effect of disodium cromoglycate administered as a dry powder in exercise induced asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, C R; Jones, R.M.; Lee, D.; Brennan, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo controlled study of the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), administered as a dry powder via the spinhaler, in established exercise-induced asthma, was carried out. DSCG resulted in an increase in the rate of recovery compared with placebo. The findings confirm that DSCG has bronchodilator properties.

  15. Respiratory motion artefacts in dynamic liver MRI: a comparison using gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetkens, Julian A.; Kupczyk, Patrick A.; Doerner, Jonas; Willinek, Winfried A.; Schild, Hans H.; Kukuk, Guido M. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics, and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the occurrence of respiratory motion artefacts in patients undergoing dynamic liver magnetic resonance (MR) either with gadoxetate disodium or gadobutrol. Two hundred and thirty liver MR studies (115 with gadobutrol, 115 with gadoxetate disodium) were analysed. Respiratory motion artefacts on dynamic 3D T1-weighted MR images (pre-contrast, arterial, venous, and late-dynamic phase) were assessed using a five-point rating scale. Severe motion was defined as a score ≥ 4. Mean motion scores were compared with the Mann-Whitney-U-test. The chi-squared-test was used for dichotomous comparisons. Mean motion scores for gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol showed no relevant differences for each phase of the dynamic contrast series (pre-contrast: 1.85 ± 0.70 vs. 1.88 ± 0.57, arterial: 1.85 ± 0.81 vs. 1.87 ± 0.74, venous: 1.82 ± 0.67 vs. 1.74 ± 0.64, late-dynamic: 1.75 ± 0.62 vs. 1.79 ± 0.63; p = 0.469, 0.557, 0.382 and 0.843, respectively). Severe motion artefacts had a similar incidence using gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol (11/460 [2.4 %] vs. 7/460 [1.5 %]; p = 0.341). Gadoxetate disodium is associated with equivalent motion scores compared to gadobutrol in dynamic liver MRI. In addition, both contrast agents demonstrated a comparable and acceptable rate of severe respiratory motion artefacts. (orig.)

  16. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  17. Disodium cromoglycate in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, V; Elsborg, L.; Greibe, J; Hendriksen, C; Høj, L; Jensen, K. B.; Kristensen, E.; Madsen, J R; Marner, B; Riis, P; Willumsen, L

    1981-01-01

    A controlled clinical study on disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) at a dose of 800 mg per day versus placebo was carried out in 141 patients with ulcerative colitis and 25 patients with Crohn's disease. Those of the ulcerative colitis patients who had been on sulphasalazine treatment continued that treatment during the trial (101 patients). Forty patients were intolerant of sulphasalazine. No patient received steroids during the last month before the study. Patients with Crohn's disease had their p...

  18. Inhibition of methoxamine-induced bronchoconstriction by ipratropium bromide and disodium cromoglycate in asthmatic subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, J.; Vincenc, K; Salome, C.

    1985-01-01

    We compared the effects of pretreatment with saline, ipratropium bromide, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on bronchoconstriction induced by methoxamine--an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in asthmatic subjects. All 12 patients bronchoconstricted in response to methoxamine after saline. The PD20 (the dose of methoxamine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) ranged from 0.3-18 mumol. Ipratropium bromide (200 micrograms administered by aerosol) significantly inhibited (P les...

  19. Inhaled disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) as maintenance therapy in children with asthma: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tasche, Marjolein; Uijen, Hans; Bernsen, Roos; de Jongste, Johan; Wouden, Hans

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is included in the BTS guidelines on the treatment of asthma for use in children, but is now used only infrequently. We have identified and interpreted the findings of all published randomised, placebo controlled trials of DSCG in the prophylactic treatment of children with asthma. METHODS: Several databases were searched to identify trials. Studies were included if they investigated subjects with asthma aged 0-18 years old, addressed maint...

  20. Modification of Disodium Cromoglycate Passage Across Lung Epithelium In Vitro Via Incorporation into Polymeric Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Haghi, Mehra; Salama, Rania; Traini, Daniela; Bebawy, Mary; Young, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Two microparticle systems containing disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) alone or with polyvinyl alcohol (DSCG/PVA) were produced via spray drying and compared in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, aerosol performance and drug uptake across a pulmonary epithelial cell line (Calu-3), cultured under air interface conditions. The particle size distribution of DSCG and DSCG/PVA were similar, of spherical geometry, amorphous and suitable for inhalation purposes. Aerosolisation studies using ...

  1. Structure of diammonium disodium mercury(II) trimetaphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averbuch-Pouchot, M.T.; Durif, A.

    1986-08-15

    Hg(NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/Na/sub 2/(P/sub 3/O/sub 9/)/sub 2/, M/sub r/=756.47, monoclinic, C2/c, a=13.524 (8), b=8.362 (5), c=14.390 (8) A, ..beta..=92.58 (5)/sup 0/, V=1625.7 A/sup 3/, Z=4, D/sub x/=3.090 Mg m/sup -3/, lambda(Ag K..cap alpha..)=0.5608 A, ..mu..=5.72 mm/sup -1/, F(000)=1432, T=293 K, final R=0.030 for 1401 independent reflexions. The cyclic phosphate anion has pseudo mirror symmetry. Sodium and mercury atoms are disordered on two different crystallographic positions. The (Na,Hg)O/sub 6/ distorted octahedra are linked to form infinite chains of edge-shared octahedra approximately in the (101) planes. The two types of (Na,Hg)O/sub 6/ octahedra have average (Na,Hg)-O distances of 2.403 and 2.420 A.

  2. 磷酸丙泊酸钠与镇静%Fospropofol disodium and sedation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢莉; 方才

    2011-01-01

    Background Fospropofol disodium (Fospropofol),a new type of medicine,demonstrates encouraging clinical application prospect in recent studies.Objective To summarize the pharmacology and clinical research progresses of fospropofol disodium.Content Fospropofol,a sedative/hypnotic drug,is a water-soluble prodrug of propofol,metabolized in vivo to produce liberated active propofol which performs sedative function.As its hydrolytic action in vivo,the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fospropofol disodium are significantly different from lipid-emulsion-based propofol.Clinical trials proved that fospropofol disodium is safe and effective for the sedation in colonoscopy,flexible bronchoscopy and minor procedures.Trend Fospropofol can be used in combination with numerous kinds of anesthetics.Its adverse reactions are less than that of propofol.With further progress,fospropofol disodium will have a broader clinical application.%背景 磷酸丙泊酸钠(磷酸丙泊酸)是一种新型的镇静/催眠药,在目前的研究结果中显现出良好的临床应用前景.目的 概述磷酸丙泊酸钠的药理学性质及临床研究进展.内容 磷酸丙泊酸钠为镇静/催眠药,是一种水溶剂型的丙泊酚前体药,在体内代谢释放活性的丙泊酚发挥镇静效应.由于磷酸丙泊酸钠在体内的水解过程,其药物动力学和药效学特性较脂肪乳剂型的丙泊酚有差异有统计学意义.已有的临床实验证实磷酸丙泊酸钠可安全有效的用于结肠镜、纤维支气管镜及小手术的镇静过.趋向 磷酸丙泊酸钠可与多种麻醉药物合用,严重的副作用较脂肪乳剂型的丙泊酚少,随着研究的进一步进展,磷酸丙泊酸钠将有更为广阔的临床应用前景.

  3. New Polymorphic Forms of Pemetrexed Diacid and Their Use for the Preparation of Pharmaceutically Pure Amorphous and Hemipentahydrate Forms of Pemetrexed Disodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Michalak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of stable amorphous pemetrexed disodium of pharmaceutical purity as well as the process optimization for the preparation of the hemipentahydrate form of pemetrexed disodium are described. Analytical methods for the polymorphic and chemical purity studies of pemetrexed disodium and pemetrexed diacid forms were developed. The physicochemical properties of the amorphous and hydrate forms of pemetrexed disodium, as well as new forms of pemetrexed diacid (a key synthetic intermediate were studied by thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography methods were used for the chemical purity and residual solvents determination. In order to study the polymorphic and chemical stability of the amorphous and hemipentahydrate forms, a hygroscopicity test (25 °C, 80% RH was performed. Powder diffraction and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the amorphous character and high chemical purity were preserved after the hygroscopicity test. The hemipentahydrate form transformed completely to the heptahydrate form of pemetrexed disodium. Both pemetrexed disodium forms were produced with high efficiency and pharmaceutical purity in a small commercial scale. Amorphous pemetrexed disodium was selected for further pharmaceutical development. Two new polymorphs (forms 1 and 2 of pemetrexed diacid were used for the preparation of high purity amorphous pemetrexed disodium.

  4. Effect of lodoxamide and disodium cromoglycate on tear eosinophil cationic protein in vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardi, A.; Borghesan, F.; Avarello, A.; Plebani, M.; Secchi, A.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To validate the use of tear eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a marker for eosinophil activation, and its pharmacological modulation, in addition to evaluating the efficacy of lodoxamide and sodium cromoglycate in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).
METHODS—Tears were collected from 30 patients affected by active mild to moderate VKC before and after therapy with disodium cromoglycate 4% (DSCG) (n=15) or lodoxamide 0.1% (n=15) for 10 days. Tear cytology and ECP measurem...

  5. [Disodium cromoglycate--mast cell degranulation blocker in the process of tissue remodelation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxová, H; Vasilková, M; Tkaczyk, J; Vízek, M

    2010-01-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is a compound commonly used in the treatment of allergic diseases. The effect of DSCG is due to its ability to stabilize the mast cell membrane and to prevent release of histamine and inflammatory mediators. Mast cells are also an abundant source of tissue metalloproteinases, serine proteases and growth factors, which play an important role in the processes of the tissue remodeling. In this view the DSCG is a substance which allows us to study the mechanisms of the pulmonary vascular bed remodeling in the experimental animals exposed to chronic hypoxia and in a phase of the recovery from hypoxia. PMID:21254664

  6. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  7. Effect of amino acids on the dispersion of disodium cromoglycate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Nora Y K; Shekunov, Boris Y; Tong, Henry H Y; Chow, Albert H L; Savage, Charles; Wu, James; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2005-10-01

    Modified disodium cromoglycate powders were prepared by co-spray drying with different concentrations of leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, asparagine, and arginine. Amorphous spherical particles of the same size and density where obtained which, however, exhibited different surface properties as measured by the inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The surface energy parameters, such as the dispersive component of surface free energy of the sample, gammaSD, and the total solubility parameter, delta, were significantly lower in the presence of nonpolar chain amino acids, particularly with leucine and phenylalanine, than pure DSCG. However no quantitative relationship between these parameters, the additive concentrations, and the fine particle fractions, FPF, determined for different inhalers and air flow rates, was observed. The FPF significantly increased with addition of leucine and this effect was attributed to reduced intermolecular interactions between leucine and disodium cromoglycate molecules, as indicated by the difference in corresponding Hansen solubility parameters. Decrease of interparticle interactions for leucine-containing powders also led to a lesser dependence of FPF on the flow rate and inhaler type. PMID:16136546

  8. Inhibition of La-Fe-Co-Si compound corrosion in distilled water by sodium molybdate and disodium hydrogen phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; YE Rongchang; LONG Yi; CHANG Yongqin

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of Na2MoO4·2H2O and Na2HPO4·12H2O as inhibitors for magnetic refrigeration material La-Fe-Co-Si comments were applied to study the corrosion behavior of the compound in the absence or presence of different concentrations of these inhibitors studied compounds acted as anodic inhibitors. The potential of zero charge (PZC) of La-Fe-Co-Si compound was determined in distilled water in the absence of the studied inhibitors. Corrosion inhibition mechanisms for inhibitors were proposed in this work.

  9. Optical properties on thermally evaporated and heat-treated disodium phthalocyanine derivative thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M E Sánchez-Vergara; M Rivera; R A Torres-García; C O Perez-Baeza; E A Loza-Neri

    2014-08-01

    Thin films were grown on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers using disodium phthalocyanine and the organic ligands 2,6-diaminoanthraquinone, 2,6-dihydroxianthraquinone and its potassium derivative salt. The surface morphology of these films was analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). IR spectroscopy was employed in order to investigate possible changes of the intra-molecular bonds between the powder compounds and thin films. The optical parameters have been investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance in the wavelength range of 200–1100 nm and the effects of post-deposition heat treatment were analysed. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV–Vis region for the deposited samples showed two bands, namely the Q and Soret bands. The absorption coefficient in the absorption region reveals non-direct transitions. In addition, the optical gap dependence upon the thickness of these thin films was evaluated.

  10. Synthesis of Phosphocreatine Disodium%磷酸肌酸钠的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练美华

    2013-01-01

    肌酐经三氯氧磷磷酰化制得二氯代磷酸肌酐,用碳酸氢钠部分水解得磷酸肌酐钠,再经氢氧化钠水解开环得到磷酸肌酸钠,总收率约51%.%Phosphocreatine disodium was synthesized from creatinine by phosphorylation to obtain N-(4,5-dihydro-1-methyl-4-oxo-1H-imidazo-2-y1) aminophosphonic dichloride,which was subjected to hydrolysis with sodium bicarbonate and then cleavage of the lactam cycle in the presence of sodium hydroxide with an overall yield of about 51%and purity of 99.65 %.

  11. Phases and structures of sunset yellow and disodium cromoglycate mixtures in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Smith, Gregory P.; Yi, Youngwoo; Xu, Charles; Biffi, Silvia; Serra, Francesca; Bellini, Tommaso; Zhu, Chenhui; Clark, Noel A.

    2016-01-01

    We study phases and structures of mixtures of two representative chromonic liquid crystal materials, sunset yellow FCF (SSY) and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), in water. A variety of combinations of isotropic, nematic (N ), and columnar (also called M ) phases are observed depending on their concentrations, and a phase diagram is made. We find a tendency for DSCG-rich regions to show higher-order phases while SSY-rich regions show lower-order ones. We observe uniform mesophases only when one of the materials is sparse in the N phases. Their miscibility in M phases is so low that essentially complete phase separation occurs. X-ray scattering and spectroscopy studies confirm that SSY and DSCG molecules do not mix when they form chromonic aggregates and neither do their aggregates when they form M phases.

  12. The inhibitory effect of disodium cromoglycate on the growth of Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Nozomu; Inoue, Miyuki; Sato, Kozue; Kishimoto, Toshio

    2006-04-01

    Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae is associated with asthma and several other respiratory illnesses. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is known to inhibit both immediate and late asthmatic responses. In this study, the inhibitory effect of DSCG on the growth of C. pneumoniae was examined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and pre-inoculation minimal cidal concentration (MCC) assays using HL cells and C. pneumoniae AR-39. DSCG below the clinically relevant concentration inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae in a dose-dependent manner in both the MCC and MIC assays. The inhibitory effect was also time-dependent in the MCC assay at 20 mg/ml of DSCG. These results warrant further clinical study on the connection between C. pneumoniae infections and use of DSCG. PMID:16595921

  13. Effect of disodium cromoglycate on mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Young; Kim, Jung-Sook; An, Nyeon-Hyoung; Park, Rae-Kil; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-04-23

    We investigated the effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity. DSCG inhibited systemic allergic reaction induced by compound 48/80 dose-dependently. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was inhibited by 71.6% by oral administration of DSCG (1 g/kg). When DSCG was pretreated at concentration rang from 0.01-1000 g/kg, the serum histamine levels were reduced in a dose dependent manner. DSCG also significantly inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cell (RPMC) by compound 48/80. We confirmed that DSCG inhibited compound 48/80-induced degranulation of RPMC by alcian blue/nuclear fast red staining. In addition, DSCG showed a significant inhibitory effect on anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-mediated tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. These results indicate that DSCG inhibits mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reaction. PMID:15050425

  14. Disodium cromoglycate prevents ileum hyperreactivity to histamine in Toxocara canis-infected guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Nunes, A; Corrado, A P; Baruffi, M D; Faccioli, L H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Toxocara canis infection in guinea pigs provokes changes in ileum responsiveness to histamine. Ileum segments from control and T. canis-infected groups were placed at isometric conditions and submitted to various doses of histamine. No changes were observed between controls and T. canis-infected groups at days 3, 6 and 12 after infection. However, at days 18 and 24 after infection, there was a significant increase in ileum responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected group. Pre-incubation of ileum segments with 1mgml(-1) disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevented the increased responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected guinea pigs and did not affect ileum contractility in non-infected animals. These results indicate that T. canis-infected guinea pigs develop increased intestinal responsiveness to histamine and that DSCG prevents alterations in smooth-muscle contractility. PMID:12967589

  15. EMBRYOTOXIC AND TERATOGENIC EFFECT OF DISODIUM GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID HEMIPHTHALATE IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Marzbnn

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Disodium glycyrrhetinic acid hemiphthalaic (GAP was evaluated for developmental toxicity in pregnant NMRI mice. GAP was administered intrapcritoneally on days S, 9, 10, of gestation at doses of 0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg/dav. On gestation day of IS, after operational delivery, the fetuses were examined for soft tissue, external and skeletal defects."nIncreased absorptions, dead fetuses, and reduce fetal body weight per litter were observed at doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg/day. In addition by using different doses of GAP at different critical gestation times, developmental delay was observed as reduction in ossification centers and vertebral number in caudal region. It seems that GAP at doses of (50 and 75 mg/kg/day has a cmbiyotoxic and teratogenic potential in mice.

  16. In-situ observation on the transformation of calcium phosphate cement into hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the in-situ transformation of calcium phosphate cement into hydroxyapatite (HAp) within the first hour is monitored with a synchrotron X-ray beam. A disodium hydrogen phosphate solution is used as cement liquid to activate the reaction between dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). The XRD analysis indicates that the amounts of DCPA and Ca(OH)2 first decrease within the first min of the reaction. Then, the intensity of DCPA's XRD peaks starts to increase instead in the period of 5 to 20 min. After 20 min, the DCPA particles are consumed slowly to form fine HAp particles. Large pores are evident upon the completion of reaction.

  17. Synthesis of Disodium Salt of Sulfosuccinate Monoester from the Seed Oil of Terminalia catappa and Its Inhibitive Effect on the Corrosion of Aluminum Sheet in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil was extracted from the seed of Terminalia catappa and used to synthesize disodium salt of sulfosuccinate monoester using simple reaction mechanism. The disodium salt of sulfosuccinate monoester was applied as corrosion inhibitor of aluminum sheet in 1 M HCl via weight loss method. The adsorption was found to obey Langmuir isotherm. The results presented disodium salt of sulfosuccinate monoester as an efficient inhibitor of aluminum sheet corrosion in 1 M HCl.

  18. Electroacupuncture improves neuropathic pain Adenosine,adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium and their receptors perhaps change simultaneously

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Ren; Wenzhan Tu; Songhe Jiang; Ruidong Cheng; Yaping Du

    2012-01-01

    Applying a stimulating current to acupoints through acupuncture needles-known as electroacupuncture-has the potential to produce analgesic effects in human subjects and experimental animals.When acupuncture was applied in a rat model,adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium in the extracellular space was broken down into adenosine,which in turn inhibited pain transmission by means of an adenosine A1 receptor-dependent process.Direct injection of an adenosine A1 receptor agonist enhanced the analgesic effect of acupuncture.The analgesic effect of acupuncture appears to be mediated by activation of A1 receptors located on ascending nerves.In neuropathic pain,there is upregulation of P2X purinoceptor 3(P2X3)receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons.Conversely,the onset of mechanical hyperalgesia was diminished and established hyperalgesia was significantly reversed when P2X3 receptor expression was downregulated.The pathways upon which electroacupuncture appear to act are interwoven with pain pathways,and electroacupuncture stimuli converge with impulses originating from painful areas.Electroacupuncture may act via purinergic A1 and P2X3 receptors simultaneously to induce an analgesic effect on neuropathic pain.

  19. Effect of reproterol either alone or combined with disodium cromoglycate on airway responsiveness to methacholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniess, Frank; Jörres, Rudolf A; Magnussen, Helgo

    2005-01-01

    Regular use of inhaled beta2-agonists might lead to tolerance as reflected in a loss of bronchoprotection. In vitro-data suggest that this might be prevented by disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Therefore, we studied the effect of the beta2-agonist reproterol in combination with DSCG. In a cross-over design, 19 subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness inhaled either placebo, 1mg reproterol, 2 mg DSCG, or 1mg reproterol plus 2 mg DSCG 4x daily over 2 weeks. Treatment periods were separated by > or = 7 days. Before and at the end of periods, lung function and methacholine responsiveness were determined in the morning, and 6h later the bronchodilator effect and the protection against methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Reproterol or DSCG or their combination did not exert detrimental effects on lung function, airway responsiveness, or bronchodilator capacity. However, bronchoprotection was significantly reduced (p DSCG, the respective changes being 0.59, 0.96 and 1.37 doubling concentrations. All changes were small as compared to intraindividual variability. In this model all treatments except with DSCG caused a significant but small loss of protection against methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Thus, tolerance was not prevented by 2 weeks of additional treatment with DSCG, in contrast to in vitro findings. PMID:15939309

  20. Modification of disodium cromoglycate passage across lung epithelium in vitro via incorporation into polymeric microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghi, Mehra; Salama, Rania; Traini, Daniela; Bebawy, Mary; Young, Paul M

    2012-03-01

    Two microparticle systems containing disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) alone or with polyvinyl alcohol (DSCG/PVA) were produced via spray drying and compared in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, aerosol performance and drug uptake across a pulmonary epithelial cell line (Calu-3), cultured under air interface conditions. The particle size distribution of DSCG and DSCG/PVA were similar, of spherical geometry, amorphous and suitable for inhalation purposes. Aerosolisation studies using a modified twin-stage impinger showed the DSCG/PVA to have greater aerosol performance than that of DSCG alone. Aerosol particles of DSCG and DSCG/PVA were deposited onto the surface of the Calu-3 air interface epithelium monolayer and the drug uptake from apical to basal directions measured over time. Drug uptake was measured across a range of doses to allow comparison of equivalent drug and powder mass deposition. Analysis of the data indicated that the percentage cumulative drug uptake was independent of the mass of powder deposited, but dependent on the formulation. Specifically, with the formulation containing DSCG, the diffusion rate was observed to change with respect to time (indicative of a concentration-dependent diffusion process), whilst DSCG/PVA showed a time-independent drug uptake (suggesting a zero-order depot release). PMID:22203523

  1. Disodium cromoglycate attenuates hypoxia induced enlargement of end-expiratory lung volume in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxová, H; Hezinová, A; Vízek, M

    2011-01-01

    Mechanism responsible for the enlargement of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) induced by chronic hypoxia remains unclear. The fact that the increase in EELV persists after return to normoxia suggests involvement of morphological changes. Because hypoxia has been also shown to activate lung mast cells, we speculated that they could play in the mechanism increasing EELV similar role as in vessel remodeling in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). We, therefore, tested an effect of mast cells degranulation blocker disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on hypoxia induced EELV enlargement. Ventilatory parameters, EELV and right to left heart weight ratio (RV/LV+S) were measured in male Wistar rats. The experimental group (H+DSCG) was exposed to 3 weeks of normobaric hypoxia and treated with DSCG during the first four days of hypoxia, control group was exposed to hypoxia only (H), two others were kept in normoxia as non-treated (N) and treated (N+DSCG) groups. DSCG treatment significantly attenuated the EELV enlargement (H+DSCG = 6.1+/-0.8; H = 9.2+/-0.9; ml +/-SE) together with the increase in minute ventilation (H + DSCG = 190+/-8; H = 273 +/- 10; ml/min +/- SE) and RV/LV + S (H + DSCG = 0.39 +/- 0.03; H = 0.50 +/- 0.06). PMID:22106819

  2. Phase behavior of chromonic liquid crystal mixtures of Sunset Yellow and Disodium Cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Smith, Gregory; Yi, Youngwoo; Xu, Charles; Biffi, Silvia; Serra, Francesca; Bellini, Tommaso; Clark, Noel

    2014-03-01

    Chromonic liquid crystals (CLCs) are formed when planar molecules dissolved in water stack into rod-like aggregates that can order as liquid crystals. Isotropic, nematic, and M-phases can be observed depending on the degree of molecular orientational and positional order by variation of the CLC concentration. We focused on mixtures of two well-known CLCs, Sunset Yellow, a food dye, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), an asthma medication. In order to study the phase behaviors of these mixtures, we observed their textures in glass cells and capillaries using polarized light microscopy. We report here a ternary phase diagram describing the complete phase behavior of the CLC mixtures. We observed a variety of phase behaviors depending on species ratio and concentration. In the isotropic phase, no clear phase separation of the two dyes was observed, while separation did occur in many nematic and M-phase combinations. We will also describe phase observations made using a light spectroscopy and bulk centrifugal partitioning. Grant support: NSF DMR 1207606 and NSF MRSEC DMR-0820579.

  3. In vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of disodium cromoglycate on influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidari, Kazuya I P J; Tsujii, Eisaku; Hiroi, Jun; Mano, Eriko; Miyatake, Akihiko; Miyamoto, Daisei; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2004-06-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is one of the safest drugs for the prevention of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis attacks. The effect of DSCG on acute upper respiratory tract viral infection is still controversial. Here we investigated DSCG inhibition of influenza virus infection in vivo and in vitro. In vivo effects of DSCG on viral infection were assessed using a murine model of respiratory tract infection. Intranasal administration of DSCG protected mice from death induced by infection with influenza virus A/PR/8/34. We analyzed DSCG anti-viral effects in vitro by either (i) treating cells prior to viral adsorption, (ii) treating cells concurrently with viral adsorption, or (iii) treating cells after viral adsorption. DSCG treatment of cells during or after, but not before, viral adsorption significantly inhibited influenza viral infection, indicating DSCG acts on events late in viral infection. DSCG exerts anti-influenza effect both in vitro and in vivo at the doses compatible with treatment for asthma. DSCG marginally inhibited influenza viral neuraminidase and membrane fusion functions, suggesting that DSCG inhibition of viral neuraminidase and fusion activities may partially mediate this anti-influenza effect. Our results indicate that treatment of patients including children with DSCG may take advantages for prevention from influenza virus infection. PMID:15187427

  4. Plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate after various inhalation methods in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y; Muraki, K; Fujitaka, M; Sakura, N; Ueda, K

    1999-01-01

    Aims To compare the plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) following various inhalation procedures in healthy volunteers. Methods Nine healthy subjects inhaled 2 mg of aerosol, 20 mg of nebuliser solution only, 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with isotonic saline, or 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with saline and procaterol, a β2-adenoceptor agonist, on separate occasions 2–3 weeks apart. Plasma concentrations of DSCG were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). Results The peak plasma concentrations of DSCG were 1.5±0.7 (range 0.4–2.4) ng ml−1 in the aerosol group, 8.8±6.2 (range 5.3–19.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution only group, 17.2±16.3 (range 5.0–38.6) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus isotonic saline group, and 24.5±11.9 (range 10.2–44.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus saline and procaterol group. Thus subjects who used the nebuliser had markedly higher plasma concentrations of DSCG than subjects who used the aerosol inhaler. Conclusions These findings may have important implications for the evaluation of inhalation treatment with DSCG for bronchial asthma. PMID:10417491

  5. Extraction of protoporphyrin disodium and its inhibitory effects on HBV-DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Pin Li; Li-Fa Xu; Qun-Hong Liu; Chao Zhang; Jian Wang; Yu-Xia Zhu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore an ideal method for extracting protoporphyrin disodium (PPN) from unanticoagulated animal blood, and to study the inhibitory effects of PPN on HBV-DNA duplication and its cytotoxicity to 2.2.15 cell strain.METHODS: Protoporphyrin methyl ester and other intermediate products were prepared with protoheme separated from protein hydrolysates of coagulated animal blood, which were finally made into PPN and detected quantitatively with an ultraviolet fluorescent analyzer.Ten μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml and 160 μg/ml of PPN-aqueous solution were added into culture medium for 2.2.15 cells respectively. Eight days later, the drug concentration in supernatant from the culture medium was detected when inhibition rate of HBeAg, cell Survival rate when inhibition rate of HBeAg was 50% (ID50), and when survival cells in experimental group were 50% of those in control group (CD50), and the therapeutic index (TI) was also detected. PPN with different concentration of 10 μg/ml,20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml and 160 μg/ml was respectively mixed and cultivated with HepG2 2.2.15 cell suspension,and then the inhibition of PPN against HBV-DNA was judged by PCR.RESULTS: The extract of henna crystal was identified to be PPN. When the concentrations of PPN were 160 μg/ml and 80 μg/ml, the inhibition rates of HBeAg were 89.8% and 82.4%, and the cell survival rates were 98.7% and 99.2%.CONCLUSION: It is suggested that PPN can be extracted from unanticoagulated animal blood. PPN can inhibit HBV-DNA expression and duplication ih vitro, and has no cytotoxicity to liver cells. Further study and application of PPN are warranted.

  6. Effect of particle size, air flow and inhaler device on the aerosolisation of disodium cromoglycate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, N Y; Bagster, D F; Chan, H K

    2000-09-25

    Recently, the dispersion of mannitol powders has demonstrated the importance of particle size, air flow and inhaler device (Chew and Chan, 1999). The aim of the present study is to extend our investigation to a different compound, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) powders. Solid state characteristics of the powders were assessed by particle sizing, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, moisture content, particle density determination and freeze fracture. The aerosol behaviour of the powders was studied by dispersion using Rotahaler(R) and Dinkihaler(R), connected to a four-stage liquid impinger operating at 30-120 l/min. Three amorphous powders with a mass median diameter (MMD) of 2.3, 3.7, 5.2 microm and a similar polydispersity were prepared. The particles were nearly spherical with a particle density of 1.6 g/cm(3) and moisture content of 6.6 wt.%. Using Rotahaler(R), the maximum fine particle fraction (FPF(max)) for all three powders was only 15 wt.%, attained at the highest flow of 120 l/min. Using Dinkihaler(R), the FPF(max) was two to four times higher, being 36 and 29 wt.% for the 2.3 and 3.7 microm powder, respectively, at 60 l/min; and 18 wt.% for the 5.2 microm powder at 120 l/min. Hence, the study shows that the FPF in the DSCG powder aerosols was determined by the interaction of the particle size, air flow and inhaler design. The attribution of the amorphous nature and the different physico-chemical properties of the powder may explain the incomplete and low dispersibility of DSCG. PMID:11058812

  7. Hsp90 is a direct target of the anti-allergic drugs disodium cromoglycate and amlexanox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Miki; Itoh, Hideaki; Hatakeyama, Takashi; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ryoji

    2003-09-01

    Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) alone can act to prevent protein aggregation and promote refolding in vitro, but in vivo it operates as a part of a multichaperone complex, which includes Hsp70 and cohort proteins. Since the physiological function of Hsp90 is not yet fully understood, the development of specific antagonists might open new lines of investigation on the role of Hsp90. In an effort to discover Hsp90 antagonists, we screened many drugs and found that the anti-allergic drugs DSCG (disodium cromoglycate) and amlexanox target Hsp90. Both drugs were found to bind directly wild-type Hsp90 via the N- and C-terminal domains. Both drugs strongly suppressed the in vitro chaperone activity of native Hsp90 towards citrate synthase at 1.5-3.0 microM. Amlexanox suppressed C-terminal chaperone activity in vitro, but not N-terminal chaperone activity, and inhibited the association of cohort proteins, such as cyclophilin 40 and Hsp-organizing protein, to the C-terminal domain of Hsp90. These data suggest that amlexanox might disrupt the multichaperone complex, including Hsp70 and cohort proteins, both in vitro and in vivo. Although DSCG inhibited the in vitro chaperone activity of the N-terminal domain, the drug had no effect either on the C-terminal chaperone activity or on the association of the cohort proteins with the C-terminus of Hsp90. The physiological significance of these interactions in vivo remains to be investigated further, but undoubtedly must be taken into account when considering the pharmacology of anti-allergic drugs. DSCG and amlexanox may serve as useful tools for evaluating the physiological significance of Hsp90. PMID:12803546

  8. Disodium cromoglycate, a mast-cell stabilizer, alters postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Pautler, E.L.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure, and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with systemic hypotension and a dramatic release of mast-cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomena and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or BRL 22321 before exposure to 100 Gy whole-body gamma radiation. Hypothalamic and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. The data indicated that DSCG was successful in diminishing postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow. Irradiated animals pretreated with DSCG, showed only a 10% decrease in hypothalamic blood flow 60 min postradiation, while untreated, irradiated animals showed a 57% decrease. The cortical blood flow of DSCG treated, irradiated animals showed a triphasic response, with a decrease of 38% at 10 min postradiation, then a rise to 1% below baseline at 20 min, followed by a fall to 42% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. In contrast, the untreated, irradiated animals showed a steady decrease in cortical blood flow to 79% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. There was no significant difference in blood-pressure response between the treated and untreated, irradiated animals. Systemic blood pressure showed a 60% decrease at 10 min postradiation, falling to a 71% decrease by 60 min.

  9. Intestinal Phosphate Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh, Yves; Giral, Hector; Caldas, Yupanqui; Levi, Moshe; Schiavi, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed in the small intestine by at least two distinct mechanisms: paracellular phosphate transport which is dependent on passive diffusion and active transport which occurs through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters. Despite evidence emerging for other ions, regulation of the phosphate specific paracellular pathways remains largely unexplored. In contrast, there is a growing body of evidence that active transport through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporte...

  10. Disodium cromoglycate inhibits S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination and IgE synthesis in human B cells

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    IgE synthesis requires interleukin 4 (IL-4) and a T-B cell interaction that involves the B cell antigen CD40 and its ligand expressed on activated T cells. IL-4 induces epsilon germline transcription whereas ligation of CD40 results in deletional S mu-->S epsilon switch recombination, expression of mature epsilon transcripts, and IgE synthesis and secretion. We demonstrate that disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), a drug commonly used for the prophylactic treatment of allergic disease, inhibits T ce...

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  12. A simple decomposition method using phosphate flux for the determination of niobium and tantalum in carbonatite samples and its beneficiation products by ICP-OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for the decomposition of carbonatite samples and its beneficiation products for the determination of Nb and Ta by ICP-OES is described. Samples containing higher concentrations of analyte are decomposed by fusion with phosphate flux (1:1 mixture of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate and di-sodium hydrogen phosphate) in a platinum crucible. The melt is dissolved in distilled water for the analysis by ICP-OES. For low concentrations of the analyte method was suitably modified to reduced salt content and the same method is suitable for higher concentrations also. The RSD of the method is 3% and the results of this method matched well with other digestion techniques. (author)

  13. Disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, Na2HC6H5O7(H2O)1.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Sarjeant, Amy A; Kaduk, James A

    2016-07-01

    The crystal structure of disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, 2Na2 (+)·C6H6O7 (2-)·1.5H2O, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The asymmetric unit contains two independent hydrogen citrate anions, four sodium cations and three water molecules. The coordination polyhedra of the cations (three with a coordination number of six, one with seven) share edges to form isolated 8-rings. The un-ionized terminal carb-oxy-lic acid groups form very strong hydrogen bonds to non-coordinating O atoms, with O⋯O distances of 2.46 Å. PMID:27555936

  14. Disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, Na2HC6H5O7(H2O)1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, 2Na2 +·C6H6O7 2−·1.5H2O, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The asymmetric unit contains two independent hydrogen citrate anions, four sodium cations and three water molecules. The coordination polyhedra of the cations (three with a coordination number of six, one with seven) share edges to form isolated 8-rings. The un-ionized terminal carb­oxy­lic acid groups form very strong hydrogen bonds to non-coordinating O atoms, with O⋯O distances of 2.46 Å.

  15. Disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, Na2HC6H5O7(H2O1.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagappa Rammohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, 2Na2+·C6H6O72−·1.5H2O, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The asymmetric unit contains two independent hydrogen citrate anions, four sodium cations and three water molecules. The coordination polyhedra of the cations (three with a coordination number of six, one with seven share edges to form isolated 8-rings. The un-ionized terminal carboxylic acid groups form very strong hydrogen bonds to non-coordinating O atoms, with O...O distances of 2.46 Å.

  16. Oral disodium cromoglycate and ketotifen for a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, food allergy and protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Junzo; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Nozawa, Ruriko; Isome, Masato; Suzuki, Shigeo; Takahashi, Ai; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2003-09-01

    We present a case report of a 10 years old boy with protein-losing enteropathy and eosinophilic gastroenteritis who had positive histamine release tests, increased allergen-specific IgE antibodies to some food items, and low levels of total serum protein and albumin. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a number of polyps and diffuse gastritis. Biopsy specimens of the stomach and duodenum showed widespread eosinophilia and neutrophilia. Although a restricted diet was recommended, a diet which excluded foods with positive results to both histamine release test and allergen-specific IgE antibodies was poorly tolerated, and the patient rejected systemic administration of corticosteroids. Thus, we initiated an oral disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and ketotifen therapy. After oral DSCG and ketotifen administration, the patient's condition improved gradually. Therefore, oral DSCG and ketotifen therapy might be considered as treatment option in patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and protein-losing enteropathy caused by food allergy. PMID:15032404

  17. The effects of disodium cromoglycate on enhanced adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to A549 cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Chie; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Ogita, Junko; Hishiki, Haruka; Kohno, Yoichi

    2009-08-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) secondary infection often complicates respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. Previous studies have revealed that RSV infections enhance NTHi adherence to airway epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and corticosteroids, which are frequently used for the treatment of wheezing often related to RSV infections, on the adherence of NTHi to RSV-infected A549 cells. DSCG inhibited enhanced adherence of NTHi to RSV-infected A549 cells, whereas dexamethasone (Dex) and fluticasone propionate (Fp) did not. DSCG suppressed the expression of ICAM-1, which is one of the NTHi receptors. Furthermore, DSCG exhibited an inhibitory effect on RSV infections. It is suggested that DSCG exerts an anti-RSV effect, and consequently attenuates the expression of NTHi receptors. PMID:19390482

  18. Study of apparent molal volume and viscosity of mutual citric acid and disodium hydrogen orthophosphate aqueous systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Man Singh

    2006-05-01

    Fundamental properties, density () and viscosity (), of citric acid (CA) and disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (DSP) at various strengths were obtained at different temperatures. The and values were used to determine apparent molal volumes and viscosity of systems. The , and values were regressed against molality for ρ0, 0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$f, the limiting constants at infinite dilution ( → 0) forionic and molecular interactions. The ρ0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$f of aq. acids are higher than those of aq. DSP and the viscosity of DSP is higher than that of aq. CA. Examination of ρ0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$ functions indicates that mutual compositions of CA and DSP counterbalance concentration and temperature effects on pH in bioprocesses.

  19. Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging: Differentiation between early-enhancing non-tumorous lesions and hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshima, Satoshi, E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Watanabe, Haruo; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Nozomi; Kawada, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Shiratori, Yoshimune [Department of Medical Informatics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Onozuka, Minoru [Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka (Japan); Moriyama, Noriyuki [Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tsukiji (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess imaging features that help differentiate early-enhancing non-tumorous (EN) hepatic lesions from hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging. Materials and methods: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study. We reviewed the studies of 158 patients (92 men and 65 women; age range: 29-91; mean age: 65.6 years) with chronic liver damage, who underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging at 3T MR scanner. Hypervascular lesions identified during the hepatic artery phase were selected for a study cohort. The location, shape, size (maximum diameter and maximum area), and contrast enhancement signal intensity characteristics of the lesions were evaluated, then compared between the EN and HCC lesions. Results: A total of 65 EN lesions (range: 3-60 mm, mean: 13.6 {+-} 10.6 mm) from 35 patients and 33 HCCs (range: 9-61 mm, mean: 19.3 {+-} 12.6 mm) from 20 patients were identified. Lesions were more frequently round or oval in shape for HCCs (n = 29; 88%) than ENs (n = 26; 40%) (P < 0.01). Unexpectedly, some ENs (n = 12; 18%) showed hypointensity on hepatocyte-phase, and 6 (50%) of them were T2 hyperintense. For lesions smaller than 2 cm (9 ENs and 21 HCCs) on hepatic arterial-phase images, the mean area of hypointensity in hepatocyte-phase (54.2 {+-} 33.1 mm{sup 2}) was significantly smaller than those of the corresponding hyperintensity in hepatic arterial-phase (97.1 {+-} 42.0 mm{sup 2}) for EN lesions (P = 0.019), whereas no significant difference in area was found for HCCs. Conclusion: EN lesions may occasionally present with hypointensity during the hepatocyte-phase; presenting a diagnostic dilemma. In this situation, EN lesions may be differentiated from HCCs when a hypointense area in hepatocyte-phase is smaller than the corresponding hypervascular area in hepatic-arterial phase.

  20. Synthesis of Cefotetan disodium%头孢替坦二钠的合成工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀霞; 孙元朋; 高景梅; 顾孝红

    2013-01-01

    目的:合成头孢替坦二钠.方法:以7-ACA为起始原料,经缩合、取代、加成、酰化、成盐、环合得粗品,在局部100级进行精制、冷冻干燥,得无菌头孢替坦二钠.结果:目标化合物经元素分析、质谱、核磁共振氢谱、核磁共振碳谱、红外光谱、紫外光谱等确证其化学结构,总收率为26.1%.结论:该合成路线无需特殊的原料及化学试剂,反应条件温和,操作简便,收率高,适合工业化生产.%Objective:To synthesize Cefotetan disodium.Method:The sterile Cefotetan disodium was synthesized from 7-ACA as a starting material via steps including condensation,substitution,addition,acylation,salification,cyclization to obtain crude product and purification,freeze dehydration in location of 100 grade in advance.Result:The structure of the target compound was confirmed by element,MS,1H-NMR,13C-NMR,IR and UV analysis.The yield was 26.1%.Conclusion:This procedure with the advantages such as without special ingredients or reagents,milder reaction conditions and simple operations is worthy of the further pilot manufacture.

