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Sample records for a-15 compounds

  1. Electronic structure of A15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    For the past twenty-five years compounds with the A15 crystal structure have dominated the class of high temperature superconductors. The crystal structure of an A15 compound A 3 B is cubic (space group O/sub h/ 3 ). However, the site symmetry (D/sub 2d/) of the A atoms is much lower than cubic, an unusual occurrence in cubic binary compounds. Variations on this theme have supplied the basis of many theoretical models of the anomalous temperature (T) dependence of normal state properties and the low temperature cubic reversible tetragonal structural transformations which accompany high values of T/sub c/ in A15 compounds. In this paper results of self-consistent pseudopotential band structure calculations are used to assess some important aspects of the unique and unusual behavior in A15 compounds: (1) the role of the B atom in determining the overall electronic structure will be shown to be important; (2) the effect of the low site symmetry of the A atom on the charge density and potential will be assessed; and (3) the bonding will be shown to be metallic-covalent with no significant A-B charge transfer

  2. Debye classes in A15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenmann, J.; DeFacio, B.; Testardi, L.R.; Werner, S.A.; Fluekiger, R.; Muller, J.

    1981-01-01

    The comparison between electron charge-density distribution of V 3 Si, Cr 3 Si, and V 3 Ge at room temperature leads us to study the Debye temperatures at 0 0 K THETA 0 from specific-heat measurements for over 100 A15 compounds. A phenomenological THETA 0 (M), M the molecular mass, is obtained from the static scaling relation THETA 0 (M) = aM/sup b/ and this organizes all of the data into five Debye classes: V(V 3 Si), V-G, G(V 3 Ge), G-C, and C(Cr 3 Si). In contrast, the Debye temperature THETA 0 (V), with V as the unit-cell volume does not relate alloys as THETA 0 (M) does, with the exception of the C class. This latter case leads to the surprising result MproportionalV/sup approximately1/3/ and to a Grueneisen constant of 1.6 +- 0.1 for all compounds of this class. In the V class where V 3 Si and Nb 3 Sn are found, THETA 0 (V) labels these two alloys differently, as does their martensitic c/a ratios. With T-bar/sub c/ denoting the average superconducting transition temperature within a Debye class, interesting correlations are shown. One is the maximum of T-bar/sub c/ which exists in the V class where the strongest anharmonicity occurs. Another is the case of compounds formed only by transition elements up to and including Au. This interesting case shows that approx.3.2< T-bar/sub c/< approx.5.0 K in all of the five classes and that there is no correlation between T/sub c/ and the thermal properties. The implications of these observations for creating better models for the A15 compounds are briefly discussed

  3. Nature of the defects in irradiated A-15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, C.S.; Viswanathan, R.

    1978-01-01

    From transmission electron microscopy and heat capacity measurements radiation induced damage in A-15 compounds was found to be inhomogeneous, consisting of small disordered regions in an ordered matrix. Some consequences of this result are discussed

  4. Heat-capacity analysis of a large number of A15-type compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.; Jarlborg, T.; Muller, J.

    1983-01-01

    We analyze the low- and medium-temperature specific heat of 25 samples based on eleven A15 binary compounds, with T/sub c/'s ranging from less than 0.015 to 18 K. Experimentally determined ''moments'' of the phonon spectra (omega-bar,omega-bar 2 ,#betta#/sub log/) are included in the analysis. Values are tabulated for T-bar/sub c/, 2 , eta, 2 >, N/sub bs/(E/sub F/), Momega-bar 2 2 , H/sub c/(0), and 2δ(0)/k/sub B/T/sub c/. We note the following: (i) The Debye temperature is generally a bad estimate of #betta#/sub log/. (ii) lambda is governed mainly by the ''electronic parameter'' eta; lambda = 0.175eta(eV/A 2 ) +- 0.2 for all A15 compounds studied. (iii) eta is proportional to the density of states at the Fermi level and this density of states agrees well with band-structure calculations of Jarlborg in Nb-based compounds. In V-based compounds, the observed bad correlation may reflect the presence of spin fluctuations. (iv) The values for the reduced gap 2δ(0)/k/sub B/T/sub c/ range from 3.4 to 4.9 and they are correlated with T/sub c//#betta#/sub log/

  5. Synthesis of organic compounds 15 N enriched

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Claudineia Raquel de; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Prestes, Clelber Vieira; Tavares, Glauco Arnold

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop urea- 15 N and glycine- 15 N synthesis for agronomic and biological studies. The production of these compounds was evaluated due to the fact of increasing use of urea, comparing to others solid fertilizers and the importance of glycine in the studies of protein metabolism. A non-conventional method was carried out to synthesize urea. The process involved reaction among Co, NH 3 anidrid and S at low temperature (100 deg C) and of pressure (0,81 mPa) compared to the conventional method. Monolise halets reaction was carried out for glycine synthesis with chloroacetic and ammonia 2 deg C. Both compounds are economic viable, they can be produced at a lower price than the trade market one. (author)

  6. Interaction of stress with the martensitic phase transition in A15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    Recently there has been a resurgence of interest in the effect of the martensitic phase transition which occurs in many A15 compounds on superconductivity and on elastic and anelastic behavior. Since in many practical applications, A15 compounds are subject to considerable stress and strain, it is of interest to examine the interaction of stress with the martensitic transition; this paper is an examination of the effects of stress predicted by a simple Landau model which successfully describes many features of the transition and the related temperature dependence of the elastic modulus (c 11 -c 12 )/2. The effect of stress on the temperature ranges of stability and metastability of various types of martensitic domain is discussed. The non-linearity of the stress-strain relation in a polycrystalline A15 is studied

  7. Effects of stoichiometry and neutron irradiation in superconducting A-15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlecke, S.

    1978-01-01

    The A-15 (A 3 B) compounds comprise an important class of superconducting compounds. In order to gain a clearer understanding of the parameters influencing the superconductivity in these materials, several A-15 compounds have been prepared and the effects of varying stoichiometry, heat treatment, and irradiation with high energy neutrons (E > 1 MeV) on the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/, Bragg--William order parameter S, and the lattice parameter a 0 , have been studied. The systems investigated include Nb 3 Ge, Nb 3 Al, Nb 3 Pt, Nb 3 Ir, V 3 Ga, V 3 Si and Mo 3 Os. Some of the results may be summarized as follows: 1) for Nb 3 Al, Nb 3 Pt and V 3 Ga, T/sub c/ is a strong function of composition, reaching a maximum value at the ideal stoichiometric composition of 3A: 1B, if that composition exists in the equilibrium phase diagram, 2) irradiation with high energy neutrons at temperatures of approx.150 0 C results in drastic lowering of T/sub c/ for Nb 3 Al, Nb 3 Pt and Nb 3 Ge, but not for Mo 3 Os, 3) T/sub c/ can be recovered by annealing, the recovery temperature being in the range 300-800 0 C depends on the particular compound, 4) the order parameter S, decreases with increasing neutron fluence (decreasing T/sub c/), and is also recoverable upon annealing at the appropriate temperature, 5) the lattice parameter a 0 , increases with increasing neutron fluence, and isalso restored to its original value by annealing. A simple hard sphere model is developed to calculate the dependence of a 0 on composition within the A-15 phase. Excellent agreement is obtained for the measured values in the Nb--Al, Nb--Pt and V--Ga systems. The results of both compositionally and irradiation induced disorder can be understood on the basis of site-exchange taking placee between the A and B sites in the A-15 structure

  8. Atomic ordering, phase stability and superconductivity in bulk and filamentary A15 type compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluekiger, R.

    1987-05-01

    The influence of atomic ordering effects and ordering kinetics on the superconducting and metallurgical properties of A15 type compounds are critically discussed based on own and literature data. First, the techniques for determining the order parameter are reviewed. The dependence of T c vs. S in various A15 type compounds as a function of the quenching temperature and of the high energy particle irradiation fluence is discussed. A model for the disordering mechanism in A15 compounds is established, based on the new concept of the virtual lattice site. It is shown that the disordering mechanism is the same in both cases, high temperature heat treatment and high energy particle irradiation. The very complete representation of ordering effects also contains the variation of other properties, e.g. γ, θ D , ρ o and B c2 (0). Furthermore, it allows to draw empirical correlations between atomic ordering and A15 phase stability. Finally, it is shown on selected examples that the optimization of the critical current density at high fields in Nb 3 Sn wires by alloying is nothing else than a consequence of the occurrence of perfect atomic ordering in binary Nb 3 Sn. (orig.)

  9. Crystal structure of the Ce2Ni2Zn15 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opainich, I.M.; Pavlyuk, V.V.; Bodak, O.I.; Cherny, R.; Yvon, K.

    1996-01-01

    A structure of a new ternary compound of the composition Ce2Ni2Zn15 (sp.gr.R3-barm,a=0.9080(3) nm, c=1.3294(3) nm) was determined on single-crystal and powder specimens. The study was performed on a Philips PW1100 automatic diffractometer and a DRON-4.07 powder diffractometer. The Ce2Ni2Zn15 compound is crystallized in the Ce2Al2Co15 structure type with the aluminum positions being occupied by nickel and cobalt positions being occupied by zinc

  10. Crystal structure of a Ce2Fe2Mg15 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opainich, I.M.; Pavlyuk, V.V.; Bodak, O.I.

    1996-01-01

    A structure of a new Ce2Fe2Mg15 ternary compound (P63/mmc sp.gr., a=1.0324(5) nm, c=1.02080(4) nm) was determined by powder methods on a DRON-4.07 automatic diffractometer. The structure of a Ce2Fe2Mg15 crystal is a new variant of the ordered Th2Ni17 type superstructure, in which cerium atoms occupy the thorium positions; magnesium atoms occupy the nickel position 6g, 12k, and 12j; and iron atoms occupy the 4f position

  11. Comments on possible preferential order-disorder in A-15 compounds based upon Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    The possible existence of preferential B-site disorder in A-15 compounds recently claimed on the basis of x-ray powder diffraction data but questioned from the viewpoint of known phase diagrams is examined for some Nb-based compounds of this type. It is concluded that x-ray powder data do not allow the determination of both order and compositional variables as suggested, and the latter must therefore be determined by some other method. (author)

  12. Elastic wave surfaces and phonon focussing for the A-15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the section of the energy surface corresponding to the longitudinal mode by the principal xy-plane for the A-15 compounds will degenerate into four points at the corners of a square at very low temperatures in the cubic phase. When the quasi-shear mode propagating along the (110) direction becomes soft, simultaneously the longitudinal mode will exhibit unusually high phonon focussing. (author)

  13. Alteration of the superconducting properties of A15 compounds and elementary composite superconductors by non-hydrostatic elastic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, D.O.

    1979-01-01

    Elastic strains alter (usually, but not always, adversely) the critical temperatures, magnetic fields, and current densities of superconducting A15 compounds; non-hydrostatic strain states are particularly effective in this regard. This paper is a review of the experimental evidence, obtained by a variety of techniques, concerning the strain dependence of the critical properties of a number of A15 compounds and a discussion of theoretical models for describing such effects

  14. Ba9V3Se15: a novel compound with spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Min; Wang, Xiancheng; Zhao, Kan; Duan, Lei; Li, Wenmin; Zhao, Jianfa; Cao, Lipeng; Dai, Guangyang; Deng, Zheng; Feng, Shaomin; Zhang, Sijia; Liu, Qingqing; Yang, Yi-feng; Jin, Changqing

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a novel compound Ba9V3Se15 with one-dimensional (1D) spin chains was synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. It was systematically characterized via structural, magnetic, thermodynamic and transport measurements. Ba9V3Se15 crystallizes into a hexagonal structure with a space group of P-6c2 (188) and the lattice constants of a  =  b  =  9.5745(7) Å and c  =  18.7814(4) Å. The crystal structure consists of face-sharing octahedral VSe6 chains along c axis, which are trimeric and arranged in a triangular lattice in ab-plane. Ba9V3Se15 is a semiconductor and undergoes complex magnetic transitions. In the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) process with magnetic field of 10 Oe, Ba9V3Se15 sequentially undergoes ferrimagnetic and spin cluster glass transition at 2.5 K and 3.3 K, respectively. When the magnetic field exceeds 50 Oe, only the ferrimagnetic transition can be observed. Above the transition temperature, the specific heat contains a significant magnetic contribution that is proportional to T 1/2. The calculation suggests that the nearest neighbor (NN) intra-chain antiferromagnetic exchange J 1 is much larger than the next nearest neighbor (NNN) intra-chain ferromagnetic exchange J 2. Therefore, Ba9V3Se15 can be regarded as an effective ferromagnetic chains with effective spin-1/2 by the formation of the V(2)(↓) V(1)(↑) V(2)(↓) cluster.

  15. Additive scheme for calculation of solvation enthalpies of heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Sublimation/vaporization enthalpy at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomonov, Boris N.; Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Mukhametzyanov, Timur A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Additivity scheme for solvation enthalpies estimation of heteroaromatic compounds was proposed. • Method for determination of vaporization/sublimation enthalpies directly at 298.15 K was developed. • Solution enthalpies of 25 heteroaromatic compounds were measured. • Vaporization/sublimation enthalpies of 44 heteroaromatic compounds were determined. • Obtained values are in good agreement with the results of conventional methods. - Abstract: Hereby we propose a method for determination of vaporization and sublimation enthalpies of heterocyclic and carbonyl-containing aromatic compounds at 298.15 K. According to this method vaporization and sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K are determined based on enthalpies of solvation and solution. Solvation enthalpies of heteroatomatic and carbonyl-containing compounds are calculated using an additive scheme from the solvation enthalpy of closest aromatic hydrocarbon and contributions related to the exchange of CH-groups of hydrocarbon with corresponding substituent atoms or groups. Measured solution enthalpies together with calculated solvation enthalpies allowed to calculate corresponding vaporization and sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K for a large number of heterocyclic and carbonyl-containing compounds. We have also found that in a number of cases instead of solution enthalpy in benzene at 298.15 K fusion enthalpy at the melting temperature can be used. Comparison between literature data and calculated vaporization and sublimation enthalpies demonstrates satisfactory performance of the proposed method.

  16. Additive scheme for calculation of solvation enthalpies of heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Sublimation/vaporization enthalpy at 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomonov, Boris N., E-mail: boris.solomonov@kpfu.ru; Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Mukhametzyanov, Timur A.

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • Additivity scheme for solvation enthalpies estimation of heteroaromatic compounds was proposed. • Method for determination of vaporization/sublimation enthalpies directly at 298.15 K was developed. • Solution enthalpies of 25 heteroaromatic compounds were measured. • Vaporization/sublimation enthalpies of 44 heteroaromatic compounds were determined. • Obtained values are in good agreement with the results of conventional methods. - Abstract: Hereby we propose a method for determination of vaporization and sublimation enthalpies of heterocyclic and carbonyl-containing aromatic compounds at 298.15 K. According to this method vaporization and sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K are determined based on enthalpies of solvation and solution. Solvation enthalpies of heteroatomatic and carbonyl-containing compounds are calculated using an additive scheme from the solvation enthalpy of closest aromatic hydrocarbon and contributions related to the exchange of CH-groups of hydrocarbon with corresponding substituent atoms or groups. Measured solution enthalpies together with calculated solvation enthalpies allowed to calculate corresponding vaporization and sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K for a large number of heterocyclic and carbonyl-containing compounds. We have also found that in a number of cases instead of solution enthalpy in benzene at 298.15 K fusion enthalpy at the melting temperature can be used. Comparison between literature data and calculated vaporization and sublimation enthalpies demonstrates satisfactory performance of the proposed method.

  17. Density of states model for the lattice transformation in A-15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrass, B.; Handstein, A.; Behr, G.

    1980-01-01

    The cubic-tetragonal lattice transformation in A-15 compounds is described by an empirical model in which the density of states function near the Fermi energy is characterized by a two-parametric peak in addition to the constant part. Two types of peak splitting under tetragonal deformation are considered, leading to qualitatively different results about the phase transition. Results are given for the order parameter, the phase stability, the soft elastic modulus, and the paramagnetic spin susceptibility. Comparing with measurements of the magnetic susceptibility of V 3 Si single crystals near the phase transition a better agreement is obtained for a twofold degenerate density of states peak than for a threefold degenerate one. (author)

  18. Anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) and identification of urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the main active compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural products could play an important role in the challenge to discover new anti-malarial drugs. In a previous study, Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) was selected for its promising anti-plasmodial activity after a preliminary screening of several plants traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat malaria. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-plasmodial properties of this plant and to isolate the active anti-plasmodial compounds. Methods Eight crude extracts obtained from D. tomentosa whole plant were tested in vitro against two Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2) using the p-LDH assay (colorimetric method). The Peters’ four-days suppressive test model (Plasmodium berghei-infected mice) was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity. An in vitro bioguided fractionation was undertaken on a dichloromethane extract, using preparative HPLC and TLC techniques. The identity of the pure compound was assessed using UV, MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity against WI38 human fibroblasts (WST-1 assay) and haemolytic activity were also evaluated for extracts and pure compounds in order to check selectivity. Results The best in vitro anti-plasmodial results were obtained with the dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts, which exhibited a high activity (IC50 ≤ 5 μg/ml). Hot water and hydroethanolic extracts also showed a good activity (IC50 ≤ 15 μg/ml), which confirmed the traditional use and the promising anti-malarial potential of the plant. The activity was also confirmed in vivo for all tested extracts. However, most of the active extracts also exhibited cytotoxic activity, but no extract was found to display any haemolytic activity. The bioguided fractionation process allowed to isolate and identify a sesquiterpene lactone (urospermal A-15-O-acetate) as the major anti-plasmodial compound of the plant (IC50 < 1 μg/ml against both 3D7 and W2 strains). This was also

  19. A spin echo study of A15 intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoep, G.K.

    1976-01-01

    This thesis mainly concerns the measurement of spin-lattice relaxation times in intermetallic compounds of the bcc lattice structure, having the formula V 3 X (C = Pt, Ir, Os, Pd, Rh, Ni, Co, Au). When, in a spin echo experiment, a two-pulse sequence was applied, several quadrupolar echoes were observed. Special attention is given to the 'forbidden' echoes (absol.(Δm')GT1) in V 3 Au and V 3 Co. In relation to the V 3 X compounds, several characteristics are discussed including temperature dependence and concentration dependence of spin relaxation times, superconductivity and the importance of d-state electrons in determination of the spin relaxation times. Finally, the above characteristics were determined for 6 different samples of the vanadium-gold alloy, V 3 Au, specifically

  20. Superconductivity in irradiated A-15 compounds at low fluences. I. Neutron-irradiated V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Caton, R.; Pande, C.S.

    1978-01-01

    The behavior of the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ of single-crystal and polycrystalline V 3 Si was investigated as a function of low-fluence neutron irradiation. It is found that the initial degradation of T/sub c/ is sample-dependent, some specimens showing no degradation in T/sub c/ up to a fluence of 2 x 10 18 n/cm 2 . This and many other earlier observations on low-fluence behavior are explained in terms of a recently proposed model of radiation damage in A-15 compounds

  1. Compound-specific δ15N amino acid measurements in littoral mussels in the California upwelling ecosystem: a new approach to generating baseline δ15N Isoscapes for coastal ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L Vokhshoori

    Full Text Available We explored δ(15N compound-specific amino acid isotope data (CSI-AA in filter-feeding intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus as a new approach to construct integrated isoscapes of coastal primary production. We examined spatial δ(15N gradients in the California Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE, determining bulk δ(15N values of mussel tissue from 28 sites between Port Orford, Oregon and La Jolla, California, and applying CSI-AA at selected sites to decouple trophic effects from isotopic values at the base of the food web. Bulk δ(15N values showed a strong linear trend with latitude, increasing from North to South (from ∼ 7‰ to ∼ 12‰, R(2 = 0.759. In contrast, CSI-AA trophic position estimates showed no correlation with latitude. The δ(15N trend is therefore most consistent with a baseline δ(15N gradient, likely due to the mixing of two source waters: low δ(15N nitrate from the southward flowing surface California Current, and the northward transport of the California Undercurrent (CUC, with (15N-enriched nitrate. This interpretation is strongly supported by a similar linear gradient in δ(15N values of phenylalanine (δ(15NPhe, the best AA proxy for baseline δ(15N values. We hypothesize δ(15N(Phe values in intertidal mussels can approximate annual integrated δ(15N values of coastal phytoplankton primary production. We therefore used δ(15N(Phe values to generate the first compound-specific nitrogen isoscape for the coastal Northeast Pacific, which indicates a remarkably linear gradient in coastal primary production δ(15N values. We propose that δ(15N(Phe isoscapes derived from filter feeders can directly characterize baseline δ(15N values across major biochemical provinces, with potential applications for understanding migratory and feeding patterns of top predators, monitoring effects of climate change, and study of paleo- archives.

