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Sample records for a-4 disodium phosphate

  1. Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten D. Ley

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Combretastatin-A4 disodium phosphate (CA4DP is a vascular-disruptive agent that causes an abrupt decrease in tumor blood flow. The direct actions of CA4DP include increases in vascular permeability and destabilization of the endothelial cytoskeleton, which are thought to contribute to occlusion of the tumor vasculature. It has been proposed that increased permeability causes a transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure (IFP, which in turn could collapse intratumoral blood vessels. We examined the immediate effects of CA4DP on tumor IFP in C3H mammary carcinoma. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg CA4DP by intraperitoneal injection. Tumor perfusion was recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry at separate time points, and IFP was recorded continuously by the wickin-needle method. In this study, we found that CA4DP treatment resulted in a rapid reduction in tumor perfusion, followed by a decrease in IFP; no increases in IFP were observed. This suggests that CA4DP-induced reductions in tumor perfusion are not dependent on increases in IFP.

  2. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  4. Efficacy and safety of disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphates in men with moderate dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Maud N.; Trip, Mieke D.; Pritchard, P. Haydn; Tam, Patrick; Lukic, Tatjana; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G.; de Barse, Martina; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor, FM-VP4, comprising disodium ascorbyl sitostanol phosphate (DASP) and disodium ascorbyl campestanol phosphate (DACP). METHODS: In phase 1, 30 men received a single

  5. Efficacy and safety of disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphates in men with moderate dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Maud N.; Trip, Mieke D.; Pritchard, P. Haydn; Tam, Patrick; Lukic, Tatjana; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G.; de Barse, Martina; Kastelein, John J. P.

    Objective This study investigated the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor, FM-VP4, comprising disodium ascorbyl sitostanol phosphate (DASP) and disodium ascorbyl campestanol phosphate (DACP). Methods In phase 1, 30 men received a single

  6. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of combretastatin A-4 and its sodium phosphate prodrug

    OpenAIRE

    Grosios, K; Holwell, S E; McGown, A. T.; Pettit, G. R.; Bibby, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The anti-tumour effects and mechanism of action of combretastatin A-4 and its prodrug, combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate, were examined in subcutaneous and orthotopically transplanted experimental colon tumour models. Additionally, the ability of these compounds to directly interfere with endothelial cell behaviour was also examined in HUVEC cultures. Combretastatin A-4 (150 mg kg?1, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and its water-soluble prodrug (100 mg kg?1, i.p.) caused almost complete vascula...

  7. Combretastatin A-4 Phosphate Affects Tumor Vessel Volume and Size Distribution as Assessed Using MRI-Based Vessel Size Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, T.; Bentzen, L.; Pedersen, M.; Tramm, T.; Rijken, P.F.J.W.; Bussink, J.; Horsman, M.R.; Ostergaard, L.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate (CA4P) is a promising vascular disrupting agent (VDA) in clinical trials. As CA4P acts on dividing endothelial cells, we hypothesize that CA4P affects vessels of certain sizes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CA4P by the MRI-based

  8. Inhibitory effects of a novel ascorbic derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate on melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Sanae; Shibayama, Hiroharu; Hisama, Masayoshi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of a novel amphiphilic ascorbic derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-IS-2Na), synthesized from a hydrophilic ascorbic derivative, sodium-2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-Na), on melanogenesis in cultured human melanoma cells, normal human melanocytes, and three-dimensional cultured human skin models. Melanin synthesis in melanoma cells treated with VCP-IS-2Na at 300 muM and melanocytes treated with VCP-IS-2Na at 100 muM decreased to 23% and 52% of that in non-treated cells, respectively, and the cell viability was not affected. VCP-IS-2Na also significantly suppressed the cellular tyrosinase activity of melanoma cells and melanocytes. Melanin synthesis in human skin models was evaluated by macro- and microscopic observations of its pigmentation and quantitative measurements of melanin. Treatment of the human skin models with 1.0% VCP-IS-2Na did not inhibit cell viability, while melanin synthesis was decreased to 21% of that in the control. In contrast, L-ascorbic acid (VC) and VCP-Na did not seem to inhibit melanin synthesis and cellular tyrosinase activity. These results indicate that VCP-IS-2Na may be an effective whitening agent for the skin, and we expect the application of VCP-IS-2Na in the cosmetic industry.

  9. Graphene oxide and creatine phosphate disodium dual template-directed synthesis of GO/hydroxyapatite and its application in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chengli; Zhu, Jinmiao; Xie, Anjian; Shen, Yuhua; Li, Hongying; Zheng, Bin; Wei, Yanxin

    2017-04-01

    In this study, graphene oxide and creatine phosphate disodium acted as dual template and was employed to synthesize graphene oxide (GO)/hydroxyapatite (HA) hybrids as drug carriers. In the rapid preparation of GO/HA hybrids, creatine phosphate disodium salt (CPDS) severed as a phosphorus source and graphene oxide acted as a template in aqueous solution. The effects of the reaction temperature, time and pH value of the aqueous solution on the morphology of the product were investigated. The result showed that the hydrolysis of CPDS under hydrothermal condition played an important role in the formation of hierarchical hollow GO/HA hybrids. The GO nanosheets provided reactive sites for the binding of HA nanoparticles and absorbing ibuprofen (IBU) molecules. The GO/HA hybrids had ideal sustained drug-release behavior. It indicated that the prepared GO/HA hybrids may be promising materials for applications in biomedical area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bond Strength of White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with and without Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate with Different Liquid-to-Powder Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Jafarizadeh, Sara; Mokhtari Zonouzi, Hamid Reza; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Forough Reyhani, Mohammad; Sohrabi, Aydin

    2017-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) can be used in the treatment of irritated vital pulp and repair of root perforations. However, the initial reaction of inflammatory cells to this material and also its setting time are not ideal. Studies have shown that disodium hydrogen phosphate (DHP), decreases the setting time of MTA, with no effect on its pH. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of DHP on push-out bond strength of MTA at different liquid-to-powder ratios. A total of 120 samples were prepared from the middle third of the roots of single-rooted teeth for evaluation of push-out bond strength. The push-out bond strength was measured in both groups after 72 h at different liquid-to-powder ratios, including 0.33:1, 0.5:1 and 0.6:1. Factorial ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post-hoc tests were used to compare the differences between the independent groups. Statistical significant was set at PMTA and MTA+DHP groups were 10.96±5.78 and 13.32±5.03, respectively. Tukey's HSD post-hoc test revealed significant differences between the two groups. Furthermore, there were no interactive effect between material and the liquid: powder ratio. Incorporation of DHP into MTA resulted in an increase in push-out bond strength of MTA, and an increase in liquid-to-powder ratio resulted in a decrease in push-out bond strength.

  11. Controllable continuous sub-tenon drug delivery of dexamethasone disodium phosphate to ocular posterior segment in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuetao; Liu, Shaogang; Yang, Yezhen; Duan, Yiqin; Lin, Ding

    2017-11-01

    Corticosteroids have been used for treatment of posterior segment eye diseases, but the delivery of drug to the posterior segments is still a problem to resolve. In our study, we explore the feasibility of Sub-tenon's Controllable Continuous Drug Delivery to ocular posterior segment. Controllable continuous sub-tenon drug delivery (CCSDD) system, intravenous injections (IV) and sub-conjunctival injections (SC) were used to deliver dexamethasone disodium phosphate (DEXP) in rabbits, the dexamethasone concentration was measured in the ocular posterior segment tissue by Shimadzu LC-MS 2010 system at different time points in 24 h after first dose injection. Levels of dexamethasone were significantly higher at 12, 24 h in CCSDD than two other approaches, and at 3, 6 h in CCSDD than IV in vitreous body (p dexamethasone concentration could be sustained moderately higher in the posterior segment by CCSDD than SC and IV, indicating that CCSDD might be a therapeutic alternative to treat a variety of intractable posterior segment diseases.

  12. Permeation and metabolism of a novel ascorbic acid derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate, in human living skin equivalent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, H; Hisama, M; Matsuda, S; Ohtsuki, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel amphiphilic vitamin C (VC) derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-IS-2Na), which possesses a C(18) alkyl chain attached to a stable ascorbate derivative, sodium L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (VCP-Na), was evaluated as a topical prodrug of VC with transdermal activity in human living skin equivalent (LSE) models. The permeation assay used was EPI-606X in the Franz-type diffusion cell system. VCP-IS-2Na exhibited much better permeability than VC and VCP-Na. The accumulation assays applied were EPI-200X and LSE-high by the dynamic system. The increased skin accumulation of VCP-IS-2Na was superior to that of VCP-Na and VC. VCP-IS-2Na that is susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis by esterase and/or phosphatase released VC in the skin. Measurement of the metabolites that permeated and accumulated from the skin model suggested that VCP-IS-2Na was mainly metabolized via VCP-Na to VC in EPI-606X and EPI-200X, while it was mainly metabolized directly to VC in TESTSKIN LSE-high. Thus, these characteristics indicate that the novel VC derivative, VCP-IS-2Na, may be advantageous as a readily available source of VC for skin care applications. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of combretastatin A-4 and its sodium phosphate prodrug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosios, K; Holwell, S E; McGown, A T; Pettit, G R; Bibby, M C

    1999-01-01

    The anti-tumour effects and mechanism of action of combretastatin A-4 and its prodrug, combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate, were examined in subcutaneous and orthotopically transplanted experimental colon tumour models. Additionally, the ability of these compounds to directly interfere with endothelial cell behaviour was also examined in HUVEC cultures. Combretastatin A-4 (150 mg kg–1, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and its water-soluble prodrug (100 mg kg–1, i.p.) caused almost complete vascular shutdown (at 4 h), extensive haemorrhagic necrosis which started at 1 h after treatment and significant tumour growth delay in MAC 15A subcutaneous (s.c.) colon tumours. Similar vascular effects were obtained in MAC 15 orthotopic tumours and SW620 human colon tumour xenografts treated with the prodrug. More importantly, in the orthotopic models, necrosis was seen in vascularized metastatic deposits but not in avascular secondary deposits. The possible mechanism giving rise to these effects was examined in HUVEC cells. Here cellular networks formed in type I calf-skin collagen layers and these networks were completely disrupted when incubated with a non-cytotoxic concentration of combretastatin A-4 or its prodrug. This effect started at 4 h and was complete by 24 h. The same non-cytotoxic concentrations resulted in disorganization of F-actin and β-tubulin at 1 h after treatment. In conclusion, combretastatin A-4 and its prodrug caused extensive necrosis in MAC 15A s.c. and orthotopic colon cancer and metastases, resulting in anti-tumour effects. Necrosis was not seen in avascular tumour nodules, suggesting a vascular mechanism of action. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10604728

  14. Physico-chemical, functional and rheological properties of milk protein concentrate 60 as affected by disodium phosphate addition, diafiltration and homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Ganga Sahay; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Arora, Sumit; Borad, Sanket; Sharma, Rajan; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Ultrafiltration and diafiltration of skim milk altered delicate salt equilibrium and composition of 5× UF retentate (5× UFR), and thus adversely affected the reconstitutional and functional properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders. It might be due to interaction and aggregation of proteins during spray drying. Therefore, this study was envisaged to investigate the effect of disodium phosphate (DSP) addition, diafiltration and homogenization of retentates on physico-chemical, functional and rheological properties of MPC60 powders. Solubility of fresh control powder was significantly lower than MPC60-H powder; at par with that of MPC60-DSP and MPC60-Na-K, but remained minimum after 60 days of storage at 25 ± 1 °C. The pH (6.6) adjustment of 5× UFR with DSP, significantly enhanced the dispersability, wettability, specific surface area (SSA), heat coagulation time (HCT), emulsification capacity and stability; buffer index of MPC60-DSP powder over control. Diafiltration of 5× UFR with NaCl and KCl, significantly ( P  pseudoplastic behavior, best explained by Hershel Bulkley model. These MPC60 powders with improved functional properties can be used for the improvement of quality attributes of various food formulations.

  15. Topical application of disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate, an amphiphilic ascorbic acid derivative, reduces neuropathic hyperalgesia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Kazumasa; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Matsunami, Maho; Shibayama, Hiroharu; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2012-06-01

    Ca(v) 3.2 T-type calcium channels, targeted by H(2) S, are involved in neuropathic hyperalgesia in rats and ascorbic acid inhibits Ca(v) 3.2 channels. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of ascorbic acid or topical application of disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (DI-VCP), a skin-permeable ascorbate derivative on hyperalgesia induced by NaHS, an H(2) S donor, and on neuropathic hyperalgesia. In rats mechanical hyperalgesia was evoked by i.pl. NaHS, and neuropathic hyperalgesia was induced by L5 spinal nerve cutting (L5SNC) or by repeated administration of paclitaxel, an anti-cancer drug. Dermal ascorbic acid levels were determined colorimetrically. The NaHS-evoked Ca(v) 3.2 channel-dependent hyperalgesia was inhibited by co-administered ascorbic acid. Topical application of DI-VCP, but not ascorbic acid, prevented the NaHS-evoked hyperalgesia, and also increased dermal ascorbic acid levels. Neuropathic hyperalgesia induced by L5SNC or paclitaxel was reversed by i.pl. NNC 55-0396, a selective T-type calcium channel blocker, ascorbic acid or DI-VCP, and by topical DI-VCP, but not by topical ascorbic acid. The effects of i.pl. ascorbic acid and topical DI-VCP in the paclitaxel-treated rats were characterized by the faster onset and greater magnitude, compared with their effects in the L5SNC rats. Dermal ascorbic acid levels in the hindpaw significantly decreased after paclitaxel treatment, but not L5SNC, which was reversed by topical DI-VCP. Ascorbic acid, known to inhibit Ca(v) 3.2 channels, suppressed neuropathic hyperalgesia. DI-VCP ointment for topical application may be of benefit in the treatment of neuropathic pain. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Topical application of disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate, an amphiphilic ascorbic acid derivative, reduces neuropathic hyperalgesia in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Kazumasa; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Matsunami, Maho; Shibayama, Hiroharu; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels, targeted by H2S, are involved in neuropathic hyperalgesia in rats and ascorbic acid inhibits Cav3.2 channels. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of ascorbic acid or topical application of disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (DI-VCP), a skin-permeable ascorbate derivative on hyperalgesia induced by NaHS, an H2S donor, and on neuropathic hyperalgesia. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In rats mechanical hyperalgesia was evoked by i.pl. NaHS, and neuropathic hyperalgesia was induced by L5 spinal nerve cutting (L5SNC) or by repeated administration of paclitaxel, an anti-cancer drug. Dermal ascorbic acid levels were determined colorimetrically. KEY RESULTS The NaHS-evoked Cav3.2 channel-dependent hyperalgesia was inhibited by co-administered ascorbic acid. Topical application of DI-VCP, but not ascorbic acid, prevented the NaHS-evoked hyperalgesia, and also increased dermal ascorbic acid levels. Neuropathic hyperalgesia induced by L5SNC or paclitaxel was reversed by i.pl. NNC 55–0396, a selective T-type calcium channel blocker, ascorbic acid or DI-VCP, and by topical DI-VCP, but not by topical ascorbic acid. The effects of i.pl. ascorbic acid and topical DI-VCP in the paclitaxel-treated rats were characterized by the faster onset and greater magnitude, compared with their effects in the L5SNC rats. Dermal ascorbic acid levels in the hindpaw significantly decreased after paclitaxel treatment, but not L5SNC, which was reversed by topical DI-VCP. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Ascorbic acid, known to inhibit Cav3.2 channels, suppressed neuropathic hyperalgesia. DI-VCP ointment for topical application may be of benefit in the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:22229645

  17. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal employing EDTA disodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojinova, D.; Velkova, R. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The biological phosphorus removal is a promising alternative to the conventional chemical technologies for processing of phosphate raw materials. The object of this study was the effect of EDTA disodium on the biotreatment of tunisian phosphorite with the strain of Aspergillus niger. The incubation was carried out in two nutritive mediums, with different phosphate content. The experimental results showed that the additives of EDTA disodium in the nutritive medium increased the rate of extraction of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and shortened significantly the time for biological leaching. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Synthesis of a 4-membered ring zinc phosphate monomer and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Synthesis of a 4-membered ring zinc phosphate monomer and its condensation self-assembly into an open-framework structure. S NEERAJ, SRINIVASAN NATARAJAN and C N R RAO. Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for. Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560 064, ...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium EDTA-copper. 73.2120 Section 73.2120 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The color additive disodium EDTA-copper is disodium [[N,N′- 1,2- ethanediylbis[N - (carboxymethyl) glycinato...

  20. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a German Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Purpose Varying frequencies (5 - 18 %) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Materials and Methods Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥ 3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. Results For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p TSM was significantly higher with gadoxetate disodium (n = 19; 21.1 %) than with gadobenate dimeglumine (n = 1; 1.1 %) (p TSM at our institution is similar to some, but not all previously published findings. Logistic regression analysis did not show any significant correlation between TSM and risk factors (all p > 0.05). Conclusion We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM. Key Points:  · Gadoxetate disodium causes TSM in a relevant number of patients.. · The frequency of TSM is

  1. Transient severe motion artifact related to gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI. Frequency and risk evaluation at a German institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2017-07-15

    Varying frequencies (5 - 18%) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were < 3. Potential risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p < 0.05). The frequency of TSM was significantly higher with gadoxetate disodium (n = 19; 21.1 %) than with gadobenate dimeglumine (n = 1; 1.1%) (p < 0.001). The frequency of TSM at our institution is similar to some, but not all previously published findings. Logistic regression analysis did not show any significant correlation between TSM and risk factors (all p>0.05). We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM.

  2. Crystal structure and characterization of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikemoto Kazuto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, a tricarboxylic acid, has attracted attention as a growth factor, and its application to supplements and cosmetics is underway. The product used for these purposes is a water-soluble salt of PQQ disodium. Although in the past, PQQ disodiumpentahydrates with a high water concentration were used, currently, low hydration crystals of PQQ disodiumpentahydrates are preferred. Results We prepared a crystal of PQQ disodium trihydrate in a solution of ethanol and water, studied its structure, and analyzed its properties. In the prepared crystal, the sodium atom interacted with the oxygen atom of two carboxylic acids as well as two quinones of the PQQ disodium trihydrate. In addition, the hydration water of the prepared crystal was less than that of the conventional PQQ disodium crystal. From the results of this study, it was found that the color and the near-infrared (NIR spectrum of the prepared crystal changed depending on the water content in the dried samples. Conclusions The water content in the dried samples was restored to that in the trihydrate crystal by placing the samples in a humid environment. In addition, the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray diffraction-differential calorimetry (XRD-DSC analyses show that the phase of the trihydrate crystal changed when the crystallization water was eliminated. The dried crystal has two crystalline forms that are restored to the original trihydrate crystals in 20% relative humidity (RH. This crystalline (PQQ disodium trihydrate is stable under normal environment.

  3. Disodium Cromoglycate (Lomudal) in Asthma with Emphasis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of DSCG in facilitating reduction of corticosteroid and sympathomimetic therapy for asthma is emphasized. Some practical points in the use of DSCG are listed. Disodium cromoglycate is safe and efficacious in allergic bronchial asthma and is a very useful adjunct in the therapy of this common, potentially serious ...

  4. Crystal structure studies on plate/shelf like disodium ditungstate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The structure of plate/shelf like disodium ditungstate (Na2W2O7) synthesized by new method in the pro- cess of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis using acidified aqueous solutions of tungsten (VI) oxide clusters as a precursor was refined down to the R-factor of 8·9%. X-ray diffraction analysis undoubtedly confirmed ...

  5. Disodium Cromoglycate (LomudaI) in Asthma with Emphasis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-07-31

    Jul 31, 1971 ... Disodium Cromoglycate (LomudaI) in Asthma with Emphasis on Lung Function Tests*. S. zWI, B.sC., ... out of 20, no change in a standardized exercise test and an improvement in acid-base balance from ... children aged 10-14 years in 1965 asthma was ranked sixth.'·; Any advance in the treatment of this ...

  6. Monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine improve the sensory quality of fermented cooked sausages with 50% and 75% replacement of NaCl with KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Fermented cooked sausages were produced by replacing 50% and 75% of NaCl with KCl and adding monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine. The manufacturing process was monitored by pH and water activity measurements. The sodium and potassium contents of the resulting products were measured. The color values (L*, a* and b*), texture profiles and sensory profiles were also examined. Replacing 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl depreciated the sensory quality of the products. The reformulated sausages containing monosodium glutamate combined with lysine, taurine, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate masked the undesirable sensory attributes associated with the replacement of 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl, allowing the production of fermented cooked sausages with good sensory acceptance and approximately 68% sodium reduction. © 2013.

  7. Intestinal permeability, atopic eczema and oral disodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, A; Rinaldi, S; Florean, P; Agosti, E

    1991-01-01

    A dual sugar (lactulose-mannitol) absorption test was performed in 19 patients with atopic eczema before and after a 21 day elimination-diet. Moreover L/M test was carried out in 20 controls. The mean value of lactulose-mannitol urinary ratio (L/M) was 0.015 (+/- 0.018 SD) in the group of patients and 0.012 (+/- 0.011 SD) in the control group (p = 0.49). The mean clinical score improved significantly after elimination diet (41,6 +/- 12.9 SD before the diet, 21.7 +/- 10.4 SD after the diet, p less than 0.001) but no significant modification of intestinal permeability was recorded (L/M = 0.015 +/- 0.018 SD before the diet and 0.21 +/- 0.022 SD after the diet, p = 0.38). Using a double blind approach we were not able to demonstrate any significant effect of disodium cromoglycate on the clinical score and intestinal permeability. The connections between food allergy, intestinal permeability and atopic dermatitis have not been understood, but disodium cromoglycate doesn't seem to play a significant role in the treatment of atopic dermatitis nor in the modification of intestinal permeability.

  8. Phosphate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... phosphate doesn't improve running or cycling performance. Diabetes complication (diabetic ketoacidosis). Early research shows that giving potassium phosphate intravenously (by IV) does not improve a diabetes complication in which the body produces too many blood ...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ether, and ethylene oxide. 721.7000 Section 721.7000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ethylene oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as L-Glutamic...

  11. Disodium calcium dinickel(II bis[diphosphate(V] decahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheng Cui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, Na2CaNi2(P2O72(H2O10, there are two distinct P-atom sites, each tetrahedrally coordinated by four O atoms. The resulting phosphate tetrahedra link through a common O atom, forming a [P2O7]4− diphosphate unit. The Ni—O coordination is square pyramidal with four O atoms from two diphosphate groups in equatorial positions and the vertex occupied by a water O atom. The (P2O7(H2O units link the Ni atoms, forming a chain of pyramids and tetrahedra. As a result of the d-glide and twofold-axis symmetry of space group Fdd2, the chains propagate along [101] and [10overline{1}], and chains in adjacent layers are mutually orthogonal. The Ca cation, located on a rotation axis, and the Na cation are each octahedrally coordinated by four O atoms and two waters. The Ni-chain arrangement is stabilized by Ca and Na coordination and a network of O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  12. New Polymorphic Forms of Pemetrexed Diacid and Their Use for the Preparation of Pharmaceutically Pure Amorphous and Hemipentahydrate Forms of Pemetrexed Disodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Michalak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of stable amorphous pemetrexed disodium of pharmaceutical purity as well as the process optimization for the preparation of the hemipentahydrate form of pemetrexed disodium are described. Analytical methods for the polymorphic and chemical purity studies of pemetrexed disodium and pemetrexed diacid forms were developed. The physicochemical properties of the amorphous and hydrate forms of pemetrexed disodium, as well as new forms of pemetrexed diacid (a key synthetic intermediate were studied by thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography methods were used for the chemical purity and residual solvents determination. In order to study the polymorphic and chemical stability of the amorphous and hemipentahydrate forms, a hygroscopicity test (25 °C, 80% RH was performed. Powder diffraction and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the amorphous character and high chemical purity were preserved after the hygroscopicity test. The hemipentahydrate form transformed completely to the heptahydrate form of pemetrexed disodium. Both pemetrexed disodium forms were produced with high efficiency and pharmaceutical purity in a small commercial scale. Amorphous pemetrexed disodium was selected for further pharmaceutical development. Two new polymorphs (forms 1 and 2 of pemetrexed diacid were used for the preparation of high purity amorphous pemetrexed disodium.

  13. Characterization of interactions between methoxatin disodium salt and human serum albumin by pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis/frontal analysis and circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Chen, Dongying

    2015-01-01

    Pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis (PACE)/frontal analysis (FA) and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the interactions between methoxatin disodium salt (PQQ-2Na) and human serum albumin (HSA). With the PACE/FA method, sodium phosphate buffer solution (67 mm, pH 7.4) was used as the background electrolyte. Hydrodynamic injection at 50 mbar for 50 s and external pressure of 50 mbar were applied. The binding constant and the number of primary binding sites to HSA were obtained under fixed concentration of PQQ-2Na (100 µm) and increasing HSA concentration (0~475 µm). The thermodynamic parameters characterized the main acting forces of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The displacement experiments using phenylbutazone and flurbiprofen as ligand markers suggested that the binding site was the Sudlow site I of the HSA molecule. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was further employed to evaluate the conformation changes of HSA under the interaction of PQQ-2Na. This work provides comprehensive information for understanding the interactions between PQQ-2Na and HSA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... potassium in your blood; a high level of sodium or phosphate in your blood; colitis (inflammation of the large intestine) or other conditions that irritate your intestine; slow moving bowels; heart failure (condition in which the heart cannot pump blood through the body as well as it ...

  15. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  16. Efficacy of didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), and chlorothalonil (CTL) against common mold fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Micales-Glaeser; Jeffrey D. Lloyd; Thomas L. Woods

    2004-01-01

    The fungitoxic properties of four fungicides, alone and in combination, against four different mold fungi commonly associated with indoor air quality problems were evaluated on two different wood species and sheetrock. The fungicides were chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) (CTL) in a 40.4% aqueous dispersion, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in...

  17. Comparison of transient severe motion in gadoxetate disodium and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI: effect of modified breath-holding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Soo; Choi, Eun Jung; Park, Eun Hae; Lee, Ju-Hyung

    2017-10-06

    To compare the occurrence of transient severe motion (TSM) between gadoxetate disodium- and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI and between gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI scans obtained with and without the application of a modified breath-holding technique. We reviewed 80 patients who underwent two magnetic resonance examinations (gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI) with the application of a modified breath-holding technique (dual group). This group was compared with 100 patients who underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI without the application of the modified breath-holding technique (single group). Patient risk factors and motion scores (1 [none] to 5 [non-diagnostic]) for each dynamic-phase imaging were analysed. In the dual group, mean motion scores did not differ significantly between gadoxetate disodium- and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI (p=0.096-0.807) in any phase. However, in all phases except the late dynamic phase, mean motion scores of the dual group were significantly lower than those in the single group. TSM incidence did not differ significantly between gadoxetate disodium- and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI in the dual group (3.8% vs. 1.3%, p=0.620). With proper application of the modified breath-holding technique, TSM occurrence with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI was comparable to that associated with gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI. • The modified breath-holding method significantly reduced the incidence of TSM. • Gadoxetate disodium and gadopentetate dimeglumine showed comparable motion scores. • TSM incidence was comparable between gadoxetate disodium- and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI.

  18. Comparison of acute transient dyspnea after intravenous administration of gadoxetate disodium and gadobenate dimeglumine: effect on arterial phase image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Matthew S; Viglianti, Benjamin L; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M; Caoili, Elaine M; Kaza, Ravi K; Liu, Peter S C; Maturen, Katherine E; Chenevert, Thomas L; Hussain, Hero K

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether acute transient dyspnea and/or arterial phase image degradation occurs more or less often after intravenous administration of gadoxetate disodium than with intravenous administration of gadobenate dimeglumine. Institutional review board approval and patient consent were obtained for this prospective observational study. One hundred ninety-eight gadolinium-based contrast media administrations (99 with gadoxetate disodium [10 mL, n = 97; 8 mL, n = 1; 16 mL, n = 1] and 99 with gadobenate dimeglumine [0.1 mmol per kilogram of body weight, maximum dose, 20 mL]) for hepatobiliary indications were assessed in 192 patients. Subjective patient complaints were assessed. Objective respiratory motion degradation on T1-weighted precontrast and dynamic postcontrast (arterial, venous, or late dynamic or extracellular) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging datasets were independently assessed in a randomized, blinded fashion by five readers using a five-point scale, with mean scores of 4 or greater indicating severe motion. Comparisons between agents were made by using χ(2) or Fisher exact test, where appropriate. Significantly more patient complaints of acute transient dyspnea occurred after gadoxetate disodium administration than gadobenate dimeglumine (14% [14 of 99] vs 5% [five of 99], P = .05). There were significantly more severely degraded arterial phase data sets for gadoxetate disodium than for gadobenate dimeglumine for both the general population (17% [17 of 99] vs 2% [two of 99], P = .0007) and the subpopulation with cirrhosis (19% [14 of 72] vs 3% [one of 37], P = .02). This effect did not extend to venous (1% [one of 99] vs 2% [two of 99], P > .99 [overall population]) or late dynamic or extracellular (2% [two of 99] vs 0% [zero of 99], P = .5 [overall population]) phases. No patient required treatment for self-limited dyspnea. Intravenous gadoxetate disodium can result in acute self-limiting dyspnea that can have a deleterious effect on arterial

  19. Studies on energetic compounds Part 45. Synthesis and crystal structure of disodium azotetrazole pentahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdip; Prajapati, Rishikesh; Frohlich, Roland

    2005-02-14

    A disodium salt of azotetrazolate (SAZ) has been prepared and characterized by elemental, UV, 13C NMR, FT-IR, and crystallographic analyses. Single crystals of the pentahydrate were grown by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution under reduced pressure. The crystal structure of SAZ has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystal lattice is triclinic P1 (no. 2) with lattice parameters a=7.115(1)A, b=7.559(1)A, c=12.025(1)A, alpha=79.75(1) degrees , beta=81.12(1) degrees , gamma=68.16(1) degrees and V=587.97(12)A3. Explosion delay studies have been undertaken using the tube furnace technique. The thermal stability of the compound has been discussed in the light of TG-DSC and explosion delay.

  20. Hepatic hemangioma and metastasis: differentiation with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced 3-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, Satoshi; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Watanabe, Haruo; Kondo, Hiroshi; Shiratori, Yoshimune; Onozuka, Minoru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI findings of hepatic hemangioma and to investigate the diagnostic performance in differentiating hepatic hemangioma and metastasis. Images of 32 hepatic hemangiomas in 25 patients and of 29 hepatic metastatic lesions in 20 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Two independent readers interpreted hepatobiliary phase images alone, dynamic extracellular phase images alone, and combined hepatobiliary and dynamic extracellular phase images. MRI findings and performance with respect to the differential diagnosis of hemangioma and metastasis were assessed. During the hepatic arterial phase, 11 of the 32 hemangiomas (34%) exhibited early total enhancement, and nine (28%) exhibited peripheral nodular enhancement. A bright dot sign or minimal peripheral enhancement during the late dynamic phase was observed for a small number of lesions (6% and 28%, respectively). Twenty-three of the 29 metastatic lesions (79%) exhibited ring enhancement during the hepatic arterial phase. Twenty-nine hemangiomas (91%) and all of the metastatic lesions exhibited homogeneous or heterogeneous hypointensity during the hepatobiliary phase. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of hemangioma were 76%, 81%, and 0.87 for the hepatobiliary phase alone; 97%, 88%, and 0.97 for the dynamic extracellular phase alone; and 97%, 88%, and 0.98 for the combination. Five nodules smaller than 1 cm (four hemangiomas, one metastatic lesion) that exhibited no enhancement during the arterial phase and minimal enhancement during the late dynamic phase were not differentiated. Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI was found useful for differentiating hepatic hemangiomas and metastatic lesions, especially during the dynamic extracellular phase. Only a limited number of lesions smaller than 1 cm in diameter, which exhibited minimal enhancement on late dynamic phase images, were

  1. Comparative in vitro studies on disodium EDTA effect with and without Proteus mirabilis on the crystallization of carbonate apatite and struvite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Effect of disodium EDTA (salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) on the crystallization of struvite and carbonate apatite was studied. To evaluate such an effect we performed an experiment of struvite and carbonate apatite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that disodium EDTA exhibits the effect against P. mirabilis retarding the activity of urease - an enzyme produced by these microorganisms. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that, with and without P. mirabilis, the addition of disodium EDTA increases the induction time and decreases the growth efficiency compared to the baseline (without disodium EDTA). These results are discussed from the standpoint of speciation of complexes formed in the solution of artificial urine in the presence of disodium EDTA. The size of struvite crystals was found to decrease in the presence of disodium EDTA. However, struvite crystals are larger in the presence of bacteria while the crystal morphology and habit remain unchanged.

  2. Synthesis of disodium-3-amino-1-hydroxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate-1-/sup 14/C. (APD. 2Na)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, E.; Shaikh, M.; Suh, J.T.; Jones, H. (Revlon Health Care Group, Tuckahoe, New York (USA))

    1982-10-01

    Disodium-3-amino-1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate-1-/sup 14/C (APD 2Na), a powerful calcium binding agent and potential drug for the treatment of Paget's Disease was synthesized. The reaction was carried out by reacting ..beta..-alanine (1-/sup 14/C) with phosphorus acid and phosphorus trichloride in chlorobenzene. Treatment of the resultant APD with two equivalents of sodium hydroxide gave the title compound.

  3. Respiratory-motion artefacts in liver MRI following injection of gadoxetate disodium and gadobenate dimeglumine: an intra-individual comparative study in cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, A; Close, O N; Borhani, A A; Wu, Y H; Heller, M T

    2017-01-01

    To perform an intra-individual comparison of the frequency of respiratory-motion artefacts on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cirrhotic patients following injection of gadoxetate disodium and gadobenate dimeglumine. Ninety-five cirrhotic patients (61 men and 34 women, mean age 58 years) underwent liver MRI with intravenous administration of gadoxetate disodium and gadobenate dimeglumine at different times (interval between studies, 189±83 days). Three readers scored the severity of respiratory-motion artefacts on the three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired before and after contrast medium injection. McNemar's test was used to assess the difference in frequency of new respiratory-motion artefacts and transient severe motion (TSM) artefacts between gadoxetate disodium and gadobenate dimeglumine MRI studies. The association between clinical and technical features and the occurrence of TSM on gadoxetate disodium MRI studies was investigated. On arterial phase images, new respiratory-motion artefacts were present in 32/95 (34%) cases after injection of gadoxetate disodium, while only seen in 2/95 (2%) cases after injection of gadobenate dimeglumine (pTSM was present in 6/95 (6%) cases after injection of gadoxetate disodium, and in 0/95 (0%) case after injection of gadobenate dimeglumine. No clinical or technical features were associated with the occurrence of TSM. In cirrhotic patients, respiratory-motion artefacts on arterial phase 3D GRE images are more frequently seen after injection of gadoxetate disodium than after injection of gadobenate dimeglumine. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved Manganese Phosphate Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    AD K/ . / R-TR-75-034 IMPROVED MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATINGS HENRY CRAIN - APRIL 1975 RESEARCH DIRECTORATE DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for public...which superior manganese phosphate coatings are producel. The phosphate coatings were applied at temp- eratures above 2124F and with -.anganese...temperature for the conversion of mlnganese dihydrogen phosphate [(P(HjPO•’)] to manganese phosphate [Nns(PO4)J]. 1 A ii UNCLASSIFIED SE[CURITY CL. A

  5. Interstitial MR lymphography in mice with gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadoxetate disodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Fugeng; Inoue, Yusuke; Kiryu, Shigeru; Watanabe, Makoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the utility of interstitial MR lymphography with gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) or gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in mice. We performed MR lymphography after the subcutaneous injection of Gd-DTPA or Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.1, 0.5, or 2.0 μmol per mouse) into the right footpad in six healthy mice, and the time courses of contrast enhancement were assessed. Additionally, the lymphatic pathways from two distinct sites were assessed in tandem by interstitial MR lymphography studies. Subcutaneous injection of Gd-DTPA or Gd-EOB-DTPA caused lymph node enhancement immediately after injection, followed by a rapid decline. Dose dependency was shown for the lymph node enhancement, and a high-dose injection caused prominent visualization of the veins. Lymph node enhancement did not differ significantly between Gd-DTPA and Gd-EOB-DTPA or between Gd-EOB-DTPA premixed and not premixed with bovine serum albumin. The tandem assessment of two lymphatic pathways was feasible, and image fusion aided detailed comparison. Interstitial MR lymphography with Gd-DTPA or Gd-EOB-DTPA allowed clear visualization of the lymphatic pathway in healthy mice, and no significant difference was found between the two agents. Their rapid kinetics limits the imaging timing window, however, facilitates repeated assessment in a single imaging session. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Phase behavior of chromonic liquid crystal mixtures of Sunset Yellow and Disodium Cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Smith, Gregory; Yi, Youngwoo; Xu, Charles; Biffi, Silvia; Serra, Francesca; Bellini, Tommaso; Clark, Noel

    2014-03-01

    Chromonic liquid crystals (CLCs) are formed when planar molecules dissolved in water stack into rod-like aggregates that can order as liquid crystals. Isotropic, nematic, and M-phases can be observed depending on the degree of molecular orientational and positional order by variation of the CLC concentration. We focused on mixtures of two well-known CLCs, Sunset Yellow, a food dye, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), an asthma medication. In order to study the phase behaviors of these mixtures, we observed their textures in glass cells and capillaries using polarized light microscopy. We report here a ternary phase diagram describing the complete phase behavior of the CLC mixtures. We observed a variety of phase behaviors depending on species ratio and concentration. In the isotropic phase, no clear phase separation of the two dyes was observed, while separation did occur in many nematic and M-phase combinations. We will also describe phase observations made using a light spectroscopy and bulk centrifugal partitioning. Grant support: NSF DMR 1207606 and NSF MRSEC DMR-0820579.

  7. Effect of lodoxamide and disodium cromoglycate on tear eosinophil cationic protein in vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, A.; Borghesan, F.; Avarello, A.; Plebani, M.; Secchi, A.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To validate the use of tear eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a marker for eosinophil activation, and its pharmacological modulation, in addition to evaluating the efficacy of lodoxamide and sodium cromoglycate in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).
METHODS—Tears were collected from 30 patients affected by active mild to moderate VKC before and after therapy with disodium cromoglycate 4% (DSCG) (n=15) or lodoxamide 0.1% (n=15) for 10 days. Tear cytology and ECP measurement were performed, and ocular signs and symptoms evaluated.
RESULTS—While statistically significant changes did not occur after DSCG therapy, mean tear ECP increased from 343 (SD 363) µg/l to 571 (777) µg/l due to marked elevation in six eyes. The clinical score in DSCG eyes did not improve. After lodoxamide therapy, both clinical signs and symptoms, and tear ECP levels (560 (756) µg/l to 241 (376) µg/l) decreased significantly (p<0.0001 and p<0.01, respectively). Compared with DSCG treatment, lodoxamide was more effective in reducing signs and symptoms (p<0.005). ECP levels were significantly correlated with signs, symptoms, corneal involvement, and number of eosinophils in tears (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS—In patients with VKC, lodoxamide significantly reduced ECP tear levels, and thus, eosinophil activation, and was more effective than DSCG in reducing clinical signs and symptoms.

 PMID:9135403

  8. Safety and Efficacy of Gadoxetate Disodium-enhanced Liver Mri in Pediatric Patients Aged >2 Months to <18 Years—Results of a Retrospective, Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Geller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the safety and efficacy of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MR imaging in pediatric patients. Material and Methods Retrospective, multicenter study including pediatric patients aged >2 months to <18 years who underwent contrast-enhanced liver MRI due to focal liver lesions. A single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025 to 0.05 mmol/kg body weight of gadoxetate disodium was administered. Adverse events (AEs up to 24 hours after injection were recorded and a one-year follow-up was conducted for all serious and unexpected AEs. Efficacy was defined based on the additional diagnostic information obtained from the combined (pre- and postcontrast image sets as compared with the precontrast image sets by blinded reading. Results A total of 52 patients for safety and 51 patients for efficacy analyses were evaluated. Twenty-two patients (42.3% reported a total of 51 serious AEs (SAEs and one AE after one year. No SAE or AE was related to gadoxetate disodium injection. Gadoxetate disodium-related effects on vital signs were not seen. Additional diagnostic information was obtained for 86.3% of patients. The three most improved efficacy variables were lesion-to-background contrast, lesion characterization, and improved border delineation in 78.4%, 76.5%, and 70.6% of patients, respectively. Conclusion Gadoxetate disodium in pediatric patients did not raise any clinically significant safety concern. Contrast enhancement provided additional clinically relevant information.

  9. Phosphate Uptake by Phosphate-Starved Euglena

    Science.gov (United States)

    BLUM, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    Phosphate-deprived Euglena acquire the ability to rapidly in-corporate added phosphate and, also, synthesize an induced acid phosphatase localized in the pellicle. The phosphate uptake system is saturated at low concentrations of phosphate and is inhibited by dinitrophenol, by low temperature, by K+, Li+, and Na+ ions, and competitively by arsenate. The orthophosphate incorporated into the cell is rapidly converted into organic forms but enough remains unesterified to suggest that the uptake is an active transport process. The data do not rule out the possibility that the induced phosphatase is involved in the transport process. PMID:5924104

  10. Phosphate acquisition efficiency and phosphate starvation tolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phosphate availability is a major factor limiting tillering, grain filling vis-à-vis productivity of rice. Rice is often cultivated in soil like red and lateritic or acid, with low soluble phosphate content. To identify the best genotype suitable for these types of soils, P acquisition efficiency was estimated from 108 genotypes.

  11. Phosphate acquisition efficiency and phosphate starvation tolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have reported the presence as well as the expression of a previously characterized rice gene, phosphate starvation tolerance locus (PSTOL1) in a set of .... surrounding the field to prevent any invasion of phosphate through other irrigation ... After germination, eight genotypes were allowed to grow in a glass plate dipped ...