  1. Cytocompatibility assessment of chemical surface treatments for phosphate glass to improve adhesion between glass and polyester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Hasan, M; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Walker, G S; Scotchford, C A

    2013-11-01

    Fully resorbable phosphate glass fiber reinforced polymer composites have shown real potential for replacing some of the existing metallic bone fracture fixation devices. However, some of these composites have not provided suitable mechanical strength profiles over the required healing period for bone. Typically, it has been seen that these composites can lose up to 50% or more of their strength within the first week of degradation. Functionalizing the glass surface to promote polymer adhesion or to introduce hydrophobicity at the glass surface could potentially introduce control over the mechanical properties of the composite and their retention. In this study eight chemical agents namely, Glycerol 2-phosphate disodium salt; 3-phosphonopropionic acid; 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane; etidronic acid; hexamethylene diisocyanate; sorbitol/sodium ended PLA oligomers and amino phosphonic acid, were selected to functionalise the bulk phosphate glass surface. Selected chemical agents had one functional group (-OH or O C N) to react with the glass and another functionality (either -OH, NH2, or Na) to react with the polymer matrix and/or produce hydrophobicity at the fiber surface. Bulk phosphate glass surface-treated with the above agents were assessed for the cytotoxicity of degradation products cell-material interaction in short- and long-term direct cytocompatibility studies. Results obtained from these cytocompatibility studies (using human osteosarcoma (MG63) and primary human osteoblast cell lines) revealed no cytotoxicity from the degradation products and a response comparable to controls in terms of cell functions (attachment, viability, metabolic activity, proliferation, and differentiation) and morphology.

  2. Preparation and bioactivity of micro-arc oxidized calcium phosphate coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Y.K. [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan, Shandong 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan, Shandong 250061 (China); Chen, C.Z., E-mail: czchen@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan, Shandong 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan, Shandong 250061 (China); Wang, D.G.; Lin, Z.Q. [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan, Shandong 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan, Shandong 250061 (China)

    2013-09-16

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings were prepared on ZK60 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolyte containing calcium acetate monohydrate (CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}Ca·H{sub 2}O) and disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were employed to characterize the microstructure, elemental distribution and phase composition of the CaP coatings respectively. Simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test was used to evaluate the coating degradability and bioactivity. After 30 days of SBF immersion, the CaP coatings effectively reduce the degradation rate. The surfaces of CaP coatings are covered by a new layer formed of numerous needle-like, spherical and columned calcium phosphates. SEM, EDX and XRD results suggest that these calcium phosphates are bioactive calcium phosphate phases such as hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, HA) and calcium pyrophosphates (Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, CPP). The formation of these calcium phosphates indicates that the CaP coatings have bioactivity. - Highlights: • Bioactive CaP coatings are successfully formed on ZK60 magnesium alloy. • CaP coatings consist of MgO, MgF{sub 2}, CaO, CaF{sub 2} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. • Needle-like, spherical and columned calcium phosphates formed in SBF. • CaP coatings exhibit bioactivity and low corrosion rate.

  3. Phosphate metabolism and vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate plays many essential roles in our body. To accomplish these functions, serum phosphate needs to be maintained in a certain range. Serum phosphate level is regulated by intestinal phosphate absorption, renal phosphate handling and equilibrium of extracellular phosphate with that in bone or intracellular fluid. Several hormones such as parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulate serum phosphate by modulating intestinal pho...

  4. HPLC determination of high molecular mass impurities in ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium(15:1)%HPLC法测定替卡西林钠克拉维酸钾(15:1)中的高分子杂质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟雅妮; 刘俊华; 林小洁; 李小婵

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立测定替卡西林钠克拉维酸钾(15:1)中高分子杂质的HPLC分析方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,以TSKG2500 PW(XL)(7.8mmx300mm,7μm)为色谱柱,以pH8.0磷酸盐缓冲液[0.15mol·L-1磷酸氢二钠溶液-0.15mol·L-1磷酸二氢钠溶液(95:5)]为流动相,流速0.8mL·min-1,检测波长230nm,柱温30℃.结果:高分子杂质与替卡西林及克拉维酸能较好分离;替卡西林的检测限为4.0ng,克拉维酸的检测限为3.7ng;替卡西林线性范围为0.052-0.32μg(r=0.9999),高分子杂质在进样量以替卡西林计为11.2-30.3μg范围内时,与峰面积线性关系良好(r=0.9992);重复性较好(RSD=0.52%,n=5).结论:该方法简单、快速、准确,重复性好,可用于替卡西林钠克拉维酸钾(15:1)中的高分子杂质检测.%Objective :To establish an HPLC method for the determination of high molecular mass impurities in ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium ( 15 : 1 ) . Methods: The separation was performed on a TSK G2500 PWXL(7. 8 mm × 300 mm,7 μm) column;The mobile phase was composed of phosphate buffer[0. 15 mol · L-1 disodium hydrogen phosphate solution -0. 15 mol · L-1 sodium dihydrogen phosph ate solution(95: 5) , pH 8.0] at a flow rate of 0. 8 mL · min -1 ; The detection wavelength was 230 nm, and the column temperature was 30 ℃ . Results : High molecular mass impurities in ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium( 15: 1) was separated completely between ticarcillin and clavulanate; The detection limit of ticarcillin was 4. 0 ng;The detection limit of clavulanate was 3. 7 ng; The linearity of ticarcillin was 0. 052 - 0. 32 μg( r =0. 9999 ) ; The peak area of high molecular mass impurities showed good linearity in the range of ticarcillin between 11. 2 - 30. 3 μg( r = 0. 9992). RSD was 0. 52% ( n = 5) . Conclusion : The method is simple, rapid, accurate and reproducible , and it can be used for quality control of ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium( 15: 1) .

  5. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO42・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and conventional zinc phosphate coating are discussed.

  6. Toothbrush disinfection – a myth or reality? – A comparative evaluation of 4% disodium EDTA, 10% sodium perborate in the disinfection of toothbrushes: clinicomicrobiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilofer Sultan Sheikh, Nilima Rajhans, Nilkanth Mhaske, Nikesh Moolya, Sudip HM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes and efficacy of their decontamination by4% disodium ethyl diamine acetic acid [EDTA], 10% sodium perborate and compared with control. Methods: Thirty subjects with chronic periodontitis enrolled in this randomized controlled clinical trial were provided with autoclaved toothbrushes which were free from microorganisms. Brushing instructions were given to each participant. Toothbrushes were collected from all study participants after 1 week and were placed with head down position in an autoclaved test tube containing sterile peptone water. Toothbrushes collected were sent for aerobic culture in laboratory for growth of micro-organisms. Incubation was done for 24 hours at 370C.The toothbrushes were then divided into three groups and immersed in disinfectantslike4% disodium EDTA, 10% sodium perborate and their efficacy was evaluated by aerobic culture analysis. Chi – Square test was used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas Aeroginosa, Streptococci and Klebsiella species were recovered from the samples. The results obtained showed that 4% Disodium EDTA showed 100% efficacy, whereas 10% Sodium perborate showed 40% effectiveness in decontaminating the toothbrushes. Distilled water as a control showed least effectiveness in cleaning toothbrushes. Conclusion: After single brushing toothbrushes get contaminated by a wide array of bacteria’s which a major cause of concern is. As contaminated toothbrush can reintroduce microorganisms into the oral cavity, it is therefore recommended for individuals to use solutions like 4% Disodium EDTA, which proved to be an effective disinfecting agent for decontaminating toothbrushes.

  7. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  8. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  9. Transport of quercetin di-sodium salt in the human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayer 139.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milane, H A; Al Ahmad, A; Naitchabane, M; Vandamme, T F; Jung, L; Ubeaud, G

    2007-01-01

    Quercetin di-sodium salt (QDS), a water-soluble derivative of quercetin (Q), is a potent free radical scavenger. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro intestinal transport of QDS compared to that of Q using the Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cell line. The apical (A) to basolateral (B) transport of QDS was found to be higher than the B to A transport of this compound. This polarized transport involved the presence of a carrier protein system. The involvement of the sodium/glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1) was shown by using phloridzin, a selective inhibitor of this conveyor system. However, the transport of Q was not affected by this inhibitor. Moreover, the influx of QDS was pH-sensitive and decreased at pH 5.5 compared with that observed at pH 7.4 and 6.5. The permeability of QDS was 10-fold higher than that of Q. This could be explained by the involvement of SLGT-1 and the absence of an active efflux pump in the absorption of QDS in comparison with Q. This finding was supported by comparing the solubility of Q with that of QDS. This study indicates that both the higher solubility of QDS and its dependence on the SGLT-1 transport system resulted in more efficient permeability compared to Q. PMID:18062406

  10. Exploring the sodium storage mechanism in disodium terephthalate as anode for organic battery using density-functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sk, Mahasin Alam; Manzhos, Sergei

    2016-08-01

    We present an ab initio study of sodium storage mechanism in disodium terephthalate (Na2TP) which is a very promising anode material for organic sodium (Na)-ion batteries with reported experimental capacities of ∼255 mAh g-1, previously attributed to Na attachment to the two carboxylate groups (coordinating to oxygen atoms). We show here that the inserted Na atoms prefer to bind at carboxylate sites at low Na concentrations and are dominant for insertion of up to one Na atom per molecule; for higher Na concentrations, the hexagonal sites (on the aromatic ring) become dominant. We confirm that the Na2TP crystal can store a maximum of two Na atoms per molecule, as observed in experiments. Our current results are intriguing as we reveal that the Na binding at carboxylate sites contributes to the initial part of Na2TP sodiation curve and the Na binding at hexagonal sites contributes to the second part of the curve. The inserted Na atoms donate electrons to empty states in the conduction band. Moreover, we show that the Na diffusion barriers in clean Na2TP can be as low as 0.23 eV. We also show that there is significant difference in the mechanism of Na interaction between individual molecules and the crystal.

  11. The novel bisphosphonate disodium dihydrogen-4-[(methylthio) phenylthio] methanebisphosphonate increases bone mass in post-ovariectomy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Aiko; Chiba, Mirei; Ota, Takeru; Yasuda, Mayumi; Suzuki, Keiko; Kanemitsu, Takuya; Itoh, Takashi; Shinoda, Hisashi; Igarashi, Kaoru

    2016-05-01

    The novel bisphosphonate (BP) disodium dihydrogen-4-[(methylthio) phenylthio] methanebisphosphonate (MPMBP) is a non-nitrogen-containing BP with an antioxidant side chain that possesses anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the systemic effects of this compound on bone loss induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in adult rats. Micro-computed tomography revealed that MPMBP increased bone mass and density in both the metaphysis and diaphysis, and improved the structural properties important for mechanical strength of osteoporotic bone. Sequential bone labeling with tetracycline and calcein indicated that MPMBP decreased longitudinal growth of the primary spongiosa (PS), but stimulated cortical bone formation in the diaphysis. MPMBP increased type I collagen accumulation in the PS, and decreased the number and size of adipocytes in the bone marrow, suggesting inhibition of increased bone marrow adipogenesis induced by OVX. Furthermore, MPMBP reduced the number of bone resorbing cathepsin K-positive osteoclasts induced by OVX. These results suggest that MPMBP could improve bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. Both stimulation of bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption might play a role in the increase in bone mass and bone density after MPMBP treatment. PMID:27245552

  12. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Siobhan Yvonne; O'Mahony, Siobhain Mary; Grenham, Susan; Cryan, John Francis; Hyland, Niall Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders. PMID:24367692

  13. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Yvonne Carroll

    Full Text Available The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders.

  14. Single and 2-week repeated intravenous dose toxicity studies of disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is a boron compound used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for malignant brain tumors. Intravenous single and 2-week repeated dose toxicity studies of BSH were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the single-dose study, BSH was administered at doses of 100, 300 or 600 mg/kg. Death occurred within 10 min (acute type) or from 5 hr to 2 days (delayed type) after dosing in the 600 mg/kg group. No differences in mortality by sex and dosing speed were observed. Major causes of death were considered to be circulatory disorder in acute death and renal injury in delayed death. The renal injury was observed in the 300 and 600 mg/kg groups. In the 2-week repeated dose study, BSH was administered at doses of 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Body weight gain was suppressed in the 100 and 300 mg/kg groups. One male in the 300 mg/kg group died due to renal and pulmonary lesions at day 8. Slight anemia was observed in the 300 mg/kg group. Pathologically, the kidney showed tubular regeneration with increase of weight in the 300 mg/kg. From these results, the NOAEL of BSH is 30 mg/kg/day. (author)

  15. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  16. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition,...

  17. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, J.; Ito, A.; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemota...

  18. Genetic disorders of phosphate regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of phosphate homeostasis is critical for many biological processes, and both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have adverse clinical consequences. Only a very small percentage (1%) of total body phosphate is present in the extracellular fluid, which is measured by routine laboratory assays and does not reflect total body phosphate stores. Phosphate is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract via the transcellular route [sodium phosphate cotransporter 2b (NaPi2b)] and acros...

  19. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  20. The effect of individual phosphate emulsifying salts and their selected binary mixtures on hardness of processed cheese spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of this work was to observe the effects of emulsifying salts composed of trisodium citrate and sodium phosphates with different chain length (disodium phosphate (DSP, tetrasodium diphosphate (TSPP, pentasodium triphosphate (PSTP and sodium salts of polyphosphates with 5 different mean length (n ≈ 5, 9, 13, 20, 28 on hardness of processed cheese spreads. Hardness of processed cheese spreads with selected binary mixtures of the above mentioned salts were also studied. Measurements were performed after 2, 9 and 30 days of storage at 6 °C. Hardness of processed cheese increased with increase in chain length of individually used phosphates.  Majority of applied binary mixtures of emulsifying salts had not significant influence on hardness charges in processed cheese spreads. On the other hand, a combination of phosphates salts (DSP with TSPP was found, which had specific effect on hardness of processed cheese spreads. Textural properties of samples with trisodium citrate were similar compared to samples with DSP.

  1. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  2. Enhanced Molecular Recognition between Nucleobases and Guanine-5'-monophosphate-disodium (GMP) by Surfactant Aggregates in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhang; Wang, Dong; Cao, Meiwen; Han, Yuchun; Xu, Hai; Wang, Yilin

    2015-07-15

    Only specific base pairs on DNA can bind with each other through hydrogen bonds, which is called the Watson-Crick (W/C) pairing rule. However, without the constraint of DNA chains, the nucleobases in bulk aqueous solution usually do not follow the W/C pairing rule anymore because of the strong competitive effect of water and the multi-interaction edges of nucleobases. The present work applied surfactant aggregates noncovalently functionalized by nucleotide to enhance the recognition between nucleobases without DNA chains in aqueous solution, and it revealed the effects of their self-assembling ability and morphologies on the recognition. The cationic ammonium monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric surfactants DTAB, 12-3-12, and 12-3-12-3-12 were chosen. The surfactants with guanine-5'-monophosphate-disodium (GMP) form micelles, vesicles, and fingerprint-like and plate-like aggregates bearing the hydrogen-bonding sites of GMP, respectively. The binding parameters of these aggregates with adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine(C) indicate that the surfactants can promote W/C recognitions in aqueous solution when they form vesicles (GMP/DTAB) or plate-like aggregates (GMP/12-3-12) with proper molecular packing compactness, which not only provide hydrophobic environments but also shield non-W/C recognition edges. However, the GMP/12-3-12 micelles with loose molecular packing, the GMP/12-3-12 fingerprint-like aggregates where the hydrogen bond sites of GMP are occupied by itself, and the GMP/12-3-12-3-12 vesicles with too strong self-assembling ability cannot promote W/C recognition. This work provides insight into how to design self-assemblies with the performance of enhanced molecule recognition.

  3. Laryngeal edema induced by disodium cantharidinate injection%斑蝥酸钠注射液致喉头水肿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小蕾; 吴立强; 赵青

    2013-01-01

      1例72岁男性患者,确诊为左肺腺癌7个月,既往有小牛血清去蛋白过敏史。治疗期间输入斑蝥酸钠注射液约30 min,患者突然烦躁,急发憋闷、喉痒、发声嘶哑、吸气性呼吸困难,口唇明显发绀,三凹征阳性等。立即停止输入,给予氧气吸入,甲强龙、异丙嗪、葡萄糖酸钙抗过敏以及其他对症治疗,约20 min后,患者症状明显改善,口唇发绀及三凹征消失。%  One 72-year-old male patient was diagnosed with left lung adenocarcinoma 7 months ago. He had a history of deproteinised calf blood serum injection allergy. About 30 minutes after the disodium cantharidinate injection was used, the patient suddenly developed dysphoria, oppressed, throat itching, voice hoarse, inspiratory dyspnea, obvious lips hematocyanosis, three depression sign positive and so on. This medicine was immediately stopped. The patient received oxygen inhalation and the therapy of antianaphylaxis by methylprednisolone, promethazine hydrochloride injection, calcium gluconate and other treatments. After about 20 minutes, the symptoms improved obviously, lips hematocyanosis and three depression sign disappeared.

  4. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels.

  5. Disodium N,N-bis-(dithiocarboxy)ethanediamine: synthesis, performance, and mechanism of action toward trace ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid copper (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Ye, Maoyou; Yan, Pingfang; Qiu, Yiqin; Sun, Shuiyu; Ren, Jie; Dai, Yongkang; Han, Dajian

    2016-10-01

    A new effective multi-dithiocarbamate heavy metal precipitant, disodium N,N-bis-(dithiocarboxy) ethanediamine (BDE), was synthesized by mixing ethanediamine with carbon disulfide under alkaline conditions, and it was utilized for removing trace ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid copper (II) (EDTA-Cu) from wastewater. Its structure was confirmed by ultraviolet spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis. The removal performance of EDTA-Cu by BDE was evaluated according to BDE dosage, initial concentration, pH, and reaction time through single-factor experiments. With the optimized conditions of a pH range of 3-9, dosage ratio of BDE/Cu of 1:1, PAM dosage of 1 mg/L, and reaction time of 4 min, the removal efficiency of Cu(2+) was more than 98 % from simulated wastewater containing EDTA-Cu with initial concentrations of 5-100 mg/L. Treatment of actual EDTA-Cu wastewater showed that BDE performed superior effectiveness, and the average residential concentration of Cu(2+) was 0.115 mg/L. Besides, the stability of chelated precipitate and the reaction mechanism of BDE and EDTA-Cu were also introduced. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic leaching test (SDLT) indicated that the chelated precipitate was non-hazardous and stable in weak acid and alkaline conditions. The BDE reacts with EDTA-Cu at a stoichiometric ratio, and the removal of Cu(2+) was predominantly achieved through the replacement reaction of BDE and EDTA-Cu. PMID:27406222

  6. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium). The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. The value of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging for predicting posthepatectomy liver failure after major hepatic resection: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Hyun, E-mail: shcho2405@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Daegu Fatima Hospital, 576-31 Sinam-dong, Dong-gu, Daegu 701-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ung Rae, E-mail: tadtail@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, 3056-6 Daemyung-4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joo Dong, E-mail: milledr@naver.com [Department of Surgery, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, 3056-6 Daemyung-4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Seok, E-mail: gshyskhk@hanmail.net [Department of Surgery, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, 3056-6 Daemyung-4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dong Lak, E-mail: dnchoi@cu.ac.kr [Department of Surgery, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, 3056-6 Daemyung-4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether preoperative gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced MR imaging predicts posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) in patients who underwent major hepatic resection. Materials and methods: Twenty nine patients who underwent preoperative gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced MR imaging and following major hepatic resection were enrolled. Hepatic parenchymal signal intensity (SI) on pre-contrast T1-weighted imaging and 20 min hepatocyte phase was measured at each of the four liver segments by two observers using region of interest measurements. The mean value was calculated and used at each phase. The relative contrast enhancement index (RCEI) was calculated: (20 min hepatocyte phase SI - pre-contrast SI)/pre-contrast SI. PHLF was determined by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery 2011 guidelines. Correlation analysis was performed between preoperative liver function test and RCEI. Diagnostic accuracy of RCEI for predicting PHLF was calculated with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The reproducibility of the RCEI measurement was evaluated. Results: There was a significant correlation between preoperative albumin (r = 0.496, P = 0.006), T-bilirubin (r = -0.383, P = 0.041), and RCEI. Seven patients (24%) experienced PHLF, and one of these patients (3%) died. The diagnostic accuracy of RCEI was 0.838 (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 77.3%, cut-off value: 0.7508, 95% confidence interval: 0.654, 0.947). The 95% limits of agreement and ICC between repeated RCEI measurements were 18.4% of the mean and 0.94, respectively, and between RCEI measurements by the two observers were 21.7% and 0.929, respectively. Conclusion: Our results show that preoperative gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced MR imaging can predict PHLF in patients who underwent major hepatic resection.

  8. Influence of Combined Therapeutic Potential of Meso 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic Acid and Calcium Disodium Edetate on Lead-induced Testicular Alterations in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOVINDER J.S. FLORA; USHA ARORA; ARD PRAHLAD K. SETH

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of a combination of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and calcium disodium EDTA in protecting testicular disorders in chronic lead intoxication was investigated. The results indicate that two five-days courses of the combined therapy produced a more effective recovery in the lead induced biochemical and histopathological disorders compared to conventional single 5 days therapy. No adverse effect of the chelators, when administered individually or in combination, was noticed in the testes of control (without lead exposure) animals.

  9. Effect of sodium phosphate salts on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) 6000 at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rahsadeghi@yahoo.com; Hosseini, Rahim; Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Precise density, sound velocity, water activity, and phase diagram measurements have been carried out on polyethylene oxide (PEO) in aqueous solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate, and tri-sodium phosphate over a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The experimental density and sound velocity data are used to calculate the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility as a function of temperature and concentration. It was found that both of the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility of PEO in aqueous solutions increase by increasing temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes. The results show that the slope of constant water activity lines increased with increasing the temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes and the vapour pressure depression for an aqueous (PEO + sodium phosphate) system is more than the sum of those for the corresponding binary solutions. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and type of anion of salt on the salting-out effect of polyethylene oxide by sodium phosphate salts has been studied.

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition ...

  11. Research on Uncrystallized Phosphating Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG En-jun; XING Ze-kuan

    2004-01-01

    This article excogitated a kind of uncrystallized phosphating film bears wearing capacity goodly by adding Ca2 + in normal phosphating solution. This technology is very useful to protect steel parts working in oil from abrasion.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  13. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  14. Layered metal uranyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUO2PO4·4H2O (HUP) forms a laminar intercalate with butylamine, c = 29.30(5) angstrom, which accepts cationic metals in exchange for the n-butylammonium ions. Hydrated uranyl metal phosphates M(UO2PO4)2·nH2O (M=Mn,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,Cd) are obtained by ionic exchange and were studied by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The tetragonal structures of all these product compounds are derived from HUP. The diffuse electronic reflectance spectra of every sample show characteristic UO22+ absorption bands. In the spectra of the Co, Ni and Cu phosphates there are other bands in the 500-800 nm zone compatible with their observed aquocation transitions

  15. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone-kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  16. A vacuolar phosphate transporter essential for phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Lei; Luan, Mingda; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate is an essential nutrient for plant growth, and inorganic phosphate (Pi) is stored largely in the vacuole of plant cells. Thus, vacuolar Pi maintains homeostasis of cytosolic Pi to ensure an optimal Pi supply for plants under variable Pi status in the soil. This study uncovered in Arabidopsis a vacuolar phosphate transporter, VPT1, that mediates vacuolar Pi sequestration. Lack of VPT1 caused growth defects under both low-Pi and high-Pi conditions, implicating VPT1 in plant adaptation...

  17. Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent neonatal epileptic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bagci, S.; Zschocke, J.; Hoffmann, G F; Bast, T.; Klepper, J; Müller, A.; Heep, A; Bartmann, P.; Franz, A R

    2009-01-01

    Pyridox(am)ine-5′-phosphate oxidase converts pyridoxine phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor in many metabolic reactions, including neurotransmitter synthesis. A family with a mutation in the pyridox(am)ine-5′-phosphate oxidase gene presenting with neonatal seizures unresponsive to pyridoxine and anticonvulsant treatment but responsive to pyridoxal phosphate is described. Pyridoxal phosphate should be considered in neonatal epileptic encephalopathy unrespons...

  18. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  19. Phosphate Test 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Stalder, Etienne; Zumbuehl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the phosphate content of a liposomal suspension is important when working with differential scanning calorimetry. Standard phosphate tests date back several decades and require extended hands-on time. Here, we present a rapid version of a phosphate test taking advantage of microwave-assisted chemical digestion and multiwell plate reading technology allowing for the fast and accurate testing of many samples in parallel.

  20. Theoretical studies of the local structure and EPR parameters for Cu{sup 2+} centers in disodium malonate trihydrate single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao-Ying, Li, E-mail: cyli1962@gmail.com; Ying, Huang; Xue-Mei, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters (g factors g{sub xx}, g{sub yy}, g{sub zz} and hyperfine structure constants A{sub xx}, A{sub yy}, A{sub zz}) of the two Cu{sup 2+} centers in disodium malonate trihydrate (DSMT) single crystal are theoretically interpreted using the high order perturbation formulas of these parameters for a 3d{sup 9} ions in rhombically elongated octahedra. In the calculation, the rhombic crystal-field parameters are determined from the superposition model and the admixture of d-orbitals in the ground state wave function are taking account, the results show that although the admixture of the |d{sub z}{sup 2}〉 state to the ground state wave function is small, it should not be neglected in calculations of the EPR parameters. The theoretical EPR parameters show good agreement with the observed values. The results are discussed.

  1. [Perspectives of disodium salt 2.4-di(1-metoxyethyl)-deuteroporphyrin - IX ("Dimegin") application for photodynamic therapy in non-oncologic cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V M; Alekseev, Iu V; Mislavskiĭ, O V; Ponomarev, G V

    2014-01-01

    Effects of disodium salt 2,4-di(1-metoxyethyl)-deuteroporphyrine-IX (Dimegin) and the light from Soret band (»395-405 nm) at the viability of microbial cells and at their potential to form microbial biofilms have been compared with traditional antiseptics. Irradiation of microbial cells of S. aureus, E. coli, C. albicans and others with diode light (power density 0.05 Wt/cm2) caused a bactericidial effect similar to that obtained with standard anticeptics (chlorhexidine and dioxidine). A comparative study of the effectiveness of Dimegin and Photoditazine (a soluble salt of chlorine e6) as photosensitizers have been performed using the test system of erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro under irradiation with light from the Sore band. Results have shown insignificant difference in the photodynamic effect with similar doses of absorbed light and preparation concentration. PMID:25019396

  2. Light weight phosphate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  3. Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

    2001-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvat...

  4. Genetic Determinants of Phosphate Response in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Bergwitz; Wee, Mark J.; Sumi Sinha; Joanne Huang; Charles DeRobertis; Mensah, Lawrence B.; Jonathan Cohen; Adam Friedman; Meghana Kulkarni; Yanhui Hu; Arunachalam Vinayagam; Michael Schnall-Levin; Bonnie Berger; Perkins, Lizabeth A.; Mohr, Stephanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate is required for many important cellular processes and having too little phosphate or too much can cause disease and reduce life span in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying homeostatic control of extracellular phosphate levels and cellular effects of phosphate are poorly understood. Here, we establish Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for the study of phosphate effects. We found that Drosophila larval development depends on the availability of phosphate in the medium. ...

  5. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L; Andersen, K E; Egsgaard, Helge;

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri......-m-cresyl phosphate, but no reaction to tri-p-cresyl phosphate. Gas chromatography of the tricresyl phosphate 5% pet. patch test material supplied from Trolab showed that it contained a mixture of a wide range of triaryl phosphates, including 0.08% triphenyl phosphate which is above the threshold for detecting...... triphenyl phosphate allergy in our patient....

  6. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythromycin phosphate. 520.823 Section 520.823... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.823 Erythromycin phosphate. (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance...

  7. 21 CFR 573.320 - Diammonium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diammonium phosphate. 573.320 Section 573.320 Food... Additive Listing § 573.320 Diammonium phosphate. The food additive diammonium phosphate may be safely used... crude protein from diammonium phosphate, adequate directions for use and a prominent statement,...

  8. Solubility of disodium cytidine 5′-monophosphate in different binary mixtures from 288.15 K to 313.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jin [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China); National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing (China); Ma, Tianle; Li, An [National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing (China); Chen, Xiaochun; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China); National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing (China); Wu, Jinglan, E-mail: yinghanjie@njut.edu.cn [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China); National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing (China); Ying, Hanjie [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China); National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing (China)

    2013-08-10

    Highlights: • Solubility of 5′-CMPNa{sub 2} in different systems was measured the first time. • Experimental data were correlated by CNIBS/Redlich–Kister model and Apelblat model. • Good agreement has been observed between the calculated and the experimental data. • Enthalpy and entropy were calculated by the van’t Hoff equation and Gibbs equation. - Abstract: The solubility of disodium cytidine 5′-monophosphate (5′-CMPNa{sub 2}) in methanol + water and ethanol + water binary mixtures was measured experimentally at the temperatures ranging from 288.15 to 313.15 K. The results showed that the solubility of 5′-CMPNa{sub 2} increased with the increasing of temperature and the mole fraction of water in different binary mixtures. The (CNIBS)/Redlich–Kister model and the semi-empirical Apelblat model were applied for the prediction of the experimental data. Both models could give satisfactory simulation results. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of the dissolution process such as Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy were calculated using the van’t Hoff equation and the Gibbs equation. The results indicated that the dissolution process was endothermic.

  9. Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Comparison of Sodium Ibandronate and Pamidronate Disodium for Treatment of 141 Patients with Malignant Tumor Ostealgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghai Dai; Shunchang Jiao; Junlan Yang; Shaohao Jiang; Donggang Liu

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the therapeutic effect and potential adverse effects of sodium ibandronate (SI) in patients with malignant tumor ostealgia. METHODS Patients were randomly classified into two groups. Group A (SI) of 68 patients who received 4 mg SI I.v., and 73 patients in Group B (pamidronate disodium [PD]) who received 60 mg PD I.v. A randomized, double-blind method, with PD as a positive drug control, was used to assess changes in bone pain and adverse effects over a three-week period. RESULTS A total of 141 patients were enrolled in the study, with 136 cases of appraisable efficacy. The effective rate was 72.3% (47/65) in Group A, and 63.4% (45/71) in Group B. There was no significant difference in efficacy or adverse effects between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION The SI injection, with a pronounced effect, can relieve bone pain caused by osseous metastasis from a malignant tumor. The curative and adverse effects were similar compared to PD.

  10. The effect of vehicle on physical properties and aerosolisation behaviour of disodium cromoglycate microparticles spray dried alone or with L-leucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafabadi, Abdolhossien Rouholamini; Gilani, Kambiz; Barghi, Mohammadali; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the aerosolisation behaviour of disodium cromogycate (DSCG), using spray drying technique. The effect of vehicle on the drug particle properties was investigated. L-leucine was selected as a natural antiadherent amino acid to improve the deagglomeration of DSCG particles. Spray dried samples of DSCG alone or with L-leucine were prepared from water and ethanol under the same conditions. The powder properties of the samples were examined by laser diffraction, helium densitometer, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The in vitro deposition was determined, using an Andersen cascade impactor with a Spinhaler at a flow rate of 60 l/min. An amorphous form of the drug was obtained when water was used. However, crystal transformation of original DSCG in the presence of ethanol during spray drying resulted in production of elongated particles. These particles exhibited improved aerodynamic properties, compared to the amorphous and commercial materials. Significant differences in fine particle fraction were observed using the two vehicles. Co-spray drying of DSCG and L-leucine improved the deposition profiles of the drug. These results indicated that the change in crystal structure of DSCG during spray drying process was susceptible to the nature of the vehicle. A crystalline form of DSCG with good aerodynamic properties was achieved during spray drying process. In addition, the processing of DSCG with L-leucine in a single step using ethanol resulted in an improvement in dispersion properties of the drug particles. PMID:15488683

  11. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10-min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10-min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60-min postirradiation. Animals given the mast-cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels.

  12. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  13. [Phosphate metabolism and iron deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(ADHR)is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage. Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. It was reported that FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient. In patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reductions in serum phosphate and FGF23.

  14. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ren-kou; ZHU Yong-guan; David Chittleborough

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by Iow-molecular-weight organic acids.Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was not correlated with PKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearrly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  15. Photorelease of phosphates: Mild methods for protecting phosphate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeewa N. Senadheera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new photoremovable protecting group for caging phosphates in the near UV. Diethyl 2-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthyl-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14a quantitatively releases diethyl phosphate upon irradiation in aq MeOH or aq MeCN at 350 nm, with quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.021 to 0.067 depending on the solvent composition. The deprotection reactions originate from the triplet excited state, are robust under ambient conditions and can be carried on to 100% conversion. Similar results were found with diethyl 2-(4-methoxy-1-naphthyl-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14b, although it was significantly less efficient compared with 14a. A key step in the deprotection reaction in aq MeOH is considered to be a Favorskii rearrangement of the naphthyl ketone motif of 14a,b to naphthylacetate esters 25 and 26. Disruption of the ketone-naphthyl ring conjugation significantly shifts the photoproduct absorption away from the effective incident wavelength for decaging of 14, driving the reaction to completion. The Favorskii rearrangement does not occur in aqueous acetonitrile although diethyl phosphate is released. Other substitution patterns on the naphthyl or quinolin-5-yl core, such as the 2,6-naphthyl 10 or 8-benzyloxyquinolin-5-yl 24 platforms, also do not rearrange by aryl migration upon photolysis and, therefore, do not proceed to completion. The 2,6-naphthyl ketone platform instead remains intact whereas the quinolin-5-yl ketone fragments to a much more complex, highly absorbing reaction mixture that competes for the incident light.

  16. Sorption properties of tantalum phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption properties of tantalum phosphate prepared from solution containing fluoride ions were studied using radioactivity measurements of trace constituents. It was found that this compound is a typical cation exchanger with the capacity of up to 1.6 mmolxg-1 in neutral solution. (author)

  17. Phosphate Recognition in Structural Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, Anna K.H.; Fischer, Felix R.; Diederich, François

    2007-01-01

    Drug-discovery research in the past decade has seen an increased selection of targets with phosphate recognition sites, such as protein kinases and phosphatases, in the past decade. This review attempts, with the help of database-mining tools, to give an overview of the most important principles in

  18. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs GARD Information Navigator FAQs About Rare Diseases Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Title Other Names: G6PD ... G6PD deficiency Categories: Newborn Screening Summary Summary Listen Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a hereditary ...

  19. Development and Optimization of Gastro-Retentive Controlled-Release Tablet of Calcium-Disodium Edentate and its In Vivo Gamma Scintigraphic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Soni, Sandeep; Singh, Thakuri; Kumar, Amit; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Mittal, Gaurav

    2015-12-01

    Medical management of heavy metal toxicity, including radioactive ones, is a cause for concern because of their increased use in energy production, healthcare, and mining. Though chelating agents like EDTA and DTPA in parenteral form are available, no suitable oral formulation is there that can trap ingested heavy metal toxicants in the stomach itself, preventing their systemic absorption. The objective of the present study was to develop and optimize gastro-retentive controlled-release tablets of calcium-disodium edentate (Ca-Na2EDTA). Gastro-retentive tablet of Ca-Na2EDTA was prepared by direct compression method. Thirteen tablet formulations were designed using HPMC-K4M, sodium chloride, and carbopol-934 along with effervescing agents sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. Tablet swelling ability, in vitro buoyancy, and drug dissolution studies were conducted in 0.1 N HCl at 37 ± 0.5°C. Ca-Na2EDTA was radiolabeled with technetium-99m for scintigraphy-based in vivo evaluation. Formula F8 (Ca-Na2EDTA 200 mg, carbopol 100 mg, avicel 55 mg, citric acid 30 mg, NaHCO3 70 mg, NaCl 100 mg, and HPMC 95 mg) was found to be optimum in terms of excellent floating properties and sustained drug release. F8 fitted best for Korsmeyer-Peppas equation with an R (2) value of 0.993. Gamma scintigraphy in humans showed mean gastric retention period of 6 h. Stability studies carried out in accordance with ICH guidelines and analyzed at time intervals of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 months have indicated insignificant difference in tablet hardness, drug content, total floating duration, or matrix integrity of the optimized formulation. Gastro-retentive, controlled-release tablet of Ca-Na2EDTA was successfully developed using effervescent technique as a potential oral antidote for neutralizing ingested heavy metal toxicity.

  20. Preoperative Estimation of Future Remnant Liver Function Following Portal Vein Embolization Using Relative Enhancement on Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yozo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Matsushima, Shigeru; Inaba, Yoshitaka [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Sano, Tsuyoshi [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Yamaura, Hidekazu; Kato, Mina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Senda, Yoshiki [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Ishiguchi, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    To retrospectively evaluate relative enhancement (RE) in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a preoperative estimation of future remnant liver (FRL) function in a patients who underwent portal vein embolization (PVE). In 53 patients, the correlation between the indocyanine green clearance (ICG-K) and RE imaging was analyzed before hepatectomy (first analysis). Twenty-three of the 53 patients underwent PVE followed by a repeat RE imaging and ICG test before an extended hepatectomy and their results were further analyzed (second analysis). Whole liver function and FRL function were calculated on the MR imaging as follows: RE x total liver volume (RE Index) and FRL-RE x FRL volume (Rem RE Index), respectively. Regarding clinical outcome, posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) was evaluated in patients undergoing PVE. Indocyanine green clearance correlated with the RE Index (r = 0.365, p = 0.007), and ICG-K of FRL (ICG-Krem) strongly correlated with the Rem RE Index (r = 0.738, p < 0.001) in the first analysis. Both the ICG-Krem and the Rem RE Index were significantly correlated after PVE (r = 0.508, p = 0.013) at the second analysis. The rate of improvement of the Rem RE Index from before PVE to after PVE was significantly higher than that of ICG-Krem (p = 0.014). Patients with PHLF had a significantly lower Rem RE Index than patients without PHLF (p = 0.023). Relative enhancement imaging can be used to estimate FRL function after PVE.

  1. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (Playing hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (Playing hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid peroxidation and enhancing of antioxidant defense systems. PMID:26837542

  2. Intracellular Phosphate Dynamics in Muscle Measured by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy during Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Sandrine; Fournier, Thomas; Kocevar, Gabriel; Belloi, Amélie; Normand, Gabrielle; Ibarrola, Danielle; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Juillard, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Of the 600-700 mg inorganic phosphate (Pi) removed during a 4-hour hemodialysis session, a maximum of 10% may be extracted from the extracellular space. The origin of the other 90% of removed phosphate is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that the main source of phosphate removed during hemodialysis is the intracellular compartment. Six binephrectomized pigs each underwent one 3-hour hemodialysis session, during which the extracorporeal circulation blood flow was maintained between 100 and 150 ml/min. To determine in vivo phosphate metabolism, we performed phosphorous ((31)P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a 1.5-Tesla system and a surface coil placed over the gluteal muscle region. (31)P magnetic resonance spectra (repetition time =10 s; echo time =0.35 ms) were acquired every 160 seconds before, during, and after dialysis. During the dialysis sessions, plasma phosphate concentrations decreased rapidly (-30.4 %; P=0.003) and then, plateaued before increasing approximately 30 minutes before the end of the sessions; 16 mmol phosphate was removed in each session. When extracellular phosphate levels plateaued, intracellular Pi content increased significantly (11%; P<0.001). Moreover, βATP decreased significantly (P<0.001); however, calcium levels remained balanced. Results of this study show that intracellular Pi is the source of Pi removed during dialysis. The intracellular Pi increase may reflect cellular stress induced by hemodialysis and/or strong intracellular phosphate regulation. PMID:26561642

  3. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Manali R Srinivasan; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium pho...

  4. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, E

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

  5. Phosphate analogues in the dissection of mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi J. Korhonen; Conway, Louis P.; Hodgson, David R. W.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoryl group transfer is central to genetic replication, cellular signalling and many metabolic processes. Understanding the mechanisms of phosphorylation and phosphate ester and anhydride cleavage is key to efforts towards biotechnological and biomedical exploitation of phosphate-handling enzymes. Analogues of phosphate esters and anhydrides are indispensable tools, alongside protein mutagenesis and computational methods, for the dissection of phosphoryl transfer mechanisms. Hydrolysable...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  17. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5995 - Polyalkyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyalkyl phosphate. 721.5995 Section... Substances § 721.5995 Polyalkyl phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyalkyl phosphate (PMN P-95-1772)...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. Calcium phosphate cements: study of the beta-tricalcium phosphate--monocalcium phosphate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtchi, A A; Lemaitre, J; Terao, N

    1989-09-01

    The possibility of making cements based on beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), a promising bone graft material, was investigated. Upon admixture with water, beta-TCP/monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) mixtures were found to set and harden like conventional hydraulic cements. Beta-TCP powders with larger particle size, obtained by sintering at higher temperatures, increased the ultimate strength of the cement. Results show that setting occurs after dissolution of MCPM, as a result of the precipitation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) in the paste. The ultimate tensile strength of the hardened cement is proportional to the amount of DCPD formed. Upon ageing above 40 degrees C, DCPD transforms progressively into anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP), thereby decreasing the strength. Ageing of the pastes in 100% r.h. results in a decay of the mechanical properties. This can be ascribed to an intergranular dissolution of the beta-TCP aggregates as a result of the pH lowering brought about by the MCPM to DCPD conversion.