  2. Synthesis and biological activity of chimeric structures derived from the cytotoxic natural compounds dolastatin 10 and dolastatin 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, J; Busquet, M; Roux, F; Pierré, A; Atassi, G; Jouin, P

    1998-04-23

    The natural cytotoxic compounds dolastatins 10 and 15 exhibit great similarities in structure and in their biological activity profiles. Two compounds (1 and 2) formed by interchanging the dolaisoleuine residue of dolastatin 10 and the MeVal-Pro dipeptide of dolastatin 15 were synthesized in order to evaluate the possible equivalence of these units. These compounds can be considered as chimeras of dolastatins 10 and 15 formed by the N-terminal part of the former and the C-terminal part of the latter and vice versa. Both analogues exhibited a marked decrease in their cytotoxic activity but showed similar differential cytotoxicity with regard to the cell lines assayed compared with the parent compounds. HT-29 cell line was the least sensitive one. However, this activity was in the nanomolar level and close to that of vincristine. The differences in their effect on tubulin polymerization were less pronounced. We confirmed the already known crucial role of the Dil residue in this assay. The nonequivalence of the Dil unit and the MeVal-Pro dipeptide probably reflects modification in the relative positions of the N-dimethylamino and the phenyl moieties.

  3. Thermodynamic study and intrinsic type II superconductivity in the A-15 compound V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Toyota, N.; Noto, K.; Akutsu, K.; Isino, M.; Fukase, T.

    1979-01-01

    The specific heat of a single crystal of the A-15-type compound V 3 Si in the normal, mixed, and superconducting states has been measured from 4 to 30 K in magnetic fieldsup to 50 kOe. The analysis has been performed in a self-consistent way based on the second-order phase transition from the normal to the superconducting state. The thermodynamic critical field and then various physical parameters characterizing the superconducting and normal states are almost consistently derived from the thermodynamcis and the microscopic BCS-GLAG theory. It is confirmed that V 3 Si is an intrinsic type II superconductor with a high intrinsic GL parameter k 0

  4. Solubility of some phenolic compounds in aqueous alkali metal nitrate solutions from (293.15 to 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noubigh, Adel [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des materiaux, IPEST, BP51, 2070 La MARSA (Tunisia)], E-mail: Adel.anoubigh@ipest.rnu.tn; Cherif, Mourad [IPEIEM, Universite de Tunis-El Manar, BP244. 2096. El Manar II (Tunisia); Provost, Elise [Laboratoire Chimie et procedes, ENSTA, 32 Rue de Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris, Cedex 15 (France); Abderrabba, Manef [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des materiaux, IPEST, BP51, 2070 La MARSA (Tunisia)

    2008-11-15

    This paper is continuation of the study concerning the solubility-temperature dependence data for some phenolic compounds (PhC), contained in olive mill wastewater (OMWW), in two nitrate salts (KNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}) aqueous solutions. The solubilities of PhC were determined in the temperature ranging from (293.15 to 318.15) K. It has been observed that the solubility, in aqueous nitrate solutions, increases with increasing temperature. Results showed that alkali metal nitrate has a salting-out effect on the solubility of PhC. The effect of the anion of the electrolyte on the solubility of PhC is observed by comparing these results with values reported in the previous papers for the effect of LiCl, NaCl and KCl. For each cation, the solubilites of the phenolic compounds are higher with nitrate anion than with chloride anion. Results were interpreted in terms of the salt hydration shells and the ability of the solute to form hydrogen-bond with water. The solubility data were accurately correlated by a semi empirical equation. The standard molar Gibbs free energies of transfer of PhC ({delta}{sub tr}G{sup 0}) from pure water to aqueous solutions of the nitrate salts have been calculated from the solubility data. The decrease in solubility is correlated to the positive {delta}{sub tr}G{sup 0} value which is mainly of enthalpic origin.

  5. Predicting Heats of Explosion of Nitroaromatic Compounds through NBO Charges and 15N NMR Chemical Shifts of Nitro Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Infante-Castillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new quantitative model to predict the heat of explosion of nitroaromatic compounds using the natural bond orbital (NBO charge and 15N NMR chemical shifts of the nitro groups (15NNitro as structural parameters. The values of the heat of explosion predicted for 21 nitroaromatic compounds using the model described here were compared with experimental data. The prediction ability of the model was assessed by the leave-one-out cross-validation method. The cross-validation results show that the model is significant and stable and that the predicted accuracy is within 0.146 MJ kg−1, with an overall root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP below 0.183 MJ kg−1. Strong correlations were observed between the heat of explosion and the charges (R2 = 0.9533 and 15N NMR chemical shifts (R2 = 0.9531 of the studied compounds. In addition, the dependence of the heat of explosion on the presence of activating or deactivating groups of nitroaromatic explosives was analyzed. All calculations, including optimizations, NBO charges, and 15NNitro NMR chemical shifts analyses, were performed using density functional theory (DFT and a 6-311+G(2d,p basis set. Based on these results, this practical quantitative model can be used as a tool in the design and development of highly energetic materials (HEM based on nitroaromatic compounds.

  6. Electronic structure, superconductivity, and spin fluctuations in the A15 compounds A3B: A = V, Nb; B = Ir,Pt,Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlborg, T.; Junod, A.; Peter, M.

    1983-01-01

    The electronic structure of six A15 compounds V 3 Ir, V 3 Pt, V 3 Au, Nb 3 Ir, Nb 3 Pt, and Nb 3 Au has been determined by means of self-consistent semirelativistic linear muffin-tin orbital band calculations. Parameters related to superconductivity such as electron-phonon coupling, transition temperature, electronic specific heat, and magnetic exchange enhancement are derived from the electronic-structure results. Generally the results obtained agree well with experimental values, with the exception of Nb 3 Pt and V 3 Au. In the former compound the density of states (DOS) has a sharp increase at E/sub F/ making the exact DOS value uncertain. In V 3 Au the high calculated T/sub c/ and the Stoner factor indicate that spin fluctuations may be limiting the T/sub c/. .AE

  7. Pericocins A-D, New Bioactive Compounds from Periconia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Hua; Xiao, Gao-Keng; Chen, Guo-Dong; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Hu, Dan; Lian, Yun-Yang; Lin, Feng; Guo, Liang-Dong; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

    2015-12-01

    One new dihydroisocoumarin, pericocin A (1), one new chromone, pericocin B (2), and two new α-pyrone derivatives, pericocins C-D (3-4), together with two known compounds, 3-(2-oxo-2H-pyran-6-yl)propanoic acid (5) and (E)-3-(2-oxo-2H-pyran-6-yl)acrylic acid (6), were isolated from the culture of the endolichenic fungus Periconia sp.. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. All these compounds are derived from the polyketone biosynthetic pathway. Compound 1 was obtained as a mixture of enantiomers. The antimicrobial activity of compounds 1-5 was tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. Compounds 1-5 showed moderate antimicrobial activity against A. niger and weak activity against C. albicans.

  8. Assessment of off-stoichiometric Zr33-xFe52+xSi15 C14 Laves phase compounds as permanent magnet materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, A. M.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, Fe-based rare-earth-free compounds with non-cubic crystal structures were proposed as a base for permanent magnets which would not rely on critical elements. In this work, two series of alloys, Zr27Fe73-wSiw (0 ≤ w ≤ 15) and Zr33-xFe52+xSi15 (0 ≤ x ≤ 11), were prepared and characterized after annealing at 1538 K in order to determine the fundamental magnetic properties of the C36 and C14 hexagonal Laves phase compounds. A mixture of the cubic C15 and Zr6Fe23 structures was observed instead of the expected C36 structure. The hexagonal C14 was found in all Zr33-xFe52+xSi15 alloys with its lattice parameters linearly decreasing as the Fe(Si) atoms occupy the Zr sites in the Laves phase crystal structure. The solubility limit of Fe in the C14 structure at 1538 K corresponds to x = 9.5. The Curie temperature of the C14 compounds increases with deviation from the Laves phase stoichiometry from 290 K to 530 K. The room-temperature spontaneous magnetization also increases reaching, after correcting for the non-magnetic impurities, a value of 6.7 kG. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the off-stoichiometric C14 Laves phase was found to be uniaxial with the easy magnetization direction parallel to the hexagonal axis. Unfortunately, the anisotropy field, which does not exceed 10 kOe, is not sufficiently high to make the compounds interesting as permanent magnet materials.

  9. Effect of structural packing on the luminescence properties in tungsten bronze compounds M{sub 2}KNb{sub 5}O{sub 15} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Xin; Shi Liu [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures and CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wei Ang, E-mail: iamawei@njupt.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays, 9 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210046 (China); Wan Dongyun; Wang Yaoming [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures and CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Huang Fuqiang, E-mail: huangfq@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures and CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Tungsten bronze compounds M{sub 2}KNb{sub 5}O{sub 15} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) were successfully synthesized, and the luminescence properties were investigated. Among the three compounds, Ca{sub 2}KNb{sub 5}O{sub 15} showed an obviously broad band of host luminescence at 460 nm with exciting at 269 nm. By doping Eu{sup 3+} into the M sites, Ca{sub 2}KNb{sub 5}O{sub 15}:Eu{sup 3+} displayed strong red emission from Eu{sup 3+} ions characteristic transitions, nearly four times higher than Sr{sub 2}KNb{sub 5}O{sub 15}:Eu{sup 3+} and seven times higher than Ba{sub 2}KNb{sub 5}O{sub 15}:Eu{sup 3+}. Crystal packing factor (PF) was introduced to account for this luminescence difference, lower PF being correlated to higher luminescence intensity for perovskite-related structure. Both the as-prepared compounds and the literature examples were proved to fit this correlation. This can be explained through the influence of the structural packing on the environment distortion and crystal field splitting of the doping site. - Graphical abstract: Tungsten bronze compounds M{sub 2}KNb{sub 5}O{sub 15} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) show the dependence of luminescence properties on structural packing, among which Ca{sub 2}KNb{sub 5}O{sub 15} has the superior luminescence. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tungsten bronze compounds were synthesized by solid state reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca{sub 2}KNb{sub 5}O{sub 15} displayed remarkably blue host luminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca{sub 2}KNb{sub 5}O{sub 15}:Eu{sup 3+} showed more intense red emission than M{sub 2}KNb{sub 5}O{sub 15}:Eu{sup 3+} (M=Sr, Ba). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between crystal packing factor and luminescence was obtained.

  10. Acute organophosphorus compound poisoning in cattle: A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of an acute organophosphorus compound, GOLDFLEECE poisoning involving 39 cattle at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi is reported. The animals were overexposed to the compound following routine tick spray. Within 15 minutes after the spray of the compound, 26 animals were recumbent showing ...

  11. Amberlyst-15: An Efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of β-amino carbonyl compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathakota Venkata Ramana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of β-amino carbonyl compounds from aromatic ketones, aldehydes and amines by Mannich reaction in the presence of amberlyst-15 as a reusable heterogeneous catalyst at room temperature under solvent-free conditions. The noteworthy advantages of the present method are short reaction times, good product yields, simple procedures and use of non-toxic catalyst.

  12. Production of 15N-enriched nitric acid (H15NO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Sant Ana Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that employ 15N have proved to be an important tool in many areas of the agronomic and biomedical sciences. Nevertheless, their use is limited by methodological difficulties and by the price of compounds in the international market. Nitric compounds (15NO3- have attracted the interest of researchers. However, these compounds are not currently produced in Brazil. Thus, in the present work H15NO3 was obtained from the oxidation of anhydrous 15NH3. The method we used differs from the industrial process in that the absorption tower is replaced with a polytetrafluoroethylene-lined, stainless-steel hydration reactor. The process output was evaluated based on the following parameters: reaction temperature; ratio of reagents; pressure and flow of 15NH3(g through the catalyst (Pt/Rh. The results showed that, at the best conditions (500 ºC; 50 % excess O2; 0.4 MPa; and 3.39 g.min-1 of 15NH3, a conversion percentage (N-15NH3 to N-15NO3- of 62.2 %, an overall nitrogen balance (N-15NH3 + N-15NO3- of 86.8 %, and purity higher than 99 % could be obtained.

  13. PHOTOELECTRON-SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF THE ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE OF THE INCOMMENSURATE INTERGROWTH COMPOUNDS (SBS)(1.15)(TIS2)(N) WITH N=1, 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    REN, Y; HAAS, C; WIEGERS, GA

    1995-01-01

    The electronic structure of the inorganic misfit-layer compounds (SbS)(1.15)(TiS2)(n) (n = 1,2) has been investigated using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). These compounds are built of alternating modulated

  14. Dispersion of complex dielectric constant and electronic characteristics of the compounds Nb-Al and Nb-Ge with A15 structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmichev, N.D.; Levchenko, I.S.; Motulevich, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that the dispersions of complex dielectric constant of the compounds Nb-Al and Nb-Ge with A15 structure, used for determination of electronic characteristics and their variations with temperature, are measured in the 0.177-3.1 eV spectral interval at 295 and 670 K. The squares of the plasma frequencies ω 2 p of conduction electrons are obtained. In both compounds ω 2 p ∼ 19 eV 2 , which is 3.2 times less than for niobium. In this spectral interval, Nb-Al has four interband transition zones at 0.2, 0.35, 1.45, and 3.1 eV, while Nb-Ge has five such bands: 0.21, 0.32, 0.48, 0.95 and 2.0 eV. As the temperature increases ω 2 p of conduction electrons increases somewhat more than for usual metals (in both compounds), and the decrease in the analogous characteristic in the long-wave band for Nb-Ge is unusually great, preserving the sum of the changes, and there is also a significant decrease in the width of the long-wave band. These anomalies can be explained by thermal transfer of electrons from the base state of the long-wave band to the conduction band

  15. Influence of the substitution of Ni for Fe on the microstructure evolution and magnetic phase transition in La(Fe1−xNix)11.5Si1.5 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Song; Ye, Rongchang; Long, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: M–T curves show that all the compounds undergo a ferromagnetic–paramagnetic magnetic phase transition process. Besides, the Curie temperature T c of La(Fe 1−x Ni x ) 11.5 Si 1.5 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) compounds increase monotonously from 195 K to 219 K when Ni content x varies from 0 to 0.03. Highlights: ► We substituted Fe by new element Ni in La(Fe 1−x Ni x ) 11.5 Si 1.5 compounds. ► The microstructure evolution, magnetic phase transition and Curie temperature of La(Fe 1−x Ni x ) 11.5 Si 1.5 compounds were investigated. ► The small substitution of Ni for Fe in La(Fe 1−x Ni x ) 11.5 Si 1.5 compounds enhances the formation of 1:13 phase and helps the elimination of impurity phase significantly. ► The Curie temperature T C of La(Fe 1−x Ni x ) 11.5 Si 1.5 compounds increase monotonously from 195 K to 219 K when x varies from 0 to 0.03. - Abstract: The influence of Ni substitution on the microstructure evolution and magnetic phase transition has been investigated in La(Fe 1−x Ni x ) 11.5 Si 1.5 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) compounds. Results show that partial substitution of Ni for Fe in La(Fe 1−x Ni x ) 11.5 Si 1.5 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) alloys promotes fining of the as-cast microstructure. Besides, the formation of 1:13 phase and the elimination of impurity phases is facilitated significantly when annealed at 1373 K for 5 days. Large amounts of inhomogeneities are present in the annealed LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 alloy. While almost single 1:13 phase is obtained in La(Fe 1−x Ni x ) 11.5 Si 1.5 (x = 0.02, 0.03) alloys. Moreover, the Curie temperature T C of La(Fe 1−x Ni x ) 11.5 Si 1.5 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) compounds increase monotonously from 195 K to 219 K when Ni content x varies from 0 to 0.03.

  16. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Toluene as a Model Compound of Biomass Gasification Tar Using Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Dahlquist

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nickel supported on SBA-15 doped with CeO2 catalysts (Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 was prepared, and used for steam reforming of toluene which was selected as a model compound of biomass gasification tar. A fixed-bed lab-scale set was designed and employed to evaluate the catalytic performances of the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts. Experiments were performed to reveal the effects of several factors on the toluene conversion and product gas composition, including the reaction temperature, steam/carbon (S/C ratio, and CeO2 loading content. Moreover, the catalysts were subjected to analysis of their carbon contents after the steam reforming experiments, as well as to test the catalytic stability over a long experimental period. The results indicated that the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts exhibited promising capabilities on the toluene conversion, anti-coke deposition and catalytic stability. The toluene conversion reached as high as 98.9% at steam reforming temperature of 850 °C and S/C ratio of 3 using the Ni-CeO2(3wt%/SBA-15 catalyst. Negligible coke formation was detected on the used catalyst. The gaseous products mainly consisted of H2 and CO, together with a little CO2 and CH4.

  17. Elastic constants of the C15 laves phase compound NbCr2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, F.; He, Y.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E.

    1995-01-01

    Elastic properties of a solid are important because they relate to various fundamental solid-state phenomena such as interatomic potentials, equations of state, and phonon spectra. Elastic properties are also linked thermodynamically with specific heat, thermal expansion, Debye temperature, and Gruneisen parameter. Most important, knowledge of elastic constants is essential for many practical applications related to the mechanical properties of a solid as well: load-deflection, thermoelastic stress, internal strain (residual stress), sound velocities, dislocation core structure, and fracture toughness. In order to understand better the physical properties and deformation behavior of the C15 compound NbCr 2 , the authors have studied its elastic properties in this paper. In Section 2, the experimental methods are described, including the preparation of the sample and the measurement of the elastic constants. In Section 3, the experimental results are presented and the implications of these experimental results are discussed. Conclusions are drawn in Section 4

  18. The effects of different heat treatment annealing on structural properties of LaFe11.5Si1.5 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizan, Yang Nurhidayah Asnida; Din, Muhammad Faiz Md; Zamri, Wan Fathul Hakim W.; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Jusoh, Mohd Taufik; Rahman, Mohd Rashid Abdul

    2018-02-01

    The cubic NaZn13-type LaFe13-xSix based compounds have been studied systematically and has become one of the most interesting systems for exploring large MCE. Its magnetic properties are strongly doping dependent and provides many of advantage compare to other as magnetic materials for magnetic refrigerator application. In other to produce high quality of cubic NaZn13-type structure, the structural properties of LaFe11.5Si1.5 compounds annealed at different temperature have been investigated. The LaFe11.5Si1.5 compounds was prepared by arc melting and annealed at two different heat treatment which are 1323 K for 14 days and 1523 K for 4 hour. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that a short time and high temperature annealing process has benefits for the formation of the NaZn13-type phase compared to a long time and low temperature annealing process. This is shown by the weight fraction of cubic NaZn13- type structure increases from 80% for low temperature annealing to 83% for high temperature annealing. At the same time, high temperature annealing increase the main structure and decrease the impurity (α-Fe and LaFeSi). Furthermore, it can be clearly seen in the Rietveld refinement results that the lattice parameter is increase at the high temperature annealing because of more cubic NaZn13 is formed at higher temperature.