  12. Effects of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt Intake on the Serum Cholesterol Levels of Healthy Japanese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masahiko; Kawasaki, Yuuki; Suzuki, Naoko; Takara, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a water-soluble quinone compound that has a strong anti-oxidant capacity. A previous study in rats fed a PQQ-depleted diet showed that elevated levels of serum triglyceride (TG) decreased after PQQ supplementation. However, there is only one study reporting the effects of PQQ on serum lipid levels, such as those of TG and cholesterol, in humans. In this study, the effects of PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) on serum TG and cholesterol levels in humans after 6 and 12 wk of treatment at an oral dosage of 20 mg/d were examined. This trial was conducted according to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded protocol. A total of 29 healthy Japanese adults, ranging from 40 to 57 y old, with normal to moderately high TG levels (110-300 mg/dL) as measured by a recent blood examination, were included in this study. In eleven volunteers out of 29, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-chol) levels at baseline were high (≥140 mg/dL). After 12 wk, the mean serum TG levels had not changed; however, a marginally significant decrease in the mean LDL-chol (from 136.1 to 127.0 mg/dL) was observed in the PQQ group. In the stratification analysis of the high LDL-chol subgroup (baseline LDL-chol level ≥140 mg/dL), the mean LDL-chol levels decreased significantly from the baseline values in the PQQ group compared to the placebo group. Our study findings suggest that PQQ suppressed the LDL-chol level, which is an important finding, because a high level of this lipid is a risk factor for various lifestyle-related diseases.

  13. Role of pamidronate disodium in the treatment of metastatic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, C; Fulfaro, F; Ticozzi, C; Casuccio, A; De Conno, F

    1998-01-01

    Bone metastases are a common feature of advanced neoplastic disease and are considered to be among the most frequent causes of pain and complications in oncologic patients. The main objective of the treatment of such patients is to control their symptoms and improve their quality of life. Pamidronate disodium is a second-generation bisphosphonate capable of inhibiting bone resorption (particularly osteoclast activity) without affecting bone remineralization. After a brief introduction concerning the pathophysiology of bone metastases and neoplastic bone pain, we herein present data on the clinical pharmacology and toxicity of bisphosphonates in general, and pamidronate in particular. We conclude by reviewing the literature on the use of pamidronate in phase II and III trials involving patients with metastatic bone disease. The paper is based on a review of articles published between 1984 and 1997 selected from the Cancerline and Medline databases. In the considered phase II and III studies involving patients with bone metastases (breast cancer and multiple myeloma in particular), pamidronate proved to be efficacious in reducing the incidence of pain and skeletal complications, decreasing the excretion of metabolic markers of bone resorption and improving the quality of life. Intravenous infusions of 60-90 mg over a period of 2 hr every 3-4 weeks did not cause any significant toxic effects and was easily managed. Pamidronate is a bisphosphonate that is efficacious in the treatment of symptomatic bone metastases and can be considered an important therapeutic option in association with systemic treatments, radiotherapy and normal supportive care, especially in patients with breast cancer and multiple myeloma. Further randomized studies are necessary to confirm the positive preliminary results in other neoplasms, analyze the cost/benefit ratio of the treatment, and verify the possibility that, in addition to being used for palliative purposes, pamidronate may also

  14. Use of disodium pamidronate bisphosphonate in patients with bone metastases of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Boško

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Disodium pamidronate (Aredia®, a drug of the bisphosphonate group, was administered to 20 patients with pains in the bones due to secondary deposits of lung cancer. The aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic effect of pamidronate to osteolytic metastases of lung cancer in the bone. In 16 (80% patients non-small-cell lung cancer was diagnosed, and in 4 (20% patients small-cell-lung cancer was confirmed. Intensive disseminated pains in the bones were present in all the patients. Metastases in the skeleton were confirmed by radiography and scintigraphy of the bones. Initial values of calcium in the plasma were determined in those patients. In 11 (55% patients, initial values of calcium in the serum were normal, and in 9 (45% patients, they were elevated. Patients with normal calcium values received 30 mg of pamidronate in 250 ml of normal saline, and patients with hypercalcaemia received 45-60 mg in 500 ml of normal saline. Analgesic effect of pamidronate was present in 12 (60% patients, and the completely painless state was achieved in 4 out of 12 patients. Evaluation of the pain was done by questionnaire, using a simple, descriptive scale. In all 9 (100% patients with hypercalcaemia, values of calcium in plasma were normalized. Pamidronate exerted favorable analgesic effect in the case of metastases of lung cancer in the bones in more than 50% patients. Satisfactory results were also achieved in the patients non-responsive to palliative therapy by irradiation This enables the use of opiates in lower doses.

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that ...

  16. Why Nature Chose Phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, F. H.

    1987-03-01

    Phosphate esters and anhydrides dominate the living world but are seldom used as intermediates by organic chemists. Phosphoric acid is specially adapted for its role in nucleic acids because it can link two nucleotides and still ionize; the resulting negative charge serves both to stabilize the diesters against hydrolysis and to retain the molecules within a lipid membrane. A similar explanation for stability and retention also holds for phosphates that are intermediary metabolites and for phosphates that serve as energy sources. Phosphates with multiple negative charges can react by way of the monomeric metaphosphate ion PO3{}- as an intermediate. No other residue appears to fulfill the multiple roles of phosphate in biochemistry. Stable, negatively charged phosphates react under catalysis by enzymes; organic chemists, who can only rarely use enzymatic catalysis for their reactions, need more highly reactive intermediates than phosphates.

  17. Click strategy using disodium salts of amino acids improves the water solubility of plinabulin and KPU-300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushiji, Fumika; Muguruma, Kyohei; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Shirasaka, Takuya; Kawamata, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hironari; Yoshiwaka, Yushi; Taguchi, Akihiro; Takayama, Kentaro; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2017-07-15

    Plinabulin and KPU-300 are promising anti-microtubule agents; however, the low water solubility of these compounds (click strategy using disodium salts of amino acids. The mother skeleton, diketopiperazine (DKP), was transformed into a monolactim-type alkyne and a copper-catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) combined azides that was derived from amino acids as a water-solubilizing moiety. The conversion of carboxyl groups into disodium salts greatly improved the water solubility by 0.8 million times compared to the solubility of the parent molecules. In addition, the α-amino acid side chains of the water-solubilizing moieties affected both the water solubility and the half-lives of the compounds during enzymatic hydrolysis. Our effort to develop a variety of water-soluble derivatives using the click strategy has revealed that the replaceable water-solubilizing moieties can alter molecular solubility and stability under enzymatic hydrolysis. With this flexibility, we are approaching to the in vivo study using water-soluble derivative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Technical report: gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced 2D R2* mapping: a novel approach for assessing bile ducts in living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Fowler, Kathryn J; Wolfson, Tanya; Igarashi, Saya; Lamas Constantino, Carolina P; Hooker, Jonathan C; Hong, Cheng W; Mamidipalli, Adrija; Gamst, Anthony C; Hemming, Alan; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-10-31

    Gadoxetate-disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced 3D T1- weighted (T1w) MR cholangiography (MRC) is an efficient method to evaluate biliary anatomy due to T1 shortening of excreted contrast in the bile. A method that exploits both T1 shortening and T2* effects may produce even greater bile duct conspicuity. The aim of our study is to determine feasibility and compare the diagnostic performance of two-dimensional (2D) T1w multi-echo (ME) spoiled gradient-recalled-echo (SPGR) derived R2* maps against T1w MRC for bile duct visualization in living liver donor candidates. Ten potential living liver donor candidates underwent pretransplant 3T MRI and were included in our study. Following injection of Gd-EOBDTPA and a 20-min delay, 3D T1w MRC and 2D T1w ME SPGR images were acquired. 2D R2* maps were generated inline by the scanner assuming exponential decay. The 3D T1w MRC and 2D R2* maps were retrospectively and independently reviewed in two separate sessions by three radiologists. Visualization of eight bile duct segments was scored using a 4-point ordinal scale. The scores were compared using mixed effects regression model. Imaging was tolerated by all donors and R2* maps were successfully generated in all cases. Visualization scores of 2D R2* maps were significantly higher than 3D T1w MRC for right anterior (p = 0.003) and posterior (p = 0.0001), segment 2 (p mapping is a feasible method for evaluating the bile ducts in living donors and may be a valuable addition to the living liver donor MR protocol for delineating intrahepatic biliary anatomy.

  19. The role of disodium pamidronate in the management of bone pain due to malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, L; Zecca, E; De Conno, F; Brunelli, C; Boffi, R; Panzeri, C; Cazzaniga, M; Ripamonti, C

    2001-07-01

    A number of controlled studies have recently demonstrated the role of disodium pamidronate in the prevention of skeletal complications in patients with metastatic bone disease due to breast cancer and multiple myeloma. They have also shown that it relieves pain and is well tolerated. The aim of this open prospective study was to evaluate the acceptability of a new schedule of pamidronate infusion and to assess pain, analgesic consumption and the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) in patients with metastatic bone pain treated with pamidronate in association or not with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormone therapy. Patients with different types of cancer and at least one painful bone metastasis were treated with two cycles of 60 mg intravenous (iv) pamidronate weekly for three consecutive doses, with a 3-week interval between the two cycles (six infusions over 7 weeks), followed by one infusion every 3 weeks for a total of 24 infusions. Two hundred patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 94 received at least the first six infusions; 25 patients received all 24 infusions. Pamidronate was well tolerated in the majority of the patients both during the first six infusions and during the whole study period. In the patients under study, pain intensity decreased compared with T0 after the first two infusions (second week of treatment). The mean equivalent daily dose of oral morphine required ranged from 21.5 to 41.5 mg/day and was low and stable during the study. For the patients who remained in the study, the KPS remained around 70 during the whole treatment period and intrasubject analysis showed a substantial stability of the KPS within each subject. A first fracture occurred within 321 days in 25% of the whole population under study. Pamidronate represents a further valid therapy to add to an already consolidated list of therapies such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy and orthopaedic intervention in the pain management of patients with bone

  20. Signal intensity change on unenhanced T1-weighted images in dentate nucleus and globus pallidus after multiple administrations of gadoxetate disodium: an intraindividual comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, Giorgio; Minotti, Marta; De Piano, Francesca [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Postgraduation School in Radiodiagnostics, Milan (Italy); Preda, Lorenzo [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Department of Clinical-Surgical Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, Pavia (Italy); National Center of Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO Foundation), Division of Radiology, Pavia (Italy); Cocorocchio, Emilia; Ferrucci, Pier Francesco [European Institute of Oncology, Melanoma and Sarcoma Medical Oncology Division, Milan (Italy); Raimondi, Sara [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milan (Italy); Giannitto, Caterina; Petralia, Giuseppe [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Bellomi, Massimo [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Oncology and Haematology/Oncology Department, Milan (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    To investigate whether there is an increased signal intensity (SI) of dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients who had undergone multiple administrations of gadoxetate disodium. We retrospectively included stage III melanoma patients, who had been previously enrolled in a trial of adjuvant therapy and who had undergone whole-body contrast-enhanced MRIs with gadoxetate disodium every three months for their follow-up. The SI ratios of DN-to-pons and GP-to-thalamus on unenhanced T1-weighted images were calculated. The difference in SI ratios between the first and the last MRI examinations was assessed and a linear mixed model was performed to detect how SI ratios varied with the number of administrations. Eighteen patients were included in our study. The number of gadoxetate disodium administrations ranged from 2 to 18. Paired t-test did not show any significant difference in DN-to-pons (p=0.21) and GP-to-thalamus (p=0.09) SI ratios by the end of the study. DN-to-pons SI ratio and GP-to-thalamus SI ratio did not significantly increase with increasing the number of administrations (p=0.14 and p=0.06, respectively). Multiple administrations of gadoxetate disodium are not associated with increased SI in DN and GP in the brain. (orig.)

  1. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  2. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  3. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO42・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and conventional zinc phosphate coating are discussed.

  4. Influence of Gadoxetate Disodium on Oxygen Saturation and Heart Rate during Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuya; Saitoh, Satoshi; Tsuji, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Junji; Tagaya, Naomi; Hiramoto, Mariko; Fukuzawa, Kei; Tano, Masakatsu; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether gadoxetate disodium affects peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) and/or heart rate (HR) during dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with liver diseases. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, who waived the requirement for informed consent. Four hundred fifty-eight patients (171 women [mean age, 66.5 years; range, 23-87 years] and 287 men [mean age, 61.1 years; range, 25-89 years]) who underwent liver DCE MR imaging with gadoxetate disodium (0.025 mmol per kilogram of body weight) from October 28, 2013, to June 24, 2014, were included in this study. They were monitored for SpO2 and HR during DCE MR imaging. Motion artifact severity was graded by using a five-point scale, and transient severe motion (TSM) was defined by a score of at least 4. The association between TSM and baseline predictors was assessed, and HR and SpO2 at each postcontrast phase were compared with those at the precontrast phase in the TSM and non-TSM groups. Four hundred thirty-six patients were included in the non-TSM group, and 22 were included in the TSM group. Although the motion score was the worst at the arterial phase, the observed mean differences in SpO2 and HR between the precontrast phase and the arterial phase were less than 1% and 5 beats per minute, respectively (mean SpO2 ± standard deviation for the non-TSM group, 96.7% ± 1.8 vs 96.9% ± 1.8 [P = .11]; SpO2 for the TSM group, 96.4% ± 1.6 vs 96.1% ± 1.6 [P > .99]) (HR for the non-TSM group, 68.9 beats per minute ± 12.4 vs 70.9 beats per minute ± 12.1 [P TSM group, 75.0 beats per minute ± 11.8 vs 79.9 beats per minute ± 10.2 [P < .0001]). Intravenous gadoxetate disodium (a weight-based dose) does not cause changes in SpO2 and HR that lead to image quality degradation.

  5. Lysozyme/EDTA disodium salt and modified-atmosphere packaging to prolong the shelf life of burrata cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, A; Brescia, I; Del Nobile, M A

    2011-11-01

    To prolong the shelf life of burrata cheese, we evaluated the effects of lysozyme and EDTA disodium salt (Na(2)-EDTA) with or without modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions. In particular, 3 concentrations of enzyme were combined with packaging in air and under MAP (95:5 CO(2):N(2)). The decline in quality of burrata cheese stored at 8°C was assessed by monitoring microbiological and sensory quality, in addition to pH and headspace composition. The combination of lysozyme/Na(2)-EDTA and MAP prolonged cheese shelf life, especially at the highest lysozyme concentration. In particular, the tested strategy was effective against microbial spoilage phenomena that appeared to be the quality factor that determine product unacceptability. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging: Differentiation between early-enhancing non-tumorous lesions and hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshima, Satoshi, E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Watanabe, Haruo; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Nozomi; Kawada, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Shiratori, Yoshimune [Department of Medical Informatics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Onozuka, Minoru [Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka (Japan); Moriyama, Noriyuki [Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tsukiji (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess imaging features that help differentiate early-enhancing non-tumorous (EN) hepatic lesions from hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging. Materials and methods: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study. We reviewed the studies of 158 patients (92 men and 65 women; age range: 29-91; mean age: 65.6 years) with chronic liver damage, who underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging at 3T MR scanner. Hypervascular lesions identified during the hepatic artery phase were selected for a study cohort. The location, shape, size (maximum diameter and maximum area), and contrast enhancement signal intensity characteristics of the lesions were evaluated, then compared between the EN and HCC lesions. Results: A total of 65 EN lesions (range: 3-60 mm, mean: 13.6 {+-} 10.6 mm) from 35 patients and 33 HCCs (range: 9-61 mm, mean: 19.3 {+-} 12.6 mm) from 20 patients were identified. Lesions were more frequently round or oval in shape for HCCs (n = 29; 88%) than ENs (n = 26; 40%) (P < 0.01). Unexpectedly, some ENs (n = 12; 18%) showed hypointensity on hepatocyte-phase, and 6 (50%) of them were T2 hyperintense. For lesions smaller than 2 cm (9 ENs and 21 HCCs) on hepatic arterial-phase images, the mean area of hypointensity in hepatocyte-phase (54.2 {+-} 33.1 mm{sup 2}) was significantly smaller than those of the corresponding hyperintensity in hepatic arterial-phase (97.1 {+-} 42.0 mm{sup 2}) for EN lesions (P = 0.019), whereas no significant difference in area was found for HCCs. Conclusion: EN lesions may occasionally present with hypointensity during the hepatocyte-phase; presenting a diagnostic dilemma. In this situation, EN lesions may be differentiated from HCCs when a hypointense area in hepatocyte-phase is smaller than the corresponding hypervascular area in hepatic-arterial phase.

  7. Simultaneous (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/MRI with gadoxetate disodium in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Thomas A; Pampaloni, Miguel Hernandez; Nakakura, Eric; VanBrocklin, Henry; Slater, James; Jivan, Salma; Aparici, Carina Mari; Yee, Judy; Bergsland, Emily

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate a simultaneous PET/MRI approach to imaging patients with neuroendocrine tumor using a combination of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC as a PET contrast agent and gadoxetate disodium as a hepatobiliary MRI contrast agent. Ten patients with neuroendocrine tumor with known or suspected hepatic disease were imaged using a (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT immediately followed by a 3.0T time-of-flight PET/MRI, using a combined whole body and liver specific imaging. The presence of lesions and DOTA-TOC avidity were assessed on CT, PET from PET/CT, diffusion weighted imaging, hepatobiliary phase imaging (HBP), and PET from PET/MRI. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in hepatic lesions and nodal metastases were compared between PET/CT and PET/MRI, as were detection rates using each imaging approach. A total of 101 hepatic lesions were identified, 47 of which were DOTA-TOC avid and able to be individually measured on both PET/CT and PET/MRI. HBP imaging had a higher sensitivity for detection of hepatic lesions compared to CT or PET (99% vs. 46% and 64%, respectively; p values <0.001). There was a strong correlation between SUVmax of liver lesions obtained with PET/CT compared to PET/MR imaging (Pearson's correlation = 0.91). For nodal disease, CT had a higher sensitivity compared to whole body MRI (p = 0.015), although PET acquired from PET/MRI detected slightly more lesions compared to PET from PET/CT. A simultaneous PET/MRI using both (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC and gadoxetate disodium was successful in whole body staging of patients with neuroendocrine tumor. HBP imaging had an increased detection rate for hepatic metastases.

  8. Enhanced vasculotoxic metal excretion in post-myocardial infarction patients following a single edetate disodium-based infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Ivan A; Navas-Acien, Ana; Ergui, Ian; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2017-10-01

    Toxic metals have been associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We have hypothesized that enhanced excretion of vasculotoxic metals might explain the positive results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a single infusion of the edetate disodium- based infusion used in TACT led to enhanced excretion of toxic metals known to be associated with cardiovascular events. Twenty six patients (post-MI, age > 50 years, serum creatinine ≤ 2.0mg/dL) were enrolled in this open-label study. Urinary levels of 20 toxic metals normalized to urinary creatinine concentrations were measured at baseline in overnight urine collections, for 6h following a placebo infusion of 500mL normal saline and 1.2% dextrose, and for 6h following a 3g edetate disodium-based infusion. Self-reported metal exposure, smoking status, food frequency, occupational history, drinking water source, housing and hobbies were collected at baseline by a metal exposure questionnaire. The mean age was 65 years (range 51-81 years). All patients were male. 50% had diabetes mellitus and 58% were former smokers. Mean (SD) serum creatinine was 0.95 (0.31) mg/dL. Toxic metals were detected in the baseline urine of >80% of patients. After placebo infusion there were no significant changes in total urinary metal levels. After edetate infusion, total urinary metal level increased by 71% compared to baseline (1500 vs. 2580µg/g creatinine; Pmetals with established epidemiologic evidence and mechanisms linking them to coronary and vascular events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorny, P.; Tej, P.; Szelag, P.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO4)2・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite) coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and convention...

  10. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  11. Evaluation of the gallbladder and cystic duct patency with gadoxetate disodium enhanced MR cholangiography: prospective comparison of patients with normal gallbladder function and acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Yousuf, Ambereen; Agrawal, Garima; Thomas, Stephen; Appelbaum, Daniel E; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-07-01

    Using hepatocyte-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents such as gadoxetate disodium, MRI can provide functional information regarding the patency of the cystic duct similar to hepatobiliary scintigraphy in addition to anatomic images. To describe the gadoxetate disodium enhanced MR cholangiography (GDE-MRC) findings in patients with acute cholecystitis and to compare them with findings in patients without acute cholecystitis and with normal hepatobiliary scintigraphy. This study was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. Twenty-three patients (n = 14 diagnosed with acute calculous cholecystitis based on ultrasound [US] or computed tomography [CT]; n = 9 controls with normal hepatobiliary scintigraphy) were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent GDE-MRC within 2 days of the US, CT, or hepatobiliary scintigraphy. GDE-MRC included axial gradient echo T1-weighted images before and 3, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min after injection of 10 mL of gadoxetate disodium. If excretion of contrast into the gallbladder was not noted at 60 min, intravenous morphine was administered (0.04 mg/kg) and images were acquired 30 min later. In all nine controls, gadoxetate disodium was excreted into the gallbladder within 60 min (7/9 in acute cholecystitis completed the study. Six out of 12 (50%) patients demonstrated contrast in their gallbladder within 1 h of administration similar to the control group (2/6 in 60 min) or lack of filling of the gallbladder during GDE-MRC supports the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. However, filling of the gallbladder with contrast in acute calculous cholecystitis. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Toothbrush disinfection – a myth or reality? – A comparative evaluation of 4% disodium EDTA, 10% sodium perborate in the disinfection of toothbrushes: clinicomicrobiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilofer Sultan Sheikh, Nilima Rajhans, Nilkanth Mhaske, Nikesh Moolya, Sudip HM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes and efficacy of their decontamination by4% disodium ethyl diamine acetic acid [EDTA], 10% sodium perborate and compared with control. Methods: Thirty subjects with chronic periodontitis enrolled in this randomized controlled clinical trial were provided with autoclaved toothbrushes which were free from microorganisms. Brushing instructions were given to each participant. Toothbrushes were collected from all study participants after 1 week and were placed with head down position in an autoclaved test tube containing sterile peptone water. Toothbrushes collected were sent for aerobic culture in laboratory for growth of micro-organisms. Incubation was done for 24 hours at 370C.The toothbrushes were then divided into three groups and immersed in disinfectantslike4% disodium EDTA, 10% sodium perborate and their efficacy was evaluated by aerobic culture analysis. Chi – Square test was used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas Aeroginosa, Streptococci and Klebsiella species were recovered from the samples. The results obtained showed that 4% Disodium EDTA showed 100% efficacy, whereas 10% Sodium perborate showed 40% effectiveness in decontaminating the toothbrushes. Distilled water as a control showed least effectiveness in cleaning toothbrushes. Conclusion: After single brushing toothbrushes get contaminated by a wide array of bacteria’s which a major cause of concern is. As contaminated toothbrush can reintroduce microorganisms into the oral cavity, it is therefore recommended for individuals to use solutions like 4% Disodium EDTA, which proved to be an effective disinfecting agent for decontaminating toothbrushes.

  13. Transient severe motion in the arterial phase during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging: evaluation of patients with multiple MR examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Won Hyeong; Song, Ji Soo; Park, Eun Hae; Kwak, Hyo Sung

    2017-04-10

    To determine whether patients undergoing multiple gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) examinations who experienced transient severe motion (TSM) in the arterial phase were affected by the TSM noted in the first examination. 214 patients who underwent three or more repeated gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging were retrospectively analyzed. Three radiologists scored all of the examinations demonstrating a motion artifact using a five-point rating scale. Risk factor analysis and comparison of TSM recurrence rates were performed in the whole study population as well as in a subpopulation of patients with TSM. The overall incidence of TSM was 5.9% (54/922), which was observed in 40 patients. Thirty-two patients had one episode of TSM, and eight patients had recurrent TSM. Although TSM in the first examination increased the risk of recurrent TSM in the whole population (OR 24.45; P TSM was low (2.4%, 22/922). On subpopulation analysis, TSM in the first examination did not influence recurrent TSM (OR 0.36; P = 0.250). Patients undergoing multiple gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR examinations who experienced recurrent TSM were not affected by TSM in the first examination. Therefore, a single episode of TSM should not be considered a risk factor of recurrent TSM.

  14. Antibacterial properties of Ag (or Pt)-containing calcium phosphate coatings formed by micro-arc oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun Sam; Hong, Seong-Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    Silver (or platinum)-containing calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP)) coatings on titanium substrates were formed by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and their in vitro antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity were evaluated. MAO was performed in an electrolytic solution containing beta-glycerophosphate disodium salt pentahydrate (beta-GP) and calcium acetate monohydrate (CA), and Ag and Pt were introduced in the form of AgNO(3) (or CH(3)COOAg) and H(2)PtCl(6), respectively. The MG63 and human osteosarcoma (HOS) cell lines were used to investigate the proliferation and differentiation behavior of the cells, respectively, whereas two strains of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the coatings. The phase, morphology, and Ag content of the coatings were strongly dependent on the applied voltage and Ag precursor concentration. HA and alpha-TCP phases were detected in the coatings oxidized above 400 V and the presence of Ag was confirmed by EDS. While the coatings with a high content of Ag were cytotoxic and those obtained in the Pt-containing electrolyte had no apparent antibacterial activity, the calcium phosphate coatings obtained in the low Ag concentration electrolyte exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity but no cytotoxicity. Thus, biocompatible calcium phosphate coatings on Ti implants with antibacterial activity can be achieved by one-step MAO. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  16. Disodium cromoglycate may act as a novel adjuvant for UV-attenuated Toxoplasma gondii vaccine in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Wu, Yifan; Huang, Shiguang; Lu, Fangli

    2018-02-05

    We have proven the beneficial effects during acute Toxoplasma gondii infection when mast cells were inhibited by disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Here we investigated the adjuvant effect of DSCG on the protective efficacy of UV-attenuated T. gondii (UV-Tg) vaccine. Mice were infected with 10 2 Tg alone or infected with 10 2 Tg plus DSCG (Tg + DSCG), immunized with 10 5 UV-Tg and challenged with 10 2 Tg (UV-Tg + Tg) or immunized with 10 5 UV-Tg plus DSCG and challenged with 10 2 Tg (UV-Tg + DSCG + Tg). Compared to Tg group, Tg + DSCG, UV-Tg + Tg, and UV-Tg + DSCG + Tg showed significantly prolonged survival times, decreased parasite burdens, reduced liver histopathologies, and increased levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and IL-17 in the livers and spleens by using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Compared to UV-Tg + Tg, UV-Tg + DSCG + Tg had significantly longer survival time, lower tissue parasite burden and histopathological score, and higher levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and IL-17 in the livers or spleens. Our data suggest that DSCG may play an adjuvant role in the immunization induced by UV-attenuated T. gondii in mice, by promoting cellular immune response against T. gondii challenge. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Yvonne Carroll

    Full Text Available The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders.

  18. The novel bisphosphonate disodium dihydrogen-4-[(methylthio phenylthio] methanebisphosphonate increases bone mass in post-ovariectomy rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Takizawa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The novel bisphosphonate (BP disodium dihydrogen-4-[(methylthio phenylthio] methanebisphosphonate (MPMBP is a non-nitrogen-containing BP with an antioxidant side chain that possesses anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the systemic effects of this compound on bone loss induced by ovariectomy (OVX in adult rats. Micro-computed tomography revealed that MPMBP increased bone mass and density in both the metaphysis and diaphysis, and improved the structural properties important for mechanical strength of osteoporotic bone. Sequential bone labeling with tetracycline and calcein indicated that MPMBP decreased longitudinal growth of the primary spongiosa (PS, but stimulated cortical bone formation in the diaphysis. MPMBP increased type I collagen accumulation in the PS, and decreased the number and size of adipocytes in the bone marrow, suggesting inhibition of increased bone marrow adipogenesis induced by OVX. Furthermore, MPMBP reduced the number of bone resorbing cathepsin K-positive osteoclasts induced by OVX. These results suggest that MPMBP could improve bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. Both stimulation of bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption might play a role in the increase in bone mass and bone density after MPMBP treatment.

  19. Hypophosphatemic rickets developed after treatment with etidronate disodium in a patient with generalized arterial calcification in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Miyai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1 was originally reported as a responsible gene for generalized arterial calcification in infancy (GACI. Though the prognosis of GACI patients is poor because of myocardial infarction and heart failure in relation to medial calcification of the coronary arteries, some patients rescued by bisphosphonate treatment have been reported. Recently, ENPP1 is also reported as responsible for autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets type 2. We show here a boy with homozygous ENPP1 mutations diagnosed as having GACI in early infancy. After the diagnosis, he was treated with etidronate disodium (EHDP in combination with antihypertensive drugs. The calcification of major arteries was diminished and disappeared by the age of eight months. He also showed mild hypophosphatemia (2.6–3.7 mg/dl from the age of one year. After the treatment with EHDP for five years, he showed genu valgum with hypophosphatemia (2.6 mg/dl. He was diagnosed as having hypophosphatemic rickets at the age of seven years. The findings that hyper-mineralization of the arteries and hypo-mineralization of the bone observed in the same patient are noteworthy. ENPP1 could be regarded as a controller of the calcification of the whole body at least in part.

  20. Comparison of levocabastine, a new selective H1-receptor antagonist, and disodium cromoglycate, in a nasal provocation test with allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolly, M; Pécoud, A

    1986-10-01

    The effect of intranasal administration of levocabastine, a new selective H1-receptor antagonist, was investigated in a nasal provocation test (NPT) performed with allergens. The NPT allowed a quantitative estimation of the nasal allergic threshold (concentration of allergen necessary to trigger the reaction). In addition, the intensity of the three major rhinitis symptoms (obstruction, rhinorrhea and sneezing) was determined. Twelve adult patients, allergic to grass pollen, underwent a first NPT without pretreatment ('initial NPT'); the NPT was then repeated after the single intranasal administration of either placebo, 8 mg disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or 0.2 mg levocabastine in a double-blind random order. The NPTs gave reproducible results since both the threshold and symptom intensities were similar in the initial NPT and in the NPT performed after placebo. The reaction threshold increased in 8/12 patients after DSCG (0.05 less than P less than 0.1) and in 9/12 patients after levocabastine (P less than 0.05). Levocabastine clearly inhibited rhinorrhea (P less than 0.001) and sneezing (P less than 0.02) but did not influence the nasal obstruction. DSCG inhibited rhinorrhea only (P less than 0.01). The intranasal administration of levocabastine might be useful in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  1. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium). The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Copper scandium zirconium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Andrew David; Warner, Terence Edwin

    2013-01-01

    components. The [Sc(III)Zr(IV)(PO(4))(3)](2-) framework is composed of corner-sharing Sc/ZrO(6) octahedra and PO(4) tetrahedra. The Sc and Zr atoms are disordered on one atomic site on a crystallographic threefold axis. The P atom of the phosphate group lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. Nonframework...

  3. Sodium Phosphate Rectal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid using a measuring spoon. Then replace the bottle cap.To use the sodium phosphate enema, follow these steps: Remove the protective shield from the tip of the enema. Lie down on ... insert the enema bottle into your rectum with the tip pointing toward ...

  4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition ...

  5. Phosphate Surface Treatments on Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS, BATHS, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, COATINGS, DOCUMENTS, IONS, IRON, MATERIALS, METALS, PATENTS, PHOSPHATE COATINGS, PHOSPHATES ...RESPONSE, SPRAYS, STEEL, SURFACE FINISHING, SURFACES, TIME, WEIGHT, ZINC , ZINC COATINGS, ZINC COMPOUNDS

  6. Fluorimetric determination of carbamoyl phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R. J.; van Roermund, C.; Lof, C.; Meijer, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    A simple fluorimetric assay for the determination of carbamoyl phosphate in tissue extracts is described. In the assay, production of ATP from carbamoyl phosphate and ADP by carbamate kinase is coupled to the formation of NADPH, using glucose, hexokinase, NADP+, and glucose-6-phosphate

  7. Practical application of phosphate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaggio, Mike [Integrated Chemistry Solutions Pte. Ltd., Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-05-15

    Phosphate treatment has been applied to subcritical fossil power boilers for well over half a century, as well as being used frequently in heat recovery steam generators. The use of this treatment has evolved over the decades, with the operating sodium to phosphate ratio being the defining factor for the evolution of the treatment. The evolving prescribed sodium to phosphate ratios have been based on the scientific research results and operating experience available at the time, and in the latest EPRI Guidelines issued in 2004 are set at a minimum sodium to phosphate ratio of 3:1, with provision to add up to 1 mg . L{sup -1} of additional free caustic. The ratio limitation has always been set in an effort to minimize the potential for corrosion caused by the potential misapplication of the treatment. Typically, the operating ranges for phosphate treatments are depicted on an x-y plot with the x-axis the phosphate concentration and the y-axis the corrected pH value based on the maximum sodium to phosphate ratio allowed for by the treatment. These operating range plots define the theoretical operating range of a phosphate treatment. This paper briefly discusses the origin of the current phosphate control limits in the EPRI Guidelines, discusses phosphate chemistry, outlines the limitations involved when applying a phosphate treatment and provides additional practical guidance for overcoming these limitations and minimizing the potential for corrosion induced by the incorrect application of a phosphate treatment. (orig.)

  8. Effects of Desloratadine Citrate Disodium combined with Budesonide suspension on serum IgE, EOS and inflammatory factors in patients with CRS after endoscopic sinus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Bi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the clinical application of Desloratadine Citrate Disodium combined with Budesonide suspension in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis CRS after endoscopic sinus surgery, and analyze the change of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE, eosinophils (EOS and inflammatory factors level in patients. Method: A total of 90 cases of patients with CRS were randomly divided into control group (n=45 and observation group (n=45 according to the lottery method. Both groups were treated with endoscopic sinus surgery. On the basis of this, control group was given Budesonide suspension and observation group was treated with Desloratadine Citrate Disodium combined with Budesonide suspension. The change of serum IgE, EOS and inflammatory factors were measured before and after operation in all subjects. Results: There was no significant difference in IgE and EOS levels between control group and observation group before treatment. After treatment, the levels of serum IgE and EOS in the two groups were significantly lower than those before treatment. Moreover, after treatment, observation group was lower than control group, and the difference was significant. There was no significant difference in inflammatory factors level between control group and observation group before treatment. After treatment, the levels of serum IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and hs-CRP were significantly lower than those before treatment. After treatment, observation group was lower than the control group in the same period, the difference was significant. Conclusion: Combined Desloratadine Citrate Disodium treatment for CRS patients on the basis of endoscopic sinus surgery and Budesonide Nasal Spray treatment, it can more effectively reduce serum IgE and EOS levels, decrease the inflammatory response. Therefore it was a potential effective treatment for patients with CRS.

  9. Gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced MR imaging of cholangiolocellular carcinoma of the liver. Imaging characteristics and histopathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haradome, Hiroki; Toda, Yusuke [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Unno, Toshiyuki [Showa General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Koganei (Japan); Morisaka, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Tomoaki [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Saitama (Japan); Kwee, Thomas C. [UMC Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Kondo, Hiroshi [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sano, Keiji [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Fukuo [Teikyo University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); Sugitani, Masahiko [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); Takayama, Tadatoshi [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Digestive Surgery, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    To review the gadoxetic acid disodium (EOB)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC) of the liver and compare them with those of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). EOB-enhanced MR images of 19 patients with CoCC, 23 with ICC, and 51 with HCC were retrospectively evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the characteristic MR features of CoCC with histopathological-imaging correlation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that dot-/band-shaped internal enhancement during the arterial and portal phases (P < 0.001), and larger arterial ring enhancement ratio (CoCC, 0.13 ± 0.04; ICC, 0.074 ± 0.04; P = 0.013) were significantly independently associated with CoCC in contrast to ICC, whereas several MR features including progressive enhancement during the portal and late phases (P < 0.001), target appearance in the hepatocyte phase (P = 0.004), and vessel penetration (P = 0.013) were significantly more frequently associated with CoCC than HCC. The dot-/band-like internal enhancement (78.9% of CoCCs) histopathologically corresponded to the tumour cell nest with vascular proliferations and retained Glisson's sheath structure. EOB-enhanced MR features of CoCC largely differ from those of HCC but are similar to those of ICC. However, the finding of thicker arterial ring enhancement with dot-/band-like internal enhancement could help differentiate CoCC from ICC. (orig.)

  10. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels.

  11. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L; Andersen, K E; Egsgaard, Helge

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri...... triphenyl phosphate allergy in our patient....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O...

  13. Synthesis of disodium [benzene-U-{sup 14}C]-(4-chlorophenylthio)methylenediphosphonate, [benzene-U-{sup 14}C]-tiludronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Alain; Ellames, G.J. [Alnwick Research Centre (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics

    1995-12-31

    Disodium [benzene-U-{sup 14}C]-(4-chlorophenylithio)methylenediphosphonate, [benzene-{sup 14}C]-Tiludronate, 2, has been prepared in six steps from [benzene-U-{sup 14}C]-acetanilide in an overall radiochemical yield of 41%. A key step in this transformation was the efficient conversion of [U-{sup 14}C]-4-chloroaniline to [benzene-U-{sup 14}C]-4-chlorophenylthiocyanate, 5, in 83% yield by treatment of the corresponding diazonium salt, 9 with iron(111) thiocyanate. It should be noted that formation of the isomeric [benzene-U-{sup 14}C]-4-chlorophenylisothiocyanate, 11, as a byproduct, was observed in only {approx} 1% yield. (author).

  14. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  15. Evaluation of Manganese Phosphate Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    D-AiD9 434 EVALUATION OF MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COTINGS(I) ARMY v/1 ARMAMENT RESEARCH R D DEVELO MENT CENTER IdATERYL lET NY I LARGE CALIBER WEAPON...5Y IIARS 163 TECHNICAL REPORT ARLCB-TR- 64003 EVALUATION OF MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATINGS R. A. FARRARA FEBRUARY 1984 N US ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND...84003 _____________ 4. TTLE and -bitle)5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EVALUATION OF MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATINGS Final 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  16. Laser Sintered Calcium Phosphate Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vail, Neil

    1999-01-01

    ...) technology selective laser sintering (SLS). BME has successfully implemented a pilot facility to fabricate calcium phosphate implants using anatomical data coupled with the selective laser sintering process...

  17. Templated, layered manganese phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G.; Bonhomme, Francois R.

    2004-08-17

    A new crystalline maganese phosphate composition having an empirical formula: O). The compound was determined to crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3c1 with a=8.8706(4) .ANG., c=26.1580(2) .ANG., and V (volume)=1783 .ANG..sup.3. The structure consists of sheets of corner sharing Mn(II)O.sub.4 and PO.sub.4 tetrahedra with layers of (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N and water molecules in-between. The pronated (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N molecules provide charge balancing for the inorganic sheets. A network of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the inorganic sheets holds the structure together.

  18. Light weight phosphate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  19. Photocatalytic Aerobic Phosphatation of Alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depken, Christian; Krätzschmar, Felix; Rieger, Rene; Rode, Katharina; Breder, Alexander

    2018-02-23

    A catalytic regime for the direct phosphatation of simple, non-polarized alkenes has been devised that is based on using ordinary, non-activated phosphoric acid diesters as the phosphate source and O 2 as the terminal oxidant. The title method enables the direct and highly economic construction of a diverse range of allylic phosphate esters. From a conceptual viewpoint, the aerobic phosphatation is entirely complementary to traditional methods for phosphate ester formation, which predominantly rely on the use of prefunctionalized or preactivated reactants, such as alcohols and phosphoryl halides. The title transformation is enabled by the interplay of a photoredox and a selenium π-acid catalyst and involves a sequence of single-electron-transfer processes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Phosphate kinetic models in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Sisse Heiden; Vestergaard, Peter; Hejlesen, Ole K.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding phosphate kinetics in dialysis patients is important for the prevention of hyperphosphatemia and related complications. One approach to gain new insights into phosphate behavior is physiologic modeling. Various models that describe and quantify intra- and/or interdialytic...... phosphate kinetics have been proposed, but there is a dearth of comprehensive comparisons of the available models. The objective of this analysis was to provide a systematic review of existing published models of phosphate metabolism in the setting of maintenance hemodialysis therapy. STUDY DESIGN......: Systematic review. SETTING & POPULATION: Hemodialysis patients. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: Studies published in peer-reviewed journals in English about phosphate kinetic modeling in the setting of hemodialysis therapy. PREDICTOR: Modeling equations from specific reviewed studies. OUTCOMES: Changes...

  1. A comparison of sodium calcium edetate (edetate calcium disodium) and succimer (DMSA) in the treatment of inorganic lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally; Vale, Allister

    2009-11-01

    This article reviews the experimental and clinical studies that have compared the efficacy (impact on urine lead excretion, blood and tissue lead concentrations, resolution of features and survival) of sodium calcium edetate (edetate calcium disodium) and succimer (DMSA) in the treatment of inorganic lead poisoning. It also summarizes the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects and the adverse effects of treatment. Medline, Toxline, and Embase were searched for all available years to June 2009. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: The absorption of oral DMSA is more complete than sodium calcium edetate; the latter has to be administered parenterally. Both antidotes are distributed predominantly extracellularly. Sodium calcium edetate is not metabolized, whereas DMSA is extensively metabolized to mixed disulfides of cysteine. The two antidotes have elimination half-lives of less than 60 min. There is no evidence that either antidote crosses the blood-brain barrier to any major extent. Sodium calcium edetate chelates lead by displacement of the central Ca2+ ion with Pb2+. The nature of the DMSA-lead chelate is less clearly defined. There is evidence that the mixed disulfides of cysteine are the active chelating moiety in humans. If this is the case, this suggests that chelation occurs principally, if not exclusively, in the kidney. The primary source of lead mobilized by sodium calcium edetate is bone with an additional contribution from kidney and liver. Comparison of the experimental studies is complicated by substantial variations in study design, particularly the antidote dose, the route and duration of treatment, the amount and duration of lead dosing, and lack of direct comparison between antidotes (comparison was usually made with control). In experimental studies that used equimolar and clinically relevant antidote doses and assessed the impact of DMSA and sodium calcium edetate on urine lead excretion and/or blood lead concentrations, similar results

  2. Features of the Photoalignment of Disodium Bis-[(4-Hydroxy-3-Carboxylate-6-Methyl)Phenylazo]-5,5'-Dioxobenzothiophene in Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplanova, J. D.; Muravskii, A. A.; Agabekov, V. E.; Gracheva, E. A.; Mikulich, V. S.

    2015-05-01

    Thin films and multilayer thin-fi lm coatings based on the new dichroic azo dye disodium bis[(4-hydroxy-3-carboxylate-6-methyl)phenylazo]-5,5'-dioxobenzothiophene (FtF-1) were produced by the spin-coating method. The optical properties and morphology of the FtF-1 films depended on the formation conditions and used solvents. Reversible photo-induced dichroism was observed in films obtained by spin-coating of FtF-1 solutions in DMF and aqueous polyvinylpyrrolidone on quartz substrates upon irradiation with plane-polarized light (λ = 450 nm, I = 15 mW/cm2). The anisotropic properties of the FtF-1 films were caused by trans-cis-isomerization of the irradiated dye molecules.

  3. Effect of Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR) and farmyard manure (FYM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania to investigate the effect of Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR) and farmyard manure (FYM) applied to an Oxic Haplustults on Bray I-P and the response of maize (Zea mays (L.) variety staha) to the applied MPR and FYM in a 4 factorial experiment in a completely randomized block design. MPR was applied at the rates ...