  3. Evidence for a signaling axis by which intestinal phosphate rapidly modulates renal phosphate reabsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, Theresa; Thomas, Leslie F.; Craig, Theodore A.; Sommer, Stacy; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms by which phosphorus homeostasis is preserved in mammals are not completely understood. We demonstrate the presence of a mechanism by which the intestine detects the presence of increased dietary phosphate and rapidly increases renal phosphate excretion. The mechanism is of physiological relevance because it maintains plasma phosphate concentrations in the normal range after ingestion of a phosphate-containing meal. When inorganic phosphate is infused into the duodenum, there is...

  4. Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal

    OpenAIRE

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by ...

  5. Phosphate uptake kinetics by Acinetobacter isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, A S; Kaitala, S

    1997-02-01

    Acinetobacter isolates from activated sludge treatment plants of forest industry were used as model organisms for polyphosphate accumulating bacteria to study excess phosphate uptake by the overplus phenomenon as well as luxury uptake of phosphate during growth. The initial, rapid phosphate uptake by the phosphorus-starved Acinetobacter isolates (the overplus phenomenon) followed the Michaelis-Menten model (maximum initial phosphate uptake rate 29 mg P g(-1) dry mass (DM) h(-1), half-saturation constant for excess phosphate uptake 17 mg P L(-1)). During the rapid uptake no growth was observed, but most cells contained polyphosphate granules. Also growth and luxury uptake of phosphate could be modeled with the Michaelis-Menten equation (maximum phosphate uptake rate 3.7-12 mg P g(-1) DM h(-1), half-saturation constant for growth 0.47-6.0 mg P L(-1), maximum specific growth rate 0.15-0.55 h(-1)). PMID:18633985

  6. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (Psunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (Psunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (Poil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (Poil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid

  7. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  8. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy. PMID:27434305

  9. Alpha Klotho and phosphate homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Ao; Xing, Changying; Hu, Ming Chang

    2014-01-01

    The Klotho family consists of three single-pass transmembrane proteins—αKlotho, βKlotho and γKlotho. Each of them combines with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors (FGFRs) to form receptor complexes for various FGF’s. αKlotho is a co-receptor for physiological FGF23 signaling and appears essential for FGF23-mediated regulation of mineral metabolism. αKlotho protein also plays a FGF23-independent role in phosphate homeostasis. Animal experimental studies and clinical observations have dem...

  10. Variability of nitrate and phosphate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sundar, D.

    as shown in the schedule in table 5.1. Samples were taken at seven stations (M1?M7) in the Mandovi and at five stations in Zuari (Z1?Z5) (Map B). The locations covered a stretch of about 50km in the Mandovi and 52km in the Zuari. Samples were also taken... mangroves, which harbour sediments rich in organic matter (Wafar 1987). Wafar et al. (1997) noted that the dissolved organic nitrates (DON) and dissolved organic phosphates (DOP) Table 5.1 Schedule of sample collection in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries...

  11. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Hiroaki, E-mail: onoda@kpu.ac.jp [Department of Informatics and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Shimogamo Nakaragi-cyo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishima, Yuya [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Takenaka, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, Yonago National College of Technology, 4448, Hikona-cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Isao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  12. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following: Monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, dipotassium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium metaphosphate (sodium hexametaphosphate), sodium acid pyrophosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium citrate, potassium citrate, calcium citrate, sodium tartrate, and sodium...

  13. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    OpenAIRE

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as posit...

  14. Phosphate transporters and their function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Jürg; Hernando, Nati; Forster, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Plasma phosphate concentration is maintained within a relatively narrow range by control of renal reabsorption of filtered inorganic phosphate (P(i)). P(i) reabsorption is a transcellular process that occurs along the proximal tubule. P(i) flux at the apical (luminal) brush border membrane represents the rate-limiting step and is mediated by three Na(+)-dependent P(i) cotransporters (members of the SLC34 and SLC20 families). The putative proteins responsible for basolateral P(i) flux have not been identified. The transport mechanism of the two kidney-specific SLC34 proteins (NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc) and of the ubiquitously expressed SLC20 protein (PiT-2) has been studied by heterologous expression to reveal important differences in kinetics, stoichiometry, and substrate specificity. Studies on the regulation of the abundance of the respective proteins highlight significant differences in the temporal responses to various hormonal and nonhormonal factors that can influence P(i) homeostasis. The phenotypes of mice deficient in NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc indicate that NaPi-IIa is responsible for most P(i) renal reabsorption. In contrast, in the human kidney, NaPi-IIc appears to have a relatively greater role. The physiological relevance of PiT-2 to P(i) reabsorption remains to be elucidated. PMID:23398154

  15. Neuartige Glucose-6-Phosphat Isomerasen und Glucosamin-6-Phosphat Deaminasen in Archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Schlichting, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Glucose-6-Phosphat Isomerasen (PGIs) und archaeelle Glucosamin-6-Phosphat Deaminasen (GPDAs) untersucht sowie erstmalig die Aktivität einer archaeellen Glutamin:Fructose-6-Phosphat Transaminase nachgewiesen. Neuartige PGIs aus Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Thermoplasma acidophilum und Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium sowie eine klassische PGI aus Thermotoga maritima wurden als rekombinante Proteine gereinigt und...

  16. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or 'pragmatic' designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. PMID:26681747

  17. Structural and thermochemical properties of sodium magnesium phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Phosphate glasses were prepared by met quenching technique. • Structural study is investigated using FTIR, Raman and 31PNMR spectroscopy. • A 4.5% weight of H3PO4 solution has use for glass dissolution. • Dissolution is endothermic for lower MgO content and becomes exothermic when x rises. - Abstract: Ternary phosphate based glasses with the general formula (50−x/2)Na2O–xMgO–(50−x/2)P2O5 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 42.8 mol%), where the O/P ratio was varied from 3 to 3.75, have been prepared using a conventional melt quenching technique. Samples were investigated by means of density measurements, Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR), Raman and 31P solid state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) analysis and calorimetric dissolution. The depolymerization of metaphosphate chains are described by the decrease of Q2 tetrahedral sites allowing the formation of pyrophosphate groups (Q1) revealed by spectroscopic investigations. As a result, the increase of density and glass transition temperature when x rises. Calorimetric study shows that the dissolution phenomenon is endothermic for a lower MgO content and becomes exothermic when magnesium oxide is gradually incorporated, suggesting the disruption of phosphate chains with increasing O/P ratio

  18. Adsorption of Phosphate on Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUGUO-SONG; ZHUZU-XIANG; 等

    1992-01-01

    The study about the adsorption of phosphate on four variable charge soils and some minerals revealed that two stage adsorption appeared in the adsorption isothems of phosphate on 4 soils and there was a maximum adsorption on Al-oxide-typed surfaces between pH 3.5 to pH 5.5 as suspension pH changed from 2 to 9,but the adsorption amount of phosphate decreased continually as pH rose on Fe-oxide typed surfaces.The adsorption amount of phosphate and the maximum phosphate adsorption pH decreased in the order of yellow-red soil> lateritic red soil> red soil> paddy soil,which was coincided with the content order of amorphous Al oxide.The removement of organic matter and Fe oxide made the maximum phosphate adsorption pH rise from 4.0 to 5.0 and 4.5,respectively.The desorption curves with pH of four soils showed that phosphate desorbed least at pH 5.Generally the desorption was contrary to the adsorption with pH changing.There was a good accordance between adsorption or desorption and the concentration of Al in the suspension.The possible mechanisms of phosphate adsorption are discussed.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  20. Electrochemical phosphate recovery from nanofiltration concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappel, C.; Yasadi, K.; Temmink, B.G.; Metz, S.J.; Kemperman, A.J.B.; Nijmeijer, K.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2013-01-01

    The high total phosphorus content of raw domestic wastewater with its significant eutrophication potential offers an excellent possibility for phosphate recovery. Continuous recirculation of NF concentrate to an MBR and simultaneous phosphate recovery from the NF concentrate can be applied to produc

  1. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the tre

  2. Stable Development of Phosphate Fertilizer Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The rapid growth of China's economy in recent years gave rise to a sound external environment for the development of the phosphate fertilizer industry. With quite a few state agricultural incentives, the initiative of farmers in grain production is much higher, and consumption of phosphate fertilizers has increased constantly.

  3. Effects of Nickel on Calcium Phosphate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-López, J.; González, R.; Gómez, A.; Pomés, R.; Punte, G.; Della Védova, C. O.

    2000-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of nickel on calcium phosphate formation from aqueous solutions. The calcium phosphates prepared under different reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and nickel concentration) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The apatite compounds were also studied thermogravimetrically. From the combined results of the techniques employed we have determined that nickel favors the formation of brushite and amorphous calcium phosphate. We have found, as well, that the presence of nickel in the solution inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHAP) and octacalcium phosphate formation. However in the synthesis performed at basic pH and 95°C the apatitic phase (HAP) could be obtained. The present results suggest that the presence of nickel may modify the precipitation of oral calcium phosphate.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning soon ...

  5. 离子色谱法测定氨甲环酸注射液中依地酸二钠的含量%IC determination of disodium edetate in tranexamic acid injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恒; 晏菊姣; 黄京芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish an ion chromatography (IC) method for the determination of disodium edetate in tranexamic acid injection. Methods; The determination was performed on an Ionpac AS14A column (4 mm × 250 mm) with an Ionpac AG14A guard column(4 mm × 50 mm) using a mixture of sodium carbonate 5 mmol · L-1 and sodium bicarbonate 1 mmol · L-1 as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL · min-1. A conductivity detector and an ASRS suppressor were used as ASRS - ULTRA(4 mm) was set at an automatic restrain circulation pattern,with inhibit current of 50 mA, conductivity detection pool at 35 ℃ , sample quantity of 25 μL. The content of disodium edetate in tranexamic acid injection was detected directly by the standard working curve of disodium edetate. Results ; The standard curve was linear over the range of 5. 226 - 209. 0μg · mL-1 (r = 0. 9981). The average recovery (n =3) was 97. 4% - 100. 1% . Conclusion; The method is simple,accurate,and suitable for the determination of disodium edetate in tranexamic acid injection.%目的:建立氨甲环酸注射液中依地酸二钠的含量测定方法.方法:采用离子色谱法测定.使用Ionpac AS14A阴离子分离柱,Ionpac AG14A保护柱,淋洗液为含5mmol·L-1碳酸钠、1 mmol·L-1碳酸氢钠的混合溶液,流速为1.0 mL·min-1,ASRS -ULTRA 4 mm自动抑制循环模式,抑制电流为50 mA,电导检测池温度为35℃,进样量为25 μL.由依地酸二钠标准工作曲线直接测得氨甲环酸注射液中依地酸二钠含量.结果:依地酸二钠浓度在5.226 ~209.0 μg· mL-1范围内呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9981);平均回收率(n=3)为97.4%~100.1%.结论:本方法简单、快速,可以用于氨甲环酸注射液中依地酸二钠含量的测定.

  6. Disodium terephthalate (Na{sub 2}C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}) as high performance anode material for low-cost room-temperature sodium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Armand, Michel; Chen, Liquan [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Beijing Key Laboratory for New, Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhao, Junmei [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zhibin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2012-08-15

    In this contribution, a cheap organic material, disodium terephthalate, Na{sub 2}C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}, has been firstly evaluated as a novel anode for room-temperature Na-ion batteries. The material exhibits a high reversible capacity of 250 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. The average Na storage voltage is approximately 0.43 V vs. Na{sup +}/Na. A thin layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on the electrode surface derived from the atomic layer deposition technique is effective in further enhancing Na storage performance. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Forcino, C.D. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT{sub 2} receptor sites. (author) 72 refs.

  8. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT2 receptor sites. (author) 72 refs

  9. Hydrolysis of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate to hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, M T; Brown, P W

    1998-04-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) was hydrolysed in water and in 1 M Na2HPO4 solution at temperatures from 25-60 degrees C. Hydrolysis was incomplete in water. At 25 degrees C, DCPD partially hydrolysed to hydroxyapatite (HAp). Formation of HAp is indicative of incongruent DCPD dissolution. At the higher temperatures, hydrolysis to HAp was more extensive and was accompanied by the formation of anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP). Both of these processes are endothermic. When hydrolysis was carried out in 1 M Na2HPO4 solution, heat absorption was greater at any given temperature than for hydrolysis in water. Complete hydrolysis to HAp occurred in this solution. The hydrolysis of DCPD to HAp in sodium phosphate solution was also endothermic. The complete conversion of DCPD to HAp in sodium phosphate solution would not be expected if the only effect of this solution was to cause DCPD dissolution to become congruent. Because of the buffering capacity of a dibasic sodium phosphate solution, DCPD hydrolysed completely to HAp. Complete conversion to HAp was accompanied by the conversion of dibasic sodium phosphate to monobasic sodium phosphate. The formation of DCP was not observed indicating that the sodium phosphate solution precluded the DCPD-to-DCP dehydration reaction. In addition to affecting the extent of hydrolysis, reaction in the sodium phosphate solution also caused a morphological change in the HAp which formed. HAp formed by hydrolysis in water was needle-like to globular while that formed in the sodium phosphate solution exhibited a florette-like morphology.

  10. Dominant oceanic bacteria secure phosphate using a large extracellular buffer

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Zubkov; Martin, A. P.; Hartmann, M.; C. Grob; Scanlan, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria manage to maintain a sufficient supply of phosphate in phosphate-poor surface waters of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Furthermore, it seems that their phosphate uptake may counter-intuitively be lower in more productive tropical waters, as if their cellular demand for phosphate decreases there. By flow sorting 33P-phosphate-pulsed 32P-phosphate-chased cells, we demonstrate that both Prochlorococcus and SAR11 cells exploit an extracellul...

  11. Phosphate transport and arsenate resistance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thiel, T.

    1988-01-01

    Cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis starved for phosphate for 3 days took up phosphate at about 100 times the rate of unstarved cells. Kinetic data suggested that a new transport system had been induced by starvation for phosphate. The inducible phosphate transport system was quickly repressed by addition of Pi. Phosphate-starved cells were more sensitive to the toxic effects of arsenate than were unstarved cells, but phosphate could alleviate some of the toxicity. Arsenate was a ...

  12. Study on bacterial endotoxins test of disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B_6 injection%斑蝥酸钠维生素B_6注射液细菌内毒素检查法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵英; 唐继坤; 潘正兴

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To establish a method for determination of the bacterial endotoxin test in disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B_6 injection.Method:Inhibition and bacterial endotoxin test was performed with amebcyte lysate manufactured by different companies with different specifications according to the method of bacterial endotoxin test approved by Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 edition.Results:The original solution had non-interference with the bacterial endotoxin test.The results of bacteria endotoxin test in six batchs all accorded with the standard of the quality control.Conclusion:The results suggested that bacteria endotoxin test can be used as an alternative method for the rabbit pyrogen test for disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B_6 injection.The limits of bacterial endotoxin was 6 EU·mg~(-1).%目的:建立斑蝥酸钠维生素B6注射液的细菌内毒素检查方法.方法:按中国药典2005年版二部附录XIE细菌内毒素检查法进行,用小同厂家不同规格的鲎试剂对小同批号的斑蝥酸钠维牛素B_6注射液进行了干扰试验和细菌内毒素检查.结果:本品原液对细菌内毒素检查无干扰作用.按拟定标准检验,该品种6批样品细菌内毒素检查结果均符合规定.结论:本品可用细菌内毒素检查法代替家兔热原检查法,其细菌内毒素的限值(L)为6 EU·mL~(-1).

  13. Non-oxidative synthesis of pentose 5-phosphate from hexose 6-phosphate and triose phosphate by the L-type pentose pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J F; Blackmore, P F

    1983-01-01

    1. Ribose 5-phosphate was non-oxidatively synthesized from glucose 6-phosphate and triose phosphate by an enzyme extract prepared from rat liver (RLEP). Analysis of the intermediates by GLC, ion-exchange chromatography and specific enzymatic analysis, revealed the presence of the following intermediates of the L-type pentose pathway: altro-heptulose 1,7-bisphosphate, arabinose 5-phosphate and D-glycero D-ido octulose 8-phosphate. 2. With either [1-14C] or [2-14C]glucose 6-phosphate as diagnostic substrates, the distribution of 14C in ribose 5-phosphate was determined. At early time intervals (0.5-8 hr), [1-14C]glucose 6-phosphate introduced 14C into C-1, C-3 and C-5 of ribose 5-phosphate, at 17 hr 14C was confined to C-1. With [2-14C]glucose 6-phosphate as substrate, 14C was confined to C-2, C-3 and C-5 of ribose 5-phosphate during early times (0.5-8 hr), while at 17 hr 14C was located in C-2. 3. The transketolase exchange reaction, [14C]ribose 5-phosphate + altro-heptulose 7-phosphate in equilibrium ribose 5-phosphate + [14C]altro-heptulose 7-phosphate, was demonstrated for the first time using purified transketolase, its activity was measured and it is proposed to play a major role in the relocation of 14C into C-3 and C-5 or ribose 5-phosphate during the prediction labelling experiments. 4. The coupled transketolase-transaldolase reactions, 2 fructose 6-phosphate in equilibrium altro-heptulose 7-phosphate + xylulose 5-phosphate and 2 altro-heptulose 7-phosphate in equilibrium fructose 6-phosphate + D-glycero D-altro octulose 8-phosphate were demonstrated with purified enzymes, but are concluded to play a minor role in the non-oxidative synthesis of pentose 5-phosphate and octulose phosphate by (RLEP). 5. The formation of gem diol and dimers of erythrose 4-phosphate is proposed to account in part for the failure to detect monomeric erythrose 4-phosphate in the carbon balance studies. 6. The equilibrium value for the pentose pathway acting by the reverse mode in

  14. [Adsorption of Phosphate by Lanthanum Hydroxide/Natural Zeolite Composites from Low Concentration Phosphate Solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-wei; Wang, Hong; Zhan, Yan-hui; Chen, Dong-mei

    2016-01-15

    A series of composites of lanthanum hydroxide/natural zeolite ( La( OH) 3/NZ composites) were prepared by co-precipitation method, and these composites were used as adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. The phosphate adsorption capacities of different composites prepared with different precipitated pH values were compared in batch mode. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate from aqueous solution on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 was investigated using batch experiments. The results showed that the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH values of 5-7 and 13 had a low adsorption capacity for phosphate in aqueous solution, while the La( OH) 3/NZ composites prepared with the precipitated pH values of 9-12 exhibited much higher phosphate adsorption capacity. The phosphate adsorption capacity of the La (OH)3/NZ composite increased with the increase of the precipitated pH value from 9 to 11, but remained basically unchanged with the increase of the precipitated pH value from 11 to 12. The equilibrium adsorption data of phosphate from aqueous solution on the La ( OH ) 3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model with the predicted maximum phosphate adsorption of 44 mg x g(-1) (phosphate solution pH 7 and 30 degrees C). The kinetic data of phosphate adsorption from low concentration phosphate solution on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 well followed a pseudo-second-order model. The presence of Cl- and SO4(2-) in low concentration phosphate solution had no negative effect on phosphate adsorption onto the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11, while the presence of HCO3- slightly inhibited the adsorption of phosphate. Coexisting humic acid had a negative effect on the adsorption of phosphate at low concentration on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the

  15. Kinetics of Phosphate Release from Three Phosphate-Treated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shou-Tian; ZHOU Jian-Min; WANG Huo-Yan; DU Chang-Wen; CHEN Xiao-Qin

    2005-01-01

    Phosphate release from three selected soils after treatments of 1.6 and 2.4 mmol L-1 P was investigated using sequential extractions and fitted using six kinetic models, including zero order (Z), first order (F), second order (S),parabolic diffusion (PD), two constant rate (TC), and Elovich type (ET) equations. The results showed that the rate of P release was initially rapid and then gradually declined with time. Also, P release increased with added P. Total P release followed the order: paddy soil with 2.4 mmol L-1 P > red soil with 2.4 mmol L-1 P > paddy soil with 1.6 mmol L-1 P > fluvo-aquic soil with 2.4 mmol L-1 P > fluvo-aquic with 1.6 mmol L-1 P > red soil with 1.6 mmol L-1 P. For the two P treatments P release from the paddy soils in the first extraction was 44.3% and 45.6% of total released P, respectively,which were higher than those from red and fluvo-aquic soils. The ratio of P release at the end of release time was 14.0%and 13.1% in the paddy soil treated with 1.6 and 2.4 mmol L-1 P, respectively, but only 5.1% and 9.2% in the red soil and 7.0% and 5.2% in the fluvo-aquic soil, respectively. Comparison of the coefficients of determination (R2) indicated that ET, TC, and PD equations could describe the P release data better than Z, F, and S equations.

  16. Biological Removal of Phosphate Using Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Consortium from Synthetic Wastewater: A Laboratory Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Dipak Paul; Sankar Narayan Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Biological phosphate removal is an important process having gained worldwide attention and widely used for removing phosphorus from wastewater. The present investigation was aimed to screen the efficient phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates and used to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater under shaking flasks conditions. Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12, Enterobacter sp. TPSB20, Flavobacterium sp. TPSB23 and mixed bacterial consortium (Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12+Enterobacter sp. TPSB20+Flavobact...

  17. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto; Marihus Altoé Baldotto; Fábio Lopes Olivares; Adriane Nunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i) to select and characterize diazotrophs abl...

  18. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  19. Uranium recovery from phosphate rocks concentrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reserves, geological data, chemical data and technical flowsheet from COPEBRAS and Goiasfertil ores are described, including the process of mining ore concentration. Samples of Goiasfertil ores are analysed by gravimetric analysis, for phosphate, and spectrofluorimetry for uranium. (author)

  20. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.; Handley-Pendleton, J. M.; van der lelie, D.; Wishart, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  1. Synthesis of Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiao-min; OU Yu-xiang; LUO Rui-bin; WANG Yong; LIAN Dan-jun; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    Seven caged bicyclic phosphate compounds were synthesized by using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethy1-2,6,7-trioxa-1-pho-sphabicyclo[2.2.2] octane (PEPA) as starting material. Within them were three PEPA derivatives containing single caged bicyclic phosphate structure(1a,2a,3a), another three PEPA deviratives containing two caged bicyclic phosphate structures(1b,2b,3b) and one devirative(1c) containing three caged bicyclic phosphate structures. Structures of the products were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and TG analysis. The reaction conditions were also discussed. Thermal analysis showed they had high thermal stability and excellent char-forming ability. Besides, these compounds had pentaerythritol bone and flame retardant elements of phosphorus, bromine or nitrogen simultaneously in their molecules, endowed them with good fire retardancy, and made them can be used as intumescent flame retardant.

  2. Pyridoxal Phosphate vs Pyridoxine for Intractable Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP compared to pyridoxine (PN in the control of idiopathic intractable epilepsy was studied in 94 children, aged 8 months to 15 years, at the National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

  3. Phosphate coating on stainless steel 304 sensitized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stainless steel 304 can be sensitized when welding processes are applied, that causes the precipitation of chromium carbide in the grain limits, being promoted in this way the formation of galvanic cells and consequently the corrosion process. Using a phosphate coating is possible to retard the physiochemical damages that can to happen in the corrosion process. The stainless steel 304 substrate sensitized it is phosphate to base of Zn-Mn, in a immersion cell very hot. During the process was considered optimization values, for the characterization equipment of X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscopy was used. The XRD technique confirmed the presence of the phases of manganese phosphate, zinc phosphate, as well as the phase of the stainless steel 304. When increasing the temperature from 60 to 90 C in the immersion process a homogeneous coating is obtained. (Author)

  4. Study on Stability of Monosodium Glutamate and Disodium Inosine-5'-monophosphate +Disodium Guanosine-5'-monophosphate (I+G) Added to Food%谷氨酸钠及5’-肌苷酸钠+5'-鸟核酸钠(I+G)添加到食品中的稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳; 金菲; 李刚

    2012-01-01

    谷氨酸钠和5’-肌苷酸钠+5’-鸟苷酸钠(I+G)常被添加到食品中来提高鲜味.为了有效利用谷氨酸钠和I+G,将其添加到新鲜萝卜、腌制蔬菜、面粉中,并做热处理实验.谷氨酸钠和I+G含量采用HPLC法测定.结果表明,将谷氨酸钠和I+G添加到新鲜萝卜中,经过85℃和100℃热处理,放置3d,谷氨酸钠保存率分别为76.0%和76.3%,I+G保存率分别为95.6%和95.8%.而先放置3d,再分别85℃和100℃热处理,谷氨酸钠保存率分别为49.0%和41.8%,I+G保存率分别为8.7%和6.9%.将谷氨酸钠和I+G添加到腌制榨菜和腌制雪菜中,经过85℃热处理5 min并放置7d,榨菜和雪菜中谷氨酸钠保存率分别为62.5%和67.5%,I+G保存率分别为86.2%和87.2%.而先放置7d,再85℃热处理5 min,榨菜和雪菜中谷氨酸钠保存率分别为7.5%和7.5%,I+G保存率分别为38.7%和38.4%.将谷氨酸钠和I+G加到面粉中,180℃高温油炸处理3 min,谷氨酸钠保存率为18.8%,I+G保存率为7.9%.在新鲜切割蔬菜和腌制蔬菜中添加谷氨酸钠和I+G,需进行85℃以上热处理,油炸食品的油炸温度不宜过高.%Monosodium glutamate (MSC), disodium inosine-S'-monophosphate + disodium Cuanosine-S'-monophos-phate (I+G) were always added to food to enhance flavor. To make effective use of added monosodium glutamate and I+ G,they were added to flesh radish, pickled vegetables and flour to measure its content change by HPLC after heat treatment. The resuLts showed that when monosodium glutamate and I+G were added to fresh radish with 85 ℃ and 100 ℃ heat treatment, monosodium glutamate reserved 76.0% and 76.3%, I+G reserved 95.6% and 95.8% after 3 days. However, monosodium glutamate reserved 49.0% and 41.8%, I+G reserved 8.7% and 6.9% with 85℃and 100 ℃ heat treatment after 3 days. When monosodium glutamate and I+G were added to pickled tuber mustard and pickled yukina with 85 ℃ heat treatment for 5 min, monosodium

  5. Novel phosphate glasses for bone regeneration applications

    OpenAIRE

    Burling, Luke Donald

    2006-01-01

    Phosphate glass with additions of sodium, magnesium and/or calcium were investigated for their potential to be used as the reinforcing phase in a completely degradable long fibre composite. Glasses were prepared from phosphate salts as opposed to oxides and melted under air in platinum/gold crucibles. The effect of cation addition on the material properties and biocompatibility was investigated. Glasses were characterised using a number of complimentary techniques, including: XRD, XPS, DSC...

  6. Synthesis of Nano-sized Boehmites for Optimum Phosphate Sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Yujiro; Kasama, Takeshi; Fukushi, Keisuke;

    2011-01-01

    the highest amount of phosphate sorption (1.73 mmol g-1 at pH 3.3) compared with Al-bearing materials. The reaction mechanism during phosphate sorption was described by the anion exchange reaction between phosphate ions in sodium phosphate solution and hydroxide ions on boehmite surfaces. Therefore...

  7. Mannose 6-, fructose 1-, and fructose 6-phosphates inhibit human natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, J T; Bretthauer, R. K.; Oeltmann, T N

    1981-01-01

    In vitro human natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NCMC) to K-562, Molt-4, and F-265 cells is inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by mannose 6-phosphate, fructose 1-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. This inhibition is not observed with mannose, glucose, fucose, glucose 6-phosphate, mannose 1-phosphate, galactose 1-phosphate, or galactose 6-phosphate. Preincubation of the effector cells, obtained from fresh whole blood, with mannose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-phosphate, or fructose-6-phosphate...

  8. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation. PMID:26412420

  9. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah J; Rouxel, Olivier J; Bekker, Andrey; Lalonde, Stefan V; Konhauser, Kurt O; Reinhard, Christopher T; Lyons, Timothy W

    2010-10-28

    Phosphorus is a biolimiting nutrient that has an important role in regulating the burial of organic matter and the redox state of the ocean-atmosphere system. The ratio of phosphorus to iron in iron-oxide-rich sedimentary rocks can be used to track dissolved phosphate concentrations if the dissolved silica concentration of sea water is estimated. Here we present iron and phosphorus concentration ratios from distal hydrothermal sediments and iron formations through time to study the evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. The data suggest that phosphate concentrations have been relatively constant over the Phanerozoic eon, the past 542 million years (Myr) of Earth's history. In contrast, phosphate concentrations seem to have been elevated in Precambrian oceans. Specifically, there is a peak in phosphorus-to-iron ratios in Neoproterozoic iron formations dating from ∼750 to ∼635 Myr ago, indicating unusually high dissolved phosphate concentrations in the aftermath of widespread, low-latitude 'snowball Earth' glaciations. An enhanced postglacial phosphate flux would have caused high rates of primary productivity and organic carbon burial and a transition to more oxidizing conditions in the ocean and atmosphere. The snowball Earth glaciations and Neoproterozoic oxidation are both suggested as triggers for the evolution and radiation of metazoans. We propose that these two factors are intimately linked; a glacially induced nutrient surplus could have led to an increase in atmospheric oxygen, paving the way for the rise of metazoan life.

  10. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation.

  11. Phosphate diabetes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, F.; Hargreaves, J.; Kakkar, V V

    1998-01-01

    Phosphate depletion is associated with neuromuscular dysfunction due to changes in mitochondrial respiration that result in a defect of intracellular oxidative metabolism. Phosphate diabetes causes phosphate depletion due to abnormal renal re-absorption of phosphate be the proximal renal tubule. Most of the symptoms presented by patients with phosphate diabetes such as myalgia, fatigue and mild depression, are also common in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, but this differential diagno...

  12. Can features of phosphate toxicity appear in normophosphatemia?

    OpenAIRE

    Osuka, Satoko; Razzaque, Mohammed S.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate is an indispensable nutrient for the formation of nucleic acids and the cell membrane. Adequate phosphate balance is a prerequisite for basic cellular functions ranging from energy metabolism to cell signaling. More than 85% of body phosphate is present in the bones and teeth. The remaining phosphate is distributed in various soft tissues, including skeletal muscle. A tiny amount, around 1% of total body phosphate, is distributed both in the extracellular fluids and within the cells...

  13. Conformation of lanthanides complexes of L-serine phosphate and ethanolamine phosphate in aqueous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR paramagnetic shifts induced by rare earth cations lead to conformations of complexes in aqueous solution. A computer treatment is developped for complexes of L-serine phosphate and ethanolamine phosphate with lanthanides in acidic solution (pH=1 to 1.8). Angle and distance values are discussed with a hindered rotation about P-O1 bond

  14. An autosomal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) polymorphism in human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S G; Ashton, G C

    1976-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) from human saliva has been demonstrated by the zymogram technique. Three phenotypes were found. Family and population studies suggested that these phenotypes are the products of an autosomal locus with two alleles Sgd-1 and Sgd-2. PMID:950237

  15. Biological Removal of Phosphate Using Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Consortium from Synthetic Wastewater: A Laboratory Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological phosphate removal is an important process having gained worldwide attention and widely used for removing phosphorus from wastewater. The present investigation was aimed to screen the efficient phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates and used to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater under shaking flasks conditions. Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12, Enterobacter sp. TPSB20, Flavobacterium sp. TPSB23 and mixed bacterial consortium (Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12+Enterobacter sp. TPSB20+Flavobacterium sp. TPSB23 were used for the removal of phosphate. Among the individual strains, Enterobacter sp. TPSB20 was removed maximum phosphate (61.75% from synthetic wastewater in presence of glucose as a carbon source. The consortium was effectively removed phosphate (74.15-82.50% in the synthetic wastewater when compared to individual strains. The pH changes in culture medium with time and extracellular phosphatase activity (acid and alkaline were also investigated. The efficient removal of phosphate by the consortium may be due to the synergistic activity among the individual strains and phosphatase enzyme activity. The use of bacterial consortium in the remediation of phosphate contaminated aquatic environments has been discussed.

  16. Translocation of metal phosphate via the phosphate inorganic transport system of Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, H.W; Abee, T.; Kortstee, G.J J; Konings, W.N; Zehnder, A.J B

    1994-01-01

    P-i transport via the phosphate inorganic transport system (Pit) of Escherichia coil was studied in natural and artificial membranes. P-i uptake via Pit is dependent on the presence of divalent cations, like Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, or Mn2+, which form a soluble, neutral metal phosphate (MeHPO(4)) complex.

  17. Relationship between Nitrite Reduction and Active Phosphate Uptake in the Phosphate-Accumulating Denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. Strain JR 12

    OpenAIRE

    Barak, Yoram; van Rijn, Jaap

    2000-01-01

    Phosphate uptake by the phosphate-accumulating denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. JR12 was examined with different combinations of electron and carbon donors and electron acceptors. Phosphate uptake in acetate-supplemented cells took place with either oxygen or nitrate but did not take place when nitrite served as the final electron acceptor. Furthermore, nitrite reduction rates by this denitrifier were shown to be significantly reduced in the presence of phosphate. Phosphate uptake assays in the pr...

  18. Cloning and characterization of a glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator from Oryza sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华武; 佃蔚敏; 刘非燕; 吴平

    2003-01-01

    Plastids of nongreen tissues import carbon as a source of biosynthetic pathways and energy, and glucose 6-phosphate is the preferred hexose phosphate taken up by nongreen plastids. A cDNA clone encoding glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator (GPT) was isolated from a cDNA library of immature seeds of rice and named as OsGPT. The cDNA has one uninterrupted open reading frame encoding a 42 kDa polypeptide possessing transit peptide consisting of 70 amino acid residues. The OsGPT gene maps on chromosome 8 of rice and is linked to the quantitative trait locus for 1000-grain weight. The expression of OsGPT is mainly restricted to heterotrophic tissues. These results suggest that glucose 6-phosphate imported via GPT can be used for starch biosynthesis in rice nongreen plastids.

  19. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  20. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... State shall follow the standards in E.O. 11652 and the provisions of 22 CFR 9.5 through 9.8. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4,...

  1. 12 CFR 261a.4 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 261a.4 Section 261a.4 Banks and Banking... TO PERSONAL INFORMATION UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 261a.4 Fees. (a) Copies of... Availability of Information, § 261.10 of this part. (b) No fee. Documents may be furnished without charge...

  2. 12 CFR 269a.4 - Investigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investigator. 269a.4 Section 269a.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 269a.4 Investigator. The term investigator means the officer designated by the panel to investigate...

  3. 32 CFR 383a.4 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization. 383a.4 Section 383a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.4 Organization. (a) The DeCA is established as an...

  4. Isolation and screening phosphate solubilizers from composts as biofertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate solubilizers are miroorganisms that able to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphate compounds or hydrolyze organic phosphate to inorganic P. Therefore make the P to be available for plant and consequently enhance plant growth and yield. Recently, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms has been shown to play an important role in the biofertilizer industry. Fifty-one bacterial were isolated from eleven composts. Most of the phosphate solubilizers were isolated from natural farming composted compost and normal composting compost. This shows that both of these composts are more suitable to use for phosphate solubilizer isolation compare commercial composts. Fourteen of the isolates were found to be phosphate solubilizers. These isolates produced a clear zone on the phosphate agar plates, showing their potential as biofertilizer. AP3 was significantly produced the largest clear zone compared with other isolates. This indicates that isolate AP 3 could be a good phosphate solubilizer. Thus, their effectiveness in the greenhouse and field should be evaluated. (Author)

  5. Dilithium disodium nickel(II cyclohexaphosphate dodecahydrate, Li2Na2NiP6O18·12H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Abid

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of Li2Na2NiP6O18·12H2O is characterized by the presence of six-membered P6O186− phosphate ring anions (internal symmetry -1 having a chair conformation and three different cations, viz. Li+, Na+ and Ni2+, to counterbalance the anionic charge. All atoms are in general positions except for nickel, which lies on a special position with site symmetry 2. Lithium has a tetrahedral environment (LiO4, and sodium and nickel have octahedral environments [NaO6 and Ni(H2O6, respectively]. The P6O18 rings are linked via corner sharing by NaO6 octahedra and LiO4 tetrahedra to form a three-dimensional framework presenting tunnels running along [010] in which the six-coordinated Ni2+ cations are located. The structure is stabilized by a network of O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  6. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  7. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  8. Inhibition of microbial arsenate reduction by phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Deanne C; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P

    2012-03-20

    The ratio of arsenite (As(III)) to arsenate (As(V)) in soils and natural waters is often controlled by the activity of As-transforming microorganisms. Phosphate is a chemical analog to As(V) and, consequently, may competitively inhibit microbial uptake and enzymatic binding of As(V), thus preventing its reduction to the more toxic, mobile, and bioavailable form - As(III). Five As-transforming bacteria isolated either from As-treated soil columns or from As-impacted soils were used to evaluate the effects of phosphate on As(V) reduction and As(III) oxidation. Cultures were initially spiked with various P:As ratios, incubated for approximately 48 h, and analyzed periodically for As(V) and As(III) concentration. Arsenate reduction was inhibited at high P:As ratios and completely suppressed at elevated levels of phosphate (500 and 1,000 μM; P inhibition constant (K(i))∼20-100 μM). While high P:As ratios effectively shut down microbial As(V) reduction, the expression of the arsenate reductase gene (arsC) was not inhibited under these conditions in the As(V)-reducing isolate, Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. 5B. Further, high phosphate ameliorated As(V)-induced cell growth inhibition caused by high (1mM) As pressure. These results indicate that phosphate may inhibit As(V) reduction by impeding As(V) uptake by the cell via phosphate transport systems or by competitively binding to the active site of ArsC. PMID:21741807

  9. Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate polyhedron connectivity in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALAM,TODD M.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  10. Removal of Phosphate from Aqueous Solution with Modified Bentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳葵; 童张法; 魏光涛; 李仲民; 梁达文

    2006-01-01

    Bentonite combined with sawdust and other metallic compounds was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions in this study. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate on the modified bentonite were investigated, including the effects of temperature, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of phosphate and pH on removal of phosphate by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. The results showed that 98% of phosphate removal rate was obtained since sawdust and bentonite used in this investigation were abundantly and locally available. It is concluded that modified bentonite is a relatively efficient, low cost and easily available adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solutions.

  11. The daily intake of 226 Radio by phosphatic region residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium-phosphate region of northeastern Brazil comprehends a 4 km wide land strip that spans over 150 km of the coastal region of the states of Pernambuco and Paraiba. People that live in these region are subject to higher than normal levels of background radiation, due to the presence of natural uranium and their progeny in the environment. In this study, the concentrations of 226 Ra in locally grown produce, as well as in the water were determined. The mean concentration of 226 Ra in the food items included in this study was of 357.7 mBq/kg (wet weight). The mean 226 Ra concentration in the water was of 282.2 mBq/L. The annul rate, due to the combined consumption of food and water by the local population was estimated to be of 275.35 Bq

  12. Phosphate starvation regulon of Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, J. W.; Spector, M P

    1986-01-01

    Several phosphate-starvation-inducible (psi) genetic loci in Salmonella typhimurium were identified by fusing the lacZ gene to psi promoters by using the Mu d1 and Mu d1-8 bacteriophages. Although several different starvation conditions were examined, the psi loci responded solely to phosphate deprivation. A regulatory locus, psiR, was identified as controlling the psiC locus. The psiR locus did not affect the expression of the Escherichia coli phoA locus or any of the other psi loci described.

  13. [Phosphate nephropathy: how to avoid it?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, Vincent; Ponte, Belén; Zellweger, Michael; Levy, Marc; Hadengue, Antoine; Moll, Solange

    2011-11-16

    Colonoscopy is a commonly used procedure for colon cancer screening. The ideal bowel preparation for a good visualization of the colonic mucosa would be effective and well tolerated. Sodium phosphate (NaP) and polyethylen glycol (PEG) are the two most frequently used solutions in this indication. However, although NaP has been described as more effective and better tolerated, it can cause severe acute electrolytes disturbances and, in rare cases, lead to irreversible renal failure, called phosphate nephropathy. NaP should therefore be prescribed with caution and be formally banned for patients with risk factors. PMID:22400350

  14. Occupational Exposure in Ammonium Phosphate Fertilizer Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposures and activity concentrations have been assessed in two industrial plants producing mono-ammonium phosphate and di-ammonium phosphate fertilizers, located in south-western Spain. The annual effective doses received by the workers are below 1 mSv/a, with the contribution from external exposure being similar to that from internal exposure. The dose contribution from inhalation of dust has been estimated to be about 0.12 mSv/a, while the 222Rn concentrations inside the plants are of no concern. Consequently, no additional radiation protection measures need to be taken to protect the workers in these facilities. (author)

  15. Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

  16. Potentially Prebiotic Syntheses of Condensed Phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.

  17. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i to select and characterize diazotrophs able to solubilize phosphates in vitro and (ii evaluate the initial performance of the pineapple cultivars Imperial and Pérola in response to inoculation with selected bacteria in combination with rock phosphate. The experiments were conducted at Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, in 2009. In the treatments with bacteria the leaf contents of N, P and K were higher than those of the controls, followed by an increase in plant growth. These results indicate that the combined application of diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Burkholderia together with Araxá rock phosphate can be used to improve the initial performance of pineapple slips.

  18. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.

  19. Origins, distribution and expression of the Duarte-2 (D2) allele of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Carney, Amanda E.; Rebecca D Sanders; Garza, Kerry R.; McGaha, Lee Anne; Bean, Lora J. H.; Coffee, Bradford W.; Thomas, James W; Cutler, David J.; Kurtkaya, Natalie L.; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    Duarte galactosemia is a mild to asymptomatic condition that results from partial impairment of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT). Patients with Duarte galactosemia demonstrate reduced GALT activity and carry one profoundly impaired GALT allele (G) along with a second, partially impaired GALT allele (Duarte-2, D2). Molecular studies reveal at least five sequence changes on D2 alleles: a p.N314D missense substitution, three intronic base changes and a 4 bp deletion in the 5′ pro...