  19. Crystallographic and magnetic properties of (Nd,Dy)3Fe27.5(Ti,Mo)1.5 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.B.; Liu, X.F.; Lv, J.Y.; Peng, J.; Hao, Y.M.; Li, X.J.; Chen, D.F.; Xue, Y.J.; Li, J.H.; Hu, Z.B.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic study of the formation, structure and magnetic properties of (Nd,Dy) 3 Fe 27.5 (Ti,Mo) 1.5 compounds has been performed. Rietveld analyses of the X-ray patterns of the samples indicate that the concentrations of Ti and Mo affect the formation and structural properties slightly, whereas different rare-earth (Nd and Dy) contents influence them significantly. It is found that high Dy contents make it difficult to form the 3:29-type structures. The Curie temperatures of Nd 2.1 Dy 0.9 Fe 27.5 Ti 1.5- x Mo x decrease monotonically as more Ti was replaced by Mo but their saturation magnetizations remain almost unchanged; in contrast, for Nd 3- y Dy y Fe 27.5 TiMo 0.5 , their saturation magnetizations decrease monotonically with increasing Dy contents while their Curie temperatures are constant

  20. Local structure and defect chemistry of [(SnSe)1.15]m(TaSe2) ferecrystals – A new type of layered intergrowth compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, Corinna; Atkins, Ryan; Kirmse, Holm; Mogilatenko, Anna; Neumann, Wolfgang; Johnson, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The crystal structure of [(SnSe) 1.15 ] m (TaSe 2 ) ferecrystals was analyzed by TEM. •The layers exhibit turbostratic disorder, but we also observed a local ordering. •The structures of the SnSe and TaSe 2 layers are similar to binary SnSe and 2H-TaSe 2 . •An increasing in-plane SnSe grain size with increasing m was observed. •Defect areas with missing, substituted or additional layers were found. -- Abstract: The atomic structure of the family of ferecrystals [(SnSe) 1.15 ] m (TaSe 2 ) (m = 1, 3, and 6) was investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. The tantalum in the TaSe 2 layers was observed to have trigonal prismatic coordination similar to that found in the 2H polytype of bulk TaSe 2 . The structure of the SnSe constituent was found to be similar to that of orthorhombic α-SnSe. In the compounds with m = 1 and m = 3, regions with a local ordering of the layers along a commensurate axis, similar to the ordering in conventional misfit layer compounds, were observed. However, on a longer range the ferecrystals were found to exhibit a turbostratically disordered structure. Stacking defects were occasionally found in the samples in which a layer is interrupted and the surrounding layers are bent around these defects, while maintaining abrupt interfaces instead of interdiffusing. Volume defects were found in one sample of [(SnSe) 1.15 ] 1 (TaSe 2 ) 1 in which a SnSe layer locally substitutes a part of a TaSe 2 layer without interrupting the surrounding layers

  1. Antiproliferative compounds of Cyphostemma greveana from a Madagascar dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shugeng; Hou, Yanpeng; Brodie, Peggy; Miller, James S; Randrianaivo, Richard; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E; Kingston, David G I

    2011-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extracts obtained from a plant identified as Cyphostemma greveana Desc. (Vitaceae) led to the identification of one macrolide, lasiodiplodin (1), three sesquiterpenoids, 12-hydroxy-15-oxoselina-4,11-diene (2), 1β,6α-dihydroxyeudesm-4(15)-ene (3), and (7R*)-opposit-4(15)-ene-1β,7-diol (5), and a new diterpenoid, 16,18-dihydroxykolavenic acid lactone (4). All the isolates were tested against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line, and compound 4 and a fraction containing 5 as the major constituent showed antiproliferative activities with IC(50) values of 0.44 μM (0.14 μg/ml) and 0.045 μg/ml, respectively. A partial synthesis of compound 5 was carried out, but the pure synthetic compound was inactive, indicating that the activity of the fraction containing it must be due to a very minor and as yet unidentified substance. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. The crystal structure of the mixed-layer Aurivillius phase Bi 5Ti 1.5W 1.5O 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, J.; Boullay, Ph.; Créon, N.; Mercurio, D.

    2005-09-01

    The crystal structure of the 1+2 mixed-layer Aurivillius phase Bi 5Ti 1.5W 1.5O 15 (SG I2cm n o 46: -cba, Z=4, a=5.4092(3) Å, b=5.3843(3) Å and c=41.529(3) Å) consisting of the ordered intergrowth of one and two octahedra thick perovskite-type blocks separated by [Bi 2O 2] 2+ slabs is reported. Supported by an electron diffraction investigation and, using the Rietveld analysis, it is shown that this compound should be described using a I-centering lattice in agreement with the generalised structural model of the Aurivillius type compounds recently presented by the authors. The structure of this Bi 5Ti 1.5W 1.5O 15 phase is analyzed in comparison with the related simple members (Bi 2WO 6 and Bi 3Ti 1.5W 0.5O 9). The crystal structure of Bi 3Ti 1.5W 0.5O 9 is also reported.

  3. Antiproliferative Compounds of Cyphostemma greveana from a Madagascar Dry Forest[1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shugeng; Hou, Yanpeng; Brodie, Peggy; Miller, James S.; Randrianaivo, Richard; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extracts obtained from a plant identified as Cyphostemma greveana Desc. (Vitaceae) led to the identification of one macrolide, lasiodiplodin (1), three sesquiterpenoids, 12-hydroxy-15-oxo-selina-4,1l-diene (2), 1β,6α-dihydroxyeudesm-4(15)-ene (3), and (7R*)-opposit-4(15)-ene-1β,7-diol (5), and the new diterpenoid, 16,18-dihydroxykolavenic acid lactone (4). All the isolates were tested against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line, and compound 4 and a fraction containing 5 as the major constituent showed antiproliferative activities with IC50 values of 0.44 μM (0.14 μg/mL) and 0.045 μg/mL, respectively. A semisynthesis of compound 5 was carried out, but the pure synthetic compound was inactive, indicating that the activity of the fraction containing it must be due to a very minor and as yet unidentified substance. PMID:21480509

  4. Fused heterocyclic compounds bearing bridgehead nitrogen as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs. Part 1: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 5,7-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Du, Deping; Rai, Diwakar; Wang, Liu; Liu, Huiqing; Zhan, Peng; De Clercq, Erik; Pannecouque, Christophe; Liu, Xinyong

    2014-04-01

    In our continuous efforts to identify novel potent HIV-1 NNRTIs, a novel class of 5,7-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives were rationally designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities in MT4 cell cultures. Biological results showed that most of the tested compounds displayed excellent activity against wild-type HIV-1 with a wide range of EC50 values from 5.98 to 0.07μM. Among the active compounds, 5a was found to be the most promising analogue with an EC50 of 0.07μM against wild-type HIV-1 and very high selectivity index (SI, 3999). Compound 5a was more effective than the reference drugs nevirapine (by 2-fold) and delavirdine (by 2-fold). In order to further confirm their binding target, an HIV-1 RT inhibitory assay was also performed. Furthermore, SAR analysis among the newly synthesized compounds was discussed and the binding mode of the active compound 5a was rationalized by molecular modeling studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microstructural and thermoelectric properties of p-type Te-doped Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} and n-type SbI{sub 3}-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.85}Se{sub 0.15} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J; Park, K; Lee, C; Kim, J

    1997-07-01

    The p-type Te-doped Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} and n-type SbI{sub 3}-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.85}Se{sub 0.15} thermoelectric compounds were fabricated by hot pressing in the temperature range of 380 to 440 C under 200 MPa in Ar. Both the compounds were highly dense and showed high crystalline quality. The grains of the compounds were preferentially oriented and contained many dislocations through the hot pressing. The fracture path followed the transgranular cleavage planes, which are perpendicular to the c-axis. In addition, with increasing the pressing temperature, the figure of merit was increased. The highest values of figure of merit for the p- and n-type compounds, which were obtained at 420 C, were 2.69 x 10{sup {minus}3}/K and 2.35 x 10{sup {minus}3}/K, respectively.

  6. Immobilization of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Compounds: A Synthetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Lindhorst, Anja C; Groche, Florian J; Kühn, Fritz E

    2017-02-08

    Over the course of the past 15 years the success story of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) compounds in organic, inorganic, and organometallic chemistry has been extended to another dimension. The immobilization of NHC compounds, undergoing continuous diversification, broadens their range of applications and leads to new solutions for challenges in catalytic and synthetic chemistry. This review intends to present a synthetic toolkit for the immobilization of NHC compounds, giving the reader an overview on synthetic techniques and strategies available in the literature. By individually summarizing and assessing the synthetic steps of the immobilization process, a comprehensive picture of the strategies and methodologies for the immobilization of NHC compounds is presented. Furthermore, the characterization of supported NHC compounds is discussed in detail in order to set up necessary criteria for an in-depth analysis of the immobilized derivatives. Finally, the catalytic applications of immobilized NHC compounds are briefly reviewed to illustrate the practical use of this technique for a broad variety of reaction types.

  7. Modified solution calorimetry approach for determination of vaporization and sublimation enthalpies of branched-chain aliphatic and alkyl aromatic compounds at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Novikov, Vladimir B.; Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Solomonov, Boris N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solution enthalpies of 18 branching-chain alkyl aromatic and aliphatic compounds in cyclohexane were measured. • Group contributions to the enthalpy of solvation due to branching and substitution in carbon chain were evaluated. • Modified solution calorimetry based approach for determination of vaporization/sublimation enthalpies was proposed. • This approach provides vaporization/sublimation enthalpies directly at T = 298.15 K. • Vaporization/sublimation enthalpies of 35 branched-chain alkyl aromatic and aliphatic compounds were determined. - Abstract: The enthalpies of solution, solvation and vaporization/sublimation are interrelated values combined in the simplest thermodynamic circle. Hence, experimental determination of vaporization/sublimation enthalpy can be substituted by experimentally simpler determination of solution enthalpy when solvation enthalpy is known. Previously it was found that solvation enthalpies of a wide range of unbranched aliphatic and aromatic solutes in saturated hydrocarbons are in good linear correlation with their molar refraction values. This allows to estimate the vaporization/sublimation enthalpy of any unbranched organic compound from its solution enthalpy in saturated hydrocarbon and molar refraction. In the present work this approach was modified for determination of vaporization/sublimation enthalpy of branched-chain alkyl aromatic and aliphatic compounds. Group contributions to the enthalpy of solvation due to the branching of carbon chain were evaluated. Enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution of 18 branched-chain aliphatic and alkyl aromatic compounds were measured at T = 298.15 K. Vaporization/sublimation enthalpies for 35 branched aliphatic and alkyl aromatic compounds were determined by using modified solution calorimetry approach. These values are in good agreement with available literature data on vaporization/sublimation enthalpies obtained by conventional methods.

  8. A system for oxygen-15 labeled blood for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanyam, R.; Bucelewicz, W.M.; Hoop, B. Jr.; Jones, S.C.

    1977-01-01

    Oxygen-15 labeled compounds in blood have been used successfully for cerebral circulation and cerebral oxygen metabolism measurements. The present paper describes a system for the rapid sequential production of 15 O-HgB, C 15 O-Hgb and H 2 15 O in blood under sterile and pyrogen-free conditions. A tonometer has been adopted for labeling blood without hemolysis and foam production. (author)

  9. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium at T = 298.15 K for ternary mixtures of alkane + aromatic compounds + imidazolium-based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez, Irene; Requejo, Patricia F.; Canosa, José; Domínguez, Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The LLE ternary phase diagrams with 2 imidazolium-based ionic liquids were measured. • The LLE data were experimental determined at T = 298.15 K and p = 1 atm. • Mixtures of (octane or nonane) and (benzene or toluene or ethylbenzene) were studied. • LLE experimental data were correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models. - Abstract: Ionic liquids, with their unique and tunable properties, can be an advantageous alternative as extractive solvents in separation processes involving systems containing aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. In this work, (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems {nonane (1) + benzene (2) + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [BMim][NTf 2 ] (3)}, {octane (1) + benzene (2) + 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [PMim][NTf 2 ] (3)}, and {nonane (1) + aromatic compound (benzene or toluene or ethylbenzene) (2) + [PMim][NTf 2 ] (3)} were determined at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Selectivity and solute distribution ratio, derived from the equilibrium data, were used to determine if this ionic liquid can be considered as a potential solvent for the separation of aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene) from alkanes (octane and nonane). The experimental data were satisfactorily correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models

  10. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  11. A new disordering mechanism in A15 type compounds submitted to low temperature irradiation or to quenching from high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluekiger, R.

    1984-05-01

    A new diffusion mechanism describing the changes of the long range order parameter in A15 type compounds after both quenching from high temperatures or low temperature irradiation with high energy particles is presented. It is based on the occupation of nonequilibrium or 'virtual' sites centered halfway between two neighbouring A atoms on 6c sites, arising from the instability of a single 6c vacancy recently found by Welch and coworkers by pair potential calculations. After low temperature irradiation, the occupation of this interstitial site creates the necessary conditions for A B site exchanges over several interatomic distances by focused replacement collision sequences. Due to the occupation of a certain concentration of virtual sites, atomic 'overlapping' is not only possible between A atoms on the chains or between A and B atoms (due to deviations from perfect ordering),but also between B atoms on BBB sequences. The latter are retained after low temperature irradiation only and are responsible for the observed lattice expansion and static displacement. (orig.) [de

  12. Analytical method for biomonitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds (bisphenol A, parabens, perfluoroalkyl compounds and a brominated flame retardant) in human hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene, E-mail: iaparicio@us.es; Alonso, Esteban

    2016-11-16

    In this paper, a method for the determination of four groups of endocrine-disrupting compounds in human hair is proposed. Target compounds were a plastic monomer (bisphenol A), three parabens commonly used as preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben and propylparaben), six perfluoroalkyl compounds commonly used as water, oil and dirt repellents (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, with alkyl chains from four to eight carbon atoms) and a brominated flame retardant (hexabromocyclododecane). All of them are of especial concern to human health because they are utilized in many everyday products. The method is based on hair incubation with methanol/acetic acid solution (85:15, v/v), extraction with acetone for 15 min in an ultrasonic bath and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Limits of quantification in hair samples ranged from 0.6 ng g{sup −1} to 6.1 ng g{sup −1}, except for hexabromocyclododecane (36 ng g{sup −1}). Recoveries were higher than 69%. Intra-day and inter-day precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, were lower than 15% and 10%, respectively. The applicability of the method was proven by analyzing the target compounds in hair samples from six volunteers. High frequencies of detection and concentrations were obtained for bisphenol A (83% of samples; concentrations up to 158 ng g{sup −1}) and parabens (100% of samples; concentrations up to 624 ng g{sup −1}). Lower concentrations were detected for the perfluoroalkyl compounds (up to 13 ng g{sup −1}). Hexabromocyclododecane was not detected. - Highlights: • Method for biomonitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds in human hair. • Target compounds are commonly present in everyday products. • Method based on hair digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. • Good sensitivity, recoveries and precision and low matrix effect were obtained.

  13. Analytical method for biomonitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds (bisphenol A, parabens, perfluoroalkyl compounds and a brominated flame retardant) in human hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a method for the determination of four groups of endocrine-disrupting compounds in human hair is proposed. Target compounds were a plastic monomer (bisphenol A), three parabens commonly used as preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben and propylparaben), six perfluoroalkyl compounds commonly used as water, oil and dirt repellents (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, with alkyl chains from four to eight carbon atoms) and a brominated flame retardant (hexabromocyclododecane). All of them are of especial concern to human health because they are utilized in many everyday products. The method is based on hair incubation with methanol/acetic acid solution (85:15, v/v), extraction with acetone for 15 min in an ultrasonic bath and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Limits of quantification in hair samples ranged from 0.6 ng g"−"1 to 6.1 ng g"−"1, except for hexabromocyclododecane (36 ng g"−"1). Recoveries were higher than 69%. Intra-day and inter-day precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, were lower than 15% and 10%, respectively. The applicability of the method was proven by analyzing the target compounds in hair samples from six volunteers. High frequencies of detection and concentrations were obtained for bisphenol A (83% of samples; concentrations up to 158 ng g"−"1) and parabens (100% of samples; concentrations up to 624 ng g"−"1). Lower concentrations were detected for the perfluoroalkyl compounds (up to 13 ng g"−"1). Hexabromocyclododecane was not detected. - Highlights: • Method for biomonitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds in human hair. • Target compounds are commonly present in everyday products. • Method based on hair digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. • Good sensitivity, recoveries and precision and low matrix effect were obtained. • Method was successfully

  14. Structure and properties of alloys of A15 type compounds with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, E.M.; Efimov, Yu.V.; Myasnikova, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Microstructure and some properties of the alloys on the base of the phases of A15 type in the V-Si-C, Nb-Si-C, Nb-Sn-C, Nb-Al-C, Nb-Ga-C, V-Ga-C ternary systems are investigated. It is established that in the niobium-rich corners of the A-B-C ternary systems the new ternary conpounds do not form, as a rule, bUt the wide ranges of threephase equilibrium A-A 3 B-C exist. New ternary phases with A15 type structure stabilized with carbon are established only in the Nb-Si-C and V-Al-C systems. Alloying with carbon results in sharp refining of structural components of stable and metastable alloys, promotes transition of the alloys into amorphous state at super fast cooling of the melts as well as increases stability of metastable state of the alloys against tempering. After super fast quenching and tempering Tsub(c) of the ternary alloys close to the A15 phases exceed Tsub(c) of equilibrium samples

  15. Compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of D-alanine, L-alanine, and valine: application of diastereomer separation to delta15N and microbial peptidoglycan studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ogawa, Nanako O; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2009-01-01

    We have developed an analytical method to determine the compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions of individual amino acid enantiomers using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A novel derivatization of amino acid diastereomers by optically active (R)-(-)-2-butanol or (S)-(+)-2-butanol offers two advantages for nitrogen isotope analysis. First, chromatographic chiral separation can be achieved without the use of chiral stationary-phase columns. Second, the elution order of these compounds on the chromatogram can be switched by a designated esterification reaction. We applied the method to the compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of D- and L-alanine in a peptidoglycan derived from the cell walls of cultured bacteria (Firmicutes and Actinobacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus staphylolyticus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, and Streptomyces sp.), natural whole bacterial cells (Bacillus subtilis var. natto), (pseudo)-peptidoglycan from archaea (Methanobacterium sp.), and cell wall from eukaryota (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We observed statistically significant differences in nitrogen isotopic compositions; e.g., delta15N ( per thousand vs air) in Staphylococcus staphylolyticus for d-alanine (19.2 +/- 0.5 per thousand, n = 4) and L-alanine (21.3 +/- 0.8 per thousand, n = 4) and in Bacillus subtilis for D-alanine (6.2 +/- 0.2 per thousand, n = 3) and L-alanine (8.2 +/- 0.4 per thousand, n = 3). These results suggest that enzymatic reaction pathways, including the alanine racemase reaction, produce a nitrogen isotopic difference in amino acid enantiomers, resulting in 15N-depleted D-alanine. This method is expected to facilitate compound-specific nitrogen isotope studies of amino acid stereoisomers.

  16. Superconductivity and specific heat of titanium base A15 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.; Flukiger, R.; Muller, J.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental data on the superconducting transition temperature, and low temperature specific heat, together with X-ray investigations, are reported for binary and pseudo-binary compounds of Ti with the A15-type structure. A 'true' relative maximum of the coefficient of the electronic specific heat, γ, as well as the superconducting transition temperature, Tsub(c), occurs in the Tisub(3)Irsub(1-x)Ptsub(x) system near x = 0.2. Tisub(3)Irsub(0.8)Ptsub(0.2) shows the lowest Debye temperature, theta 0 , of all A15-type compounds known to date. The anomalous temperature dependence of the lattice specific heat may be reproduced by a model phonon spectrum similar to that of Nb 3 Sn. (author)

  17. Synthesis of 15N-enriched urea (CO(15NH22 from 15NH3, CO, and S in a discontinuous process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Sant Ana Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CO(15NH22 enriched with the stable isotope 15N was synthesized based on a reaction involving CO, 15NH3, and S in the presence of CH3OH. The method differs from the industrial method; a stainless steel reactor internally lined with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE was used in a discontinuous process under low pressure and temperature. The yield of the synthesis was evaluated as a function of the parameters: the amount of reagents, reaction time, addition of H2S, liquid solution and reaction temperature. The results showed that under optimum conditions (1.36, 4.01, and 4.48 g of 15NH3, CO, and S, respectively, 40 ml CH3OH, 40 mg H2S, 100 ºC and 120 min of reaction 1.82 g (yield 76.5% of the compound was obtained per batch. The synthesized CO(15NH22 contained 46.2% N, 0.55% biuret, melting point of 132.55 ºC and did not exhibit isotopic fractionation. The production cost of CO(15NH22 with 90.0 at. % 15N was US$ 238.60 per gram.

  18. Comparison of Sampling Probe and Thermal Desorber in Hazardous Air Pollutants on Site (HAPSITE) Extended Range (ER) for Analysis of Toxic Organic (TO)-15 Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    compounds in a bag To prepare 20 ppbv TO-15 compounds in a 5 L ALTEF polypropylene bag (Jensen Inert Products , Coral Springs, FL, USA), 100 mL was taken...Bromopentafluorobenzene (BPFB; an IS)  117  5.70 6,730,000 8,500,000 11,400,000 8,876,667 1,220,000  1,200,000 1,190,000 1,203,333 Ethylbenzene   91  5.91 136 1,960,000...Trichloroethane Toluene Methyl Butyl Ketone (2-Hexanone) Dibromochloromethane 12-Dibromoethane Tetrachloroethylene Chlorobenzene Ethylbenzene p/m

  19. 15N liver function tests - concept, validity, clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.; Hirschberg, K.; Reinhardt, R.; Junghans, P.

    1987-01-01

    Several liver function tests using the oral application of a nitrogen compound labelled with 15 N and the subsequent determination of 15 N in a certain fraction of urine by emission spectrometry are described. Because of the key position of the liver in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds the results of these tests allow conclusions concerning disturbances of special liver functions. Instructions for the clinical use of the '[ 15 N]Ammonium Test', '[ 15 N]Hippurate Test' the '[ 15 N]Methacetin Test', and the '[ 15 N]Glycine Test' are given. (author)

  20. The effects of Tb substitution for La on the magnetic properties of LaFe11.5Si1.5 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, H.; Zhang, H. G.; Xu, L.; Zhao, J. L.; Gao, X. X.; Yue, M.