  4. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Andersen, Klaus E.; Egsgaard, Helge

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri......-m-cresyl phosphate, but no reaction to tri-p-cresyl phosphate. Gas chromatography of the tricresyl phosphate 5% pet. patch test material supplied from Trolab showed that it contained a mixture of a wide range of triaryl phosphates, including 0.08% triphenyl phosphate which is above the threshold for detecting...... triphenyl phosphate allergy in our patient....

  5. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  6. Toxicological review of inorganic phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M L; Salminen, W F; Larson, P R; Barter, R A; Kranetz, J L; Simon, G S

    2001-08-01

    Inorganic phosphate salts are widely used as food ingredients and in a variety of commercial applications. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers inorganic phosphates "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) (FDA, 1973a, 1979) [FDA: Food and Drug Administration 1973a. GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) food ingredients-phosphates. NTIS PB-221-224, FDA, Food and Drug Administration, 1979. Phosphates; Proposed Affirmation of and Deletion From GRAS Status as Direct and Human Food Ingredients. Federal Register 44 (244). 74845-74857, 18 December (1979)] and the European Union (EU) allows inorganic phosphates to be added directly to food (EU Directive 95/2/EC as amended by 98/72/EC). In this review, data on the acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity from the published literature and from unpublished studies by the manufacturers are reviewed. Based on the toxicity data and similar chemistry, the inorganic phosphates can be separated into four major classes, consisting of monovalent salts, divalent salts, ammonium salts and aluminum salts. The proposed classification scheme supports the use of toxicity data from one compound to assess the toxicity of another compound in the same class. However, in the case of eye and skin irritation, the proposed classification scheme cannot be used because a wide range of responses exists within each class. Therefore, the eye and skin hazards associated with an individual inorganic phosphate should be assessed on a chemical-by-chemical basis. A large amount of toxicity data exists for all four classes of inorganic phosphates. The large and comprehensive database allows an accurate assessment of the toxicity of each class of inorganic phosphate. Overall, all four classes of inorganic phosphates exhibit low oral, inhalation and dermal toxicities. Based on these data, humans are unlikely to experience adverse effects when the daily phosphorus consumption remains

  7. 21 CFR 573.320 - Diammonium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diammonium phosphate. 573.320 Section 573.320 Food... Additive Listing § 573.320 Diammonium phosphate. The food additive diammonium phosphate may be safely used... crude protein from diammonium phosphate, adequate directions for use and a prominent statement, “Warning...

  8. O-alkylation of disodium salt of diethyl 3,4-dihydroxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate with 1,2-dichloroethane catalyzed by ionic type phase transfer catalyst and potassium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Huasheng; Yin, Hengbo; Wang, Aili; Shen, Jun; Yan, Xiaobo; Liu, Yumin; Zhang, Changhua [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2014-01-15

    Diethyl 3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate was efficiently synthesized via the O-alkylation of disodium salt of diethyl 3,4-dihydroxy thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate with 1,2-dichloroethane over ionic type phase transfer catalysts, such as tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and benzyl triethyl ammonium chloride. The ionic type phase transfer catalysts showed higher catalytic activities than the nonionic type phase transfer catalysts, such as triethylamine, pyridine, 18-crown-6, and polyethylene glycol 400/600, in the O-alkylation reaction. The conversion of the disodium salt of more than 97% and the selectivity of diethyl 3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate of more than 98% were achieved when the O-alkylation reaction was synergistically catalyzed by tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and potassium iodide.

  9. Uranium phosphate biomineralization by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinjin; Hillier, Stephen; Pendlowski, Helen; Gray, Nia; Ceci, Andrea; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2015-06-01

    Geoactive soil fungi were investigated for phosphatase-mediated uranium precipitation during growth on an organic phosphorus source. Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces javanicus were grown on modified Czapek-Dox medium amended with glycerol 2-phosphate (G2P) as sole P source and uranium nitrate. Both organisms showed reduced growth on uranium-containing media but were able to extensively precipitate uranium and phosphorus-containing minerals on hyphal surfaces, and these were identified by X-ray powder diffraction as uranyl phosphate species, including potassium uranyl phosphate hydrate (KPUO6 .3H2 O), meta-ankoleite [(K1.7 Ba0.2 )(UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O], uranyl phosphate hydrate [(UO2 )3 (PO4 )2 .4H2 O], meta-ankoleite (K(UO2 )(PO4 ).3H2 O), uramphite (NH4 UO2 PO4 .3H2 O) and chernikovite [(H3 O)2 (UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O]. Some minerals with a morphology similar to bacterial hydrogen uranyl phosphate were detected on A. niger biomass. Geochemical modelling confirmed the complexity of uranium speciation, and the presence of meta-ankoleite, uramphite and uranyl phosphate hydrate between pH 3 and 8 closely matched the experimental data, with potassium as the dominant cation. We have therefore demonstrated that fungi can precipitate U-containing phosphate biominerals when grown with an organic source of P, with the hyphal matrix serving to localize the resultant uranium minerals. The findings throw further light on potential fungal roles in U and P biogeochemistry as well as the application of these mechanisms for element recovery or bioremediation. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. LABORATORY TESTS ON INSECTICIDAL EFFECTIVENESS OF DISODIUM OCTABORATE TETRAHYDRATE, DIATOMACEOUS EARTH AND AMORPHOUS SILICA GEL AGAINST Sitophilus oryzae (L. AND THEIR EFFECT ON WHEAT BULK DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Korunić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined insecticide effectiveness of three different inert dusts: disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT and diatomaceous earth (DE Celatom® Mn 51 applied as powder and suspension, and silica gel Sipernat® 50 S applied as powder against Sitophilus oryzae (L. and their reduction of grain bulk density. Sipernat® 50 S was the most effective dust with a very fast initial effectiveness. DE and DOT generated similar effectiveness against S. oryzae. DOT generated low initial effectiveness but after prolonged exposure time of 8 and especially after 21 days, the mortality was very high (100%, similar to the effectiveness of DE. The similar order of dusts was obtained in the reduction of wheat bulk density. Applied at dose of 200 and 500 ppm, the lowest bulk density difference in regard to bulk density of untreated wheat had DOT (-1.1 and -1.9 kg hl-1, respectively, followed by Celatom® Mn 51 (-3.5 and -4.3 kg hl-1, respectively and Sipernat® 50 S (-5.2 and -5.5 kg hl-1, respectively. Due to the effect on wheat bulk density DOT belongs to the group with the least negative effect on bulk density and therefore, it is a promising dust to control stored grain insect pests.

  11. Downregulation of mucosal mast cell activation and immune response in diarrhoea-irritable bowel syndrome by oral disodium cromoglycate: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Beatriz; Ramos, Laura; Martínez, Cristina; Guilarte, Mar; González-Castro, Ana M; Alonso-Cotoner, Carmen; Pigrau, Marc; de Torres, Inés; Rodiño-Janeiro, Bruno K; Salvo-Romero, Eloisa; Fortea, Marina; Pardo-Camacho, Cristina; Guagnozzi, Danila; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background and goal Diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) exhibits intestinal innate immune and mucosal mast cell (MC) activation. MC stabilisers have been shown to improve IBS symptoms but the mechanism is unclear. Our primary aim was to investigate the effect of oral disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on jejunal MC activation and specific innate immune signalling pathways in IBS-D, and secondarily, its potential clinical benefit. Study Mucosal MC activation (by ultrastructural changes, tryptase release and gene expression) and innate immune signalling (by protein and gene expression) were quantified in jejunal biopsies from healthy (HS; n = 16) and IBS-D subjects after six months of either treatment with DSCG (600 mg/day, IBS-D-DSCG group; n = 18) or without treatment (IBS-D-NT group; n = 25). All IBS-D patients recorded abdominal pain and bowel habits at baseline and in the last 10 days prior to jejunal sampling. Results IBS-D-NT exhibited significant MC activation and over-expression of immune-related genes as compared to HS, whereas in IBS-D-DSCG MC activity and gene expression were similar to HS. Furthermore, DSCG significantly reduced abdominal pain and improved stool consistency. Conclusion Oral DSCG modulates mucosal immune activity and improves gut symptoms in IBS-D patients. Future placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed for confirmation of clinical benefit of DSCG for IBS-D. PMID:29026603

  12. Comparative canine pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of fospropofol disodium injection, propofol emulsion, and cyclodextrin-enabled propofol solution following bolus parenteral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Michelle P; Rajewski, Roger A

    2012-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fospropofol (FP) disodium injection, propofol emulsion (PE), and cyclodextrin-enabled propofol (CDP) solution following bolus parenteral administration in dogs was evaluated. Three healthy male beagle dogs were treated in a three-way cross-over study (14 day washout period) with 6 mg/kg propofol equivalents. Blood samples were collected predose and at 16 points postdose through 1440 min and analyzed for propofol and FP, when appropriate. From 5 min predose to 30 min postdose, brain electrical activity [electroencephalography (EEG)] was recorded and analyzed by power spectrum analysis techniques. Each formulation appeared to be well tolerated with transient discomfort observed in the PE and CDP animals and minor excitability in the FP animals prior to loss of consciousness. Blood propofol followed three-compartment pharmacokinetic behavior and derived parameters were not statistically different except for elimination half-life from the CDP formulation and onset, and duration of anesthesia from the FP formulation. The effect site concentrations at 50% the maximum EEG effect for the FP and CDP formulations were approximately one-half that of the PE formulation. Onset and duration of anesthesia are correlated with modeled effect site propofol concentrations. The implications of formulation on pain on injection and propofol activity are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Features of acute liver congestion on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in a rat model: Role of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Akira; Kobayashi, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Sakai, Hiroshi; Yamada, Akira; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Momose, Masanobu; Kadoya, Masumi; Miyagawa, Shin-ichi

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the features of hepatic congestion on gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the mechanisms responsible for the radiological findings in a rat model of partial liver congestion. A conventional T1 -weighted spin-echo sequence of the liver was performed using a 1.5T magnetic resonance imager with an 80-mm magnetic aperture for animal studies. We induced regional congestion using partial left lateral hepatic vein ligation (n = 5) and evaluated the following in both congestive liver (CL) and noncongestive liver (non-CL): 1) chronological changes in the relative enhancement (RE) up to 60 minutes after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration, and 2) mRNA and protein expression of rat organic anion transporting protein 1a1 (Oatp1a1). The RE in the CL reached a small peak (18%) at 5 minutes, corresponding to approximately half of the value observed in the non-CL, then slowly decreased in a linear manner thereafter. The degree of RE in the CL was significantly lower than that in the non-CL for up to 30 minutes (P difference was observed between the CL and the non-CL (P = 0.698). The reduced signal intensity in the CL on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI could be explained by the decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA via Oatp1a1 protein in the congestive area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10-min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10-min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60-min postirradiation. Animals given the mast-cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels.

  15. Electrochemical Induced Calcium Phosphate Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Yang; Song, Bingnan; Weijden, van der Renata D.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms and cannot be replaced or substituted. In this paper, we present a simple yet efficient membrane free electrochemical system for P removal and recovery as calcium phosphate (CaP). This method relies on in situ formation of hydroxide

  16. Phosphate Recognition in Structural Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, Anna K.H.; Fischer, Felix R.; Diederich, François

    2007-01-01

    Drug-discovery research in the past decade has seen an increased selection of targets with phosphate recognition sites, such as protein kinases and phosphatases, in the past decade. This review attempts, with the help of database-mining tools, to give an overview of the most important principles in

  17. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to...

  18. The influence of silicon substitution on the properties of spherical- and whisker-like biphasic α-calcium-phosphate/hydroxyapatite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokic, B; Mitric, M; Popovic, M; Sima, L; Petrescu, S M; Petrovic, R; Janackovic, Dj

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the influence of the morphology of hydroxyapatite particles on silicon substitution through hydrothermal synthesis performed under the same conditions was investigated. Spherical- and whisker-like hydroxyapatite particles were obtained starting from calcium-nitrate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, disodium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and urea (used only for the synthesis of whisker-like particles) dissolved in aqueous solutions. Silicon was introduced into the solution using tetraethylorthosilicate. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicate that silicon doping induce different phase compositions and bioactivity of spherical- and whisker-like hydroxyapatite particles obtained under the same hydrothermal conditions. Silicon-substituted, spherical hydroxyapatites particles showed greater phase transformation to silicon-substituted α- calcium-phosphate compared with whiskers-like hydroxyapatite particles synthesized with the same amount of added silicon. Metabolic activity assay performed with SaOs2 osteosarcoma cells showed better biocompatibility of annealed biphasic spherical-like particles compared with annealed whiskerlike particles while dried spherical-like particles induce high cytotoxicity effect.

  19. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5995 - Polyalkyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyalkyl phosphate. 721.5995 Section... Substances § 721.5995 Polyalkyl phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyalkyl phosphate (PMN P-95-1772) is...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. Mineral resource of the month: Phosphate rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    As a mineral resource, “phosphate rock” is defined as unprocessed ore and processed concentrates that contain some form of apatite, a group of calcium phosphate minerals that is the primary source for phosphorus in phosphate fertilizers, which are vital to agriculture.

  7. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b) Conditions...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  10. Biodiversity of the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant rhizosphere microorganisms having the phosphate solubilizing capacity can convert the insoluble soil organic and inorganic phosphates into a soluble form and make the phosphorus (P) available to the plant. With the objective of evaluating the phosphate solubilizing microorganism populations under the rice ...

  11. Production of nanaomycin and other antibiotics by phosphate-depressed fermentation using phosphate-trapping agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuma, R; Tanaka, Y; Tanaka, H; Omura, S

    1986-11-01

    Nanaomycin production by Streptomyces rosa subsp. notoensis in complex media was inhibited by exogenously supplied inorganic phosphate. The inhibition was reversed by phosphate-trapping agents such as allophane and aluminum oxide. Under such condition nanaomycin production increased to the control level, and the phosphate content dropped down to the unsupplemented level. When allophane was added to conventional complex media containing nutrient-derived inorganic phosphate, the production of nanaomycin and several other antibiotics, which are subject to phosphate regulation, was enhanced several fold with the simultaneous reduction of free phosphate. The term "phosphate-depressed fermentation" is proposed for this technique.

  12. The Use of Rock Phosphate and Phosphate Solubilising Fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    planted 40 days after sowing rice seed and 80 DAS- pigeon pea planted 80 days after sowing rice). In the second year, phosphate fertilizer was the main plot treatment, consisting of (0 kg/ha P2O5, 45 kg/ha P2O5 RP, 90 kg/ha. P2O5 RP and 45 kg/ha P2O5 TSP), and the subplot treatment was inoculated and uninoculated ...

  13. Utilization of the phosphorus in Langebaan rock phosphate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1976) evaluated two Christmas Island rock phosphates; the raw rock phosphate dried and ground to 100 mesh (C-Grade. Phosphate) and calcined C-Grade Phosphate. Both C-Grade. Phosphates were inferior to feed-grade dicalcium phosphate as. P sources for growing sheep given a low-P diet. Nevertheless, they were ...

  14. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-06

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene.

  15. Synthesis of a 4-membered ring zinc phosphate monomer and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Change in email domain name. Posted on 26 August 2016. The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from 'ias.ernet.in' (or 'academy.ias.ernet.in') to ...

  16. Preoperative Estimation of Future Remnant Liver Function Following Portal Vein Embolization Using Relative Enhancement on Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yozo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Matsushima, Shigeru; Inaba, Yoshitaka [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Sano, Tsuyoshi [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Yamaura, Hidekazu; Kato, Mina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Senda, Yoshiki [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Ishiguchi, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    To retrospectively evaluate relative enhancement (RE) in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a preoperative estimation of future remnant liver (FRL) function in a patients who underwent portal vein embolization (PVE). In 53 patients, the correlation between the indocyanine green clearance (ICG-K) and RE imaging was analyzed before hepatectomy (first analysis). Twenty-three of the 53 patients underwent PVE followed by a repeat RE imaging and ICG test before an extended hepatectomy and their results were further analyzed (second analysis). Whole liver function and FRL function were calculated on the MR imaging as follows: RE x total liver volume (RE Index) and FRL-RE x FRL volume (Rem RE Index), respectively. Regarding clinical outcome, posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) was evaluated in patients undergoing PVE. Indocyanine green clearance correlated with the RE Index (r = 0.365, p = 0.007), and ICG-K of FRL (ICG-Krem) strongly correlated with the Rem RE Index (r = 0.738, p < 0.001) in the first analysis. Both the ICG-Krem and the Rem RE Index were significantly correlated after PVE (r = 0.508, p = 0.013) at the second analysis. The rate of improvement of the Rem RE Index from before PVE to after PVE was significantly higher than that of ICG-Krem (p = 0.014). Patients with PHLF had a significantly lower Rem RE Index than patients without PHLF (p = 0.023). Relative enhancement imaging can be used to estimate FRL function after PVE.

  17. Development and Optimization of Gastro-Retentive Controlled-Release Tablet of Calcium-Disodium Edentate and its In Vivo Gamma Scintigraphic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Soni, Sandeep; Singh, Thakuri; Kumar, Amit; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Mittal, Gaurav

    2015-12-01

    Medical management of heavy metal toxicity, including radioactive ones, is a cause for concern because of their increased use in energy production, healthcare, and mining. Though chelating agents like EDTA and DTPA in parenteral form are available, no suitable oral formulation is there that can trap ingested heavy metal toxicants in the stomach itself, preventing their systemic absorption. The objective of the present study was to develop and optimize gastro-retentive controlled-release tablets of calcium-disodium edentate (Ca-Na2EDTA). Gastro-retentive tablet of Ca-Na2EDTA was prepared by direct compression method. Thirteen tablet formulations were designed using HPMC-K4M, sodium chloride, and carbopol-934 along with effervescing agents sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. Tablet swelling ability, in vitro buoyancy, and drug dissolution studies were conducted in 0.1 N HCl at 37 ± 0.5°C. Ca-Na2EDTA was radiolabeled with technetium-99m for scintigraphy-based in vivo evaluation. Formula F8 (Ca-Na2EDTA 200 mg, carbopol 100 mg, avicel 55 mg, citric acid 30 mg, NaHCO3 70 mg, NaCl 100 mg, and HPMC 95 mg) was found to be optimum in terms of excellent floating properties and sustained drug release. F8 fitted best for Korsmeyer-Peppas equation with an R (2) value of 0.993. Gamma scintigraphy in humans showed mean gastric retention period of 6 h. Stability studies carried out in accordance with ICH guidelines and analyzed at time intervals of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 months have indicated insignificant difference in tablet hardness, drug content, total floating duration, or matrix integrity of the optimized formulation. Gastro-retentive, controlled-release tablet of Ca-Na2EDTA was successfully developed using effervescent technique as a potential oral antidote for neutralizing ingested heavy metal toxicity.

  18. Phosphate: are we squandering a scarce commodity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Charles J; Ritz, Eberhard; Townend, Jonathan N

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life but is a rare element in the universe. On Earth, it occurs mostly in the form of phosphates that are widespread but predominantly at very low concentration. This relative rarity has resulted in a survival advantage, in evolutionary terms, to organisms that conserve phosphate. When phosphate is made available in excess it becomes a cause for disease, perhaps best recognized as a potential cardiovascular and renal risk factor. As a reaction to the emerging public health issue caused by phosphate additives to food items, there have been calls for a public education programme and regulation to bring about a reduction of phosphate additives to food. During the Paleoproterzoic era, an increase in the bioavailability of phosphate is thought to have contributed significantly to the oxygenation of our atmosphere and a dramatic increase in the evolution of new species. Currently, phosphate is used poorly and often wasted with phosphate fertilizers washing this scarce commodity into water bodies causing eutrophication and algal blooms. Ironically, this is leading to the extinction of hundreds of species. The unchecked exploitation of phosphate rock, which is an increasingly rare natural resource, and our dependence on it for agriculture may lead to a strange situation in which phosphate might become a commodity to be fought over whilst at the same time, health and environmental experts are likely to recommend reductions in its use. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of phosphate in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloet, Marc G; Sezer, Siren; Massy, Ziad A; Johansson, Lina; Cozzolino, Mario; Fouque, Denis

    2017-01-01

    The importance of phosphate homeostasis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized for decades, but novel insights - which are frequently relevant to everyday clinical practice - continue to emerge. Epidemiological data consistently indicate an association between hyperphosphataemia and poor clinical outcomes. Moreover, compelling evidence suggests direct toxicity of increased phosphate concentrations. Importantly, serum phosphate concentration has a circadian rhythm that must be considered when interpreting patient phosphate levels. Detailed understanding of dietary sources of phosphate, including food additives, can enable phosphate restriction without risking protein malnutrition. Dietary counselling provides an often underestimated opportunity to target the increasing exposure to dietary phosphate of both the general population and patients with CKD. In patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone can be an important source of serum phosphate, and adequate appreciation of this fact should impact treatment. Dietary and pharmotherapeutic interventions are efficacious strategies to lower phosphate intake and serum concentration. However, strong evidence that targeting serum phosphate improves patient outcomes is currently lacking. Future studies are, therefore, required to investigate the effects of modern dietary and pharmacological interventions on clinically meaningful end points.

  20. The Use of Rock Phosphate and Phosphate Solubilising Fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0 kg/ha P2O5, 40 kg/ha P2O5 RP, 80 kg/ha P2O5 RP, 120 kg/ha P2O5 RP and 45 kg/ha P2O5-triple super phosphate (TSP), while the planting dates of pigeon pea was set up as subplot (40 DAS –pigeon pea planted 40 days after sowing rice seed and 80 DAS- pigeon pea planted 80 days after sowing rice). In the second ...

  1. phosphates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    19–21. The degradation of organ- ics is important, especially in the treatment of wastewater from industries. Of the many processes that are known for the degradation of organics, the wet air oxidation (WAO) and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) using Fenton's reagent and photo- chemical reactions in the presence of ...

  2. Can Phosphate Salts Recovered from Manure Replace Conventional Phosphate Fertilizer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ehmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pig farming produces more manure than can reasonably be spread onto surrounding fields, particularly in regions with high livestock densities and limited land availability. Nutrient recycling offers an attractive solution for dealing with manure excesses and is one main objective of the European commission-funded project “BioEcoSIM”. Phosphate salts (“P-Salt” were recovered from the separated liquid manure fraction. The solid fraction was dried and carbonized to biochar. This study compared the fertilizing performance of P-Salt and conventional phosphate fertilizer and determined whether additional biochar application further increased biomass yields. The fertilizers and biochar were tested in pot experiments with spring barley and faba beans using two nutrient-poor soils. The crops were fertilized with P-Salt at three levels and biochar in two concentrations. Biomass yield was determined after six weeks. Plant and soil samples were analysed for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents. The P-Salt had similar or even better effects than mineral fertilizer on growth in both crops and soils. Slow release of nutrients can prevent leaching, rendering P-Salt a particularly suitable fertilizer for light sandy soils. Biochar can enhance its fertilizing effect, but the underlying mechanisms need further investigation. These novel products are concluded to be promising candidates for efficient fertilization strategies.

  3. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  4. Advanced Polyelectrolyte-Modified Zinc Phosphate Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    September 1995 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Polyelectrolyte-Modified Zinc Phosphate Coatings 6. AUTHOR(S) T. Sugama, N. Carciello and C.I...was to develop polyelectrolyte-modified zinc phosphate conversion coatings to protect cold-rolled steels against corrosion. Accordingly, we formulated...environmentally acceptable material systems for the zinc phosphating make-up solution, and developed the process technology to meet this purpose

  5. Phosphate Glass Gamma-Radiation Dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-11-30

    categories of items« .dosed dosimeters* unmounted squares of dosed silver phosphate glass, lype 1S-10U standards (containing manganese and pyrex glass...8217- •naaw "?r t’OLAnOID CORPORATION --nnSEÄUCH DEPARTMENT £| RESTRICTED Final Report on Phosphate Glass Qsasoa*4Radlation Dosimeter tJnder...dosimeters Relation to ether contracts Contract dates, amendments, etc« Previous reports Technical personnel Properties of Silver Phosphate

  6. How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?

    OpenAIRE

    Shears, Stephen B.

    2004-01-01

    This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, bu...

  7. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Hiroaki, E-mail: onoda@kpu.ac.jp [Department of Informatics and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Shimogamo Nakaragi-cyo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishima, Yuya [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Takenaka, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, Yonago National College of Technology, 4448, Hikona-cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Isao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  8. Study of Viability of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria in Phosphate granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hajar rajabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: sustainable development and the environment are interconnected. Sustainable agriculture is continuous utilization of a farm with respect to various aspects of environmental conditions by using fewer inputs (other than Bio-fertilizers. Phosphorus is one of the essential elements for the plants. Management of soil is possible by using biological fertilizers pillar of sustainable agriculture and providing some of the phosphorus needed by plants via bio-fertilizers. Phosphorus deficiency is extremely effective on the plant growth and productivity. The application of phosphorus fertilizers is expensive and dangerous. In addition, phosphorus in the soilmay become insoluble and will be unavailable to the plants. Studies showed that phosphate solubilizing bacteria in the soil rhizosphere are active and by root exudates solve insoluble phosphates such as tricalcium phosphate, and form absorbable P for plant. Consequently, the use of microbial fertilizers could reduce excessive use of chemical fertilizers and lead to decrease their harmful effects and protect the environment and conservation of available resources. The biological phosphate fertilizer industry uses sugar beet molasses as a binder and drying granules at high temperatures. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the durability of the bacteria in molasses at high temperature. Materials and Methods: This study was designed as completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement.10 isolates were selected and the ratios of 50%, 25%, 15% and 10% of the apatite, organic matter, sulfur and soluble granule (ratio 1: 1 and 2: 1 bacteria and molasses, respectively, for each isolate was prepared. The final product was dried at 28 and 40 °C and remained for 4 months and population counted at first day and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after the preparing. The population was counted by the serial dilution technique and cultured at Sperber media. Results and Discussion:Comparing the

  9. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four insoluble phosphate sources; purulia rock phosphate (PRP), mussourie rock phosphate (MRP), crystalline iron and aluminum phosphate were charged in basic ... On the whole, the community composition of phosphate solubilizing bacteria reduced gradually under the influence of cultivation and fertilization in different ...

  10. Bio-treatment of phosphate from synthetic wastewater using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the efficient phosphate utilizing isolates were used to remove phosphate from synthetic phosphate wastewater was tested using batch scale process. Hence the objective of the present study was to examine the efficiency of bacterial species individually for the removal of phosphate from synthetic phosphate ...

  11. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (Psunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (Psunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (Psunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals

  12. Electrochemical phosphate recovery from nanofiltration concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappel, C.; Yasadi, K.; Temmink, B.G.; Metz, S.J.; Kemperman, A.J.B.; Nijmeijer, K.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2013-01-01

    The high total phosphorus content of raw domestic wastewater with its significant eutrophication potential offers an excellent possibility for phosphate recovery. Continuous recirculation of NF concentrate to an MBR and simultaneous phosphate recovery from the NF concentrate can be applied to

  13. Sphingosine-1-phosphate and renal vasoconstriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boye L

    2018-01-01

    In the present issue of Acta Physiologica, Guan et al. in their article "Mechanisms of sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated vasoconstriction of rat afferent arterioles" (1) address the signaling events associated with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated renal afferent vasoconstriction and show in...

  14. Thermal stability of phosphate coatings on steel

    OpenAIRE

    P. Pokorny; P. Szelag; Novak, M; L. Mastny; Brozek, V.

    2015-01-01

    The work was validated thermal stability of zinc, manganese and tri-cations phosphate coatings on steel, made from commercial phosphating bath type Pragofos. Thermogravimetric data dehydration of scholzite, phosphophylite and hureaulite coatings in the temperature range 160 °C – 400 °C define the conditions for applying paints with higher firing temperature or thermal spraying ceramic coatings.

  15. Thermal stability of phosphate coatings on steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The work was validated thermal stability of zinc, manganese and tri-cations phosphate coatings on steel, made from commercial phosphating bath type Pragofos. Thermogravimetric data dehydration of scholzite, phosphophylite and hureaulite coatings in the temperature range 160 °C – 400 °C define the conditions for applying paints with higher firing temperature or thermal spraying ceramic coatings.

  16. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... soils. Key words: Ectomycorrhizal fungi, Laccaria fraterna, mycorrhizal helper bacteria, phosphate solubilization, rock phosphate. INTRODUCTION. Phosphorus (P) is the second major nutrient next to nitrogen required by plants. However, many soils throughout the world are P deficient while nearly 95 to.

  17. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  18. Calcium phosphate: a substitute for aluminum adjuvants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Daniel; Thibaudon, Michel; Bélec, Laurent; Crépeaux, Guillemette

    2017-03-01

    Calcium phosphate was used as an adjuvant in France in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines. It was later completely substituted by alum salts in the late 80's, but it still remains as an approved adjuvant for the World Health Organization for human vaccination. Area covered: Thus, calcium phosphate is now considered as one of the substances that could replace alum salts in vaccines. The aim of this paper is to draw a review of existing data on calcium phosphate as an adjuvant in order to bring out the strengths and weaknesses for its use on a large scale. Expert commentary: Calcium phosphate is a compound naturally present in the organism, safe and already used in human vaccination. Beyond comparisons with the other adjuvants, calcium phosphate represents a good candidate to replace or to complete alum salts as a vaccine adjuvant.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning soon ...

  20. Structural and thermochemical properties of sodium magnesium phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oueslati Omrani, Refka [Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Chemistry Department, LR01SE10 Applied Thermodynamics Laboratory, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Kaoutar, Abdeltif; El Jazouli, Abdelaziz [LCMS, URAC 17, Faculté des Sciences Ben M’Sik, UH2MC, Casablanca (Morocco); Krimi, Saida [LPCMI, Faculté des Sciences Aïn Chok, UH2C, Casablanca (Morocco); Khattech, Ismail, E-mail: ismail.khattech@fst.rnu.tn [Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Chemistry Department, LR01SE10 Applied Thermodynamics Laboratory, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Jemal, Mohamed [Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Chemistry Department, LR01SE10 Applied Thermodynamics Laboratory, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Videau, Jean-Jacques [ICMCB, Institut de Chimie de la matière condensée, Université de Bordeaux 1 (France); Couzi, Michel [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, CNRS-Université de Bordeaux 1 (France)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Phosphate glasses were prepared by met quenching technique. • Structural study is investigated using FTIR, Raman and {sup 31}PNMR spectroscopy. • A 4.5% weight of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution has use for glass dissolution. • Dissolution is endothermic for lower MgO content and becomes exothermic when x rises. - Abstract: Ternary phosphate based glasses with the general formula (50−x/2)Na{sub 2}O–xMgO–(50−x/2)P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 42.8 mol%), where the O/P ratio was varied from 3 to 3.75, have been prepared using a conventional melt quenching technique. Samples were investigated by means of density measurements, Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR), Raman and {sup 31}P solid state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) analysis and calorimetric dissolution. The depolymerization of metaphosphate chains are described by the decrease of Q{sup 2} tetrahedral sites allowing the formation of pyrophosphate groups (Q{sup 1}) revealed by spectroscopic investigations. As a result, the increase of density and glass transition temperature when x rises. Calorimetric study shows that the dissolution phenomenon is endothermic for a lower MgO content and becomes exothermic when magnesium oxide is gradually incorporated, suggesting the disruption of phosphate chains with increasing O/P ratio.

  1. Novel oral phosphate binder with nanocrystalline maghemite-phosphate binding capacity and pH effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T M-H; Müller, R H; Taupitz, M; Schnorr, J; Hamm, B; Wagner, S

    2015-03-30

    Hyperphosphatemia is one of the main risk factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease. The demand for a new phosphate binder is continuously increasing since the number of patients suffering under hyperphosphatemia is growing. However, side effects and high pill burden of currently available phosphate binders are the main reasons for low compliance and uncontrolled serum phosphate levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a novel phosphate binder with a high phosphate binding capacity over the entire gastrointestinal (GI) pH range. This novel phosphate binder C-PAM-10 is based on d-mannose coated nanocrystalline maghemite and belongs to the new class of phosphate binders, called the "iron based agents". It was possible to obtain a phosphate binding product that showed very high phosphate binding capacities with the characteristic of being pH independent at relevant pH ranges. The simulation of a GI passage ranging from pH 1.2 to pH 7.5 showed a 2.5 times higher phosphate binding capacity compared to the commonly used phosphate binder sevelamer carbonate. The simulation of a pH sensitive coating that releases the iron based phosphate binder at pH values ≥4.5 still showed a very high phosphate binding capacity combined with very low iron release which might decrease iron related side effects in vivo. Therefore, C-PAM-10 and its variations may be very promising candidates as a superior phosphate binder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Remnants of an Ancient Metabolism without Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldford, Joshua E; Hartman, Hyman; Smith, Temple F; Segrè, Daniel

    2017-03-09

    Phosphate is essential for all living systems, serving as a building block of genetic and metabolic machinery. However, it is unclear how phosphate could have assumed these central roles on primordial Earth, given its poor geochemical accessibility. We used systems biology approaches to explore the alternative hypothesis that a protometabolism could have emerged prior to the incorporation of phosphate. Surprisingly, we identified a cryptic phosphate-independent core metabolism producible from simple prebiotic compounds. This network is predicted to support the biosynthesis of a broad category of key biomolecules. Its enrichment for enzymes utilizing iron-sulfur clusters, and the fact that thermodynamic bottlenecks are more readily overcome by thioester rather than phosphate couplings, suggest that this network may constitute a "metabolic fossil" of an early phosphate-free nonenzymatic biochemistry. Our results corroborate and expand previous proposals that a putative thioester-based metabolism could have predated the incorporation of phosphate and an RNA-based genetic system. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aquatic Toxicity Assessment of Phosphate Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Yoo, Sunkyoung; Ro, Hee-Young; Han, Hye-Jin; Baek, Yong-Wook; Eom, Ig-Chun; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are high production volume chemicals, mainly used as foodstuff additives, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, synthetic resin, and disinfectants. Phosphate has the potential to cause increased algal growth leading to eutrophication in the aquatic environment. However, there is no adequate information available on risk assessment or acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the toxic potential of phosphate compounds in the aquatic environment. Methods An aquatic toxicity test of phosphate was conducted, and its physico-chemical properties were obtained from a database recommended in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidance manual. An ecotoxicity test using fish, Daphnia, and algae was conducted by the good laboratory practice facility according to the OECD TG guidelines for testing of chemicals, to secure reliable data. Results The results of the ecotoxicity tests of tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are as follows: In an acute toxicity test with Oryzias latipes, 96 hr 50% lethal concentration (LC50) was >100 (measured:>2.14) mg/L and >100 (measured: >13.5) mg/L, respectively. In the Daphnia test, 48 hr 50% effective concentration (EC50) was >100 (measured: >5.35) mg/L and >100 (measured: >2.9) mg/L, respectively. In a growth inhibition test with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, 72 hr EC50 was >100 (measured: >1.56) mg/L and >100 (measured: >4.4) mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Based on the results of the ecotoxicity test of phosphate using fish, Daphnia, and algae, L(E)C50 was above 100 mg/L (nominal), indicating no toxicity. In general, the total phosphorus concentration including phosphate in rivers and lakes reaches levels of several ppm, suggesting that phosphate has no toxic effects. However, excessive inflow of phosphate into aquatic ecosystems has the potential to cause eutrophication due to algal growth. PMID:23440935

  4. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  5. Inhibition of Recombinant Aldose-6-Phosphate Reductase from Peach Leaves by Hexose-Phosphates, Inorganic Phosphate and Oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Matías D; Figueroa, Carlos M; Arias, Diego G; Iglesias, Alberto A

    2017-01-01

    Glucitol, also known as sorbitol, is a major photosynthetic product in plants from the Rosaceae family. This sugar alcohol is synthesized from glucose-6-phosphate by the combined activities of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (Ald6PRase) and glucitol-6-phosphatase. In this work we show the purification and characterization of recombinant Ald6PRase from peach leaves. The recombinant enzyme was inhibited by glucose-1-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and orthophosphate. Oxidizing agents irreversibly inhibited the enzyme and produced protein precipitation. Enzyme thiolation with oxidized glutathione protected the enzyme from insolubilization caused by diamide, while incubation with NADP+ (one of the substrates) completely prevented enzyme precipitation. Our results suggest that Ald6PRase is finely regulated to control carbon partitioning in peach leaves. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Forcino, C.D. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT{sub 2} receptor sites. (author) 72 refs.

  7. Optimization of Porous Pellets for Phosphate Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poster presents the preliminary adsorption experiment showing that phosphate concentration is decreasing over time as well as presenting the kinetics models that best fit the data collected over 25 days.

  8. Electrodeposition of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate coatings on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/boms/036/03/0475-0481. Keywords. Electrodeposition; orientation; DCPD; hydroxyapatite. Abstract. Cathodic reduction of an aqueous solution containing dissolved calcium and phosphate ions results in the deposition of micrometer ...

  9. Hydrolysis of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate in plasma in conditions with raised alkaline phosphate.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, B B; O'Brien, H; Griffin, G.E.; Mollin, D L

    1980-01-01

    Hydrolysis of pyridoxal phosphate in plasma was demonstrated in patients with liver disease and other conditions with raised alkaline phosphatase, and this usually closely paralleled the alkaline phosphatase level, whether of liver or bone origin. The endogenous plasma pyridoxal phosphate was inversely related to the alkaline phosphatase, and plasma hydrolysis of pyridoxal phosphate may at least in part be responsible. Very large doses of vitamin B6 may be necessary to compensate for this hyd...

  10. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria around Indian peninsula

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    of Marine Sciences Vol. 29, March 2000, pp. 48-51 Phosphate solubilizing bacteria around Indian peninsula M-J. B. D. De Souza, S. Nair & D. Chandramohan National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 India Received 29 July 1998, revised 16... on to hydroxyapaptite medium11 and incubated for three days at room temperature. The phosphate solubilization was expressed as positive and negative depending on the halo formation. The cultures which showed halo formation around their colonies were considered...

  11. Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungus and its application in solubilization of rock phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingben; He, Yuelin; Yin, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Aiqun

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of rock phosphates (RPs), but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China) and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P) sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14) in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L(-1) within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar's medium (without agar) where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  12. Effects of rock phosphate amended with poultry manure on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of rock phosphate (Sokoto and Ogun rock phosphates) amended with poultry manure on soil available phosphate (P) and yield of maize and cowpea grown sequentially was evaluated for four cropping seasons. The results obtained showed superiority of single super phosphate (SSP) application over either ...

  13. Maize endophytic bacteria as mineral phosphate solubilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, C S; Figueiredo, J E F; Oliveira, C A; Dos Santos, V L; Gomes, E A; Ribeiro, V P; Barros, B A; Lana, U G P; Marriel, I E

    2017-02-16

    In the present study, we demonstrated the in vitro activity of endophytic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Fifty-five endophytic PSB that were isolated from sap, leaves, and roots of maize were tested for their ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate and produce organic acid. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene showed that the isolates were from the genus Bacillus and different species of Enterobacteriaceae. The phosphate solubilization index on solid medium and phosphate solubilization in liquid medium varied significantly among the isolates. There was a statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) for both, the values of phosphate-solubilizing activity and pH of the growth medium, among the isolates. Pearson correlation was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) between P-solubilization and pH (R = -0.38), and between the gluconic acid production and the lowering of the pH of the liquid medium at 6 (R = 0.28) and 9 days (R = 0.39). Gluconic acid production was prevalent in all the PSB studied, and Bacillus species were most efficient in solubilizing phosphate. This is the first report on the characterization of bacterial endophytes from maize and their use as potential biofertilizers. In addition, this may provide an alternative strategy for improving the phosphorus acquisition efficiency of crop plants in tropical soils.

  14. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Phosphates Used in Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Şimşek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphates are widely used as food additives in meat products to increase the water-holding capacity, reduce the cooking loss and improve the textural properties. Furthermore, phosphates protect aroma and accelerate the formation of cured meat color as well as having antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Many research about using phosphates in meat products showed that increasing chain length of phosphates improves antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. It has been stated that vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging, the use of phosphates with natural antioxidants and encapsulation of phosphates are useful approaches to enhance the antioxidant effects of phosphates. It has been reported that irradiation, vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging, storage at low temperature and the use of the salt provide strong synergistic effect on the antimicrobial properties of phosphates. In this review, researches about antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of phosphates and suggestions for the meat industry about industrial applications of phosphates are presented.

  15. 21 CFR 181.29 - Stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Aluminum mono-, di-, and tristearate. Ammonium citrate. Ammonium potassium hydrogen phosphate. Calcium glycerophosphate. Calcium phosphate. Calcium hydrogen phosphate. Calcium oleate. Calcium acetate. Calcium carbonate. Calcium ricinoleate. Calcium stearate. Disodium hydrogen phosphate. Magnesium glycerophosphate. Magnesium...

  16. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudek, L; Premachandra, D; Webster, W A J; Bräu, L

    2016-11-01

    In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB-) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme IMPORTANCE: Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis

  17. Biological Removal of Phosphate Using Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Consortium from Synthetic Wastewater: A Laboratory Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological phosphate removal is an important process having gained worldwide attention and widely used for removing phosphorus from wastewater. The present investigation was aimed to screen the efficient phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates and used to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater under shaking flasks conditions. Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12, Enterobacter sp. TPSB20, Flavobacterium sp. TPSB23 and mixed bacterial consortium (Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12+Enterobacter sp. TPSB20+Flavobacterium sp. TPSB23 were used for the removal of phosphate. Among the individual strains, Enterobacter sp. TPSB20 was removed maximum phosphate (61.75% from synthetic wastewater in presence of glucose as a carbon source. The consortium was effectively removed phosphate (74.15-82.50% in the synthetic wastewater when compared to individual strains. The pH changes in culture medium with time and extracellular phosphatase activity (acid and alkaline were also investigated. The efficient removal of phosphate by the consortium may be due to the synergistic activity among the individual strains and phosphatase enzyme activity. The use of bacterial consortium in the remediation of phosphate contaminated aquatic environments has been discussed.

  18. Simulation of phosphate leaching in catchments with phosphate-saturated soils in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Reinds, G.J.; Breeuwsma, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects on phosphate leaching to surface waters of two scenarios for net phosphate input to sandy agricultural soils were estimated. WATBAL and ANIMO simulations for manure surplus areas in the Netherlands were used. The methodology and models were verified by comparing model results with

  19. Translocation of metal phosphate via the phosphate inorganic transport system of Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, H.W; Abee, T.; Kortstee, G.J J; Konings, W.N; Zehnder, A.J B

    1994-01-01

    P-i transport via the phosphate inorganic transport system (Pit) of Escherichia coil was studied in natural and artificial membranes. P-i uptake via Pit is dependent on the presence of divalent cations, like Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, or Mn2+, which form a soluble, neutral metal phosphate (MeHPO(4)) complex.