  20. Thermochemical investigations on uranyl phosphates and arsenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are described of a study of the thermochemical stability of anhydrous uranyl phosphates and arsenates. A number of aspects of chemical technological importance are indicated in detail. The synthesized anhydrous uranyl phosphates and arsenates were very hygroscopic, so that experiments on these compounds had to be carried out under moisture-free conditions. Further characterisation of these compounds are given, including a study of their thermal stabilities and phase relations. The uranyl phosphates reduced reversibly at temperatures of the order of 1100 to 16000C. This makes it possible to express their relative stabilities quantitatively, in terms of the oxygen pressures of the reduction reactions. The thermal decomposition of uranyl arsenates did not occur by reduction, as for the phosphates, but by giving off arsenic oxide vapour. The results of measurements of enthalpies of solution led to the determination of the enthalpies of formation, heat capacity and the standard entropies of the uranyl arsenates. The thermochemical functions at high-temperatures could consequently be calculated. Attention is paid to the possible formation of uranium arsenates, whose uranium has a valency lower than six, hitherto not reported in literature. It was not possible to prepare arsenates of tetravalent uranium. However, three new compounds were observed, one of these, UAsO5, was studied in some detail. (Auth.)

  1. Durability of phosphate-selective CHEMFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wroblewski, Wojciech; Wojciechowski, Kamil; Dybko, Artur; Brzozka, Zbigniew; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Snellink-Ruel, Bianca H.M.; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2001-01-01

    Lipophilic uranyl salophenes derivatives I and II were used as ionophores in membranes of phosphate-selective CHEMFETs. High selectivity for H2PO4− over other anions was obtained for these sensors. The influence of the ionophore structure on the sensor durability was investigated. CHEMFETs based on

  2. Three-dimensionally Perforated Calcium Phosphate Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics were produced by compression molding using a special mold followed by sintering. The porous calcium phosphate ceramics have three-dimensional and penetrated open pores380-400μm in diameter spaced at intervals of 200μm. The layers of the linear penetration pores alternately lay perpendicular to pore direction. The porosity was 59%-65% . The Ca/P molar ratios of the porous calcium phosphate ceramics range from 1.5 to 1.85. A binder containing methyl cellulose was most effective for preparing the powder compact among vinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, stearic acid, methyl cellulose and their mixtures. Stainless steel, polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies for the penetrated open pores. When polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies, the dies were burned out during the sintering process. Using stainless steel as the male dies with the removal of the dies before heat treatment resulted in a higher level of densification of the calcium phosphate ceramic.

  3. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  4. Thermochemical investigations on uranyl phosphates and arsenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are described of a study of the thermochemical stability of anhydrous phosphates and arsenates. The results of phase studies deal with compound formation and characterization, coexisting phases and limiting physical or chemical properties. The uranyl phosphates evolve oxygen at higher temperatures and the arsenates lose arsenic oxide vapour. These phenomena give the possibility to describe their thermodynamic stabilities. Thus oxygen pressures of uranyl phosphates have been measured using a static, non-isothermal method. Having made available the pure anhydrous compounds in the course of this investigation, molar thermodynamic quantities have been measured as well. These include standard enthalpies of formation from solution calorimetry and high-temperature heat-capacity functions derived from enthalpy increments measured. Some attention is given to compounds with uranium in valencies lower than six which have been met during the investigation. An evaluation is made of the thermodynamics of the compounds studied, to result in tabulized high-temperature thermodynamic functions. Relative stabilities within the systems are discussed and comparisons of the uranyl phosphates and the arsenates are made. (Auth.)

  5. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; R N Yadav

    2000-02-01

    The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

  6. Iron phosphate glass containing simulated fast reactor waste: Characterization and comparison with pristine iron phosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Kitheri; Asuvathraman, R.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Ravindran, T. R.; Govindaraj, R.; Govindan Kutty, K. V.; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.

    2014-09-01

    Detailed characterization was carried out on an iron phosphate glass waste form containing 20 wt.% of a simulated nuclear waste. High temperature viscosity measurement was carried out by the rotating spindle method. The Fe3+/Fe ratio and structure of this waste loaded iron phosphate glass was investigated using Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopy respectively. Specific heat measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300-700 K using differential scanning calorimeter. Isoconversional kinetic analysis was employed to understand the crystallization behavior of the waste loaded iron phosphate glass. The glass forming ability and glass stability of the waste loaded glass were also evaluated. All the measured properties of the waste loaded glass were compared with the characteristics of pristine iron phosphate glass.

  7. Removing and Recovering Phosphate from Poultry Wastewater Using Amorphous Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Youhui Xie; Qin Li; Xianzhi Zhao; Yi Luo; Yangming Wang; Xiangwei Peng; Qigui Wang; Jian Su; Yin Lu

    2014-01-01

    A novel and effective technique for phosphate from poultry wastewater was developed using amorphous ceramics. Amorphous ceramics, which showed high performance for phosphate removal and recovery from poultry wastewater, were synthesized using unlimitedly available, inexpensive materials such as silica fume and lime. Dissolved phosphate in poultry wastewater can be deposited as a solid on the surface of amorphous ceramics. Phosphate content on the surface of amorphous ceramics could reach 14.2...

  8. The stability mechanisms of an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimi, Ahmed; Tassin, Jean-François; Axelos, Monique,; Weiss, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience Calcium phosphate ceramics are widely used as bone substitutes in dentistry and orthopedic applications. For minimally invasive surgery an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension (ICPCS) was developed. It consists in a biopolymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose: HPMC) as matrix and bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics (biphasic calcium phosphate: BCP) as fillers. The stability of the suspension is essential to this generation of "ready to use" injectable biomat...

  9. Akt2/PKBbeta-sensitive regulation of renal phosphate transport

    OpenAIRE

    Kempe, D S; Ackermann, T F; Boini, K M; Klaus, F; Umbach, A T; Dërmaku-Sopjani, M; Judenhofer, M S; Pichler, B J; Capuano, P.; Stange, G.; Wagner, C. A.; Birnbaum, M J; Pearce, D.; Föller, M; Lang, F.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt is known to stimulate the cellular uptake of glucose and amino acids. The kinase is expressed in proximal renal tubules. The present study explored the influence of Akt/PKB on renal tubular phosphate transport. METHODS: The renal phosphate transporter NaPi-IIa was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without PKB/Akt and Na(+) phosphate cotransport determined using dual electrode voltage clamp. Renal phosphate excretion was determined in Akt2/PKBbeta knockou...

  10. Biological Effects of Phosphate on Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Yubo Sun; Mauerhan, David R.; Deepthi Chaturvedi; Hanley, Edward N; Gruber, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to examine the expression of genes implicated in phosphate transport and pathological calcification in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and investigate the biological effects of phosphate. Results revealed that several genes, which were implicated in phosphate transport and pathological calcification, were differentially expressed in OA FLS and RA FLS. Phosphate stimulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinse-1, matrix...

  11. Sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclast differentiation and function

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Albano; Matthias Moor; Silvia Dolder; Mark Siegrist; Wagner, Carsten A.; Jürg Biber; Nati Hernando; Willy Hofstetter; Olivier Bonny; Fuster, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone degrading cells. Phosphate is an important constituent of mineralized bone and released in significant quantities during bone resorption. Molecular contributors to phosphate transport during the resorptive activity of osteoclasts have been controversially discussed. This study aimed at deciphering the role of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters during osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Our studies reveal RANKL-induced differential expressio...

  12. Dominant oceanic bacteria secure phosphate using a large extracellular buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, Mikhail V; Martin, Adrian P; Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Scanlan, David J

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria manage to maintain a sufficient supply of phosphate in phosphate-poor surface waters of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Furthermore, it seems that their phosphate uptake may counter-intuitively be lower in more productive tropical waters, as if their cellular demand for phosphate decreases there. By flow sorting (33)P-phosphate-pulsed (32)P-phosphate-chased cells, we demonstrate that both Prochlorococcus and SAR11 cells exploit an extracellular buffer of labile phosphate up to 5-40 times larger than the amount of phosphate required to replicate their chromosomes. Mathematical modelling is shown to support this conclusion. The fuller the buffer the slower the cellular uptake of phosphate, to the point that in phosphate-replete tropical waters, cells can saturate their buffer and their phosphate uptake becomes marginal. Hence, buffer stocking is a generic, growth-securing adaptation for SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria, which lack internal reserves to reduce their dependency on bioavailable ambient phosphate.

  13. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  1. Phosphate Rock Fertilizer in Acid Soil:Comparing Phosphate Extraction Methods for Measuring Dissolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.S.ANSUMANA-KAWA; WANGGUANGHUO

    1998-01-01

    Three phosphate extraction methods were used to investigate the dissolution,availability and transfo-mation of Kunyang phosphate rock(KPR) in two surface acid soils.Dissolution was determined by measuring the increase in the amounts of soluble and adsorbed inorganic phosphate fractions,and did not differ signifi-cantly among the three methods.Significant correlations were obtained among P fractions got by the three extraction methods.Dissolution continued until the end of the 90-day incubation period.At the end of the period,much of the applied phosphate recovered in both soils were in the Al- and Fe-P or in the hydroxide-and bicarbonate-extractable inorganic P fractions.The dissolution of KPR in the two soils was also similar: increased addition of phosphate rock resulted in decreased dissolution.The similarity in the order and extent of dissolution in the two soils was probably due to the similarity in each soil of several factors that are known to influence phosphate rock dissolution,namely low CEC,pH,P level,and base status;and high clay and free iron and aluminum oxide contents.The results suggested that KPR could be an aternative P source in the soils are not limiting.

  2. Phosphate and Vascular Calcification: Emerging Role of the Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Cotransporter PiT-1

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Wei Ling; Festing, Maria H; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate is a risk factor for vascular calcification and cardiovascular events in kidney disease as well as in the general population. Elevated phosphate levels drive vascular calcification, in part, by regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) gene expression, function, and fate. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, PiT-1, is necessary for phosphate-induced VSMC osteochondrogenic phenotype change and calcification, and has recently been shown to have une...

  3. Ribose-5-Phosphate Biosynthesis in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Occurs in the Absence of a Pentose-Phosphate Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Grochowski, Laura L.; Xu, Huimin; White, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has raised a question as to the involvement of erythrose-4-phosphate, a product of the pentose phosphate pathway, in the metabolism of the methanogenic archaea (R. H. White, Biochemistry 43:7618-7627, 2004). To address the possible absence of erythrose-4-phosphate in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, we have assayed cell extracts of this methanogen for the presence of this and other intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway and have determined and compared the labeling patterns ...

  4. Purification and characterization of ribitol-5-phosphate and xylitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenases from strains of Lactobacillus casei.

    OpenAIRE

    Hausman, S Z; London, J

    1987-01-01

    A simple three-step procedure is described which yields electrophoretically homogeneous preparations of ribitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenase and xylitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenase. The former enzyme is a 115,000-molecular-weight protein composed of two subunits of identical size and is specific for its substrate, ribitol. The xylitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenase exists as a tetrameric protein with a molecular weight of 180,000; this enzyme oxidizes the phosphate esters of both xylitol and D-arabitol...

  5. Impacts of phosphate amendments on lead biogeochemistry at a contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinde; Ma, Lena Q; Chen, Ming; Singh, Satya P; Harris, Willie G

    2002-12-15

    Soil amendments can be used to cost-effectively reduce the bioavailability and mobility of toxic metals in contaminated soils. In this study a field demonstration was conducted at a Pb-contaminated site to evaluate the effectiveness of P-induced Pb immobilization. Phosphate was applied at a 4.0 molar ratio of P to Pb with three treatments: T1, 100% of P from H3PO4; T2, 50% P from H3PO4 + 50% P from Ca(H2PO4)2; and T3, 50% P from H3PO4 + 5% phosphate rock. Phosphate amendments effectively transformed soil Pb from the nonresidual (sum of exchangeable, carbonate, Fe/Mn, and organic) to the residual fraction, with residual Pb increase by 19-48% for T1, 22-50% for T2, and 11-55% for T3, respectively. Lead immobilization was attributed to the P-induced formation of chloropyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6Cl2], which was identified in the surface soil, subsurface soil, and plant rhizosphere soil. Occurrence of chloropyromorphite was evident 220 days after P addition for T1 and T2 treatments and 330 days for T3. Visual MINTEQ model and activity-ratio diagram indicated that lead phosphate minerals controlled Pb2+ activities in the P-treated soils. Phosphate treatments significantly reduced Pb translocation from the roots to the shoots in the St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), possibly via the formation of chloropyromorphite on the cell walls of roots. This field observation suggested that P amendments are efficient in reducing Pb mobility via in situ formation of insoluble chloropyromorphite minerals at a field setting. Lead immobilization shows a long-term stability. A mixture of H3PO4 and phosphate rock yields the best overall results for in situ Pb immobilization, with less soil pH change and less P leaching. Application of combined H3PO4 with phosphate rock may provide an effective alternative to the current phosphate remediation technologies for contaminated soils.

  6. Proton/Phosphate Stoichiometry in Uptake of Inorganic Phosphate by Cultured Cells of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakano, Katsuhiro

    1990-01-01

    Upon absorption of phosphate, cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don caused a rapid alkalinization of the medium in which they were suspended. The alkalinization continued until the added phosphate was completely exhausted from the medium, at which time the pH of the medium started to drop sharply toward the original pH value. Phosphate exposure caused the pH of the medium to increase from pH 3.5 to values as high as 5.8, while the rate of phosphate uptake was constant throughout (10-17 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight). This indicates that no apparent pH optimum exists for the phosphate uptake by the cultured cells. The amount of protons cotransported with phosphate was calculated from the observed pH change up to the maximum alkalinization and the titration curve of the cell suspension. Proton/phosphate transport stoichiometry ranged from less than unity to 4 according to the amount of phosphate applied. At low phosphate doses, the stoichiometries were close to 4, while at high phosphate doses, smaller stoichiometries were observed. This suggests that, at high phosphate doses, activation of the proton pump is induced by the longer lasting proton influx acidifying the cytoplasm. The increased H+ efflux due to the proton pump could partially compensate protons taken up via the proton-phosphate cotransport system. Thus, the H+/H2PO4− stoichiometry of the cotransport is most likely to be 4. PMID:16667491

  7. The utilization of rock phosphate (natural defluorinated calcium phosphate or NDCP in laying hens diet to replace dicalcium phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimentwas conducted to study the utilization of local rock phosphate or natural defluorinated calcium phosphate (NDCP as phosphorus source for layer chickens by using the imported dicalcium phosphate (DCP as a reference. Eight experimental diets consisted of 2 source of phosphorus (DCP and NDCP and 4 dietary total P levels (0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7% were formulated. Each diet was fed to 24 pullets (6 replicates with 4 birds each from 20 weeks of age to 14 weeks of egg production. Observations were made on feed consumption, egg production, egg weight, mortality, egg quality, Ca and P retention and ash content of tibial bones . Results showed no significant effect of different source and level of phosphorus tested on egg production (% HD, feed consumption, egg weight and mortality rates . Egg shell thickness was depressed in NDCP diet as compared with DCP, however this only occurred at firstmonth of production. It is concluded that the NDCP can be used in layers diet to replace DCP as phosphorus source. The relative biological value of phosphorus inNDCP is 96% for layers.

  8. Prevention of radioactive contamination in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work was studied the separation of uranium from the phosphate rock to decrease the level of radioactivity in the phosphate fertilizers, this prevents the redistribution of uranium in the environment. The uranium leaching conditions from phosphate rock were estimated using alkaline solutions. The changes in the natural phosphate rock after leaching were studied. The amenability to separate the uranium from phosphate rock with ammonium carbonate / bicarbonate solution was determined. The uranium extraction was approximately 40%. The leaching conditions showed high selectivity for uranium without changes in the ore structure. The bulk ore was not dissolved. (Author)

  9. Seed selections for crystallization of calcium phosphate for phosphorus recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong-hui; Dietfried DONNERT; Ute BERG; Peter G. WEIDLER; Rolf NUEESCH

    2007-01-01

    Seed induces and promotes the crystallization of calcium phosphate, and acts as carrier of the recovered phosphorus (P). In order to select suitable seed for P recovery from wastewater, three seeds including Apatite (AP), Juraperle (JP) and phosphate-modified Juraperle (M-JP) were tested and compared. Batch and fixed-bed column experiments of seeded crystallization of calcium phosphate were undertaken by using synthetic wastewater with 10 mg/L P phosphate. It shows that AP has bad enduring property in the crystallization process, while JP has better performance for multiple uses, and M-JP is a hopeful seed for P recovery by crystallization of calcium phosphate.

  10. Treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by electro-assisted Fe(Ⅱ)+activated disodium peroxodisulfate process%电辅助Fe2+活化过硫酸钠法预处理屠宰废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春维; 郭春雨; 李娜

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by electro-assisted Fe(Ⅱ)+activated disodium peroxodisul-fate advanced oxidation process has been conducted. The square cell is used as its reactor and graphite as anode and cathode. The influences of operation parameters,including electric current density,Na2S2O8 concentration,FeSO4 concentration,pH,etc. on the COD degradation effect are investigated. The results of orthogonal analysis show that the influence of influencing degrees of various reaction parameters on the wastewater COD degradation take turns as follows:FeSO4 initial concentration,Na2S2O8 initial concentration,pH,and current density. The kinetic fitting analy-sis also shows that the reaction course complies with the first-order kinetics model.%对电辅助Fe2+活化过硫酸钠高级氧化法预处理屠宰废水进行了实验研究。采用方型电解槽作为反应器,石墨作为阴、阳极,考察了电流密度、Na2S2O8浓度、FeSO4浓度、pH等反应参数对废水COD降解效果的影响。正交实验结果表明,各参数对废水COD降解的影响程度大小依次为:FeSO4初始浓度、Na2S2O8初始浓度、pH和电流密度。通过动力学拟合分析还表明其反应过程符合一级反应动力学模型。

  11. The effect of disodium cromoglycate, budesonide, and cyclosporin A on interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-13 secretions in Der p I-stimulated T cells from house dust mite-sensitive atopic and nonatopic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Won; Lee, Ha-Baik; Chung, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Yong

    2002-01-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), budesonide, and cyclosporin A (CsA) were the well-known immunomodulators for the allergic and immunologic diseases clinically. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of inhibition on cytokine synthesis of Der p I-stimulated T cells by the same inhibiting concentrations of DSCG, budesonide, and CsA in house-dust mite antigen (Der p I)-specific atopic and nonatopic healthy individuals. Seven house dust mite allergen specific patients were recruited for this study. Seven healthy volunteers were included on the basis of negative allergic manifestations and low serum immunoglobulin E values. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in the presence of recombinant interleukin (rIL)-2 with or without budesonide, DSCG, CsA, and Der p I for 48 hours. Cells were stained with anti-CD4 fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody, and then anti-human IL-4 phycoerythrin, IL-5, or IL-13 monoclonal antibody, respectively, was added to both blocked and stained samples. Incubation of PBMC from atopics with each immunomodulator and Der p I resulted in the reduction of IL-4 secretion compared with Der p I alone stimulation. However, IL-4 secretion in PBMC from nonatopics was not reduced with DSCG and Der p I stimulation. IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 secretions of PBMC from atopics were significantly decreased after incubation with each immunomodulator and Der p I, compared with after incubation with Der p I alone. These results might be considered to show either that DSCG has a selective inhibiting effect on cytokine production in T cells from atopics or is a weak inhibitor of cytokine secretions compared with budesonide and CsA at even strength for the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation in normal, healthy individuals. PMID:12001789

  12. Zinc phosphating of 6061-Al alloy using REN as additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shenglin; ZHANG Xiaolin; ZHANG Mingming

    2008-01-01

    Zinc phosphate coating formed on 6061-Al alloy was studied with the help of electrochemical measurements, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), after dipping it in phosphating solutions containing different concentrations of Rare Earth Nitrate (REN). REN, which acted as an accelerator in the phosphating solution, could catalyze the surface reaction and accelerate the phosphating process. REN mainly enabled the P in the phosphate coating to exist in the form of PO43- and promoted the hydrolysis of phosphatic acid in a liquid layer at the cathodes. This resulted in the evolution of H2 at the cathodes, which increased the local pH value and in turn drove the precipitation of the phosphate coating. Additionally, REN was adsorbed on the surface of the aluminum substrates to form a gel during the phosphating process. These gel particles were good crystal seeds, which helped to form phosphate crystal nuclei and possess the function of a nucleation agent that could decrease the phosphate crystal size. The corrosion resistance of the formed zinc phosphate coatings was improved.

  13. VistA 4 Product Roadmap

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VistA 4 Product Roadmap outlines how the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), under the direction of the VistA Evolution Program, will build upon the previous...

  14. Agronomic Effectiveness of Partially Acidulated Phosphate Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HENIAN-ZU; SUNQI-WEI

    1994-01-01

    Laboratorial incubation and field experiments were conducted on soils ranging in texture from sandy loam to clay and in pH from 3.6 to 9.0 to determine the agronomic effectiveness of single superphosphate (SSP).fused magnesium phosphate(FMP) and partially acidulated phosphate rock(PAPR) on 8 field crops.The results showed that the pattern of available P released from SSP was fixing-releasing-fixing-steady state,while that of PAPR was shortly fixing-slowly releasing-fixing steady state.And the PAPR,SSP and FMP were equally effective as judged by yield Puptake by phants and extractable P in soils after crop harvesting,The PAPR used as basal fertilizer was more effective than that as top dressing,and its residual effect was also obvious.

  15. Radiophotoluminescence from silver-doped phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass dosimeter utilizing radiophotoluminescence (RPL) is one of accumulation type solid state dosimeters, which is based on luminescence phenomenon of silver (Ag+ ions)-doped phosphate glass exposed to ionizing radiation. In this study, to clarify the emission mechanism of yellow and blue RPL peaks, optical properties of Ag+-doped glass, such as optical absorption spectrum, RPL excitation spectrum before and after X-ray irradiation as well as the lifetime of both RPL peaks are measured. From the results, we discuss the emission mechanism of yellow (peaked at 2.21 eV) and blue (peaked at 2.70 eV) RPL using a proposed energy band diagram for RPL emission and excitation in Ag+-doped phosphate glass. It is found that the radiative lifetime of blue RPL is three orders of magnitude faster than that of yellow RPL.

  16. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  17. Calcium phosphate cements properties with polymers addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have attracted great interest to use in orthopedics and dentistry as replacements for damaged parts of the skeletal system, showing good biocompatibility and osseointegration, allowing its use as bone graft. Several studies have shown that the addition of polymer additives have a strong influence on the cement properties. The low mechanical strength is the main obstacle to greater use of CPC as an implant material. The objective of this study was to evaluate properties of a cement based on α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), added polymers. PVA (10%, 8%, 6%), sodium alginate (2%) and polyacrylate ammonia (3%), all in weight, were added to the synthesized α-TCP powder. The samples were molded and evaluated for density, porosity in vitro test (Simulated Body Fluid), crystalline phases and mechanical strength. The results show increased the mechanical properties of the cement when added these polymers

  18. Biomedical monitoring of phosphate removal by hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalec, Michał; Fiedoruk-Pogrebniak, Marta; Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska, Joanna; Tymecki, Łukasz; Koncki, Robert

    2016-07-15

    A compact flow analysis system for non-invasive, dialysate-side monitoring of phosphate removal in the course of clinical hemodialysis treatment is presented. The monitor is based on solenoid operated micro-pumps and extremely cheap optoelectronic flow-through detector allowing photometric determination of phosphate in spent dialysate using a molybdenum blue method. The monitor can operate in both, discrete and continuous modes of measurement. The analytical utility of monitor has been tested with samples of spent dialysate produced by artificial kidney in the course of real hemodialysis sessions. The results of monitoring are comparable with those obtained using reference off-line method recommended for clinical analysis. Additionally, the possibility of two-side (dialysate and blood) monitoring of hemodialysis treatments with optoelectronic flow-through detectors has been announced. PMID:27136282

  19. Controlling reaction specificity in pyridoxal phosphate enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D Toney

    2011-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes are ubiquitous in the nitrogen metabolism of all organisms. They catalyze a wide variety of reactions including racemization, transamination, decarboxylation, elimination, retro-aldol cleavage, Claisen condensation, and others on substrates containing an amino group, most commonly α-amino acids. The wide variety of reactions catalyzed by PLP enzymes is enabled by the ability of the covalent aldimine intermediate formed between substrate and PLP to stabilize carb...

  20. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinosito...

  1. Phosphate adsorption on lanthanum loaded biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Dekui; Shen, Fei; Li, Tianyu

    2016-05-01

    To attain a low-cost and high-efficient phosphate adsorbent, lanthanum (La) loaded biochar (La-BC) prepared by a chemical precipitation method was developed. La-BC and its pristine biochar (CK-BC) were comparatively characterized using zeta potential, BET surface area, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The adsorption ability and the mechanisms during adsorption process for the La-BC samples were also investigated. La loaded on the surface of biochar can be termed as La-composites (such as LaOOH, LaONO3 and La(OH)3), leading to the decrease of negative charge and surface area of biochar. La-BC exhibited the high adsorption capacity to phosphate compared to CK-BC. Adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetic studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm and second order model could well describe the adsorption process of La-BC, indicating that the adsorption was dominated by a homogeneous and chemical process. The calculated maximum adsorption capacity was as high as 46.37 mg g(-1) (computed in P). Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. SEM, XRD, XPS and FT-IR analysis suggested that the multi-adsorption mechanisms including precipitation, ligand exchange and complexation interactions can be evidenced during the phosphate adsorption process by La-composites in La-BC. PMID:26871732

  2. Crystal structure of a sodium, zinc and iron(III-based non-stoichiometric phosphate with an alluaudite-like structure: Na1.67Zn1.67Fe1.33(PO43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Khmiyas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new title compound, disodium dizinc iron(III tris(phosphate, Na1.67Zn1.67Fe1.33(PO43, which belongs to the alluaudite family, has been synthesized by solid-state reactions. In this structure, all atoms are in general positions except for four, which are located on special positions of the C2/c space group. This structure is characterized by cation substitutional disorder at two sites, one situated on the special position 4e (2 and the other on the general position 8f. The 4e site is partially occupied by Na+ [0.332 (3], whereas the 8f site is entirely filled by a mixture of Fe and Zn. The full-occupancy sodium and zinc atoms are located at the Wyckoff positions on the inversion center 4a (-1 and on the twofold rotation axis 4e, respectively. Refinement of the occupancy ratios, bond-valence analysis and the electrical neutrality requirement of the structure lead to the given composition for the title compound. The three-dimensional framework of this structure consists of kinked chains of edge-sharing octahedra stacked parallel to [10-1]. The chains are formed by a succession of trimers based on [ZnO6] octahedra and the mixed-cation FeIII/ZnII [(Fe/ZnO6] octahedra [FeIII:ZnIII ratio 0.668 (3/0.332 (3]. Continuous chains are held together by PO4 phosphate groups, forming polyhedral sheets perpendicular to [010]. The stacked sheets delimit two types of tunnels parallel to the c axis in which the sodium cations are located. Each Na+ cation is coordinated by eight O atoms. The disorder of Na in the tunnel might presage ionic mobility for this material.

  3. Fabrications of zinc-releasing biocement combining zinc calcium phosphate to calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shinya; Hiasa, Masahiro; Yasue, Akihiro; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Asaoka, Kenzo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Recently, zinc-releasing bioceramics have been the focus of much attention owing to their bone-forming ability. Thus, some types of zinc-containing calcium phosphate (e.g., zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate and zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite) are examined and their osteoblastic cell responses determined. In this investigation, we studied the effects of zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) derived from zinc phosphate incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in terms of its setting reaction and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell responses. Compositional analysis by powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that HAP crystals were precipitated in the CPC containing 10 or 30wt% ZCP after successfully hardening. However, the crystal growth observed by scanning electron microscopy was delayed in the presence of additional ZCP. These findings indicate that the additional zinc inhibits crystal growth and the conversion of CPC to the HAP crystals. The proliferation of the cells and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were enhanced when 10wt% ZCP was added to CPC. Taken together, ZCP added CPC at an appropriate fraction has a potent promotional effect on bone substitute biomaterials. PMID:24090874

  4. Inactive mutants of human pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase: a possible role for a noncatalytic pyridoxal 5'-phosphate tight binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatge, Mohini S; Karve, Sayali S; David, Tanya M S; Ahmed, Mostafa H; Musayev, Faik N; Cunningham, Kendra; Schirch, Verne; Safo, Martin K

    2016-05-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a cofactor for many vitamin B6-requiring enzymes that are important for the synthesis of neurotransmitters. Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) is one of two enzymes that produce PLP. Some 16 known mutations in human PNPO (hPNPO), including R95C and R229W, lead to deficiency of PLP in the cell and have been shown to cause neonatal epileptic encephalopathy (NEE). This disorder has no effective treatment, and is often fatal unless treated with PLP. In this study, we show that R95C hPNPO exhibits a 15-fold reduction in affinity for the FMN cofactor, a 71-fold decrease in affinity for the substrate PNP, a 4.9-fold decrease in specific activity, and a 343-fold reduction in catalytic activity, compared to the wild-type enzyme. We have reported similar findings for R229W hPNPO. This report also shows that wild-type, R95C and R229W hPNPO bind PLP tightly at a noncatalytic site and transfer it to activate an apo-B6 enzyme into the catalytically active holo-form. We also show for the first time that hPNPO forms specific interactions with several B6 enzymes with dissociation constants ranging from 0.3 to 12.3 μm. Our results suggest a possible in vivo role for the tight binding of PLP in hPNPO, whether wild-type or variant, by protecting the very reactive PLP, and transferring this PLP directly to activate apo-B6 enzymes. PMID:27419045

  5. A safer disposal of hazardous phosphate coating sludge by formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Blasco, I; Duran, A; Pérez-Nicolás, M; Fernández, J M; Sirera, R; Alvarez, J I

    2015-08-15

    Phosphate coating hazardous wastes originated from the automotive industry were efficiently encapsulated by an acid-base reaction between phosphates present in the sludge and calcium aluminate cement, yielding very inert and stable monolithic blocks of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). Two different compositions of industrial sludge were characterized and loaded in ratios ranging from 10 to 50 wt.%. Setting times and compressive strengths were recorded to establish the feasibility of this method to achieve a good handling and a safe landfilling of these samples. Short solidification periods were found and leaching tests showed an excellent retention for toxic metals (Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Mn) and for organic matter. Retentions over 99.9% for Zn and Mn were observed even for loadings as high as 50 wt.% of the wastes. The formation of ACP phase of low porosity and high stability accounted for the effective immobilization of the hazardous components of the wastes. PMID:26024992

  6. Proton transport properties of tin phosphate, chromotropic acid anchored onto tin phosphate and tin phenyl phosphonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chithra Sumej; P P Sharmila; Nisha J Tharayil; S Suma

    2013-02-01

    Tin (IV) phosphates of the class of tetravalent metal acid (TMA) salts have been synthesized by sol–gel method. The functionalized materials of tin (IV) phosphate (SnP) like chromotropic acid anchored tin phosphate (SnPCA) and tin phenyl phosphonate (SnPP) were also synthesized. These materials have been characterized for elemental analysis (ICP–AES), thermal analysis, X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical resistivity of these materials has been accessed in acidic, basic and organic solvent media. The proton present in the structural hydroxyl groups indicates good potential for TMA salts to exhibit solid-state proton conduction. The transport properties of these materials have been explored by measuring specific proton conductance at different temperatures. Based on the specific conduction data and Arrhenius plots, a suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  7. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  8. Effectiveness of a rock phosphate solubilizing fungus to increase soil solution phosphate impaired by the soil phosphate sorption capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Walter Osorio Vega

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Available phosphate (P deficiency in tropical soils has been recognized as a major factor that limits soil quality and plant performance. To overcome this, it is necessary to add high amounts of soluble P-fertilizers; however, this is inefficient and costly. Alternatively, rock phosphates (RP can be used, but their low reactivity limits their use. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM can enhance RP dissolution and, thus, improve the RP agronomic effectiveness as fertilizer. Nonetheless, their effectiveness may be impaired by the soil P fixation capacity. An experiment was carried out to assess the in vitro effectiveness of the fungus Mortierella sp. to dissolve RP in an axenic culture medium and, thus, enhance the solution P concentration in the presence of aliquots of soils with contrasting P fixation capacity. The results showed that the fungus was capable of lowering the medium pH from 7.7 to 3.0 and, thus, dissolving the RP. The presence of soil aliquots in the medium controlled the effectiveness of the fungus to increase the concentration of the soluble P. In the presence of soils with a low or medium P sorption capacity, the concentration of the soluble P was high (63.8-146.6 mg L-1 in comparison with the inoculated (soilless treatment (50.0 mg L-1 and the uninoculated control (0.7 mg L-1. By contrast, with very-high P fixing soil aliquots, the concentration of the soluble P was very low (3.6-33.1 mg L-1; in addition, in these soils, the fungus immobilized more P into its mycelia than in soils with a low or medium P fixation capacity. The capacity of a soil to fix P seems to be a good predictor for the effectiveness of this fungus to increase the soluble P concentration via RP dissolution.

  9. Using oxygen isotopes of phosphate to investigate phosphate release from sediments and phosphate input from waste water treatment plants into Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K.; Klass, T.; Watson, S.; Mah, B.; Paytan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus is often a limiting nutrient in freshwater systems; however increased inputs have been promoting eutrophication in many of these systems. Phosphate is one of the more bio-available forms of phosphate and it has been suggested by Elsbury et al., (2009) that in addition to riverin input some other yet unidentified phosphate source contributes to the phosphorous loading in Lake Erie. We are using the oxygen isotope of phosphate to identify two potential sources of phosphorus into Lake Erie. Specifically we determine the isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate which is associated with various sedimentary phases at two sites in Lake Erie. The distinct sedimentary phases have different phosphate mobility and thus release potential to the lake. In addition we determine the isotopic signature of phosphate that is released into the lake from treated waste water effluent throughout the year. Results will be compared to the isotopic signature of phosphate in Lake water to evaluate the potential contribution form each of these sources.

  10. Meal phosphate variability does not support fixed dose phosphate binder schedules for patients treated with peritoneal dialysis: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Simon; McCormick, Brendan; Wagner, Jessica; Biyani, Mohan; Lavoie, Susan; Imtiaz, Rameez; Zimmerman, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background Removal of phosphate by peritoneal dialysis is insufficient to maintain normal serum phosphate levels such that most patients must take phosphate binders with their meals. However, phosphate ‘counting’ is complicated and many patients are simply prescribed a specific dose of phosphate binders with each meal. Therefore, our primary objective was to assess the variability in meal phosphate content to determine the appropriateness of this approach. Methods In this prospective cohort s...

  11. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry. [Radiological impact of uranium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  12. Carbon Mineralization Using Phosphate and Silicate Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokturk, H.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction from combustion of fossil fuels has become an urgent concern for the society due to marked increase in weather related natural disasters and other negative consequences of global warming. CO2 is a highly stable molecule which does not readily interact with other neutral molecules. However it is more responsive to ions due to charge versus quadrupole interaction [1-2]. Ions can be created by dissolving a salt in water and then aerosolizing the solution. This approach gives CO2 molecules a chance to interact with the hydrated salt ions over the large surface area of the aerosol. Ion containing aerosols exist in nature, an example being sea spray particles generated by breaking waves. Such particles contain singly and doubly charged salt ions including Na+, Cl-, Mg++ and SO4--. Depending on the proximity of CO2 to the ion, interaction energy can be significantly higher than the thermal energy of the aerosol. For example, an interaction energy of 0.6 eV is obtained with the sulfate (SO4--) ion when CO2 is the nearest neighbor [2]. In this research interaction between CO2 and ions which carry higher charges are investigated. The molecules selected for the study are triply charged phosphate (PO4---) ions and quadruply charged silicate (SiO4----) ions. Examples of salts which contain such molecules are potassium phosphate (K3PO4) and sodium orthosilicate (Na4SiO4). The research has been carried out with first principle quantum mechanical calculations using the Density Functional Theory method with B3LYP functional and Pople type basis sets augmented with polarization and diffuse functions. Atomic models consist of the selected ions surrounded by water and CO2 molecules. Similar to the results obtained with singly and doubly charged ions [1-2], phosphate and silicate ions attract CO2 molecules. Energy of interaction between the ion and CO2 is 1.6 eV for the phosphate ion and 3.3 eV for the silicate ion. Hence one can expect that the selected

  13. Plant tissue hybrid electrode for determination of phosphate and fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F.; Renneberg, R.; Scheller, F.W.; Kirstein, L.

    1984-08-01

    A biosensor for inorganic phosphate and fluoride has been developed by coupling a potato (Solanum tuberosum) tissue slice and immobilized glucose oxidase with a Clark oxygen electrode. Measurement is based on the inhibition by either ion of potato acid phosphates catalyzed glucose 6-phosphate hydrolysis. The precision is 1.7% and 6.5% and the lower detection limit 2.5 X 10/sup -5/ M and 1 X 10/sup -4/ M for phosphate and fluoride, respectively. For phosphate determination the hybrid sensor is stable for 28 days or 300 assays. With a higher limit of detection the sensor can be applied in a commercial enzyme electrode based device. Its application for phosphate determination in fertilizer and urine samples is described.

  14. The pentose phosphate pathway and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Krushna C; Hay, Nissim

    2014-08-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which branches from glycolysis at the first committed step of glucose metabolism, is required for the synthesis of ribonucleotides and is a major source of NADPH. NADPH is required for and consumed during fatty acid synthesis and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the PPP plays a pivotal role in helping glycolytic cancer cells to meet their anabolic demands and combat oxidative stress. Recently, several neoplastic lesions were shown to have evolved to facilitate the flux of glucose into the PPP. This review summarizes the fundamental functions of the PPP, its regulation in cancer cells, and its importance in cancer cell metabolism and survival.

  15. Crystal structure of L-alanine phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of L-alanine phosphate (C3O2NH7 · H3PO4) is determined by the single-crystal diffraction technique; a 11.918(1) A, b = 9.117(1) A, c = 7.285(1) A, γ = 104.7(1) deg., space group P21, and Z = 4. The amino group of the alanine is protonated by the hydrogen atom of the phosphoric acid. Pairs of H2PO-4 hydrogen-bonded ions are packed into layers alternating with layers of alanine molecules in the crystal. No hydrogen bonds are formed immediately between the alanine molecules

  16. Computational Design of Biomimetic Phosphate Scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Mathias Felix; Wood, Elizabeth Baker; Truelsen, Sigurd Friis;

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus has long been the target of much research, but in recent years the focus has shifted from being limited only to reducing its detrimental environmental impact, to also looking at how it is linked to the global food security. Therefore, the interest in finding novel techniques for phosph...... phosphate could be the starting point of new novel technological approaches toward phosphorus recovery, and they represent an excellent model system for investigating the nature and dynamics of functional de novo designed intrinsically disordered proteins....

  17. Truth and consequences of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Ana; Saba, Julie D.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL) is an intracellular enzyme responsible for the irreversible catabolism of the lipid signaling molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). SPL catalyzes the cleavage of S1P resulting in the formation of hexadecenal and ethanolamine phosphate. S1P functions as a ligand for a family of ubiquitously expressed G protein-coupled receptors that mediate autocrine and paracrine signals controlling cell migration, proliferation and programmed cell death pathways. S1P has a...

  18. Effect of phosphate on lipid metabolism in Fusarium oxysporum

    OpenAIRE

    J. S. Arneja

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different phosphate levels in the growth medium on lipid metabolism in Fusarium oxysporum, was studied. An increase in the phosphate level led on to an increase in the phosphorus content of the mycelium, as well as in that of total lipids. However, higher phosphate concentrations, had no profound effect on the total lipid percentage. Among phospholipid compounds phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidyl inositol were the most susceptible while phisphatidyl choline (PC) was found t...

  19. Investigation of Structural Mimetics of Natural Phosphate Ion Binding Motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeny A. Kataev; Tatiana A. Shumilova

    2015-01-01

    Phosphates are ubiquitous in biology and nearly half of all proteins interact with their partners by means of recognition of phosphate residues. Therefore, a better understanding of the phosphate ion binding by peptidic structures is highly desirable. Two new receptors have been designed and synthesized and their anion binding properties in an acetonitrile solution have been determined. The structure of hosts mimics a part of the kinase active site that is responsible for the recognition of ...

  20. Plant growth promotion induced by phosphate solubilizing endophytic Pseudomonas isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Oteino, Nicholas; Lally, Richard D.; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Lloyd, Andrew; Ryan, David; Germaine, Kieran J.; Dowling, David N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilizers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilization is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilize the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilization. The study presented h...

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Porous Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Honglian Dai; Xinyu Wang; Yinchao Han; Xin Jiang; Shipu Li

    2011-01-01

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder and Na2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 glass binder were synthesized and mixed, and then the biodegradable porous calcium phosphate ceramics were successfully prepared by foaming and sintering at 850℃. The as-prepared ceramics possess a high porosity with partial three-dimension interconnected macro- and micro-pores. As in vitro experiment testified, the calcium phosphate ceramics (CPCs) has good degradability.