    2018-05-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of La1-yTbyFe11.5Si1.5 compounds have been investigated. The substituted 5 percent of Tb has remarkably increased the maximum entropy change (-ΔSM) to a value of 25.2 J/kg·K. However, a further increase of Tb leads to a monotonous decrease in the entropy change, mainly due to phase separation. The Tb substitution also can lower the thermal and magnetic hysteresis loss of the system. Another feature of this replacement is that, with Tb content higher than 10 percent, the Curie temperature (TC) starts to increase and reaches 197 K when 30 percent of La is substituted. These results indicate that La1-yTbyFe11.5Si1.5 may be a promising candidate for magnetic refrigeration material in certain temperature range.

  1. Biodegradation of gasoline compounds (BTEX) in a water works sand filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Engelsen, P.; Sebber, U.

    2004-01-01

    Various chemical compounds including aromatic gasoline compounds frequently contaminate drinking water wells in urban areas. Because ground water treatment is simple, usually consisting of aeration/stripping and sand-filtration, it is of significant interest to know the ability of the conventional...... treatment to remove the chemical contaminants. The removal of gasoline compounds was investigated in a two-stage pilot scale sand filter, each with a filter depth of 0.8-1 m and with a filtration rate of 7.6 m/h. The concentrations of aromatic compounds were in the range 7-15 mu g/L, which are realistically...... sand grains). Influent iron concentrations in the range 0-4 mg/L and backwashing did not adversely affect the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. This study has shown that a conventional biological active sand filter can act as an efficient barrier against gasoline compounds, thereby saving the consumer...

  2. Density of states and T/sub c/ of disordered A15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Strongin, M.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper various data for the depression of T/sub c/ and N(O) are presented for a wide class of A15 materials. The question of disorder and the limits on T/sub c/ in these materials are discussed

  3. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  4. Preparation of 15N-13C-fulminic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmes, R.; Winnewisser, M.

    1993-01-01

    The precursor for the title compound was prepared in a three-step synthesis. The 13 C-label was incorporated in the first step employing 2- 13 C-ethyl acetate and the 15 N-label in the last step, using 15 N-sodium nitrite. Upon pyrolysis the precursor forms three fragments, one of them being the title compound. (Author)

  5. Physical Compatibility of Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium Bicarbonate in a Pharmacy-compounded Bicarbonate-buffered Hemofiltration Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A.; Jin, Haksong; Kolf, Mike; Rehak, Nadja N.; Danner, Robert L.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Grimes, George J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the physical compatibility of magnesium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution used at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (http://www.cc.nih.gov). METHODS Two hemofiltration fluid formulations with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L or 15 mEq/L were prepared in triplicate with an automated compounding device. The hemofiltration solution with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L contains the maximum concentration of additives that we use in clinical practice. The hemofiltration solution of 15 mEq/L of magnesium and 50 mEq/L of bicarbonate was used to study the physicochemical properties of this interaction. The solutions were stored without light protection at 22 to 25 °C for 48 hours. Physical compatibility was assessed by visual inspection and microscopy. The pH of the solutions was assayed at 3 to 4 hours and 52 to 53 hours after compounding. In addition, electrolyte and glucose concentrations in the solutions were assayed at two time points after preparation: 3 to 4 hours and 50 to 51 hours. RESULTS No particulate matter was observed by visual and microscopic inspection in the compounded hemofiltration solutions at 48 hours. Electrolyte and glucose concentrations and pH were similar at both time points after solution preparation. CONCLUSION Magnesium sulfate (1.5 mEq/L) and sodium bicarbonate (50 mEq/L) were physically compatible in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution at room temperature without light protection at 48 hours. PMID:20237384

  6. Stable isotope 15N-urea and clinical research in nephrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Nobuhiro; Arai, Junko; Akimoto, Mitsuko; Miwa, Toichiro; Takuma, Takehide

    1990-01-01

    Stable isotope 15 N-compound, 15 N-urea, is useful marker to investigate nitrogen metabolism in clinical nephrology, particularly in chronic renal failure or dialysis. 15 N-urea incorporation into plasma albumin in addition to plasma 15 N disappearance was studied in 6 patients with endstage chronic renal failure. As a result, only minor fraction of administered 15 N-urea was incorporated into albumin in this study. In addition, it was also confirmed that high energy diet may promote protein synthesis through 15 N incorporation to plasma amino acids, such as alanine, in these patients with low protein meal. Therefore, administration of 15 N-compound to human subjects may contribute to provide us the important informations on nitrogen metabolism. For instance, urea kinetics are described in the endstage chronic renal failure in this review. However, less expensive 15 N-compounds should be provided and more simple but accurate measurement of 15 N activity should be developed for the further clinical application of the stable isotope. (author)

  7. Volumetric study of (diethylamine + water) mixtures between (278.15 and 308.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampreia, Isabel M.S.; Dias, Florbela A.; Mendonca, Angela F.S.S.

    2004-01-01

    Densities have been measured for aqueous mixtures of diethylamine at the temperatures: (278.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, and 308.15) K, for the entire composition range. The data have been used to calculate apparent molar, excess molar and excess partial molar volumes. Limiting values of excess partial molar volumes and expansions have been derived as well. The discussion has been undertaken comparing the obtained values with those of parent studies in related compounds

  8. Solubility of carbon monoxide in bio-oil compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Le Nedelec, Tom; Guerrero-Amaya, Hernando; Uusi-Kyyny, Petri; Richon, Dominique; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CO solubility was measured in four bio-oil compounds using static-analytic VLE equipment. • A comparison on the performance of different EoS (PC-SAFT, SRK and PR) was made. • Modelling of polar compounds with Polar PC-SAFT was tested. • Polar PC-SAFT is not needed for weakly polar compounds (μ < 1.0 D). - Abstract: The solubility of carbon monoxide is measured in four different bio-oil compounds (furan, diacetyl, 2-methylfuran, and trans-crotonaldehyde) at temperatures (273.15, 283.15, 298.15, and 323.15 K) and pressures up to 8 MPa using a static-analytical VLE measurement method. The equipment was validated by measuring the solubility of CO 2 in methanol at 298.15 K and pressures (P = 2.9–5.7 MPa). The results were compared with the abundantly available literature values. PC-SAFT, Polar PC-SAFT (PPC-SAFT), and Cubic (SRK, PR) EoS, part of commercial process simulator Aspen Plus V. 8.6, are used here for modelling purpose. The pure component parameters needed for PC-SAFT and PPC-SAFT EoS models, are regressed using the experimental liquid density and vapour pressure data of the pure components. It was observed that furan, 2-methylfuran and diacetyl, having weak dipole moments (μ < 1.0 D), could be modelled reasonably well without the addition of polar contribution using conventional PC-SAFT, while it is recommended to use PPC-SAFT for the description of a polar compound like trans-crotonaldehyde (μ ∼ 3.67 D). It was observed that SRK and PR EoS have similar predictive ability in comparison to PC-SAFT for a mixture of CO with weakly polar compounds in this study. A comparison between the performances of EoS models was made in two ways: first by setting the binary interaction parameter k ij to zero, and second by adjusting a temperature-dependent binary interaction parameter (k ij ). All the models perform with comparable accuracy with adjusted binary interaction parameters. However, due to the large differences between the chemical and

  9. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermoelectric properties of hot-extruded p-type Te-doped Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K; Seo, J; Lee, C

    1997-07-01

    The p-type Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} compounds with Te dopant (4.0 and 6.0 wt%) and without dopant were fabricated by hot extrusion in the temperature range of 300 to 510 C under an extrusion ratio of 20:1. The undoped and Te doped compounds were highly dense and showed high crystalline quality. The grains contained many dislocations and were fine equiaxed ({approximately}1.0 {micro}m) owing to the dynamic recrystallization during the extrusion. The hot extrusion gave rise to the preferred orientation of grains. The bending strength and the figure of merit of the undoped and Te doped compounds were increased with increasing the extrusion temperature. The Te dopant significantly increased the figure of merit. The values of the figure of merit of the undoped and 4.0 wt% Te-doped compounds hot extruded at 440 C were 2.11 x 10{sup {minus}3}/K and 2.94 x 10{sup {minus}3}/K, respectively.

  10. Antiproliferative Compounds of Cyphostemma greveana from a Madagascar Dry Forest[1

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Shugeng; Hou, Yanpeng; Brodie, Peggy; Miller, James S.; Randrianaivo, Richard; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Kingston, David G. I.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extracts obtained from a plant identified as Cyphostemma greveana Desc. (Vitaceae) led to the identification of one macrolide, lasiodiplodin (1), three sesquiterpenoids, 12-hydroxy-15-oxo-selina-4,1l-diene (2), 1β,6α-dihydroxyeudesm-4(15)-ene (3), and (7R*)-opposit-4(15)-ene-1β,7-diol (5), and the new diterpenoid, 16,18-dihydroxykolavenic acid lactone (4). All the isolates were tested against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line, and compound 4 an...

  11. Assessment of Non-Sterile Pharmaceutical Compounding Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the practices of non-sterile pharmaceutical compounding in selected 42 community and 3 hospital pharmacies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 01 April, 2016 to 15 May, 2016. The study revealed that the most commonly prescribed and compounded non-sterile ...

  12. Synthesis of [1,3 - 15 N2] uracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriac, M.; Axente, D.

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of 15 N labelled uracil, using CO( 15 NH 2 ) 2 as starting material, is presented. The experimental procedure is an adaptation of the synthesis methods for the corresponding unlabelled compounds. Urea- 15 N 2 used as starting material was obtained from H 15 NO 3 (99 at.% 15 N) produced at National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca.The uracil structure was determined using the mass spectrometry method and the isotopic labelling was determined by the same method on the molecular compound. The synthesis scheme of (1,3- 15 N 2 ) uracil is presented. (authors)

  13. Liver function tests using the stable istope 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Hirschberg, K.; Krumbiegel, P.; Junghans, P.; Reinhardt, R.; Teichmann, B.

    1988-01-01

    Several liver function tests using oral application of a nitrogen compound labelled with 15 N and the subsequent determination of 15 N in a certain fraction of urine or in the total urine by emission spectrometry are described. Because of the key function of the liver in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds, the results of these tests allow conclusions concerning some disturbances of liver functions. (author)

  14. [Study on artificial compound feed for Buthus martensii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Cai; Shen, Xue-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Han, Xiu-Kun

    2014-03-01

    To solve the problem that the single feed causing malnutrition, extension of the life cycle and low survival rates of Buthus martensii. By using Minitab (R) 15.1.1.0.0., 7 different kinds of compound feed were designed, including minced meat mud (pork,chicken and rabbit), bran (fried yellow), sugar, milk, vegetable paste and multivitamin as raw material. Different proportions of compound feed that taking the yellow mealworm as main component had a significant effect on the growth, mortality and birth number of Buthus martensii. Compound feed 5 significantly reduced mortality of youth scorpion. The compound feed 4 was the best in improving the weight of scorpion larvae and youth scorpion, and the farrowing number of mother scorpion. Other indicators were also good. Proportions in meatmud (pork, chicken and rabbit), bran (fried yellow), sugar, milk, vegetable paste and multivitamin was 30.00%, 25.00%, 20.08%, 15.58%, 8.08% and 1.25%, respectively. The growth of Buthus martensii is significantly influenced by the type of feed. In the production of compound feed, the yellow mealworm with compound feed 4 can be popularized.

  15. Antifungal chemical compounds identified using a C. elegans pathogenicity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Breger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for the development of new antifungal agents. A facile in vivo model that evaluates libraries of chemical compounds could solve some of the main obstacles in current antifungal discovery. We show that Candida albicans, as well as other Candida species, are ingested by Caenorhabditis elegans and establish a persistent lethal infection in the C. elegans intestinal track. Importantly, key components of Candida pathogenesis in mammals, such as filament formation, are also involved in nematode killing. We devised a Candida-mediated C. elegans assay that allows high-throughput in vivo screening of chemical libraries for antifungal activities, while synchronously screening against toxic compounds. The assay is performed in liquid media using standard 96-well plate technology and allows the study of C. albicans in non-planktonic form. A screen of 1,266 compounds with known pharmaceutical activities identified 15 (approximately 1.2% that prolonged survival of C. albicans-infected nematodes and inhibited in vivo filamentation of C. albicans. Two compounds identified in the screen, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, a major active component of honeybee propolis, and the fluoroquinolone agent enoxacin exhibited antifungal activity in a murine model of candidiasis. The whole-animal C. elegans assay may help to study the molecular basis of C. albicans pathogenesis and identify antifungal compounds that most likely would not be identified by in vitro screens that target fungal growth. Compounds identified in the screen that affect the virulence of Candida in vivo can potentially be used as "probe compounds" and may have antifungal activity against other fungi.

  16. Multiresponse optimization of a UPLC method for the simultaneous determination of tryptophan and 15 tryptophan-derived compounds using a Box-Behnken design with a desirability function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, Widiastuti; Saputro, Irfan E; Carrera, Ceferino A; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2017-06-15

    A Box-Behnken design was used in conjunction with multiresponse optimization based on the desirability function to carry out the simultaneous separation of tryptophan and 15 derivatives by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography. The gradient composition of the mobile phase and the flow rate were optimized with respect to the resolution of severely overlapping chromatographic peaks and the total run time. Two different stationary phases were evaluated (hybrid silica and a solid-core-based C 18 column). The methods were validated and a suitable sensitivity was found for all compounds in the concentration range 1-100μgL -1 (R 2 >0.999). High levels of repeatability and intermediate precision (CV less than 0.25% and 1.7% on average for the retention time and the signal area, respectively) were obtained. The new method was applied to the determination tryptophan and its derivatives in black pigmented glutinous and non-glutinous rice grain samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of different compound fertilizers for use in oil palm nursery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The standard NPKMg 12:12:17:2 compound fertilizer (SF) for oil palm nurseries is not always available when needed. Evaluation of other compound fertilizers – NKP 15:15:15 and NPK 20:10:10 – compared with the SF were carried out in the main nursery at NIFOR to ascertain their suitability and rates of application.

  18. Phosphorus-containing macrocyclic compounds: synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazeva, I R; Burilov, Alexander R; Pudovik, Michael A; Habicher, Wolf D

    2013-01-01

    Main trends in the development of methods for the synthesis of phosphorus-containing macrocyclic compounds in the past 15 years are considered. Emphasis is given to reactions producing macrocyclic structures with the participation of a phosphorus atom and other functional groups involved in organophosphorus molecules and to modifications of macrocycles by phosphorus compounds in different valence states. Possibilities of the practical application of phosphorus-containing macrocyclic compounds in difference areas of science and engineering are discussed. The bibliography includes 205 references.

  19. Elastic constants of a Laves phase compound: C15 NbCr2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormeci, A.; Chu, F.; Wills, J.M.; Chen, S.P.; Albers, R.C.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    The single-crystal elastic constants of C15 NbCr 2 have been computed by using a first-principles, self-consistent, full-potential total energy method. From these single-crystal elastic constants the isotropic elastic moduli are calculated using the Voigt and Reuss averages. The calculated values are in fair agreement with the experimental values. The implications of the results are discussed with regards to Poisson's ratio and the direction dependence of Young's modulus

  20. Stable isotope sup 15 N-urea and clinical research in nephrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugino, Nobuhiro; Arai, Junko; Akimoto, Mitsuko; Miwa, Toichiro; Takuma, Takehide (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1990-08-01

    Stable isotope {sup 15}N-compound, {sup 15}N-urea, is useful marker to investigate nitrogen metabolism in clinical nephrology, particularly in chronic renal failure or dialysis. {sup 15}N-urea incorporation into plasma albumin in addition to plasma {sup 15}N disappearance was studied in 6 patients with endstage chronic renal failure. As a result, only minor fraction of administered {sup 15}N-urea was incorporated into albumin in this study. In addition, it was also confirmed that high energy diet may promote protein synthesis through {sup 15}N incorporation to plasma amino acids, such as alanine, in these patients with low protein meal. Therefore, administration of {sup 15}N-compound to human subjects may contribute to provide us the important informations on nitrogen metabolism. For instance, urea kinetics are described in the endstage chronic renal failure in this review. However, less expensive {sup 15}N-compounds should be provided and more simple but accurate measurement of {sup 15}N activity should be developed for the further clinical application of the stable isotope. (author).

  1. Liver function tests using the stable isotope /sup 15/N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, H; Jung, K; Hirschberg, K; Krumbiegel, P; Junghans, P; Reinhardt, R; Matkowitz, R; Teichmann, B

    1988-01-01

    Several liver function tests using oral application of a nitrogen compound labelled with /sup 15/N and the subsequent determination of /sup 15/N in a certain fraction of urine or in the total urine by emission spectrometry are described. Because of the key function of the liver in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds, the results of these tests allow conclusions concerning some disturbances of liver functions.

  2. Identification of a New Antibacterial Sulfur Compound from Raphanus sativus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeries Jadoun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raphanus sativus L. (radish, a member of Brassicaceae, is widely used in traditional medicine in various cultures for treatment of several diseases and disorders associated with microbial infections. The antibacterial activity of the different plant parts has been mainly attributed to several isothiocyanate (ITC compounds. However, the low correlation between the ITC content and antibacterial activity suggests the involvement of other unknown compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial potential of red radish seeds and identify the active compounds. A crude ethanol seed extract was prepared and its antibacterial activity was tested against five medically important bacteria. The ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of all tested strains. However, the inhibitory effect was more pronounced against Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract followed by HPLC, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 15N-NMR, and HMBC analysis revealed that the active fraction consisted of a single new compound identified as [5-methylsulfinyl-1-(4-methylsulfinyl-but-3-enyl-pent-4-enylidene]-sulfamic acid, which consisted of two identical sulfur side chains similar to those found in ITCs. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of the isolated compound were in the range of 0.5–1 mg/mL. These results further highlight the role of radish as a rich source of antibacterial compounds.

  3. A method of detecting carbonyl compounds in tree leaves in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Feng, Yanli; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

    2010-06-01

    Carbonyl compounds have been paid more and more attention because some carbonyl species have been proven to be carcinogenic or a risk for human health. Plant leaves are both an important emission source and an important sink of carbonyl compounds. But the research on carbonyl compounds from plant leaves is very scarce. In order to make an approach to the emission mechanism of plant leaves, a new method was established to extract carbonyl compounds from fresh plant leaves. The procedure combining derivatization with ultrasonication was developed for the fast extraction of carbonyl compounds from tree leaves. Fresh leaves (Metasequoia glyptostroboides), were selected and extracted by this method. Seven carbonyl compounds, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, p-tolualdehyde, m/o-tolualdehyde, and hexaldehyde were determined and quantified. The most common carbonyl species of the four tree leaves were formaldehyde, acrolein, and m/o-tolualdehyde. They accounted for 67.3% in cedar, 50.8% in sweet olive, 45.8% in dawn redwood, and 44.6% in camphor tree, respectively. Camphor tree had the highest leaf level of m/o-tolualdehyde with 15.0 +/- 3.4 microg g(-1)(fresh leaf weight), which indicated that camphor tree may be a bioindicator of the level of tolualdehyde or xylene in the atmosphere. By analyzing carbonyl compounds from different tree leaves, it is not only helpful for further studying the relationship between sink and emission of carbonyls from plants, but also helpful for exploring optimum plant population in urban greening.

  4. Forecasting of superconducting compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskii, E.M.; Gribulya, V.G.; Kiseleva, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    In forecasting new superconducting intermetallic compounds of the A15 and Mo 3 Se types most promising from the viewpoint of high critical temperature Tsub(c), high critical magnetic fields Hsub(c), and high critical currents and in estimating their transition temperature it is proposed to apply cybernetic methods of computer learning

  5. 4-Phenethylthio-2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazin-7(6H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Smolnikov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the pharmacologically important pyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazin-7(6H-one scaffold for the construction of new bioactive compounds, we developed a synthesis of 4-phenethylthio-2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazin-7(6H-one (4 via S-alkylation of 2-phenyl-4-thioxopyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazine-7(6H-one (3, prepared by the double ring closure of pyrazole and triazine rings upon the treatment of 1-cyanoacetyl-4-benzoylthiosemicarbazide (2 with alkali. The antiproliferative activity of 4 against human lung cancer (A549 and human breast cancer (MDA-MB231 cell lines was investigated. Compound 4 was found to be more active against lung cancer cells than breast cancer cells.