  20. Lithium metal phosphates, power and automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Faulkner, T.; Barker, J.; Saidi, M. Y.

    Lithium metal phosphate materials are the newest generation of active materials. With the limited number of cathode materials available at present and the prevalence of transition metal oxide cathodes, phosphates are able to answer the rising safety concerns surrounding the oxide chemistry. These inherent safety limitations have until now prevented lithium ion batteries in general from entering the large format applications markets such as electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Iron-based olivine phosphate has been the focus of extensive research: intrinsic thermal stability and continual improvement of its performance characteristics have geared the industry to a fast track adoption of this chemistry for the larger format applications. Recently developed vanadium-based phosphates possess operating voltages of 3.65 V for Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 and 4.05 V for LiVPO 4F, both of which are higher than the iron-based phosphate. The high power capability of Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 makes it ideal for applications that require power; LiVPO 4F on the other hand has high energy and a desirable cycling characteristic that makes it ideal for energy-demanding applications such as PHEV and EV. These materials are the best fit for the ever-increasing demand for energy, power and thermal stability that is essential in the large format arena.

  1. Novel Development of Phosphate Treated Porous Hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiko; Kobatake, Reiko; Okazaki, Yohei; Oki, Yoshifumi; Naito, Yoshihito; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Tsuga, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoric acid-etching treatment to the hydroxyapatite (HA) surface can modify the solubility calcium structure. The aim of the present study was to develop phosphate treated porous HA, and the characteristic structures and stimulation abilities of bone formation were evaluated to determine its suitability as a new type of bone graft material. Although the phosphoric acid-etching treatment did not alter the three-dimensional structure, a micrometer-scale rough surface topography was created on the porous HA surface. Compared to porous HA, the porosity of phosphate treated porous HA was slightly higher and the mechanical strength was lower. Two weeks after placement of the cylindrical porous or phosphate treated porous HA in a rabbit femur, newly formed bone was detected in both groups. At the central portion of the bone defect area, substantial bone formation was detected in the phosphate treated porous HA group, with a significantly higher bone formation ratio than detected in the porous HA group. These results indicate that phosphate treated porous HA has a superior surface topography and bone formation abilities in vivo owing to the capacity for both osteoconduction and stimulation abilities of bone formation conferred by phosphoric acid etching.

  2. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  3. Computational Design of Biomimetic Phosphate Scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Mathias Felix; Wood, Elizabeth Baker; Truelsen, Sigurd Friis

    2015-01-01

    for phosphorus recovery, as well as improving existing techniques, has increased. In this study we apply a hybrid simulation approach of molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics to investigate the binding modes of phosphate anions by a small intrinsically disordered peptide. Our results confirm...... that the conformational ensemble of the peptide is significantly changed, or stabilized, by the binding of phosphate anions and that binding does not take place purely as a result of a stable P-loop binding nest, but rather that multiple binding modes may be involved. Such small synthetic peptides capable of binding...... phosphate could be the starting point of new novel technological approaches toward phosphorus recovery, and they represent an excellent model system for investigating the nature and dynamics of functional de novo designed intrinsically disordered proteins....

  4. Phosphate Solubilization and Gene Expression of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 under Different Levels of Soluble Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingwei; Wu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Jiangchuan; Ding, Xiaolei

    2017-04-28

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to dissolve insoluble phosphate and enhance soil fertility. However, the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB could be affected by exogenous soluble phosphate and the mechanism has not been fully understood. In the present study, the growth and mineral phosphate-solubilizing characteristics of PSB strain Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 were investigated at six levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mM). The WS-FJ9 strain showed better growth at high levels of soluble phosphate. The phosphate-solubilizing activity of WS-FJ9 was reduced as the soluble phosphate concentration increased, as well as the production of pyruvic acid. Transcriptome profiling of WS-FJ9 at three levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 5, and 20 mM) identified 446 differentially expressed genes, among which 44 genes were continuously up-regulated when soluble phosphate concentration was increased and 81 genes were continuously down-regulated. Some genes related to cell growth were continuously up-regulated, which would account for the better growth of WS-FJ9 at high levels of soluble phosphate. Genes involved in glucose metabolism, including glycerate kinase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and sugar ABC-type transporter, were continuously down-regulated, which indicates that metabolic channeling of glucose towards the phosphorylative pathway was negatively regulated by soluble phosphate. These findings represent an important first step in understanding the molecular mechanisms of soluble phosphate effects on the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB.

  5. Polyaza cryptand receptor selective for dihydrogen phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Pedro; Delgado, Rita; Brandão, Paula; Félix, Vítor

    2009-11-20

    A hexaamine cage with pyridyl spacers was synthesized in good yield by a [2+3] Schiff-base condensation followed by sodium borohydride reduction. The protonation constants of the receptor as well as its association constants with Cl(-), NO(3)(-), AcO(-), ClO(4)(-), SO(4)(2-), H(2)PO(4)(-), and H(2)AsO(4)(-) were determined by potentiometry at 298.2 +/- 0.1 K in H(2)O/MeOH (50:50 v/v) and at ionic strength 0.10 +/- 0.01 M in KTsO. These studies revealed that although dihydrogen phosphate is less charged than sulfate, it is still appreciably bound by the receptor at low pH, suggesting that the pyridyl nitrogen is accepting hydrogen bonds from dihydrogen phosphate. It is also shown that dihydrogen phosphate is capable of effectively competing with sulfate for the receptor at higher pH, being selective for hydrogen phosphate at pH about 7.0. (31)P NMR experiments supported these findings. The fact that the receptor shows such a marked preference for hydrogen phosphate based mainly in its hydrogen bond accepting/donating ability in a highly competitive medium such as water/methanol mixed solvent is quite remarkable. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction determinations of anion associations between H(6)pyr(6+) receptor and nitrate, sulfate, and phosphate are consistent with the existence of [(H(6)pyr)(NO(3))(3)(H(2)O)(3)](3+), [(H(6)pyr)(SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4)](2+), and [(H(6)pyr)(HPO(4))(2)(H(2)PO(4))(H(2)O)(2)](+) cations. One nitrate anion is embedded into the H(6)pyr(6+) cage of the first supermolecule whereas in the second and third ones the anions are located in the periphery of the macrobicycle.

  6. Xenobiotic conjugation with phosphate - a metabolic rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    1. Although not unknown, the conjugation of a xenobiotic with phosphate appears a rarity amongst the routes available for foreign compound metabolism. This is especially true in mammals and may be somewhat surprising as conjugation with sulphate, a seemingly similar moiety, is commonplace. 2. Information from the literature, where xenobiotic phosphate conjugates have been described or suggested, has been collated and presented in this article. By bringing together this diverse material, hopefully interest will be generated in this unusual xenobiotic reaction, and perhaps further research undertaken to better understand and delineate the reasons for its relative absence from the xenobiotic scene.

  7. Glusoce-6-phosphate dehydrogenase- History and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gautam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is the most common enzymatic defect of red blood cells, which increases the vulnerability of erythrocytes to oxidative stress leading to hemolytic anemia. Since its identification more than 60 years ago, much has been done with respect to its clinical diagnosis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment. Association of G6PD is not just limited to anti malarial drugs, but a vast number of other diseases. In this article, we aimed to review the history of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the diagnostic methods available along with its association with other noncommunicable diseases. 

  8. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.

  9. A double-blind, randomized, comparative study of the use of a combination of uridine triphosphate trisodium, cytidine monophosphate disodium, and hydroxocobalamin, versus isolated treatment with hydroxocobalamin, in patients presenting with compressive neuralgias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Henrique Goldberg,1 Marco Antonio Mibielli,2 Carlos Pereira Nunes,2 Stephanie Wrobel Goldberg,3 Luiz Buchman,4 Spyros GE Mezitis,5 Helio Rzetelna,6 Lisa Oliveira,2 Mauro Geller,2 Fernanda Wajnsztajn7 1UERJ Medical School, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2UNIFESO Medical School, Teresópolis, Brazil; 3Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; 4Instituto de Pós-Graduação Médica Carlos Chagas (ICC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 5New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 6Santa Casa da Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 7New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, Neurology, New York, NY, USA Context: This paper reports on the results of treatment of compressive neuralgia using a combination of nucleotides (uridine triphosphate trisodium [UTP] and cytidine monophosphate disodium [CMP] and vitamin B12.Objectives: To assess the safety and efficacy of the combination of nucleotides (UTP and CMP and vitamin B12 in patients presenting with neuralgia arising from neural compression associated with degenerative orthopedic alterations and trauma, and to compare these effects with isolated administration of vitamin B12. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, consisting of a 30-day oral treatment period: Group A (n=200 receiving nucleotides + vitamin B12, and Group B (n=200 receiving vitamin B12 alone. The primary study endpoint was the percentage of subjects presenting pain visual analog scale (VAS scores ≤20 at end of study treatment period. Secondary study endpoints included the percentage of subjects presenting improvement ≥5 points on the patient functionality questionnaire (PFQ; percentage of subjects presenting pain reduction (reduction in VAS scores at study end in relation to pretreatment; and number of subjects presenting adverse events. Results: The results of this study showed a more expressive improvement in efficacy evaluations among

  10. Analysis of Jordanian phosphate using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, N.S.; Al-Saleh, K.A.

    1987-09-01

    The concentrations of major, minor and trace element content of Jordanian phosphate ores were determined using different complementary nuclear techniques. These techniques were: Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (GRS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Special emphasis was given to the determination of Uranium and rare earth element concentrations.

  11. Bismuth phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Christensen, Erik; Shuai, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Proton conducting electrolyte materials operational in the intermediate temperature range of 200-400 °C are of special interest for applications in fuel cells and water electrolysers. Bismuth phosphates in forms of polycrystalline powders and amorphous glasses are synthesized and investigated...

  12. Mesoporous titanium phosphates and related molecular sieves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ... Keywords. Titanium phosphate; zeolite; ion-exchanger; cationic framework; oxidation catalysis; photocatalysis. ... these materials. These materials also show excellent photocatalytic activity in the production of H2 by photo-reduction of water under UV light irradiation.

  13. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  14. Characterization of Fe -doped silver phosphate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tures of the glass and at lower concentration of dopant, a nanostructure is obtained. Electrical conductivity mea- surements from 303 to 373 K in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 5 MHz have indicated that all glasses are ionic conductors with Ag+ ions as the charge carrier. Fe2O3 doping in silver phosphate glass increased ...

  15. Cadmium versus phosphate in the world ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, Hein J.W. de; Saager, Paul M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Meer, Jaap van der

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the best studied trace metals in seawater and at individual stations exhibits a more or less linear relation with phosphate. The compilation of all data from all oceans taken from over 30 different published sources into one global dataset yields only a broad scatterplot of Cd

  16. Mesoporous titanium phosphates and related molecular sieves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Phosphate-based molecular sieves 4–6 ... industry because of their interesting 2D and 3D framework topologies. On the other hand, commercial anion ... mesoporous aluminophosphate derived from polyoxometalate clusters 8,9 are the only examples of such a class of material.

  17. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  3. Isolation and characterization of efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of biofertilizer have great practical importance for increasing fertility of the soil and reducing environmental pollution. Screening and characterizing phosphate solubilizing Bacillus (PSB) strains from different agroecologies of Tigray soil and in vitro assessment for the adaptability under different abiotic stress ...

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro154032bit

    ABSTRACT. Applications of biofertilizer have great practical importance for increasing fertility of the soil and reducing environmental pollution. Screening and characterizing phosphate solubilizing Bacillus. (PSB) strains from different agroecologies of Tigray soil and in vitro assessment for the adaptability under different ...

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro154032bit

    A total of 64 soil samples were collected from different agro-ecological zones of. Tigray and checked for the presence, ... These phosphate solubilizing strains again incubate at 37˚C for 48h on pikovskaya medium to see ... Long-term application of chemical fertilizer has caused some plant nutrients to be depleted and other ...

  6. short communication agronomic effectiveness of novel phosphate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agronomic effective of novel phosphate fertilisers. 241. The compaction technology has great potential because of several advantages (Lupin and Le,. 1983; Govere, 1993; Menon and Chien, 1996). Some of the advantages are: 1. Reduction of energy and capital cost by eliminating use of water, steam, and subsequent.

  7. Durability of phosphate-selective CHEMFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wroblewski, Wojciech; Wojciechowski, Kamil; Dybko, Artur; Brzozka, Zbigniew; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Ruel, Bianca H.M.; Reinhoudt, David

    2001-01-01

    Lipophilic uranyl salophenes derivatives I and II were used as ionophores in membranes of phosphate-selective CHEMFETs. High selectivity for H2PO4− over other anions was obtained for these sensors. The influence of the ionophore structure on the sensor durability was investigated. CHEMFETs based on

  8. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  9. Heinz Bodies Demonstration for Glucose-6-Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples from 100 apparently healthy individuals were screened for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) by the demonstration of Heinz bodies. Results were compared to those obtained by methaemoglobin reduction method which is the existing standard procedure in our laboratory. Heinz bodies were ...

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate and Phosphate Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve drinking water samples from boreholes were collected from various sampling sites around the vicinity of Kura irrigated farmlands using polythene plastic containers and were analysed for the nitrate and phosphate levels using uV – visible spectrophotometer. From the results, it was found that all the samples had ...

  11. Malaria Protection In Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency gene in malaria endemic regions is believed to be due to the enzyme deficiency advantage against fatal malaria. However, the mechanism of this protection is not well understood and therefore was investigated by comparing differences in ...

  12. PREVENTION OF PHOSPHATE - INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Arnold J.; Kuwabara, Toichiro

    1962-01-01

    The prevention of phosphate-induced mitochondrial swelling in the whole retina of the rabbit was studied with the electron microscope. It was found that a mixture of ATP, Mg++, and bovine serum albumin protected the mitochondria in vitro. This finding confirmed the results obtained spectrophotometrically with isolated rat liver mitochondria by Lehninger. PMID:13927020

  13. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

  14. Phosphate and FGF-23 homeostasis after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baia, Leandro C.; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Navis, Gerjan; de Borst, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated phosphate metabolism is a common consequence of chronic kidney disease, and is characterized by a high circulating level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, hyperparathyroidism, and hyperphosphataemia. Kidney transplantation can elicit specific alterations to phosphate metabolism that

  15. Calcium phosphate saturation in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Temperature, inorganic phosphate concentration and pH seem to be the major factors influencing the degree of saturation of calcium phosphate in sea water. Two water regions can be demarcated in the study area based on the saturation patterns...

  16. Synthesized Magnetic Activated Carbon for Phosphate Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Dehghanifard

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The high efficacy of the adsorption process in this study showed that magnetic activated carbon had good capability in the removal of phosphate and can be used as an appropriate and new method for phosphate removal from aqueous solutions

  17. Hexose phosphate synthetase from Methylococcus capsulatus makes d-arabino-3-hexulose phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    The product of the reaction catalysed by hexose phosphate synthase prepared from Methylococcus capsulatus was dephosphorylated and the sugar moiety purified. The sugar and derivatives were compared by various chromatographic and other methods with authentic samples of allulose (psicose), d-erythro-l-glycero-3-hexulose and d-erythro-d-glycero-3-hexulose. The sugar is not allulose, as was previously thought on the basis of less extensive evidence (Kemp & Quayle, 1966), but is in fact d-erythro-l-glycero-3-hexulose (d-arabino-3-hexulose). This identification is consistent with recent studies which have shown that hexose phosphate synthase catalyses the condensation of formaldehyde with d-ribulose 5-phosphate rather than with d-ribose 5-phosphate (Kemp, 1972). PMID:4463938

  18. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. The phosphate balance : current developments and future outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enk, van R.J.; Vee, van der G.; Acera, L.K.; Schuiling, R.; Ehlert, P.A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate is essential for agricultural production and therefore plays a key role in the global production of food and biofuels. There are no agricultural alternatives for phosphate, and a substantial fraction of our annual phosphate consumption is dispersed into the environment where it is largely

  1. Phosphate uptake and growth characteristics of transgenic rice with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... Farmers have used phosphate fertilizer to provide sufficient yields. However, overuse of phosphorus accumulate in soil and causes soil and water pollution. We evaluated the phosphate acquisition and growth characteristics of OsPT1 transgenic rice (OsPT1-OX, over-expressing the high affinity phosphate ...

  2. Assessment of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) is an enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) which reduces NADP to NADPH while oxidizing glucose-6-phosphate. In turn, NADPH then provides reducing equivalents needed for the conversion of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione, which protects against ...

  3. Phosphate uptake and growth characteristics of transgenic rice with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers have used phosphate fertilizer to provide sufficient yields. However, overuse of phosphorus accumulate in soil and causes soil and water pollution. We evaluated the phosphate acquisition and growth characteristics of OsPT1 transgenic rice (OsPT1-OX, over-expressing the high affinity phosphate transporter 1) in ...

  4. Effects of rock phosphate amended with poultry manure on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, P.M.B 5029 Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Nigeria. Accepted 26 January, 2005. The effect of rock phosphate (Sokoto and Ogun rock phosphates) amended with poultry manure on soil available phosphate (P) and yield of maize and cowpea grown ...

  5. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawa, D.; Julkowska, M.M.; Montero Sommerfeld, H.; ter Horst, A.; Haring, M.A.; Testerink, C.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced

  6. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. The phosphate balance : Current developments and future outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enk, R.J. van; Acera, L.K.; Schuiling, R.D.; Ehlert, P.; de Wilt, J.G.; van Haren, R.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate is essential for agricultural production and therefore plays a key role in the global production of food and biofuels. There are no agricultural alternatives for phosphate, and a substantial fraction of our annual phosphate consumption is dispersed into the environment where it is largely

  11. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  12. Proton transport properties of tin phosphate, chromotropic acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tin (IV) phosphates of the class of tetravalent metal acid (TMA) salts have been synthesized by sol–gel method. The functionalized materials of tin (IV) phosphate (SnP) like chromotropic acid anchored tin phosphate (SnPCA) and tin phenyl phosphonate (SnPP) were also synthesized. These materials have been ...

  13. Phosphate uptake kinetics for four species of submerged freshwater macrophytes measured by a 33P phosphate radioisotope technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nina Høj; Andersen, Frede Østergaard; Jensen, Henning S.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) uptake kinetics were determined in shoot and root tissues for four freshwater macrophyte species, Littorella uniflora, Potamogeton perfoliatus, Myriophyllum alterniflorum and Elodea canadensis, using a radioactive 33P phosphate technique. Collection of plant material...

  14. Infrared-spectroscopy analysis of zinc phosphate and nickel and manganese modified zinc phosphate coatings on electrogalvanized steel

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Kirlene Salgado; Alvarenga,Evandro de Azevedo; Brandão,Paulo Roberto Gomes; Lins,Vanessa de Freitas Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Hopeite-type phosphate coatings in which zinc is partially replaced by other metals like manganese and nickel are of great interest for the automotive and home appliance industries. Such industries use phosphate conversion coatings on galvanized steels in association with cataphoretic electropainting. Zinc phosphates modified with manganese and nickel are isomorphic with the hopeite, and the phase identification using X-ray diffraction is difficult. In this paper, the phosphate coatings are i...

  15. Kinetics of phosphate absorption in lactating dairy cows after enteral administration of sodium phosphate or calcium phosphate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, Walter; Dobbelaar, Paul; Breves, Gerhard

    2013-09-28

    Hypophosphataemia is frequently encountered in dairy cows during early lactation. Although supplementation of P is generally recommended, controversy exists over the suitability of oral P supplementation in animals with decreased or absent rumen motility. Since the effects of transruminal P absorption and the reticular groove reflex on the absorption kinetics of P are not well understood, it is unclear in how far treatment efficacy of oral P supplementation is affected by decreased rumen motility. Phosphate absorption was studied in six phosphate-depleted dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulas and treated with test solutions containing either NaH2PO4 or CaHPO4 with acetaminophen. Each animal was treated orally, intraruminally and intra-abomasally in randomised order. Absorption kinetics of P were studied and compared with the absorption kinetics of acetaminophen, a marker substance only absorbed from the small intestine. Intra-abomasal treatment with NaH2PO4 resulted in the most rapid and highest peaks in plasma inorganic P (Pi) concentration. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentration from 4 to 7 h in both groups. Treatment with NaH2PO4 caused more pronounced peaks in plasma Pi concentration compared with CaHPO4. Neither transruminal P absorption nor the reticular groove reflex affected P absorption kinetics as determined by comparing plasma concentration–time curves of P and acetaminophen after administration of 1M-phosphate salt solutions. It is concluded that oral treatment with NaH2PO4 but not CaHPO4 is effective in supplementing P in hypophosphataemic cows with adequate rumen motility. Decreased rumen motility is likely to hamper the efficacy of oral phosphate treatment.

  16. Impaired Phosphate Tolerance Revealed With an Acute Oral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mandy E; White, Christine A; Hopman, Wilma M; Ward, Emilie C; Jeronimo, Paul S; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2018-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate is consistently linked with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality in the setting of normal and impaired kidney function. However, serum phosphate does not often exceed the upper limit of normal until glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 30 mL/min/m2 . It was hypothesized that the response to an oral, bioavailable phosphate load will unmask impaired phosphate tolerance, a maladaptation not revealed by baseline serum phosphate concentrations. In this study, rats with varying kidney function as well as normo-phosphatemic human subjects, with inulin-measured GFR (13.2 to 128.3mL/min), received an oral phosphate load. Hormonal and urinary responses were evaluated over 2 hours. Results revealed that the more rapid elevation of serum phosphate was associated with subjects and rats with higher levels of kidney function, greater responsiveness to acute changes in parathyroid hormone (PTH), and significantly more urinary phosphate at 2 hours. In humans, increases in urinary phosphate to creatinine ratio did not correlate with baseline serum phosphate concentrations but did correlate strongly to early increase of serum phosphate. The blunted rise in serum phosphate in rats with CKD was not the result of altered absorption. This result suggests acute tissue deposition may be altered in the setting of kidney function impairment. Early recognition of impaired phosphate tolerance could translate to important interventions, such as dietary phosphate restriction or phosphate binders, being initiated at much higher levels of kidney function than is current practice. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  18. Co-adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and phosphate on boehmite: Influence of temperature, phosphate initial concentration and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Shen, Mengmeng; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Hu, Jing; Hou, Jun; Ao, Yanhui; Zheng, Hao; Li, Kun; Liu, Jingjing

    2017-03-01

    The co-presence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and phosphate in wastewater of various industries has been detected. Removing PFOS and phosphate simultaneously before discharging sewage into natural water can decrease effectively the environmental risk caused by the combined pollution of PFOS and phosphate. In this study, laboratory batch experiments were conducted for investigating the co-adsorption of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite and the influences of temperature, phosphate initial concentration and pH on the co-adsorption. The adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite were also investigated completely and systematically. The results showed that lower temperature favored the co-adsorptions of PFOS and phosphate. The adsorption of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite agreed well with the Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption parameters of thermodynamics are ΔH=-16.9 and -20.0kJmol -1 (PFOS and phosphate), ΔS=-5.69 and -7.63Jmol -1 K -1 (PFOS and phosphate) and ΔG adsorption of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite is a spontaneously exothermic process. Moreover, the co-adsorption process can be described well by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. With increasing phosphate initial concentration, more phosphate could be adsorbed on boehmite, while the adsorption of PFOS decreased at phosphate initial concentration of less than 30mgL -1 and increased at that of larger than 30mgL -1 . In the co-adsorption process, the adsorption amount of PFOS decreased with pH increasing, but that of phosphate changed little. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Characteristics of phosphate adsorption onto granulated coal ash in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaoka, S.; Yamamoto, T. [Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The deterioration of sediments is a serious environmental problem. Controlling nutrient release fluxes from sediments is important to alleviating eutrophication and to reducing terrigenous nutrient loads. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phosphate removal performance of granulated coal ash (GCA) from seawater, which is produced from coal thermal electric power generation. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the removal kinetics of phosphate from seawater under both oxic and anoxic conditions. Phosphate was removed well from seawater under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The adsorption isotherm for phosphate revealed that GCA could remove phosphate effectively from seawater above a concentration of 1.7 {mu} mol L{sup -1}. GCA can reduce the concentration of phosphate in seawater effectively under anoxic conditions where iron type adsorbents cannot be applied. Therefore, GCA could potentially be used to adsorb phosphate in the organically-enriched sediment, which generally occurs under highly reductive conditions.

  20. Characteristics of phosphate adsorption onto granulated coal ash in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

    2010-08-01

    The deterioration of sediments is a serious environmental problem. Controlling nutrient release fluxes from sediments is important to alleviating eutrophication and to reducing terrigenous nutrient loads. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phosphate removal performance of granulated coal ash (GCA) from seawater, which is produced from coal thermal electric power generation. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the removal kinetics of phosphate from seawater under both oxic and anoxic conditions. Phosphate was removed well from seawater under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The adsorption isotherm for phosphate revealed that GCA could remove phosphate effectively from seawater above a concentration of 1.7micromolL(-1). GCA can reduce the concentration of phosphate in seawater effectively under anoxic conditions where iron type adsorbents cannot be applied. Therefore, GCA could potentially be used to adsorb phosphate in the organically-enriched sediment, which generally occurs under highly reductive conditions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphate bonded solidification of radioactive incinerator wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. W.; Langton, C. A.; Singh, D.

    1999-12-03

    The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Phosphate sorption characteristics of European alpine soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, Jiří; Kopáček, Jiří; Camarero, L.; Garcia-Pausas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2011), s. 862-870 ISSN 0361-5995 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/09/0567; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960907 Grant - others:EU EMERGE(CZ) EVK1-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : phosphate sorption * alpine soils * acidification Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.979, year: 2011

  3. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  4. Second-harmonic generation in noncentrosymmetric phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Qiong; Wang, Ying; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Su, Haibin; Tohyama, Takami; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the discovery of more and more phosphates with relatively strong nonlinear optic effect, we studied the mechanism of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) effect in several phosphates by band model and first-principles calculations. When the energy of an incident photon is much smaller than the band gap of material, the SHG is almost frequency independent and determined by the combination of Berry connection and a symmetric tensor. The SHG effect in phosphates can be enhanced by the enhancement of orbital hybridization or the reduction of charge-transfer energy, which results in widened bandwidth of occupied state and reduced band gap in the electronic structure, respectively. By the first-principles calculation on the electronic structures of several phosphates—BPO4, LiCs2PO4 , β -Li3VO4 , and β -Li3PO4 —we interpreted the relatively strong SHG effect in LiCs2PO4 and β -Li3VO4 as the consequence of the reduced charge-transfer energy compared to their parent β -Li3PO4 , while the enhanced SHG in BPO4 is resulting from enhanced orbital hybridization.

  5. Phosphate removal from wastewater using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Zhonghua; Li, Li; Yao, Xiangdong; Rudolph, Victor; Haghseresht, Fouad

    2008-10-01

    Red mud, a waste residue of alumina refinery, has been used to develop effective adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. Acid and acid-thermal treatments were employed to treat the raw red mud. The effects of different treatment methods, pH of solution and operating temperature on adsorption have been examined in batch experiments. It was found that all activated red mud samples show higher surface area and total pore volume as well as higher adsorption capacity for phosphate removal. The red mud with HCl treatment shows the highest adsorption capacity among all the red mud samples, giving adsorption capacity of 0.58 mg P/g at pH 5.5 and 40 degrees C. The adsorption capacity of the red mud adsorbents decreases with increase of pH. At pH 2, the red mud with HCl treatment exhibits adsorption of 0.8 mg P/g while the adsorption can be lowered to 0.05 mg P/g at pH 10. However, the adsorption is improved at higher temperature by increasing 25% from 30 to 40 degrees C. The kinetic studies of phosphate adsorption onto red mud indicate that the adsorption mainly follows the parallel first-order kinetics due to the presence of two acidic phosphorus species, H(2)PO(4)(-) and HPO(4)(2-). An analysis of the adsorption data indicates that the Freundlich isotherm provides a better fitting than the Langmuir model.

  6. Phosphate valorization by dry chlorination route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanari N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the extraction of phosphorus chlorinated compounds from phosphate materials using chlorination with gaseous chlorine. An industrial sample of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, after transformation into calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7, is subjected to reactions with Cl2+CO+N2 and Cl2+C+N2 at temperatures ranging from 625 to 950°C using boat experiments. Gathering results of the thermodynamic predictions and TG/DT analysis with those of SEM and XRD examinations of the chlorinated residues allowed the interpretation of phenomena and reactions mechanism occurring during the calcium pyrophosphate carbochlorination. Reaction rate of Ca2P2O7 by Cl2+CO+N2 at 950°C is slowed down due to the formation of a CaCl2 liquid layer acting as a barrier for the diffusion of the reactive gases and further reaction progress. While, the carbochlorination with Cl2+C+N2 led to almost full chlorination of Ca2P2O7 at 750°C and the process proceeds with an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol between 625 and 750°C. Carbochlorination technique can be considered as an alternative and selective route for the valorization of low grade phosphates and for the phosphorus extraction from its bearing materials.

  7. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  8. 32 CFR 383a.4 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization. 383a.4 Section 383a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.4 Organization. (a) The DeCA is established as an Agency...

  9. 7 CFR 1a.4 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations. 1a.4 Section 1a.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES § 1a.4 Limitations. The powers granted by... of alleged or suspected felony violations of statutes administered by the Secretary of Agriculture or...

  10. Crystal structure of a sodium, zinc and iron(III-based non-stoichiometric phosphate with an alluaudite-like structure: Na1.67Zn1.67Fe1.33(PO43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Khmiyas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new title compound, disodium dizinc iron(III tris(phosphate, Na1.67Zn1.67Fe1.33(PO43, which belongs to the alluaudite family, has been synthesized by solid-state reactions. In this structure, all atoms are in general positions except for four, which are located on special positions of the C2/c space group. This structure is characterized by cation substitutional disorder at two sites, one situated on the special position 4e (2 and the other on the general position 8f. The 4e site is partially occupied by Na+ [0.332 (3], whereas the 8f site is entirely filled by a mixture of Fe and Zn. The full-occupancy sodium and zinc atoms are located at the Wyckoff positions on the inversion center 4a (-1 and on the twofold rotation axis 4e, respectively. Refinement of the occupancy ratios, bond-valence analysis and the electrical neutrality requirement of the structure lead to the given composition for the title compound. The three-dimensional framework of this structure consists of kinked chains of edge-sharing octahedra stacked parallel to [10-1]. The chains are formed by a succession of trimers based on [ZnO6] octahedra and the mixed-cation FeIII/ZnII [(Fe/ZnO6] octahedra [FeIII:ZnIII ratio 0.668 (3/0.332 (3]. Continuous chains are held together by PO4 phosphate groups, forming polyhedral sheets perpendicular to [010]. The stacked sheets delimit two types of tunnels parallel to the c axis in which the sodium cations are located. Each Na+ cation is coordinated by eight O atoms. The disorder of Na in the tunnel might presage ionic mobility for this material.

  11. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsifi ed Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seline Glorieux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsifi ed meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The eff ect of seven diff erent phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had litt le eff ect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06 % TSPP was suffi cient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsifi ed meat products can be signifi cantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality.

  12. Radiological impact of natural radioactivity in Egyptian phosphate rocks, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahi, S M; Sroor, A; Mohamed, Gehan Y; El-Gendy, N S

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in phosphate rocks and its products were measured using a high- purity germanium detector (HPGe). The obtained activity results show remarkable wide variation in the radioactive contents for the different phosphate samples. The average activity concentration of (235)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was found as (45, 1031, 786, 85 and 765Bq/kg) for phosphate rocks, (28, 1234, 457, 123 and 819Bq/kg) for phosphate fertilizers, (47, 663, 550, 79 and 870Bq/kg) for phosphogypsum and (25, 543, 409, 54 and 897Bq/kg) for single super phosphate respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological parameters (activity concentration index, absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor and indoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and total excess lifetime cancer risk) were estimated to assess the radiological hazards. The total excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) has been calculated and found to be high in all samples, which related to high radioactivity, representing radiological risk for the health of the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fabrications of zinc-releasing biocement combining zinc calcium phosphate to calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shinya; Hiasa, Masahiro; Yasue, Akihiro; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Asaoka, Kenzo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Recently, zinc-releasing bioceramics have been the focus of much attention owing to their bone-forming ability. Thus, some types of zinc-containing calcium phosphate (e.g., zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate and zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite) are examined and their osteoblastic cell responses determined. In this investigation, we studied the effects of zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) derived from zinc phosphate incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in terms of its setting reaction and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell responses. Compositional analysis by powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that HAP crystals were precipitated in the CPC containing 10 or 30wt% ZCP after successfully hardening. However, the crystal growth observed by scanning electron microscopy was delayed in the presence of additional ZCP. These findings indicate that the additional zinc inhibits crystal growth and the conversion of CPC to the HAP crystals. The proliferation of the cells and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were enhanced when 10wt% ZCP was added to CPC. Taken together, ZCP added CPC at an appropriate fraction has a potent promotional effect on bone substitute biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Apatite Formation from Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Mixed Amorphous Calcium Phosphate/Amorphous Calcium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Casper J S; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-08-22

    Crystallization from amorphous phases is an emerging pathway for making advanced materials. Biology has made use of amorphous precursor phases for eons and used them to produce structures with remarkable properties. Herein, we show how the design of the amorphous phase greatly influences the nanocrystals formed therefrom. We investigate the transformation of mixed amorphous calcium phosphate/amorphous calcium carbonate phases into bone-like nanocrystalline apatite using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The speciation of phosphate was controlled by pH to favor HPO4 (2-) . In a carbonate free system, the reaction produces anisotropic apatite crystallites with large aspect ratios. The first formed crystallites are highly calcium deficient and hydrogen phosphate rich, consistent with thin octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-like needles. During growth, the crystallites become increasingly stoichiometric, which indicates that the crystallites grow through addition of near-stoichiometric apatite to the OCP-like initial crystals through a process that involves either crystallite fusion/aggregation or Ostwald ripening. The mixed amorphous phases were found to be more stable against phase transformations, hence, the crystallization was inhibited. The resulting crystallites were smaller and less anisotropic. This is rationalized by the idea that a local phosphate-depletion zone formed around the growing crystal until it was surrounded by amorphous calcium carbonate, which stopped the crystallization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Phosphate Treatment of Lead-Contaminated Soil: Effects on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality threats associated with using phosphate-based amendments to remediate Pb-contaminated soils are a concern, particularly in riparian areas. This study investigated the effects of P application rates to a Pb-contaminated alluvial soil on Pb and P loss via surface water runoff, Pb accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb; Kentucky 31), and Pb speciation. An alluvial soil was treated with triple superphosphate at P to Pb molar ratios of 0:1(control), 4:1, 8:1, and 16:1. After a 6- mo reaction period, rainfall simulation (RFS) studies were conducted, followed by tall fescue establishment and a second set of RFS studies (1 yr after treatment). Results from the first RFS (unvegetated) demonstrated that the total Pb and P concentrations in the effluents of 8:1 and 16:1 (P:Pb molar ratio) treatment levels were significantly greater (p 55%. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy data showed that pyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3OH,Cl,F] abundance ranged from 0% (control) to 32% (16:1 P:Pb; 1 yr after treatment) of the total soil Pb. Although P treatment stimulated pyromorphite formation, pyromorphite abundance was comparable between the P-treated soils. These findings suggest that a 4:1 (P:Pb molar ratio) P treatment may be a sufficient means of reducing Pb bioavailability while minimizing concerns related to P loss in an alluvial setting. The purpose of the current research was to examine the feasability of using phosphate based ammend

  16. 44 CFR Appendix A(4) to Part 61 - Appendix A(4) to Part 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appendix A(4) to Part 61 A(4) Appendix A(4) to Part 61 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... COVERAGE AND RATES Pt. 61, App. A(4) Appendix A(4) to Part 61 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Federal...

  17. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  18. How to assess the efficacy of phosphate binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Azevedo, Lilia; Luna, Enrique

    The efficacy of phosphate binders is difficult to be estimated clinically. This study analyzes the changes in serum phosphate and urinary phosphate excretion after the prescription of phosphate binders (PB) in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4-5 pre-dialysis, and the usefulness of the ratio between total urinary phosphate and protein catabolic rate (Pu/PCR) for estimating the efficacy of PB. This retrospective observational cohort study included adult chronic kidney disease patients. Biochemical parameters were determined baseline and after 45-60 days on a low phosphate diet plus PB ("binder" subgroup=260 patients) or only with dietary advice ("control" subgroup=79 patients). Phosphate load (total urinary excretion) per unit of renal function (Pu/GFR) was the best parameter correlated with serum phosphate levels (R2=0.61). Mean±SD level of Pu/PCR was 8.2±2.3mg of urinary phosphate per each g of estimated protein intake. After treatment with PB, serum phosphate levels decreased by 11%, urinary phosphate 22%, protein catabolic rate 7%, and Pu/PCR 15%. In the control subgroup, Pu/PCR increased by 20%. Urinary phosphate and urea nitrogen excretion correlated strongly, both baseline and after PB or dietary advice. The proposed parameter Pu/PCR may reflect the rate of intestinal phosphate absorption, and therefore, its variations after PB prescription may be a useful tool for estimating the pharmacological efficacy of these drugs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The aluminum phosphate zone in the Peace River area, land-pebble phosphate field, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, James B.

    1953-01-01

    The Peace River area, comprising T. 30 and 31 S., R. 24 and 25 E., contains a thicker and more persistent aluminum phosphate zone, and one that is higher in P2O5 and uranium content than is known elsewhere in the land-pebble phosphate district. This report has been prepared to bring together all of the information on the aluminum phosphate zone in the area where the first plant to treat this material will probably be located. The area may be divided into three physiographic units, (1) the ridge, (2) the flatwoods, and (3) the valley. Maps showing distribution and grade of the aluminum phosphate zone indicate that the zone is thin or absent in the ridge unit, thickest and most persistent, and of the best grade in P2O5 and uranium in the flatwoods unit, and absent or very low in grade in the valley unit. Maps of thickness and of chemical composition show that even in favorable areas there are places where the aluminum phosphate zone is missing or of questionable economic importance. The distribution maps also show that areas of high P2O5 and high uranium content coincide closely. Areas containing thick aluminum phosphate material usually have high uranium and P2O5 contents. It is estimated that an average of 13,000 tons per day of aluminum phosphate material might be mined from this area. This figure is based on the probable amount of time, per year, that mining would be in favorable ground. When all mines in the area are in favorable ground, the tonnage per day might be about 23,000 tons. Tonnages of aluminum phosphate material have been computed for about 36 percent of the area of T. 30 S., R. 25 E., and for 18 percent of the area of T. 31 S., R. 25 E. The total inferred tonnage is about 150,000,000 short tons, with an average grade of 0.012 percent U3O8.

  20. Electrodialytic removal of fluoride and calcium ions to recover phosphate from fertilizer industry wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseto Yekti Bagastyo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer industry generates wastewater rich in phosphate and fluoride content, with concentration as high as 4540 and 9720 mg L−1, respectively. The untreated wastewater may enhance the growth of algae, promote eutrophication, and create serious effects on environmental health and aquatic life. Therefore, this wastewater has to be treated before releasing into the environment. This study evaluates the performance of a three-compartment electrodialysis reactor to remove fluoride and calcium ions, and recover phosphate present in the wastewater, for possible further use in the fertilizer industry. The experiments were conducted in a batch system at room temperature. A 4 L of wastewater was electrodialysed using three different electrical current (i.e., 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 A and two different membrane surface areas (i.e., 100 and 200 cm2. The highest removal of fluoride ions was up to 260 mg L−1 (2.7% by applying 1 A of current and 100 cm2 membrane area. No substantial increase of fluoride and calcium removal was observed for 200 cm2 membrane area. Interestingly, the amount of the remaining phosphate was high (i.e., only 1% removal, implying a very efficient recovery in the feed. The energy required for fluoride ion transfer was much lower than for phosphate ion, i.e., up to 6 vs. 0.12 mol kWh−1, suggesting that a higher removal of fluoride can possibly be achieved by limiting migration of phosphate ion through the membrane.

  1. Deposition of calcium phosphate coatings using condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) as phosphate source through induction heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Hou, Saisai; Zhang, Mingjie; Yang, Mengmeng; Deng, Linhong; Xiong, Xinbo; Ni, Xinye

    2016-12-01

    In present work condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) were used as phosphate source in induction heating to deposit calcium phosphate coatings. The phase, morphology, and composition of different phosphate-related coatings were characterized and compared using XRD, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Results showed that P2O7(4-)formed calcium pyrophosphate hydrate coatings with interconnected cuboid-like particles. The as-deposited calcium tripolyphosphate hydrate coating with P3O10(5-) was mainly composed of flower-like particles assembled by plate-like crystals. The bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were also studied. Moreover, the feasibility of using hybrid phosphate sources for preparing and depositing coatings onto magnesium alloy was investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactions of Phosphate Groups of ATP and Aspartyl Phosphate with the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase: An FTIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Krasteva, Maria; Barth, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Phosphate binding to the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase was studied by time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with ATP and isotopically labeled ATP ([β-18O2, βγ-18O]ATP and [γ-18O3]ATP). Isotopic substitution identified several bands that can be assigned to phosphate groups of bound ATP: bands at 1260, 1207, 1145, 1110, and 1085 cm−1 are affected by labeling of the β-phosphate, bands likely near 1154, and 1098–1089 cm−1 are affected by γ-phosphate labeling. The findings indicate that the strength of interactions of β- and γ- phosphate with the protein are similar to those in aqueous solution. Two bands, at 1175 and 1113 cm−1, were identified for the phosphate group of the ADP-sensitive phosphoenzyme Ca2E1P. They indicate terminal and bridging P-O bond strengths that are intermediate between those of ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme E2P and the model compound acetyl phosphate in water. The bridging bond of Ca2E1P is weaker than for acetyl phosphate, which will facilitate phosphate transfer to ADP, but is stronger than for E2P, which will make the Ca2E1P phosphate less susceptible to attack by water. PMID:16169973

  3. A double-blind, randomized, comparative study of the use of a combination of uridine triphosphate trisodium, cytidine monophosphate disodium, and hydroxocobalamin, versus isolated treatment with hydroxocobalamin, in patients presenting with compressive neuralgias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Henrique; Mibielli, Marco Antonio; Nunes, Carlos Pereira; Goldberg, Stephanie Wrobel; Buchman, Luiz; Mezitis, Spyros Ge; Rzetelna, Helio; Oliveira, Lisa; Geller, Mauro; Wajnsztajn, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of treatment of compressive neuralgia using a combination of nucleotides (uridine triphosphate trisodium [UTP] and cytidine monophosphate disodium [CMP]) and vitamin B12. To assess the safety and efficacy of the combination of nucleotides (UTP and CMP) and vitamin B12 in patients presenting with neuralgia arising from neural compression associated with degenerative orthopedic alterations and trauma, and to compare these effects with isolated administration of vitamin B12. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, consisting of a 30-day oral treatment period: Group A (n=200) receiving nucleotides + vitamin B12, and Group B (n=200) receiving vitamin B12 alone. The primary study endpoint was the percentage of subjects presenting pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores ≤20 at end of study treatment period. Secondary study endpoints included the percentage of subjects presenting improvement ≥5 points on the patient functionality questionnaire (PFQ); percentage of subjects presenting pain reduction (reduction in VAS scores at study end in relation to pretreatment); and number of subjects presenting adverse events. The results of this study showed a more expressive improvement in efficacy evaluations among subjects treated with the combination of nucleotides + vitamin B12, with a statistically significant superiority of the combination in pain reduction (evidenced by VAS scores). There were adverse events in both treatment groups, but these were transitory and no severe adverse event was recorded during the study period. Safety parameters were maintained throughout the study in both treatment groups. The combination of uridine, cytidine, and vitamin B12 was safe and effective in the treatment of neuralgias arising from neural compression associated with degenerative orthopedic alterations and trauma.