  2. Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R. [Rutherglen Center, Rutherglen, Vic. (Australia)

    2008-07-15

    To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- and compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  3. Phosphate acquisition efficiency and phosphate starvation tolerance locus (PSTOL1) in rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arijit Mukherjee; Sutanu Sarkar; Amrita Sankar Chakraborty; Roshan Yelne; Vinay Kavishetty; Tirthankar Biswas; N. Mandal; Somnath Bhattacharyya

    2014-12-01

    Phosphate availability is a major factor limiting tillering, grain filling vis-à-vis productivity of rice. Rice is often cultivated in soil like red and lateritic or acid, with low soluble phosphate content. To identify the best genotype suitable for these types of soils, P acquisition efficiency was estimated from 108 genotypes. Gobindabhog, Tulaipanji, Radhunipagal and Raghusail accumulated almost equal amounts of phosphate even when they were grown on P-sufficient soil. Here, we have reported the presence as well as the expression of a previously characterized rice gene, phosphate starvation tolerance locus (PSTOL1) in a set of selected genotypes. Two of four genotypes did not show any detectable expression but carried the gene. One mega cultivar, Swarna did not possess this gene but showed high P-deficiency tolerance ability. Increase of root biomass, not length, in P-limiting situations might be considered as one of the selecting criteria at the seedling stage. Neither the presence of PSTOL1 gene nor its closely-linked SSR RM1261, showed any association with P-deficiency tolerance among the 108 genotypes. Not only this, but the presence of PSTOL1 in recombinant inbred line (RIL) developed from a cross between Gobindabhog and Satabdi, also did not show any linkage with P-deficiency tolerance ability. Thus, before considering PSTOL1 gene in MAB, its expression and role in P-deficiency tolerance in the donor parent must be ascertained.

  4. Dependence of Streptococcus lactis Phosphate Transport on Internal Phosphate Concentration and Internal pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POOLMAN, B; NIJSSEN, RMJ; KONINGS, WN

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of phosphate by Streptococcus lactis ML3 proceeds in the absence of a proton motive force, but requires the synthesis of ATP by either arginine or lactose metabolism. The appearance of free Pi internally in arginine-metabolizing cells corresponded quantitatively with the disappearance of extr

  5. Characterization of the denitrifying fraction of phosphate accumulating organisms in biological phosphate removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhold, Jens; Filipe, Carlos D.M.; Daigger, Glen T.;

    1999-01-01

    fractions of PAO are performed and compared. This study extends on previously reported results (Kerrn-Jespersen and Henze, 1993) in that the pH was controlled to around pH 7 to assure that phosphate precipitation was minimal, and in the measurement of PHB and PHV. With regards to the latter, the paper also...

  6. Therapeutic effect between Pemetrexed disodium and Docetaxel as second line chemotherapy on advance non-small cell lung cancer%培美曲塞与多西他赛二线随机分组治疗晚期非小细胞肺癌对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑积华; 林金容; 谢波; 周娟; 徐志勇; 黄雪琴; 王仙赐; 张为民

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare therapeutic effects between pemetrexed disodium and docetaxel as second line chemotherapy on advanced non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: Eighty patients with advance non-small cell lung cancer resistant to first line chemotherapy were enrolled. Fifty-one cases had finished first line chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cis-platin or carboplatin (TP or TO. Twenty-one cases had finished first line chemotherapy with gemzar and cis-platin or carboplatin (GP or GO ,8 cases had carried out first line chemotherapy with nolvebin and cis-platin or carboplatin (NP or NC. A dose of 500 mg/m2 pemetrexed disodium or 75 mg/m2 docetaxel was respectively administered intravenously once every 21 days. RESULTS: The therapeutic effect rates in pemetrexed disodium group and docetaxel group were 7. 3% (3/41) and 5. 1 % (2/39) respectively (P>0. 05). Disease control rates in pemetrexed disodium group and docetaxel group were 46. 3%(19/41) and 33. 3% (13/39) respectively (P>0. 05). Overall survival in pemetrexed disodium group was 3. 1 — 15. 6 months (medium time 7. 6 months) while overall survival in docetaxel group was 4. 4 — 12. 6 months(medium time 8. 1 months). Time to progression in pemetrexed disodium group was 4. 9 months while time to progression in docetaxel group was 3. 9 months. Survival rates of one year were 26. 8%(11/41) in in pemetrexed disodium group and 2. 6% (1/39) in docetaxel group respectively. The main adverse effects in both group were slight and acceptable,which included neutropenia, rash, arthragia, alopecia, diarrhea, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, chest distress and abdominal pain. No patients showed abnormality in liver or kidney function. No patients showed abnormality in electrocardiogram. CONCLUSION; Single pemetrexed disodium or do cetaxel as second line chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with advanced refractory non-small cell lung cancer was safe and effect and both of them can be a choice of second line

  7. Pathogenic Mineralization of Calcium Phosphate on Human Heart Valves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    When calcium phosphate forms in soft tissues such as blood vessels and heart valves, it causes disease. The abnormal formation of calcium phosphate is called pathogenic mineralization or pathogenic calcification. Cases of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) always occur with fibrotic and calcified tissue of heart valve. In this article, samples taken from calcified human heart valves were studied. The characterization was performed by scanning electronic micrascope, X-ray Diffraction and transmission electron microscopy with selective diffraction patterns. It is found for the first time that calcium phosphate grains existing in the calcified human heart valves contain octacalcium phosphate (OCP).

  8. First continuous phosphate record from Greenland ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Kjær

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A continuous and highly sensitive absorption method for detection of soluble phosphate in ice cores has been developed using a molybdate reagent and a 2 m liquid waveguide (LWCC. The method is optimized to meet the low concentrations of phosphate in Greenland ice, it has a detection limit of around 0.1 ppb and a depth resolution of approximately 2 cm. The new method has been applied to obtain phosphate concentrations from segments of two Northern Greenland ice cores: from a shallow firn core covering the most recent 120 yr and from the recently obtained deep NEEM ice core in which sections from the late glacial period have been analysed. Phosphate concentrations in 20th century ice are around 0.32 ppb with no indication of anthropogenic influence in the most recent ice. In the glacial part of the NEEM ice core concentrations in the cold stadial periods are significantly higher, in the range of 6–24 ppb, while interstadial ice concentrations are around 2 ppb. In the shallow firn core, a strong correlation between concentrations of phosphate and insoluble dust suggests a similar deposition pattern for phosphate and dust. In the glacial ice, phosphate and dust also correlate quite strongly, however it is most likely that this correlation originates from the phosphate binding to dust during transport, with only a fraction coming directly from dust. Additionally a constant ratio between phosphate and potassium concentrations shows evidence of a possible biogenic land source.

  9. Biomineralization of iron phosphate nanoparticles in yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous iron phosphate nanoparticles mineralized in yeast cells are studied by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrograph and micro electrophoresis. Iron phosphate nanoparticles in yeast cells show uniform morphology with extensive surface roughness and disperse well. The size distribution of iron phosphate is about 50-200 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to analyze the chemical bond linkages between iron phosphate nanoparticles with protein macromolecules in yeast cells. The mechanism of biomineralization was simply discussed by chemical bonds and surface charges.

  10. Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters and Metal Thiophosphates as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and metal thiophosphates have been used as lubricant additives for over 50 years. While their use has been extensive, a detailed knowledge of how they work has been a much more recent development. In this paper, the use of phosphate esters and thiophosphate esters as anti-wear or extreme pressure additives is reviewed with an emphasis on their mechanism of action. The review includes the use of alkyl phosphates, triaryl phosphates and metal containing thiophosphate esters. The mechanisms of these materials interacting with a range of iron and steel based bearing material are examined.

  11. Indium doped niobium phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Qingfeng; Anfimova, Tatiana;

    2013-01-01

    Indium doped niobium phosphates were prepared from precursors of trivalent indium oxide, pentavalent niobium oxide and phosphoric acid. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, impedance spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found...... that the indium doping promoted formation of the cubic Nb2P4O15 phase instead of the monoclinic Nb5P7O30 phase in the pristine niobium phosphates and enhanced the preservation of OH functional groups in the phosphates. The preserved OH functionalities in the phosphates after the heat treatment at 650 °C...

  12. REMOVAL OF PHOSPHATES FROM WATER BY PILLARED RECTORITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The presence of trace phosphates in treated wastewater from municipalities and industries is often responsible for eutrophication problems in lakes, rivers, and other water bodies. In this paper,we report the removal of PO43- from water by using a pillared rectorite that we synthesized recently. The results show that cross-linking can significantly increase the adsorbing capacity of Na-rectorite for phosphates. The pH, the concentrations of F, NH4+ and COD are main factors, which affect the results for pillared rectorite to adsorb phosphates from water. The OH-, and F- ions decrease the capacity to adsorb phosphates, while the COD and NH4+ ions increase it.

  13. 培美曲塞联合顺铂治疗恶性间皮瘤的疗效分析%Study on cisplatin combination with pemetrexed disodium in the therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻世龙; 崔建东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of ALIMTA (pemetrexed disodium) plus cisplatin.Methods Patients with malignant mesothelioma were allocated to two treatment groups envelope:pemetrexed plus cisplatin (PEM-group) or cisplatin alone (DDP-group).Results A total of 64 patients were randomly assigned and evaluated.The number of patients in PEM- and DDP-group had a significant pathologic complete response were (56.25 % vs 21.88 %,x2 =7.943,P <0.05).Progression-free survival was significantly higher in PEM-group (P <0.05),and 2-year survival rate was lower in DDP-group (P <0.05).Conclusion Pemetrexed elicit significant tumor response and delays disease progression compared with DDP alone in patients with advanced MPM.Improvement in OS is seen in this study.%目的 回顾分析培美曲塞(PEM)联合顺铂(DDP)治疗恶性胸膜间皮瘤(MPM)的疗效.方法 将64例MPM患者分为2组,PEM组(32例)予PEM联合DDP,DDP组予以单纯DDP.分析两组有效率、无进展生存期(DFS)及总生存期(OS).结果 两组患者化疗期间均未见明显不良反应,治疗后PEM组及DDP组有效率分别为56.25%(18/32)、21.88%(7/32),差异有统计学意义(x2=7.943,P< 0.05).PEM组较DDP组DFS延长(P=0.033).治疗后PEM组OS较DDP组高(P=0.041).结论 PEM联合DDP在延长MPM患者DFS及提高生存率方面有一定作用.

  14. Combined Application of Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI in the Diagnosis of Chronic Liver Disease-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available Gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent to target the liver cells with normal function. In clinical practice, the Gd-EOB-DTPA produces high quality hepatocyte specific image 20 minutes after intravenous injection, so DWI sequence is often performed after the conventional dynamic scanning. However, there are still some disputes about whether DWI sequence will provide more effective diagnostic information in clinical practice. This study aimed to explore the diagnostic value of combining Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and DWI in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with chronic liver disease.A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed and Cochrane library database up to March 2015. The quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS was used to evaluate the quality of studies. Heterogeneous test on the included literature was performed by using the software Review Manager 5.3. The MetaDiSc 1.4 software was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio; meanwhile the summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC curve was drawn to compare the diagnostic performance.A total of 13 literatures were included in this study. In 8 literatures regarding HCC diagnosis based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, the pooled sensitivity: 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.88-0.93; specificity: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92; positive likelihood ratio: 8.60 (95% CI: 6.20-11.92; negative likelihood ratio: 0.10 (95% CI: 0.08-0.14 were obtained. The area under curve (AUC and Q values were 0.96 and 0.90, respectively. In 5 literatures relating to HCC diagnosis by combination of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and DWI sequence, the pooled sensitivity: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85-0.91, specificity: 0.96 (0.94-0.97, positive likelihood ratio: 19.63 (12.77-30.16, negative likelihood ratio: 0.10 (0.07-0.14 were obtained. The AUC value was 0

  15. Crystal structure of the phosphate-binding protein (PBP-1) of an ABC-type phosphate transporter from Clostridium perfringens

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Richez, Magali; Bergonzi, Celine; Chabriere, Eric; Elias, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate limitation is an important environmental stress that affects the metabolism of various organisms and, in particular, can trigger the virulence of numerous bacterial pathogens. Clostridium perfringens, a human pathogen, is one of the most common causes of enteritis necroticans, gas gangrene and food poisoning. Here, we focused on the high affinity phosphate-binding protein (PBP-1) of an ABC-type transporter, responsible for cellular phosphate uptake. We report the crystal structure (...

  16. Characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from Pb contaminated soils and their potential for dissolving tricalcium phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    L.E. Susilowati; Syekhfani

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) enhances P availability in soils through dissolving inorganic P pools. The characteristics of PSB and the potential of three Pb tolerant phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria, i.e. Pseudomonassp, Bacillus sp., and Actinomycites sp. were evaluated. PSB were isolated from soil samples contaminated with 300 and 500 mg Pb/kg after incubation for 30 days. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria were screened on for phosphate solubilisation ability in Pikovskaya agar m...

  17. Expanding sapphyrin: towards selective phosphate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayev, Evgeny A; Boev, Nikolay V; Myshkovskaya, Ekaterina; Khrustalev, Victor N; Ustynyuk, Yu A

    2008-01-01

    The anion-templated syntheses and binding properties of novel macrocyclic oligopyrrole receptors in which pyrrole rings are linked through amide or imine bonds are described. The efficient synthesis was accomplished by anion-templated [1+1] Schiff-base condensation and acylation macrocyclization reactions. Free receptors and their host-guest complexes with hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, tetrabutylammonium chloride, and hydrogen sulfate were analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Stability constants with different tetrabutylammonium salts of inorganic acids were determined by standard 1H NMR and UV/Vis titration techniques in [D6]DMSO/0.5% water solution. According to the titration data, receptors containing three pyrrole rings (10 and 12) exhibit high affinity (log Ka=5-7) for bifluoride, acetate, and dihydrogen phosphate, and interact weakly with chloride and hydrogen sulfate. The amido-bipyrrole receptors 11 and 13 with four pyrrole rings exhibit 10(4)- and 10(2)-fold selectivity for dihydrogen phosphate, respectively, as inferred from competitive titrations in the presence of tetrabutylammonium acetate.

  18. Elemental analysis of Egyptian phosphate fertilizer components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahi, S M; El-Dine, N Walley; El-Shershaby, A; Sroor, A

    2004-03-01

    The accumulation of certain elements in vitally important media such as water, soil, and food is undesirable from the medical point of view. It is clear that the fertilizers vary widely in their heavy metals and uranium content. A shielded high purity germanium HPGe detector has been used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th, and 40K activities in the phosphate fertilizer and its components collected from Abu-Zaabal fertilizers and chemical industries in Egypt. The concentration ranges were 134.97-681.11 Bq kg(-1), 125.23-239.26 Bq kg(-1), and 446.11-882.45 Bq kg(-1) for 238U, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The absorbed dose rate and external hazard index were found to be from 177.14 to 445.90 nGy h(-1) and 1.03 to 2.71 nGy y(-1), respectively. The concentrations of 22 elements (Be, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ba) in the samples under investigation were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results for the input raw materials (rock phosphate, limestone and sulfur) and the output product as final fertilizer are presented and discussed. PMID:14982231

  19. Erythritol feeds the pentose phosphate pathway via three new isomerases leading to D-erythrose-4-phosphate in Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Thibault; Collard, François; Zúñiga-Ripa, Amaia; Moriyón, Ignacio; Godard, Thibault; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph; Van Schaftingen, Emile; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2014-12-16

    Erythritol is an important nutrient for several α-2 Proteobacteria, including N2-fixing plant endosymbionts and Brucella, a worldwide pathogen that finds this four-carbon polyol in genital tissues. Erythritol metabolism involves phosphorylation to L-erythritol-4-phosphate by the kinase EryA and oxidation of the latter to L-3-tetrulose 4-phosphate by the dehydrogenase EryB. It is accepted that further steps involve oxidation by the putative dehydrogenase EryC and subsequent decarboxylation to yield triose-phosphates. Accordingly, growth on erythritol as the sole C source should require aldolase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase to produce essential hexose-6-monophosphate. However, we observed that a mutant devoid of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases grew normally on erythritol and that EryC, which was assumed to be a dehydrogenase, actually belongs to the xylose isomerase superfamily. Moreover, we found that TpiA2 and RpiB, distant homologs of triose phosphate isomerase and ribose 5-phosphate isomerase B, were necessary, as previously shown for Rhizobium. By using purified recombinant enzymes, we demonstrated that L-3-tetrulose-4-phosphate was converted to D-erythrose 4-phosphate through three previously unknown isomerization reactions catalyzed by EryC (tetrulose-4-phosphate racemase), TpiA2 (D-3-tetrulose-4-phosphate isomerase; renamed EryH), and RpiB (D-erythrose-4-phosphate isomerase; renamed EryI), a pathway fully consistent with the isotopomer distribution of the erythrose-4-phosphate-derived amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine obtained from bacteria grown on (13)C-labeled erythritol. D-erythrose-4-phosphate is then converted by enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, thus bypassing fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. This is the first description to our knowledge of a route feeding carbohydrate metabolism exclusively via D-erythrose 4-phosphate, a pathway that may provide clues to the preferential metabolism of

  20. Erythritol feeds the pentose phosphate pathway via three new isomerases leading to D-erythrose-4-phosphate in Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Thibault; Collard, François; Zúñiga-Ripa, Amaia; Moriyón, Ignacio; Godard, Thibault; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph; Van Schaftingen, Emile; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2014-12-16

    Erythritol is an important nutrient for several α-2 Proteobacteria, including N2-fixing plant endosymbionts and Brucella, a worldwide pathogen that finds this four-carbon polyol in genital tissues. Erythritol metabolism involves phosphorylation to L-erythritol-4-phosphate by the kinase EryA and oxidation of the latter to L-3-tetrulose 4-phosphate by the dehydrogenase EryB. It is accepted that further steps involve oxidation by the putative dehydrogenase EryC and subsequent decarboxylation to yield triose-phosphates. Accordingly, growth on erythritol as the sole C source should require aldolase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase to produce essential hexose-6-monophosphate. However, we observed that a mutant devoid of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases grew normally on erythritol and that EryC, which was assumed to be a dehydrogenase, actually belongs to the xylose isomerase superfamily. Moreover, we found that TpiA2 and RpiB, distant homologs of triose phosphate isomerase and ribose 5-phosphate isomerase B, were necessary, as previously shown for Rhizobium. By using purified recombinant enzymes, we demonstrated that L-3-tetrulose-4-phosphate was converted to D-erythrose 4-phosphate through three previously unknown isomerization reactions catalyzed by EryC (tetrulose-4-phosphate racemase), TpiA2 (D-3-tetrulose-4-phosphate isomerase; renamed EryH), and RpiB (D-erythrose-4-phosphate isomerase; renamed EryI), a pathway fully consistent with the isotopomer distribution of the erythrose-4-phosphate-derived amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine obtained from bacteria grown on (13)C-labeled erythritol. D-erythrose-4-phosphate is then converted by enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, thus bypassing fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. This is the first description to our knowledge of a route feeding carbohydrate metabolism exclusively via D-erythrose 4-phosphate, a pathway that may provide clues to the preferential metabolism of

  1. The effect of different phosphate ion concentrations and ph of the phosphate buffer on lipase bioproduction by rhizopus oligosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation, we report the effect of phosphate ion concentration and different ph of the phosphate buffer (as diluent) on lipase bioproduction by Rhizopus oligosporus. For this purpose, solid state fermentation was employed. Different agricultural by-products such as wheat bran, rice husk, almond meal, soybean meal and sunflower meal were used as substrate. The maximum lipase activity (72.60 U/g) was observed with the almond meal. Addition of phosphate ions (K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/) influenced the lipase production. The ph of the phosphate buffer (7.0) was found to be effective for higher yield of lipase. (author)

  2. Characterization of three putative xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolases in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Takashi; Tajima, Naoyuki; Sekine, Kohsuke; Sato, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp) is a key enzyme in the central carbohydrate metabolism in heterofermentative bacteria, in which enzymatic property of Xfps is well characterized. This is not the case in other microbes. The cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 possesses three putative genes encoding Xfp, all1483, all2567, and alr1850. We purified three putative Xfps as recombinant proteins. The results of gel filtration indicated that these proteins form homomultimer complex. All1483 and All2567 showed phosphoketolase activity, whereas Alr1850 did not show the activity. Kinetic analyses demonstrated that substrates, fructose 6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate, are cooperatively bound to enzymes positively and negatively, respectively.

  3. Standard characterization of phosphate rock samples from the FAO/IAEA phosphate project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate rocks (PR) are phosphate-bearing minerals that vary widely in their inherent characteristics and consequently their agronomic potential. In the framework of a FAO/IAEA networked research project, the evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified PR products under a variety of soil climate and crop management conditions was carried out. The characterization of phosphate rocks is the first and essential step in evaluating their suitability for direct application. If several PR sources are utilized, standardized methods should be used for comparison purposes to determine their agronomic potential. This paper describes the standard characterization of phosphate rock products utilized in the project, in particular the mineralogical and crystallographic analyses, physical analyses, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents. A total of 28 phosphate rock samples from 15 countries were collected and analyzed in specialized laboratories. The data on mineralogy, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents are closely interrelated. An arbitrary classification of the reactivity of the PR samples was made based on the solubility indices in conventional reagents. On another hand, the results of the crystallographic parameters, calculated indices of absolute solubility, specific surface and porosity reflect the variability of the physical state and the sample pre-conditioning treatment of the analyzed products. A proper characterization of phosphate rock samples should provide the maximum of basic information that can be obtained in a cost-effective manner in normal chemical laboratories. Based on the results of this characterization, the following determinations are recommended: a description of the sample, major elemental (total P, Ca, Mg) composition, solubility in conventional reagents (neutral ammonium citrate, citric and formic acid) and particle size analysis. The classification of PR samples for direct

  4. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.

    2016-08-01

    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  5. Sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclast differentiation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Giuseppe; Moor, Matthias; Dolder, Silvia; Siegrist, Mark; Wagner, Carsten A; Biber, Jürg; Hernando, Nati; Hofstetter, Willy; Bonny, Olivier; Fuster, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone degrading cells. Phosphate is an important constituent of mineralized bone and released in significant quantities during bone resorption. Molecular contributors to phosphate transport during the resorptive activity of osteoclasts have been controversially discussed. This study aimed at deciphering the role of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters during osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Our studies reveal RANKL-induced differential expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein IIa (NaPi-IIa) transcript and protein during osteoclast development, but no expression of the closely related NaPi-IIb and NaPi-IIc SLC34 family isoforms. In vitro studies employing NaPi-IIa-deficient osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts reveal that NaPi-IIa is dispensable for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. These results are supported by the analysis of structural bone parameters by high-resolution microcomputed tomography that yielded no differences between adult NaPi-IIa WT and KO mice. By contrast, both type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters Pit-1 and Pit-2 were abundantly expressed throughout osteoclast differentiation, indicating that they are the relevant sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. We conclude that phosphate transporters of the SLC34 family have no role in osteoclast differentiation and function and propose that Pit-dependent phosphate transport could be pivotal for bone resorption and should be addressed in further studies.

  6. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria: Comparison between coastal and deep sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biche, S.; Pandey, S.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Das, A.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    ), dicarboxylic hydroxy (malic, maleic) and tricarboxylic hydroxy (citric) acids in order to solubilize inorganic phosphate compounds. Phosphate solubilization seems to be a complex biochemical phenomenon and it is important to understand the bacterial... et al. 1974). Phosphobacteria have been found to produce some organic acids such as monocarboxylic acid (acetic, formic), monocarboxylic hydroxy (lactic, glucenic, glycolic), monocarboxylic, ketogluconic, decarboxylic (oxalic, succinic...

  7. Osteogenecity of octacalcium phosphate coatings applied on porous metal implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrere, Florence; Valk, van der Chantal M.; Dalmeijer, Remco A.J.; Meijer, Gert; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.; Groot, de Klaas; Layrolle, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The biomimetic route allows the homogeneous deposition of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coatings on porous implants by immersion in simulated physiologic solution. In addition, various Ca-P phases, such as octacalcium phosphate (OCP) or bone-like carbonated apatite (BCA), which are stable only at low tem

  8. The Vale de Abrutiga uranium phosphates mine, central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Marina M. S. Cabral; Silva, Maria M. V. G.

    2007-01-01

    A brief summary about the composition and origins of the U deposit is present. The mineralization is composed by secondary uranium phosphates (saleeite and meta-saleeite). The precipitation was probably the main responsible factor for U retention within the quartz veins leading to the uranium phosphate mineralization of Vale de Abrutiga.

  9. Phosphate sorption from seawater solutions: Particle concentration effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leote, C.; Epping, E.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate sorption experiments were performed with beach sand artificially coated with iron(III) (hydr)oxides and with a natural intertidal sandy sediment. Initial fast sorption was followed by a much slower exchange of phosphate between sorbent and seawater solution. A two-step kinetic model was de

  10. Phosphate retention by soil in relation to waste disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, J.

    1979-01-01

    The disposal of large amounts of domestic sewage water and liquid manure, both containing dissolved phosphates, is often problematic. Discharge of these into (shallow and standing) surface waters is highly undesirable, as phosphate is considered to be one of the prime causes of eutrophication. If, o

  11. 75 FR 42783 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Phosphate Salts from China: Determinations, 74 FR 61173, November 23, 2009. The Commission transmitted its..., 75 FR 16509). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on June 2, 2010, and all persons who requested... COMMISSION Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China Determinations On the basis of the record...

  12. Ecological aspects of the biological phosphate removal from waste waters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    Phosphate emission into surface waters can be reduced by treating sewage in wastewater treatment plants which are run alternately anaerobic and aerobic. Under these conditions, sludge in wastewater treatment plants becomes enriched with polyphosphate accumulating bacteria. Phosphate is released by t

  13. Some remarks regarding the manometric determination of pyridoxal phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkerlo, Th.W.

    1964-01-01

    In the manometric determination of pyridoxal phosphate (Gunsalus And Smith) continuous careful protection of the solutions from light is required. Stock solutions can be kept for at least one month if stored in the dark. Pyridoxal phosphate added to alkaline extracts of myocardial tissue of rats co

  14. Sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclast differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Albano

    Full Text Available Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone degrading cells. Phosphate is an important constituent of mineralized bone and released in significant quantities during bone resorption. Molecular contributors to phosphate transport during the resorptive activity of osteoclasts have been controversially discussed. This study aimed at deciphering the role of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters during osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Our studies reveal RANKL-induced differential expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein IIa (NaPi-IIa transcript and protein during osteoclast development, but no expression of the closely related NaPi-IIb and NaPi-IIc SLC34 family isoforms. In vitro studies employing NaPi-IIa-deficient osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts reveal that NaPi-IIa is dispensable for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. These results are supported by the analysis of structural bone parameters by high-resolution microcomputed tomography that yielded no differences between adult NaPi-IIa WT and KO mice. By contrast, both type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters Pit-1 and Pit-2 were abundantly expressed throughout osteoclast differentiation, indicating that they are the relevant sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. We conclude that phosphate transporters of the SLC34 family have no role in osteoclast differentiation and function and propose that Pit-dependent phosphate transport could be pivotal for bone resorption and should be addressed in further studies.

  15. Effect of humic substances on the precipitation of calcium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong-hui; Hermann H. HAHN; Erhard HOFFMANN; Peter G. WEIDLER

    2006-01-01

    For phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater, the effect of humic substances (HS) on the precipitation of calcium phosphate was studied. Batch experiments of calcium phosphate precipitation were undertaken with synthetic water that contained 20 mg/L phosphate (as P) and 20 mg/L HS (as dissolved organic carbon, DOC) at a constant pH value in the range of 8.0-10.0. The concentration variations of phosphate, calcium (Ca) and HS were measured in the precipitation process; the crystalline state and compositions of the precipitates were analysed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, respectively. It showed that at solution pH 8.0, the precipitation rate and removal efficiency of phosphate were greatly reduced by HS, but at solution pH ≥9.0,the effect of HS was very small. The Ca consumption for the precipitation of phosphate increased when HS was added; HS was also removed from solution with the precipitation of calcium phosphate. At solution pH 8.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 3.5 mg/L, and at pH ≥ 9.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 10 mg/L, the final precipitates were proved to be hydroxyapatite (HAP) by XRD. The increases of solution pH value and initial Ca/P ratio helped reduce the influence of HS on the precipitation of phosphate.

  16. Influence of octacalcium phosphate coating on osteoinductive properties of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, P.; Valk, van der C.M.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Groot, de K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coating on osteoinductive behaviour of the biomaterials. Porous titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and polyethylene glyco terephtalate/polybuthylene terephtalate (PEGT–PBT) copoly

  17. Biotemplate synthesis of monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feng; Li, Dongxu

    2010-03-01

    Monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres with a high degree of crystallization were prepared through a facile in situ deposition method using rape pollen grains as a biotemplate. The functional group on the surface of the pollen grains could adsorb Fe(3+), which provided the nucleation sites for growth of iron phosphate nanoparticles. After being sintered at 600 degrees C for 10 h, the pollen grains were removed and iron phosphate hollow microspheres were obtained. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction were applied to characterize the morphology and crystalline structure of the pollen grains, iron phosphate-coated pollen grains and iron phosphate hollow microspheres. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravity analyses were performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the iron phosphate-coated pollen grains during the calcinations. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the interaction between the pollen grains and iron phosphate. The effect of the pollen wall on the surface morphology of these iron phosphate hollow microspheres was also proven in this work.

  18. EFFECT OF SODIUM PHOSPHATES ON SELECTED FOOD GRADE BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect in vitro of selected sodium phosphates (under the corporate names Hexa 68, Hexa 70, Trikrystal, FST, Pyro 52, KPS, Didi on selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Seven different concentrations of each phosphate were used. Sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phosphates was observed in broth supplemented with salts. In vitro was showed a negative effect of various phosphates on growth of selected gram-positive bacteria. Orthophosphates and diphosphates (pyrophosphates did not have significant inhibitory effect on tested bacteria at neutral pH. With the exception of phosphate Trikrystal has not been found in vitro significant inhibitory effects on gram-negative bacteria.doi:10.5219/141

  19. Determination of inorganic phosphate by electroanalytical methods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchmans, Sheela; Issa, Touma B; Singh, Pritam

    2012-06-01

    Determination of inorganic phosphate is of very high importance in environmental and health care applications. Hence knowledge of suitable analytical techniques available for phosphate sensing for different applications becomes essential. Electrochemical methods for determining inorganic phosphate have several advantages over other common techniques, including detection selectivity, stability and relative environmental insensitivity of electroactive labels. The different electrochemical sensing strategies adopted for the determination of phosphate using selective ionophores are discussed in this review. The various sensing strategies are classified based on the electrochemical detection techniques used viz., potentiometry, voltammetry, amperometry, unconventional electrochemical methods etc., The enzymatic sensing of phosphate coupled with electrochemical detection is also included. Various electroanalytical methods available in the literature are assessed for their merits in terms of selectivity, simplicity, miniaturisation, adaptability and suitability for field measurements.

  20. Injectable bioactive calcium-magnesium phosphate cement for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel injectable and degradable calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC) with rapid-setting characteristic was developed by the introduction of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) into calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The calcium-magnesium phosphate cement prepared under the optimum P/L ratio exhibited good injectability and desired workability. It could set within 10 min at 37 0C in 100% relative humidity and the compressive strength could reach 47 MPa after setting for 48 h, indicating that the prepared cement has relatively high initial mechanical strength. The results of in vitro degradation experiments demonstrated the good degradability of the injectable CMPC, and its degradation rate occurred significantly faster than that of pure CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. It can be concluded that the novel injectable calcium-magnesium phosphate cement is highly promising for a wide variety of clinical applications, especially for the development of minimally invasive techniques.

  1. Isolation of phosphate solubiliser fungi from Araza rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araza is an eatable plant, original from the Amazon region, which has been described as a promising species for commercialization (Quevedo 1995). This plant has high productivity even in low content phosphate soil but the presence of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms may contribute to increase this element availability. In this study we report the isolation and characterization of solubilizing fungi processed using the soil washing method, from soil samples were araza is cultivated at two regions in Guaviare, Colombia. Eighteen isolates of fungi capable of solubilizing phosphate were obtained from 2 different sources. The most important species that solubilized phosphate from calcium were Trichoderma aureoviride, Aspergillus aculeatus, Trichoderma strain 1 y Trichoderma strain 2 and for phosphate from iron: Aspergillus oryzae, Paecilomyces strain 3, Gongronella butleri and Fusarium oxysporum

  2. Cathodic phosphate coating containing nano zinc particles on magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A technology for preparation of a cathodic phosphate coating mainly containing nano metallic zinc particles and phosphate compounds on magnesium alloy was developed.The influence of cathodic current density on the microstructure of the cathodic phosphate coating Was investigated.The results show that the crystals of the coating are finer and the microstructures of the outer surface of the coatings are zigzag at the cathodic density of 0.2-0.5 A/dm2.The content of nano metallic zinc particles in the coating decreases with the increase of the thickness of the coatings and tends to be zero when the coating thickness is 4.14 μm.The cathodic phosphate coating was applied to be a transition coating for improving the adhesion between the paints and the magnesium alloys.The formation mechanism of the cathodic phosphate coating was investigated as well.

  3. Quaternary phosphorites from the continental margin off Chennai, southeast India: Analogs of ancient phosphate stromatolites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rao, K.M.; Raju, D.S.N.

    sections of phosphorites exhibit laminated phosphatized microbial mats consisting of mechanically deposited clastic particles or of phosphatic molds. Clay particles are scattered throughout the matrix. SEM studies reveal that the laminated phosphate matrix...

  4. Bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the growth, the absorption and the dynamics of phosphorus and calcium phosphates of high fluorine content , triple superphosphates (TSP) and two sedimentary phosphates Riecito (RIO) and Monte Fresco (MONTE) vs dicalcium phosphate (DICAL), they were carried out two experiments with sheep. In the first one, with a duration of 360 days, the group (six animals) consumed DICAL, and at the 330 day of feeding it was divided in two groups, one under the same treatment and to the other one it was added 500 ppm of fluorine like NaF (DICAL+F). In this experiment the growth was evaluated, and at the end of the period, it was determined the phosphorus and calcium absorption and kinetics, the retention of fluorine in different sources, as well as the bony mineralization. In the second experiment, with a duration of 30 days, the phosphorus absorption and kinetics, as and the retention of fluorine in the sources under study, were determined. In both experiments, for the dynamic studies it was used the isotopic dilution technique, by means of the dosage, through jugular injection, of 200 uCi 32P and, for via oral, 200 uCi 45Ca. The weight gained (g / animal /day ) was 75, 87, 56 and 53 for DICAL, RIO, MONTE and TSP, respectively, with significant differences (P'0.05) in favor of DICAL and RIO. The true absorption of phosphorus (%), for the fed animals during 30 and 360 days, respectively, was 73 and 76 for DICAL, 40 and 57 for RIO, 36 and 57 for MONTE and, 79 and 71 for TSP, being significantly higher (P'0.05), for both periods, the values of DICAL and TSP. The evaluation of 12 months of absorption of RIVER and MONTE was higher than during the period of 30 days. The absorption of calcium at the 362 days was higher for DICAL and RIO in relation to MONTE and TSP. The addition of fluorine during 30 days didn't affect the calcium and phosphorus absorption. The run time to reach the maximum level of specific activity of calcium in blood was higher for RIO, MONTE and

  5. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Adaptive to Vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahar Muzakhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms identified as phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB adaptive to vinasse were successfully screened from sugarcane soil from an agriculatural estate in Jatiroto. By conducting a screening on Pikovskaya’s agar medium (PAM, we found that five different isolates were detected as PSB (pvk-5a, pvk-5b, pvk-6b, pvk-7a, and pvk-8a. Of the five isolates only three could be grown and were found to be adaptive to vinasse based medium without any nutrients added (pvk-5a, pvk-5b and pvk-7a. The three isolates were characterized as coccus and Gram negative with no endospores detected. We suggest that these three isolates can be used as biofertilizer agent to support organic farming.

  6. Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tributyl Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact between tributyl phosphate and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Even though such operations have been routinely performed safely for decades as an intrinsic part of the Purex separation processes, several so-called ''red oil'' explosions are known to have occurred in the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. The most recent red oil explosion occurred at the Tomsk-7 separations facility in Siberia, in April 1993. That explosion destroyed part of the unreinforced masonry walls of the canyon-type building in which the process was housed, and allowed the release of a significant quantity of radioactive material

  7. New light on phosphate transfer from triesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Anthony J; Mora, José R; Nome, Faruk

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity of triesters is discussed in the general context of phosphate transfer, as usually studied for the reactions of mono- and diesters. Systematic work has typically concentrated on the Linear Free Energy Relationships measuring the dependence of reactivity on the nucleophile and the leaving group, but new results indicate that it can depend equally strongly on the two non-leaving (sometimes known as spectator) groups. This conclusion is supported by first results from theoretical calculations: which also predict that a two-step mechanism can be favored over a concerted S(N)2(P) mechanism even for reactions involving leaving groups as good as p-nitrophenolate. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chemistry and mechanism of phosphatases, diesterases and triesterases. PMID:22575086

  8. The Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Parasitic Trypanosomatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovářová, Julie; Barrett, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic trypanosomatids cause important diseases. Dissecting the biochemistry of these organisms offers a means of discovering targets against which inhibitors may be designed and developed as drugs. The pentose phosphate pathway is a key route of glucose metabolism in most organisms, providing NADPH for use as a cellular reductant and various carbohydrate intermediates used in cellular metabolism. The pathway and its enzymes have been studied in Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and various Leishmania species. Its functions in these parasites are becoming clear. Some enzymes of the pathway are essential to the parasites and have structural features distinguishing them from their mammalian counterparts, and this has stimulated several programs of inhibitor discovery with a view to targeting the pathway with new drugs.

  9. Antiferroelectric films of deuterated betaine phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, E. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Svinarev, F. B.; Zaitseva, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    Thin films of partially deuterated betaine phosphate have been grown by the evaporation on Al2O3(110) and NdGaO3(001) substrates with a preliminarily deposited structure of interdigitated electrodes. The grown films have a polycrystalline block structure with characteristic dimensions of blocks of the order of 0.1-1.5 mm. The degree of deuteration of the films D varies in the range of 20-50%. It has been found that, at the antiferroelectric phase transition temperature T c afe = 100-114 K, the fabricated structures exhibit an anomaly of the electrical capacitance C, which is not accompanied by a change in the dielectric loss tangent tanδ. The strong-signal dielectric response is characterized by the appearance of a ferroelectric nonlinearity at temperatures T > T c afe , which is transformed into an antiferroelectric nonlinearity at T diagram has been constructed.

  10. The antimicrobial activity of as-prepared silver-loaded phosphate glasses and zirconium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Wang; Jiang, Ji Zhi; Yang, Yang; Yan, Zhao Chun; Yan, Wang Xiao [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing (China); He, Shui Zhong [Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-03-15

    The antimicrobial activities of silver-loaded zirconium phosphate (JDG) and silver-loaded phosphate glasses (ZZB) against Escherichia coli were studied. Although the silver content in JDG was higher than that in ZZB, ZZB suspensions showed better antimicrobial property than JDG suspensions, especially at low concentrations. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using minimum inhibitory concentrations, bacterial inhibition ring tests, and detection of silver ions in the suspensions. Furthermore, the amounts of silver ions in suspensions with/without bacterial cells were analyzed. Results revealed that only a portion of released silver ions could be adsorbed by E. coli cells, which are critical to cell death. The damaged microstructures of E. coli cells observed by transmission electron microscopy may further prove that the adsorbed silver ions play an important role in the antimicrobial process.

  11. Chemistry of tetravalent actinides phosphates. The thorium phosphate-diphosphate as immobilisation matrix of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents in this document its scientific works from 1992 to 2001, in order to obtain the enabling to manage scientific and chemical researches at the university Paris Sud Orsay. The first part gives an abstract of the thesis on the characterizations, lixiviation and synthesis of uranium and thorium based phosphate matrix in the framework of the search for a ceramic material usable in the radioactive waste storage. The second part presents briefly the researches realized at the CEA, devoted to a reliable, independent and accurate measure of some isotopes activity. The last part presents the abstracts of researches activities from 1996 to 2001 on the tetravalent actinides phosphates chemistry, the sintering of PDT and solid solutions of PDTU and the kinetic and thermodynamical studies of the PDT dissolution. Many references and some publication in full text are provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. SPX1 is a phosphate-dependent inhibitor of PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE 1 in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    M.I. Puga; Mateos, I; R. Charukesi; Wang, Z.; Franco-Zorrilla, J.M.; Lorenzo, L; M.L. Irigoyen; Masiero, S; Bustos, R.; Rodríguez, J.; A. Leyva; V. Rubio; Sommer, H.; J. Paz-Ares

    2014-01-01

    When P levels are low, plants activate an array of adaptive responses to increase efficient acquisition and use of phosphate (Pi), the form in which P is preferentially absorbed, and to protect themselves from Pi starvation stress. Considerable progress has been made recently in dissecting the plant Pi starvation signaling pathway. Nonetheless, little is known as to how Pi levels are perceived by plants. Here, we identify the nuclear protein SPX1 as a Pi-dependent inhibitor of DNA binding by ...

  13. Phosphate analysis of natural sausage casings preserved in brines with phosphate additives as inactivating agent – Method validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, J.J.; Tjeerdsma - van Bokhoven, J.L.M.; Veldhuizen, E.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Certain phosphates have been identified as suitable additives for the improvement of the microbial and mechanical properties of processed natural sausage casings. When mixed with NaCl (sodium chloride) and used under specific treatment and storage conditions, these phosphates are found to prevent th

  14. Ribose 5-Phosphate Isomerase B Knockdown Compromises Trypanosoma brucei Bloodstream Form Infectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Inês Loureiro; Joana Faria; Christine Clayton; Sandra Macedo-Ribeiro; Nuno Santarém; Nilanjan Roy; Anabela Cordeiro-da-Siva; Joana Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase is an enzyme involved in the non-oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, and catalyzes the inter-conversion of D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-ribulose 5-phosphate. Trypanosomatids, including the agent of African sleeping sickness namely Trypanosoma brucei, have a type B ribose-5-phosphate isomerase. This enzyme is absent from humans, which have a structurally unrelated ribose 5-phosphate isomerase type A, and therefore has been proposed as an attractive dru...