  6. Response of maize to reduced urea application combined with compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiuying; WANG Zhengyin

    2006-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the response to application rate of urea labeled with 15 N combined with compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists in the growth, yield, uptake and utilization rate of urea of maize. In pot experiment, the standard urea application rate is 120 mg/perpot; in field experiment, the standard urea application rate is 157.5 kg/hm 2 . Maize with 15 N-urea. The results showed that the growth of maize seedling was obviously promoted with appropriate dosage of compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists (20%-60% of N). The treatments of urea application rate reduced by 5%-15% and added compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists, the growth and nitrogen content of maize were not significant changed, and the total 15 N uptake and nitrogen uptake by maize were the same as CK 2 or increased a little. Nitrogen use efficiency of other treatments increased by 5.6%-7.3% comparing with CK, except the treatment of urea application rate reduced by 30%. The apparent utilization rate of nitrogen was enhanced by 7.7%-17.0%. Under the field condition, maize yield, total uptake, net uptake, physiological rate and agronomic use efficiency of nitrogen were the same as CK or increased. The apparent utilization rate of nitrogen was enhanced by 14.8%-15.2% treated with urea reduced by 5%-15% (7.8-23.7 kg/hm 2 ) and added with compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists. It was not helpful for the growth and nitrogen utilization rate of maize when urea reduced by 30% and combined with compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists. As a result, treated with urea decreased by 15% and combined with appropriate dosage of compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists (20% of urea), the growth and yield of maize had litter effect and higher the uptake and utilization of nitrogen. (authors)

  7. Isoniazid release from suppositories compounded with selected bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kristofer C; Asbill, C Scott; Webster, Andrew A

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing need for an alternative route of isoniazid adminstration for prophylaxis and treatment of tuberculosis in children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro release of isoniazid from extemporaneously compounded isoniazid suppositories with a goal of optimizing the suppository dosage form for this indication. Suppositories were compounded using three different base formulations (cocoa butter, Witepsol H15 Base F, and a combination of polyethylene glycols 3350, 1000, and 400). The release profiles of six compounded suppositories with isoniazid (100 mg) were tested with a United States Pharmacopeial Convention-approved dissolution apparatus. Isoniazid concentrations at predetermined time points were determined using high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The results show that drug release from the water-solutble base (mixed polyethylene glycols) was significantly greater than that from the lipophilic bases (cocoa butter and Witepsol H15). The percentage of isoniazid release form the polyethylene glycol suppository formulation (70 +/- 1.4 mg/mL) was greater than that from the cocoa butter (55 +/- 1.1 mg/mL) and Witepsol H15 Base F (18 +/- 0.36 mg/mL) suppository formulations.

  8. Electrochemical Removal of NOx-Gasses by Use of LSM-Cathodes Impregnated with a NOx Storage Compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical decomposition of NO on La0.85Sr0.15MnO3-- Ce0.90Gd0.10O1.95electrodes with and without KNO3 impregnation is investigated. The KNO3 is added as this compound is expected to work as a NOx-storage compound. Measurements are made in the temperature range 300-400 degree C and in three...... in the NO-conversion, when KNO3 is added to the La0.85Sr0.15MnO3-- Ce0.90Gd0.10O1.95electrodes. ©2010 COPYRIGHT ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  9. Organically functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 as sorbents for removal of selected pharmaceuticals from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, Tung Xuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seo-Young [International Environmental Research Center (IERC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Hyup [Water Environment Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Heechul, E-mail: hcchoi@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} SBA-15 grafted with aminopropyl, hydroxymethyl, and trimethylsilyl groups as sorbents. {yields} Sorbents for removal of a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals from water. {yields} Hydroxymethyl-SBA-15 shows similar adsorption efficiency like SBA-15. {yields} Aminopropyl-SBA-15 makes increase for clofibric acid, diclofenac, decrease for atenolol, estrone, trimethoprim. {yields} Trimethylsilyl-SBA-15 makes increase for 9 compounds; 7 compounds from 70.6% to 98.9%. - Abstract: Mesoporous silica SBA-15 and its postfunctionalized counterparts with hydroxymethyl (HM-SBA-15), aminopropyl (AP-SBA-15), and trimethylsilyl (TMS-SBA-15) were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The removal of a mixture of 12 selected pharmaceuticals was investigated by batch adsorption experiments onto SBA-15 and the grafted materials. SBA-15 showed to have moderate adsorption affinity with amino-containing (atenolol, trimethoprim) and hydrophobic pharmaceuticals, but it displayed minimal adsorption affinity toward hydrophilic compounds. HM-SBA-15 was analogous with SBA-15 in terms of the adsorption efficiency toward all pharmaceuticals. AP-SBA-15 exhibited an increase in the adsorption of two acidic compounds (clofibric acid, diclofenac) but a decrease in the adsorption of estrone and the two amino-containing compounds. Among the grafted materials, TMS-SBA-15 had the highest adsorption affinity toward most pharmaceuticals. Moreover, the adsorption of nine pharmaceuticals to TMS-SBA-15 was significantly higher than that to SBA-15; seven of which showed the removal percentages from 70.6% to 98.9% onto TMS-SBA-15. The number of pharmaceuticals showing high adsorption efficiency onto TMS-SBA-15 did not alter significantly as the pH changed in the range of 5.5-7.6. The results suggest that TMS-SBA-15 is a promising material for the removal of pharmaceuticals

  10. Organically functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 as sorbents for removal of selected pharmaceuticals from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Tung Xuan; Kang, Seo-Young; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Heechul

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → SBA-15 grafted with aminopropyl, hydroxymethyl, and trimethylsilyl groups as sorbents. → Sorbents for removal of a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals from water. → Hydroxymethyl-SBA-15 shows similar adsorption efficiency like SBA-15. → Aminopropyl-SBA-15 makes increase for clofibric acid, diclofenac, decrease for atenolol, estrone, trimethoprim. → Trimethylsilyl-SBA-15 makes increase for 9 compounds; 7 compounds from 70.6% to 98.9%. - Abstract: Mesoporous silica SBA-15 and its postfunctionalized counterparts with hydroxymethyl (HM-SBA-15), aminopropyl (AP-SBA-15), and trimethylsilyl (TMS-SBA-15) were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption-desorption measurement, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The removal of a mixture of 12 selected pharmaceuticals was investigated by batch adsorption experiments onto SBA-15 and the grafted materials. SBA-15 showed to have moderate adsorption affinity with amino-containing (atenolol, trimethoprim) and hydrophobic pharmaceuticals, but it displayed minimal adsorption affinity toward hydrophilic compounds. HM-SBA-15 was analogous with SBA-15 in terms of the adsorption efficiency toward all pharmaceuticals. AP-SBA-15 exhibited an increase in the adsorption of two acidic compounds (clofibric acid, diclofenac) but a decrease in the adsorption of estrone and the two amino-containing compounds. Among the grafted materials, TMS-SBA-15 had the highest adsorption affinity toward most pharmaceuticals. Moreover, the adsorption of nine pharmaceuticals to TMS-SBA-15 was significantly higher than that to SBA-15; seven of which showed the removal percentages from 70.6% to 98.9% onto TMS-SBA-15. The number of pharmaceuticals showing high adsorption efficiency onto TMS-SBA-15 did not alter significantly as the pH changed in the range of 5.5-7.6. The results suggest that TMS-SBA-15 is a promising material for the removal of pharmaceuticals from aqueous phase

  11. Development and implementation of a compound converter in solar energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. B. Hartman

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The converter proposed here is a compound photovoltaic converter system that has been implemented with a power rating of 1,5 kVA at an array voltage of 96 V, using a 24 V battery bank. The converter system combines the functions of inversion, battery regulation and maximum power point tracking of the solar array into a single cost-effective converter. Maximum power point tracking is performed by controlling the voltage and frequency of the AC output. A description of this converter, and an explanation of the control strategy employed, are provided together with practical results measured on the prototype converter. This compound topology has a high conversion efficiency from solar array to load.

  12. Internal friction due to domain-wall motion in martensitically transformed A15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.; Welch, D.O.

    1985-01-01

    A lattice instability in A15 materials in some cases leads to a cubic-to-tetragonal martensitic transformation at low temperatures. The transformed material orients in lamellae with c axes alternately aligned along the directions producing domain walls between the lamellae. An internal-friction (delta) feature below T/sub m/ is attributed to stress-induced domain-wall motion. The magnitude of the friction increases as temperature is lowered below T/sub m/ as (1-c/a) increases, and behaves as (1-c/a) 2 from T/sub m/ down to the superconducting critical temperature where the increasing tetragonality is inhibited. The effect of strain in the lattice is to decrease the domain-wall internal friction, but not affect T/sub m/. Neutron-induced disorder and the addition of some third-elements in alloying decrease both delta and T/sub m/, with some elements reducing only the former. Less than 1 at. % H is seen to completely suppress both delta and T/sub m. Martensitically transformed V 2 Zr demonstrates low-temperature internal-friction and modulus behavior consists with easy β/m wall motion relative to the easy m/m motion of the A15's. For the V 2 Zr, a peak in delta is observed, qualitatively in agreement with expected β/m wall motion

  13. Natural Bioactive Compounds from Winery By-Products as Health Promoters: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teixeira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers’ interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used. Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health.

  14. Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-products as health promoters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana; Baenas, Nieves; Dominguez-Perles, Raul; Barros, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo; Moreno, Diego A; Garcia-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-09-04

    The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers' interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used). Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health.

  15. New cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory compounds isolated from Morus alba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Fan, Min; He, Juan; Wu, Xing-De; Peng, Li-Yan; Su, Jia; Cheng, Xiao; Li, Yan; Kong, Ling-Mei; Li, Rong-Tao; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Six Diels-Alder adducts (1-6) and nine prenylated flavanones (7-15) were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba L. Among them, soroceal B (1) and sanggenol Q (7) were new compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 1-3, 9, 10, 12, 13 and 15 exhibited cytotoxic activity against five human tumour lines and compound 2 inhibited significantly selective cytotoxic activities towards HL-60 and AGS cells with IC50 of 3.4 and 3.6 μM. Compounds 3, 5, 9 and 12 exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production in LPS-activated RAW264.7.

  16. 1,5-Bis (2-Hydroxyphenyl)Pent-1,4-Diene-3-One: A Lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    occurring chalcone nucleus to design effective antibacterial agents. The present investigation established 1,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1,4-diene-3-one (1c) as a lead compound with potential against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains, ...

  17. Compounding medications in a rural setting: an interprofessional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Selina Taylor,1 Catherine Hays,1 Beverley Glass2 1Mount Isa Centre for Rural and Remote Health, James Cook University, Mount Isa, QLD, Australia; 2College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia Background: Interprofessional learning (IPL which focuses on the pharmacist’s role in specialty practices as part of a multidisciplinary health care team has not been explored. This study aimed to determine health care students’ understanding of the role of the pharmacist in compounding medications to optimize health outcomes for patients in rural and remote health care services.Methods: Four workshops followed by focus group interviews were conducted with undergraduate pharmacy, medical, nursing, physiotherapy, dentistry, Aboriginal public health, and speech pathology students (n=15. After an introductory lecture, students working in multidisciplinary teams undertook to compound three products. Focus groups were held at the end of the compounding workshops to explore students’ understanding and perceptions of these compounding activities. Thematic analysis was undertaken on the qualitative data obtained from the focus groups.Results: Student participants responded positively both to the opportunity to undertake a compounding exercise and being part of an interprofessional team, perceiving benefit for their future rural and remote health practice. Four major themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: improved knowledge and understanding; application to practice; interprofessional collaboration; and rural, remote, and Indigenous context. Students acknowledged that the workshops improved their understanding of the role of the pharmacist in compounding and how they, as part of a multidisciplinary team, could deliver better health outcomes for patients with special needs, especially in a rural and remote context.Conclusion: This study highlights that workshops of this nature have a role to play in developing

  18. Use of tritium in the production of selfluminous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Heung Suk; Ahn, Doh Heui; Baek, Seung Woo; Koo, Je Hyoo; Kook, Il Hyun; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, Kwang Lak

    1994-12-01

    In a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor, about one MCi of tritium is produced annually. Tritium is a very useful resource as an essential material for selfluminous compounds. In this report, in order to manufacture selfluminous compounds by using the tritium in Wolsung nuclear power plant, the pretreatment technology of materials and the coating technology of selfluminous compounds was investigated and its raw cost was estimated. It was confirmed that tritium can be used as a very useful industrial material. 5 figs., 15 tabs., 35 refs. (Author)

  19. Sub-cellular localisation of a 15N-labelled peptide vector using NanoSIMS imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Winfried; Wu, Ting-Di; Duchambon, Patricia; Amessou, Mohamed; Carrez, Danièle; Johannes, Ludger; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc

    2006-07-01

    Dynamic SIMS imaging is proposed to map sub-cellular distributions of isotopically labelled, exogenous compounds. NanoSIMS imaging allows the characterisation of the intracellular transport pathways of exogenous molecules, including peptide vectors employed in innovative therapies, using stable isotopes as molecular markers to detect the compound of interest. Shiga toxin B-subunit (STxB) was chosen as a representative peptide vector. The recombinant protein ( 15N-STxB) was synthesised in Escherichia coli using 15NH 4Cl as sole nitrogen source resulting in 15N enrichment in the molecule. Using the NanoSIMS 50 ion microprobe (Cameca), different ion species ( 12C 14N -, 12C 15N -, 31P -) originating from the same sputtered micro volume were simultaneously detected. High mass resolving power enabled the discrimination of 12C 15N - from its polyatomic isobars of mass 27. We imaged the membrane binding and internalisation of 15N-STxB in HeLa cells at spatial resolutions of less than 100 nm. Thus, the use of rare stable isotopes like 15N with dynamic SIMS imaging permits sub-cellular detection of isotopically labelled, exogenous molecules and imaging of their transport pathways at high mass and spatial resolution. Application of stable isotopes as markers can replace the large and chemically complex tags used for fluorescence microscopy, without altering the chemical and physical properties of the molecule.

  20. Low-temperature field evaporation of Nb3Sn compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksenofontov, V.A.; Kul'ko, V.B.; Kutsenko, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigation results on field evaporation of superconducting Nb 3 Sn compound wth A15 lattice are presented. Compound evaporation is shown to proceed in two stages. Evaporation field and ionic composition of evaporating material are determined. It is found out that in strong electric fields compound surface represents niobium skeleton, wich does not form regular image. Comparison of ion-microscopic and calculated images formed by low-temperature field evaporation indicates to possibility of sample surface reconstruction after preferable tin evaporation

  1. Synthesis and NMR characterization of ( sup 15 N)taurine (2-( sup 15 N)aminoethanesulfonic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippossian, G.; Welti, D.H.; Fumeaux, R.; Richli, U.; Anantharaman, K. (Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1989-11-01

    The title compound was prepared in three steps with 55% overall yield starting from potassium ({sup 15}N)phthalimide. The synthetic route involved reaction with 1,2-dibromoethane, hydrolysis of the resulting N-(2-bromoethyl) ({sup 15}N)phthalimide with HBr and treatment of the 2-bromoethyl({sup 15}N)amine thus formed with sodium sulphite. The product was characterized by {sup 13}C, {sup 1}H and {sup 15}N NMR spectroscopy. The absolute coupling constants of {sup 15}N with the {sup 13}C nuclei and the non-exchanging protons were determined and an unambiguous assignment of the proton signals obtained. (author).

  2. Elastic constants of a Laves phase compound: C15 NbCr{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormeci, A. [Koc Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chu, F.; Wills, J.M.; Chen, S.P.; Albers, R.C.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The single-crystal elastic constants of C15 NbCr{sub 2} have been computed by using a first-principles, self-consistent, full-potential total energy method. From these single-crystal elastic constants the isotropic elastic moduli are calculated using the Voigt and Reuss averages. The calculated values are in fair agreement with the experimental values. The implications of the results are discussed with regards to Poisson`s ratio and the direction dependence of Young`s modulus.

  3. RE{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15} (RE = La, Pr, Nd). Syntheses of three new rare earth borates isotypic to Ce{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaetzle, Matthias; Hoerder, Gregor J.; Huppertz, Hubert [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie

    2016-08-01

    The rare earth borates RE{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15} (RE = La, Pr, Nd) were synthesized in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus under conditions of 5.5 GPa and 1100 C. Starting from the corresponding rare earth oxides and boron oxide, the syntheses yielded crystalline products of all new compounds that allowed crystal structure analyses based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for La{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15} and Nd{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15}. The compound Pr{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15} could be characterized via X-ray powder diffractometry. The results show that the new compounds crystallize isotypically to Ce{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15} in the monoclinic space group P2/c. The infrared spectra of RE{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15} (RE = La, Pr, Nd) have also been studied.

  4. Synthesis and crystal structure of Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl, the first iron compound with selenate(IV) and tellurate(IV) groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhrorov, Akhmad Yu; Kuznetsova, Elena S.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Kuznetsov, Alexey N.; Dolgikh, Valery A.

    2017-12-01

    During the search for selenium analogues of FeTe2O5Cl, the new iron (III) tellurate(IV) selenate(IV) chloride with the composition Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl was synthesized by chemical vapor transport (CVT) reaction and characterized by TGA-, EDX-,SCXRD-analysis, as well as IR and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with unitcell parameters a = 5.183(3) Å, b = 15.521(9) Å, c = 7.128(5) Å and β = 107.16(1)°. The crystal structure of Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl represents a new structure type and contains electroneutral heteropolyhedral layers formed by dimers of the [FeO5Cl]8- octahedra, linked via common O-O edges, and mixed [Te3SeO10]4- tetramers. Adjacent layers are stacked along the b axis and linked by weak residual bonds. The new compound is stable up to 420 °C. DFT calculations predict Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl to be a wide-gap semiconductor with the band gap of ca. 2.7 eV.

  5. Novel Compound Heterozygous CLCNKB Gene Mutations (c.1755A>G/ c.848_850delTCT) Cause Classic Bartter Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunli; Chen, Ying; Zheng, Bixia; Zhu, Mengshu; Fan, Jia; Wang, Juejin; Jia, Zhanjun; Huang, Songming; Zhang, Aihua

    2018-02-14

    Inactivated variants in CLCNKB gene encoding the basolateral chloride channel ClC-Kb cause classic Bartter syndrome characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. Here we identified two cBS siblings presenting hypokalemia in a Chinese family due to novel compound heterozygous CLCNKB mutations (c.848_850delTCT/c.1755A>G). Compound heterozygosity was confirmed by amplifying and sequencing the patient's genomic DNA. The synonymous mutation c.1755A>G (Thr585Thr) was located at +2bp from the 5' splice donor site in exon 15, further transcript analysis demonstrated that this single nucleotide mutation causes exclusion of exon 15 in the cDNA from the proband and his mother. Furthermore, we investigated the expression and protein trafficking change of c.848_850delTCT (TCT) and exon 15 deletion(E15)mutation in vitro. The E15 mutation markedly decreased the expression of ClC-Kb and resulted in a low-molecular-weight band (~55kD) trapping in the endoplasmic reticulum, while the TCT mutant only decreased the total and plasma membrane ClC-Kb protein expression but did not affect the subcellular localization. Finally, we studied the physiological functions of mutations by using whole-cell patch clamp and found that E15 or TCT mutation decreased the current of ClC-Kb/barttin channel. These results suggested that the compound defective mutations of CLCNKB gene are the molecular mechanism of the two cBS siblings.