  4. Carbon Mineralization Using Phosphate and Silicate Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokturk, H.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction from combustion of fossil fuels has become an urgent concern for the society due to marked increase in weather related natural disasters and other negative consequences of global warming. CO2 is a highly stable molecule which does not readily interact with other neutral molecules. However it is more responsive to ions due to charge versus quadrupole interaction [1-2]. Ions can be created by dissolving a salt in water and then aerosolizing the solution. This approach gives CO2 molecules a chance to interact with the hydrated salt ions over the large surface area of the aerosol. Ion containing aerosols exist in nature, an example being sea spray particles generated by breaking waves. Such particles contain singly and doubly charged salt ions including Na+, Cl-, Mg++ and SO4--. Depending on the proximity of CO2 to the ion, interaction energy can be significantly higher than the thermal energy of the aerosol. For example, an interaction energy of 0.6 eV is obtained with the sulfate (SO4--) ion when CO2 is the nearest neighbor [2]. In this research interaction between CO2 and ions which carry higher charges are investigated. The molecules selected for the study are triply charged phosphate (PO4---) ions and quadruply charged silicate (SiO4----) ions. Examples of salts which contain such molecules are potassium phosphate (K3PO4) and sodium orthosilicate (Na4SiO4). The research has been carried out with first principle quantum mechanical calculations using the Density Functional Theory method with B3LYP functional and Pople type basis sets augmented with polarization and diffuse functions. Atomic models consist of the selected ions surrounded by water and CO2 molecules. Similar to the results obtained with singly and doubly charged ions [1-2], phosphate and silicate ions attract CO2 molecules. Energy of interaction between the ion and CO2 is 1.6 eV for the phosphate ion and 3.3 eV for the silicate ion. Hence one can expect that the selected

  5. Effect of exogenous phytase on degradation of inositol phosphate in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask-Pedersen, Dorte Buus; Glitsø, Lene Vibe; Skov, L.K.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of exogenous phytase on inositol phosphate degradation in the rumen of dairy cows was investigated in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four lactating Danish Holstein cows fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were offered a total mixed ration (TMR) with a high content of inositol...... to the TMR. Degradation of InsP6 occurred mainly before the duodenum. The ruminal degradability of InsP6 was increased with increasing dietary concentrations of phytase: 86.4, 93.7, 94.5, and 96.3% for none, low, medium, or high, respectively. A comparison of the InsP6 content in individual feedstuffs......, and high phytase doses, respectively). It was not possible to distinguish between the degradation of inositol phosphate occurring in the TMR and in the rumen. Exogenous phytase had no effect on total P intake or flow of total P to the duodenum and ileum, whereas exogenous phytase increased flow...

  6. Neonatal jaundice and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Antiquera Leite

    2010-01-01

    A deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase em neonatos pode ser a responsável pela icterícia neonatal. Este comentário científico é decorrente do relato sobre o tema publicado neste fascículo e que preocupa diversos autores de outros países em relação às complicações em neonatos de hiperbilirrubinemia, existindo inclusive proposições de alguns autores em incluir o teste para identificar a deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase nos recém-nascidos.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase...

  7. Régulation de la symbiose endomycorhizienne par le phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Balzergue, Coline

    2012-01-01

    Most plants form root symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM fungi supply their host plants with water and minerals, especially phosphate. In return, they obtain carbohydrates from their hosts. Phosphate fertilization is known to have a negative impact on the symbiotic interaction, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. We first showed that phosphate supply is able to almost totally inhibit the interaction at a very early stage, prior to the attachment of fungal h...

  8. Inorganic Phosphate as an Important Regulator of Phosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Claudia Fernanda; Dos-Santos, André Luiz Araújo; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi). Pi starvation-responsive genes appear to be involved in multiple metabolic pathways, implying a complex Pi regulation system in microorganisms and plants. A group of enzymes is required for absorption and maintenance of adequate phosphate levels, which is released from phosphate esters and anhydrides. The phosphatase system is particularly suited for the study of regulatory mechanisms becau...

  9. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM PHOSPHATIC ORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, R.L.

    1959-04-14

    A proccss is described for the recovery of uranium from phosphatic products derived from phosphatic ores. It has been discovered that certain alkyl phosphatic, derivatives can be employed in a direct solvent extraction operation to recover uranium from solid products, such as superphosphates, without first dissolving such solids. The organic extractants found suitable include alkyl derivatives of phosphoric, pyrophosphoric, phosof the derivative contains from 4 to 7 carbon atoms. A diluent such as kerosene is also used.

  10. Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases play an important role in phosphate recycling and phosphate sensing in white lupin

    Science.gov (United States)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.), a well adapted species to phosphate (Pi) impoverished soils, develops short, densely clustered lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) to increase Pi uptake. Here, we report two white lupin glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes which share strong homo...

  11. Characterization of the denitrifying fraction of phosphate accumulating organisms in biological phosphate removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhold, Jens; Filipe, Carlos D.M.; Daigger, Glen T.

    1999-01-01

    fractions of PAO are performed and compared. This study extends on previously reported results (Kerrn-Jespersen and Henze, 1993) in that the pH was controlled to around pH 7 to assure that phosphate precipitation was minimal, and in the measurement of PHB and PHV. With regards to the latter, the paper also...

  12. Dependence of Streptococcus lactis Phosphate Transport on Internal Phosphate Concentration and Internal pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POOLMAN, B; NIJSSEN, RMJ; KONINGS, WN

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of phosphate by Streptococcus lactis ML3 proceeds in the absence of a proton motive force, but requires the synthesis of ATP by either arginine or lactose metabolism. The appearance of free Pi internally in arginine-metabolizing cells corresponded quantitatively with the disappearance of

  13. The effect of phosphate binders, calcium and lanthanum carbonate on FGF23 levels in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Sagrario; Ojeda, Raquel; Rodríguez, Mencarnación; Almadén, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Mariano; Martín-Malo, Alejandro; Aljama, Pedro

    2013-07-01

    Recent publications show that elevation of FGF23 is independently associated with progression or renal disease, left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular mortality. Dietary restriction of phosphate and phosphate binders are used for control phosphate balance and elevation of serum FGF23 levels. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of calcium carbonate vs. lanthanum carbonate in reducing serum FGF23 levels in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. 32 patients from the Nephrology outpatient clinic with CKD 4 - 5 non-dialysis were included. Patients receive a 4-month treatment period of calcium carbonate or lanthanum carbonate. Patients had normal serum calcium concentration, 25 (OH) levels >30 ng/ml and they were not on VDR activators or cinacalcet. As compared with calcium carbonate, patients on lanthanum carbonate had lower serum levels of FGF23 (226 ± 11 vs. 158 ± 9 pg/ml) and less urinary excretion of phosphate. No significant changes in serum calcium and PTH levels were observed in both groups. In conclusion, in CKD 4 - 5 patients lanthanum carbonate is effective in reducing phosphate load and FGF23 levels; this effect was not observed with calcium carbonate.

  14. Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters and Metal Thiophosphates as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and metal thiophosphates have been used as lubricant additives for over 50 years. While their use has been extensive, a detailed knowledge of how they work has been a much more recent development. In this paper, the use of phosphate esters and thiophosphate esters as anti-wear or extreme pressure additives is reviewed with an emphasis on their mechanism of action. The review includes the use of alkyl phosphates, triaryl phosphates and metal containing thiophosphate esters. The mechanisms of these materials interacting with a range of iron and steel based bearing material are examined.

  15. Metal Phosphates as Intermediate Temperature Proton Conducting Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Q.F.; Pan, Chao

    2012-01-01

    A series of metal phosphates were synthesized and screened as potential proton conductor electrolytes for fuel cells and electrolysers operational at intermediate temperatures. Among the selected, niobium and bismuth phosphates exhibited a proton conductivity of 10-2 and 10-7 S cm-1, respectively......, under the anhydrous atmosphere at 250 °C, showing close correlation with the presence of hydroxyl groups in the phosphate phases. At the water partial pressure of above 0.6 atm, both phosphates possessed a proton conductivity to a level of above 3 x 10-2 S cm-1. Reasonable stability of the proton...

  16. Inorganic Phosphate as an Important Regulator of Phosphatases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fernanda Dick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi. Pi starvation-responsive genes appear to be involved in multiple metabolic pathways, implying a complex Pi regulation system in microorganisms and plants. A group of enzymes is required for absorption and maintenance of adequate phosphate levels, which is released from phosphate esters and anhydrides. The phosphatase system is particularly suited for the study of regulatory mechanisms because phosphatase activity is easily measured using specific methods and the difference between the repressed and derepressed levels of phosphatase activity is easily detected. This paper analyzes the protein phosphatase system induced during phosphate starvation in different organisms.

  17. Bacterial phosphating of mild (unalloyed) steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkland, H P; Harms, H; Müller, B; Repphun, G; Wanner, O; Zehnder, A J

    2000-10-01

    Mild (unalloyed) steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered cultures of aerobic, biofilm-forming Rhodococcus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2. A resulting surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer was accompanied by a characteristic electrochemical potential (E) curve. First, E increased slightly due to the interaction of phosphate with the iron oxides covering the steel surface. Subsequently, E decreased rapidly and after 1 day reached -510 mV, the potential of free iron, indicating the removal of the iron oxides. At this point, only scattered patches of bacteria covered the surface. A surface reaction, in which iron was released and vivianite precipitated, started. E remained at -510 mV for about 2 days, during which the vivianite layer grew steadily. Thereafter, E increased markedly to the initial value, and the release of iron stopped. Changes in E and formation of vivianite were results of bacterial activity, with oxygen consumption by the biofilm being the driving force. These findings indicate that biofilms may protect steel surfaces and might be used as an alternative method to combat corrosion.

  18. Environmental prospects of uranium from mineral phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnug, Ewald [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Faculty 2 - Life Sciences; Haneklaus, Nils [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme

    2012-12-15

    Uranium (U) is a natural resource that is found in rock phosphates (P). Each year farmers apply unwittingly 167 t/yr U to their soils by P fertilisation. If extracted and used for electricity generation with state of the art nuclear power plants this amount of U could cover the energy demand of 2.4 x 10{sup 6} average German households. Otherwise this finite resource is wasted. U from P fertilisers is an uncommon contribution of agriculture to climate protection. Using the key to calculate the CO{sub 2} depending German car tax band, 1 kilogram P would be valued with 1.8 Euro. More than that the extraction of U from rock phosphates is an efficient measure to avoid U entering the food chain. In particular translocation processes in soils of fertiliser-applied U by run-off and leaching which result in the contamination of surface waters and finally drinking water can be impeded efficiently. (orig.)

  19. Oral phosphate binders: phosphate binding capacity of iron (III) hydroxide complexes containing saccharides and their effect on the urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Baxter, J G; Maebashi, N; Asano, T

    1999-09-01

    Phosphate binders that contain aluminum or calcium are frequently prescribed to treat hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but an accumulation of aluminum can lead to encephalopathy, aluminum-related bone disease (ARBD) such as osteomalacia, anaemia, and resistance to erythropoietin, and calcium accumulation can lead to hypercalcaemia. High phosphate concentrations are reduced in vitro and in vivo by a phosphate adsorption pill, which is synthesized by hydrolyzing ferrous sulfate in the presence of saccharides, to form an iron (III)-saccharide complex that is acid resistant and binds phosphate greater than iron (III) hydroxide alone. Under in vitro conditions, containing 3.26 mg P/dL, the iron (III)-sucrose complex showed the highest phosphate adsorption capacity at pH 2 with artificial gastric juice, 58.9 mg P/g binder. For the 7 day in vivo study, 0% (Group 1), 1% (Group 2), 4% (Group 3), and 8% (Group 4) iron (III)-sucrose complex was admixed into the rodent chow by weight and fed to 15 male Wistar rats. The weight and volume of the feces and urine, and the calcium, iron, and phosphorus excretions in the feces and urine samples were monitored for any signs of irregularity. Total urine outflow was collected during a 24-h period to determine the amount of phosphate recovered, which indicates the ability of the phosphate binder to reduce gastrointestinal phosphate absorption. The fecal iron excretion was significantly effected by the amount of binder ingested throughout the study for Group 2 (p calcium excretion (mg/rat/24-h) significantly increased by the 7th day for Group 2 (p calcium containing phosphate-binding agents for combating hyperphosphataemia.

  20. Thermal destabilization of non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus mutans upon phosphate binding in the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahuel-Clermont, Sophie; Arutyunov, Denis; Marchal, Stéphane; Orlov, Victor; Muronetz, Vladimir; Branlant, Guy

    2005-05-13

    Catalysis by the NADP-dependent non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPN) from Streptococcus mutans, a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family, relies on a local conformational reorganization of the active site. This rearrangement is promoted by the binding of NADP and is strongly kinetically favored by the formation of the ternary complex enzyme.NADP.substrate. Adiabatic differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of ligands on the irreversible thermal denaturation of GAPN. We showed that phosphate binds to GAPN, resulting in the formation of a GAPN.phosphate binary complex characterized by a strongly decreased thermal stability, with a difference of at least 15 degrees C between the maximum temperatures of the thermal transition peaks. The kinetics of phosphate association and dissociation are slow, allowing both free and GAPN.phosphate complexes to be observed by differential scanning calorimetry and to be separated by native polyacrylamide electrophoresis run in phosphate buffer. Analysis of a set of mutants of GAPN strongly suggests that phosphate is bound to the substrate C-3 subsite. In addition, the substrate analog glycerol-3-phosphate has similar effects as does phosphate on the thermal behavior of GAPN. Based on the current knowledge on the catalytic mechanism of GAPN and other ALDHs, we propose that ligand-induced thermal destabilization is a mechanism that provides to ALDHs the required flexibility for an efficient catalysis.

  1. Plasmodium glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: A potential malaria diagnostic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Robert G E; Hurdayal, Ramona; Choveaux, David; Przyborski, Jude M; Coetzer, Theresa H T; Goldring, J P Dean

    2017-08-01

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are immunochromatographic tests detecting Plasmodial histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aldolase. HRP2 is only expressed by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the protein is not expressed in several geographic isolates. LDH-based tests lack sensitivity compared to HRP2 tests. This study explored the potential of the Plasmodial glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as a new malaria diagnostic biomarker. The P. falciparum and P. yoelii proteins were recombinantly expressed in BL21(DE3) Escherischia coli host cells and affinity purified. Two epitopes (CADGFLLIGEKKVSVFA and CAEKDPSQIPWGKCQV) specific to P. falciparum GAPDH and one common to all mammalian malaria species (CKDDTPIYVMGINH) were identified. Antibodies were raised in chickens against the two recombinant proteins and the three epitopes and affinity purified. The antibodies detected the native protein in parasite lysates as a 38 kDa protein and immunofluorescence verified a parasite cytosolic localization for the native protein. The antibodies suggested a 4-6 fold higher concentration of native PfGAPDH compared to PfLDH in immunoprecipitation and ELISA formats, consistent with published proteomic data. PfGAPDH shows interesting potential as a malaria diagnostic biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. VistA 4 Product Roadmap

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VistA 4 Product Roadmap outlines how the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), under the direction of the VistA Evolution Program, will build upon the previous...

  3. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.

    2016-08-01

    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  4. Physico-chemical characterization of Ogun and Sokoto phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a need to identify potential phosphate rock sources to supply phosphorus (P) for crop growth and sustain food production. Physico-chemical characteristics of phosphate rocks from two Nigerian deposits were evaluated to determine their suitability for processing or direct application as P fertilizer. Physical ...

  5. A kinetic study of phosphate adsorption by boehmite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W P; Shima, O; Ookubo, A; Ooi, K

    1997-02-01

    Rates of phosphate adsorption to PT-A (a new type of aluminium oxide hydroxide) and ALG (aluminum hydroxide gel) from a pH 3 phosphate solution were measured by a batch method. Phosphate uptake progressed mainly by the adsorption mechanism for PT-A, but dissolution of aluminum and precipitation of aluminum phosphate took place in addition to phosphate adsorption for ALG. The intraparticle diffusivities (Dp'S) of phosphate were evaluated from the time courses of adsorption using the model of pore diffusion with a Freundlich-type adsorption isotherm. The Dp values were approximately 7 x 10(-7) cm2 S-1 for PT-A and 1 x 10(-6) cm2 s(-1) for ALG. The tortuosity factors calculated from a model of parallel plate pore were 5.1 for PT-A and 6.7 for ALG; these values resembled those for porous inorganic ion exchangers. The adsorption rates are high enough for each of the samples to be utilized as a phosphate adsorbent to prevent hyperphosphatemia in patients on chronic dialysis. PT-A is favored as a phosphate adsorbent because of its high chemical stability against acid.

  6. Differential benefits of rock phosphate (RP) by tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphorus is one of the critical elements that limit plant production, particularly in humid and semi-humid soils. For realization of African Green Revolution, use of rock phosphate (RP) by resource-poor farmers may be an alternative to more expensive water soluble phosphate (P). Utilization of RP was investigated in ...

  7. Total Serum Calcium and Inorganic Phosphate levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is still a very common cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe and the disorder of calcium and inorganic phosphate metabolism has been poorly associated with the infection. This study was aimed at assessing the total serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels in PTB patients in ...

  8. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals. (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts. INTRODUCTION. Starch phosphate, one of the esterified starches, is produced from esterification of starch and phosphate.

  9. Effect of various parameters on the efficiency of zinc phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc phosphate solubilization efficiency of ten soil bacteria were studied for various parameters like carbon sources, temperature, pH, variable concentration of sodium chloride and glucose. For majority of the isolates 20oC was appeared to be the optimum temperature for solubilization of zinc phosphate. Glucose was the ...

  10. Sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclast differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Albano

    Full Text Available Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone degrading cells. Phosphate is an important constituent of mineralized bone and released in significant quantities during bone resorption. Molecular contributors to phosphate transport during the resorptive activity of osteoclasts have been controversially discussed. This study aimed at deciphering the role of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters during osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Our studies reveal RANKL-induced differential expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein IIa (NaPi-IIa transcript and protein during osteoclast development, but no expression of the closely related NaPi-IIb and NaPi-IIc SLC34 family isoforms. In vitro studies employing NaPi-IIa-deficient osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts reveal that NaPi-IIa is dispensable for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. These results are supported by the analysis of structural bone parameters by high-resolution microcomputed tomography that yielded no differences between adult NaPi-IIa WT and KO mice. By contrast, both type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters Pit-1 and Pit-2 were abundantly expressed throughout osteoclast differentiation, indicating that they are the relevant sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. We conclude that phosphate transporters of the SLC34 family have no role in osteoclast differentiation and function and propose that Pit-dependent phosphate transport could be pivotal for bone resorption and should be addressed in further studies.

  11. Bio-treatment of phosphate from synthetic wastewater using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    The pH change in culture medium after 72 h treatment was found to be 6.0 in glucose, starch, lactose sources and 5.8 in sucrose carbon source. ... through household sewage water and industrial effluents- particularly fertilizer and ... out to screen phosphate reducers using phosphate agar. The bacterial cultures isolated ...

  12. Rho GTPase-phosphatidylinositol phosphate interplay in fungal cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkowitz, Robert A; Bassilana, Martine

    2014-02-01

    Rho G-proteins and phosphatidylinositol phosphates, which are important for exocytosis, endocytosis and cytoskeleton organization, are key regulators of polarized growth in a range of organisms. The aim of the present brief review is to highlight recent findings and their implications with respect to the functions and interplay between Rho G-proteins and phosphatidylinositol phosphates in highly polarized fungal filamentous growth.

  13. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present communication deals with the assessment of phosphate solubilizing bacterial community structure across artificially created fertility gradient with regards to N, P and K status of soil in the experimental site. 20 randomly phosphate solubilizing bacteria from each fertility gradient were isolated, purified and ...

  14. Characterization of Fe 3-doped silver phosphate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesized glasses have been characterized using different experimental techniques. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the glasses are amorphous in nature. IR spectral studies have shown the presence of characteristic P–O–P linkages of linear phosphate chains,presence of O–P–O units in the phosphate ...

  15. A proposed chemical mechanism for biological phosphate removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is the phosphate species that is taken up by organisms in the process of biological phosphate removal. The research on which this paper is based, forms part of a Ph.D. study and further research to confirm the initial observations and to identify the chemical agent involved in biological phosphorus removal is continuing.

  16. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution using modified zeolite clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Fangqun; Qin, Pinzhu; ying, Guan; Tang, Rong; Hu, Jien

    2017-09-01

    Phosphate adsorption capabilities of different treated zeolite clays were assessed from aqueous solution. Natural zeolites were treated by thermal activation over 120–800 °C for 2 h, and by hydrochloric ac-id solution from 1%-9%, respectively. The mechanisms of phosphate adsorption of these modified products were also studied through adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics experiments. The acid activation in-creased the phosphate sorption capacity and the highest phosphate sorption capacity occurred at AZT9 (zeo-lite activated by 9% hydrochloric acid), while thermal activation did not have the same effect. AZT9 showed higher adsorption rate than natural zeolite (ZT). The phosphate adsorption isotherms of ZT, H400 and AZT9 are fitted well with Langmuir equation in terms of R2 values. It suggested that the adsorption of phosphate on zeolite was homogeneous multilayer adsorption. Based on R2 values, the kinetics of phosphate adsorption on these three zeolites can be satisfactorily described by pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. Results of this study suggested that acid modified zeolite could be potentially used as a promising adsorption media for phosphate removal.

  17. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare edible corn starch phosphate under optimized experimental conditions. Methods: Edible corn starch phosphate was prepared via the reaction of starch with active sodium tripolyphosphate. Reaction efficiency and viscosity were used as indices to optimize experimental conditions. Freeze-thaw stability ...

  18. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study on the development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for orthopedic and dental applications is presented. The paper describes its characteristic properties including results of bio- compatibility studies. A conventional two-component calcium phosphate cement formulation (having a powder part ...

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis and structure of framework cobalt phosphates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Open-framework phosphates investigated in the last few years, specially those of transition metals, are of particular interest because of their potential applications in catalysis, sorption and separation techniques. Amongst the transition metals, cobalt phosphate occupies a prime position because of its interesting magnetic ...

  20. Cerebrospinal Fluid Phosphate in Delirium after Hip Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane-Victoria Idland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Phosphate is essential for neuronal activity. We aimed to investigate whether delirium is associated with altered phosphate concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with hip fracture were assessed for delirium before and after acute surgery. Prefracture dementia was diagnosed by an expert panel. Phosphate was measured in CSF obtained immediately before spinal anesthesia (n = 77 and in serum (n = 47. CSF from 23 cognitively healthy elderly patients undergoing spinal anesthesia was also analyzed. Results: Hip fracture patients with prevalent delirium had higher CSF phosphate concentrations than those without delirium (median 0.63 vs. 0.55 mmol/L, p = 0.001. In analyses stratified on dementia status, this difference was only significant in patients with dementia. Serum phosphate was ∼1 mmol/L; there was no association between serum phosphate concentration and delirium status. CSF phosphate did not correlate with serum levels. Conclusion: Patients with delirium superimposed on dementia have elevated phosphate levels.

  1. Influence of environmental factors and salinity on phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of environmental factors and salinity on phosphate solubilization by a newly isolated Aspergillus niger F7 from agricultural soil. ... Presence of soluble phosphates, in terms of different concentrations of KH2PO4 supplemented in PVK agar media, suppressed TCP solubilization activity by F7. F7 showed different ...

  2. Removal of phosphate and nitrate from aqueous solution using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was the removal of phosphate and nitrate by sodium alginate seagrass (Cymodocea rotundata) beads from aqueous solutions. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate and nitrate on the seagrass beads were optimized under different operational parameters like adsorbent dosage, initial ...

  3. Effects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and Rhizobium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms ... Key words: Chickpea, Glomus sp., phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, disease complex. INTRODUCTION. India is the largest ..... the production of siderophores, antibiotics, wall apposi- tions and defense enzymes, which ...

  4. Effect of nitrogen and phosphate limitation on utilization of bitumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degradation of bitumen was found to be associated with the production of carbon (IV) oxide, natural gas and oil. As a result of using nitrogen limited and phosphate limited media, 1750 and 1250 cm3 of gas and 0.95 and 0.85 g/l of oil were obtained respectively. Nitrogen and phosphate limitation have profound effect on ...

  5. Engineering potato starch with a higher phosphate content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a

  6. Influence of Cultivar and Sokoto Phosphate Rock Levels on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Omokanye et al., 2001). No significant (P>0.05) effect of phosphate rock on the pod yield of groundnut was observed in both years of trial and the combined. Table 2: Pod yield of groundnut as influenced by cultivar, phosphate rock and their interaction in 2007,. 2008 cropping seasons and the combined. Treatment.

  7. Aluminum and iron contents in phosphate treated swamp rice farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2006 aluminum and iron contents were determined in phosphate treated swamp rice farm of Mbiabet, Akwa Ibom State. The objectives were to determine the aluminum and iron contents, the effect of drying, phosphate and lime application in an acid sulphate soil grown to rice in Nigeria. The soil samples used were ...

  8. Effects of Combining Minjingu Phosphate Rock and Triple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An incubation experiment was conducted to assess the influence of combining Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR) with Gliricidia .... on MPR dissolution and availability of phosphate Exchangeable Al was extracted by 1M KCl and from PR; to assess whether ... Soils, plant materials and fertilizers. Magadu soil classified as an ...

  9. Zinc zirconium phosphate as an efficient catalyst for chemoselective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    anhydride (AA) in the presence of zinc zirconium phosphate (ZPZn) as a nano catalyst, at room temperature is reported. Selective ... Keywords. Zinc zirconium phosphate; nanoparticles; heterogeneous catalysis; diacetate; solvent-free synthesis. 1. ... practice for manipulation of other functional groups during multisteps ...

  10. Phosphate-dependent modulation of antibacterial strategy: a redox ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specific reactivity of cerium oxide nanoparticles with phosphate ions was used to design a novel antibacterialsystem. The redox sensitivity of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) was used to irreversibly scavenge phosphate ions fromthe microbial growth media resulting in nutrient starvation in microbes. Cerium oxide ...

  11. Use of phosphates in meat products | Long | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphates offer a range of possibilities when used in meat and poultry productions. Food grade phosphates are used in meat products for several reasons such as changing and/or stabilizing of pHvalue, increasing water holding capacity in order to lead to higher yields, decreasing losses of weight in cooking, improving ...

  12. Phosphate retention by soil in relation to waste disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, J.

    1979-01-01

    The disposal of large amounts of domestic sewage water and liquid manure, both containing dissolved phosphates, is often problematic. Discharge of these into (shallow and standing) surface waters is highly undesirable, as phosphate is considered to be one of the prime causes of eutrophication. If,

  13. Influence of octacalcium phosphate coating on osteoinductive properties of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; van der Valk, C.M.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coating on osteoinductive behaviour of the biomaterials. Porous titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and polyethylene glyco terephtalate/polybuthylene terephtalate (PEGT–PBT)

  14. Food for the soil: Rock phosphate as fertilizer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... Yet dotted like geological islands in a dryland sea are places where inorganic phosphate may be mined from old rock deposits. However, the rich fines, or dust, discarded from mining are only useful if their inorganic phosphate can be turned into an organic form that local staple crops — corn, beans, millet, ...

  15. Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

  16. Structure of RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase bound to substrate RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kevin K; Bingman, Craig A; Cheng, Chin L; Phillips, George N; Raines, Ronald T

    2014-10-01

    RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) catalyzes the ATP-dependent cyclization of a 3'-phosphate to form a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate at RNA termini. Cyclization proceeds through RtcA-AMP and RNA(3')pp(5')A covalent intermediates, which are analogous to intermediates formed during catalysis by the tRNA ligase RtcB. Here we present a crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii RtcA in complex with a 3'-phosphate terminated RNA and adenosine in the AMP-binding pocket. Our data reveal that RtcA recognizes substrate RNA by ensuring that the terminal 3'-phosphate makes a large contribution to RNA binding. Furthermore, the RNA 3'-phosphate is poised for in-line attack on the P-N bond that links the phosphorous atom of AMP to N(ε) of His307. Thus, we provide the first insights into RNA 3'-phosphate termini recognition and the mechanism of 3'-phosphate activation by an Rtc enzyme. © 2014 Desai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  17. Phosphate adsorption using modified iron oxide-based sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphate RemovalThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Lalley , J., C. Han , G. RamMohan , T. Speth , J. Garland , M. Nadagouda , and D. Dionysiou. Phosphate Removal using Modified Bayoxide®E33 Adsorption Media. WATER RESEARCH. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, issue}: 96-107, (2015).

  18. A Constitutive Expressed Phosphate Transporter, OsPht1;1, Modulates Phosphate Uptake and Translocation in Phosphate-Replete Rice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shubin Sun; Mian Gu; Yue Cao; Xinpeng Huang; Xiao Zhang; Penghui Ai; Jianning Zhao; Xiaorong Fan; Guohua Xu

    2012-01-01

    A number of phosphate (Pi) starvation- or mycorrhiza-regulated Pi transporters belonging to the Pht1 family have been functionally characterized in several plant species, whereas functions of the Pi transporters that are not...

  19. Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tributyl Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddleford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. [Georgia Institute of Technology, GA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Contact between tributyl phosphate and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Even though such operations have been routinely performed safely for decades as an intrinsic part of the Purex separation processes, several so-called ``red oil`` explosions are known to have occurred in the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. The most recent red oil explosion occurred at the Tomsk-7 separations facility in Siberia, in April 1993. That explosion destroyed part of the unreinforced masonry walls of the canyon-type building in which the process was housed, and allowed the release of a significant quantity of radioactive material.

  20. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Adaptive to Vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahar Muzakhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms identified as phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB adaptive to vinasse were successfully screened from sugarcane soil from an agriculatural estate in Jatiroto. By conducting a screening on Pikovskaya’s agar medium (PAM, we found that five different isolates were detected as PSB (pvk-5a, pvk-5b, pvk-6b, pvk-7a, and pvk-8a. Of the five isolates only three could be grown and were found to be adaptive to vinasse based medium without any nutrients added (pvk-5a, pvk-5b and pvk-7a. The three isolates were characterized as coccus and Gram negative with no endospores detected. We suggest that these three isolates can be used as biofertilizer agent to support organic farming.

  1. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Ogura, Hiromi

    2015-07-01

    In the past 10 years, we have diagnosed congenital hemolytic anemia in 294 patients, approximately 33% of whom were found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. It is becoming more common for Japanese to marry people of other ethnic origins, such that G6PD deficiency is becoming more prevalent in Japan. Japanese G6PD deficiency tends to be diagnosed in the neonatal period due to severe jaundice, while G6PD-deficient patients with foreign ancestors tend to be diagnosed at the onset of an acute hemolytic crisis before the age of six. It is difficult to predict the clinical course of each patient by G6PD activity, reduced glutathione content, or the presence/absence of severe neonatal jaundice. We propose that both neonatal G6PD screening and systematic analyses of G6PD gene mutations may be useful for personalized management of patients with G6PD-deficient hemolytic anemia.

  2. Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathway of Isoprenoid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lishan; Chang, Wei-chen; Xiao, Youli; Liu, Hung-wen; Liu, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of natural products with more than 50,000 members. All isoprenoids are constructed from two precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Two of the most important discoveries in isoprenoid biosynthetic studies in recent years are the elucidation of a second isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway) and a modified mevalonate (MVA) pathway. In this review, mechanistic insights on the MEP pathway enzymes are summarized. Since many isoprenoids have important biological activities, the need to produce them in sufficient quantities for downstream research efforts or commercial application is apparent. Recent advances in both the MVA and MEP pathway-based synthetic biology efforts are also illustrated by reviewing the landmark work of artemisinic acid and taxadien-5α-ol production through microbial fermentations. PMID:23746261

  3. EFFECT OF SODIUM PHOSPHATES ON SELECTED FOOD GRADE BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect in vitro of selected sodium phosphates (under the corporate names Hexa 68, Hexa 70, Trikrystal, FST, Pyro 52, KPS, Didi on selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Seven different concentrations of each phosphate were used. Sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phosphates was observed in broth supplemented with salts. In vitro was showed a negative effect of various phosphates on growth of selected gram-positive bacteria. Orthophosphates and diphosphates (pyrophosphates did not have significant inhibitory effect on tested bacteria at neutral pH. With the exception of phosphate Trikrystal has not been found in vitro significant inhibitory effects on gram-negative bacteria.doi:10.5219/141

  4. Phosphate balance in peritoneal dialysis patients: role of ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Carlos Andres; Juergensen, Peter; Finkelstein, Fredric O

    2009-01-01

    Current National Kidney Foundation's Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) recommend maintenance of serum phosphorus levels below 5.5 mg/dl. About 40% of patients maintained on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) have phosphate levels above 5.5 mg%. The present study was designed to examine the relative contribution of ultrafiltration to phosphate removal in CPD patients. 24-hour dialysate collections were obtained in 28 CPD patients and the diffuse and ultrafiltration (UF) contributions to phosphate removal determined. 11% of phosphate removal was accounted for by UF. There was a highly significant correlation between UF rate and the % of phosphate removed by UF. The results of this study underscore the importance of individualizing the peritoneal dialysis prescription.

  5. Bioactive calcium phosphate coatings on metallic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedelnikova, M. B.; Komarova, E. G.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Tolkacheva, T. V.; Khlusov, I. A.; Sheikin, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    Biocomposites based on bioinert metals or alloys and bioactive calcium phosphate coatings are a promising tendency of the new-generation implants development. In recent years, the approach of regenerative medicine based on the use of biodegradable biomaterials has been priority direction. Such materials are capable of initiating the bone tissue regeneration and replaced by the newly formed bone. The microarc oxidation (MAO) method allows obtaining the bioactive coatings with a porous structure, special functional properties, and modified by the essential elements. During the last decade, the investigations in the field of the nanostructured biocomposites based on bioinert Ti, Zr, Nb and their alloys with a calcium phosphate coatings deposited by the MAO method have been studied in the Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk. In this article the possibility to produce the bioactive coatings with high antibacterial and osseoconductive properties due to the introduction in the coatings of Zn, Cu, Ag, La, Si elements and wollastonite CaSiO3 was shown. The high hydrophilic and bioresorbed coatings stimulate the processes of osseointegration of the implant into the bone tissue. A promising direction in the field of the medical material science is a development of the metallic implants with good biomechanical compatibility to the bone, such as Ti-Nb alloys with a low elastic modulus that can be classified as biomaterials of the second generation. Zr and its alloys are promising materials for the dentistry and orthopedic surgery due to their high strength and corrosion resistance. Biodegradable Mg alloys are biomaterials of third generation. Such materials can dissolve with a certain speed in human body and excreted from the body thereby excluding the need for reoperation. This article presents the analysis of the study results of bioactive MAO coatings on Ti, Ti-Nb, Zr-Nb and Mg alloys and their promising medical application.

  6. Alpha-tricalcium phosphate hydrolysis to octacalcium phosphate: effect of sodium polyacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, A; Boanini, E; Botter, R; Panzavolta, S; Rubini, K

    2002-04-01

    Alpha-Tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) hydrolysis into octacalcium phosphate (OCP) has been investigated in phosphoric acid solution at different concentrations of sodium polyacrylate (NaPA). The hydrolysis process has been followed by powder X-ray diffraction, infrared absorption and scanning electron microscopy analyses. In the absence of the polyelectrolyte, alpha-TCP undergoes a complete transformation into OCP in 24 h. The presence of polyacrylate in solution inhibits the hydrolysis so that a NaPA concentration of 0.5 microm is sufficient to lengthen the time required to complete the hydrolysis to 4 days. The variation of Ca2+ concentration in the soaking solution suggests that the transformation occurs through alpha-TCP dissolution followed by OCP precipitation. The delayed OCP nucleation and growth in the presence of polyacrylate implies a preferential adsorption of the polyelectrolyte on the growing OCP crystals, which induces an anisotropic reduction of the coherence lengths of the perfect crystalline domains.

  7. The antimicrobial activity of as-prepared silver-loaded phosphate glasses and zirconium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Wang; Jiang, Ji Zhi; Yang, Yang; Yan, Zhao Chun; Yan, Wang Xiao [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing (China); He, Shui Zhong [Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-03-15

    The antimicrobial activities of silver-loaded zirconium phosphate (JDG) and silver-loaded phosphate glasses (ZZB) against Escherichia coli were studied. Although the silver content in JDG was higher than that in ZZB, ZZB suspensions showed better antimicrobial property than JDG suspensions, especially at low concentrations. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using minimum inhibitory concentrations, bacterial inhibition ring tests, and detection of silver ions in the suspensions. Furthermore, the amounts of silver ions in suspensions with/without bacterial cells were analyzed. Results revealed that only a portion of released silver ions could be adsorbed by E. coli cells, which are critical to cell death. The damaged microstructures of E. coli cells observed by transmission electron microscopy may further prove that the adsorbed silver ions play an important role in the antimicrobial process.

  8. Study of the tributyl phosphate - 30% dodecane solvent; Etude du solvant phosphate tributylique - 30 % dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 92 (France)

    1967-07-01

    This study, originating mainly from a literature survey, gives the principal chemical and physical features of the tributyl-phosphate (TBP) agent diluted at 30 volumes per cent in dodecane. The mixture is a very commonly used extractant in nuclear fuel processing. In this paper, the main following points are reported: -) the components (TBP and diluents) -) the TBP-diluents systems (non-loaded), -) the TBP-diluents-water systems, -) TBP-diluents-water-nitric acid systems, and -) industrial solvents. (author) [French] Cette etude, d'origine bibliographique, regroupe les caracteristiques physico-chimiques essentielles du phosphate tributylique (TBP) dilue a 30% en volume dans du dodecane. Ce melange constitue un agent d'extraction tres utilise dans le traitement des combustibles nucleaires. Les principaux points traites sont les suivants: -) les constituants (TBP et diluants), -) les systemes TBP-diluants non charges, -) les systemes TBP-diluants-eau, -) les systemes TBP-diluants-eau-acide nitrique, et -) les solvants industriels. (auteur)

  9. Potential for phosphate mitigation from agricultural runoff by three aquatic macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphate from agricultural runoff is considered a contributor to eutrophication. Three aquatic macrophyte species, Leersia oryzoides, Typha latifolia, and Sparganium americanum, were investigated for their phosphate mitigation ability. Mesocosms were exposed to flowing phosphate enriched water (1...

  10. Quaternary phosphorites from the continental margin off Chennai, southeast India: Analogs of ancient phosphate stromatolites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rao, K.M.; Raju, D.S.N.

    . These are primary phosphate deposits and are similar to phosphate stratiform stromatolites. This is the first report of phosphate stratiform stromatolites during the Quaternary and modern times, and they provide a Quaternary analog for ancient phosphorites. Thin...

  11. Penggunaan batuan fosfat NDCP (natural defluorinated calcium phosphate sebagai pengganti dicalcium phosphate dalam ransom ayam broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold P. Sinurat

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the utilization of local rock phosphate or natural defluorinated calcium phosphate (NDCP as phosphorus source for broilers by using the imported dicalcium phosphate (DCP as a reference. The study was designed by formulating 6 experimental diets which consist of 2 phosphorus sources (DCP dan NDCP and 3 dietary total P levels (0 .55 ; 0.65 and 0 .75%. Each diet was fed to 60 chickens (10 replicates with 6 birds each from three day old to 6 weeks of age. Parameters observed were feed consumption, body weight gain, mortality, Ca and P retention, and ash content of tibia bones. Results showed that dietary phosphorus levels (0.55 to 0.75% did not significantly affect body weight gain, feed consumption, and mortalities. However, better feed conversion ratio was obtained when dietary phosphorus level was 0.55%. The NDCP treated birds could significantly gain heavier weight compared with those received DCP, although this improvement was also followed by an increase in the feed consumption. The relative biological value of phosphorus in NDCP was 101 `7n. It is concluded that NDCP can he used in broilers diet to replace DCP as phosphorus source.

  12. Multiple independent fusions of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Stover

    Full Text Available Fusions of the first two enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL, have been previously described in two distant clades, chordates and species of the malarial parasite Plasmodium. We have analyzed genome and expressed sequence data from a variety of organisms to identify the origins of these gene fusion events. Based on the orientation of the domains and range of species in which homologs can be found, the fusions appear to have occurred independently, near the base of the metazoan and apicomplexan lineages. Only one of the two metazoan paralogs of G6PD is fused, showing that the fusion occurred after a duplication event, which we have traced back to an ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoans. The Plasmodium genes are known to contain a functionally important insertion that is not seen in the other apicomplexan fusions, highlighting this as a unique characteristic of this group. Surprisingly, our search revealed two additional fusion events, one that combined 6PGL and G6PD in an ancestor of the protozoan parasites Trichomonas and Giardia, and another fusing G6PD with phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD in a species of diatoms. This study extends the range of species known to contain fusions in the pentose phosphate pathway to many new medically and economically important organisms.