  15. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline rare earth phosphate nanostructure. The method comprising: providing a rare earth metal precursor solution and providing a phosphate precursor solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal precursor solution and the phosphate precursor solution, wherein metal cations of the metal precursor solution and phosphate ions of the phosphate precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline rare earth metal phosphate nanostructure.

  16. A phosphate-centric paradigm for pathophysiology and therapy of chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kuro-o, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular phosphate is toxic to the cell at high concentrations. When the phosphate level is increased in the blood by impaired urinary phosphate excretion, premature aging ensues. When the phosphate level is increased in the urine by dietary phosphate overload, this may lead to kidney damage (tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis). Extracellular phosphate exerts its cytotoxicity when it forms insoluble nanoparticles with calcium and fetuin-A, referred to as calciprotein particles (CPP...

  17. Disodium (2RS,3SR-tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Arbuckle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the anhydrous title compound, 2Na+·C4H4O62−, contains two sodium cations and one tartrate anion. Each sodium ion is six coordinate, with bonding to six O atoms from both the carboxylate and hydroxyl groups of the anion. A three-dimensional coordination network is formed with sodium ions stacking in layers along the c-axis direction. This network is supported by additional O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  18. Multiple independent fusions of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Stover

    Full Text Available Fusions of the first two enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL, have been previously described in two distant clades, chordates and species of the malarial parasite Plasmodium. We have analyzed genome and expressed sequence data from a variety of organisms to identify the origins of these gene fusion events. Based on the orientation of the domains and range of species in which homologs can be found, the fusions appear to have occurred independently, near the base of the metazoan and apicomplexan lineages. Only one of the two metazoan paralogs of G6PD is fused, showing that the fusion occurred after a duplication event, which we have traced back to an ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoans. The Plasmodium genes are known to contain a functionally important insertion that is not seen in the other apicomplexan fusions, highlighting this as a unique characteristic of this group. Surprisingly, our search revealed two additional fusion events, one that combined 6PGL and G6PD in an ancestor of the protozoan parasites Trichomonas and Giardia, and another fusing G6PD with phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD in a species of diatoms. This study extends the range of species known to contain fusions in the pentose phosphate pathway to many new medically and economically important organisms.

  19. Penggunaan batuan fosfat NDCP (natural defluorinated calcium phosphate sebagai pengganti dicalcium phosphate dalam ransom ayam broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold P. Sinurat

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the utilization of local rock phosphate or natural defluorinated calcium phosphate (NDCP as phosphorus source for broilers by using the imported dicalcium phosphate (DCP as a reference. The study was designed by formulating 6 experimental diets which consist of 2 phosphorus sources (DCP dan NDCP and 3 dietary total P levels (0 .55 ; 0.65 and 0 .75%. Each diet was fed to 60 chickens (10 replicates with 6 birds each from three day old to 6 weeks of age. Parameters observed were feed consumption, body weight gain, mortality, Ca and P retention, and ash content of tibia bones. Results showed that dietary phosphorus levels (0.55 to 0.75% did not significantly affect body weight gain, feed consumption, and mortalities. However, better feed conversion ratio was obtained when dietary phosphorus level was 0.55%. The NDCP treated birds could significantly gain heavier weight compared with those received DCP, although this improvement was also followed by an increase in the feed consumption. The relative biological value of phosphorus in NDCP was 101 `7n. It is concluded that NDCP can he used in broilers diet to replace DCP as phosphorus source.

  20. Osteoregenerative capacities of dicalcium phosphate-rich calcium phosphate bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chen, Jian-Chih; Tien, Yin-Chun; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is a widely used bone substitute. However, CPC application is limited by poor bioresorption, which is attributed to apatite, the stable product. This study aims to systematically survey the biological performance of dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich CPC. DCP-rich CPC exhibited a twofold, surface-modified DCP anhydrous (DCPA)-to-tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) molar ratio, whereas conventional CPC (c-CPC) showed a onefold, surface unmodified DCPA-to-TTCP molar ratio. Cell adhesion, morphology, viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the two CPCs were examined with bone cell progenitor D1 cultured in vitro. Microcomputed tomography and histological observation were conducted after CPC implantation in vivo to analyze the residual implant ratio and new bone formation rate. D1 cells cultured on DCP-rich CPC surfaces exhibited higher cell viability, ALP activity, and ALP quantity than c-CPC. Histological evaluation indicated that DCP-rich CPC showed lesser residual implant and higher new bone formation rate than c-CPC. Therefore, DCP-rich CPC can improve bioresorption. The newly developed DCP-rich CPC exhibited potential therapeutic applications for bone reconstruction.

  1. The effects of oral Cardax (disodium disuccinate astaxanthin) on multiple independent oxidative stress markers in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model: influence on 5-lipoxygenase in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Samuel F; Penn, Marc S; Hazen, Stanley L; Bikádi, Zsolt; Zsila, Ferenc

    2006-06-01

    Disodium disuccinate astaxanthin ('rac'-dAST; Cardax) is a water-dispersible C40 carotenoid derivative under development for oral and parenteral administration for cardioprotection of the at-risk ischemic cardiovascular patient. In experimental infarction models in animals (rats, rabbits, and dogs), significant myocardial salvage has been obtained, up to 100% at the appropriate dose in dogs. The documented mechanism of action in vitro includes direct scavenging of biologically produced superoxide anion; in vivo in rabbits, modulation of the complement activity of serum has also been shown. A direct correlation between administration of the test compound in animals and reductions of multiple, independent markers of oxidative stress in serum was recently obtained in a rat experimental infarction model. For the current study, it was hypothesized that oral Cardax administration would inhibit oxidative damage of multiple relevant biological targets in a representative, well-characterized murine peritoneal inflammation model. A previously developed mass spectrometry-based (LC/ESI/MS/MS) approach was used to interrogate multiple distinct pathways of oxidation in a black mouse (C57/BL6) model system. In vivo markers of oxidant stress from peritoneal lavage samples (supernatants) were evaluated in mice on day eight (8) after treatment with either Cardax or vehicle (lipophilic emulsion without drug) orally by gavage at 500 mg/kg once per day for seven (7) days at five (5) time points: (1) baseline prior to treatment (t=0); (2) 16 h following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with thioglycollate to elicit a neutrophilic infiltrate; (3) 4 h following i.p. injection of yeast cell wall (zymosan; t=16 h/4 h thioglycollate+zymosan); (4) 72 h following i.p. injection with thioglycollate to elicit monocyte/macrophage infiltration; and (5) 72 h/4 h thioglycollate+zymosan. A statistically significant sparing effect on the arachidonic acid (AA) and linoleic acid (LA) substrates was

  2. Anti-browning effect of disodium stannous citrate on fresh-cut lotus%柠檬酸亚锡二钠对鲜切莲藕护色作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金定樑; 夏文水

    2011-01-01

    柠檬酸亚锡二钠(DSC)是一种新型护色剂.将DSC用于鲜切莲藕预处理阶段,抑制莲藕多酚氧化酶活力及褐变,探讨影响DSC对鲜切莲藕片护色作用的因素,并与其他常用护色剂的护色效果进行对比.结果表明:DSC对鲜切藕产品低温保藏期间的褐变和多酚氧化酶活力都有很好的抑制作用,在pH 3~6条件下用0.05%~0.2% DSC浸泡液处理15 min后,鲜切藕产品可保持较低的褐变度和多酚氧化酶活力,同时在4℃、20 d内DSC的护色效果稳定;与其他常用护色剂比较,在0.1%的等量护色剂浓度下,DSC护色效果优于柠檬酸、抗坏血酸、异抗坏血畦钠,与亚硫酸氢钠效果相当.%Disodium stannous citrate(DSC)is an effective sntibrowning agent. This investigation was conducted to determine the efficacy of DSC as a browning control agent for use on fresh-cut lotus. Fresh-cut lotus products are prone to browning during the low-temperature preservation, The relative effectiveness of these antibrowning agents for inhibition of enzymatic browning in fresh-cut lotus was determined in terms of colour and enzyme activity measurements with respect to time for approximately 20 days storage period at 4 ℃. The fresh-cut lotus were dipped in treatment solutions for some time, then drained grid placed ;n containers. The resuhs showed that, DSC has good controlling browning effects on the lotus products. Including the enzymatic browning and non-enzymatic browning) The best concentration of DSC is 0. 05 % ~ 0. 2%, the processing lime for 15 min. pH range of applications from 3 to 6. And the effect of DSC in different temperatures on the color-preservation effect includes but not limited, and has the function of stability for the products during the shelf life. Compared with other ancibrowning agents commonly.The effect of 0.1%DSC has the more obvious effects, quite close to the effect of sodium bisulfite. The research has a theoretic guidance for

  3. Diversity of Phosphate-Dissolving Microorganisms in Corn Rhizosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiao-rong; LIN Qi-mei; LI Bao-guo

    2003-01-01

    Rhizosphere and nonrhizopshere soils were sampled during corn growth. Total, inorganic phosphate-dissolving and lecithin-mineralizing bacteria, fungi and actinomyctes were determined by plate counting method. Generally, the rhizosphere soil contained around 5 to 100 times more of these bacteria and fungi than the non-rhizosphere soil. However, the actinomycetes in the rhizosphere soil were significantly lower than those in the non-rhizosphere soil. The numbers of these microorganisms didnt significantly change during corn growth in the soils. However, the proportion of the phosphate-dissolving microorganisms in the total changed markedly during corn growth. Generally there were much higher percentages of phosphate-dissolving bacteria and phosphate-dissolving fungi in the rhizosphere soil than the nonrhizosphere soil. More than 90% of the fungi in rhizosphere dissolved inorganic phosphate at the seedling period, but this proportion declined to 20 %at the harvesting time. The community of phosphate-dissolving microorganisms also changed during corn growth. Bacillus was dominant in the nonrhizosphere soil. However, in the rhizosphere, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter became predominant. Penicillium and Streptomyces were the main fungi and actinomycetes capable of dissolving phosphate.

  4. Viscosity and crystallization mechanism of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Kitheri, E-mail: joskit@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kutty, K.V. Govindan [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Goswami, M.C. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Rao, P.R. Vasudeva [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Melt viscosity of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses is measured and reported for the first time. • Viscosity – temperature followed Arrhenius model. • Activation energy of viscous flow is strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of the glasses. • Process of crystallization of cesium loaded glass by approximation-free kinetic method to understand the mechanism. • Cesium loaded IPG and IPG shows bulk crystallization mechanism. - Abstract: This paper describes the melt viscosity behaviour and the crystallization mechanism of a series of iron phosphate glasses. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out on pristine iron phosphate glass and a series of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses in order to understand the effect of addition of Cs{sub 2}O on viscosity of iron phosphate glasses. Activation energy of viscous flow was estimated from the experimental data by applying Arrhenius model of viscosity–temperature relationship. Activation energy of viscous flow is observed to be strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of these glasses. Fragility of iron phosphate and cesium loaded iron phosphate glass systems were also evaluated in region of high temperature. Crystallization of these glasses was studied using thermal analysis techniques. Temperature integral approximation free method was utilized to evaluate the kinetic parameters such as activation energy of crystallization (E{sub c}) and Avrami exponent (n). The value of Avrami exponent ‘n’ obtained showed that the glasses under present study crystallize via bulk crystallization mechanism, i.e., nucleation and three dimensional growth.

  5. Plant Growth Promotion Induced by Phosphate Solubilizing Endophytic Pseudomonas Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eOtieno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilisers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilisation is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilise the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilisation. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacterial isolates to produce gluconic acid, solubilise insoluble phosphate and stimulate the growth of Pea plants (Pisum sativum. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte isolates thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilising abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic isolates produced gluconic acid (14-169 mM and have moderate to high phosphate solubilisation capacities (~ 400-1300 mg L-1. When inoculated to Pea plants grown in sand/soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophyte isolates that produced medium to high levels of gluconic acid also displayed enhanced plant growth promotion effects.

  6. Phosphate Removal by Anion Binding on Functionalized Nanoporous Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Wiacek, Robert J.; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Grudzien, Rafal M.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wasanna

    2010-03-26

    Phosphate was captured from aqueous solutions by cationic metal-EDA complexes anchored inside mesoporous silica MCM-41 supports (Cu(II)-EDA-SAMMS and Fe(III)-EDA-SAMMS). Fe-EDA-SAMMS was more effective at capturing phosphate than the Cu-EDA-SAMMS and was further studied for matrix effects (e.g., pH, ionic strength, and competing anions) and sorption performance (e.g., capacity and rate). The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent; it increased with increasing pH from 1.0 to 6.5, and decreased above pH 6.5. The adsorption was affected by high ionic strength (0.1 M of NaCl). In the presence of 1000-fold molar excess of chloride and nitrate anions, phosphate removal by Fe-EDA-SAMMS was not affected. Slight, moderate and large impacts were seen with bicarbonate, sulfate and citrate anions, respectively. The phosphate adsorption data on Fe-EDA-SAMMS agreed well with the Langmuir model with the estimated maximum capacity of 43.3 mg/g. The material displayed rapid sorption rate (99% of phosphate removal within 1 min) and lowering the phosphate content to ~ 10 µg/L of phosphorus, which is lower than the EPA’s established freshwater contaminant level for phosphorous (20 µg/L).

  7. Phosphate reduction in a hydroxyapatite fluoride removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Fluorosis is a widespread disease that occurs as a result of excess fluoride consumption and can cause severe tooth and bone deformations. To combat fluorosis, several previous studies have examined the potential to replace traditional bone char filters with synthetic hydroxyapatite. Calcite particles with a synthetic hydroxyapatite coating have been shown to effectively removed fluoride, yet the low-cost method for forming these particles leaves high amounts of phosphate both in synthesis waste-water and in filter effluent. High phosphate in filter effluent is problematic because consumption of extremely high phosphate can leach calcium from bones, further exacerbating the fluoride effect. This study examines ways of reducing and reusing waste. In particular, a method of fluoride removal is explored in which fluorapatite coatings may be formed directly. In preliminary studies, batches of 4.1g of Florida limestone (<710 μm) were equilibrated with 100 mL of 10ppm fluoride. In a control batch containing lime but no added phosphate, 14% treatment was achieved, but with added phosphate, 100% treatment was achieved in all batches. Batches with lower levels of phosphate took longer to reach 100% treatment, ranging from less than 24 hours in the highest phosphate batches to approximately 42 hours in the lowest batches. The lower levels tested were well within reasonable levels for drinking water and reached 0ppm fluoride in 42 hours or less.

  8. Viscosity and crystallization mechanism of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Melt viscosity of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses is measured and reported for the first time. • Viscosity – temperature followed Arrhenius model. • Activation energy of viscous flow is strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of the glasses. • Process of crystallization of cesium loaded glass by approximation-free kinetic method to understand the mechanism. • Cesium loaded IPG and IPG shows bulk crystallization mechanism. - Abstract: This paper describes the melt viscosity behaviour and the crystallization mechanism of a series of iron phosphate glasses. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out on pristine iron phosphate glass and a series of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses in order to understand the effect of addition of Cs2O on viscosity of iron phosphate glasses. Activation energy of viscous flow was estimated from the experimental data by applying Arrhenius model of viscosity–temperature relationship. Activation energy of viscous flow is observed to be strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of these glasses. Fragility of iron phosphate and cesium loaded iron phosphate glass systems were also evaluated in region of high temperature. Crystallization of these glasses was studied using thermal analysis techniques. Temperature integral approximation free method was utilized to evaluate the kinetic parameters such as activation energy of crystallization (Ec) and Avrami exponent (n). The value of Avrami exponent ‘n’ obtained showed that the glasses under present study crystallize via bulk crystallization mechanism, i.e., nucleation and three dimensional growth

  9. Phosphate solubilization characteristics of efficient nitrogen fixing soil Azotobacter strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Nosrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Azotobacter is a diazotroph bacterium reported to possess various plant growth-promoting characteristics.The aim of this study was to isolate Azotobacter strains capable of fixing nitrogen and effectively hydrolyzing both organic and inorganic Pi compounds.In this study, soil samples collected from a diverse range of slightly alkaline soil types were screened for Azotobacter isolates. The inorganic and organic phosphate solubilization potentials of twenty competent phosphate solubilizing Azotobacter isolates were assessed.Variations were noted in the solubilization potentials.Three isolates, identified as Azotobacter vinelandii strains O2, O4 and O6, were able to fix atmospheric N2 effectively. The nitrogenase activity of these isolates ranged between 158.6 and 326.4 C2H4h(-1vial(-1 (ethylene. Bacterial growth rates and phosphate solubilization activities were measured quantitatively under various environmental conditions. A close association was evident between phosphate solubilizing ability and growth rate as an indicator of active metabolism. All three phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB were able to withstand temperature as high as 45°C, high concentration of NaCl (upto 5% and a wide range of initial pH from 5 to 10 while hydrolyzing phosphate compounds actively.Azotobacter vinelandii strains O2, O4 and O6 are superior candidates for biofertilizers that may result in the reduction of chemical nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers leading to increase crop production.

  10. Transformation of Phosphate Fertilizers with Different Solubilities in Calcareous Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGBAI-FAN; GUYI-CHU; 等

    1993-01-01

    In this research work,the authors,using the recently developed method of fractionating the forms of inorganic phosphorus in calcareous soils,have studied the transformation processes of inorgnic phosphorus in three different phosphate fertilizers,i.e.,superphosphate,diammonium phosphate and calcium magnesium phyosphate,being commonly used in China,during a period of 3 years after their application to calcareous soils,and based on the experimental results obtained,some problems in current use of phosphate fertilizers are discussed.

  11. Amine-intercalated α-zirconium phosphates as lubricant additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, three types of amines intercalated α-zirconium phosphate nanosheets with different interspaces were synthesized and examined as lubricant additives to a mineral oil. Results from tribological experiments illustrated that these additives improved lubricating performance. Results of rheological experiments showed that the viscosity of the mineral oil was effectively reduced with the addition of α-zirconium phosphate nanosheets. The two-dimensional structure, with larger interspaces, resulting from amine intercalation, exhibited improved effectiveness in reducing viscosity. This study demonstrates that the nanosheet structure of α-zirconium phosphates is effective in friction reduction. The manufacture of lubricants with tailored viscosity is possible by using different intercalators

  12. Renal Phosphate Wasting in the Absence of Adenylyl Cyclase 6

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Robert A; Murray, Fiona; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A.; Tang, Tong; Levi, Moshe; Rieg, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) enhance phosphate excretion by the proximal tubule of the kidney by retrieval of the sodium-dependent phosphate transporters (Npt2a and Npt2c) from the apical plasma membrane. PTH activates adenylyl cyclase (AC) through PTH 1 receptors and stimulates the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. However, the precise role and isoform(s) of AC in phosphate homeostasis are not known. We report here that mice lacking AC6 (AC6−/−) have increased...

  13. Fluorescence sensor for sequential detection of zinc and phosphate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Miran; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Seo, Hansol; Helal, Aasif; Kim, Hong-Seok

    2016-12-01

    A new, highly selective turn-on fluorescent chemosensor based on 2-(2'-tosylamidophenyl)thiazole (1) for the detection of zinc and phosphate ions in ethanol was synthesized and characterized. Sensor 1 showed a high selectivity for zinc compared to other cations and sequentially detected hydrogen pyrophosphate and hydrogen phosphate. The fluorescence mechanism can be explained by two different mechanisms: (i) the inhibition of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and (ii) chelation-induced enhanced fluorescence by binding with Zn(2+). The sequential detection of phosphate anions was achieved by the quenching and subsequent revival of ESIPT. PMID:27343439

  14. Effect of Phosphate on the Oxidation of Hydroxysulfate Green Rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benali, Omar; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Génin, Jean.-Marie R.

    2005-04-01

    During Hydroxysulfate green rust GR(SO42) oxidation, lepidocrocite and goethite were formed. The oxidation of GR(SO42-) in the presence of phosphate ions, also involved the formation of poorly crystallized lepidocrocite but not that of goethite. The dissolution of lepidocrocite is inhibited by adsorption of phosphate ions as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The formation of the poorly crystallized protective layer against corrosion is effectively due to the phosphate ions which adsorb on the surface of lepidocrocite, and prevents it to turn into a well crystallized oxide.

  15. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  16. [Isolation and identification of a novel phosphate-dissolving strain P21].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Fan, Bingquan; Gong, Mingbo; Li, Quanxia

    2008-01-01

    Phosphate-dissolving microorganisms can be applied for better use of insoluble phosphorus as fertilizer., A phosphate-dissolving strain P21 was isolated from soil samples in China. The isolate was identified as Erwinia herbicola var. ananas, based on its 16Sr DNA sequence and physiological characteristics. Its activity was measured in solid media as well as liquid media using different phosphate sources including tricalium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, ferric phosphate, aluminium phosphate, zinc phosphate, and rock phosphates. E. herbicola could strongly dissolve 1206.20 mg tricalium phosphate and 529.67 mg hydroxyapatite in per liter liquid media. The strain showed high phosphate-dissolving ability for rock phosphates from Jinning and Kunyang in Yunnan province, Yaan in Sichuan province and Jinping in Jiangsu province with the capacity of 6.64 mg, 78.46 mg, 67.07 mg and 65.24 mg soluble phosphate respectively per liter medium, whereas the phosphate-dissolving ability to the rest of the eight rock phosphates was weak. According to the experiments, the phosphate-dissolving ability of E. herbicola was specific to different rock phosphates, and phosphate-dissolving ability of E. herbicola was not directly related to pH reduction of liquid media. PMID:18338576

  17. 帕米膦酸二钠治疗累及股骨近端多发性纤维结构不良的24例报告%Pamidronate disodium for polyostotic fibrous dysplasia in the proximal femur:twenty-four cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明; 许宋锋; 于秀淳

    2014-01-01

    疗组:末次随访Harris评分(79.58±5.2)大于治疗前Harris评分(43.67±31.8);单纯药物治疗组:末次随访Harris评分(79.17±8.4)大于治疗前Harris评分(69.75±7.9),差异均有统计学意义(P=0.002)。除5例在首次静滴帕米膦酸二钠后次日发热外,24例均未见其它不良反应。结论帕米膦酸二钠治疗累及股骨近端多发性纤维结构不良疗效确切,能减少溶骨性破坏、预防骨折风险、缓解疼痛、改善髋关节功能,不良反应轻微、短暂。对无症状的PFD、MAS无须手术治疗,可直接应用帕米膦酸二钠治疗;对病变范围局限、溶骨性破坏者须行刮除植骨内固定术,对于股骨近端病变范围大、骨强度不佳者可单纯内固定,二者术后均须应用帕米膦酸二钠治疗,以防止植骨吸收及病情恶化。%Objective To investigate the therapeutic methods and clinical effects of pamidronate disodium for polyostotic ifbrous dysplasia in the proximal femur in different degrees. Methods From June 2009 to January 2012, 24 patients with polyostotic ifbrous dysplasia in the proximal femur were adopted and treated. There were 14 males and 10 females, whose average age was 24 years old ( range;8-61 years ). A combination of surgery and postoperative pamidronate disodium was performed on 11 patients, curettage, bone graft and internal ifxation on 8 patients, simple internal fixation on 3 patients and only pamidronate disodium on 13 patients. Pamidronate disodium was taken every 3 months after the operation or after the ifrst treatment, and the duration was 2 years. Before the treatment or before pamidronate disodium injection, bone metabolic markers were detected and the imaging examination was performed in all the patients, including osteocalcin ( OC ) and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen ( CTX-I ).The Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ) was used to evaluate the preoperative and postoperative pain. The hip function was systematically assessed based on the Harris

  18. Effects of Soluble Phosphate on Phosphate-Solubilizing Characteristics and Expression of gcd Gene in Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis JW-SD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingwei; Wu, Xiaoqin; Wen, Xinyi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria have the ability of solubilizing mineral phosphate in soil and promoting growth of plants, but the activity of phosphate solubilization is influenced by exogenous soluble phosphate. In the present study, the effects of soluble phosphate on the activity of phosphate solubilization, acidification of media, growth, and organic acid secretion of phosphate-solubilizing bacterium Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis JW-SD2 were investigated under six levels of soluble phosphate conditions. The activity of phosphate solubilization decreased with the increase of soluble phosphate concentration, accompanying with the increase of media pH. However, the growth was promoted by adding soluble phosphate. Production of gluconic, tartaric, and oxalic acids by the strain was reduced with the increase of concentration of soluble phosphate, while acetic and pyruvic acids showed a remarkable increase. Gluconic acid predominantly produced by the strain at low levels of soluble phosphate showed that this acid was the most efficient organic acid in phosphate solubilization. Pyrroloquinoline quinone-glucose dehydrogenase gene gcd (pg5SD2) was cloned from the strain, and the expressions of pg5SD2 gene were repressed gradually with the increase of concentration of soluble phosphate. The soluble phosphate regulating the transcription of the gcd gene is speculated to underlie the regulation of the secretion of gluconic acid and subsequently the regulation of the activity of phosphate solubilization. Future research needs to consider a molecular engineering strategy to reduce the sensitivity of PSB strain to soluble phosphate via modification of the regulatory mechanism of gcd gene, which could improve the scope of PSB strains' application.

  19. Arsenate and phosphate interaction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Chun-nu; ZHU Yong-guan

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, arsenate(As(Ⅴ)) and phosphate(P(Ⅴ)) interactions were investigated in growth, uptake and RNA content in yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast grew slowly with As(Ⅴ) concentrations increasing in the medium. However, the maximal population density was almost the same among different As(Ⅴ) treatments. It was in the late log phase that yeast growth was augmented by low As(Ⅴ), which was maybe due to the fact that methionine metabolism was stressed by vitamin B6 deprivation, so As(Ⅴ)treatments did not affect maximal population density. However, with P (Ⅴ) concentrations increasing, the maximal population density increased. Therefore, the maximal population density was determined by P (Ⅴ) concentrations in the medium but not by As (Ⅴ)concentrations in the medium. Ycf1p(a tonoplast transpor) transports As(GS)3 into the vacuole, but arsenic(As) remaining in the thalli was 1.27% with As(Ⅴ) exposure for 60 h, from which it can be speculated that the percentage of As transported into vacuole should be lower than 1.27%. However, the percentage of As pumped out of cell was 71.49% with As (Ⅴ) exposure for 68 h. Although two pathways (extrusion and sequestration) were involved in As detoxification in yeast, the extrusion pathway played a major role in As detoxification. RNA content was the highest in the early-log phase and was reduced by As(Ⅴ).

  20. Mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) using four surrogate waste streams that represent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ash, soil, and two secondary waste streams resulting from the destruction of DOE's high-organic wastes by the DETOXSM Wet Oxidation Process. Hg content in the waste streams was 0.1 to 0.5 wt.% (added as soluble salts). Sulfidation of Hg and its concurrent stabilization in the CBPC matrix yielded highly nonleachable waste forms. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure showed that leaching levels were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's regulatory limits. The American Nuclear Society's ANS 16.1 immersion test also gave very high leaching indices, indicating excellent retention of the contaminants. In particular, leaching levels of Hg in the ash waste form were below the measurement detection limit in neutral and alkaline water, negligibly low but measureable in the first 72 h of leaching in acid water, and below the detection limit after that. These studies indicate that the waste forms are stable in a wide range of chemical environments during storage. 9 refs., 5 tabs

  1. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Peter C.

    2004-12-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection.

  2. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Burns, Peter C.

    2005-06-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB's, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorous amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection.

  3. Aqueous deposition of calcium phosphates and silicate substituted calcium phosphates on magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts were made to deposit homogeneous films of calcium phosphates (CaPs) on two magnesium alloy systems, AZ31 and Mg–4Y, through an aqueous phosphating bath method. The deposition of silicate substituted CaPs by this aqueous method was also explored as silicate substitution is believed to increase the bioactivity of CaPs. The effect of doped and undoped coatings on the in vitro degradation and bioactivity of both alloy systems was studied. FTIR and EDX confirmed the deposition of Ca, P, and Si on both alloys and the coatings appeared to consist primarily biphasic mixtures of hydroxyapatite and β-TCP. These largely inhomogeneous coatings, as observed by SEM, were not shown to have any significant effect on maintaining the physiological pH of the culture medium in comparison to the uncoated samples, as the pH remained approximately in the 8.4–8.7 range. Interestingly, despite similar pH profiles between the coated and uncoated samples, CaP coatings affected the degradation of both alloys. These doped and undoped calcium phosphate coatings were observed to decrease the degradation of AZ31 whereas they increased the degradation of Mg–4Y. In vitro studies on cell attachment using MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblasts showed that between the uncoated alloys, Mg–4Y appeared to be the more biocompatible of the two. Silicate substituted CaP coatings were observed to increase the cell attachment on AZ31 compared to bare and undoped CaPs coated samples, but did not have as great of an effect on increasing cell attachment on Mg–4Y.

  4. Formation of hydroxyapatite in hydrogels from tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, A; Antonucci, J M; Takagi, S; Chow, L C; Ohashi, M

    1989-03-01

    Apatitic calcium phosphate cements, formed by the ambient reaction of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) with dicalcium phosphates (DCP), have been recently reported. H2O or dilute aq. H3PO4 (0.2%) is used as the liquid vehicle for this reaction. The aim of this study was to ascertain if hydroxyapatite (HAp) can form in self-cured hydrogel composites containing TTCP/DCP mixes. The setting times (ST) and diametral tensile strengths (DTS) of these hydrogel composites were also determined. The hydrogels were of two types: (1) vinyl thermosets derived from the copolymerization of HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and cross-linking monomers, and (2) polyelectrolyte-based hydrogels formed from aq. poly(alkenoic acids), e.g., poly(acrylic acid). Cylindrical specimens 6 mm D x 3 mm H were prepared and stored in H2O for up to 30 days. The HEMA composites were hardened in 7-15 min by free radical initiation (benzoyl peroxide/tertiary aromatic amine). The polyelectrolyte cements were hardened in 6-8 min. After various periods of storage in H2O at 37 degrees C, some of the specimens were examined by X-ray spectroscopy for HAp. HAp formation was not observed in the HEMA composites even after 30 days of H2O storage but was detected in the polyacid cements. The 24-h DTS values of the HEMA composites (14-26 MPa) were higher than those of the polyacid cements (7-12 MPa). Both the H2O content and pH may thus be factors controlling the rate and extent of HAp formation in hydrogel composites containing TTCP/DCP mixtures.

  5. Iron-phosphate-based chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to develop chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization, a collaborative project to develop iron-phosphate based ceramics has been initiated between Argonne National Laboratory and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The starter powders are oxides of iron that are generated as inexpensive byproduct materials in the iron and steel industry. They contain iron oxides as a mixture of magnetite (Fe3O4) and haematite (Fe2O3). In this initial phase of this project, both of these compounds were investigated independently. Each was reacted with phosphoric acid solution to form iron phosphate ceramics. In the case of magnetite, the reaction was rapid. Adding ash as the waste component containing hazardous contaminants resulted in a dense and hard ceramic rich in glassy phase. On the other hand, the reaction of phosphoric acid solution with a mixture of haematite and ash waste contaminated with cesium and americium was too slow. Samples had to be molded under pressure. They were cured for 2-3 weeks and then hardened by heating at 350 degrees C for 3 h. The resulting ceramics in both cases were subjected to physical tests for measurement of density, open porosity, compression strength, phase analyses using X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis, and leaching tests using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ANS 16.1 with 7 days of leaching. Using the preliminary information obtained from these tests, we evaluated these materials for stabilization of Department of Energy's mixed waste streams

  6. A phosphate-starvation-inducible outermembrane protein of Pseudomonas fluorescens Ag1 as an immunological phosphate-starvation marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Kristine; Jacobsen, Susanne; Nybroe, Ole

    1997-01-01

    A phosphate-starvation-inducible outer-membrane protein of Pseudomonas fluorescens Ag1, expressed at phosphate concentrations below0.08-0.13 mM, was purified and characterized. The purification method involved separation of outer-membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE andextraction of the protein from...... nitrocellulose or PVDF membranes after electrotransfer of proteins to the membranes. The N-terminal amino acidsequence of the purified protein, called Psi1, did not show homology to any known proteins, and in contrast to the phosphate-specific porin OprP ofP. aeruginosa its mobility in SDS-PAGE was not affected...

  7. 44 CFR Appendix A(4) to Part 61 - Appendix A(4) to Part 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notice sent to you in conjunction with the community inspection procedure established under 44 CFR 59.30... procedure set forth in National Flood Insurance Program Regulations (44 CFR 59.30). During the several years... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appendix A(4) to Part 61...

  8. Analysis of serum phosphate control and phosphate binder utilization in incident hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Kimberly F Farrand,1 J Brian Copley,1 Jamie Heise,1 Moshe Fridman,2 Michael S Keith,1 Lynne Poole3 1Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 2AMF Consulting, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Shire, Basingstoke, UK Abstract: The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective analysis of serum phosphate level variability in patients new to hemodialysis (HD) and to identify patient characteristics associated with this variability. The medical records of 47,742 incident HD patients attending US outpatient dialysis ce...

  9. Destruction of Tributyl Phosphate and Exchange Resin by Electrochemical Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Spent tributyl phosphate and spent exchange resin are difficult to treat. It's important to develop an advanced treat method. Compared with traditional methods, electrochemical oxidation has obvious advantages, such as the operation can

  10. Metal Phosphates as Intermediate Temperature Proton Conducting Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Q.F.; Pan, Chao;

    2012-01-01

    A series of metal phosphates were synthesized and screened as potential proton conductor electrolytes for fuel cells and electrolysers operational at intermediate temperatures. Among the selected, niobium and bismuth phosphates exhibited a proton conductivity of 10-2 and 10-7 S cm-1, respectively......, under the anhydrous atmosphere at 250 °C, showing close correlation with the presence of hydroxyl groups in the phosphate phases. At the water partial pressure of above 0.6 atm, both phosphates possessed a proton conductivity to a level of above 3 x 10-2 S cm-1. Reasonable stability of the proton...... conductivity was observed under either a constant low water partial pressure or under a humidity cycling test within a period of more than 80 hours....

  11. Phosphate bonded ceramics as candidate final-waste-form materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Room-temperature setting phosphate-bonded ceramics were studied as candidate materials for stabilization of DOE low-level problem mixed wastes which cannot be treated by other established stabilization techniques. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na, Al and Zr were studied to stabilize ash surrogate waste containing RCRA metals as nitrates and RCRA organics. We show that for a typical loading of 35 wt.% of the ash waste, the phosphate ceramics pass the TCLP test. The waste forms have high compression strength exceeding ASTM recommendations for final waste forms. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies and differential thermal analyses of the waste forms show evidence of chemical reaction of the waste with phosphoric acid and the host matrix. The SEM studies show evidence of physical bonding. The excellent performance in the leaching tests is attributed to a chemical solidification and physical as well as chemical bonding of ash wastes in these phosphate ceramics

  12. Studies of natural radioactivity of some Egyptian rock phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    226Ra, 235U, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations (Bq/kg) in some Egyptian phosphate samples have been measured using HPGe gamma spectrometer. Also their radium equivalent activities were calculated and discussed. (author)

  13. Biomineralization of uraninite and uranyl phosphate controlled by organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomineralization of uraninite (UO2) and uranyl phosphate minerals are both able to decrease the mobility of uranium in the environment. We examined biomineralization of UO2 and uranyl phosphate by Shewanella putrefaciens in the basic medium containing lactate as an electron donor, β- glycerolphosphate as a phosphorous source, and uranyl nitrate in the absence and presence of weak or strong complexing organic acids (WCOA or SCOA) under an anaerobic condition. In the basic medium, only biomineralization of UO2 was observed because of rapid reduction of U(VI). Biomineralization of UO2 and uranyl phosphate occurred in the media with WCOA, however the no biomineralization was occurred in the presence of SCOA. It is thought that formation of stable U(VI)-, and U(IV)- organic complexes prevents the biomineralization. These finding suggest that coexisting organic acids control the biomineralization of UO2 and uranyl phosphate minerals by microorganisms. (author)

  14. Reagentless phosphate ion sensor system for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Kurata, H.; Inoue, Y.; Shin, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of computer Science and Systems; Kubo, I. [Soka University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, H.; Ikebukuro, K.; Karube, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1998-06-05

    Phosphate ion sensor system using an electrochemical detector was developed by the use of recombinant pyruvate oxidase (PyOD) from Lactobacillus plantarum, which needs no addition of thiamine pyrophosphate and flavin adenine dinucleotide for reaction. This system could detect 2 nM hydrogen peroxide. Response time for phosphate ion was 80 s and total measurement time for one sample was 3 min. Citrate buffer solution (pH 6.3) was most suitable for the measurement and optimum flow rate was 0.6 ml/min. Under these optimum conditions minimum detection limit of phosphate ion was 15 nM, which was enough for the determination of phosphate ion in dam-lake. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. THE USE OF METAL PHOSPHATE BINDER AND SAND IN FOUNDRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Illarionov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some features of the use of mixtures of metal phosphate binder and management principles of their properties for production of castings of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys were shown.

  16. Effectiveness and cost-efficiency of phosphate binders in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsifkovits, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency in Germany was 91,718, of which 66,508 patients were on dialysis. The tendency is clearly growing. Scientific background: Chronic renal insufficiency results in a disturbance of the mineral balance. It leads to hyperphosphataemia, which is the strongest independent risk factor for mortality in renal patients. Usually, a reduction in the phosphate intake through nutrition and the amount of phosphate filtered out during dialysis are not sufficient to reduce the serum phosphate values to the recommended value. Therefore, phosphate binders are used to bind ingested phosphate in the digestive tract in order to lower the phosphate concentration in the serum. Four different groups of phosphate binders are available: calcium- and aluminium salts are the traditional therapies. Sevelamer and Lanthanum are recent developments on the market. In varying doses, all phosphate binders are able to effectively lower phosphate concentrations. However, drug therapies have achieved recommended phosphate levels in only 50 percent of patients during the last years. Research questions: How effective and efficient are the different phosphate binders in chronic renal insufficient patients? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,251 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 18 publications were included in the assessment. Results: All studies evaluated conclude that serum phosphate, serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone can be controlled effectively with all phosphate binders. Only the number of episodes of hypercalcaemia is higher when using calcium-containing phosphatebinders compared to Sevelamer and Lanthanum. Regarding the mortality rate, the cardiovascular artery calcification and bone metabolism no definite conclusions can be drawn. In any case, the amount of calcification at study start seems to be crucial for the further

  17. 3D printing of octacalcium phosphate bone substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Komlev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed octacalcium phosphate blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed octacalcium phosphates bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect’s diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient.

  18. Effect of Phosphate on Zinc Transport in Lou Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUJIALONG; DONGLINGIAO; 等

    1998-01-01

    A study on the transport characteristics of zinc in lou soil with phosphate at different concentrations was carried out by the method of step input.The effects of phosphate and temperature on zinc transport were studied through analysing the diffusion-dipsersion coefficients(D) and the retardation factor(R) obtained by the program CXTFIT.The results showed that D decreased and R increased with increasig concentration of phosphate so that iv was difficult for zinc to break through the soil column,and zinc stopped to break through the column at high temperature.One order equation,double constant equation and the Elovich equation were all suitable for the escription of zinc dynamics.Effects of phosphate and temperature on zinc transport were further confirmed by the analysis on pseudo-thermodynamic parameters of zinc transport.

  19. Hierarchical bismuth phosphate microspheres with high photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Lizhai; Wei, Tian; Lin, Nan; Yu, Haiyun [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province

    2016-05-15

    Hierarchical bismuth phosphate microspheres have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal process with polyvinyl pyrrolidone. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the hierarchical bismuth phosphate microspheres consist of nanosheets with a thickness of about 30 nm. The diameter of the microspheres is about 1 - 3 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the microspheres are comprised of triclinic Bi{sub 23}P{sub 4}O{sub 44.5} phase. The formation of the hierarchical microspheres depends on polyvinyl pyrrolidone concentration, hydrothermal temperature and reaction time. Gentian violet acts as the pollutant model for investigating the photocatalytic activity of the hierarchical bismuth phosphate microspheres under ultraviolet-visible light irradiation. Irradiation time, dosage of the hierarchical microspheres and initial gentian violet concentration on the photocatalytic efficiency are also discussed. The hierarchical bismuth phosphate microspheres show good photocatalytic performance for gentian violet removal in aqueous solution.

  20. Crude oil degradation by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from tropical areas around the Indian peninsula. Two of the isolates showed high phosphatase activity. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus pumilus, and they showed high...

  1. Sorbents for phosphate removal from agricultural drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsie, Gry

    , of the materials investigated the results from phosphate sorption and desorption studies clearly demonstrate that regarding phosphate sorption affinity, capacity and reactivity, iron oxide based PSM is superior as a filter material compared to the other tested materials.......Subsurface transport of phosphate (P) from fertilized agricultural fields to freshwaters may lead to eutrophication and reduced biodiversity in inland waters. Mitigation of eutrophic waters is difficult and costly. Reduction of P export to surface waters using filters installed in agricultural......-through cells. Further, in order to improve our understanding of phosphate sorption reactions and kinetics for different types of commercial available PSMs, three different types were studied by means of isothermal titration calorimetry, sorption isotherms, sequential extractions and SEM-EDS. In conclusion...

  2. Phosphate adsorption using modified iron oxide-based sorbents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Phosphate Removal This dataset is associated with the following publication: Lalley , J., C. Han , G. RamMohan , T. Speth , J. Garland , M. Nadagouda , and D....