  6. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielczewska, Katarzyna; Czerniewicz, Maria; Michalak, Joanna; Brandt, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, t const. = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, p const. = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration

  7. Radiation damage in A-15 materials: EXAFS studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, G.S.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Georgopoulos, P.; Brown, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    EXAFS measurements are useful in determining the local atomic environment of a particular element in a solid. Since there has been some controversy about the nature of the defects produced in A-15 materials by radiation damage, such studies were carried out on some A-15 compounds, V 3 Ga which was damaged by neutrons, as well as Nb 3 Ge damaged by 2.5 MeV a particles. In the V 3 Ga sample, site exchange disorder seems to be the most important result of the neutron damage with less than 20% of the vanadium atoms on wrong sites. However, in the Nb 3 Ge samples in addition to site exchange disorder, an unusual splitting of the first near-neighbor distance between the Ge and Nb is found. This splitting, approximately 0.2 A, may explain the large Debye Waller factors observed by Burbank et al

  8. High-energy neutron irradiation of superconducting compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweedler, A.R.; Snead, C.L.; Newkirk, L.; Valencia, F.; Geballe, T.H.; Schwall, R.H.; Matthias, B.T.; Corenswit, E.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of high-energy neutron irradiation (E greater than 1 MeV) at ambient reactor temperatures on the superconducting properties of a variety of superconducting compounds is reported. The materials studied include the A-15 compounds Nb 3 Sn, Nb 3 Al, Nb 3 Ga, Nb 3 Ge and V 3 Si, the C-15 Laves phase HfV 2 , the ternary molybdenum sulfide Mo 3 Pb 0 . 5 S 4 and the layered dichalcogenide NbSe 2 . The superconducting transition temperature has been measured for all of the above materials for neutron fluences up to 5 x 10 19 n/cm 2 . The critical current for multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn has also been determined for fields up to 16 T and fluences between 3 x 10 17 n/cm 2 and 1.1 x 10 19 n/cm 2

  9. Passive sampling as a tool for identifying micro-organic compounds in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, N; Cerar, S; Koroša, A; Auersperger, P

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents the use of a simple and cost efficient passive sampling device with integrated active carbon with which to test the possibility of determining the presence of micro-organic compounds (MOs) in groundwater and identifying the potential source of pollution as well as the seasonal variability of contamination. Advantage of the passive sampler is to cover a long sampling period by integrating the pollutant concentration over time, and the consequently analytical costs over the monitoring period can be reduced substantially. Passive samplers were installed in 15 boreholes in the Maribor City area in Slovenia, with two sampling campaigns covered a period about one year. At all sampling sites in the first series a total of 103 compounds were detected, and 144 in the second series. Of all detected compounds the 53 most frequently detected were selected for further analysis. These were classified into eight groups based on the type of their source: Pesticides, Halogenated solvents, Non-halogenated solvents, Domestic and personal, Plasticizers and additives, Other industrial, Sterols and Natural compounds. The most frequently detected MO compounds in groundwater were tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene from the Halogenated solvents group. The most frequently detected among the compound's groups were pesticides. Analysis of frequency also showed significant differences between the two sampling series, with less frequent detections in the summer series. For the analysis to determine the origin of contamination three groups of compounds were determined according to type of use: agriculture, urban and industry. Frequency of detection indicates mixed land use in the recharge areas of sampling sites, which makes it difficult to specify the dominant origin of the compound. Passive sampling has proved to be useful tool with which to identify MOs in groundwater and for assessing groundwater quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The in situ generation and reactive quench of diazonium compounds in the synthesis of azo compounds in microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akwi, Faith M; Watts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a micro-fluidic optimized process for the continuous flow synthesis of azo compounds is presented. The continuous flow synthesis of Sudan II azo dye was used as a model reaction for the study. At found optimal azo coupling reaction temperature and pH an investigation of the optimum flow rates of the reactants for the diazotization and azo coupling reactions in Little Things Factory-MS microreactors was performed. A conversion of 98% was achieved in approximately 2.4 minutes and a small library of azo compounds was thus generated under these reaction conditions from couplers with aminated or hydroxylated aromatic systems. The scaled up synthesis of these compounds in PTFE tubing (i.d. 1.5 mm) was also investigated, where good reaction conversions ranging between 66-91% were attained.

  11. The Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Two New Hydrazone Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new hydrazone compounds, 4-formylimidazole-4-hydroxybenzhydrazone dihydrate (1 and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde-2-furan formylhydrazone (2, were synthesized via the classical synthesis method. Their structure was determined via elemental analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. Compound 1 crystallizes in triclinic, space group P-1 with a = 7.0321(14 Å, b = 7.3723(15 Å, c = 13.008(3 Å, α = 98.66(3°, β = 101.69(3°, γ = 92.25(3°, V = 651.2(2 Å3, Z = 2, Dc = 1.358 g·cm−3, μ = 0.106 mm−1, F(000 = 280, and final R1 = 0.0564, wR2 = 0.1420. Compound 2 crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 17.3618(9 Å, b = 9.1506(4 Å, c = 15.5801(7 Å, β = 104.532(5°, V = 2396.05(19 Å3, Z = 8, Dc = 1.437 g·cm−3, μ = 0.111 mm−1, F(000 = 1072, and final R1 = 0.0633, wR2 = 0.1649. Compound 1 forms a 2D-layered structure via the interactions of 1D chains and Compound 2 forms a 3D network structure via the interactions of 1D chains.

  12. Reactivity of selenium-containing compounds with myeloperoxidase-derived chlorinating oxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Luke; Pattison, David I.; Fu, Shanlin

    2015-01-01

    and N-chloramines, causes damage to host tissue. Low molecular mass thiol compounds, including glutathione (GSH) and methionine (Met), have demonstrated efficacy in scavenging MPO-derived oxidants, which prevents oxidative damage in vitro and ex vivo. Selenium species typically have greater reactivity...... compounds (selenomethionine, methylselenocysteine, 1,4-anhydro-4-seleno-L-talitol, 1,5-anhydro-5-selenogulitol) studied. In general, selenomethionine was the most reactive with N-chloramines (k2 0.8-3.4×10(3)M(-1) s(-1)) with 1,5-anhydro-5-selenogulitol and 1,4-anhydro-4-seleno-L-talitol (k2 1.1-6.8×10(2)M......(-1) s(-1)) showing lower reactivity. This resulted in the formation of the respective selenoxides as the primary oxidation products. The selenium compounds demonstrated greater ability to remove protein N-chloramines compared to the analogous sulfur compounds. These reactions may have implications...

  13. Mechanochemical synthesis of organic compounds and composites with their participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyakhov, Nikolai Z; Grigorieva, Tatiana F; Barinova, Antonina P; Vorsina, I A [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-13

    The results of experimental studies in the mechanochemical synthesis of organic compounds and composites with their participation published over the last 15 years are described systematically. The key reactions of organic compounds are considered: synthesis of the salts of organic acids, acylation, substitution, dehalogenation, esterification, hydrometallation and other reactions. Primary attention is devoted to systems and compounds that cannot be obtained by traditional chemistry methods.

  14. The single crystal structure determination of Ln{sub 6}MnSb{sub 15} (Ln=La, Ce), Ln{sub 6}Mn{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Sb{sub 15} (x∝0.5), and Ln{sub 6}ZnSb{sub 15} (Ln=La-Pr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, Katherine A.; McCandless, Gregory T.; Chan, Julia Y. [Texas Univ., Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2017-09-01

    Single crystals of Ln{sub 6}MnSb{sub 15} (Ln=La, Ce), Ln{sub 6}Mn{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Sb{sub 15} (x∝0.5), and Ln{sub 6}ZnSb{sub 15} (Ln=La-Pr) have been successfully grown and the compounds adopt the orthorhombic Ln{sub 6}MnSb{sub 15} structure type (space group Immm), with a∝4.3 Aa, b∝15 Aa, and c∝19 Aa. This structure is comprised of antimony nets and antimony ribbons which exhibit positional disorder at connecting points between antimony substructures, in addition to two partially occupied transition metal sites. The unit cell volumes of the La analogs displayed a systematic decrease upon Zn substitution. However, for the Ce{sub 6}Mn{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Sb{sub 15} and Pr{sub 6}Mn{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Sb{sub 15} (x∝0.5), the volumes deviate from linearity as observed in the parent compounds.

  15. Influence of Element Substitution on Corrosion Behavior of Bi2Te3-Based Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Hitoshi; Yagasaki, Takayoshi

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric water may condense on the surface of Bi2Te3-based compounds constituting the Peltier module, depending on the operating environment used. In the stage of disposal, Bi2Te3-based compounds may come into contact with water in waste disposal sites. There are very few publications about the influence of condensed water on Peltier modules. Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 or Bi2Te3-Bi2Se3 pseudo binary system compounds are used as p-type material or n-type material, respectively. The lattice distortion will be induced in the crystal of Bi2Te3-based compounds by element substitution due to the reduction in their thermal conductivity. However, the influence of element substitution on the corrosion behavior of Bi2Te3-based compounds remains unclear. In this study, the influence of element substitution on the corrosion behavior of Bi2Te3-based compounds with practical compositions has been investigated. Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 or Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 was prepared by the vertical Bridgman method. The electrochemical properties at room temperature were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry in a standard three-electrode cell. The working electrolyte was a naturally aerated 0.6 or 3.0 mass% NaCl solution. From the tendency for corrosion potential for all the samples, the corrosion sensitivity of ternary compounds was slightly higher than that of binary compounds. From the trend of current density, it was found that Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 had a corrosion resistance intermediate between Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3. On the other hand, corrosion resistance was affected despite a small amount of Se substitution, and the corrosion resistance of Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 was close to or lower than that of Bi2Se3. From the observation results of the corrosion products, the trends of morphology and composition of corrosion products for Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 or Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 were consistent with those of Sb2Te3 or Bi2Se3, respectively. From the results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for the electrolyte after testing, the possibility that a

  16. Influence of Element Substitution on Corrosion Behavior of Bi2Te3-Based Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Hitoshi; Yagasaki, Takayoshi

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric water may condense on the surface of Bi2Te3-based compounds constituting the Peltier module, depending on the operating environment used. In the stage of disposal, Bi2Te3-based compounds may come into contact with water in waste disposal sites. There are very few publications about the influence of condensed water on Peltier modules. Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 or Bi2Te3-Bi2Se3 pseudo binary system compounds are used as p-type material or n-type material, respectively. The lattice distortion will be induced in the crystal of Bi2Te3-based compounds by element substitution due to the reduction in their thermal conductivity. However, the influence of element substitution on the corrosion behavior of Bi2Te3-based compounds remains unclear. In this study, the influence of element substitution on the corrosion behavior of Bi2Te3-based compounds with practical compositions has been investigated. Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 or Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 was prepared by the vertical Bridgman method. The electrochemical properties at room temperature were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry in a standard three-electrode cell. The working electrolyte was a naturally aerated 0.6 or 3.0 mass% NaCl solution. From the tendency for corrosion potential for all the samples, the corrosion sensitivity of ternary compounds was slightly higher than that of binary compounds. From the trend of current density, it was found that Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 had a corrosion resistance intermediate between Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3. On the other hand, corrosion resistance was affected despite a small amount of Se substitution, and the corrosion resistance of Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 was close to or lower than that of Bi2Se3. From the observation results of the corrosion products, the trends of morphology and composition of corrosion products for Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 or Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 were consistent with those of Sb2Te3 or Bi2Se3, respectively. From the results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for the electrolyte after testing, the possibility that a

  17. A Peduncular Cystic Compound Odontoma on the Posterior Wall of the Maxillary Sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-15

    A cystic compound odontoma in the maxillary sinus occurred in a 13-years-old boy, who had missing right upper third molar without having the history of extraction of the wisdom tooth. He complained nasal stuffiness, headache, and pain on the affected face, resembling any sign and symptoms of the maxillary sinus problems. The cysteic compound, sized 2 x 1.5 cm in diameter was pedunculated and attached on the posterior wall of the right maxillary sinus and above the antral floor. The location of the compound odontoma in the maxillary sinus was confirmed after panoramic, waters, spiral tomographic, CT examinations and surgical exploration. Irs location was on the medical, posterior, superior to the normal position of the maxillary third molar or the maxillary dental arch. The cystic odontoma in the maxillary sinus made the patient have the sings and symptoms of maxillary sinusitis. The cystic compound odontoma might be originated from the dental lamina of the missing upper right third molar. The 'V principle' of the upper jaw growth and the pneumatization process of the maxillary sinus could explain why the compound odontoma had peduncular shape and the location of odontoma was on the medial, superior to the normal position of the maxillary dental arch.

  18. The insoluble carbonaceous material of CM chondrites: A possible source of discrete organic compounds under hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuta, Hikaru; Williams, Lynda B.; Cody, George D.; Alexander, Conel M. O. D.; Pizzarello, Sandra

    2007-08-01

    We report on the molecular analyses of the water- and solvent-soluble organic compounds released from the insoluble organic material (IOM) of the Murray meteorite upon treatment with weight-equivalent amounts of water and under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. A varied suite of compounds was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). C3-C17 alkyl dicarboxylic acids and N- and O-containing hydroaromatic and aromatic compounds were found in the water extracts. The solvent extracts contained N-, O-, and S-containing aromatic compounds, a large number of their isomers and homologs, and a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of up to five rings, together with noncondensed aromatic species such as substituted benzenes, biphenyl, and terphenyls as well as their substituted homologs, and hydrated PAHs. Isotopic analyses showed that residue IOMs after hydrothermal treatment had lower deuterium and 15N content than the untreated material (ΔD = -833‰ and Δ15N = -24.1) but did not differ from it in 13C composition. The effect of the hydrothermolytic release was recorded in significant differences between the NMR spectra of untreated and residue IOM. A possible relation to common precursors for the dicarboxylic acids found in the IOM and bulk extracts is discussed.

  19. The in situ generation and reactive quench of diazonium compounds in the synthesis of azo compounds in microreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith M. Akwi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a micro-fluidic optimized process for the continuous flow synthesis of azo compounds is presented. The continuous flow synthesis of Sudan II azo dye was used as a model reaction for the study. At found optimal azo coupling reaction temperature and pH an investigation of the optimum flow rates of the reactants for the diazotization and azo coupling reactions in Little Things Factory-MS microreactors was performed. A conversion of 98% was achieved in approximately 2.4 minutes and a small library of azo compounds was thus generated under these reaction conditions from couplers with aminated or hydroxylated aromatic systems. The scaled up synthesis of these compounds in PTFE tubing (i.d. 1.5 mm was also investigated, where good reaction conversions ranging between 66–91% were attained.

  20. Rapid Deposition of Oxidized Biogenic Compounds to a Temperate Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Crounse, John D.; Teng, Alex P.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Paulot, Fabien; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2015-01-01

    We report fluxes and dry deposition velocities for 16 atmospheric compounds above a southeastern United States forest, including: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, peroxyacetic acid, organic hydroxy nitrates, and other multifunctional species derived from the oxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes. The data suggest that dry deposition is the dominant daytime sink for small, saturated oxygenates. Greater than 6 wt %C emitted as isoprene by the forest was returned by dry deposition of its oxidized products. Peroxides account for a large fraction of the oxidant flux, possibly eclipsing ozone in more pristine regions. The measured organic nitrates comprise a sizable portion (15%) of the oxidized nitrogen input into the canopy, with HNO3 making up the balance. We observe that water-soluble compounds (e.g., strong acids and hydroperoxides) deposit with low surface resistance whereas compounds with moderate solubility (e.g., organic nitrates and hydroxycarbonyls) or poor solubility (e.g., HCN) exhibited reduced uptake at the surface of plants. To first order, the relative deposition velocities of water-soluble compounds are constrained by their molecular diffusivity. From resistance modeling, we infer a substantial emission flux of formic acid at the canopy level (approx. 1 nmol m(exp.-2)·s(exp.-1)). GEOS-Chem, awidely used atmospheric chemical transport model, currently underestimates dry deposition for most molecules studied in this work. Reconciling GEOS-Chem deposition velocities with observations resulted in up to a 45% decrease in the simulated surface concentration of trace gases.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Fe-Ti-Sb intermetallic compounds: Discovery of a new Slater-Pauling phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibolashrafi, N.; Keshavarz, S.; Hegde, Vinay I.; Gupta, A.; Butler, W. H.; Romero, J.; Munira, K.; LeClair, P.; Mazumdar, D.; Ma, J.; Ghosh, A. W.; Wolverton, C.

    2016-03-01

    Compounds of Fe, Ti, and Sb were prepared using arc melting and vacuum annealing. Fe2TiSb , expected to be a full Heusler compound crystallizing in the L 21 structure, was shown by XRD and SEM analyses to be composed of weakly magnetic grains of nominal composition Fe1.5TiSb with iron-rich precipitates in the grain boundaries. FeTiSb, a composition consistent with the formation of a half-Heusler compound, also decomposed into Fe1.5TiSb grains with Ti-Sb rich precipitates and was weakly magnetic. The dominant Fe1.5TiSb phase appears to crystallize in a defective L 21 -like structure with iron vacancies. Based on this finding, a first-principles DFT-based binary cluster expansion of Fe and vacancies on the Fe sublattice of the L 21 structure was performed. Using the cluster expansion, we computationally scanned >103 configurations and predict a novel, stable, nonmagnetic semiconductor phase to be the zero-temperature ground state. This new structure is an ordered arrangement of Fe and vacancies, belonging to the space group R 3 m , with composition Fe1.5TiSb , i.e., between the full- and half-Heusler compositions. This phase can be visualized as alternate layers of L 21 phase Fe2TiSb and C 1b phase FeTiSb, with layering along the [111] direction of the original cubic phases. Our experimental results on annealed samples support this predicted ground-state composition, but further work is required to confirm that the R 3 m structure is the ground state.

  2. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kshale

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... have entered the commercial market, both in rural areas ... nation of volatile compounds include: gas chromate- graphy (GC) ... prior to the actual analysis, various extraction methods ..... traditional and industrial 'orujo' spirits.

  3. Superconductivity in Ti3P-type compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.O.; Hein, R.A.; Waterstrat, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    A study of 12 intermetallic A 3 B compounds which crsytallize in the tetragonal Ti 3 P-type structure has revealed five new superconductors with transition temperatures below 1 K: Zr 3 Si, Zr 3 Ge, Zr 3 P, V 3 P, and Nb 3 Ge (extrapolated from the alloy series Nb-Ge-As). In addition, two compounds, Zr 3 Sb and Ta 3 Ge, having the Ni 3 P structure type are found to be superconducting below 1 K. Within the Ti 3 P-type compounds, those with the lighter ''B'' elements in a given column of the Periodic Table have the higher transition temperatures. Critical-magnetic-field and electrical-resistivity data are reported for the superconducting Ti 2 P-type compound Nb 3 P, which permit one to estimate the Ginzburg-Landau kappa parameter and the electronic-specific-heat coefficient γ. The kappa value of 8.4 indicates that this material is type II, and the γ value of 1.3 mJ/mole K 2 for Nb 3 P is probably related to its low transition temperature relative to many A15 compounds

  4. Sublimation thermodynamics of four fluoroquinolone antimicrobial compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhina, Svetlana; Sharapova, Angelica; Ol’khovich, Marina; Perlovich, German

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The vapor pressures of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin were measured. • The values of enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation were calculated at T = 298.15 K. • Thermophysical characteristics of the studied compounds were determined. • The influence hydrogen bonds in crystal lattices on the sublimation enthalpy was discussed. - Abstract: The transpiration method was used to measure the vapor pressures as a function of temperature of the following antimicrobial drugs: ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin. Based on these results standard molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation at T = 298.15 K were calculated and a correlation between the crystal lattice energy and the saturation vapor pressure in a number of fluoroquinolones was found. The thermophysical characteristics of the compounds studied were determined by DSC. The influence of different structural fragments of molecules substituents and the effects of hydrogen bonds in crystal lattices on the sublimation enthalpy was discussed.

  5. Electron and phonon properties of 25 A-15 superconductors obtained from heat capacity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.

    1982-01-01

    We review 25 specific heat measurements performed in Geneva on binary and pseudo-binary A-15 compounds. The rather extended temperature range allows us to make reliable estimates of several moments of the phonon spectrum which are required in the theory of superconductivity. The Tsub(c) expression of Allen and Dynes can then be used consistently to estimate the microscopic parameters lambda, eta, Nsub(bs) (Esub(F)), etc. The broad range of values reviewed permits to establish significant correlations between the parameters in stoichiometric and ordered compounds. (orig.)

  6. Synthesis and biological activity of sulfur compounds showing structural analogy with combretastatin A-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Edson dos A. dos; Prado, Paulo C.; Carvalho, Wanderley R. de; Lima, Ricardo V. de; Beatriz, Adilson; Lima, Denis P. de, E-mail: denis.lima@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Hamel, Ernest [Screening Technologies Branch, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Dyba, Marzena A. [Basic Science Program , SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Structural Biophysics Laboratory National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States); Albuquerque, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-09-01

    We extended our previous exploration of sulfur bridges as bioisosteric replacements for atoms forming the bridge between the aromatic rings of combretastatin A-4. Employing coupling reactions between 5-iodo-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene and substituted thiols, followed by oxidation to sulfones with m-CPBA, different locations for attaching the sulfur atom to ring A through the synthesis of nine compounds were examined. Antitubulin activity was performed with electrophoretically homogenous bovine brain tubulin, and activity occurred with the 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl)thio]benzene (12), while the other compounds were inactive. The compounds were also tested for leishmanicidal activity using promastigote forms of Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/BR175/M2904),and the greatest activity was observed with 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-(phenylthio)benzene (10) and 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl) sulfinyl]benzene (15). (author)

  7. Giant negative thermal expansion in NaZn13-type La(Fe, Si, Co)13 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongjin; Liu, Yanying; Fan, Wei; Tan, Jie; Xiao, Furen; Qian, Lihe; Li, Laifeng

    2013-08-07

    La(Fe, Si)13-based compounds are well-known magnetocaloric materials, which show a pronounced negative thermal expansion (NTE) around the Curie temperature but have not been considered as NTE materials for industrial applications. The NaZn13-type LaFe13-xSix and LaFe11.5-xCoxSi1.5 compounds were synthesized, and their linear NTE properties were investigated. By optimizing the chemical composition, the sharp volume change in La(Fe, Si)13-based compounds was successfully modified into continuous expansion. By increasing the amount of Co dopant in LaFe11.5-xCoxSi1.5, the NTE shifts toward a higher temperature region, and also the NTE operation-temperature window becomes broader. Typically, the linear NTE coefficient identified in the LaFe10.5Co1.0Si1.5 compound reaches as much as -26.1 × 10(-6) K(-1), with an operation-temperature window of 110 K from 240 to 350 K, which includes room temperature. Such control of the specific composition and the NTE properties of La(Fe, Si)13-based compounds suggests their potential application as NTE materials.