  13. NuA4 Lysine Acetyltransferase Complex Contributes to Phospholipid Homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Dacquay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Actively proliferating cells constantly monitor and readjust their metabolic pathways to ensure the replenishment of phospholipids necessary for membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, multiple studies have suggested that the lysine acetyltransferase complex NuA4 plays a role in phospholipid homeostasis. For one, NuA4 mutants induce the expression of the inositol-3-phosphate synthase gene, INO1, which leads to excessive accumulation of inositol, a key metabolite used for phospholipid biosynthesis. Additionally, NuA4 mutants also display negative genetic interactions with sec14-1ts, a mutant of a lipid-binding gene responsible for phospholipid remodeling of the Golgi. Here, using a combination of genetics and transcriptional profiling, we explore the connections between NuA4, inositol, and Sec14. Surprisingly, we found that NuA4 mutants did not suppress but rather exacerbated the growth defects of sec14-1ts under inositol-depleted conditions. Transcriptome studies reveal that while loss of the NuA4 subunit EAF1 in sec14-1ts does derepress INO1 expression, it does not derepress all inositol/choline-responsive phospholipid genes, suggesting that the impact of Eaf1 on phospholipid homeostasis extends beyond inositol biosynthesis. In fact, we find that NuA4 mutants have impaired lipid droplet levels and through genetic and chemical approaches, we determine that the genetic interaction between sec14-1ts and NuA4 mutants potentially reflects a role for NuA4 in fatty acid biosynthesis. Altogether, our work identifies a new role for NuA4 in phospholipid homeostasis.

  14. Phosphates at the Surface of Mars: Primary Deposits and Alteration Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, A. S.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Schröder, C.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element in terrestrial organisms and thus characterizing the occurrences of phosphate phases at the martian surface is crucial in the assessment of habitability. The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometers onboard Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity discovered a variety of primary and secondary phosphate phases allowing direct comparisons across the three landing sites. The Spirit rover at Gusev Crater encountered the "Wishstone/Watchtower" class of P-rich (up to 5.2 wt% P2O5) rocks interpreted to be alkaline volcanic rocks with a physical admixture of ~10 to 20% merrillite [Usui et al 2008]. These rocks are characterized by elevated Ti and Y and anomalously low Cr and Ni, which could largely reflect the nature of the protoliths: Evolved magmatic rocks. Many of these chemical signatures are also found in pyroclastic deposits at nearby "Home Plate" and in phosphate precipitates derived from fluid interactions with these rocks ("Paso Robles" soils). The Opportunity rover at Meridiani Planum recently analyzed a ~4 cm clast in a fine-grained matrix, one of numerous rocks of similar appearance at the rim of Endeavour Crater. This clast, "Sarcobatus," has minor enrichments in Ca and P relative to the matrix, and like the P-rich rocks at Gusev, Sarcobatus also shows elevated Al and Ti. On the same segment of the Endeavour rim, subsurface samples were found with exceptional levels of Mn (~3.5 wt% MnO). These secondary and likely aqueous deposits contain strong evidence for associated Mg-sulfate and Ca-phosphate phases. Finally, the Curiosity traverse at Gale crater encountered P-rich rocks compositionally comparable to Wishstone at Gusev, including elevated Y. Phosphorous-rich rocks with similar chemical characteristics are prevalent on Mars, and the trace and minor element signatures provide constraints on whether these are primary deposits, secondary products of physical weathering, or secondary products of chemical weathering.

  15. Towards Phosphate Detection in Hydroponics Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Christopher S; Coldrick, Zachary; Tate, Daniel J; Donoghue, Jack Marsden; Grieve, Bruce

    2018-02-10

    An interdigitated electrode sensor was designed and microfabricated for measuring the changes in the capacitance of three phosphate selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) formulations, in order to provide hydroponics users with a portable nutrient sensing tool. The MIPs investigated were synthesised using different combinations of the functional monomers methacrylic acid (MAA) and N -allylthiourea, against the template molecules diphenyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate, and trimethyl phosphate. A cross-interference study between phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate was carried out for the MIP materials using an inductance, capacitance, and resistance (LCR) meter. Capacitance measurements were taken by applying an alternating current (AC) with a potential difference of 1 V root mean square (RMS) at a frequency of 1 kHz. The cross-interference study demonstrated a strong binding preference to phosphate over the other nutrient salts tested for each formulation. The size of template molecule and length of the functional monomer side groups also determined that a short chain functional monomer in combination with a template containing large R-groups produced the optimal binding site conditions when synthesising a phosphate selective MIP.

  16. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xu

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (dephosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal. Interestingly, expression of an (engineered laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf. Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20-30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself.

  17. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing-Feng; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (de)phosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal). Interestingly, expression of an (engineered) laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf). Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20-30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself.

  18. Plant growth promotion induced by phosphate solubilizing endophytic Pseudomonas isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteino, Nicholas; Lally, Richard D.; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Lloyd, Andrew; Ryan, David; Germaine, Kieran J.; Dowling, David N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilizers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilization is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilize the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilization. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacteria to produce gluconic acid (GA), solubilize insoluble phosphate, and stimulate the growth of Pisum sativum L. plants. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte strains thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilizing abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic strains produced GA (14–169 mM) and have moderate to high phosphate solubilization capacities (~400–1300 mg L−1). When inoculated into P. sativum L. plants grown in soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophytes that produced medium-high levels of GA displayed beneficial plant growth promotion effects. PMID:26257721

  19. Plant Growth Promotion Induced by Phosphate Solubilizing Endophytic Pseudomonas Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eOtieno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilisers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilisation is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilise the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilisation. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacterial isolates to produce gluconic acid, solubilise insoluble phosphate and stimulate the growth of Pea plants (Pisum sativum. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte isolates thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilising abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic isolates produced gluconic acid (14-169 mM and have moderate to high phosphate solubilisation capacities (~ 400-1300 mg L-1. When inoculated to Pea plants grown in sand/soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophyte isolates that produced medium to high levels of gluconic acid also displayed enhanced plant growth promotion effects.

  20. Selective separation of phosphate and fluoride from semiconductor wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmadewanthi, B; Liu, J C

    2009-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) and phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) are widely used in semiconductor industry for etching and rinsing purposes. Consequently, significant amount of wastewater containing phosphate and fluoride is generated. Selective separation of phosphate and fluoride from the semiconductor wastewater, containing 936 mg/L of fluoride, 118 mg/L of phosphate, 640 mg/L of sulfate, and 26.7 mg/L of ammonia, was studied. Chemical precipitation and flotation reactions were utilized in the two-stage treatment processes. The first-stage reaction involved the addition of magnesium chloride (MgCl(2)) to induce selective precipitation of magnesium phosphate. The optimal condition was pH 10 and molar ratio, [Mg(2 + )]/[(PO(4) (3-))], of 3:1, and 66.2% of phosphate was removed and recovered as bobierrite (Mg(3)(PO(4))(2).8H(2)O). No reaction was found between MgCl(2) and fluoride. Calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) was used in the second-stage reaction to induce precipitation of calcium fluoride and calcium phosphate. The optimum molar ratio, [Ca(2 + )]/[F(-)], was 0.7 at pH 10, and residual fluoride concentration of 10.7 mg/L and phosphate concentration of lower than 0.5 mg/L was obtained. Thermodynamic equilibrium was modeled with PHREEQC and compared with experimental results. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) was an effective collector for subsequent solid-liquid removal via dispersed air flotation (DiAF). The study demonstrated that phosphate can be selectively recovered from the wastewater. Potential benefits include recovery of phosphate for reuse, lower required dosage of calcium for fluoride removal, and less amount of CaF(2) sludge.

  1. Uranium content in phosphate fertilizers commercially produced in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Ione Makiko; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo

    2003-01-01

    This work presents the results of the determination of uranium concentration in the most commonly used phosphate fertilizers employed in Brazilian agricultural land. The technique employed was the nuclear fission track registration in plastic foils of Makrofol KG (dry method), together with a discharge chamber system for track counting. Phosphate fertilizer samples and uranium standards were irradiated together with thermal neutrons in the 2 MW IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN/SP. The uranium concentration in Brazilian phosphate fertilizers ranging from 5.17 to 54.3 ppm is in good agreement with the results reported in the literature for similar fertilizers produced in other countries.

  2. Trehalose metabolism: a regulatory role for trehalose-6-phosphate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastmond, Peter J; Graham, Ian A

    2003-06-01

    Trehalose is a disaccharide that was initially thought to be rare in plants but now appears to be ubiquitous. A recent study has established that the initial step in trehalose synthesis is essential in Arabidopsis. Evidence is emerging that the precursor of trehalose (trehalose-6-phosphate) is an important regulatory molecule. In yeast, trehalose-6-phosphate regulates sugar influx into glycolysis. In plants, trehalose-6-phosphate also appears to regulate sugar metabolism, but the underlying mechanism is unresolved and may be substantially different from that in yeast.

  3. Associations between calcium-phosphate metabolism and coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Mette H; Gerke, Oke; Mickley, Hans

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High serum calcium-phosphate levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic kidney disease. Recent studies have demonstrated this relationship also in subjects with normal kidney function. Our aim was to examine whether......, were analysed for total calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). CAC was measured by a non-contrast cardiac CT scan and categorised into four groups: 0, 1-99, 100-399, ≥400 Agatston units. The association of calcium-phosphate metabolism with CAC was evaluated...

  4. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  5. The Effect of Manganese Phosphate Coatings on Fatigue Crack Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    DTI, FILE COPy AD-A224 931 I AD TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-90018 THE EFFECT OF MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COA TINGS ON FATIGUE CRA CK INITIA TION DTIC...OP REPORT & PERIOD COVEREO THE EFFECT OF MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATINGS Final ON FATIGUE CRACK INITIATION 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AlT1OR4...numlteee- -• ’ t-’q 5 bimeber) Crack Initiation Fatigue High Strength Steel Manganese Phosphate , Shot Peening , Z&AftrAC1 1Vartho an Ovw sh NV

  6. High throughput calorimetry for evaluating enzymatic reactions generating phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoflack, Lieve; De Groeve, Manu; Desmet, Tom; Van Gerwen, Peter; Soetaert, Wim

    2010-05-01

    A calorimetric assay is described for the high-throughput screening of enzymes that produce inorganic phosphate. In the current example, cellobiose phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.20) is tested for its ability to synthesise rare disaccharides. The generated phosphate is measured in a high-throughput calorimeter by coupling the reaction to pyruvate oxidase and catalase. This procedure allows for the simultaneous analysis of 48 reactions in microtiter plate format and has been validated by comparison with a colorimetric phosphate assay. The proposed assay has a coefficient of variation of 3.14% and is useful for screening enzyme libraries for enhanced activity and substrate libraries for enzyme promiscuity.

  7. Development of nanosensors for studying intracellular phosphate levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Hong

    Abstract Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential macronutrient that plays a central role in metabolism and signal transduction in plants. Uptake, compartmentation and transport are important players of cellular Pi homeostasis; however, methods to determine the cellular phosphate concentration....... Genetically-encoded FRET sensors for Pi (FLIPPi, fluorescent indicator protein for Pi) were engineered by fusing a predicted Synechococcus phosphate-binding protein (PiBP) to eCFP and eYFP. A purified FLIPPi, in which the fluorophores are attached to the same PiBP lobe, shows Pi-dependent decrease in FRET...

  8. Study of Acid Phosphatase in Solubilization of Inorganic Phosphates by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshagiri, Swetha; Tallapragada, Padmavathi

    2017-01-02

    Phosphorus is an essential plant macronutrient present in the soil. Only a small portion of phosphorus in soil is taken up by plants and the rest of it becomes unavailable to plants as it is immobilized. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms play a vital role in converting the insoluble form of phosphates to the soluble form. The present paper reports the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate, single super phosphate, zinc phosphate and aluminum phosphate by Piriformospora indica with the production of organic acids as well as acid phosphatase. The amount of phosphate released (4.73 mg ml-1) and titratable acidity (0.12%) was found to be the highest in the case of single super phosphate as compared to other phosphate sources. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed the presence of oxalic acid, lactic acid, citric acid and succinic acid in the media. Highest phosphatase activity was observed with the cell membrane extract of the organism in the presence of zinc phosphate.

  9. Multimodal pore formation in calcium phosphate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodoso-Torrecilla, Irene; van Gestel, Nicole A P; Diaz-Gomez, Luis; Grosfeld, Eline-Claire; Laperre, Kjell; Wolke, Joop G C; Smith, Brandon T; Arts, Jacobus J; Mikos, Antonios G; Jansen, John A; Hofmann, Sandra; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P

    2017-09-23

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are commonly used as bone substitute materials. However, their slow degradation rate and lack of macroporosity hinders new bone formation. Poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) incorporation is of great interest as, upon degradation, produces acidic by-products that enhance CPC degradation. Yet, new bone formation is delayed until PLGA degradation occurs a few weeks after implantation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to accelerate the early stage pore formation within CPCs in vitro. With that purpose, we incorporated the water-soluble porogen sucrose at different weight percentages (10 or 20 wt %) to CPC and CPC/PLGA composites. The results revealed that incorporation of sucrose porogens increased mass loss within the first week of in vitro degradation in groups containing sucrose compared to control groups. After week 1, a further mass loss was observed related to PLGA and CPC degradation. Macroporosity analysis confirmed that macroporosity formation is influenced by the dissolution of sucrose at an early stage and by the degradation of PLGA and CPC at a later stage. We concluded that the combination of sucrose and PLGA porogens in CPC is a promising approach to promote early stage bone tissue ingrowth and complete replacement of CPC through multimodal pore formation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway metabolic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, A; Sharkey, T D

    2014-08-01

    Covering: up to February 2014. The methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is the recently discovered source of isoprenoid precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) in most bacteria, some eukaryotic parasites, and the plastids of plant cells. The precursors lead to the formation of various isoprenoids having diverse roles in different biological processes. Some isoprenoids have important commercial uses. Isoprene, which is made in surprising abundance by some trees, plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The genetic regulation of this pathway has been discussed but information about metabolic regulation is just now becoming available. This review covers metabolic regulation of the MEP pathway starting from the inputs of carbon, ATP, and reducing power. A number of different regulatory mechanisms involving intermediate metabolites and/or enzymes are discussed. Some recent data indicate that methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcDP), the fifth intermediate of this pathway, is a key metabolite. It has been found to play diverse roles in regulation within the pathway as well as coordinating other biological processes by acting as a stress regulator in bacteria and possibly a retrograde signal from plastids to the nucleus in plants. In this review we focus on the role of the MEP pathway in photosynthetic leaves during isoprene emission and more generally the metabolic regulation of the MEP pathway in both plants and bacteria.

  11. Efficacy of a Phosphate-Charged Soil Material in Supplying Phosphate for Plant Growth in Soilless Root Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Mi Oh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A soil material high in crystalline Fe hydrous oxides and noncrystalline Al hydrous oxides collected from the Bw horizon of a Hemcross soil containing allophane from the state of Oregon was charged with phosphate-P at rates of 0, 2.2, and 6.5 mg·g−1, added to a soilless root medium at 5% and 10% by volume, and evaluated for its potential to supply phosphate at a low, stable concentration during 14 weeks of tomato (Solanum esculentum L. seedling growth. Incorporation of the soil material improved pH stability, whether it was charged with phosphate or not. Bulk solution phosphate-P concentrations in the range of 0.13 to 0.34 mg·dm−3 were associated with P deficiency. The only treatment that sustained an adequate bulk solution concentration of phosphate-P above 0.34 mg·dm−3 for the 14 weeks of testing contained 10% soil material charged with 6.5 mg·g−1 P, but initial dissolved P concentrations were too high (>5 mg·g−1 phosphate-P from the standpoint of phosphate leaching. The treatment amended with 10% soil material charged with 2.2 mg·g−1 P maintained phosphate-P within an acceptable range of 0.4 to 2.3 mg·dm−3 for 48 d in a medium receiving no postplant phosphate fertilization.

  12. Feedback Inhibition of Deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate Synthase Regulates the Methylerythritol 4-Phosphate Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Wu, Yan; Banerjee, Rahul; Li, Yue; Yan, Honggao; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    The 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway leads to the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), the precursors for isoprene and higher isoprenoids. Isoprene has significant effects on atmospheric chemistry, whereas other isoprenoids have diverse roles ranging from various biological processes to applications in commercial uses. Understanding the metabolic regulation of the MEP pathway is important considering the numerous applications of this pathway. The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) enzyme was cloned from Populus trichocarpa, and the recombinant protein (PtDXS) was purified from Escherichia coli. The steady-state kinetic parameters were measured by a coupled enzyme assay. An LC-MS/MS-based assay involving the direct quantification of the end product of the enzymatic reaction, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP), was developed. The effect of different metabolites of the MEP pathway on PtDXS activity was tested. PtDXS was inhibited by IDP and DMADP. Both of these metabolites compete with thiamine pyrophosphate for binding with the enzyme. An atomic structural model of PtDXS in complex with thiamine pyrophosphate and Mg2+ was built by homology modeling and refined by molecular dynamics simulations. The refined structure was used to model the binding of IDP and DMADP and indicated that IDP and DMADP might bind with the enzyme in a manner very similar to the binding of thiamine pyrophosphate. The feedback inhibition of PtDXS by IDP and DMADP constitutes an important mechanism of metabolic regulation of the MEP pathway and indicates that thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes may often be affected by IDP and DMADP. PMID:23612965

  13. Deoxyxylulose 5-Phosphate Synthase Controls Flux through the Methylerythritol 4-Phosphate Pathway in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Louwrance P; Rohwer, Johann M; Ghirardo, Andrea; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Ortiz-Alcaide, Miriam; Raguschke, Bettina; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Phillips, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    The 2-C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway supplies precursors for plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis including carotenoids, redox cofactor side chains, and biogenic volatile organic compounds. We examined the first enzyme of this pathway, 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), using metabolic control analysis. Multiple Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lines presenting a range of DXS activities were dynamically labeled with 13CO2 in an illuminated, climate-controlled, gas exchange cuvette. Carbon was rapidly assimilated into MEP pathway intermediates, but not into the mevalonate pathway. A flux control coefficient of 0.82 was calculated for DXS by correlating absolute flux to enzyme activity under photosynthetic steady-state conditions, indicating that DXS is the major controlling enzyme of the MEP pathway. DXS manipulation also revealed a second pool of a downstream metabolite, 2-C-methylerythritol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate (MEcDP), metabolically isolated from the MEP pathway. DXS overexpression led to a 3- to 4-fold increase in MEcDP pool size but to a 2-fold drop in maximal labeling. The existence of this pool was supported by residual MEcDP levels detected in dark-adapted transgenic plants. Both pools of MEcDP are closely modulated by DXS activity, as shown by the fact that the concentration control coefficient of DXS was twice as high for MEcDP (0.74) as for 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (0.35) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (0.34). Despite the high flux control coefficient for DXS, its overexpression led to only modest increases in isoprenoid end products and in the photosynthetic rate. Diversion of flux via MEcDP may partly explain these findings and suggests new opportunities to engineer the MEP pathway. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Feedback inhibition of deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase regulates the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Wu, Yan; Banerjee, Rahul; Li, Yue; Yan, Honggao; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2013-06-07

    The 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway leads to the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), the precursors for isoprene and higher isoprenoids. Isoprene has significant effects on atmospheric chemistry, whereas other isoprenoids have diverse roles ranging from various biological processes to applications in commercial uses. Understanding the metabolic regulation of the MEP pathway is important considering the numerous applications of this pathway. The 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) enzyme was cloned from Populus trichocarpa, and the recombinant protein (PtDXS) was purified from Escherichia coli. The steady-state kinetic parameters were measured by a coupled enzyme assay. An LC-MS/MS-based assay involving the direct quantification of the end product of the enzymatic reaction, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP), was developed. The effect of different metabolites of the MEP pathway on PtDXS activity was tested. PtDXS was inhibited by IDP and DMADP. Both of these metabolites compete with thiamine pyrophosphate for binding with the enzyme. An atomic structural model of PtDXS in complex with thiamine pyrophosphate and Mg(2+) was built by homology modeling and refined by molecular dynamics simulations. The refined structure was used to model the binding of IDP and DMADP and indicated that IDP and DMADP might bind with the enzyme in a manner very similar to the binding of thiamine pyrophosphate. The feedback inhibition of PtDXS by IDP and DMADP constitutes an important mechanism of metabolic regulation of the MEP pathway and indicates that thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes may often be affected by IDP and DMADP.

  15. Phosphate Transport and Apoplastic Phosphate Homeostasis in Barley Leaves : GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT : MEMBRANES AND BIOENERGETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuro, Mimura; Zu-Hua, Yin; Eva, Wirth; Karl-Josef, Dietz; Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology:(Present)Tokyo Research Center, TOSOH Corporation; (Present)Institute fur Biochemische Pflanzenpathologie, GSF-Munchen; Lehrstuhl Botanik 1, Universitat Wurzburg, Mittlerer Dallenbergweg 64

    1992-01-01

    Levels of apoplastic inorganic phosphate (P_i) in leaves and P_i-transport activities of mesophyll cells were measured in situ in control and P_i-deficient plants. When detached leaves were fed a solution that contained 10 mM P_i, the apoplastic P_i levels, as measured by an infiltration method, remained almost constant. When the leaves were immersed in pure water, the apoplastic P_i level gradually decreased. With 50 mM P_i in the feeding solution, the level increased dramatically. The apopl...

  16. Evaluation of Creatine Kinase Activity and Inorganic Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Biochemical parameters vary in subjects with different hemoglobin phenotypes, compared with normal controls. Aim: The aim was to evaluate serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and inorganic phosphate concentrations in Nigerian adults with homozygous and heterozygous hemoglobin phenotypes.

  17. Reagentless phosphate ion sensor system for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Kurata, H.; Inoue, Y.; Shin, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of computer Science and Systems; Kubo, I. [Soka University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, H.; Ikebukuro, K.; Karube, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1998-06-05

    Phosphate ion sensor system using an electrochemical detector was developed by the use of recombinant pyruvate oxidase (PyOD) from Lactobacillus plantarum, which needs no addition of thiamine pyrophosphate and flavin adenine dinucleotide for reaction. This system could detect 2 nM hydrogen peroxide. Response time for phosphate ion was 80 s and total measurement time for one sample was 3 min. Citrate buffer solution (pH 6.3) was most suitable for the measurement and optimum flow rate was 0.6 ml/min. Under these optimum conditions minimum detection limit of phosphate ion was 15 nM, which was enough for the determination of phosphate ion in dam-lake. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Sorbents for phosphate removal from agricultural drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsie, Gry

    Subsurface transport of phosphate (P) from fertilized agricultural fields to freshwaters may lead to eutrophication and reduced biodiversity in inland waters. Mitigation of eutrophic waters is difficult and costly. Reduction of P export to surface waters using filters installed in agricultural......-through cells. Further, in order to improve our understanding of phosphate sorption reactions and kinetics for different types of commercial available PSMs, three different types were studied by means of isothermal titration calorimetry, sorption isotherms, sequential extractions and SEM-EDS. In conclusion......, of the materials investigated the results from phosphate sorption and desorption studies clearly demonstrate that regarding phosphate sorption affinity, capacity and reactivity, iron oxide based PSM is superior as a filter material compared to the other tested materials....

  19. Evaluation of the influence of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three biofertilizers nitrobein, phosphorein, and potash, containing nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing, and potash mobilizing microorganisms, respectively were studied in peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Amendment with each of these biofertilizers enhanced different growth ...

  20. Effect of various parameters on the efficiency of zinc phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Key words: Solubilization, zinc phosphate, carbon sources, Acinetobacter lwoffi, pseudomonas aeruginosa,. Bacillus thuringiensis. INTRODUCTION. Interactions between soil microbes and metal play a major role in environmental cycling processes because some processes like solubilization mobilize ...

  1. 3D printing of octacalcium phosphate bone substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Komlev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed octacalcium phosphate blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed octacalcium phosphates bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect’s diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient.

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Olatundun; Gbadero, Daniel; Edowhorhu, Grace; Brearley, Ann; Slusher, Tina; Lund, Troy C

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice...

  3. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Nigerian Children: e68800

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olatundun Williams; Daniel Gbadero; Grace Edowhorhu; Ann Brearley; Tina Slusher; Troy C Lund

    2013-01-01

      Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice...

  4. Effectiveness and cost-efficiency of phosphate binders in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsifkovits, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency in Germany was 91,718, of which 66,508 patients were on dialysis. The tendency is clearly growing. Scientific background: Chronic renal insufficiency results in a disturbance of the mineral balance. It leads to hyperphosphataemia, which is the strongest independent risk factor for mortality in renal patients. Usually, a reduction in the phosphate intake through nutrition and the amount of phosphate filtered out during dialysis are not sufficient to reduce the serum phosphate values to the recommended value. Therefore, phosphate binders are used to bind ingested phosphate in the digestive tract in order to lower the phosphate concentration in the serum. Four different groups of phosphate binders are available: calcium- and aluminium salts are the traditional therapies. Sevelamer and Lanthanum are recent developments on the market. In varying doses, all phosphate binders are able to effectively lower phosphate concentrations. However, drug therapies have achieved recommended phosphate levels in only 50 percent of patients during the last years. Research questions: How effective and efficient are the different phosphate binders in chronic renal insufficient patients? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,251 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 18 publications were included in the assessment. Results: All studies evaluated conclude that serum phosphate, serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone can be controlled effectively with all phosphate binders. Only the number of episodes of hypercalcaemia is higher when using calcium-containing phosphatebinders compared to Sevelamer and Lanthanum. Regarding the mortality rate, the cardiovascular artery calcification and bone metabolism no definite conclusions can be drawn. In any case, the amount of calcification at study start seems to be crucial for the further

  5. application of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate as a new voltammetric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ) using ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) as a new voltammetric substrate has been described in this paper. In the alkaline buffer solution the ALP enzymatic hydrolysis product of AAP was ascorbic acid (AA), which was an electro-active ...

  6. Phosphate adsorption using modified iron oxide-based sorbents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Phosphate Removal. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Lalley , J., C. Han , G. RamMohan , T. Speth , J. Garland , M. Nadagouda , and D....

  7. Origin and Development of Phosphate Minerals in Metamorphosed LL Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreeland, L.; Jones, R. H.

    2011-03-01

    We describe the occurrence of chlorapatite and merrillite in metamorphosed LL chondrites, including grain size distributions, mineral associations, and compositions. Development of phosphate minerals appears to postdate the peak of metamorphism.

  8. Indium doped niobium phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Qingfeng; Anfimova, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    that the indium doping promoted formation of the cubic Nb2P4O15 phase instead of the monoclinic Nb5P7O30 phase in the pristine niobium phosphates and enhanced the preservation of OH functional groups in the phosphates. The preserved OH functionalities in the phosphates after the heat treatment at 650 °C...... contributed to the anhydrous proton conductivity. The Nb0.9In0.1 phosphate exhibited a proton conductivity of five times higher than that of the un-doped analog at 250 °C. The conductivity was stabilized at a level of above 0.02 S cm−1 under dry atmosphere at 250 °C during the stability evaluation for 3 days....

  9. Stimulation of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Increased Extracellular Phosphate Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Voelkl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Anemia in renal insufficiency results in part from impaired erythrocyte formation due to erythropoietin and iron deficiency. Beyond that, renal insufficiency enhances eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be stimulated by increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i. Several uremic toxins have previously been shown to stimulate eryptosis. Renal insufficiency is further paralleled by increase of plasma phosphate concentration. The present study thus explored the effect of phosphate on erythrocyte death. Methods: Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, and [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence. Results: Following a 48 hours incubation, the percentage of phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes markedly increased as a function of extracellular phosphate concentration (from 0-5 mM. The exposure to 2 mM or 5 mM phosphate was followed by slight but significant hemolysis. [Ca2+]i did not change significantly up to 2 mM phosphate but significantly decreased at 5 mM phosphate. The effect of 2 mM phosphate on phosphatidylserine exposure was significantly augmented by increase of extracellular Ca2+ to 1.7 mM, and significantly blunted by nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+, by additional presence of pyrophosphate as well as by presence of p38 inhibitor SB203580. Conclusion: Increasing phosphate concentration stimulates erythrocyte membrane scrambling, an effect depending on extracellular but not intracellular Ca2+ concentration. It is hypothesized that suicidal erythrocyte death is triggered by complexed CaHPO4.

  10. Dental Composites with Calcium / Strontium Phosphates and Polylysine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaphong Panpisut

    Full Text Available This study developed light cured dental composites with added monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM, tristrontium phosphate (TSrP and antimicrobial polylysine (PLS. The aim was to produce composites that have enhanced water sorption induced expansion, can promote apatite precipitation and release polylysine.Experimental composite formulations consisted of light activated dimethacrylate monomers combined with 80 wt% powder. The powder phase contained a dental glass with and without PLS (2.5 wt% and/or reactive phosphate fillers (15 wt% TSrP and 10 wt% MCPM. The commercial composite, Z250, was used as a control. Monomer conversion and calculated polymerization shrinkage were assessed using FTIR. Subsequent mass or volume changes in water versus simulated body fluid (SBF were quantified using gravimetric studies. These were used, along with Raman and SEM, to assess apatite precipitation on the composite surface. PLS release was determined using UV spectroscopy. Furthermore, biaxial flexural strengths after 24 hours of SBF immersion were obtained.Monomer conversion of the composites decreased upon the addition of phosphate fillers (from 76 to 64% but was always higher than that of Z250 (54%. Phosphate addition increased water sorption induced expansion from 2 to 4% helping to balance the calculated polymerization shrinkage of ~ 3.4%. Phosphate addition promoted apatite precipitation from SBF. Polylysine increased the apatite layer thickness from ~ 10 to 20 μm after 4 weeks. The novel composites showed a burst release of PLS (3.7% followed by diffusion-controlled release irrespective of phosphate addition. PLS and phosphates decreased strength from 154 MPa on average by 17% and 18%, respectively. All formulations, however, had greater strength than the ISO 4049 requirement of > 80 MPa.The addition of MCPM with TSrP promoted hygroscopic expansion, and apatite formation. These properties are expected to help compensate polymerization shrinkage and

  11. Phosphate binding therapy in dialysis patients: focus on lanthanum carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail A Mohammed

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ismail A Mohammed, Alastair J HutchisonManchester Institute of Nephrology and Transplantation, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, UKAbstract: Hyperphosphatemia is an inevitable consequence of end stage chronic kidney disease and is present in the majority of dialysis patients. Recent observational data has associated hyperphosphatemia with increased cardiovascular mortality among dialysis patients. Dietary restriction of phosphate and current dialysis prescription practices are not enough to maintain serum phosphate levels within the recommended range so that the majority of dialysis patients require oral phosphate binders. Unfortunately, conventional phosphate binders are not reliably effective and are associated with a range of limitations and side effects. Aluminium-containing agents are highly efficient but no longer widely used because of well established and proven toxicity. Calcium based salts are inexpensive, effective and most widely used but there is now concern about their association with hypercalcemia and vascular calcification. Sevelamer hydrochloride is associated with fewer adverse effects, but a large pill burden and high cost are limiting factors to its wider use. In addition, the efficacy of sevelamer as a monotherapy in lowering phosphate to target levels in severe hyperphosphatemia remains debatable. Lanthanum carbonate is a promising new non-aluminium, calcium-free phosphate binder. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated a good safety profile, and it appears well tolerated and effective in reducing phosphate levels in dialysis patients. Its identified adverse events are apparently mild to moderate in severity and mostly GI related. It appears to be effective as a monotherapy, with a reduced pill burden, but like sevelamer, it is significantly more expensive than calcium-based binders. Data on its safety profile over 6 years of treatment are now available.Keywords: hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum

  12. Phosphate-Induced Immobilization of Uranium in Hanford Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zezhen; Giammar, Daniel E.; Mehta, Vrajesh; Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.; Wang, Zheming

    2016-12-20

    Phosphate can be added to subsurface environments to immobilize U(VI) contamination. The efficacy of immobilization depends on the site-specific groundwater chemistry and aquifer sediment properties. Batch and column experiments were performed with sediments from the Hanford 300 Area in Washington State and artificial groundwater prepared to emulate the conditions at the site. Batch experiments revealed enhanced U(VI) sorption with increasing phosphate addition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of samples from the batch experiments found that U(VI) was predominantly adsorbed at conditions relevant to the column experiments and most field sites (low U(VI) loadings, <25 μM), and U(VI) phosphate precipitation occurred only at high initial U(VI) (>25μM) and phosphate loadings. While batch experiments showed the transition of U(VI) uptake from adsorption to precipitation, the column study was more directly relevant to the subsurface environment because of the high solid:water ratio in the column and the advective flow of water. In column experiments, nearly six times more U(VI) was retained in sediments when phosphate-containing groundwater was introduced to U(VI)-loaded sediments than when the groundwater did not contain phosphate. This enhanced retention persisted for at least one month after cessation of phosphate addition to the influent fluid. Sequential extractions and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of sediments from the columns suggested that the retained U(VI) was primarily in adsorbed forms. These results indicate that in situ remediation of groundwater by phosphate addition provides lasting benefit beyond the treatment period via enhanced U(VI) adsorption to sediments.

  13. Phosphate-Induced Immobilization of Uranium in Hanford Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zezhen; Giammar, Daniel E.; Mehta, Vrajesh; Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.; Wang, Zheming

    2016-12-20

    Phosphate can be added to subsurface environments to immobilize U(VI) contamination. The efficacy of immobilization depends on the site-specific groundwater chemistry and aquifer sediment properties. Batch and column experiments were performed with sediments from the Hanford 300 Area in Washington State and artificial groundwater prepared to emulate the conditions at the site. Batch experiments revealed enhanced U(VI) sorption with increasing phosphate addition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of samples from the batch experiments found that U(VI) was predominantly adsorbed at conditions relevant to the column experiments and most field sites (low U(VI) loadings, <25 μM), and U(VI) phosphate precipitation occurred only at high initial U(VI) (>25 μM) and phosphate loadings. While batch experiments showed the transition of U(VI) uptake from adsorption to precipitation, the column study was more directly relevant to the subsurface environment because of the high solid:water ratio in the column and the advective flow of water. In column experiments, nearly six times more U(VI) was retained in sediments when phosphate-containing groundwater was introduced to U(VI)-loaded sediments than when the groundwater did not contain phosphate. This enhanced retention persisted for at least one month after cessation of phosphate addition to the influent fluid. Sequential extractions and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of sediments from the columns suggested that the retained U(VI) was primarily in adsorbed forms. These results indicate that in situ remediation of groundwater by phosphate addition provides lasting benefit beyond the treatment period via enhanced U(VI) adsorption to sediments.

  14. Antibacterial effects of commercially available phosphates on selected microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leona Buňková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry, phosphates, polyphosphates and their salts are used, for example, as emul­si­fying agents in the production of processed cheese. The inhibitory effects of three commercially avai­la­ble phosphates and polyphosphates differing in their chain length (690, S9 and HBS were tested on a set of 15 gram-positive or gram-negative CCM (Czech Collection of Microorganisms strains and on 12 bacterial strains isolated from processed cheeses. Five different concentrations of each phosphate were chosen (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% w/v in order to observe the inhibitory effects of the phosphate salts on the growth of the microorganisms tested. Sensitivity of the individual bacterial strains to phosphates was observed of a liquid cultivation medium which was supplemented with applied salts. Subsequently, the growth in cells was determined by measuring optical density at a wavelength of 600 nm. According to the results, 690 and S9 phosphates, containing mainly orthophosphates, diphosphates (pyrophosphates and short-chain polyphosphates, do not have a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of the tested bacteria. Significant inhibitory effects were observed only in HBS salt (a mixture of long-chain polyphosphates, which showed antibacterial effects on all gram-positive bacteria tested (both the CCM strains and those isolated from processed cheeses. The antibacterial effect of phosphates on gram-positive microorganisms is growing with the increasing length of the polyphosphate chain. This study has not proved a significant effect of the phosphates tested on the growth of gram-negative bacteria used.

  15. Phosphate recovery using calcium zeolite in ultrafiltration pilot plant

    OpenAIRE

    La Rotonda Ferrer, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important ecological problems is the eutrophication, this process consist in the uncontrolled growing of algae and phytoplankton, which can destroy entire aquatic ecosystems. The reason of this process is the excess of nutrients, as for example, phosphate coming from human activities. This project focus on the study of synthetic zeolites capacity to absorb phosphate from wastewater. Zeolites are porous minerals of the alumina-silicates family with high capacity ...

  16. Reasons for phosphate binder discontinuation vary by binder type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Steven; Anum, Emmanuel A; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Alfieri, Thomas; Braunhofer, Peter; Newsome, Britt

    2014-03-01

    Nonadherence to phosphate binder regimen is common among end-stage renal disease patients and contributes to elevated phosphorus levels. Pill burden, side effects, complex regimens, and cost all contribute to nonadherence. We retrospectively analyzed reasons for discontinuation in hemodialysis patients receiving treatment at a large U.S. dialysis organization to better understand the drivers of nonadherence for particular phosphate binders. Patient electronic medical records were reviewed to identify phosphate binder prescriptions and reasons for discontinuation. Reasons for discontinuation were categorized and the percentage of patients on each type of phosphate binder was calculated within categories. Medicare patients of age ≥18 years, receiving in-center hemodialysis treatment between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011, were included in the analysis. We classified 30,933 patient records with a stated reason for phosphate binder discontinuation for this study. Of these records, 50.1% cited that the patient discontinued the phosphate binder but contained no additional information; "lab results" were cited for 27.4% of the reasons for discontinuation and "patient-reported side effects" for 10.8%. Although patients on lanthanum carbonate accounted for 14% of the total number reasons for discontinuation assessed, they comprised 40% of the "patient-reported side effects" category and were similarly overrepresented in 4 of the 5 subcategories. The high percentage of patient-reported side effects resulting in discontinuation identifies an unmet need for improved phosphate binders. A disproportionate percentage of patients prescribed lanthanum carbonate reported side effects, however further work is needed to identify the relative tolerability of phosphate binders and potential explanations. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mars-relevant phosphate minerals and implications for Martian habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Christopher T.

    This dissertation is comprised of three studies focused on martian phosphate availability, with an introductory chapter introducing and linking the three studies. Chapter two is on the subject of merrillite synthesis. Merrillite is an extraterrestrial Ca-phosphate mineral similar to the mineral whitlockite and is found as a dominant primary phosphate mineral in martian meteorites. The chapter includes methods of whitlockite and merrillite synthesis as well as a detailed characterization of the produced minerals and a mechanism by which charge balance can be maintained when merrillite is synthesized through dehydrogenation of whitlockite. Chapter three presents the results of kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the Mars-relevant minerals chlorapatite and merrillite, as well as the more terrestrially-relevant minerals whitlockite and fluorapatite. The results of these studies indicate that the dominant primary Ca-phosphate minerals on Mars possess higher solubilities that could lead to more than twice the phosphate concentration in solution. Dissolution rates for the Mars-relevant minerals derived in the study, when combined with the higher martian phosphorus abundance, could result in phosphate release rates of up to 45x faster for a given set of aqueous conditions on Mars when compared to Earth. The implications of the results for past or present martian habitability are discussed. In Chapter four, reactive transport modeling was applied to investigate the transport and mobility of phosphate under martian conditions. The kinetic and thermodynamic data derived in Chapter three were combined with Mars mission data, results from an investigation of Mars analog basalts at Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho, and previously published data to inform a reactive transport code and model dissolution profiles measured by Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit in Wishstone class rocks. The modeling results suggest phosphate release into near-neutral waters occurred

  18. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  19. Phosphate availability in the soil-root system : integration of oxide surface chemistry, transport and uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    A study is presented on the adsorption of phosphate on goethite, the interaction of phosphate with other adsorbing ions at the goethite surface, and the resulting availability of phosphate to plants. The plant-availability of sorbed phosphate was determined from phosphorus uptake of plants

  20. Study of Phosphating Process for Artillery Pipes Subjected to Mechanical Self-shrinkage with Mandrel

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Ciorba

    2013-01-01

    This paper present the results of a study that was made to establish the optimal parameters of phosphating process for artillery pipes. The optimal parameters that were determined after analysis are: the temperature of phosphating solution respectively the holding time in the phosphate bathroom to obtain a maximum thickness of phosphate layer.

  1. Study of Phosphating Process for Artillery Pipes Subjected to Mechanical Self-shrinkage with Mandrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ciorba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the results of a study that was made to establish the optimal parameters of phosphating process for artillery pipes. The optimal parameters that were determined after analysis are: the temperature of phosphating solution respectively the holding time in the phosphate bathroom to obtain a maximum thickness of phosphate layer.

  2. International symposium on cellular and molecular biology of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds in microorganisms: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at the conference. Attention is focused on the following topics: regulation of phosphate metabolism in bacteria; structure-function of alkaline phosphatase; regulation of phosphate metabolism in yeast; transport of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds; and phosphate regulation in pathogenesis and secondary metabolism.

  3. Phosphate Framework Electrode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yongjin; Zhang, Jiexin; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi

    2017-05-01

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a promising alternative for the next generation of electric storage systems due to their similar electrochemistry to Li-ion batteries and the low cost of sodium resources. Exploring appropriate electrode materials with decent electrochemical performance is the key issue for development of sodium ion batteries. Due to the high structural stability, facile reaction mechanism and rich structural diversity, phosphate framework materials have attracted increasing attention as promising electrode materials for sodium ion batteries. Herein, we review the latest advances and progresses in the exploration of phosphate framework materials especially related to single-phosphates, pyrophosphates and mixed-phosphates. We provide the detailed and comprehensive understanding of structure-composition-performance relationship of materials and try to show the advantages and disadvantages of the materials for use in SIBs. In addition, some new perspectives about phosphate framework materials for SIBs are also discussed. Phosphate framework materials will be a competitive and attractive choice for use as electrodes in the next-generation of energy storage devices.

  4. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentov, Shmuel; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Tynyakov, Jenny; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir

    2016-02-24

    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates specialized structures in which a layer of calcium phosphate, frequently in the form of crystalline fluorapatite, is mounted over a calcareous "jaw". From a functional perspective, the co-existence of carbonate and phosphate mineralization demonstrates a biomineralization system that provides a versatile route to control the physico-chemical properties of skeletal elements. This system enables the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate, amorphous calcium phosphate, calcite and apatite at various skeletal locations, as well as combinations of these minerals, to form graded composites materials. This study demonstrates the widespread occurrence of the dual mineralization strategy in the Malacostraca, suggesting that in terms of evolution, this feature of phosphatic teeth did not evolve independently in the different groups but rather represents an early common trait.