  3. Characterization of cement calcium phosphate for use dental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium phosphates are interesting biological and medical attention due to its occurrence in different animal species and humans. Ceramics based on calcium phosphate in the form of implants or porous particulate materials, have proven to be suitable replacements for bone tissue when they are only subjected to small mechanical stresses. Was obtained research laboratory DEMA/UFCG a calcium phosphate phase. The goal is to characterize the material by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to analyze what the phases and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to identify the absorption bands of the bonding characteristic. Was identified by XRD phase present in the sample is hydroxyapatite Ca/P 1.67. In infrared spectroscopy has absorption bands characteristic of the phosphate group at 1032 cm1 region. (author)

  4. Genetics Home Reference: carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency ...

  5. Synthesis and Detection of Oxygen-18 Labeled Phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Melby, Eric S.; Douglas J. Soldat; Phillip Barak

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) has only one stable isotope and therefore tracking P dynamics in ecosystems and inferring sources of P loading to water bodies have been difficult. Researchers have recently employed the natural abundance of the ratio of (18)O/(16)O of phosphate to elucidate P dynamics. In addition, phosphate highly enriched in oxygen-18 also has potential to be an effective tool for tracking specific sources of P in the environment, but has so far been used sparingly, possibly due to unavailab...

  6. The Antimicrobial Action of Silver Halides in Calcium Phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Kalniņa, D; Gross, K; Onufrijevs, P.; Daukšta, E; Nikolajeva, V; Stankeviciute, Z; Kareiva, A.

    2015-01-01

    Silver halides represent a yet unexplored avenue for imparting antimicrobial activity to calcium phosphates. Negtively charged silver halide colloids (AgI, AgBr and AgCl) were added to synthesized amorphous calcium phosphate. Concurrent melting of silver halides and crystallization to carbonated apatite at 700 oC increased the silver halide surface area available to bacteria and formed a lower solubility apatite. The effect of the matrix solubility on antimicrobial response could ...

  7. A review paper on biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, X.; De Groot,, P.A.J.; Wang, D.; Hu, Q; Wismeijer, D.; Liu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings have been developed for bone regeneration and repair because of their biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and easy preparation. They can be rendered osteoinductive by incorporating an osteogenic agent, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), into the crystalline lattice work in physiological situations. The biomimetic calcium phosphate coating enables a controlled, slow and local release of BMP-2 when it undergoes cell mediated coating degradation ...

  8. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel Bentov; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jenny Tynyakov; Lilah Glazer; Amir Sagi

    2016-01-01

    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates speciali...

  9. Study of electrochemical phosphate conversion coating of metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an overview on phosphate conversion coating processes, on models of iron electrochemical dissolution, on the passivation phenomenon, and on the phosphate conversion coating treatment, this research thesis reports a detailed study of this last process. The author presents the experimental method, reports the study of this process and of passivation under constant polarization. He reports the use of various techniques and conditions: chrono-amperometry, chrono-potentiometry, cyclic volt-amperometry

  10. Phosphate vibrations probe local electric fields and hydration in biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas M Levinson; Bolte, Erin E.; Miller, Carrie S.; Corcelli, Steven A.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    The role of electric fields in important biological processes like binding and catalysis has been studied almost exclusively by computational methods. Experimental measurements of the local electric field in macromolecules are possible using suitably calibrated vibrational probes. Here we demonstrate that the vibrational transitions of phosphate groups are highly sensitive to an electric field and quantify that sensitivity, allowing local electric field measurements to be made in phosphate-co...

  11. Phosphate vibrations probe local electric fields and hydration in biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Nicholas M.; Bolte, Erin E.; Miller, Carrie S.

    2011-01-01

    The role of electric fields in important biological processes like binding and catalysis has been studied almost exclusively by computational methods. Experimental measurements of the local electric field in macromolecules are possible using suitably calibrated vibrational probes. Here we demonstrate that the vibrational transitions of phosphate groups are highly sensitive to an electric field and quantify that sensitivity, allowing local electric field measurements to be made in phosphate-containing biological systems without chemical modification. PMID:21809829

  12. A yeast expression system for human galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase.

    OpenAIRE

    Fridovich-Keil, J L; Jinks-Robertson, S

    1993-01-01

    Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) (UTP: alpha-D-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.10) is an essential enzyme of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Mutations in human GALT are associated with the potentially lethal disorder galactosemia, which affects 1 in 30,000-60,000 live-born infants. Although a number of base substitutions have been identified in the GALT alleles of galactosemia patients, the detailed biochemical impact of these mutations on GALT enz...

  13. Phosphate binding therapy in dialysis patients: focus on lanthanum carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail A Mohammed

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ismail A Mohammed, Alastair J HutchisonManchester Institute of Nephrology and Transplantation, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, UKAbstract: Hyperphosphatemia is an inevitable consequence of end stage chronic kidney disease and is present in the majority of dialysis patients. Recent observational data has associated hyperphosphatemia with increased cardiovascular mortality among dialysis patients. Dietary restriction of phosphate and current dialysis prescription practices are not enough to maintain serum phosphate levels within the recommended range so that the majority of dialysis patients require oral phosphate binders. Unfortunately, conventional phosphate binders are not reliably effective and are associated with a range of limitations and side effects. Aluminium-containing agents are highly efficient but no longer widely used because of well established and proven toxicity. Calcium based salts are inexpensive, effective and most widely used but there is now concern about their association with hypercalcemia and vascular calcification. Sevelamer hydrochloride is associated with fewer adverse effects, but a large pill burden and high cost are limiting factors to its wider use. In addition, the efficacy of sevelamer as a monotherapy in lowering phosphate to target levels in severe hyperphosphatemia remains debatable. Lanthanum carbonate is a promising new non-aluminium, calcium-free phosphate binder. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated a good safety profile, and it appears well tolerated and effective in reducing phosphate levels in dialysis patients. Its identified adverse events are apparently mild to moderate in severity and mostly GI related. It appears to be effective as a monotherapy, with a reduced pill burden, but like sevelamer, it is significantly more expensive than calcium-based binders. Data on its safety profile over 6 years of treatment are now available.Keywords: hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum

  14. Phosphate recovery using calcium zeolite in ultrafiltration pilot plant

    OpenAIRE

    La Rotonda Ferrer, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important ecological problems is the eutrophication, this process consist in the uncontrolled growing of algae and phytoplankton, which can destroy entire aquatic ecosystems. The reason of this process is the excess of nutrients, as for example, phosphate coming from human activities. This project focus on the study of synthetic zeolites capacity to absorb phosphate from wastewater. Zeolites are porous minerals of the alumina-silicates family with high capacity ...

  15. [Bone and Nutrition. The relationship between iron and phosphate metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashi, Yuichi; Fukumoto, Seiji

    2015-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an essential hormone for phosphate metabolism. It has been shown that intravenous administration of some iron formulations including saccharated ferric oxide induces hypophosphatemic osteomalacia with high FGF23 levels. On the other hand, iron deficiency promotes FGF23 and induces hypophosphatemia in patients with autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR). While iron and phosphate metabolism is connected, the detailed mechanism of this connection remains to be clarified.

  16. Calcium phosphate-based ceramic and composite materials for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topical problems in chemistry and technology of materials based on calcium phosphates aimed at both the replacement of damaged bone tissue and its regeneration are discussed. Specific features of the synthesis of nanocrystalline powders and the fabrication of ceramic implants are described. Advances in the development of porous scaffolds from resorbable and osteoconductive calcium phosphates and of hybrid composites that form the basis of bone tissue engineering are considered.

  17. Interplay between genetic regulation of phosphate homeostasis and bacterial virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Chekabab, Samuel Mohammed; Harel, Josée; Dozois, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens, including those of humans, animals, and plants, encounter phosphate (Pi)-limiting or Pi-rich environments in the host, depending on the site of infection. The environmental Pi-concentration results in modulation of expression of the Pho regulon that allows bacteria to regulate phosphate assimilation pathways accordingly. In many cases, modulation of Pho regulon expression also results in concomitant changes in virulence phenotypes. Under Pi-limiting conditions, bacteria u...

  18. VIBRATIONAL RELAXATION ON HYDROGEN BONDING IN DINUCLEOSIDE PHOSPHATE

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshii, Giichi

    1983-01-01

    The specific interactions between bases, which depend on the dinucleoside phosphate conformations, were studied in terms of the vibrational dynamics of hydrogen-bonding. The hydrogen-bond stretching vibrations of the nucleotide complexes and dinucleoside phosphates were observed in the polycrystalline state by the Raman spectroscopy. The vibrational dynamics were investigated by measuring the line broadenings of hydrogen-bonding vibration observed in near 100cm^. The half band-widths of vibra...

  19. International symposium on cellular and molecular biology of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds in microorganisms: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at the conference. Attention is focused on the following topics: regulation of phosphate metabolism in bacteria; structure-function of alkaline phosphatase; regulation of phosphate metabolism in yeast; transport of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds; and phosphate regulation in pathogenesis and secondary metabolism.

  20. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of 1-deaza-pyridoxal 5’-phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Griswold, Wait R.; Toney, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The first synthesis of 1-deaza-pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (2-formyl-3-hydroxy-4-methylbenzyl phosphate) is described. The chemoenzymatic approach described here is a reliable route to this important isosteric pyridoxal phosphate analogue. This work enables elucidation of the role of the pyridine nitrogen in pyridoxal 5’-phosphate dependent enzymes.

  1. Effect of Phosphate Concentration on Production of Tetrodotoxin by Alteromonas tetraodonis

    OpenAIRE

    Gallacher, Susan; Birkbeck, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin production by Alteromonas tetraodonis occurred during the stationary phase of growth and was regulated by phosphate concentration; toxin production was repressed if phosphate was added at the onset of stationary phase and was over 100-fold greater in phosphate-limited cultures than in cultures in which phosphate was not limiting.

  2. Phosphate availability in the soil-root system: integration of oxide surface chemistry, transport and uptake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    A study is presented on the adsorption of phosphate on goethite, the interaction of phosphate with other adsorbing ions at the goethite surface, and the resulting availability of phosphate to plants. The plant-availability of sorbed phosphate was determined from phosphorus uptake of plants growing o

  3. Study of Phosphating Process for Artillery Pipes Subjected to Mechanical Self-shrinkage with Mandrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ciorba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the results of a study that was made to establish the optimal parameters of phosphating process for artillery pipes. The optimal parameters that were determined after analysis are: the temperature of phosphating solution respectively the holding time in the phosphate bathroom to obtain a maximum thickness of phosphate layer.

  4. Radiation exposure due to agricultural uses of phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 1145 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: khater_ashraf@yahoo.com; AL-Sewaidan, H.A. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 1145 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-09-15

    Radiological impacts of phosphate rocks mining and manufacture could be significant due to the elevated radioactivity contents of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), such as {sup 238}U series, {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K, in some phosphate deposits. Over the last decades, the land reclamation and agriculture activities in Saudi Arabia and other countries have been widely expanded. Therefore, the usage of chemical fertilizers is increased. Selected phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the specific activities of NORM were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a hyper pure germanium detector and alpha spectrometer based on surface barrier detector. The obtained results show remarkable wide variations in the radioactivity contents of the different phosphate fertilizer samples. The mean (ranges) of specific activities for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, and radium equivalent activity are 75 (3-283), 25 (0.5-110), 23 (2-74), 2818 (9-6501) Bq/kg and 283 (7-589) Bq/kg, respectively. Based on dose calculations, the increment of the public radiation exposure due to the regular agricultural usage of phosphate fertilizers is negligible. Its average value 1 m above the ground is about 0.12 nGy/h where the world average value due to the NORM in soil is 51 nGy/h. Direct radiation exposures of the farmers due to phosphate fertilizers application was not considered in our study.

  5. Sphingosine-1 phosphate prevents ethanol-induced corneal epithelial apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Fournie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apoptosis is a programmed cell death in multicellular organisms, found in a wide variety of conditions, including inflammatory process, everywhere in the body, including the cornea and conjunctiva. Aim: To evaluate the effect of a new topical formulation of sphingosine-1 phosphate on preventing apoptosis of the corneal epithelium. Setting: Medical University. Materials and Methods: We tested several formulations suitable for topical application. Twenty-five rabbits were distributed among five groups. Group 1 comprised the controls. In Group 2, 20% ethanol was applied topically for 20 seconds; in Group 3, 50 μM topical sphingosine-1 phosphate was applied 2 hours prior to 20% ethanol application. In Group 4, 200 μM topical sphingosine-1 phosphate was applied 2 hours before the 20% ethanol application. In Group 5, only 200 μM topical sphingosine-1 phosphate was applied. Apoptosis was evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL assay. Pairwise comparisons were performed using t-tests with Scheffe′s correction. Data were analyzed using STATA 9.0 statistical software. Results: A suspension of sphingosine-1 phosphate in the presence of Montanox 80 was stable and could be formulated without sonication. Epithelial apoptosis was detected only in Groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: Sphingosine-1 phosphate can prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis in the corneal epithelium of rabbits.

  6. Removal of phosphate by mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Honglei; Sun Xiaofei; Yin Chengqing [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10085 (China); Hu Chun [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10085 (China)], E-mail: huchun@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-03-01

    A type of mesoporous ZrO{sub 2} was synthesized and its phosphate removal potential was investigated in this study. The adsorption isotherm, pH effect, ionic strength effect and desorption were examined in batch experiments. The adsorption data fitted well to the Langmuir model with which the maximum P adsorption capacity was estimated to be 29.71 mg P/g. The amount of phosphate adsorbed increased rapidly in the first 5 h and slowly towards the end of the run, suggesting the possible monolayer coverage of phosphate ions on the surface of the adsorbent. The phosphate adsorption tended to increase with a decrease of pH and an increase of ionic strength. A phosphate desorbability of approximately 60% was observed with 0.5 M NaOH, which indicated a relatively strong bonding between the adsorbed PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} and the sorptive sites on the surface of the adsorbent. The immobilization of phosphate probably occurs by the mechanisms of ion exchange and physicochemical attraction. Due to its high adsorption capacity, this type of Zirconium oxide has the potential for application to control phosphorus pollution.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Phosphates for Photocatalytic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sabban, Bedour

    2012-07-01

    Solar energy is the most abundant efficient and important source of renewable energy. The objective of this study is to develop highly efficient visible light responsive photocatalysts for overall water splitting. This is done by using silver or copper containing materials. Phosphate compounds have caught much attention due to their rigid structure, thermal stability and resistance to chemical attacks. Solid phosphates can be prepared by direct solid-state reaction between metal cations and phosphate anions at high temperatures. Double metal phosphates of the Nasion-type structure had shown further technological importance. It has been reported that well-crystallized double metal phosphate particles have excellent ordering and cationic conduction channels in the Nasicon framework. In this study, several Nasion-type structured materials have been synthesized by solid-state method (e.g. CuTi2(PO4)3 and AgTi2(PO4)3) heated up under different temperatures (400–1100C) in N2 or air atmosphere. These materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy and tested for photocatalytic applications. A new method for direct synthesis of photoelectrode on Ti Plate had been demonstrated. Further investigations on controlling the size and morphology for better performance of single and double metal phosphates will be done.

  8. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) have several advantages that make them ideal candidates for containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. In general, phosphates have high solid-solution capacities for incorporating radionuclides, as evidenced by several phosphates (e.g., monazites and apatites) that are natural analogs of radioactive and rare-earth elements. The phosphates have high radiation stability, are refractory, and will not degrade in the presence of internal heating by fission products. Dense and hard CBPCs can be fabricated inexpensively and at low temperature by acid-base reactions between an inorganic oxide/hydroxide powder and either phosphoric acid or an acid-phosphate solution. The resulting phosphates are extremely insoluble in aqueous media and have excellent long-term durability. CBPCs offer the dual stabilization mechanisms of chemical fixation and physical encapsulation, resulting in superior waste forms. The goal of this task is develop and demonstrate the feasibility of CBPCs for S/S of wastes containing fission products. The focus of this work is to develop a low-temperature CBPC immobilization system for eluted {sup 99}Tc wastes from sorption processes.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of recombinant human leukotriene A4 hydrolase complexed with bestatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, H; Ago, H; Aoki, M; Furuno, M; Noma, M; Miyano, M; Minami, M; Izumi, T; Shimizu, T

    1994-05-20

    Recombinant human leukotriene A4 hydrolase complexed with bestatin, an inhibitor of metalloprotease, has been crystallized by the hanging drop vapor diffusion method using 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) and 50 to 54% saturated ammonium sulfate. The orthorhombic crystals belong to the space group I222 or I2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell dimensions of a = 273.6 A, b = 261.3 A and c = 52.9 A. They diffract beyond 2.5 A resolution and a native data set up to 3 A resolution has been collected on an imaging plate Weissenberg camera using synchrotron radiation.

  10. Thermally highly stable amorphous zinc phosphate intermediates during the formation of zinc phosphate hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Sven; Celinski, Vinicius R; Dietzsch, Michael; Panthöfer, Martin; Bienert, Ralf; Emmerling, Franziska; Schmedt auf der Günne, Jörn; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-18

    The mechanisms by which amorphous intermediates transform into crystalline materials are still poorly understood. Here we attempt to illuminate the formation of an amorphous precursor by investigating the crystallization process of zinc phosphate hydrate. This work shows that amorphous zinc phosphate (AZP) nanoparticles precipitate from aqueous solutions prior to the crystalline hopeite phase at low concentrations and in the absence of additives at room temperature. AZP nanoparticles are thermally stable against crystallization even at 400 °C (resulting in a high temperature AZP), but they crystallize rapidly in the presence of water if the reaction is not interrupted. X-ray powder diffraction with high-energy synchrotron radiation, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering showed the particle size (≈20 nm) and confirmed the noncrystallinity of the nanoparticle intermediates. Energy dispersive X-ray, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and optical emission spectrometry as well as thermal analysis were used for further compositional characterization of the as synthesized nanomaterial. (1)H solid-state NMR allowed the quantification of the hydrogen content, while an analysis of (31)P{(1)H} C rotational echo double resonance spectra permitted a dynamic and structural analysis of the crystallization pathway to hopeite.

  11. Use of osmolytes during solubilization and reconstitution of phosphate: sugar phosphate antiport from bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambudkar, S.V.; Sonna, L.A.; Maloney, P.C.

    1986-05-01

    Phosphate:2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate (Pi:2DG6P) antiport was extracted from Streptococcus lactis or Staphylococcus aureus with 1.1% octylglucoside in the presence of 0.37% E. coli lipid and reconstituted by detergent dilution. Because previous work suggested inactivation at an early stage, the authors introduced protein stabilants during solubilization. When 20% glycerol was used, proteoliposomes showed a 20-fold increase in /sup 32/Pi transport. This enhanced recovery required phospholipid plus glycerol, and was found only when both were added together with the detergent. Glycerol protection yielded proteoliposomes in which antiporters retained their normal kinetic properties, and Pi exchange by the streptococcal example gave a maximal rate (200-400 nmol/min per mg protein) and a turnover number (30-50/s) which suggested that inactivation had been avoided. Further study showed that 20% glycerol could be replaced by equally high concentrations of compounds classified as osmolytes polyols (erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol), sugars (glucose, trehalose) and certain amino acids (glycine, proline, but not valine). The authors suggest that osmolytes may be used to fully stabilize chemiosmotic transporters during reconstitution.

  12. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonist FTY720-phosphate causes marginal zone B cell displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Kalpit A; Nichols, Elizabeth; Porter, Gene; Cui, Yan; Keohane, Carol Ann; Hajdu, Richard; Hale, Jeffery; Neway, William; Zaller, Dennis; Mandala, Suzanne

    2005-08-01

    FTY720 is an immunosuppressive agent that modulates lymphocyte trafficking. It is phosphorylated in vivo to FTY720-phosphate (FTY-P) and binds to a family of G protein-coupled receptors recognizing sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) as the natural ligand. It has previously been reported that FTY-P blocks egress of lymphocytes from the thymus and lymph nodes, resulting in peripheral blood lymphopenia. We now report that FTY-P also causes displacement of marginal zone (MZ) B cells to the splenic follicles, an effect that is similar to that observed after in vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide. This effect is specific to B cells in the MZ, as treatment with FTY-P does not cause redistribution of the resident macrophage population. A small but statistically significant decrease in the expression of beta1 integrin on MZ B cells was observed with FTY-P treatment. The redistribution of MZ B cells from the MZ sinuses does not abolish the ability of these cells to respond to the T-independent antigen, trinitrophenol-Ficoll. It has been proposed that the displacement of MZ B cells to the follicles is an indication of cell activation. Consistent with this, FTY-P caused an increase in percentage of MZ B cells expressing activation markers CD9, CD1d, and CD24. These results suggest that S1P receptors on MZ B cells are responsible for their mobilization to follicles.

  13. Use of osmolytes during solubilization and reconstitution of phosphate: sugar phosphate antiport from bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate:2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate (Pi:2DG6P) antiport was extracted from Streptococcus lactis or Staphylococcus aureus with 1.1% octylglucoside in the presence of 0.37% E. coli lipid and reconstituted by detergent dilution. Because previous work suggested inactivation at an early stage, the authors introduced protein stabilants during solubilization. When 20% glycerol was used, proteoliposomes showed a 20-fold increase in 32Pi transport. This enhanced recovery required phospholipid plus glycerol, and was found only when both were added together with the detergent. Glycerol protection yielded proteoliposomes in which antiporters retained their normal kinetic properties, and Pi exchange by the streptococcal example gave a maximal rate (200-400 nmol/min per mg protein) and a turnover number (30-50/s) which suggested that inactivation had been avoided. Further study showed that 20% glycerol could be replaced by equally high concentrations of compounds classified as osmolytes polyols (erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol), sugars (glucose, trehalose) and certain amino acids (glycine, proline, but not valine). The authors suggest that osmolytes may be used to fully stabilize chemiosmotic transporters during reconstitution

  14. Uranium recovery from phosphates in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of laboratory and pilot-scale research work carried out in Romania is reviewed. Based on this work, three industrial-scale uranium recovery units have been built adjacent to the existing plants that produce phosphoric acid for fertilizer production. The process described uses solvent extraction for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid (sulfuric acid attack) and from phosphonitric acid (nitric acid attack). The extractant used is either a DEPA-TOPO mixture or a mixture of DEPA-TBP. The method selected for the industrial-scale units is a ''one-cycle, extraction-stripping process'' that differs from the ''two-cycle, extraction stripping process'' developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the ''one-cycle method'' both uranium and the rare earths are co-extracted and then selectively stripped by techniques that simultaneously produce precipitates. The first stripping operation selectively recovers a rare earth precipitate. Uranium is obtained from the second-stage stripping operation as ''green cake'' (a fluoride of U4+), which can be readily transformed to high purity UFO6. The treated phosphoric acid produces a triple superphosphate (TSP) of low radioactivity and diammonium phosphate (DAP) of no radioactivity. Three uranium recovery plants have been built adjacent to the existing phosphoric acid plants and are to be put into operation soon. Each plant can produce approximately 30 tonnes per year of uranium. The technology for conversion of the ''green cake'' to nuclear grade diuranate has also been finalized. Estimates indicate tha the ''one-cycle extraction-stripping process'' has a lower capital investment cost than the ''two-cycle extraction-stripping process'', and the projected operating costs are 25-30 US$/kg of U. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  15. Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization.

  16. The bumper module of the Audi A4; Das Stossfaengersystem des Audi A4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberer, K. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Special attention was given to the bumper module of the new A4 during the development process. It is notable for its flush integration into the body, with 'zero' clearances and short overhangs. The module includes the bumper supports, the outer covering, the air inlet grille, the fog lights and the horns. Optional extras are an integrated ultrasonic 'Acoustic Parking System' (either front and rear or at the rear only) and a headlamp washer system. Both the bumper support and the deformation elements are made of weight-saving aluminium. The holder for the towing lug has been integrated into the right-hand deformation element and the towing forces are borne centrally by the side member. (orig.) [German] Dem Stossfaengermodul des neuen A4 wurde bei der Entwicklung besondere Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet. Es zeichnet sich durch eine buendige Formintegration in die Karosserie mit sogenannten Nullfugen und durch kurze Karosserieueberstaende aus. (orig.)

  17. Distinct generation, pharmacology, and distribution of sphingosine 1-phosphate and dihydro-sphingosine 1-phosphate in human neural progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-vivo and in-vitro studies suggest a crucial role for Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors in the development of the nervous system. Dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate (dhS1P), a reduced form of S1P, is an active ligand at S1P receptors, but the pharmacology and physiology of dhS1P has not...

  18. Comparative expression profiling reveals a role of the root apoplast in local phosphate response

    OpenAIRE

    Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Mönchgesang, Susann; Neumann, Steffen; Majovsky, Petra; Abel, Steffen; Jens MÜLLER

    2016-01-01

    Background Plant adaptation to limited phosphate availability comprises a wide range of responses to conserve and remobilize internal phosphate sources and to enhance phosphate acquisition. Vigorous restructuring of root system architecture provides a developmental strategy for topsoil exploration and phosphate scavenging. Changes in external phosphate availability are locally sensed at root tips and adjust root growth by modulating cell expansion and cell division. The functionally interacti...

  19. Salivary Phosphate-Binding Chewing Gum Reduces Hyperphosphatemia in Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A.; Monardo, Paolo; Davis, Paul A.; Granata, Antonio; Santoro, Domenico; Savica, Rodolfo; Musolino, Rosa; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2009-01-01

    In uremic patients, hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular calcification and increased cardiovascular mortality. Despite the use of phosphate binders, only half of hemodialysis (HD) patients achieve recommended serum phosphate levels. A hyperphosphoric salivary content, which correlates linearly with serum phosphate, has been reported in HD patients. We hypothesized that binding salivary phosphate during periods of fasting in addition to using phosphate binders with meals could i...

  20. Intestinal Npt2b Plays a Major Role in Phosphate Absorption and Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh, Yves; O'Brien, Stephen P.; Song, Wenping; Boulanger, Joseph H; Stockmann, Adam; Arbeeny, Cynthia; Schiavi, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal phosphate absorption occurs through both a paracellular mechanism involving tight junctions and an active transcellular mechanism involving the type II sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter NPT2b (SLC34a2). To define the contribution of NPT2b to total intestinal phosphate absorption, we generated an inducible conditional knockout mouse, Npt2b−/− (Npt2bfl/fl:Cre+/−). Npt2b−/− animals had increased fecal phosphate excretion and hypophosphaturia, but serum phosphate remained unchan...

  1. Exploring plant factors for increasing phosphorus utilization from rock phosphates and native soil phosphates in acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six plant species with contrasting capacity in utilizing rock phosphates were compared with regard to their responses to phosphorus starvation in hydroponic cultures. Radish, buckwheat and oil rapeseed are known to have strong ability to use rock phosphates while ryegrass, wheat and sesbania are less efficient. Whereas other plants acidified their culture solution under P starvation (-P), radish plants make alkaline the solution. When neutralizing the pH of the solutions cultured with plants under either -P or + P conditions, solutions with P starved buckwheat, rapeseed, and radish had a higher ability to solubilize Al and Fe phosphates than did those cultured with sesbania, ryegrass and wheat. Characterization of organic ligands in the solutions identified that citrate and malate were the major organic anions exuded by rapeseed and radish. Besides citrate and malate, buckwheat exuded a large amount of tartrate under P starvation. In contrast, ryegrass, wheat and sesbania secreted only a limited amount of oxalic acid, regardless of P status. Changes in activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, acid phosphatase, and nitrate reductase in these plants were also compared under P- sufficient or -deficient conditions. The results indicated that plant ability to use rock phosphates or soil phosphates is closely related to their responses toward P starvation. The diversity of P starvation responses was discussed in the context of co-evolution between plants and their environment. Approaches to use plant factors to enhance the effectiveness of rock phosphates were also discussed. (author)

  2. Characterization of a calcium phosphate cement based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate obtained by wet precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several systems of calcium phosphate cements being studied. Those based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate are of particular interest. After setting they produce calcium deficient hydroxyapatite similar to bone like hydroxyapatite. This work aims to obtain alpha-tricalcium phosphate powders by the wet precipitation process, using calcium nitrate and phosphoric acid as reagents. This powder was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution. In order to prepare the calcium phosphate cement, the powder was mixed with an accelerator in an aqueous solution. The mechanical properties of the cement were assessed and it was evaluated by means of apparent density, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The described method produced crystalline alpha-tricalcium phosphate as the major phase. The calcium phosphate cement showed high values of compression strength (50 MPa). The soaking of the cement in a simulated body fluid (SBF) formed a layer of hydroxyapatite like crystals in the surface of the samples. (author)

  3. 化妆品中7种抗生素及地塞米松磷酸钠和水杨酸的高效液相色谱测定法%Determination of 7 Kinds of Antibiotics, Dexamethasone Phosphate Disodium Salt and Salicylic Acid in Anti-acne Cosmetics by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳伟; 朱英; 张卫强; 袁韧

    2006-01-01

    目的建立祛痘除螨类化妆品中7种抗生素、1种糖皮质激素(地塞米松磷酸钠)和水杨酸同时测定的高效液相色谱法.方法采用C18色谱柱(4.6mm×250mm,5μm),以甲醇:乙腈:0.01 mol/L草酸=11:22:67(体积比)为流动相,流速为0.8 ml/min,检测波长为240和268 nm,柱温为25℃,在此色谱条件下进行检测.结果该方法各组分检出限为0.1~5 mg/L,线性范围为10~600mg/L,RSD≤2.58%,加标回收率为99.1%~126.3%.结论该法操作简便、准确、快速,能够检测祛痘除螨类化妆品中7种抗生素以及地塞米松磷酸钠和水杨酸的含量.

  4. The preparation of disodium phosphate from waste phosphoric acid liquid and waste al- kali liquid in the process of butachlor%利用丁草胺工艺中的废酸废碱生产磷酸氢二钠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹长军; 于林超; 李健秀

    2001-01-01

    以丁草胺生产工艺中的废磷酸和废碱为原料,经反应、浓缩和结晶制备磷酸氢二钠,讨论了不同的工艺条件,得到了纯度和氯含量分别为96.10%、0.04%的产品,达到了一级品标准.

  5. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  6. Characterization of iron phosphate glasses prepared by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate glasses have been investigated since the fifties, because they are relatively easy to prepare, have low melting temperatures (1000 deg C - 1200 deg C), and low glass transition. However, these glasses were very sensitive to humidity, showing a very low chemical durability. Iron phosphate glasses have been prepared by melting inorganic precursors in conventional electric furnaces and induction furnaces. By adding iron, phosphate glasses became chemical resistant and were thought to be used as nuclear waste forms or mechanical resistance fibers. The use of microwaves has been investigated because it makes possible a fast and homogeneous heating of the materials. Microwave promotes the self-heating of the material by the interaction of the external electromagnetic field with the molecules and ions of the material. Niobium phosphate glasses was also produced already through the heating of precursors in microwave ovens. Other glasses containing iron in theirs structure was produced by conventional furnaces and they had your structures analyzed. But even so, it was not still published synthesis of iron phosphate glasses starting from the melting of precursors materials in microwave ovens. In the present work mixtures of (NH4)2HPO4 and Fe3O4 or (NH4)2HPO4 and Fe2O3 were exposed to microwave energy with electromagnetic waves of 2,45 GHz. It was proposed that the absorption of this radiation for the material causes the heating from room temperature to melting temperature. The obtained iron phosphate glasses was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and Differential Thermal Analysis. Iron phosphate glasses were also produced in electrical furnaces for comparison. (author)

  7. Phosphate binding protein as the biorecognition element in a biosensor for phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salins, Lyndon L E.; Deo, Sapna K.; Daunert, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This work explores the potential use of a member of the periplasmic family of binding proteins, the phosphate binding protein (PBP), as the biorecognition element in a sensing scheme for the detection of inorganic phosphate (Pi). The selectivity of this protein originates from its natural role which, in Escherichia coli, is to serve as the initial receptor for the highly specific translocation of Pi to the cytoplasm. The single polypeptide chain of PBP is folded into two similar domains connected by three short peptide linkages that serve as a hinge. The Pi binding site is located deep within the cleft between the two domains. In the presence of the ligand, the two globular domains engulf the former in a hinge-like manner. The resultant conformational change constitutes the basis of the sensor development. A mutant of PBP (MPBP), where an alanine was replaced by a cysteine residue, was prepared by site-directed mutagenesis using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mutant was expressed, from plasmid pSD501, in the periplasmic space of E. coli and purified in a single chromatographic step on a perfusion anion-exchange column. Site-specific labeling was achieved by attaching the fluorophore, N-[2-(1-maleimidyl)ethyl]-7-(diethylamino)coumarin-3-carboxamide (MDCC), to the protein through the sulfhydryl group of the cysteine moiety. Steady-state fluorescence studies of the MPBP-MDCC conjugate showed a change in the intensity of the signal upon addition of Pi. Calibration curves for Pi were constructed by relating the intensity of the fluorescence signal with the amount of analyte present in the sample. The sensing system was first developed and optimized on a spectrofluorometer using ml volumes of sample. It was then adapted to be used on a microtiter plate arrangement with microliter sample volumes. The system's versatility was finally proven by developing a fiber optic fluorescence-based sensor for monitoring Pi. In all three cases the detection limits for the

  8. Effect of dietary phosphate intake on the circadian rhythm of serum phosphate concentrations in chronic kidney disease: a crossover study1234

    OpenAIRE

    Ix, Joachim H.; Anderson, Cheryl AM; Smits, Gerard; Persky, Martha S.; Block, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous trials of binders in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3–5 have shown only modest changes in serum phosphate but evaluated morning phosphate. It is unknown whether a circadian pattern of phosphate concentrations exists in CKD and is modifiable by dietary manipulation.

  9. An Arabidopsis thaliana knock-out mutant of the chloroplast triose phosphate/phosphate translocator is severely compromised only when starch synthesis, but not starch mobilisation is abolished

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Anja; Häusler, Rainer E; Kolukisaoglu, Uner;

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana tpt-1 mutant which is defective in the chloroplast triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT) was isolated by reverse genetics. It contains a T-DNA insertion 24 bp upstream of the start ATG of the TPT gene. The mutant lacks TPT transcripts and triose phosphate (TP...

  10. METHOD FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL PHOSPHATING OF METAL SURFACES, PARTICULARLY STAINLESS STEEL, AND APPLICATION OF AN AQUEOUS PHOSPHATING SOLUTION FOR SUCH A METHOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A method for electrochemical phosphating of metal surfaces, particularly stainless steel, in connection with cold forming of metal workpieces, which method provides the cold formed work-piece with a lubricant after phosphating, involves an electrochemical phosphating through a cathodic process...

  11. Phosphate inhibits in vitro Fe3+ loading into transferrin by forming a soluble Fe(III)-phosphate complex: a potential non-transferrin bound iron species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Robert J; Seare, Matthew C; Andros, N David; Kenealey, Zachary; Orozco, Catalina Matias; Webb, Michael; Watt, Richard K

    2012-05-01

    In chronic kidney diseases, NTBI can occur even when total iron levels in serum are low and transferrin is not saturated. We postulated that elevated serum phosphate concentrations, present in CKD patients, might disrupt Fe(3+) loading into apo-transferrin by forming Fe(III)-phosphate species. We report that phosphate competes with apo-transferrin for Fe(3+) by forming a soluble Fe(III)-phosphate complex. Once formed, the Fe(III)-phosphate complex is not a substrate for donating Fe(3+) to apo-transferrin. Phosphate (1-10mM) does not chelate Fe(III) from diferric transferrin under the conditions examined. Complexed forms of Fe(3+), such as iron nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe(3+)-NTA), and Fe(III)-citrate are not susceptible to this phosphate complexation reaction and efficiently deliver Fe(3+) to apo-transferrin in the presence of phosphate. This reaction suggests that citrate might play an important role in protecting against Fe(III), phosphate interactions in vivo. In contrast to the reactions of Fe(3+) and phosphate, the addition of Fe(2+) to a solution of apo-transferrin and phosphate lead to rapid oxidation and deposition of Fe(3+) into apo-transferrin. These in vitro data suggest that, in principle, elevated phosphate concentrations can influence the ability of apo-transferrin to bind iron, depending on the oxidation state of the iron.

  12. Powder properties of binary mixtures of chloroquine phosphate with lactose and dicalcium phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ayodele Odeniyi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the packing and cohesive properties of chloroquine phosphate in binary mixtures with lactose and dicalcium phosphate powders. The maximum volume reduction due to packing as expressed by the Kawakita constant, a, and the angle of internal flow, θ, were the assessment parameters. The individual powders were characterized for their particle size and shape using an optical microscope. Binary mixtures of various proportions of chloroquine phosphate with lactose and dicalcium phosphate powders were prepared. The bulk and tapped densities, angles of repose and internal flow, as well as compressibility index of the materials were determined using appropriate parameters. The calculated and determined values of maximum volume reduction for the binary mixtures were found to differ significantly (PRealizou-se estudo das propriedades de empacotamento e de coesão do fosfato de cloroquina em misturas binárias com lactose e fosfato dicálcico em pó. O volume máximo de redução devido ao empacotamento, segundo expresso pela constante de Kawakita, a, e o ângulo de fluxo interno, θ, foram os parâmetros de avaliação. Os pós individuais foram caracterizados por seu tamanho e forma de partículas, utilizando microscópio óptico. Prepararam-se misturas binárias de várias proporções de fosfato de cloroquine e lactose e fosfato dicálcico em pó. As densidades de bulk and tapped, os ângulos de repouso e de fluxo interno e o índice de compressibilidade dos materiais foram determinados utilizando-se parâmetros apropriados. Os valores calculados e determinados do volume máximo de redução para as misturas binárias mostraram-se significativamente diferentes (P< 0,05, sendo o traçado de Kawakita mais confiável na determinação das propriedades de empacotamento. O tipo de diluente influenciou as propriedades de fluxo das misturas com fosfato dicálcico, dando resultados previsíveis, enquanto as misturas contendo lactose

  13. Dynamic interplay between uranyl phosphate precipitation, sorption, and phase evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In all experiments, final concentrations of uranium were lower than U.S. EPA standards. • U–P minerals more stable than chernikovite were slow to develop without sorption. • Heterogeneous nucleation was not observed. • U sorbs much more readily to the goethite than mica in the absence of phosphate. • Nucleation-growth-sorption cycles occur over weeks, not hours, at room temperature. - Abstract: Natural examples demonstrate uranyl-phosphate minerals can maintain extremely low levels of aqueous uranium in groundwaters due to their low solubility. Therefore, greater understanding of the geochemical factors leading to uranyl phosphate precipitation may lead to successful application of phosphate-based remediation methods. However, the solubility of uranyl phosphate phases varies over >3 orders of magnitude, with the most soluble phases typically observed in lab experiments. To understand the role of common soil/sediment mineral surfaces in the nucleation and transformation of uranyl phosphate minerals under environmentally relevant conditions, batch experiments were carried out with goethite and mica at pH 6 in mixed electrolyte solutions ranging from 1–800 μM U and 1–800 μM P. All experiments ended with uranium concentrations below the USEPA MCL for U, but with 2–3 orders of magnitude difference in uranium concentrations. Despite the presence of many cations that are well known to incorporate into less soluble autunite-group minerals, chernikovite rapidly precipitated in all experiments containing U and P, except for solutions with 1 μM U and 1 μM P that were calculated to be undersaturated. Textures of uranyl phosphates observed by AFM and TEM indicate that nucleation was homogenous and independent of the initial mineral content. Comparison of time-course U and P concentrations from the experiments with thermodynamic modeling of solution equilibria demonstrated that aqueous uranium concentrations in the experimental systems evolved

  14. Antimicrobial effects of silver zeolite, silver zirconium phosphate silicate and silver zirconium phosphate against oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sirikamon Saengmee-anupharb; Toemsak Srikhirin; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Taweechai Amornsakchai; Surachai Dechkunakorn; Theeralaksna Suddhasthira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of silver inorganic materials, including silver zeolite (AgZ), silver zirconium phosphate silicate (AgZrPSi) and silver zirconium phosphate (AgZrP), against oral microorganisms. In line with this objective, the morphology and structure of each type of silver based powders were also investigated. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP were tested against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Candidaalbicans and Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion assay as a screening test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) were determined using the modified membrane method. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the morphology and structure of these silver materials. Results: All forms of silver inorganic materials could inhibit the growth of all test microorganisms. The MIC of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP was 10.0 g/L whereas MLC ranged between 10.0-60.0 g/L. In terms of morphology and structure, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had smaller sized particles (1.5-3.0 µm) and more uniformly shaped than AgZ. Conclusions: Silver inorganic materials in the form of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had antimicrobial effects against all test oral microorganisms and those activities may be influenced by the crystal structure of carriers. These results suggest that these silver materials may be useful metals applied to oral hygiene products to provide antimicrobial activity against oral infection.