  8. Origin and tracing techniques of high 15N nitrogen compounds in industrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talma, A.S.; Meyer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Effluents and process waters from various industrial plants were investigated for the 15 N/ 14 N isotope ratio in nitrate and ammonia. It was found that large isotope fractionation occurs in cases where ammonia is involved in gas-liquid phase changes. This feature was found to occur in two coke oven plants where ammonia gas is removed from a gas stream by solution in water, in an ammonia sulphate plant where ammonia gas is absorbed in sulphuric acid and in a water treatment plant where ammonia is removed from (high pH) water by blowing air through the process water. In all these cases 15 N isotope enrichments (in the range of 10 to 30 per mille) occurred. These enrichments are in excess of those found naturally. Ammonia in such wastewaters essentially retains this high 15 N content when it is converted to nitrate underground: which occurs rapidly under well-oxidised conditions. Nitrate is a fairly conservative tracer and its contamination in water can be followed readily. In the low recharge environment in the central parts of South Africa evidence of waste management practices of 10-20 years earlier were still quite evident using this isotopic label. The high 15 N nitrate signal could be used to distinguish industrial nitrogen pollution from pollution by local sewage disposal systems. Vegetation that derives its nitrogen from such high 15 N sources retains the isotope signature of its source. Grass and other annual plants then exhibit the isotope signature of the water of a specific year. Trees exhibit the isotope signature of deeper water, which shows the effects of longer term pollution events. The use of high 15 N as tracer enables the source apportionment of nitrogen derived pollution in these specific circumstances. (author)

  9. Anti-trypanosomal activities and structural chemical properties of selected compound classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Bruhn, Heike; Schirmeister, Tanja; Cecil, Alexander; Albert, Christian R; Buechold, Christian; Tischer, Maximilian; Schlesinger, Susanne; Goebel, Tim; Fuß, Antje; Mathein, Daniela; Merget, Benjamin; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Stich, August; Krohne, Georg; Engstler, Markus; Bringmann, Gerhard; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-02-01

    Potent compounds do not necessarily make the best drugs in the market. Consequently, with the aim to describe tools that may be fundamental for refining the screening of candidates for animal and preclinical studies and further development, molecules of different structural classes synthesized within the frame of a broad screening platform were evaluated for their trypanocidal activities, cytotoxicities against murine macrophages J774.1 and selectivity indices, as well as for their ligand efficiencies and structural chemical properties. To advance into their modes of action, we also describe the morphological and ultrastructural changes exerted by selected members of each compound class on the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Our data suggest that the potential organelles targeted are either the flagellar pocket (compound 77, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 15, amino acid derivative with piperazine moieties), the endoplasmic reticulum membrane systems (37, bisquaternary bisnaphthalimide; 77, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 68, piperidine derivative), or mitochondria and kinetoplasts (88, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 68, piperidine derivative). Amino acid derivatives with fumaric acid and piperazine moieties (4, 15) weakly inhibiting cysteine proteases seem to preferentially target acidic compartments. Our results suggest that ligand efficiency indices may be helpful to learn about the relationship between potency and chemical characteristics of the compounds. Interestingly, the correlations found between the physico-chemical parameters of the selected compounds and those of commercial molecules that target specific organelles indicate that our rationale might be helpful to drive compound design toward high activities and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties for all compound families.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Basophil Activation Test is a Relevant Biomarker of the Outcome of Rapid Desensitization in Platinum Compounds-Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Galvão, Violeta Régnier; Picard, Matthieu; Caiado, Joana; Castells, Mariana C

    Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) has become a cornerstone in the management of immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) to chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the inherent risk of anaphylaxis during RDD, biomarkers to predict patients at risk of developing such severe reactions are needed. The basophil activation test (BAT) has been used in DHRs as a diagnostic tool. We evaluated basophil CD63 and CD203c expression (BAT) as a biomarker to assess the safety and effectiveness of RDD in platinum compounds-allergic patients. Patients allergic to platinum compounds (n = 15) undergoing RDD were assessed through clinical history, skin testing, serum tryptase levels, and BAT. BAT was performed immediately before RDD, assessing CD203c and CD63 expression on basophils. BAT was also performed in 6 patients tolerant to platinum compounds and in 6 healthy volunteers. BAT was positive to CD203c or CD63 in 11 out of 15 patients allergic to platinum compounds (73%), with increased expression of CD203c and CD63 in 11 (73%) and 6 (40%) patients, respectively. Increased CD63 expression tended to be associated with more severe initial reactions. All controls had negative test results. Reactions during RDD were associated with BAT positivity and increased tryptase levels. Only 1 of 4 patients with negative BAT had a mild reaction during RDD. BAT remained positive in multiple sequential RDD. BAT identified patients allergic to platinum compounds with an increased risk of reactions during desensitization and higher CD63 expression was observed in severe reactions. Multiple RDDs to platinum compounds did not induce persistent hyporesponsiveness on basophils. BAT is a potential biomarker for RDD. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Heterocyclic organobismuth (III) compounds containing an eight-membered ring: Inhibitory effects on cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuchi, Katsuya; Yagura, Tatsuo

    2018-03-21

    We previously showed that heterocyclic organobismuth compounds have excellent antimicrobial and antitumor potential. These compounds structurally consist of either six- or eight-membered rings. Previous research has shown that bi-chlorodibenzo[c,f][1,5]thiabismocine (Compound 3), an eight-membered ring, induced G 2 /M arrest via inhibition of tubulin polymerization in HeLa cells. Additionally, N-tert-butyl-bi-chlorodi-benzo[c,f][1,5]azabismocine (Compound 1), another eight-membered ring, exhibited higher cytotoxicity than Compound 3 against several cancer cell lines, including HeLa and K562. Finally, bi-chlorophenothiabismin-S,S-dioxide (Compound 5), a six-membered ring, exhibited lower antitumor activity than eight-membered ring compounds. In this study, we investigated the antimitotic activity of Compounds 1 and 5 in HeLa cells. At low concentrations, (0.1 and 0.25 μM), Compound 1 inhibited cell growth and arrested the cell cycle in mitosis. However, 0.5 μM Compound 1 exhibited no antimitotic activity. Conversely, Compound 5 weakly inhibited cell growth and did not markedly arrest the cell cycle. Flow cytometry showed that Compound 1 arrested the cell cycle at G 2 /M, resulting in apoptosis. Compound 1 inhibited tubulin polymerization as revealed by a cell-free assay, and both Compounds 1 and 3 inhibited microtubule spindle formation and chromosome alignment during prometaphase. These results suggest that eight-membered ring-containing organobismuth compounds can induce mitotic arrest by perturbing spindle dynamics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Endogenous compounds labeled with radionuclides of short half-life-some perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland Långström, Bengt; Karimi, F; Watanabe, Y

    2013-01-01

    In the article, the strategy and synthesis of some endogenous compounds labeled mainly with (11) C are presented. There are some examples illustrating how endogenous labeled compounds in connection with positron emission tomography have unique properties to describe various biological processes......, and a few examples of the use of tracers labeled with (13) N and (15) O are also discussed. Labeled endogenous compounds may be an important asset to describe the conditions and the status of biological systems and might therefore be a key for the future search of individualized medicine....

  14. Analysis of A-15 phase in the system Nb-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.F. da.

    1982-01-01

    The Nb-Au system contains a A-15 structure with a superconducting critical temperature of the order of 11 K. According to the actually available phase diagrams there is some incertainty, whether the stoichiometric composition Nb 3 Au (75% at. Nb and 25% at. Au) occurs within the limits of stability. In the present work the samples (alloys of Nb and Au) are produced using a technique of melting by condenser discharge. The advantage of this technique consists in the possibility to obtain samples with compositions exceeding the limits of stability, as shown by lattice parameter analyses of the phase A-2 (Nb - solid solution) samples. The A-15 phase is obtained by heat treatments of samples crystallized originally in the A-2 structure. The inductively determined critical temperatures are close to the highest reported in the literature for this compound (11,5 K). Further we show by lattice parameter analyses that we are able to obtain the A-15 phase also with metastable compositions, very probably inclusively with the stoichiometric composition. (author) [pt

  15. S-omega carboxamidinoalkyl isothiurea compounds. VI. Radioprotective testing on E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkova, M; Pantev, T [Nauchno-Izsledovatelski Inst. po Radiologiya i Radiatsionna Khigiena, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1975-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of eight newly synthesized potential radioprotectors from the group of the S-omega carboxamidinoalkyl isothiourea compounds is studied. The protective activity of these compounds is evaluated according to the ability of E. coli B to form colonies. Exponential culture of this strain were exposed to 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 kR of gamma rays (Cobalt 60) in the presence of the tested compounds administered in experimentally established nontoxic concentrations 15 minutes before irradiation. Five of the eight compounds tested showed radioprotective effect which was more prominent at the higher doses. As a result of this, cell survival was increased by one order.

  16. Fig volatile compounds--a first comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison-Pigé, Laure; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Greeff, Jaco M; Bessière, Jean-Marie

    2002-09-01

    We analysed the compounds of volatile blends released by receptive figs of twenty Ficus species to attract their specific pollinating wasps. In all, 99 different compounds were identified. The compounds are mainly terpenoids, aliphatic compounds and products from the shikimic acid pathway. In each species blend, there are few major compounds, which are generally common among floral fragrances. Most species blends also include rare compounds, but generally their proportion in the blend is low. A possible basis for species-specificity of Ficus-wasp interactions is discussed in relation to the patterns of volatiles found in this interspecies comparison. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. The effects of bioactive compounds on Alzheimer’s disease and Mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McAnany

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As the prevalence and rate of Alzheimer’s disease are increasing around world, identifying effective treatments to manage cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration has become a global health priority. Decades of scientific research have led to a more comprehensive understanding of Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, a transitional stage of accelerated cognitive decline. This understanding has enabled researchers to envision and develop novel Alzheimer’s Disease therapies, including the use of bioactive compounds found in plants and animals. Within the past 15 years, a significant amount of clinical research has been published documenting the effects specific bioactive compounds have on patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and MCI. This article reviews the results of this research, along with relevant epidemiological studies, measures of cognition, and disease pathologies to discuss whether sufficient evidence exists to support the use of specific bioactive compounds by individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease and MCI. The results of clinical trials within the last 15 years do not conclusively prove that the studied quantities of vitamin B, Omega-3 fatty acids, or bioactive compounds within Fortasyn Connect are beneficial for use in the management of Alzheimer’s Disease or MCI. Additionally, the documented effects of these bioactive compounds do not warrant development of a functional food product to help manage AD or MCI. Conclusion: The results of clinical trials within the last 15 years do not conclusively prove that the specified quantities of vitamin B, Omega-3 fatty acids, or bioactive compounds within Fortasyn Connect, are beneficial for use in the management of AD or MCI. Additionally, the documented effects of these bioactive compounds do not warrant development of a functional food product utilizing the previously specified quantities to help manage AD or MCI. The effects bioactive compound

  18. Neurotoxicity of fragrance compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Adi; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Aschner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Fragrance compounds are chemicals belonging to one of several families, which are used frequently and globally in cosmetics, household products, foods and beverages. A complete list of such compounds is rarely found on the ingredients-list of such products, as "fragrance mixtures" are defined as "trade secrets" and thus protected by law. While some information regarding the general toxicity of some of these compounds is available, their neurotoxicity is known to a lesser extent. Here, we discuss the prevalence and neurotoxicity of fragrance compounds belonging to the three most common groups: phthalates, synthetic musks and chemical sensitizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Organic Compounds Complexify Transport in the Amargosa Desert—The Case for Phytotritiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, D. A.; Luo, W.; Andraski, B. J.; Baker, R. J.; Maples, S.; Mayers, C. J.; Young, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Civilian low-level radioactive waste containing organic compounds was disposed in 2- to 15-m deep unlined trenches in a 110-m deep unsaturated zone at the present-day USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site. Tritium represents the plurality of disposed activity. A plume of gas-phase contaminants surrounds the disposal area, with 60 distinct volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified to date. The distribution of tritiated water in the unsaturated zone surrounding the disposal area is highly enigmatic, with orders of magnitude separating observed levels from those predicted by multiphase models of mass and energy transport. Peaks of tritium and VOCs are coincidently located in sediments tens of meters below the root zone, suggesting abiotic stratigraphic control on lateral transport at depth. Surprisingly, the highest observed levels of tritium occur at a depth of about 1.5 m, the base of the creosote-bush plant-community root zone, where levels of waste-derived VOCs are low (approaching atmospheric levels). Bulk water-vapor samples from shallow and deep unsaturated-zone profile hot spots were trapped as water ice in cold fingers immersed in dry ice-isopropyl alcohol filled Dewar flasks, then melted and sequentially extracted by purge-and-trap VOC degassing followed by elution through activated carbon solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Analysis of tritium activities and mass spectrometer results indicate that over 98% of tritium activity at depth is present as water, whereas about 15% of basal root zone tritium activity is present as organic compounds trapped with the water. Of these, the less-volatile compound group removed by SPE accounted for about 85% of the organic tritium activity, with mass spectrometry identifying 2-ethyl-1-hexanol as the principal compound removed. This plant-produced fatty alcohol is ubiquitous in the root zone of creosote-bush communities and represents a family of hydroxyl-containing plant produced compounds that give the plants their

  20. Application of 15N labeling to topics in molecular hematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, A.; Irving, C.S.

    1975-01-01

    The amount of information which can be obtained from many types of spectrometric analysis of compounds of hematological interest can be greatly enhanced when measurements are made on a series of isotopically labeled compounds. A murine Friend virus-induced erythroleukemic cell (FLC) culture was found to be a superior biosynthetic system for the preparation of highly and selectively 15 N and 13 C enriched hemoglobins. A mutant of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides was found suitable for the preparation of larger quantities of >90 percent enriched protoporphyrin-IX- 15 N and coproporphyrin-III-- 15 N. A comparison of the 15 N and 13 C NMR spectra of FLC carbomonoxy-[Gly- 15 N]-hemoglobin, carbomonoxy-[Gly- 13 C/sub alpha/]-hemoglobin, α and β globin-[Gly- 15 N] and globin-[Gly- 13 C/sub alpha/] demonstrated 1) 15 N peptide chemical shifts are sensitive to polypeptide sequence, whereas 13 C α-carbon chemical shifts are not, (2) variations in the solvation of the peptide N-H group can be detected in the 15 N spectra but not the 13 C spectra, (3) 15 N heme resonances could not be detected, whereas 13 C resonances could. These studies indicated that in hemoglobin the glycyl N-H resonances are either solvated by H 2 O or hydrogen bonded to peptide C=0 groups. In denatured globin, the majority of the glycyl residues are rapidly exchanging between these two states

  1. 15N-Labelling and structure determination of adamantylated azolo-azines in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey L. Deev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the accurate chemical structures of synthesized compounds is essential for biomedical studies and computer-assisted drug design. The unequivocal determination of N-adamantylation or N-arylation site(s in nitrogen-rich heterocycles, characterized by a low density of hydrogen atoms, using NMR methods at natural isotopic abundance is difficult. In these compounds, the heterocyclic moiety is covalently attached to the carbon atom of the substituent group that has no bound hydrogen atoms, and the connection between the two moieties of the compound cannot always be established via conventional 1H-1H and 1H-13C NMR correlation experiments (COSY and HMBC, respectively or nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY or ROESY. The selective incorporation of 15N-labelled atoms in different positions of the heterocyclic core allowed for the use of 1H-15N (JHN and 13C-15N (JCN coupling constants for the structure determinations of N-alkylated nitrogen-containing heterocycles in solution. This method was tested on the N-adamantylated products in a series of azolo-1,2,4-triazines and 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine. The syntheses of adamantylated azolo-azines were based on the interactions of azolo-azines and 1-adamatanol in TFA solution. For azolo-1,2,4-triazinones, the formation of mixtures of N-adamantyl derivatives was observed. The JHN and JCN values were measured using amplitude-modulated 1D 1H spin-echo experiments with the selective inversion of the 15N nuclei and line-shape analysis in the 1D 13С spectra acquired with selective 15N decoupling, respectively. Additional spin–spin interactions were detected in the 15N-HMBC spectra. NMR data and DFT (density functional theory calculations permitted to suggest a possible mechanism of isomerization for the adamantylated products of the azolo-1,2,4-triazines. The combined analysis of the JHN and JCN couplings in 15N-labelled compounds provides an efficient method for the structure

  2. Cost analysis of premixed multichamber bags versus compounded parenteral nutrition: breakeven point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozat, Erkut; Korubuk, Gamze; Onar, Pelin; Abbasoglu, Osman

    2014-02-01

    Industrially premixed multichamber bags or hospital-manufactured compounded products can be used for parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of these 2 approaches. Costs of compounded parenteral nutrition bags in an university hospital were calculated. A total of 600 bags that were administered during 34 days between December 10, 2009 and February 17, 2010 were included in the analysis. For quality control, specific gravity evaluation of the filled bags was performed. It was calculated that the variable cost of a hospital compounded bag was $26.15. If we take the annual fixed costs into consideration, the production cost reaches $36.09 for each unit. It was estimated that the cost for the corresponding multichamber bag was $37.79. Taking the fixed and the variable costs into account, the breakeven point of the hospital compounded and the premixed multichamber bags was seen at 5,404 units per year. In specific gravity evaluation, it was observed that the mean and interval values were inside the upper and lower control margins. In this analysis, usage of hospital-compounded parenteral nutrition bags showed a cost advantage in hospitals that treat more than 15 patients per day. In small volume hospitals, premixed multichamber bags may be more beneficial.

  3. Magnetic properties and tunable magneto-caloric effect in La0.8Ce0.2Fe11.5-xCoxSi1.5C0.2 (x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiming; Wang, Xiangjie; Ding, Zan; Li, Lingwei

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic and magneto-caloric properties in the ternary elementals doped La0.8Ce0.2Fe11.5-xCoxSi1.5C0.2 (x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7) compounds were studied. With the increases of Co content x, the Curie temperature TC increases and the thermal hysteresis decreases. All the compounds undergo a second-order magnetic phase transition and exhibit a considerable reversible tunable magneto-caloric effect. The values of maximum magnetic entropy change (-ΔSMmax) and the Relative Cooling Power (RCP) are kept at same high level with different Co content. Under a magnetic field change of 0-5 T, the values of -ΔSMmax for La0.8Ce0.2Fe11.5-xCoxSi1.5C0.2 are 10.5, 10.7, and 9.8 J/kg K for x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7, respectively. The corresponding values of RCP are 267.1, 289.9, and 290.2 J/kg.

  4. A Facile Synthesis of Pyrido[2′,3′:3,4]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine and Pyrido[2′,3′:3,4]pyrazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazine Bearing a Thiophene Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilal Elsaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyridinone derivative 8 was synthesized and transformed into the respective chloropyridine 9, which was allowed to react with hydrazine hydrate to afford pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-amine derivative 11. Compound 11 was used as a key intermediate for a facile synthesis of the title compounds 14, 15, 17, 21a,b, and 24a–c where the reaction of 11 with some 1,3-dielecrophiles resulted in the formation of pyrido[2′,3′:3,4]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines 14, 15, and 17, whereas diazotization of compound 11 gave the respective diazonium salt 18 which was coupled with some active methylene-containing compounds to give the corresponding hydrazones 19a,b and 22a–c. Cyclization of the latter hydrazones yielded the pyrido[2′,3′:3,4]pyrazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazines 21a,b and 24a–c, respectively.