  5. Phosphate solubilization as a microbial strategy for promoting plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eleonora Beltrán Pineda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the constant application of chemical inputs in Agroecosystem, the cost of crop production and environmental quality of soil and water have been affected. Microorganisms carry out most biogeochemical cycles; therefore, their role is essential for agro ecosystem balance. One such functional group is the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, which are recognized plant growth promoters. These microbial populations perform an important activity, since in many soils there are large reserves of insoluble phosphorus, as a result of fixing much of the phosphorus fertilizer applied, which cannot be assimilated by the plant. The phosphate solubilizing microorganisms use different solubilization mechanisms such as the production of organic acids, which solubilize theses insoluble phosphates in the rhizosphere region. Soluble phosphates are absorbed by the plant, which enhances their growth and productivity. By using these phosphate reserves in soils, application of chemical fertilizers is decreased, on the one hand, can again be fixed by ions Ca, Al or Fe making them insoluble and, by the other hand, increase the costs of crop production. Microbial populations have been widely studied in different types of ecosystems, both natural and Agroecosystem. Thanks to its effectiveness, in laboratory and field studies, the phosphate solubilizing phenotype is of great interest to microbial ecologists who have begun to establish the molecular basis of the traitr.

  6. Sphingosine-1 phosphate prevents ethanol-induced corneal epithelial apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Fournie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apoptosis is a programmed cell death in multicellular organisms, found in a wide variety of conditions, including inflammatory process, everywhere in the body, including the cornea and conjunctiva. Aim: To evaluate the effect of a new topical formulation of sphingosine-1 phosphate on preventing apoptosis of the corneal epithelium. Setting: Medical University. Materials and Methods: We tested several formulations suitable for topical application. Twenty-five rabbits were distributed among five groups. Group 1 comprised the controls. In Group 2, 20% ethanol was applied topically for 20 seconds; in Group 3, 50 μM topical sphingosine-1 phosphate was applied 2 hours prior to 20% ethanol application. In Group 4, 200 μM topical sphingosine-1 phosphate was applied 2 hours before the 20% ethanol application. In Group 5, only 200 μM topical sphingosine-1 phosphate was applied. Apoptosis was evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL assay. Pairwise comparisons were performed using t-tests with Scheffe′s correction. Data were analyzed using STATA 9.0 statistical software. Results: A suspension of sphingosine-1 phosphate in the presence of Montanox 80 was stable and could be formulated without sonication. Epithelial apoptosis was detected only in Groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: Sphingosine-1 phosphate can prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis in the corneal epithelium of rabbits.

  7. Mineralisation of two phosphate ceramics in HBSS: role of albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, P A A P; Serro, A P; Saramago, B J; Fernandes, A C; Magalhães, M C F; Correia, R N

    2003-02-01

    The role of albumin in the mineralisation process of commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp) and synthesised biphasic (HAp-tricalcium phosphate) ceramics in a bufferless simulated inorganic plasma (HBSS) was investigated by conventional in vitro tests and static and dynamic wettability measurements. Albumin was either pre-adsorbed or solubilised in HBSS. It was found that calcium complexation by albumin plays a key role in early mineralisation kinetics, so that mineralisation is favoured when albumin is pre-adsorbed and hindered when it is dissolved in HBSS. In the biphasic ceramic this picture is complicated by the fact that albumin, in solution, seems to promote the dissolution of tricalcium phosphate, and simultaneously compete for calcium with the ceramic. It also appears that albumin has a stabilising effect of octacalcium phosphate present in deposits on commercial HAp. The same effect may be present in the case of the biphasic ceramic, at earlier mineralisation times, when octacalcium phosphate appears as a precursor of HAp. Octacalcium phosphate formation on commercial apatite is accompanied by carbonate substitution in phosphate positions.

  8. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) have several advantages that make them ideal candidates for containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. In general, phosphates have high solid-solution capacities for incorporating radionuclides, as evidenced by several phosphates (e.g., monazites and apatites) that are natural analogs of radioactive and rare-earth elements. The phosphates have high radiation stability, are refractory, and will not degrade in the presence of internal heating by fission products. Dense and hard CBPCs can be fabricated inexpensively and at low temperature by acid-base reactions between an inorganic oxide/hydroxide powder and either phosphoric acid or an acid-phosphate solution. The resulting phosphates are extremely insoluble in aqueous media and have excellent long-term durability. CBPCs offer the dual stabilization mechanisms of chemical fixation and physical encapsulation, resulting in superior waste forms. The goal of this task is develop and demonstrate the feasibility of CBPCs for S/S of wastes containing fission products. The focus of this work is to develop a low-temperature CBPC immobilization system for eluted {sup 99}Tc wastes from sorption processes.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Phosphates for Photocatalytic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sabban, Bedour

    2012-07-01

    Solar energy is the most abundant efficient and important source of renewable energy. The objective of this study is to develop highly efficient visible light responsive photocatalysts for overall water splitting. This is done by using silver or copper containing materials. Phosphate compounds have caught much attention due to their rigid structure, thermal stability and resistance to chemical attacks. Solid phosphates can be prepared by direct solid-state reaction between metal cations and phosphate anions at high temperatures. Double metal phosphates of the Nasion-type structure had shown further technological importance. It has been reported that well-crystallized double metal phosphate particles have excellent ordering and cationic conduction channels in the Nasicon framework. In this study, several Nasion-type structured materials have been synthesized by solid-state method (e.g. CuTi2(PO4)3 and AgTi2(PO4)3) heated up under different temperatures (400–1100C) in N2 or air atmosphere. These materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy and tested for photocatalytic applications. A new method for direct synthesis of photoelectrode on Ti Plate had been demonstrated. Further investigations on controlling the size and morphology for better performance of single and double metal phosphates will be done.

  10. Solubility of Calcium Phosphate in Concentrated Dairy Effluent Brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezia, K; Lee, J; Zisu, B; Chen, G Q; Gras, S L; Kentish, S E

    2017-05-24

    The solubility of calcium phosphate in concentrated dairy brine streams is important in understanding mineral scaling on equipment, such as membrane modules, evaporators, and heat exchangers, and in brine pond operation. In this study, the solubility of calcium phosphate has been assessed in the presence of up to 300 g/L sodium chloride as well as lactose, organic acids, and anions at 10, 30, and 50 °C. As a neutral molecule, lactose has a marginal but still detectable effect upon calcium solubility. However, additions of sodium chloride up to 100 g/L result in a much greater increase in calcium solubility. Beyond this point, the concentrations of ions in the solution decrease significantly. These changes in calcium solubility can readily be explained through changes in the activity coefficients. There is little difference in calcium phosphate speciation between 10 and 30 °C. However, at 50 °C, the ratio of calcium to phosphate in the solution is lower than at the other temperatures and varies less with ionic strength. While the addition of sodium lactate has less effect upon calcium solubility than sodium citrate, it still has a greater effect than sodium chloride at an equivalent ionic strength. Conversely, when these organic anions are present in the solution in the acid form, the effect of pH dominates and results in much higher solubility and a calcium/phosphate ratio close to one, indicative of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as the dominant solid phase.

  11. Intracellular alkalinization by phosphate uptake via type III sodium-phosphate cotransporter participates in high-phosphate-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and defective insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet Thi; Quan, Xianglan; Xu, Shanhua; Das, Ranjan; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Kong, In Deok; Shong, Minho; Wollheim, Claes B; Park, Kyu-Sang

    2016-12-01

    Elevated plasma levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) are harmful, causing, among other complications, vascular calcification and defective insulin secretion. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these complications remain poorly understood. We demonstrated the role of Pi transport across the plasmalemma on Pi toxicity in INS-1E rat clonal β cells and rat pancreatic islet cells. Type III sodium-phosphate cotransporters (NaPis) are the predominant Pi transporters expressed in insulin-secreting cells. Transcript and protein levels of sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 1 and 2 (PiT-1 and -2), isotypes of type III NaPi, were up-regulated by high-Pi incubation. In patch-clamp experiments, extracellular Pi elicited a Na(+)-dependent, inwardly rectifying current, which was markedly reduced under acidic extracellular conditions. Cellular uptake of Pi elicited cytosolic alkalinization; intriguingly, this pH change facilitated Pi transport into the mitochondrial matrix. Increased mitochondrial Pi uptake accelerated superoxide generation, mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated translational attenuation, leading to reduced insulin content and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Silencing of PiT-1/2 prevented Pi-induced superoxide generation and mPT, and restored insulin secretion. We propose that Pi transport across the plasma membrane and consequent cytosolic alkalinization could be a therapeutic target for protection from Pi toxicity in insulin-secreting cells, as well as in other cell types.-Nguyen, T. T., Quan, X., Xu, S., Das, R., Cha, S.-K., Kong, I. D., Shong, M., Wollheim, C. B., Park, K.-S. Intracellular alkalinization by phosphate uptake via type III sodium-phosphate cotransporter participates in high-phosphate-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and defective insulin secretion. © FASEB.

  12. Comparison of Flow-Through Cell and Paddle Methods for Testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    potassium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium hydroxide and disodium hydrogen phosphate were obtained from Chempur, Piekary Slaskie,. Poland. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was ... monohydrate, potato starch, adipic acid, sodium bicarbonate, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium dodecyl sulphate.

  13. Dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate - an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylates to zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Tay, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Huaiqin; Tian, Fucong; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-12-01

    The present work examined the effects of dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate (PENTA) as an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylate-based resins to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and further investigated the potential bonding mechanism involved. Shear bond strength testing was performed to evaluate the efficacy of experimental PENTA-containing primers (5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 wt% PENTA in acetone) in improving resin-Y-TZP bond strength. Bonding without the use of a PENTA-containing served as the negative control, and a Methacryloyloxidecyl dihydrogenphosphate(MDP)-containing primer was used as the positive control. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to investigate the potential existence of chemical affinity between PENTA and Y-TZP. Shear bond strengths were significant higher in the 15 and 20 wt% PENTA groups. The ICP-MS, XPS and FTIR data indicated that the P content on the Y-TZP surface increased as the concentration of PENTA increased in the experimental primers, via the formation of Zr-O-P bond. Taken together, the results attest that PENTA improves resin bonding of Y-TZP through chemical reaction with Y-TZP. Increasing the concentration of PENTA augments its binding affinity but not its bonding efficacy with zirconia.

  14. A 4-year treatment with clodronate plus calcium and vitamin D supplements does not improve bone mass in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreani, A; Carderi, I; Ferrara, F; Rizzotto, E R; Luisetto, G; Camozzi, V; Baldo, V

    2007-06-01

    International guidelines for managing osteoporosis in cirrhosis or severe cholestasis indicate a <-2.5 t-score as a cut-off for medical treatment, while no treatment is recommended in the case of osteopenia (t-scores ranging from -1.0 to -2.5). We conducted a prospective study in primary biliary cirrhosis with a view to optimizing the rationale for the medical treatment of bone loss. All naïve post-menopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis were enrolled in the study. Bone metabolism was evaluated by measuring 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine by dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry at the baseline and every 2 years for up to 4 years. Patients with either osteopenia or osteoporosis received the following treatment: oral calcium carbonate (1000 mg/day)+vitamin D3 (880 IU/day)+i.m. disodium clodronate 100mg every 10 days for 4 years. Ninety-six patients completed the study: 30 had a normal bone mineral density (group 1), 37 had osteopenia (group 2), 29 had osteoporosis (group 3). No significant differences in biochemical parameters of bone metabolism were observed between the three groups. A total of 288 bone mineral density measurements were taken. Linear regression analysis failed to reveal significant changes in t-score over the follow-up in all groups. A 4-year treatment with clodronate+calcium/vitamin D3 supplements does not significantly improve osteoporosis or osteopenia in primary biliary cirrhosis women in menopause, but prevents the natural bone loss in these patients. Extensive international trials are warranted to optimize the prevention and treatment of bone loss in primary biliary cirrhosis.

  15. Structure of escherichia coli ribose-5-phosphate isomerase : a ubiquitous enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.; Andersson, C. E.; Savchenko, A.; Skarina, T.; Evdokimova, E.; Beasley, S.; Arrowsmith, C. H.; Edwards, A.; Joachimiak, A.; Mowbray, S. L.; Biosciences Division; Uppsala Univ.; Univ. Health Network; Univ. of Toronto; Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences

    2003-01-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase A (RpiA; EC 5.3.1.6) interconverts ribose-5-phosphate and ribulose-5-phosphate. This enzyme plays essential roles in carbohydrate anabolism and catabolism; it is ubiquitous and highly conserved. The structure of RpiA from Escherichia coli was solved by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) phasing, and refined to 1.5 Angstroms resolution (R factor 22.4%, R{sub free} 23.7%). RpiA exhibits an {alpha}/{beta}/({alpha}/{beta})/{beta}/{alpha} fold, some portions of which are similar to proteins of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. The two subunits of the dimer in the asymmetric unit have different conformations, representing the opening/closing of a cleft. Active site residues were identified in the cleft using sequence conservation, as well as the structure of a complex with the inhibitor arabinose-5-phosphate at 1.25 A resolution. A mechanism for acid-base catalysis is proposed.

  16. Variation of crystal structure of hydroxyapatite in calcium phosphate cement by the substitution of strontium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiupeng; Ye, Jiandong

    2008-03-01

    New routes were used to introduce strontium into calcium phosphate cement in the present article. The study showed that by mixing 50 wt% amorphous calcium phosphate + amorphous strontium phosphate and 50 wt% dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, hydroxyapatite and Sr-hydroxyapatite precipitated separately in the hydrated cement; whereas, by mixing 50 wt% Sr- amorphous calcium phosphate and 50 wt% dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, strontium can be doped into hydroxyapatite lattice and increase the lattice dimensions and lattice volume. The strontium substituted calcium phosphate cement has potential for use in orthopedic surgeries.

  17. The effects of oral Cardax (disodium disuccinate astaxanthin) on multiple independent oxidative stress markers in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model: influence on 5-lipoxygenase in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Samuel F; Penn, Marc S; Hazen, Stanley L; Bikádi, Zsolt; Zsila, Ferenc

    2006-06-06

    Disodium disuccinate astaxanthin ('rac'-dAST; Cardax) is a water-dispersible C40 carotenoid derivative under development for oral and parenteral administration for cardioprotection of the at-risk ischemic cardiovascular patient. In experimental infarction models in animals (rats, rabbits, and dogs), significant myocardial salvage has been obtained, up to 100% at the appropriate dose in dogs. The documented mechanism of action in vitro includes direct scavenging of biologically produced superoxide anion; in vivo in rabbits, modulation of the complement activity of serum has also been shown. A direct correlation between administration of the test compound in animals and reductions of multiple, independent markers of oxidative stress in serum was recently obtained in a rat experimental infarction model. For the current study, it was hypothesized that oral Cardax administration would inhibit oxidative damage of multiple relevant biological targets in a representative, well-characterized murine peritoneal inflammation model. A previously developed mass spectrometry-based (LC/ESI/MS/MS) approach was used to interrogate multiple distinct pathways of oxidation in a black mouse (C57/BL6) model system. In vivo markers of oxidant stress from peritoneal lavage samples (supernatants) were evaluated in mice on day eight (8) after treatment with either Cardax or vehicle (lipophilic emulsion without drug) orally by gavage at 500 mg/kg once per day for seven (7) days at five (5) time points: (1) baseline prior to treatment (t=0); (2) 16 h following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with thioglycollate to elicit a neutrophilic infiltrate; (3) 4 h following i.p. injection of yeast cell wall (zymosan; t=16 h/4 h thioglycollate+zymosan); (4) 72 h following i.p. injection with thioglycollate to elicit monocyte/macrophage infiltration; and (5) 72 h/4 h thioglycollate+zymosan. A statistically significant sparing effect on the arachidonic acid (AA) and linoleic acid (LA) substrates was

  18. PHOSPHATE CRYSTALLURIA IN VARIOUS FORMS OF UROLITHIASIS AND POSSIBILITIES OF ITS PROGNOSTICATION IN PATIENTS WITH PHOSPHATE STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Konstantinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition of types of crystalluria in various forms of urolithiasis and biochemical signs of phosphate crystals in the urine, while phosphate urolithiasis (infectious origin.Patients and methods. The study involved 144 patients with recurrent urolithiasis — 75 women and 69 men. Of these, 46 — diagnosed calculi with uric acid, 44 — calcium oxalate or mixed with a prevalence of calcium oxalate, in 54 — phosphate rocks (carbonate-apatite and/or struvite. The age of patients ranged from 21 to 74 years. 93 people have been under long-term, within 2–15 years, outpatient observation. The examination included the collection of anamnesis, general and microbiological analysis of urine, biochemical blood serum and urine on 10 indicators, reflecting renal function, state of the protein, water and electrolyte metabolism, uric acid metabolism, the chemical composition of the stone analysis.Results. It was found that in patients with calcium oxalate stones phosphaturia has been diagnosed in 2% of cases. And, along with calcium phosphate crystals they had oxalate crystals. In patients with phosphate urolithiasis phosphaturia observed in 96% of patients, in two patients (4% they determined except phosphates also oxalate salt in urine sediment. Patients with phosphate urolithiasis at occurrence of phosphate crystalluria have metabolic state changes: increased serum uric acid concentration from 0.322 ± 0.009 to 0.367 ± 0.018 mmol/l daily renal excretion of inorganic phosphate 23.94 ± 2.93 mmol/day to 32.12 ± 4.39 mmol/day, and reduced total calcium content in urine 6.61 ± 0.94 mmol/day to 3.37 ± 0.89 mmol/day. The results led to the following conclusion.Conclusion. Biochemical signs of occurrence of phosphate crystalluria in patients with stones of infectious origin can be: the approaching level of excretion in the urine of inorganic phosphates to 32,12 ± 4,39 mmol/day, serum uric acid concentration to 0,367 ± 0,018 mmol/l, and the

  19. Peripheral SLC6A4 Gene Expression in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the Han Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Wen; Yu, Shunying; Wang, Zhen; Xiao, Zeping

    2017-06-25

    Serotonergic system dysfunction has been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study examined peripheral SLC6A4 gene expression in OCD patients and healthy controls to explore the relationship between SLC6A4 and OCD. Participants included 50 first episode OCD patients and 60 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Relative SLC6A4 gene expression were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in peripheral leukocytes of all the subjects. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to assess the severity and subtype of OCD. SLC6A4 gene expression, normalized by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), were not significantly different between the OCD patients and healthy controls(z=-0.79, p=0.428). Male OCD patients showed a tendency of low gene expression of SLC6A4 in peripheral blood (z=-1.66, p=0.096). We did not find a significant correlation between SLC6A4 expression and the severity and subtype of OCD. There is no correlation between SLC6A4 expression levels and the severity and subtype of OCD, but male OCD patients showed a tendency of low gene expression of SLC6A4 in peripheral blood. These results suggest that gene expression of SLC6A4 in peripheral blood may not be a useful biomarker of OCD in the Han Chinese population.

  20. Distinct generation, pharmacology, and distribution of sphingosine 1-phosphate and dihydro-sphingosine 1-phosphate in human neural progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-vivo and in-vitro studies suggest a crucial role for Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors in the development of the nervous system. Dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate (dhS1P), a reduced form of S1P, is an active ligand at S1P receptors, but the pharmacology and physiology of dhS1P has not...

  1. A phosphate transporter from the root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica plays a role in phosphate transport to the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikas; Kumar, Manoj; Deep, Deepak Kumar; Kumar, Hemant; Sharma, Ruby; Tripathi, Takshashila; Tuteja, Narendra; Saxena, Ajay Kumar; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2010-08-20

    Because pure cultures and a stable transformation system are not available for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the role of their phosphate transporters for the symbiotic interaction with the plant up till now could not be studied. Here we report the cloning and the functional analysis of a gene encoding a phosphate transporter (PiPT) from the root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica, which can be grown axenically. The PiPT polypeptide belongs to the major facilitator superfamily. Homology modeling reveals that PiPT exhibits twelve transmembrane helices divided into two halves connected by a large hydrophilic loop in the middle. The function of the protein encoded by PiPT was confirmed by complementation of a yeast phosphate transporter mutant. The kinetic analysis of PiPT (K(m) 25 mum) reveals that it belongs to the high affinity phosphate transporter family (Pht1). Expression of PiPT was localized to the external hyphae of P. indica colonized with maize plant root, which suggests that external hyphae are the initial site of phosphate uptake from the soil. To understand the physiological role of PiPT, knockdown transformants of the gene were prepared using electroporation and RNA interference. Knockdown transformants transported a significantly lower amount of phosphate to the host plant than wild-type P. indica. Higher amounts of phosphate were found in plants colonized with wild-type P. indica than that of non-colonized and plants colonized with knockdown PiPT P. indica. These observations suggest that PiPT is actively involved in the phosphate transportation and, in turn, P. indica helps improve the nutritional status of the host plant.

  2. Isolation and identification of a phosphate solubilising fungus from soil of a phosphate mine in Chaluse, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Jamshidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilisation of phosphorus from insoluble phosphates is an environmental friendly and cost effective approach in sustainable soil management. Introducing the indigenous microorganisms to soil requires shorter adaptation period and causes fewer ecological distortions than exogenous microorganisms. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the indigenous fungi for phosphate solubilisation in Mazandaran, Iran. A potent phosphate solubilising fungus was isolated from an Iranian phosphate mine and selected for solubilisation of rock phosphate (RP. The identified fungus was characterised by calmodulin-based polymerase chain reaction method as Aspergillus tubingensis SANRU (Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. The phosphate solubilisation ability of the fungal strain was carried out in shake-flask leaching experiments containing various concentrations of RP (1%, 2%, 4%, or 8% w/v. The maximum P solubilisation rate of 347 mg/l was achieved at 1% of RP concentration on day 9. The regression analysis indicated that the P solubilised mainly through acidification. This study shows the possibility of using A. tubingensis SANRU for application in the management of P fertilisation.

  3. Intestinal Npt2b Plays a Major Role in Phosphate Absorption and Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh, Yves; O'Brien, Stephen P.; Song, Wenping; Boulanger, Joseph H; Stockmann, Adam; Arbeeny, Cynthia; Schiavi, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal phosphate absorption occurs through both a paracellular mechanism involving tight junctions and an active transcellular mechanism involving the type II sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter NPT2b (SLC34a2). To define the contribution of NPT2b to total intestinal phosphate absorption, we generated an inducible conditional knockout mouse, Npt2b−/− (Npt2bfl/fl:Cre+/−). Npt2b−/− animals had increased fecal phosphate excretion and hypophosphaturia, but serum phosphate remained unchan...

  4. THE EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ACCUMULATION ON METAL ION HOMEOSTASIS IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenfeld, Leah; Reddi, Amit R.; Leung, Edison; Aranda, Kimberly; Jensen, Laran T.; Culotta, Valeria C.

    2010-01-01

    Much of what is currently understood about the cell biology of metals involves their interactions with proteins. By comparison, little is known about metal interactions with intracellular inorganic compounds such as phosphate. Here we examined the role of phosphate in metal metabolism in vivo by genetically perturbing the phosphate content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Yeast pho80 mutants cannot sense phosphate and have lost control of phosphate uptake, storage and metabolism. We report ...

  5. The Effect of Phosphate Coatings on Fatigue Crack Initiation in Quenched and Tempered Low Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    zinc and manganese phosphate on fatigue life to crack initiation was determined at two levels of applied stress, selected to... manganese phosphate or zinc phosphate which is then given a supplementary coating such as oil or solid film lubricant. The manganese phosphate is typically...surface with phosphate ( zinc or manganese ) has on the initiation of fatigue cracks in a representative high strength cannon steel. This report descries

  6. A Multiheteroatom [3,3]-Sigmatropic Rearrangement: Disproportionative Entries into 2-(N-Heteroaryl)methyl Phosphates and α-Keto Phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongkang; Qu, Chen; Chen, Xiaolan; Sun, Kai; Qu, Lingbo; Bi, Wenzhu; Hu, Hao; Li, Rui; Jing, Chunfeng; Wei, Donghui; Wei, Shengkai; Sun, Yuanqiang; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Yufen

    2017-11-03

    A novel multiheteroatom (N, O and P) [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement is disclosed, based on two important types of organophosphates, 2-(N-heteroaryl) methyl phosphates and α-keto phosphates, being accessed smoothly and efficiently.

  7. Phosphate Tether-Mediated Ring-Closing Metathesis for the Generation of Medium to Large, P-Stereogenic Bicyclo[n.3.1]phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Soma; Markley, Jana L; Chegondi, Rambabu; Hanson, Paul R

    2015-09-02

    A phosphate tether-mediated ring-closing metathesis study towards the synthesis of P-stereogenic bicyclo[6.3.1]-, bicyclo[7.3.1]-, and bicyclo[8.3.1]phosphates is reported. This study demonstrates expanded utility of phosphate tether-mediated desymmetrization of C2-symmetric, 1,3-anti-diol dienes in generating complex medium to large, P-stereogenic bicyclo[n.3.1]phosphates..

  8. Phosphate binding protein as the biorecognition element in a biosensor for phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salins, Lyndon L E.; Deo, Sapna K.; Daunert, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This work explores the potential use of a member of the periplasmic family of binding proteins, the phosphate binding protein (PBP), as the biorecognition element in a sensing scheme for the detection of inorganic phosphate (Pi). The selectivity of this protein originates from its natural role which, in Escherichia coli, is to serve as the initial receptor for the highly specific translocation of Pi to the cytoplasm. The single polypeptide chain of PBP is folded into two similar domains connected by three short peptide linkages that serve as a hinge. The Pi binding site is located deep within the cleft between the two domains. In the presence of the ligand, the two globular domains engulf the former in a hinge-like manner. The resultant conformational change constitutes the basis of the sensor development. A mutant of PBP (MPBP), where an alanine was replaced by a cysteine residue, was prepared by site-directed mutagenesis using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mutant was expressed, from plasmid pSD501, in the periplasmic space of E. coli and purified in a single chromatographic step on a perfusion anion-exchange column. Site-specific labeling was achieved by attaching the fluorophore, N-[2-(1-maleimidyl)ethyl]-7-(diethylamino)coumarin-3-carboxamide (MDCC), to the protein through the sulfhydryl group of the cysteine moiety. Steady-state fluorescence studies of the MPBP-MDCC conjugate showed a change in the intensity of the signal upon addition of Pi. Calibration curves for Pi were constructed by relating the intensity of the fluorescence signal with the amount of analyte present in the sample. The sensing system was first developed and optimized on a spectrofluorometer using ml volumes of sample. It was then adapted to be used on a microtiter plate arrangement with microliter sample volumes. The system's versatility was finally proven by developing a fiber optic fluorescence-based sensor for monitoring Pi. In all three cases the detection limits for the

  9. Iron phosphate glasses: Bulk properties and atomic scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Kitheri; Stennett, Martin C.; Hyatt, Neil C.; Asuvathraman, R.; Dube, Charu L.; Gandy, Amy S.; Govindan Kutty, K. V.; Jolley, Kenny; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.; Smith, Roger

    2017-10-01

    Bulk properties such as glass transition temperature, density and thermal expansion of iron phosphate glass compositions, with replacement of Cs by Ba, are investigated as a surrogate for the transmutation of 137Cs to 137Ba, relevant to the immobilisation of Cs in glass. These studies are required to establish the appropriate incorporation rate of 137Cs in iron phosphate glass. Density and glass transition temperature increases with the addition of BaO indicating the shrinkage and reticulation of the iron phosphate glass network. The average thermal expansion coefficient reduces from 19.8 × 10-6 K-1 to 13.4 × 10-6 K-1, when 25 wt. % of Cs2O was replaced by 25 wt. % of BaO in caesium loaded iron phosphate glass. In addition to the above bulk properties, the role of Ba as a network modifier in the structure of iron phosphate glass is examined using various spectroscopic techniques. The FeII content and average coordination number of iron in the glass network was estimated using Mössbauer spectroscopy. The FeII content in the un-doped iron phosphate glass and barium doped iron phosphate glasses was 20, 21 and 22 ± 1% respectively and the average Fe coordination varied from 5.3 ± 0.2 to 5.7 ± 0.2 with increasing Ba content. The atomic scale structure was further probed by Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The average coordination number provided by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure was in good agreement with that given by the Mössbauer data.

  10. Phosphate-enhanced cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles and agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, W Neil; Chern, Christina; Sun, Dazhi; McMahon, Rebecca E; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Hahn, Mariah S; Sue, H-J

    2014-02-10

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to readily react with phosphate ions to form zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) crystallites. Because phosphates are ubiquitous in physiological fluids as well as waste water streams, it is important to examine the potential effects that the formation of Zn3(PO4)2 crystallites may have on cell viability. Thus, the cytotoxic response of NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells was assessed following 24h of exposure to ZnO NPs suspended in media with and without the standard phosphate salt supplement. Both particle dosage and size have been shown to impact the cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs, so doses ranging from 5 to 50 μg/mL were examined and agglomerate size effects were investigated by using the bioinert amphiphilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to generate water-soluble ZnO ranging from individually dispersed 4 nm NPs up to micron-sized agglomerates. Cell metabolic activity measures indicated that the presence of phosphate in the suspension media can led to significantly reduced cell viability at all agglomerate sizes and at lower ZnO dosages. In addition, a reduction in cell viability was observed when agglomerate size was decreased, but only in the phosphate-containing media. These metabolic activity results were reflected in separate measures of cell death via the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Our results suggest that, while higher doses of water-soluble ZnO NPs are cytotoxic, the presence of phosphates in the surrounding fluid can lead to significantly elevated levels of cell death at lower ZnO NP doses. Moreover, the extent of this death can potentially be modulated or offset by tuning the agglomerate size. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how nanoscale materials can interact with the components of surrounding fluids so that potential adverse effects of such interactions can be controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate and Ceramide-1-Phosphate in Inflammation and Cancer

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    Nitai C. Hait

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is part of our body’s response to tissue injury and pathogens. It helps to recruit various immune cells to the site of inflammation and activates the production of mediators to mobilize systemic protective processes. However, chronic inflammation can increase the risk of diseases like cancer. Apart from cytokines and chemokines, lipid mediators, particularly sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P and ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P, contribute to inflammation and cancer. S1P is an important player in inflammation-associated colon cancer progression. On the other hand, C1P has been recognized to be involved in cancer cell growth, migration, survival, and inflammation. However, whether C1P is involved in inflammation-associated cancer is not yet established. In contrast, few studies have also suggested that S1P and C1P are involved in anti-inflammatory pathways regulated in certain cell types. Ceramide is the substrate for ceramide kinase (CERK to yield C1P, and sphingosine is phosphorylated to S1P by sphingosine kinases (SphKs. Biological functions of sphingolipid metabolites have been studied extensively. Ceramide is associated with cell growth inhibition and enhancement of apoptosis while S1P and C1P are associated with enhancement of cell growth and survival. Altogether, S1P and C1P are important regulators of ceramide level and cell fate. This review focuses on S1P and C1P involvement in inflammation and cancer with emphasis on recent progress in the field.

  12. Phosphate toxicity: new insights into an old problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, M Shawkat

    2011-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for critical biological reactions that maintain the normal homoeostatic control of the cell. This element is an important component of different cellular structures, including nucleic acids and cell membranes. Adequate phosphorus balance is vital for maintaining basic cellular functions, ranging from energy metabolism to cell signalling. In addition, many intracellular pathways utilize phosphate ions for important cellular reactions; therefore, homoeostatic control of phosphate is one of the most delicate biological regulations. Impaired phosphorus balance can affect the functionality of almost every human system, including musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, ultimately leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality of the affected patients. Human and experimental studies have found that delicate balance among circulating factors, like vitamin D, PTH (parathyroid hormone) and FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23), are essential for regulation of physiological phosphate balance. Dysregulation of these factors, either alone or in combination, can induce phosphorus imbalance. Recent studies have shown that suppression of the FGF23-klotho system can lead to hyperphosphataemia with extensive tissue damage caused by phosphate toxicity. The cause and consequences of phosphate toxicity will be briefly summarized in the present review.

  13. New sunscreen materials based on amorphous cerium and titanium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, Toshiyuki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Handai Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hirai, Hidekazu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Handai Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Imanaka, Nobuhito [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Handai Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: imanaka@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Adachi, Gin-ya [Juri Institute for Environmental Science and Chemistry, College of Analytical Chemistry, 2-1-8 Temma, Kita-ku, Osaka 530-0043 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    Cerium-titanium pyrophosphates Ce{sub 1-x}Ti {sub x}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} (with x = 0, 0.50, and 1.0), which are novel phosphate materials developed as UV-shielding agents for use in cosmetics, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescent analysis, UV-vis reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy. Since the optical reflectance shifted to lower wavelengths by the crystallization of the phosphates and the stabilization of the amorphous state of the cerium-titanium pyrophosphates was carried out by doping niobium (Nb). Raman spectroscopic study of the phosphate showed that P-O-P bending and stretching modes decreased with the loading of Nb, accompanying with the formation of Nb-O stretching mode. Therefore, the increase in the amount of the non-bridging oxygen in the amorphous phosphate should be the reason for the inhibition of the crystallization. This stabilization is a significant improvement, which enables to apply these amorphous phosphates not only to cosmetics and paints, but also plastics and films.

  14. Phosphate homeostasis and genetic mutations of familial hypophosphatemic rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nurul Nadirah; Hwu, Ting Tzer; Thilakavathy, Karuppiah

    2015-09-01

    Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is a syndrome of hypophosphatemia and rickets that resembles vitamin D deficiency, which is caused by malfunction of renal tubules in phosphate reabsorption. Phosphate is an essential mineral, which is important for bone and tooth structure. It is regulated by parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and fibroblast-growth-factor 23 (FGF23). X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), autosomal dominant HR (ADHR), and autosomal recessive HR (ARHR) are examples of hereditary forms of HR, which are mainly caused by mutations in the phosphate regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked (PHEX), FGF23, and, dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) and ecto-nucleotide pyro phosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) genes, respectively. Mutations in these genes are believed to cause elevation of circulating FGF23 protein. Increase in FGF23 disrupts phosphate homeostasis, leading to HR. This review aims to summarize phosphate homeostasis and focuses on the genes and mutations related to XLH, ADHR, and ARHR. A compilation of XLH mutation hotspots based on the PHEX gene database and mutations found in the FGF23, DMP1, and ENPP1 genes are also made available in this review.

  15. Hydrolysis of dinitrobenzamide phosphate prodrugs: the role of alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wing-Yee; Balasubramanian, Amit; Helsby, Nuala A

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate prodrugs which undergo hydrolysis in vivo have been used to improve the solubility and pharmacokinetic properties of a number of drugs. Dinitrobenzamide mustards (DNBM) are examples of such drugs. We investigated the ability of purified alkaline phosphatase isoforms to dephosphorylate three DNBM phosphate prodrugs. In addition, the relative rate of dephosphorylation of these phosphate prodrugs in a number of tissues was determined. These phosphate prodrugs are indeed substrates for alkaline phosphatase, with time dependent formation of the hydrolysis product. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) had the highest activity for these substrates and compound P2 was the most rapidly metabolised. Similarly, compound P2 had the shortest half life in mouse serum (t1/2 = 1.15 h) compared with P1 (t1/2 = 13.34 h) and P3 (t1/2 = 4.4 h). However, serum has very low dephosphorylase activity for these substrates compared with intestine and liver homogenates. In addition, there is little or no difference in the relative rate of dephosphorylation of each of the three compounds in mouse tissues in contrast to the pattern observed with purified alkaline phosphatase and mouse serum. Hence additional phosphatase enzymes may be involved in the metabolism of phosphate prodrugs in vivo.

  16. Fibrinogen – a possible extracellular target for inositol phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, Thomas; Riley, Andrew M.; Mills, Stephen J.; Potter, Barry V.L.; Safrany, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    A potential extracellular target for inositol phosphates and analogues with anticancer properties is identified. Proteins from detergent-solubilised HeLa cell lysates bound to a novel affinity column of myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (InsP5) coupled to Affigel-10. One high-affinity ligand was fibrinogen Bβ. Inositol phosphates and analogues were able to elute purified fibrinogen from this matrix. InsP5 and the inositol phosphate mimic biphenyl 2,3′,4,5′,6-pentakisphosphate (BiPhP5) bind fibrinogen in vitro, and block the effects of fibrinogen in A549 cell-based assays of proliferation and migration. They are also able to prevent the fibrinogen-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. These effects of fibrinogen appear to be mediated through the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), as cells not expressing ICAM-1 fail to respond. In contrast, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and the epimeric scyllo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate were without effect. These findings are consistent with earlier reports that higher inositol phosphates have anticancer properties. This new mechanism of action and target for these extracellular inositol phosphates to have their effects allows a re-evaluation of earlier data. PMID:24749013

  17. Fibrinogen - a possible extracellular target for inositol phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, Thomas; Riley, Andrew M; Mills, Stephen J; Potter, Barry V L; Safrany, Stephen T

    2012-12-01

    A potential extracellular target for inositol phosphates and analogues with anticancer properties is identified. Proteins from detergent-solubilised HeLa cell lysates bound to a novel affinity column of myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (InsP5) coupled to Affigel-10. One high-affinity ligand was fibrinogen Bβ. Inositol phosphates and analogues were able to elute purified fibrinogen from this matrix. InsP5 and the inositol phosphate mimic biphenyl 2,3',4,5',6-pentakisphosphate (BiPhP5) bind fibrinogen in vitro, and block the effects of fibrinogen in A549 cell-based assays of proliferation and migration. They are also able to prevent the fibrinogen-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. These effects of fibrinogen appear to be mediated through the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), as cells not expressing ICAM-1 fail to respond. In contrast, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and the epimeric scyllo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate were without effect. These findings are consistent with earlier reports that higher inositol phosphates have anticancer properties. This new mechanism of action and target for these extracellular inositol phosphates to have their effects allows a re-evaluation of earlier data.

  18. Optimization of calcium phosphate fine ceramic powders preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezanova, K.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Rabadjieva, D.; Gergulova, R.; Ilieva, R.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of biomimetic synthesis method, reaction medium and further precursor treatments on the chemical and phase composition, crystal size and morphology of calcium phosphates was examined. Nanosized calcium phosphate precursors were biomimetically precipitated by the method of continuous precipitation in three types of reaction media at pH 8: (i) SBF as an inorganic electrolyte system; (ii) organic (glycerine) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1); (iii) polymer (10 g/l xanthan gum or 10 g/l guar gum) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1). After maturation (24 h) the samples were lyophilized, calcinated at 300°C for 3 hours, and washed with water, followed by new gelation, lyophilization and step-wise (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C, each for 3 hours) sintering. The reaction medium influenced the chemical composition and particle size but not the morphology of the calcium phosphate powders. In all studied cases bi-phase calcium phosphate fine powders with well-shaped spherical grains, consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a Ca/P ratio of 1.3 - 1.6 were obtained. The SBF modifiers decreased the particle size of the product in the sequence guar gum ˜ xanthan gum < glycerin < SBF medium.

  19. Gene Cloning of Iranian Leishmania major Mannose-1-Phosphate Guanyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Salehi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Leishmania is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite, which infects human be­ings when infected sand fly vector takes a blood meal.  Most efforts are towards designing an effective vaccine to prevent leishmaniasis. In this way, development of candidate antigen for vaccine has spe­cial im­portant. In this study, we cloned mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase gene of Iranian L .major in pET32a expression vector. "nMethods: Primers based on L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase sequence gene was de­signed and synthesized. DNA of Leishmania promastigotes was extracted and PCR reaction was done. PCR product was cloned into pTZ57R and sub cloned into pET32a expression vector. "nResults: Recombinant plasmid containing 1140 bp as L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltrans­ferase gene was extracted and confirmed by restriction analysis. PCR product was sequenced and de­posited to GenBank. There were some differences in amino acid sequences between Iranian L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase and others previously accepted in GenBank "nConclusion: We amplified and cloned Iranian L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase successfully.

  20. Removal of nitrate and phosphate from aqueous solutions by microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sayadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of microalgae Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris to remove nitrate and phosphate in aqueous solutions. Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgar is microalgae was collected in 1000 ml of municipal water and KNO3, K2HPO4 was added as sources of nitrate and phosphate in three different concentrations (0.25, 0.35 and 0.45g/L. During the growth period, the concentration of nitrate and phosphate was recorded at 1, 4, 6 and 8 days. The highest nitrate removal on the 8 day for Chlorella vulgaris was 89.80% at the treatment of 0.25g/L and for Spirulina platensis was 81.49% at the treatment of 0.25g/L. The highest phosphate removal for Spirulina platensis was 81.49% at the treatment of 0.45g/L and for Chlorella vulgaris was 88% at the treatment of 0.45g/L. The statistical results showed that the amount of phosphate and nitrate removal during different time periods by Chlorella vulgaris depicted a significant difference at P

  1. Amorphous calcium phosphate and its application in dentistry

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    Sun Wei-bin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP is an essential mineral phase formed in mineralized tissues and the first commercial product as artificial hydroxyapatite. ACP is unique among all forms of calcium phosphates in that it lacks long-range, periodic atomic scale order of crystalline calcium phosphates. The X-ray diffraction pattern is broad and diffuse with a maximum at 25 degree 2 theta, and no other different features compared with well-crystallized hydroxyapatite. Under electron microscopy, its morphological form is shown as small spheroidal particles in the scale of tenths nanometer. In aqueous media, ACP is easily transformed into crystalline phases such as octacalcium phosphate and apatite due to the growing of microcrystalline. It has been demonstrated that ACP has better osteoconductivity and biodegradability than tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite in vivo. Moreover, it can increase alkaline phosphatase activities of mesoblasts, enhance cell proliferation and promote cell adhesion. The unique role of ACP during the formation of mineralized tissues makes it a promising candidate material for tissue repair and regeneration. ACP may also be a potential remineralizing agent in dental applications. Recently developed ACP-filled bioactive composites are believed to be effective anti-demineralizing/remineralizing agents for the preservation and repair of tooth structures. This review provides an overview of the development, structure, chemical composition, morphological characterization, phase transformation and biomedical application of ACP in dentistry.

  2. pH homeostasis in yeast; the phosphate perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Elja; Deprez, Marie-Anne; Wilms, Tobias; Winderickx, Joris

    2017-08-30

    Recent research further clarified the molecular mechanisms that link nutrient signaling and pH homeostasis with the regulation of growth and survival of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The central nutrient signaling kinases PKA, TORC1, and Sch9 are intimately associated to pH homeostasis, presumably allowing them to concert far-reaching phenotypical repercussions of nutritional cues. To exemplify such repercussions, we briefly describe consequences for phosphate uptake and signaling and outline interactions between phosphate homeostasis and the players involved in intra- and extracellular pH control. Inorganic phosphate uptake, its subcellular distribution, and its conversion into polyphosphates are dependent on the proton gradients created over different membranes. Conversely, polyphosphate metabolism appears to contribute in determining the intracellular pH. Additionally, inositol pyrophosphates are emerging as potent determinants of growth potential, in this way providing feedback from phosphate metabolism onto the central nutrient signaling kinases. All these data point towards the importance of phosphate metabolism in the reciprocal regulation of nutrient signaling and pH homeostasis.