  15. Spectroscopic properties of highly Nd-doped lead phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectroscopic characteristics of highly Nd3+-doped lead phosphate glasses (xNd:Pb3(PO4)2) have been investigated. The X-ray spectra show that the matrices are glassy up to 25 wt% of Nd3+ doping. From the Judd–Ofelt analysis we observe that while the Ω(2) parameter remains constant indicating that the 4fN and 4fN−15 d1 configurations are not affected by the Nd3+ doping, the behavior of both Ω(4) and Ω(6) changes for 15 wt% of Nd3+ doping. The reduction of the Ω(6) parameter is related to the increase of the covalence bonding between the ligands and the Nd3+ ions. At this particular concentration, the radiative lifetime has a four-fold enhancement. Such behaviors are likely to be related to a modification in the glass structure for high Nd3+ concentrations. - Graphical abstract: Highly doped lead-phosphate glass matrix, with nominal concentration of up to 25 wt%, maintain the spectroscopic properties without deterioration. The analysis concerning the point of view of Nd3+ ions showed that high concentrations only affects the rare earth electronic charge density distribution. - Highlights: • Spectroscopic characterization of Nd2O3 highly doped lead phosphate glasses. • Phosphate glass doped with Nd3+ for applications in photonic devices. • Judd–Ofelt analysis in phosphate glasses doped with Neodymium

  16. Phosphate fertilizer impacts on glyphosate sorption by soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Flaten, Don; Grant, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the impact of field-aged phosphate and cadmium (Cd) concentrations, and fresh phosphate co-applications, on glyphosate sorption by soil. Soil samples were collected in 2013 from research plots that had received, from 2002 to 2009, annual applications of mono ammonium phosphate (MAP) at 20, 40 and 80 kg P ha(-1) and from products containing 0.4, 70 or 210 mg Cd kg(-1) as an impurity. A series of batch equilibrium experiments were carried out to quantify the glyphosate sorption distribution constant, Kd. Extractable Cd concentrations in soil had no significant effect on glyphosate sorption. Glyphosate Kd values significantly decreased with increasing Olsen-P concentrations in soil, regardless of the pH conditions studied. Experiments repeated with a commercially available glyphosate formulation showed statistically similar results as the experiments performed with analytical-grade glyphosate. Co-applications of MAP with glyphosate also reduced the available sorption sites to retain glyphosate, but less so when soils already contain large amounts of phosphate. Glyphosate Kd values in soils ranged from 173 to 939 L kg(-1) under very strong to strongly acidic condition but the Kd was always glyphosate may become mobile by water in soils with high phosphate levels. Otherwise, glyphosate residues in agricultural soils are more likely to be transported off-site by wind and water-eroded sediments than by leaching or runoff. PMID:27035384

  17. Amorphous calcium phosphate and its application in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei-bin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP is an essential mineral phase formed in mineralized tissues and the first commercial product as artificial hydroxyapatite. ACP is unique among all forms of calcium phosphates in that it lacks long-range, periodic atomic scale order of crystalline calcium phosphates. The X-ray diffraction pattern is broad and diffuse with a maximum at 25 degree 2 theta, and no other different features compared with well-crystallized hydroxyapatite. Under electron microscopy, its morphological form is shown as small spheroidal particles in the scale of tenths nanometer. In aqueous media, ACP is easily transformed into crystalline phases such as octacalcium phosphate and apatite due to the growing of microcrystalline. It has been demonstrated that ACP has better osteoconductivity and biodegradability than tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite in vivo. Moreover, it can increase alkaline phosphatase activities of mesoblasts, enhance cell proliferation and promote cell adhesion. The unique role of ACP during the formation of mineralized tissues makes it a promising candidate material for tissue repair and regeneration. ACP may also be a potential remineralizing agent in dental applications. Recently developed ACP-filled bioactive composites are believed to be effective anti-demineralizing/remineralizing agents for the preservation and repair of tooth structures. This review provides an overview of the development, structure, chemical composition, morphological characterization, phase transformation and biomedical application of ACP in dentistry.

  18. Gene Cloning of Iranian Leishmania major Mannose-1-Phosphate Guanyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Salehi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Leishmania is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite, which infects human be­ings when infected sand fly vector takes a blood meal.  Most efforts are towards designing an effective vaccine to prevent leishmaniasis. In this way, development of candidate antigen for vaccine has spe­cial im­portant. In this study, we cloned mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase gene of Iranian L .major in pET32a expression vector. "nMethods: Primers based on L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase sequence gene was de­signed and synthesized. DNA of Leishmania promastigotes was extracted and PCR reaction was done. PCR product was cloned into pTZ57R and sub cloned into pET32a expression vector. "nResults: Recombinant plasmid containing 1140 bp as L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltrans­ferase gene was extracted and confirmed by restriction analysis. PCR product was sequenced and de­posited to GenBank. There were some differences in amino acid sequences between Iranian L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase and others previously accepted in GenBank "nConclusion: We amplified and cloned Iranian L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase successfully.

  19. The stability mechanisms of an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimi, Ahmed; Tassin, Jean-François; Axelos, Monique A V; Weiss, Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics are widely used as bone substitutes in dentistry and orthopedic applications. For minimally invasive surgery an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension (ICPCS) was developed. It consists in a biopolymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose: HPMC) as matrix and bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics (biphasic calcium phosphate: BCP) as fillers. The stability of the suspension is essential to this generation of "ready to use" injectable biomaterial. But, during storage, the particles settle down. The engineering sciences have long been interested in models describing the settling (or sedimentation) of particles in viscous fluids. Our work is dedicated to the comprehension of the effect of the formulation on the stability of calcium phosphate suspension before and after steam sterilization. The rheological characterization revealed the macromolecular behavior of the suspending medium. The investigations of settling kinetics showed the influence of the BCP particle size and the HPMC concentration on the settling velocity and sediment compactness before and after sterilization. To decrease the sedimentation process, the granule size has to be smaller and the polymer concentration has to increase. A much lower sedimentation velocity, as compared to Stokes law, is observed and interpreted in terms of interactions between the polymer network in solution and the particles. This experimentation highlights the granules spacer property of hydrophilic macromolecules that is a key issue for interconnection control, one of the better ways to improve osteoconduction and bioactivity. PMID:20229185

  20. Bypassing the Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Towards Modular Utilization of Xylose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulika Chomvong

    Full Text Available The efficient use of hemicellulose in the plant cell wall is critical for the economic conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels and chemicals. Previously, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered to convert the hemicellulose-derived pentose sugars xylose and arabinose to d-xylulose-5-phosphate for conversion via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP. However, efficient pentose utilization requires PPP optimization and may interfere with its roles in NADPH and pentose production. Here, we developed an alternative xylose utilization pathway that largely bypasses the PPP. In the new pathway, d-xylulose is converted to d-xylulose-1-phosphate, a novel metabolite to S. cerevisiae, which is then cleaved to glycolaldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This synthetic pathway served as a platform for the biosynthesis of ethanol and ethylene glycol. The use of d-xylulose-1-phosphate as an entry point for xylose metabolism opens the way for optimizing chemical conversion of pentose sugars in S. cerevisiae in a modular fashion.

  1. Phosphate fertilizer impacts on glyphosate sorption by soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Flaten, Don; Grant, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the impact of field-aged phosphate and cadmium (Cd) concentrations, and fresh phosphate co-applications, on glyphosate sorption by soil. Soil samples were collected in 2013 from research plots that had received, from 2002 to 2009, annual applications of mono ammonium phosphate (MAP) at 20, 40 and 80 kg P ha(-1) and from products containing 0.4, 70 or 210 mg Cd kg(-1) as an impurity. A series of batch equilibrium experiments were carried out to quantify the glyphosate sorption distribution constant, Kd. Extractable Cd concentrations in soil had no significant effect on glyphosate sorption. Glyphosate Kd values significantly decreased with increasing Olsen-P concentrations in soil, regardless of the pH conditions studied. Experiments repeated with a commercially available glyphosate formulation showed statistically similar results as the experiments performed with analytical-grade glyphosate. Co-applications of MAP with glyphosate also reduced the available sorption sites to retain glyphosate, but less so when soils already contain large amounts of phosphate. Glyphosate Kd values in soils ranged from 173 to 939 L kg(-1) under very strong to strongly acidic condition but the Kd was always glyphosate may become mobile by water in soils with high phosphate levels. Otherwise, glyphosate residues in agricultural soils are more likely to be transported off-site by wind and water-eroded sediments than by leaching or runoff.

  2. Optimization of calcium phosphate fine ceramic powders preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezanova, K.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Rabadjieva, D.; Gergulova, R.; Ilieva, R.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of biomimetic synthesis method, reaction medium and further precursor treatments on the chemical and phase composition, crystal size and morphology of calcium phosphates was examined. Nanosized calcium phosphate precursors were biomimetically precipitated by the method of continuous precipitation in three types of reaction media at pH 8: (i) SBF as an inorganic electrolyte system; (ii) organic (glycerine) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1); (iii) polymer (10 g/l xanthan gum or 10 g/l guar gum) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1). After maturation (24 h) the samples were lyophilized, calcinated at 300°C for 3 hours, and washed with water, followed by new gelation, lyophilization and step-wise (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C, each for 3 hours) sintering. The reaction medium influenced the chemical composition and particle size but not the morphology of the calcium phosphate powders. In all studied cases bi-phase calcium phosphate fine powders with well-shaped spherical grains, consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a Ca/P ratio of 1.3 - 1.6 were obtained. The SBF modifiers decreased the particle size of the product in the sequence guar gum ˜ xanthan gum < glycerin < SBF medium.

  3. Bypassing the Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Towards Modular Utilization of Xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomvong, Kulika; Bauer, Stefan; Benjamin, Daniel I; Li, Xin; Nomura, Daniel K; Cate, Jamie H D

    2016-01-01

    The efficient use of hemicellulose in the plant cell wall is critical for the economic conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels and chemicals. Previously, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered to convert the hemicellulose-derived pentose sugars xylose and arabinose to d-xylulose-5-phosphate for conversion via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). However, efficient pentose utilization requires PPP optimization and may interfere with its roles in NADPH and pentose production. Here, we developed an alternative xylose utilization pathway that largely bypasses the PPP. In the new pathway, d-xylulose is converted to d-xylulose-1-phosphate, a novel metabolite to S. cerevisiae, which is then cleaved to glycolaldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This synthetic pathway served as a platform for the biosynthesis of ethanol and ethylene glycol. The use of d-xylulose-1-phosphate as an entry point for xylose metabolism opens the way for optimizing chemical conversion of pentose sugars in S. cerevisiae in a modular fashion.

  4. Stability of Crushed Tedizolid Phosphate Tablets for Nasogastric Tube Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gerard; Osborn, Jim; Flanagan, Shawn; Alsayed, Najy; Bertolami, Shellie

    2015-12-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. To determine whether the expected dose of tedizolid phosphate can be delivered via nasogastric tube in patients who have difficulty swallowing and in whom venous access is not suitable, this in vitro study evaluated the recovery of tedizolid phosphate 200-mg tablets after crushing, dispersion in water, and passage through a nasogastric tube. To analyze the chemical stability of the crushed tablet dispersed in water, the aqueous preparation was assayed initially after dispersion and again after 4 h at room temperature. Recovery of tedizolid phosphate after the crushed tablets were dispersed in water and passed through nasogastric tubes ranged from 92.5 to 97.1 %, which is within the specified acceptance criteria of 90 to 110 %. There was no significant change in recovery values after 4 h of storage at room temperature (93.9 % initially and 94.7 % after 4 h). The stability and recovery findings support the feasibility of administering an aqueous dispersion of crushed tedizolid phosphate tablets through a nasogastric tube in patients who have difficulty swallowing and in whom intravenous administration is not possible.

  5. Surface smoothness and marginal fit with phosphate-bonded investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, J P; Doyle, T M; Caputo, A A

    1979-04-01

    Two phosphate-bonded investments and one calcium sulfate investment were evaluated for the surface smoothness and marginal fit they impart to gold castings. A modified technique was also evaluated for each phosphate-bonded investment, where the silica sol was not diluted and the spatulation time was reduced. The results of this study lead to the following conclusions: 1. The marginal fits obtained with all four phosphate-bonded methods were comparable to each other and superior to that obtained with the calcium sulfate investment. 2. The presence of nodules on the surface of the castings was more prevalent with the phosphate-bonded investments. However, this effect was not statistically significant. 3. Clinical assessment of the roughness of the castings revealed that all the methods tested produced clinically acceptable castings. 4. Visual observation by five dentists revealed that both the recommended and modified techniques for one of the phosphate-bonded investments (Ceramigold) produced a smoother surface than any other investment tested. Rating of scanning electron microscope photographs (X600) revealed no difference in the surface roughness between any of the castings. Consequently, no definitive relation between investment type or technique and surface roughness was established. 5. No correlation was demonstrated between surface roughness, as evaluated by either clinical observation or scanning electron microscope photography, and marginal fit of the castings.

  6. Iron phosphate glass for immobilization of 99Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •99Tc (surrogated by Re) was immobilized in an iron phosphate glass. •∼1.1 mass% Re was retained, possibly dissolved, in the iron phosphate glass. •The 7-day PCT normalized release of Re was −2 g/m2. •Re concentration in the glass rapidly decreased with increasing melting temperature and duration. -- Abstract: Technetium-99 (99Tc) can bring serious environmental threats because of its long half-life (τ1/2 = ∼2.1 × 105 years), high fission yield (∼6%), and high solubility and mobility in the ground water. The high volatility makes it difficult to immobilize 99Tc in continuous melters vitrifying 99Tc-containing nuclear wastes in borosilicate glasses. This work explores a possibility of incorporating a high concentration of 99Tc, surrogated by the non-radioactive Re, in an iron phosphate glass by melting mixtures of iron phosphate glass frits with 1.5–6 mass% KReO4 at ∼1000 °C. The retention of Re achieved was ∼1.1 mass%. The normalized Re release by the 7-day Product Consistency Test was −2 g/m2. Surprisingly, the Re escaped from the melt within a short time of heating, especially when the temperature was increased. Therefore, 99Tc volatilization would still be a challenging task for its immobilization in iron phosphate glasses

  7. Characterisation of phosphate rocks at kurun mountain, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This main objective of this study was to characterise some Sudanese phosphate raw materials collected from Jebel Kurun, located in the eastern part of Nuba Mountain, Western Sudan. The study also aimed to investigate the association between uranium and phosphate and to determine the concentration of some essential elements and trace elements in the phosphate rock. A total of 30 samples were collected from Karun's eastran mountains, near Abujibiha City and have been analyzed for the selected elements using x-ray fluorescence. The obtained results showed that the average concentration of elements was Ca (11.3) and Fe (1.7) as a percentage, while it was Cu (1617.7), Ni (258.4), Pb (185.9), Ti (27.62), V (3779.9), U (160.9), Zn (152.8) and Mn (776.3) in ppm. The average total phosphorus content (analyzed as PO5%) using UV-visible spectrometer was found to be 30.54%. This could be considered is acceptable percentage for phosphate to be 30.54%. This could be considered is acceptable percentage for phosphate to be used in industrial fertilizers and phosphoric acid production. The average total calcium carbonate was 15.7%. For the elements distribution, uranium found to be more concentrated in the summit of Jebel Kurun, and it displayed a correlation with lead. Furthermore, four groups of association have been noticed, based on elements concentrations.(Author)

  8. New sunscreen materials based on amorphous cerium and titanium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium-titanium pyrophosphates Ce1-xTi xP2O7 (with x = 0, 0.50, and 1.0), which are novel phosphate materials developed as UV-shielding agents for use in cosmetics, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescent analysis, UV-vis reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy. Since the optical reflectance shifted to lower wavelengths by the crystallization of the phosphates and the stabilization of the amorphous state of the cerium-titanium pyrophosphates was carried out by doping niobium (Nb). Raman spectroscopic study of the phosphate showed that P-O-P bending and stretching modes decreased with the loading of Nb, accompanying with the formation of Nb-O stretching mode. Therefore, the increase in the amount of the non-bridging oxygen in the amorphous phosphate should be the reason for the inhibition of the crystallization. This stabilization is a significant improvement, which enables to apply these amorphous phosphates not only to cosmetics and paints, but also plastics and films

  9. Bypassing the Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Towards Modular Utilization of Xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomvong, Kulika; Bauer, Stefan; Benjamin, Daniel I.; Li, Xin; Nomura, Daniel K.; Cate, Jamie H. D.

    2016-01-01

    The efficient use of hemicellulose in the plant cell wall is critical for the economic conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels and chemicals. Previously, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered to convert the hemicellulose-derived pentose sugars xylose and arabinose to d-xylulose-5-phosphate for conversion via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). However, efficient pentose utilization requires PPP optimization and may interfere with its roles in NADPH and pentose production. Here, we developed an alternative xylose utilization pathway that largely bypasses the PPP. In the new pathway, d-xylulose is converted to d-xylulose-1-phosphate, a novel metabolite to S. cerevisiae, which is then cleaved to glycolaldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This synthetic pathway served as a platform for the biosynthesis of ethanol and ethylene glycol. The use of d-xylulose-1-phosphate as an entry point for xylose metabolism opens the way for optimizing chemical conversion of pentose sugars in S. cerevisiae in a modular fashion. PMID:27336308

  10. Recovery of uranium from phosphatic rock and its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery of uranium present in the manufacture process of phosphoric acid and fertilizers has been one interesting field of study in chemistry. It is true that the recovery of uranium it is not very attractive from the commercial point of view, however the phosphatic fertilizers have an important amount of uranium which comes from the starting materials (phosphatic rock), therefore there must be many tons of uranium that are dispersed in the environmental together with the fertilizers used in agriculture every year. They are utilized for the enrichment of the nutrients which are exhausted in the soil. In this work, uranium was identified and quantified in the phosphatic rocks and in inorganic fertilizers using Gamma Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, UV/Visible Spectrophotometry, Alpha Spectroscopy. On the other hand, it was done a correlation of the behaviour of uranium with inorganic elements present in the samples such as phosphorus, calcium and iron; which were determined by UV/Visible Spectrophotometry for phosphorus and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for calcium and iron. The quantity of uranium found in the phosphatic rock, phosphoric acid and fertilizers was considerable (70-200 ppm). The adequate conditions for the recovery of 40% of total of uranium from the phosphatic rock with the addition of leaching solutions were stablished. (Author)

  11. Homogeneous Iron Phosphate Nanoparticles by Combustion of Sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Thomas; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2012-06-13

    Low-cost synthesis of iron phosphate nanostructured particles is attractive for large scale fortification of basic foods (rice, bread, etc.) as well as for Li-battery materials. This is achieved here by flame-assisted and flame spray pyrolysis (FASP and FSP) of inexpensive precursors (iron nitrate, phosphate), solvents (ethanol), and support gases (acetylene and methane). The iron phosphate powders produced here were mostly amorphous and exhibited excellent solubility in dilute acid, an indicator of relative iron bioavailability. The amorphous and crystalline fractions of such powders were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their cumulative size distribution by X-ray disk centrifuge. Fine and coarse size fractions were obtained also by sedimentation and characterized by microscopy and XRD. The coarse size fraction contained maghemite Fe(2)O(3) while the fine was amorphous iron phosphate. Furthermore, the effect of increased production rate (up to 11 g/h) on product morphology and solubility was explored. Using increased methane flow rates through the ignition/pilot flame of the FSP-burner and inexpensive powder precursors resulted in also homogeneous iron phosphate nanoparticles essentially converting the FSP to a FASP process. The powders produced by FSP at increased methane flow had excellent solubility in dilute acid as well. Such use of methane or even natural gas might be economically attractive for large scale flame-synthesis of nanoparticles.

  12. Mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by blast furnace slag and steel furnace slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We report the adsorption of phosphate and discuss the mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by burst furnace slag (BFS) and steel furnace slag (SFS). The results show that the adsorption of phosphate on the slag was rapid and the majority of adsorption was completed in 5~10 min. The adsorption capacity of phosphate by the slag was reduced dramatically by acid treatment. The relative contribution of adsorption to the total removal of phosphate was 26%~28%. Phosphate adsorption on BFS and SFS follows the Freundlich isotherm, with the related constants ofk 6.372 and 1/n 1.739 for BFS, and ofk 1.705 and 1/n 1.718 for SFS. The pH and Ca2+ concentration were decreased with the addition of phosphate, suggesting the formation of calcium phosphate precipitation. At pH 2.93 and 6.93, phosphate was desorbed by about 36%~43% and 9%~11%, respectively.These results indicate that the P adsorption on the slag is not completely reversible and that the bond between the slag particles and adsorbed phosphate is strong. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of BFS and SFS before and after phosphate adsorption verify SFS is related to the formation of phosphate calcium precipitation and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results show that BFS and SFS removed phosphate nearly 100%, indicating they are promising adsorbents for the phosphate removal in wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  13. Gain Characteristics of Er3+-Doped Phosphate Glass Fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shan-Hui; YANG Zhong-Min; ZHANG Qin-Yuan; DENG Zai-De; JIANG Zhong-Hong

    2006-01-01

    @@ An erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre has been drawn by the rod-in-tube technique in our laboratory. The gain for the Er3+-doped phosphate glass fibre with different pump powers and with different input signal wavelengths is investigated. The 2.2-cm-long fibre, pumped by a single-mode 980-nm fibre-pigtailed laser diode, can provide a net gain per unit length greater than 1.8dB/cm. The pump threshold is about 50mW at the wavelength of 1534nm, and below 70mW at 1550nm. The gain linewidth of the Er3+-doped phosphate glass fibre is greater than 34 nm and can cover the C band in optical communication networks.

  14. Renal control of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Judith; Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-07-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys.

  15. Natural radioactivity assessment of a phosphate fertilizer plant area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphogypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil, rock phosphate and phosphogypsum samples collected around a phosphate fertilizer plant were determined. Also the external background gamma levels were surveyed.238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K activities in soil samples were 21–674 Bq/kg, 11–44 Bq/kg, 22–683 Bq/kg and 51–295 Bq/kg respectively. The external background gamma radiation levels in the plant premises were ranging from 48 to 133 nGy/h.

  16. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  17. Phosphate solubilizing ability of two Arctic Aspergillus niger strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Mohan Singh,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many filamentous fungi were isolated from the soils of Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and were screened in vitro for their phosphate solubilizing ability. Two strains of Aspergillus niger showed good tricalcium phosphate (TCP solubilizing ability in Pikovskaya's medium. The TCP solubilization index was calculated at varying levels of pH and temperatures. The ability of Aspergillus niger strain-1 to solubilize and release inorganic-P was 285 µg ml–1, while Aspergillus niger strain-2 solubilized 262 µg ml–1 from 0.5% TCP after seven days. This is the first report of TCP solubilization by Arctic strains that may serve as very good phosphate solubilizers in the form of biofertilizer.

  18. Revegetation of serpentine substrates: Response to phosphate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Roger T.; Mooney, Harold A.

    1987-08-01

    Revegetation was studied on stockpiled serpentine substrate. The native vegetation surrounding the revegetation site is annual grassland. The seed mixture applied to both subsoil and topsoil plots was largely ineffective for revegetation. No growth occurred in the subsoil plots and most of the growth in the topsoil plots was from indigenous seed. Phosphate application (100 kg P ha-1 as NaH2PO4 · H2O) to the topsoil plots resulted in a significant increase in total above-ground productivity. Annual legumes (mostly Lotus subpinnatus Lag.) and, to a lesser degree, Plantago erecta Morris responded to the added phosphate with an increased above-ground productivity. Other annual forbs and annual grasses showed no significant response. The legumes also increased in abundance. Mycorrhizal root colonization for Plantago was not significantly affected by phosphate application, but was lower in this disturbed serpentine site compared to other undisturbed serpentine annual grassland sites nearby.

  19. Biodegradable magnetic calcium phosphate nanoformulation for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhaomin; Zhou, Yangbo; Sun, Huili; Li, Dan; Zhou, Shaobing

    2014-05-01

    We fabricated a magnetic calcium phosphate nanoformulation by the biomineralization of calcium phosphate on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles with abundant amino groups, and thus the inorganic layer of calcium phosphate can improve the biocompatibility and simultaneously the magnetic iron oxide can maintain the magnetic targeting function. Two types of anticancer drug models, doxorubicin hydrochloride and DNA, were entrapped in these nanocarriers, respectively. This delivery system displayed high pH sensitivity in drug-controlled release profile as the dissolution of CaP under acid pH condition. Magnetofection was performed to investigate the intracellular uptake and the anti-proliferative effect of tumor cells in the presence of an external magnet. The transfection of the DNA-loaded magnetic system in A549 and HepG2 tumor cells demonstrated that the magnetic nanoformulation could enhance the transfection efficiency to 30% with an applied external magnetic field. PMID:24462792

  20. Method of processing organic phosphate ester compound waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shigetoshi; Nishimura, Kenji.

    1988-03-26

    Purpose: To convert organic solvent wastes mainly composed of organic phosphate esters into inorganic compounds, stabilize by solidification and apply volume-reduction treatment. Method: Hydrous aluminum chloride or aluminum polychloride is added to and mixed with organic solvent wastes containing organic phosphate esters as the main ingredient resulted from spent fuel reprocessings, by an amount of 0.3 or more mol per mol of the organic phosphate ester and then heated to solidify at a temperature from 50 to 150 deg C. Then, solidification products are sintered at a temperature higher than 270 deg C to remove alkyl group organic ingredients remained in the solidification products to convert them into stable inorganic phosphoric acid compounds. (Yoshino, Y.).

  1. Characterization of iron-phosphate-silicate chemical garden structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laura M; Doloboff, Ivria J; White, Lauren M; Stucky, Galen D; Russell, Michael J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-02-28

    Chemical gardens form when ferrous chloride hydrate seed crystals are added or concentrated solutions are injected into solutions of sodium silicate and potassium phosphate. Various precipitation morphologies are observed depending on silicate and phosphate concentrations, including hollow plumes, bulbs, and tubes. The growth of precipitates is controlled by the internal osmotic pressure, fluid buoyancy, and membrane strength. Additionally, rapid bubble-led growth is observed when silicate concentrations are high. ESEM/EDX analysis confirms compositional gradients within the membranes, and voltage measurements across the membranes during growth show a final potential of around 150-200 mV, indicating that electrochemical gradients are maintained across the membranes as growth proceeds. The characterization of chemical gardens formed with iron, silicate, and phosphate, three important components of an early earth prebiotic hydrothermal system, can help us understand the properties of analogous structures that likely formed at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents in the Hadean-structures offering themselves as the hatchery of life.

  2. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Birkedal, Henrik; Olsen, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co......-precipitation and designed to bind to bacteria in biofilms, impede biofilm build-up without killing the microflora, and release phosphate ions to buffer bacterial acid production if the pH decreases below 6. Analysis of biofilm formation and pH in a five-species biofilm model for dental caries showed that treatment......H always remained above 5.5. Hence, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles show potential for applications in caries control....

  3. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian

    Oftentimes caries lesions develop in protected sites that are difficult to access by self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning. At present, there is a growing interest in chemical adjuncts to mechanical procedures of oral hygiene that aim at biofilm control rather than biofilm eradication. Calcium......-phosphate-osteopontin particles are a new promising therapeutic approach to caries control. They are designed to bind to dental biofilms and interfere with biofilm build-up, lowering the bacterial burden on the tooth surface without affecting bacterial viability in the oral cavity. Moreover, they dissolve when pH in the biofilm...... drops to 6 or below and release buffering phosphate ions that stabilize biofilm pH above the critical level for enamel dissolution. With that twofold approach, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles may make a relevant contribution to clinical caries control....

  4. Teratogenicity studies of alkylaryl phosphate ester plasticizers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E C; Hammond, B G; Johannsen, F R; Levinskas, G J; Rodwell, D E

    1986-07-01

    Santicizer 141 plasticizer (2-ethylhexyldiphenyl phosphate) and Santicizer 148 plasticizer (isodecyldiphenyl phosphate) were tested for teratogenic activity in Charles River COBS CD rats. Groups of 25 mated females were given 0, 300, 1000, or 3000 mg/kg/day by gavage on Days 6 through 15 (Santicizer 141) or 6 through 19 (Santicizer 148) of gestation. Mean maternal body weight gains were slightly and severely reduced at the mid- and high-dose levels of Santicizer 141, respectively. Body weights were not affected by treatment with Santicizer 148. Most malformations found in groups treated with either plasticizer occurred as single incidences and have been observed in historical controls. Thus, no teratogenic response was observed in rats after treatment with either of these two alkylaryl phosphates during the period of organogenesis.

  5. Formation of calcium phosphate mineral materialcontrolled by microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to prepare calcium phosphate-based material with nano-structure and bioactivity, natural lecithin and n-tetradecane were used as the amphipile and the oil phase respectively, along with the water phase, to form a microemulsion template. Phosphate mineralization was induced and controlled by the microemulsion. The products, characterized by scanning electronic microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, are composed of lecithin and hydroxyapatite, and possess the nano-structure of sticks, balls and three-dimensional nets connected by tubes. These results show that the microemulsion can be used to control calcium phosphate mineralization for the preparation of biomimetic mineral materials with various nano-structures.

  6. Phosphate-intercalated Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxides: Crystal structure, bonding character, and release kinetics of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Myong A.; Woo Kim, Tae; Paek, Mi-Jeong; Ha, Hyung-Wook; Choy, Jin-Ho; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2011-01-01

    The nitrate-form of Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxide (Ca-Fe-LDH) was synthesized via co-precipitation method, and its phosphate-intercalates were prepared by ion-exchange reaction. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the Ca-Fe-LDH-NO 3- compound and its H 2PO 4--intercalate showed hexagonal layered structures, whereas the ion-exchange reaction with HPO 42- caused a frustration of the layer ordering of LDH. Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy clearly demonstrated that the Ca-Fe-LDH lattice with trivalent iron ions was well-maintained after the ion-exchange with HPO 42- and H 2PO 4-. Under acidic conditions, phosphate ions were slowly released from the Ca-Fe-LDH lattice and the simultaneous release of hydroxide caused the neutralization of acidic media. Fitting analysis based on kinetic models indicated a heterogeneous diffusion process of phosphates and a distinct dependence of release rate on the charge of phosphates. This study strongly suggested that Ca-Fe-LDH is applicable as bifunctional vector for slow release of phosphate fertilizer and for the neutralization of acid soil.

  7. Potential radiological impact of the phosphate industry on wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We performed a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of environmental contamination resulting from the activities of 5 phosphate fertiliser plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil), a phosphate-mine and a phosphate-export platform in a harbour (both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the availability of information on concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. Assessments were generally performed considering highest environmental concentrations reported in the studies. The ERICA Tool, operating in a Tier 2 assessment mode, was used to predict radiation dose rates and associated risk to the selected reference organisms using the ERICA default parameter setting. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a best estimate risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h−1. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is considered unlikely to be at risk and further radiological assessment is not deemed necessary. Except for one of the cases assessed, the best estimate RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. Internal exposure covered for 90–100 % of the total dose. 226Ra or 210Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertiliser plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goiás (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted to be potentially most at risk. - Highlights: • The adjusted highlights Environmental radionuclide enrichment from P-industry warrants risk assessment. • 226Ra and 210Po are the most dose contributing radionuclides. • The total dose rate is strongly driven by the internal exposure.

  8. Conditions promoting and restraining agronomic effectiveness of water-insoluble phosphate sources, in particular phosphate rock (PR): I. Indices of phosphate rock use opportunity (PRUOIS) and of phosphate rock suitability for direct use (PRSIDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several issues of phosphate rock (PR) use are discussed in this paper. Maize for green fodder (Zea mays L) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) were grown in 7 kg of dry soil and in small pots of 1.25 kg dry soil capacity, respectively, on several base unsaturated soils belonging to Hapludoll and Hapludalf soil groups. The amount of phosphate rock (PR) to apply was based on experimental data considering soil adsorbed acidity (Ah), humus content (H2 ), cation exchange capacity (T), sum of exchangeable bases (SEB) and mobile (easily soluble) phosphate content (PAL) in the soil. The factors were combined in a rock phosphate use, opportunity index of the soil (PRUOIS): PRUOIS=(Ah*H2*100)/SEB*100.0245*PAL Rock phosphate suitability for direct use was evaluated by means of the rate of PR-P dissolution (PRPRS) in a 0.6% ammonium heptamolybdate in 0.01M calcium chloride solution (ppm P) and by carbonate content (%CaCO3) in PR. Both of these parameters combined provided a phosphate rock suitability index for direct use (PRSIDU): PRSIDU [ppmP/min]=PRPRS*(1-0.03*CaCO3) Water insoluble P sources studied were PR from Kola-Russia, Morocco, Kneifiss-Siria, El Hassa-Jordan, Gafsa- Tunisia, North-Carolina (USA), and Arad-Israel. All PRs were compared with TSP applied at the same rate of P. Neither PRUOIS or PRSIDU considered separately could satisfactorily explain the variance of PR efficiency. An index obtained by multiplicative combination of PRUOIS x PRSIDU did correlate significantly with indices on the agronomic efficiency of PR. (author)

  9. The EIS investigation of powder polyester coatings on phosphated low carbon steel: The effect of NaNO2 in the phosphating bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The effect of NaNO2 on surface morphology of iron-phosphate coatings were determined. → Better corrosion stability of polyester coating on phosphated steel without NaNO2. → EIS results and microscopic examinations correlate well with adhesion measurements. - Abstract: The effect of different type of iron-phosphate coatings on corrosion stability and adhesion characteristic of top powder polyester coating on steel was investigated. Iron-phosphate coatings were deposited on steel in the novel phosphating bath with or without NaNO2 as an accelerator. The corrosion stability of the powder polyester coating was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), adhesion by pull-off and NMP test, while surface morphology of phosphate coatings were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion and corrosion stability of powder polyester coatings were improved with pretreatment based on iron-phosphate coating deposited from NaNO2-free bath.

  10. 顺铂IL-2胸腔内灌注联合培美曲塞全身化疗治疗老年晚期肺腺癌恶性胸腔积液%Clinical Observation of Cisplatin+IL-2 Intrathoracic Perfusion Joint Pemetrexed Disodium Systemic Chemotherapy for Elderly Patients with Advanced Malignant Pleural Effusion of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永明; 荆丽君; 冯桂新; 李同源; 李志杰

    2012-01-01

      Objective:Observation on cisplatin and IL-2 intrathoracic perfusion combined with pemetrexed disodium systemic chemotherapy for elderly patients with advanced malignant pleural effusion of lung adenocarcinoma’s clinical efficacy and side effects.Method:The lung adenocarcinoma in elderly patients with pleural effusion a total of 51 cases,the intrathoracic injection of cisplatin(40 mg/m2)and IL-2(1.5 million U)once a week for 2 weeks were given. At the same time,pemetrexed disodium for injection(500 mg/m2),the first day,every 3 weeks repeated,two cycles. The 4th week for evaluating efficacy and side effects.Result:51 patients could be evaluated the effects,16 cases were completely alleviated,a part of the mitigation in 25 cases,6 cases ineffective. Then its effective rate of 80.39%,complete remission rate 31.37%.Conclusion:Cisplatin and IL-2 intrathoracic perfusion combined with pemetrexed disodium systemic chemotherapy is a effective treatment method for elderly lung adenocarcinoma patients with advanced malignant pleural effusion which were light toxicity and safe clinical use.%  目的:观察顺铂+IL-2胸腔内灌注联合培美曲塞全身化疗治疗老年晚期肺腺癌恶性胸腔积液的临床疗效及毒副反应.方法:老年肺腺癌并胸腔积液患者共51例,采用顺铂40 mg/m2及IL-2150万U胸腔灌注保留,每周一次,共2周,同时应用培美曲塞,第1天,每3周重复,完成2个周期.治疗第4周评价疗效及毒副作用.结果:51例患者均可评价疗效,完全缓解者16例,部分缓解者25例,无效者6例,其有效率为80.39%,完全缓解率31.37%.结论:顺铂+IL-2胸腔内灌注联合培美曲塞全身化疗治疗老年晚期肺腺癌恶性胸腔积液治疗的方法疗效显著,毒性反应轻,临床使用安全.

  11. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  12. Phosphate Ions Affect the Water Structure at Functionalized Membrane Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Aliyah; Imbrogno, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Petersen, Poul B

    2016-09-01

    Antifouling surfaces improve function, efficiency, and safety in products such as water filtration membranes, marine vehicle coatings, and medical implants by resisting protein and biofilm adhesion. Understanding the role of water structure at these materials in preventing protein adhesion and biofilm formation is critical to designing more effective coatings. Such fouling experiments are typically performed under biological conditions using isotonic aqueous buffers. Previous studies have explored the structure of pure water at a few different antifouling surfaces, but the effect of electrolytes and ionic strength (I) on the water structure at antifouling surfaces is not well studied. Here sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to characterize the interfacial water structure at poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and two surface-modified PES films in contact with 0.01 M phosphate buffer with high and low salt (Ionic strength, I= 0.166 and 0.025 M, respectively). Unmodified PES, commonly used as a filtration membrane, and modified PES with a hydrophobic alkane (C18) and with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used. In the low ionic strength phosphate buffer, water was strongly ordered near the surface of the PEG-modified PES film due to exclusion of phosphate ions and the creation of a surface potential resulting from charge separation between phosphate anions and sodium cations. However, in the high ionic strength phosphate buffer, the sodium and potassium chloride (138 and 3 mM, respectively) in the phosphate buffered saline screened this charge and substantially reduced water ordering. A much smaller water ordering and subsequent reduction upon salt addition was observed for the C18-modified PES, and little water structure change was seen for the unmodified PES. The large difference in water structuring with increasing ionic strength between widely used phosphate buffer and phosphate buffered saline at the PEG interface demonstrates the importance of studying

  13. Tin-phosphate glass anode for sodium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Honma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical property of tin-phosphate (designate as GSPO glass anode for the sodium ion battery was studied. During the first charge process, sodium ion diffused into GSPO glass matrix and due to the reduction of Sn2+ to Sn0 state sodiated tin metal nano-size particles are formed in oxide glass matrix. After the second cycle, we confirmed the steady reversible reaction ∼320 mAh/g at 0–1 V cutoff voltage condition by alloying process in NaxSn4. The tin-phosphate glass is a promising candidate of new anode active material that realizes high energy density sodium ion batteries.

  14. Influence of glyphosate on the copper dissolution in phosphate buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, C. F. B.; Silva, M. O.; Machado, S. A. S.; Mazo, L. H.

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of copper microelectrode in phosphate buffer in the presence of glyphosate was investigated by electrochemical techniques. It was observed that the additions of glyphosate in the phosphate buffer increased the anodic current of copper microelectrode and the electrochemical dissolution was observed. This phenomenon could be associated with the Cu(II) complexation by glyphosate forming a soluble complex. Physical characterization of the surface showed that, in absence of glyphosate, an insoluble layer covered the copper surface; on the other hand, in presence of glyphosate, it was observed a corroded copper surface with the formation of glyphosate complex in solution.

  15. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Paridaens, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The Belgian phosphate industry processes huge amounts of phosphate ore (1.5 to 2 Mton/year) for a wide range of applications, the most important being the production of phosphoric acid, fertilizers and cattle food. Marine phosphate ores show high specific activities of the natural uranium decay series (usually indicated by Ra-226) (e.g. 1200 to 1500 Bq/kg for Moroccan ore). Ores of magmatic origin generally contain less of the uranium and more of the thorium decay series (up to 500 Bq/kg). These radionuclides turn up in by-products, residues or product streams depending on the processing method and the acid used for the acidulation of the phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used, but also hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are applied in Belgium. For Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, we already have a clear idea of the production processes and waste streams. The five Flemish phosphate plants, from 1920 to 2000, handled 54 million ton of phosphate ore containing 65 TBq of radium-226 and 2.7 TBq of thorium- 232. The total surface area of the phosphogypsum and calcium fluoride sludge deposits amounts to almost 300 ha. There is also environmental contamination along two small rivers receiving the waste waters of the hydrochloric production process: the Winterbeek (> 200 ha) and the Grote Laak (12 ha). The data on the impact of the phosphate industry in the Walloon provinces in Belgium is less complete. A large plant produced in 2004 0.8 Mton of phosphogypsum, valorizing about 70 % of the gypsum in building materials (plaster, cement), in fertilizers, and in other products such as paper. The remainder was stored on a local disposal site. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry on the local population will be discussed. At present most contaminated areas are still recognizable as waste deposits and inaccessible to the population. However as gypsum deposits and other contaminated areas quickly blend in with the landscape, it is

  16. Essential fructosuria: increased levels of fructose 3-phosphate in erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, A; Steinmann, B; Gitzelmann, R

    1992-01-01

    Erythrocytes of 3 adult siblings with essential fructosuria contained 45-200 mumol/l fructose 3-phosphate (Fru-3-P), i.e. 3-15 times the concentration in normal controls. Sorbitol 3-phosphate was also increased, but to a lesser degree. An oral load with 50 g of fructose produced an additional 40 mumol/l increase of erythrocyte Fru-3-P after 5 h. The rate of Fru-3-P formation by red cells in vitro was normal. HbA1 and HbA1c were normal. The suspected pathogenetic role of Fru-3-P in diabetic complications is questioned.

  17. Phosphate and iron limitation of phytoplankton biomass in Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Kuwabara, J.S.; Pasilis, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    Bioassays were carried out to assess the response of inoculated, single-species diatom populations (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Aulocosiera italica) to additions of synthetic chelators and phosphate. A chemical speciation model along with the field data was also used to predict how trace metal speciation, and hence bioavailability, was affected by the chelator additions. Results suggest that phosphate was limiting to phytoplankton biomass. Other solutes, Fe in particular, may also exert controls on biomass. Nitrate limitation seems less likely, although Fe-limiting conditions may have led to an effective N limitation because algae require Fe to carry out nitrate reduction. -from Authors

  18. Quark and lepton mass matrices with A4 family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realistic quark masses and mixing angles are obtained applying the successful A4 family symmetry for leptons, motivated by the quark-lepton assignments of SU(5). The A4 symmetry is suitable to give tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing matrix which is consistent with current experimental data. We study new scenario for the quark sector with the A4 symmetry. (author)

  19. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4 Section 260.7a-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 307 § 260.7a-4 Calculation...

  20. 26 CFR 1.25A-4 - Lifetime Learning Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lifetime Learning Credit. 1.25A-4 Section 1.25A-4... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.25A-4 Lifetime Learning Credit. (a) Amount of the credit—(1) Taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003. Subject to the phaseout of the education tax credit described...