  3. Bypassing the Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Towards Modular Utilization of Xylose.

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    Kulika Chomvong

    Full Text Available The efficient use of hemicellulose in the plant cell wall is critical for the economic conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels and chemicals. Previously, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered to convert the hemicellulose-derived pentose sugars xylose and arabinose to d-xylulose-5-phosphate for conversion via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP. However, efficient pentose utilization requires PPP optimization and may interfere with its roles in NADPH and pentose production. Here, we developed an alternative xylose utilization pathway that largely bypasses the PPP. In the new pathway, d-xylulose is converted to d-xylulose-1-phosphate, a novel metabolite to S. cerevisiae, which is then cleaved to glycolaldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This synthetic pathway served as a platform for the biosynthesis of ethanol and ethylene glycol. The use of d-xylulose-1-phosphate as an entry point for xylose metabolism opens the way for optimizing chemical conversion of pentose sugars in S. cerevisiae in a modular fashion.

  4. Maternally-derived antibody to fibroblast growth factor-23 reduced dietary phosphate requirements in growing chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeck, Elizabeth A; Burgess, Kimberly S; Jarmes, Taylor R; Piccione, Michelle L; Cook, Mark E

    2012-04-13

    Phosphate in manure of monogastric animals pollutes the environment if improperly applied to soil. Strategies that reduce phosphate inputs into animal production systems reduce environmental pollution. Using a novel vaccine to fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), we induced neutralizing antibodies that reduced the phosphate requirement of growing chickens. Breeding hens were injected with a FGF-23 peptide (AFLPGMNP) conjugate. Antibody was passively transferred from hen to chick and chick response to deficient dietary phosphate intake was determined. Chicks without passive anti-FGF-23 antibody had a 43% and 21% reduction in blood phosphate and bone ash, respectively, when fed a phosphate deficient diet and compared to chicks fed a phosphate replete diet (P0.05). Neutralization of FGF-23 offers a new approach to reduce phosphate requirements of farmed animals and may provide a new means to reduce phosphate pollution related to animal farming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease treated with diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; García-Pino, Guadalupe; Martínez-Gallardo, Rocío; Ferreira-Morong, Flavio; Luna, Enrique; Alvarado, Raúl; Ruiz-Donoso, Enrique; Chávez, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Serum phosphate concentrations usually show great variability in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) not on dialysis. Diuretics treatment can have an influence over the severity of mineral-bone metabolism alterations related to ACKD, but their effect on serum phosphate levels is less known. This study aims to determine whether diuretics are independently associated with serum phosphate levels, and to investigate the mechanisms by which diuretics may affect phosphate metabolism. 429 Caucasian patients with CKD not on dialysis were included in this cross-sectional study. In addition to conventional serum biochemical measures, the following parameters of renal phosphate excretion were assessed: 24-hours urinary phosphate excretion, tubular maximum phosphate reabsorption (TmP), and fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP). 58% of patients were on treatment with diuretics. Patients on diuretics showed significantly higher mean serum phosphate concentration (4.78 ± 1.23 vs. 4.24 ± 1.04 mg/dl; Pdiuretics. By multivariate linear and logistic regression, significant associations between diuretics and serum phosphate concentrations or hyperphosphataemia remained after adjustment for potential confounding variables. In patients with the highest phosphate load adjusted to kidney function, those treated with diuretics showed significantly lower FEP than those untreated with diuretics. Treatment with diuretics is associated with increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with ACKD. Diuretics may indirectly interfere with the maximum renal compensatory capacity to excrete phosphate. Diuretics should be considered in the studies linking the relationship between serum phosphate concentrations and cardiovascular alterations in patients with CKD.

  6. Phosphate solubilizing ability of two Arctic Aspergillus niger strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Mohan Singh,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many filamentous fungi were isolated from the soils of Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and were screened in vitro for their phosphate solubilizing ability. Two strains of Aspergillus niger showed good tricalcium phosphate (TCP solubilizing ability in Pikovskaya's medium. The TCP solubilization index was calculated at varying levels of pH and temperatures. The ability of Aspergillus niger strain-1 to solubilize and release inorganic-P was 285 µg ml–1, while Aspergillus niger strain-2 solubilized 262 µg ml–1 from 0.5% TCP after seven days. This is the first report of TCP solubilization by Arctic strains that may serve as very good phosphate solubilizers in the form of biofertilizer.

  7. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  8. Trehalose-6-Phosphate: connecting plant metabolism and development

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    Jathish ePonnu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Beyond their metabolic roles, sugars can also act as messengers in signal transduction. Trehalose, a sugar found in many species of plants and animals, is a non-reducing disaccharide composed of two glucose moieties. Its synthesis in plants is a two-step process, involving the production of trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P catalyzed by TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (TPS and its consecutive dephosphorylation to trehalose, catalyzed by TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE PHOSPHATASE (TPP. T6P has recently emerged as an important signaling metabolite, regulating carbon assimilation and sugar status in plants. In addition, T6P has also been demonstrated to play an essential role in plant development. This review recapitulates the recent advances in our understanding the role of T6P in coordinating diverse metabolic and developmental processes.

  9. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Birkedal, Henrik; Olsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co......-precipitation and designed to bind to bacteria in biofilms, impede biofilm build-up without killing the microflora, and release phosphate ions to buffer bacterial acid production if the pH decreases below 6. Analysis of biofilm formation and pH in a five-species biofilm model for dental caries showed that treatment......H always remained above 5.5. Hence, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles show potential for applications in caries control....

  10. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian

    -phosphate-osteopontin particles are a new promising therapeutic approach to caries control. They are designed to bind to dental biofilms and interfere with biofilm build-up, lowering the bacterial burden on the tooth surface without affecting bacterial viability in the oral cavity. Moreover, they dissolve when pH in the biofilm......Oftentimes caries lesions develop in protected sites that are difficult to access by self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning. At present, there is a growing interest in chemical adjuncts to mechanical procedures of oral hygiene that aim at biofilm control rather than biofilm eradication. Calcium...... drops to 6 or below and release buffering phosphate ions that stabilize biofilm pH above the critical level for enamel dissolution. With that twofold approach, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles may make a relevant contribution to clinical caries control....

  11. Renal control of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Judith; Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-07-07

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Potential radiological impact of the phosphate industry on wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Sweeck, Lieve

    2015-03-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We performed a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of environmental contamination resulting from the activities of 5 phosphate fertiliser plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil), a phosphate-mine and a phosphate-export platform in a harbour (both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the availability of information on concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. Assessments were generally performed considering highest environmental concentrations reported in the studies. The ERICA Tool, operating in a Tier 2 assessment mode, was used to predict radiation dose rates and associated risk to the selected reference organisms using the ERICA default parameter setting. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a best estimate risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h(-1). If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is considered unlikely to be at risk and further radiological assessment is not deemed necessary. Except for one of the cases assessed, the best estimate RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. Internal exposure covered for 90-100 % of the total dose. (226)Ra or (210)Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertiliser plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goiás (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted to be potentially most at risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Calcium phosphate in plant trichomes: the overlooked biomineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigend, Maximilian; Mustafa, Adeel; Ensikat, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-12-12

    Calcium phosphate was unknown as a plant biomineral until recently reported in Neotropical Loasaceae. Here, we demonstrate its widespread occurrence in the trichomes of several plant families, including Brassicaceae. Calcium phosphate is the primary biomineral in, e.g., the bones and teeth of higher animals; in plants, it was only recently discovered in the stinging hairs and scabrid-glochidiate trichomes of South American Loasaceae (Ensikat et al. in Sci Rep UK 6:26073, 2016), where it appears to be deposited highly specifically, often replacing the common plant biomineral silica. We initiated a broader survey in a range of different plant orders to investigate a possibly wider distribution of calcium phosphate biomineralization in plants. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX element analysis and mapping was used for the detection of the biominerals: calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and silica in the trichomes of several common plant species of different orders. Results were authenticated with Raman spectroscopy. Calcium phosphate was found in the trichomes of several species in the orders Malpighiales, Rosales, Boraginales, and Brassicales. It occurred in trichome tips, replacing the more common silica, or together with silica and calcium carbonate at specific locations in the trichome cell walls. Most surprisingly, it was found in the trichomes of Arabidopsis thaliana, one of the most studied plant species-where it had been overlooked so far. The wide distribution of calcium phosphate as plant biomineral here demonstrated and the striking mineralization patterns with three different biominerals in the walls of single-celled trichomes underscore an unexpected complexity in plant biomineralization.

  14. Phosphate-Modified Nucleotides for Monitoring Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermert, Susanne; Marx, Andreas; Hacker, Stephan M

    2017-04-01

    Nucleotides modified at the terminal phosphate position have been proven to be interesting entities to study the activity of a variety of different protein classes. In this chapter, we present various types of modifications that were attached as reporter molecules to the phosphate chain of nucleotides and briefly describe the chemical reactions that are frequently used to synthesize them. Furthermore, we discuss a variety of applications of these molecules. Kinase activity, for instance, was studied by transfer of a phosphate modified with a reporter group to the target proteins. This allows not only studying the activity of kinases, but also identifying their target proteins. Moreover, kinases can also be directly labeled with a reporter at a conserved lysine using acyl-phosphate probes. Another important application for phosphate-modified nucleotides is the study of RNA and DNA polymerases. In this context, single-molecule sequencing is made possible using detection in zero-mode waveguides, nanopores or by a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based mechanism between the polymerase and a fluorophore-labeled nucleotide. Additionally, fluorogenic nucleotides that utilize an intramolecular interaction between a fluorophore and the nucleobase or an intramolecular FRET effect have been successfully developed to study a variety of different enzymes. Finally, also some novel techniques applying electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based detection of nucleotide cleavage or the detection of the cleavage of fluorophosphates are discussed. Taken together, nucleotides modified at the terminal phosphate position have been applied to study the activity of a large diversity of proteins and are valuable tools to enhance the knowledge of biological systems.

  15. Screening of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Acipayam

    2014-02-01

    Aim: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an important factor in etiology of pathologic neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to indicate the significance of screening glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the cord blood of neonates and the frequency of this deficiency in the etiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Material and Method: The study was performed consecutive 1015 neonates were included. Five hundred fifty six (54.8% of them were male and 459 (45.2% were female. The following parameters were recorded: Gender, birth weight, birth height, head circumference and gestational age. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level of neonates were measured with quantitative method in cord blood. Also, hemoglobine, hematocrite, red blood cell count and blood group were measured. The following parameters were recorded in cases with jaundice: exchange transfusion, phototherapy, physiologic and pathologic jaundice, peak bilirubin day, maximum bilirubin level, total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, beginning time of jaundice. Results: Enzyme deficiency was detected in 133 (13.1% of neonates and 76 (57% of them were male, 57 (43% were female. Significant difference was detected in low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level with jaundice group for total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, maximum total bilirubin level and pathologic jaundice (p<0.05. Discussion: The ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was found in Edirne in this study and this ratio was higher than other studies conducted in our country. For this reason, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level in cord blood of neonates should be measured routinely and high risk neonates should be followed up for hyperbilirubinemia and parents should be informed in our region.

  16. Ultraviolet optical absorptions of semiconducting copper phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of a quantitative investigation of the change in UV optical absorption in semiconducting copper phosphate glasses with batch compositions of 40, 50, and 55 percent CuO, as a function of the Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio in the glasses for each glass composition. It was found that optical energy gap, E(opt), of copper phosphate glass is a function of both glass composition and Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio in the glass. E(opt) increases as the CuO content for fixed Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio and the Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio for fixed glass composition are reduced.

  17. Mineral analysis of phosphate rock as Iraqi raw fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa N Owaid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper was assessed the mineral elements level (Co, Pb, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Mn in raw phosphate rock (PRock that obtained from State Company For Phosphate in Anbar province. This work was achieved to add new data of microelements toward this raw local fertilizer. PRock become important as natural fertilizer to plant and mushroom due to many trace minerals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12667 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 413-415

  18. Tin-phosphate glass anode for sodium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Honma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical property of tin-phosphate (designate as GSPO glass anode for the sodium ion battery was studied. During the first charge process, sodium ion diffused into GSPO glass matrix and due to the reduction of Sn2+ to Sn0 state sodiated tin metal nano-size particles are formed in oxide glass matrix. After the second cycle, we confirmed the steady reversible reaction ∼320 mAh/g at 0–1 V cutoff voltage condition by alloying process in NaxSn4. The tin-phosphate glass is a promising candidate of new anode active material that realizes high energy density sodium ion batteries.

  19. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  20. THERMODINAMIC PARAMETERS ON THE SORPTION OF PHOSPHATE IONS BY MONTMORILLONITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Jaslin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of phosphate by montmorillonite at 10, 30, and 50 oC were investigated aiming to mainly determine thermodynamic parameters for the formation of surface complexes in the adsorption of phosphate ions by montmorillonite. Data were collected by adsorption edge experiments investigating the effect of pH, adsorption isotherms enabling the effect of sorbate concentration, and acid-base titration calculating protons released or taken up by adsorption process. Data analysis was carried out using surface complexation model to fit the data collected in this study using the parameters obtained from previous study, as well as to calculate the values of ΔH and ΔS. Previous study reported that phosphate ions formed two outer-sphere surface complexes with active sites of montmorillonite through hydrogen bonding. In the first complex,  [(XH0– H2L─]─, the phosphate was held to permanent-charge X─ sites on the tetrahedral siloxane faces, and the second complex, [[(SO─(SOH]– – [H2L]─] 2─ was formed through the interaction between the phosphate and variable charge surface hydroxyl groups at the edges of montmorillonite crystals and on the octahedral alumina faces. The values of ΔH for the first and second reactions are 39.756 and 3.765x10-7 kJ mol‒1 respectively. Since both reactions have positive enthalpy values, it can be concluded that the reactions are endothermic. Large energy for the first reaction is needed by X─  sites (permanent negatively charge sites of montmorillonite to be partially desolvated, on which K+ or other surface cations are replaced by H+ ions in the surface protonated process, and are then ready to interact phosphate ions in the solution. Small values of ΔH for the second reactions indicates that hydrogen bonds formed by phosphate and SOH sites in the second reaction are easily broken out, and the phosphate can easily desorbed from the surface. The values of ΔS for the first and second reactions are

  1. Synthesis of Nano-sized Boehmites for Optimum Phosphate Sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Yujiro; Kasama, Takeshi; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2011-01-01

    Nano-sized boehmites with different crystallinity were synthesized at the temperature range of 25 to 200°C in order to produce phosphate absorbents with high capacity. The physicochemical property of boehmites was depended on the synthesis temperature: the particle size was increased and the surf......Nano-sized boehmites with different crystallinity were synthesized at the temperature range of 25 to 200°C in order to produce phosphate absorbents with high capacity. The physicochemical property of boehmites was depended on the synthesis temperature: the particle size was increased...

  2. A phosphate-starvation-inducible outermembrane protein of Pseudomonas fluorescens Ag1 as an immunological phosphate-starvation marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Kristine; Jacobsen, Susanne; Nybroe, Ole

    1997-01-01

    A phosphate-starvation-inducible outer-membrane protein of Pseudomonas fluorescens Ag1, expressed at phosphate concentrations below0.08-0.13 mM, was purified and characterized. The purification method involved separation of outer-membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE andextraction of the protein from...... nitrocellulose or PVDF membranes after electrotransfer of proteins to the membranes. The N-terminal amino acidsequence of the purified protein, called Psi1, did not show homology to any known proteins, and in contrast to the phosphate-specific porin OprP ofP. aeruginosa its mobility in SDS-PAGE was not affected...... by solubilization temperature. An antiserum against Psi1 recognized a protein of M,55,000 in four other P. fluorescens strains among 24 tested strains representing Pseudomonas rRNA homology group I, showing antigenicheterogeneity within this group. A method for immunofluorescence microscopy involving cell...

  3. Studies on the inhibition of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase by stabilized reaction intermediates and stereodefined azido phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanllehí, Pol; Abad, José-Luís; Bujons, Jordi; Casas, Josefina; Delgado, Antonio

    2016-11-10

    Two kinds of inhibitors of the PLP-dependent enzyme sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase have been designed and tested on the bacterial (StS1PL) and the human (hS1PL) enzymes. Amino phosphates 1, 12, and 32, mimicking the intermediate aldimines of the catalytic process, were weak inhibitors on both enzyme sources. On the other hand, a series of stereodefined azido phosphates, resulting from the replacement of the amino group of the natural substrates with an azido group, afforded competitive inhibitors in the low micromolar range on both enzyme sources. This similar behavior represents an experimental evidence of the reported structural similarities for both enzymes at their active site level. Interestingly, the anti-isomers of the non-natural enantiomeric series where the most potent inhibitors on hS1PL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnesium substitution in the structure of orthopedic nanoparticles: A comparison between amorphous magnesium phosphates, calcium magnesium phosphates, and hydroxyapatites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiyouni, Maryam; Ren, Yufu; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-01-01

    As biocompatible materials, magnesium phosphates have received a lot of attention for orthopedic applications. During the last decade multiple studies have shown advantages for magnesium phosphate such as lack of cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, strong mechanical properties, and high biodegradability. The present study investigates the role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in the structure of magnesium phosphate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. To directly compare the effect of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions on structure of nanoparticles and their biological behavior, three groups of nanoparticles including amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) which release Mg(+2), calcium magnesium phosphates (CMPs) which release Mg(+2) and Ca(+2), and hydroxyapatites (HAs) which release Ca(+2) were studied. SEM, TEM, XRD, and FTIR were used to evaluate the morphology, crystallinity, and chemical properties of the particles. AMP particles were homogeneous nanospheres, whereas CMPs were combinations of heterogeneous nanorods and nanospheres, and HAs which contained heterogeneous nanosphere particles. Cell compatibility was monitored in all groups to determine the cytotoxicity effect of particles on studied MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. AMPs showed significantly higher attachment rate than the HAs after 1 day and both AMPs and CMPs showed significantly higher proliferation rate when compared to HAs after 7days. Gene expression level of osteoblastic markers ALP, COL I, OCN, OPN, RUNX2 were monitored and they were normalized to GAPDH housekeeping gene. Beta actin expression level was monitored as the second housekeeping gene to confirm the accuracy of results. In general, AMPs and CMPs showed higher expression level of osteoblastic genes after 7 days which can further confirm the stimulating role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in increasing the proliferation rate, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 1D.08: EFFECT OF PA21, A NEW IRON-BASED PHOSPHATE BINDER ON FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 23 (FGF23) AND VASCULAR CALCIFICATIONS IN UREMIC RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, O; Maillard, M; Funk, F; Stehle, J C; Burnier, M

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated serum phosphate and FGF23 are associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD. Current therapy focuses on decreasing serum phosphorus using phosphate binders. PA21 is a new iron-based phosphate binder. Few studies have analysed how to suppress FGF23 up-regulation using phosphate binders.To evaluate the effects of PA21 compared with other phosphate binders as lanthanum carbonate (La) and sevelamer carbonate (Se) on serum FGF23, phosphorus, calcium, iPTH concentrations and to investigate a potential effect on the development of vascular calcifications in an adenine-induced rat model of CRF. After induction of chronic renal failure through a 4 week adenine-diet, renal function was significantly impaired in all groups. All uremic rats developed severe hyperphosphatemia and serum PTH increased significantly. Phosphate binders were then given for 4 weeks to all uremic rats, except for the uremic control rats. The concentration of each binder (% of binder added to the diet) was chosen to deliver approximately the same amount of active pharmaceutical moiety to each rat: PA21 5% (corresponding to 1% iron), La 2% (1% lanthanum), Se 1.5% (1% sevelamer). A computer-assisted automated quantitative measurement was used to assess the degree of calcification from von Kossa stained vessel sections. Hyperphosphatemia and increased serum PTH levels were controlled in the phosphate binder treated groups to the same extent. PA21 was the only phosphate binder that was associated with a decrease of FGF23.In uremic control rats, vascular calcifications were more prominently present in the thoracic aorta compared to the carotids and the abdominal aorta. Vascular calcifications of thoracic aorta were significantly decreased by the three phosphate binders to a similar extent. PA21 was more efficient than lanthanum carbonate to prevent calcifications in the upper part of

  6. Regulation of autotaxin expression and secretion by lysophosphatidate and sphingosine 1-phosphate[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, Matthew G. K.; Zhao, Yuan Y.; Curtis, Jonathan M.; McMullen, Todd P. W.; Brindley, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme, which produces extracellular lysophosphatidate (LPA) from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). LPA activates six G protein-coupled receptors and this is essential for vasculogenesis during embryonic development. ATX is also involved in wound healing and inflammation, and in tumor growth, metastasis, and chemo-resistance. It is, therefore, important to understand how ATX is regulated. It was proposed that ATX activity is inhibited by its product LPA, or a related lipid called sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). We now show that this apparent inhibition is ineffective at the high concentrations of LPC that occur in vivo. Instead, feedback regulation by LPA and S1P is mediated by inhibition of ATX expression resulting from phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activation. Inhibiting ATX activity in mice with ONO-8430506 severely decreased plasma LPA concentrations and increased ATX mRNA in adipose tissue, which is a major site of ATX production. Consequently, the amount of inhibitor-bound ATX protein in the plasma increased. We, therefore, demonstrate the concept that accumulation of LPA in the circulation decreases ATX production. However, this feedback regulation can be overcome by the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α or interleukin 1β. This enables high LPA and ATX levels to coexist in inflammatory conditions. The results are discussed in terms of ATX regulation in wound healing and cancer. PMID:25896349

  7. Crystal structure of hydrazine iron(III phosphate, the first transition metal phosphate containing hydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renald David

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, poly[(μ2-hydrazine(μ4-phosphatoiron(III], [Fe(PO4(N2H4]n, was prepared under hydrothermal conditions. Its asymmetric unit contains one FeIII atom located on an inversion centre, one P atom located on a twofold rotation axis, and two O, one N and two H atoms located on general positions. The FeIII atom is bound to four O atoms of symmetry-related PO4 tetrahedra and to two N atoms of two symmetry-related hydrazine ligands, resulting in a slightly distorted FeO4N2 octahedron. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional hydrazine/iron phoshate framework whereby each PO4 tetrahedron bridges four FeIII atoms and each hydrazine ligand bridges two FeIII atoms. The H atoms of the hydrazine ligands are also involved in moderate N—H...O hydrogen bonding with phosphate O atoms. The crystal structure is isotypic with the sulfates [Co(SO4(N2H4] and [Mn(SO4(N2H4].

  8. Grafting cyclodextrins to calcium phosphate ceramics for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.A.L.; Nielsen, J.L.; Juhl, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    The grafting of hydroxyapatite/beta-tricalcium phosphate with β-cyclodextrin was achieved using a two step reaction with (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane as a linker. Firstly, the silane group was brought to react with the hydroxyl groups at the surface of the hydroxyapatite/beta-tricalcium ...

  9. Bio-treatment of phosphate from synthetic wastewater using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    effect of carbon sources (glucose, starch, sucrose and lactose) at 0.5% on the removal of phosphate by Pseudomonas sp. YLW7 was estimated. The maximum growth of ... effluents- particularly fertilizer and soap industries. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the ... a threat to aquatic ecosystems. According to federal government ...

  10. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel low-temperature solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology for immobilizing waste streams containing fission products such as cesium, strontium, and technetium in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic. This technology can immobilize partitioned tank wastes and decontaminate waste streams containing volatile fission products.

  11. Phase stability of silver particles embedded calcium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phase stability of silver particles embedded calcium phosphate bioceramics. BRAJENDRA SINGH1,2,∗ ... cal absorption spectroscopy analysis reveals the presence of Ag+ ions at low doping levels. As the doping increases, abundance of ... temperature, ability to generate shape and size controlled nanosized particles.9,10.

  12. A comparison of the influence of catholyte vs phosphate detergent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electro-chemical activation of aqueous media is a relatively new technology. The alkaline part of the activated media (catholyte) has outstanding detergency properties. Catholyte provides an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional phosphate based detergents. Little is, however, known about the effect of ...

  13. of Effects Phosphate Haplustult Duration of Contact and . Rates lof ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An incubation pot experiment was conducted at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro,. Tanzania to study the effects of times of contact and rates of Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR) applied to a. Kanhaplic Haplustult on the release of P from the MPR. The soil was mixed with MPR at rat'es equivalent to 0.0, 25.0, ...

  14. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a house keeping enzyme which catalyzes the first step in the hexose monophosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. G6PD deficiency is the commonest hemolytic X-linked genetic disease, which affects approximately 400 million people worldwide.

  15. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    LI, LIANG

    2013-04-18

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property in the ultraviolet region which confirms and agrees well with former results. © 2013 Astro Ltd.

  16. Performance of phosphate solubilizing bacteria for improving growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) to convert insoluble forms of phosphorus to an accessible form is an important trait in sustainable farming for increasing plant yields. The beneficial effects of PSB on crop productivity have been widely described, but the use of PSB as biofertilizer is scarcely documented in ...

  17. In-vitro Release Study of Carvedilol Phosphate Matrix Tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Matrix tablets containing carvedilol phosphate were prepared from 27 formulations in three batch series coded A, B and C, each containing 9 formulations. Each batch incorporated different ratios of two molecular weight grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel® K4M CR and K15M CR) used as release ...

  18. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2016-02-06

    Feb 6, 2016 ... REVIEW. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in India: An updated meta-analysis. Pradeep Kumar, Upendra Yadav, Vandana Rai*. Department of Biotechnology, VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur 222003, UP, India. Received 18 December 2015; accepted 14 January 2016.

  19. Rapid degradation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by phosphate ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Herrmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles are highly sensitive towards phosphate ions even at pH 7. Buffer solutions and cell culture media containing phosphate ions are able to destroy ZnO nanoparticles within a time span from less than one hour to one day. The driving force of the reaction is the formation of zinc phosphate of very low solubility. The morphology of the zinc oxide particles has only a minor influence on the kinetics of this reaction. Surface properties related to different production methods and the presence and absence of labelling with a perylene fluorescent dye are more important. Particles prepared under acidic conditions are more resistant than those obtained in basic or neutral reaction medium. Surprisingly, the presence of a SiO2 coating does not impede the degradation of the ZnO core. In contrast to phosphate ions, β-glycerophosphate does not damage the ZnO nanoparticles. These findings should be taken into account when assessing the biological effects or the toxicology of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  20. Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources: a critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, J.D.; Gupta, J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) is a finite mineral indispensable for fertilizer production, while P (phosphorus) is a major pollutant if applied or discharged in excess, causing widespread eutrophication (Carpenter and Bennet, 2011). High-grade PR is obtained from deposits which took millions of years to form

  1. Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources : A critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, J.D.; Gupta, J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) is a finite mineral indispensable for fertilizer production, while P (phosphorus) is a major pollutant if applied or discharged in excess, causing widespread eutrophication (Carpenter and Bennet, 2011). High-grade PR is obtained from deposits which took millions of years to form

  2. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as some antibiotics and medications used to treat malaria). Hemolytic anemia can also occur after eating fava beans or inhaling pollen from fava plants (a reaction called favism). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is also a significant cause of mild to severe jaundice in newborns. Many ...

  3. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in northern Mexico ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is the most common enzyme pathology in humans; it is X-linked inherited and causes neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, chronic nonspherocytic haemolytic anaemia and drug-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. G6PD deficiency has scarcely been studied in ...

  4. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a study of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase(G6PD) deficiency in sickle cell anaemia patients attending the haematology clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos- Nigeria. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency among the 130 sickle cell anaemia patients studied was found to be 18.5%. G6PD ...

  5. A technological and economic exploration of phosphate recovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphate is one of the substances which wastewater treatment works (WWTW) have to lower in order to meet the South African regulatory discharge standard of 1 mg/L. Wastewater is increasingly viewed as a 'water-carried waste', presenting opportunities for resource recovery. South Africa has commenced its transition ...

  6. Effect of nitrogen and phosphate limitation on utilization of bitumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Nitrogen and phosphate limitation have profound effect on bitu-oil and gas production. ... ted; the wet weight, dry weight of cell, and weight of bitu-oil (oil produced from bitumen) ..... Stimulated caffeine produc- tion has been ...

  7. Geometry, charge distribution, and surface speciation of phosphate on goethite.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahnemaie, R.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2007-01-01

    The surface speciation of phosphate has been evaluated with surface complexation modeling using an interfacial charge distribution (CD) approach based on ion adsorption and ordering of interfacial water. In the CD model, the charge of adsorbed ions is distributed over two electrostatic potentials in

  8. In vitro study on biomineralization of biphasic calcium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this study, we report the preparation of a bone graft material, having cylindrical shape, containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), gelatin (G), chitosan (C) and Terminalia chebula (TC) extract. TC extract was used as a crosslinker that gives stability to bone graft when it is placed in SBF. The graft was stable in ...

  9. Osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lijia; Shi, Yujun [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Ye, Feng [Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Bu, Hong, E-mail: hongbu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Although osteoinduction mechanism of calcium phosphate (CP) ceramics is still unclear, several essential properties have been reported, such as chemical composition, pore size and porosity, etc. In this study, calcium phosphate powder (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, CaP, group 1), biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic powder (BCP, group 2), and intact BCP rods (group 3) were implanted into leg muscles of mice and dorsal muscles of rabbits. One month and three months after implantation, samples were harvested for biological and histological analysis. New bone tissues were observed in 10/10 samples in group 1, 3/10 samples in group 2, and 9/10 samples in group 3 at 3rd month in mice, but not in rabbits. In vitro, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured with trace CaP and BCP powder, and osteogenic differentiation was observed at day 7. Our results suggested that chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation. - Highlights: ► Intrinsic osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials was observed implanted in muscles of mice. ► Biomaterials powder also has osteoinduction property. ► Osteogenic genes and protein could be detected by RT-PCR and Western blot in implanted biomaterials. ► Osteogenic phenomenon could be observed by electron microscopy. ► The chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation.

  10. Phosphate Rock Dissolution and Availability in Some Soils of Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    1Department of Soil Science, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, Ghana. 2Council for Scientific ... acidulated rock phosphate (PAPR) are possible alternative P sources for these soils. The rate of dissolution of .... involving the three soil series (Bekwai, Nzima and Kokofu), four P sources at a rate of 60 mg P kg-1 soil and a ...

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydro- genase deficiency; the single most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-10

    Mar 10, 2017 ... Abstract: Introduction: Glucose-. 6-phosphate dehydrogenase defi- ciency is the most common enzy- matic disorder of the red cell and an important risk factor for neona- tal jaundice. Methodology: The aim of the study was to determine the inci- dence of G-6-PD deficiency among jaundiced neonates, and.

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; the single most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is the most common enzymatic disorder of the red cell and an important risk factor for neonatal jaundice. Methodology: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of G-6-PD deficiency among jaundiced neonates, and describe the associated morbidity ...

  13. physico-chemical characterization of ogun and sokoto phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and 31% respectively, which is greater than P2O5 content of Morocco rock phosphate. Both ORP and ... produce fertilizer and animal feeds, in the industry for ... Food and. Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2004) has recommended that use of PR sources should be promoted in countries where they are indigenously available.

  14. Current-use insecticides, phosphates and suspended solids in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Western Cape orchard areas, the last pesticide application of the growing season in summer takes place at the end of February. Pesticides, total phosphates and total suspended solids (TSS) were measured in the Lourens River at the beginning of April 1999 prior to the first rainfall of the rainy season and in the middle of ...

  15. Phosphates nanoparticles doped with zinc and manganese for sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, T.S. de, E-mail: tatiana.araujo@ifs.edu.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Sergipe, Sergipe (Brazil); Souza, S.O. de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe (Brazil); Miyakawa, W. [Divisao de Fotonica - Instituto de Estudos Avancados, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Sousa, E.M.B. de [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN/CNEN, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2010-12-01

    The crescent number of skin cancer worldwide gives impulse to the development of sunscreen that can both prevent skin cancer and also permit gradual tanning. In this work, the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate nanocrystalline powders was investigated in order to obtain materials with optical properties and appropriate size for sunscreen. Pure, Zn{sup 2+}-doped and Mn{sup 2+}-doped hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) were produced by the wet precipitation process using diammonium phosphate, calcium nitrate, ammonium hydroxide, zinc nitrate and manganese nitrate as reagents. The pure and doped HAP precipitates were calcined at 500 deg. C for 1 h, while the {beta}-TCP (pure and doped) were calcined at 800 deg. C for 2 h. The powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet (UV)-vis spectroscopy. XRD and EDX showed the formation of the expected materials (HAP and {beta}-TCP) without toxic components. AFM micrographs showed aggregated ellipsoidal particles with dimensions smaller than 120 nm. Optical absorption spectra showed that the calcium phosphate produced in this work absorbs in the UV region. The obtained materials presented structural, morphological and optical properties that allow their use as the active centers in sunscreens.

  16. lectrolytic deposition of lithium into calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; de Groot, K.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Lithium ions stimulate the Wnt signaling pathway and the authors previously demonstrated that lithium enhances the proliferation of tissue cultured human mesenchymal stem cells. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a calcium phosphate/lithium coating by means of

  17. A comparative property investigation of lithium phosphate glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study addresses the application of microwave (MW) energy for melting lithium phosphate glass. Acomparative analysis of the properties is presented with glasses melted in conventional resistance heating adopting standardmethods of characterization. The density of the glass was found less in MW heating.

  18. Novel inhibitors of mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Orr

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH is a ubiquinone-linked enzyme in the mitochondrial inner membrane best characterized as part of the glycerol phosphate shuttle that transfers reducing equivalents from cytosolic NADH into the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Despite the widespread expression of mGPDH and the availability of mGPDH-null mice, the physiological role of this enzyme remains poorly defined in many tissues, likely because of compensatory pathways for cytosolic regeneration of NAD⁺ and mechanisms for glycerol phosphate metabolism. Here we describe a novel class of cell-permeant small-molecule inhibitors of mGPDH (iGP discovered through small-molecule screening. Structure-activity analysis identified a core benzimidazole-phenyl-succinamide structure as being essential to inhibition of mGPDH while modifications to the benzimidazole ring system modulated both potency and off-target effects. Live-cell imaging provided evidence that iGPs penetrate cellular membranes. Two compounds (iGP-1 and iGP-5 were characterized further to determine potency and selectivity and found to be mixed inhibitors with IC₅₀ and K(i values between ∼1-15 µM. These novel mGPDH inhibitors are unique tools to investigate the role of glycerol 3-phosphate metabolism in both isolated and intact systems.

  19. Prevalence of Sickle Cell Trait and Glucose 6 Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood donation from sickle cell trait (SCT) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipients' circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency among blood ...

  20. The Effect of Rock Phosphate on Soil Nutrient Dynamics, Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiment was conducted at Oil Palm Research Institute, Kusi from 2002 to 2007 to as-sess the effect of Phosphate Rock (PR) on soil nutrient dynamics, growth, development and yield of oil palm. The study was carried out on the soils of Nzema series classified as Ferric Acrisols and Typic Hapludult. The oil palm ...

  1. Calcium-phosphate-coated Oral Implants Promote Osseointegration in Osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alghamdi, H.S.A.; Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporotic conditions are anticipated to affect the osseointegration of dental implants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a radiofrequent magnetron-sputtered calcium phosphate (CaP) coating on dental implant integration upon installment in the femoral condyles of both healthy and

  2. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  3. Influence of Cultivar and Sokoto Phosphate Rock Levels on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locally and easily available rock phosphate could be a sustainable source of phosphorus for legumes production in this region, where, phosphorus deficiency is one of the major problems to crop production. As such, field experiments were conducted during 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Dry land Teaching and ...

  4. Maize response to Tithonia diversifolia and rock phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The experiment was conducted with the aim of investigating maize response to Tithonia diversifolia and Minjingu Rock phosphate (MPR) applied under maize-bean intercrop as compared to the traditional maize monocrop to improve maize grain yields. Methodology: The experiment was conducted in pots in a ...

  5. Evaluation of dissolution of nonconventional phosphate fertilizers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three phosphate fertilizer materials: finely ground (0.150-mm screen) Dorowa PR (DPR); DPR partially acidulated with 50 % of the sulfuric acid required for complete acidulation (PADPR); and a compacted mixture of DPR + triple superphosphate (TSP) + urea + potassium chloride (DTUK) with half of the P from DPR and ...

  6. Ion Microprobe U-Pb Dating of Zagami Phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Y.; Koike, M.; Takahata, N.; Terada, K.

    2016-08-01

    We report U-Pb dating of Zagami phosphates using SHRIMP and NanoSIMS. A least-squares fit gives 238U-206Pb isochron age of 363 ± 120 Ma and total Pb/U age of 300 ± 84 Ma, which are older than 180 ± 7 Ma of baddeleyite of Zagami in literature.

  7. Origin of Life and the Phosphate Transfer Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piast, Radosław W.; Wieczorek, Rafał M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we revisit several issues relevant to origin-of-life research and propose a Phosphate Transfer Catalyst hypothesis that furthers our understanding of some of the key events in prebiotic chemical evolution. In the Phosphate Transfer Catalyst hypothesis, we assume the existence of hypothetical metallopeptides with phosphate transfer activity that use abundant polyphosphates as both substrates and energy sources. Nonspecific catalysis by this phosphate transfer catalyst would provide a variety of different products such as phosphoryl amino acids, nucleosides, polyphosphate nucleotides, nucleic acids, and aminoacylated nucleic acids. Moreover, being an autocatalytic set and metabolic driver at the same time, it could possibly replicate itself and produce a collective system of two polymerases; a nucleic acid able to catalyze peptide bond formation and a peptide able to polymerize nucleic acids. The genetic code starts at first as a system that reduces the energy barrier by bringing substrates (2'/3' aminoacyl-nucleotides) together, an ancestral form of the catalysis performed by modern ribosomes.

  8. Glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd) activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of red blood cell Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in one hundred and twenty six healthy male individuals who are Nigerians residing in Jos was evaluated. The enzyme activity was determined quantitatively by spectrophotometer assay method. The activity of red cell G6PD enzyme was subnormal ...

  9. Prevalence and Pattern of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Status of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) and haemoglobin (Hb) types were determined in 1,216 individuals in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, using methaemoglobin reduction and cellulosoe acetate electrophoresis methods. The subjects were made up of 556 males and 660 females. Their ages ranged between 1 and 65 ...

  10. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Liang; Habibovic, Pamela; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens A [Department of Tissue Regeneration, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Hedhammar, My; Johansson, Jan [Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the Biomedical Centre, Box 575, 751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Blom, Tobias; Leifer, Klaus [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramic coatings, applied on surfaces of metallic and polymeric biomaterials, can improve their performance in bone repair and regeneration. Spider silk is biocompatible, strong and elastic, and hence an attractive biomaterial for applications in connective tissue repair. Recently, artificial spider silk, with mechanical and structural characteristics similar to those of native spider silk, has been produced from recombinant minispidroins. In the present study, supersaturated simulated body fluid was used to deposit calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres. The mineralization process was followed in time using scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) detector and Raman spectroscope. Focused ion beam technology was used to produce a cross section of a coated fibre, which was further analysed by EDX. Preliminary in vitro experiments using a culture of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on coated fibres were also performed. This study showed that recombinant spider silk fibres were successfully coated with a homogeneous and thick crystalline calcium phosphate layer. In the course of the mineralization process from modified simulated body fluid, sodium chloride crystals were first deposited on the silk surface, followed by the deposition of a calcium phosphate layer. The coated silk fibres supported the attachment and growth of hMSCs.

  11. Evaluation of Creatine Kinase Activity and Inorganic Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Biochemical parameters vary in subjects with different hemoglobin phenotypes, compared with normal controls. Aim: The aim was to evaluate serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and inorganic phosphate concentrations in Nigerian adults with homozygous and heterozygous hemoglobin phenotypes. Subjects ...

  12. Effects of anisotonicity on pentose-phosphate pathway, oxidized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    [Saha N and Goswami C 2004 Effects of anisotonicity on pentose-phosphate pathway, oxidized glutathione release and t-butyl- hydroperoxide-induced ... changes to their external environment at different seasons of the year. Further, teleost ... environmental contami- nants, thus causing a threat to aquatic organisms (Living-.

  13. The Absorption of Nitrate and Phosphate from Urban Sewage by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The applications of blue green algae for the treatment of urban and industrial sewage have received more attention during the recent years because they have the capacity to use nitrogenous compounds, ammonia and phosphates. In this study aimed to evaluate the ability of Spirolina platensis for absorption of nitrate and ...

  14. Calcium and phosphate homeostasis: concerted interplay of new regulators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, K.Y.R.; Alexander, R.T.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (P(i)) are essential to many vital physiological processes. Consequently the maintenance of Ca(2+) and P(i) homeostasis is essential to a healthy existence. This occurs through the concerted action of intestinal, renal, and skeletal regulatory mechanisms. Ca(2+) and

  15. Optimizing conditions for calcium phosphate mediated transient transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Guo

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Calcium phosphate mediated transfection is the most low-cost approach to introduce recombinant DNA into culture cells. However, the utility of this procedure is limited in highly-differentiated cells. Here we describe the specific HBS-buffered saline, PH, glycerol shock, vortex strength, transfection medium, and particle concentrations conditions necessary to optimize this transfection method in highly differentiated cells.

  16. Light scattering studies on solutions containing calcium phosphates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, T.P.; Bruyn, P.L. de

    A number of light scattering experiments was performed on calcium and phosphate containing solutions at pH 8.33 and 26°C. Supplementary information was obtained by means of dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The measurements prove that

  17. Phosphate Remediation and Recovery using Iron Oxide-based Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    E33-modified sorbents for the removal of phosphate from lake water was investigated in this study. E33-modified sorbents were synthesized by coating with manganese and nanoparticles. Characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-...

  18. Secondary metabolism: regulation by phosphate and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, D

    1978-01-01

    Secondary metabolism and cellular differentiation occur within a range of concentrations of phosphate and, in specific taxonomic groups, of zinc, manganese, and/or iron that is much narrower than that permittee for primary metabolism. Possible molecular sites of action of the four elements are reviewed.

  19. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The structure and functionalities of phosphate solubilizing microbial communities differ on the basis of ... standing of soil microbial diversity, nutrient transformation and uptake by plants. The study of populations of ... reveal the high biodiversity of these bacteria. Although the study of rhizosperic bacteria is ...

  20. APPLICATION OF ASCORBIC ACID 2-PHOSPHATE AS A NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electrochemical assay of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) as a new voltammetric substrate has been described in this paper. In the alkaline buffer solution the ALP enzymatic hydrolysis product of AAP was ascorbic acid (AA), which was an electro-active substance and had ...