  5. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  6. Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Susana; Sá, Nívea P; Lima, Luciana A R S; Cisalpino, Patricia S; Cota, Betania B; Alves, Tânia M A; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Zani, Carlos L

    2010-10-12

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol (1), a new biphenyl compound, namely, 4'-ethyl-4-methyl-2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarboxylate (2), quercetin (3), and kaempferol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 were active against different strains of P. brasiliensis, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration value against the isolate Pb B339 of 15.6 μg/ml. The isolate Pb 1578 was more sensitive to compound 1 with a MIC value of 7.5 μg/ml. Schinol presented synergistic effect only when combined with itraconazole. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were not able to inhibit cell wall synthesis or assembly using the sorbitol assay. This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of compound 2 and discloses activity of compounds 1 and 2 against several clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis. These results justify further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds.

  7. A Singlet Oxygen Photogeneration and Luminescence Study of Unsymmetrically Substituted Mesoporphyrinic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Sousa Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a series of new unsymmetrically substituted mesoporphyrins: 5-(2-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-phenyl-21,23-H-porphyrin (TPPOHO, 5-(3-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-phenyl-21,23-H-porphyrin (TPPOHM, 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-phenyl-21,23-H-porphyrin (TPPOHP, 5-(2-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-butyl-21,23-H-porphyrin (TBPOHO, and their parent nonsubstituted compounds, respectively, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-phenyl-21,23-H-porphyrin (TPP and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-butyl-21,23-H-porphyrin (TBP. Several photophysical studies were carried out to access the influence of the unsymmetrical substitution at the porphyrinic macrocycle on porthyrin's photophysical properties, especially porthyrin's efficiency as singlet oxygen sensitizers. The quantum yields of singlet oxygen generation were determined in benzene (ΦΔ(TPP = 0.66 ± 0.05; ΦΔ(TPPOHO = 0.69 ± 0.04; ΦΔ(TPPOHM = 0.62 ± 0.04; ΦΔ(TPPOHP = 0.73 ± 0.03; ΦΔ(TBP = 0.76 ± 0.03; ΦΔ(TBPOHO = 0.73 ± 0.02 using the 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21,23-H-porphine (ΦΔ(TPP = 0.66 and Phenazine (ΦΔ(Phz = 0.83 as reference compounds. Their fluorescence quantum yields were found to be (Φf(TPPOHO = 0.10 ± 0.04; Φf(TPPOHM = 0.09 ± 0.03; Φf(TPPOHP = 0.13 ± 0.02; Φf(TBP = 0.08 ± 0.03 and Φf(TBPOHO = 0.08 ± 0.02 using 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21,23-H-porphine as reference Φf(TPP = 0.13. Singlet state lifetimes were also determined in the same solvent. All the porphyrins presented very similar fluorescence lifetimes (mean values of τS (with O2, air equilibrated = 9.6 ± 0.3 nanoseconds and (without O2, argon purged = 10.1 ± 0.6 nanoseconds, resp.. The phosphorescence emission was found to be negligible for this series of unsymmetrically substituted mesoporphyrins, but an E-type, thermally activated, delayed fluorescence process was proved to occur at room temperature.

  8. MR lymphography with macromolecular Gd-DTPA compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, B.; Wagner, S.; Branding, G.; Taupitz, M.; Wolf, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the suitability of macromolecular Gd-DTPA compounds as signal-enhancing lymphographic agents in MR imaging. Two Gd-DTPA polylysin compounds and Gd-DTPA albumin, with molecular weights of 48,000,170,000, and 87,000 daltons, respectively, were tested in rabbits at gadolinium doses of 5 and 15 μmol per animal. Three animals were examined at each dose with T1-weighted sequences. The iliac lymph nodes were imaged prior to and during unilateral endolymphatic infusion into a femoral lymph vessel as well as over a period of 2 hours thereafter. All contrast media showed a homogeneous and pronounced signal enhancement in the lymph nodes during infusion at both doses

  9. Characteristics of styrene-butadiene rubber/silica/Nanoprene compounds for application in tire tread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byeongho; Kang, Jonghyub; Jang, Sukhee; Kang, Yonggu; Kim, Wonho

    2013-03-01

    Nanoprene is made from chemically cross-linked rubber particles, and has many hydroxyl groups on the surface of the particles. It is speculated that the Nanoprene could reduce the silica-silica network formation by introducing hydrogen bonding between the silanol group of silica and the hydroxyl group of Nanoprene. In this study, the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/silica compounds with two types of the Nanoprene (BM75OH, BM15OH) were evaluated and it could be well explained by the concept of the volume fraction of filler or the volume fraction of rubber. If the Nanoprene applied to the compound is considered as a kind of filler, the minimum torque values and bound rubber contents of the un-vulcanized compounds, the swelling ratio and the stress-strain relationship of the vulcanized compounds could be well explained by the volume fraction of filler (phi(F)). If Nanoprene is considered as a kind of rubber such as SBR, the properties such as peak tan delta, Payne effect, tan delta at 0 degrees C and 60 degrees C, and abrasion resistance could be well explained by the volume fraction of rubber (phi'(R)). However, the improvement of silica dispersion by addition of the Nanoprene particles in the compounds was not significant. The application of BM75OH as a polymer to the tread compound will be suitable for winter tires. In addition, the compound with BM15OH as an additive will be suitable as a tread compound for summer tires.

  10. Effect of triorganotin compounds on calcium transport mechanisms in rat cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.A.; Kodavanti, P.R.S.; Yallapragada, P.R.; Desaiah, D.

    1990-01-01

    Although organotin compounds, in general, are neurotoxicants, recent studies indicate that these tin compounds affect heme metabolism as well as cardiovascular system. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium pump together with phosphorylation of phospholamban has an important role in myocardial contraction and relaxation. Since organotin compounds interfere with cardiovascular system, we have studied the in vitro as well as in vivo effects of tributyltin bromide (TBT), triethyltin bromide (TET) and trimethyltin chloride (TMT) on cardiac SR Ca 2+ -pump activity, in order to know the relative potency of these tin compounds. SR was isolated from heart ventricles of male Sprague-Dawley rats and used for in vitro studies. For in vivo studies, rats were treated orally in corn oil for 6 days with different doses of TET (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg/d), TMT (0.75, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/kg/d) and TBT (0.75, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/kg/d). Rats were sacrificed 24 hr after the last dosage and cardiac SR was prepared. Cardiac SR Ca 2+ -ATPase and 45 Ca-uptake were measured. All the three tin compounds inhibited Ca 2+ -ATPase and 45 Ca-uptake in vitro in a concentration dependent manner. The order of potency for Ca 2+ -ATPase as determined IC 50 , is TBT (2 uM) > TET (63 uM) > TMT (280 uM). For 45 Ca-uptake, if followed the same order i.e., TBT (0.35 uM) > TET (10 uM) > TMT (440 uM). In agreement with in vitro results, both SR Ca 2+ -ATPase and 45 Ca-uptake were significantly inhibited in rats treated with these tin compounds. These studies indicate that triorganotin compounds affect Ca 2+ -pumping mechanisms and thereby alter cardiac contraction-relaxation process

  11. Isolation of antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Sophora japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam M Abdallah

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Sophora japonica seeds resulted in the isolation of seven metabolites identified as: genistin (1, sophoricoside (2, sophorabioside (3, sophoraflavonoloside (4, genistein 7,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyransoide (5, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 → 6β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 2β-D-glucopyranoside (6 and rutin (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 5 showed significant estrogenic proliferative effect in MCF-7 cell in sub-cytotoxic concentration range. Compounds 1 and 2 showed minimal cell membrane damaging effect using LDH leakage assay. Accordingly, compound 2 (sophoricoside, (SPH was selected for further in-vivo studies as a potential anti-osteoporosis agent. The anti-osteoporotic effect of SPH was assessed in ovarectomized (OVX rats after oral administration (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg for 45 days compared to estradiol (10 µg/kg as a positive control. Only in a dose of 30 mg/kg, SPH regained the original mechanical bone hardness compared to normal non-osteoporotic group. However, SPH (15 mg/kg significantly increased the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP to normal level. Treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg increased the level of ALP to be higher than normal group. SPH (15 mg/kg did not significantly increase the serum level of osteocalcin (OC compared to OVX group. On the other hand, treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg significantly increased the level of OC to 78% higher than normal non-ovarectomized animals group. In addition, SPH (15 mg/kg decreased the bone resorption marker, acid phosphatase (ACP to normal level and SPH (30 mg/kg further diminished the level of serum ACP. Histopathologically, sophoricoside ameliorated the ovarectomy induced osteoporosis in a dose dependent manner. The drug showed thicker bony trabeculae, more osteoid, and more osteoblastic rimming compared to OVX group.

  12. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts and Isolated Compounds from Myrciariaferruginea (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Costa de Lima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated for the first time the antibacterial activity, cell viability and migration ability on 3T3 murine fibroblast cells of extracts and isolated compounds [lupeol (1, hexamethylcoruleoellagic acid (2 and a mixture of 1 and betulinaldehyde (3] of Myrciaria ferruginea. In antibacterial assays extracts were susceptible only against S. aureus (MIC 500 μg/mL and S. epidermidis (MIC ranging from 7.8 to 500 μg/mL and compounds 1-3have shown no significant activity. In trials for c ell viability, with exception of MeOH-H 2O fraction from leaves (viable cells > 90%, both the crude extract and other fractions showed inhibition of cell growth (viable cells ≤ 80% at 15.625 and 31.25 μg/mL; while the samples from stems, with the exception of CHCl 3 fraction that showed strong cytotoxic effect at the lowest concentration tested (15.625 μg/mL, the other fractions were not cytotoxic. Compounds (1-3 inhibited cell viability in dose dependent manner (15.625 to 500 μg/mL. Mixture containing 1 and 3 showed inhibitions only in concentrations greater than 62.5 μg/mL while compound 2 decreased from the lowest concentration tested. In scratch wound assay, these compoundsnot increased the population of fibroblasts at concentrations less than 62.5 μg/mL.

  13. Titanium zirconium and hafnium coordination compounds with vanillin thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konunova, Ts.B.; Kudritskaya, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Coordination compounds of titanium zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides with vanillin thiosemicarbazone of MCl 4 x nLig composition, where n=1.5, 4 for titanium and 1, 2, 4 for zirconium and hafnium, are synthesized. Molar conductivity of ethanol solutions is measured; IR spectroscopic and thermochemical investigation are carried out. The supposition about ligand coordination via sulfur and azomethine nitrogen atoms is made. In all cases hafnium forms stable compounds than zirconium

  14. Measurement of activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethylsulfate at T = (308.15, 313.15, 323.15 and 333.15) K using gas + liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadur, Indra; Govender, Byron Bradley; Osman, Khalid; Williams-Wynn, Mark D.; Nelson, Wayne Michael; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measured in the ionic liquid [EMIM] + [MDEGSO 4 ] − . • 28 organic solutes investigated at T = (308.15, 313.15, 323.15 and 333.15) K using glc. • Selectivities for selected hexane/benzene separations compared to other IL’s and solvents. • IL shows higher selectivities than conventional solvents such as NMP, NFM, and sulfolane. -- Abstract: In this study, the interactions between volatile organic compounds and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethylsulfate [EMIM] + [MDEGSO 4 ] − were investigated using gas + liquid chromatography measurements. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution γ 13 ∞ were determined for 28 polar and non-polar organic solutes (alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic compounds, alcohols, and ketones) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethylsulfate at T = (308.15, 313.15, 323.15 and 333.15) K. Packed columns with phase loadings of 0.27 and 0.37 mass fraction of the IL in the stationary phase were employed to obtain γ 13 ∞ values at each temperature. Density and refractive index values were also measured for the pure IL at P = 0.1 MPa and at the experimental temperatures. Partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution ΔH 1 E,∞ were calculated for the solutes from the temperature dependency of the γ 13 ∞ values. The uncertainties in the activity coefficient at infinite dilution were critically evaluated and estimated on average to be ±5.3%. Selectivity values at infinite dilution S ij ∞ for the hexane/benzene separation were also calculated at T = 308.15 K. The selectivity S ij ∞ value of the IL investigated in this study is approximately 3.7 times greater than that for NMP, 2.6 times greater than that for NFM, and 2.3 times greater than that for sulfolane. These results indicate the potential use of this IL in extractive separation processes

  15. Isolation and Elucidation of 15-Acetylguanacone from Soursop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    002/C. The structure of compound 200/A2 was elucidated using 1H-NMR spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy .... Molecular Docking Experiments, Protein preparation ... ligand conformations in the binding sites through the .... Molecular dynamics simulation of diacetyl-guancone. Bioorgnic and Medicinal Chemistry 15: 4369-.

  16. Application of high rate magnetron sputtering to the fabrication of A-15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampwirth, R.T.; Hafstrom, J.W.; Wu, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    High quality Nb 3 Sn films have been fabricated using a recently developed magnetron sputtering process capable of deposition rates approaching 1 μm/min. at sputtering voltages less than 500 V and power levels of about 5 KW. Low sputtering voltages allow more complete thermalization at lower pressures of the material condensing on the substrate which can improve long range order. Transition temperatures of up to 18.3 0 K, J/sub c/(O)'s of 15 x 10 6 A/cm 2 and Hc 2 as high as 240 kOe have been achieved in 1-3 μm films deposited from a Nb 3 Sn reacted powder target with substrate temperatures between 600 and 800 0 C. The films exhibit smooth surfaces and, generally, a [200] preferred orientation. The growth of the film is columnar in nature. The sputtering parameters, substrate material and temperature will be related to film structure T/sub c/ and J/sub c/(H,T) and the Nb/Sn ratio as determined by Rutherford backscattering

  17. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  18. 15N-labelled pyrazines of triterpenic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlk, Martin; Micolova, Petra; Sarek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenoid pyrazines from our research group were found selectively cytotoxic on several cancer cell lines with IC 50 in low micromolar range. This sparked our interest in preparing their labeled analogs for metabolic studies. In this work, we prepared a set of non-labeled pyrazines from seven triterpenoid skeletal types along with their 15 N labelled analogs. In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of the target 15 N labelled pyrazines. Currently, these compounds are being studied in complex metabolic studies. (author)

  19. Purification and characterization of two new cell-bound bioactive compounds produced by wild Lactococcus lactis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Margarete Alice Fontes; Brede, Dag Anders; Nes, Ingolf Figved; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; de Moraes, Célia Alencar

    2017-07-03

    Novel compounds and innovative methods are required considering that antibiotic resistance has reached a crisis point. In the study, two cell-bound antimicrobial compounds produced by Lactococcus lactis ID1.5 were isolated and partially characterized. Following purification by cationic exchange and a solid-phase C18 column, antimicrobial activity was recovered after three runs of RPC using 60% (v/v) and 100% (v/v) of 2-propanol for elution, suggesting that more than one antimicrobial compound were produced by L. lactis ID1.5, which were in this study called compounds AI and AII. The mass spectrum of AI and AII showed major intensity ions at m/z 1070.05 and 955.9 Da, respectively. The compound AI showed a spectrum of antimicrobial activity mainly against L. lactis species, while the organisms most sensitive to compound AII were Bacillus subtilis, Listeria innocua, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of both compounds was suppressed by treatment with Tween 80. Nevertheless, both compounds showed high stability to heat and proteases treatments. The isolated compounds, AI and AII, showed distinct properties from other antimicrobial substances already reported as produced by L. lactis, and have a significant inhibitory effect against two clinically important respiratory pathogens. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Secondary organic aerosol formation from a large number of reactive man-made organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derwent, Richard G., E-mail: r.derwent@btopenworld.com [rdscientific, Newbury, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Jenkin, Michael E. [Atmospheric Chemistry Services, Okehampton, Devon (United Kingdom); Utembe, Steven R.; Shallcross, Dudley E. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Murrells, Tim P.; Passant, Neil R. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell International Business Centre, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    A photochemical trajectory model has been used to examine the relative propensities of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by human activities to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) under one set of highly idealised conditions representing northwest Europe. This study applied a detailed speciated VOC emission inventory and the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.1 (MCM v3.1) gas phase chemistry, coupled with an optimised representation of gas-aerosol absorptive partitioning of 365 oxygenated chemical reaction product species. In all, SOA formation was estimated from the atmospheric oxidation of 113 emitted VOCs. A number of aromatic compounds, together with some alkanes and terpenes, showed significant propensities to form SOA. When these propensities were folded into a detailed speciated emission inventory, 15 organic compounds together accounted for 97% of the SOA formation potential of UK man made VOC emissions and 30 emission source categories accounted for 87% of this potential. After road transport and the chemical industry, SOA formation was dominated by the solvents sector which accounted for 28% of the SOA formation potential.

  1. Optimization of autohydrolysis conditions to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Ramirez, Monica J.; Orrego, Carlos E.

    2017-01-01

    Autohydrolysis, which is an eco-friendly technology that employs only water as extraction solvent, was used to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds (SCG). Experimental assays were carried out using different temperatures (160–200 °C), liquid/solid ratios (5–15 ml/g SCG.......46 mg TE/g SCG, and TAA = 66.21 mg α-TOC/g SCG) consisted in using 15 ml water/g SCG, at 200 °C during 50 min. Apart from being a green technology, autohydrolysis under optimized conditions was demonstrated to be an efficient method to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from SCG....

  2. Influence of atomic ordering on superconductivity and electric conductivity of A15 compounds with different valence electron density for heavy ion irradiated Nb3Al, Nb3Sn, Mo3Ge, Mo3Si and Mo-Re at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, M.

    1981-01-01

    A15 compounds were studied using heavy ion Rutherford scattering, measurements of the transition temperature, electric conductivity and critical magnetic field. Radiation defects produced below 20 K by heavy ions are discussed, including anti-site-disorder effects. Annealing experiments were performed between 290 K and the transition temperature. The data are discussed in correlation with band structure effects and the theory of J. Appel (1976). (TW)

  3. Crown-ether functionalized carbon nanotubes for purification of lithium compounds: computational and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha Deb, A.K.; Arora, S.K.; Joshi, J.M.; Ali, Sk. M.; Shenoy, K.T.; Goyal, Aiana

    2015-01-01

    Lithium compounds finds several applications in nuclear science and technology, viz, lithium fluoride/hydroxide/alloys are used as dosimetric materials in luminescence devices, molten-salt breeder reactor, international thermonuclear experimental reactor, single crystal based neutron detectors etc. The lithium compounds should be in a proper state of purity; especially it should not contain other alkali metal cations which can downgrade the performance. Hence, there is a need to develop a process for purification of the lithium salt to achieve the desired quality. Therefore an attempt has been made to develop advanced nanomaterials for purification of the lithium salts. In this work, benzo-15-crown-5(B15C5) functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs), owing to the good adsorption properties of CNT and alkali metal encapsulation behaviour of B15C5, were showed to bind preferentially with sodium and potassium ions compared to lithium ions. DFT based computation calculations have shown that the free energy of complexation of Na + and K + by B15C5-CNT is higher than that of Li + , implying that B15C5-CNT selectively binds Na + and K + . The experimental batch solid-liquid extraction has also revealed the same trend as in the calculations. The crown-ethers functionalized CNTs have the potentiality for use in purifying lithium compounds. (author)

  4. Sources and transformation of dissolved and particulate organic nitrogen in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre indicated by compound-specific δ15N analysis of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiko T.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the use of compound-specific nitrogen isotopes of amino acids (δ15NAA) of coupled dissolved and particulate organic nitrogen (DON, PON) samples as a new approach to examine relative sources, transformation processes, and the potential coupling of these two major forms of N cycle in the ocean water column. We measured δ15NAA distributions in high-molecular-weight dissolved organic nitrogen (HMW DON) and suspended PON in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) from surface to mesopelagic depths. A new analytical approach achieved far greater δ15NAA measurement precision for DON than earlier work, allowing us to resolve previously obscured differences in δ15NAA signatures, both with depth and between ON pools. We propose that δ15N values of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) represents a proxy for proteinaceous ON δ15N values in DON and PON. Together with bulk δ15N values, this allows δ15N values and changes in bulk, proteinaceous, and ;other-N; to be directly evaluated. These novel measurements suggest three main conclusions. First, the δ15NAA signatures of both surface and mesopelagic HMW DON suggest mainly heterotrophic bacterial sources, with mesopelagic HMW DON bearing signatures of far more degraded material compared to surface material. These results contrast with a previous proposal that HMW DON δ15NAA patterns are essentially ;pre-formed; by cyanobacteria in the surface ocean, undergo little change with depth. Second, different δ15NAA values and patterns of HMW DON vs. suspended PON in the surface NPSG suggest that sources and cycling of these two N reservoirs are surpisingly decoupled. Based on molecular δ15N signatures, we propose a new hypothesis that production of surface HMW DON is ultimately derived from subsurface nitrate, while PON in the mixed layer is strongly linked to N2 fixation and N recycling. In contrast, the comparative δ15NAA signatures of HMW DON vs. suspended PON in the mesopelagic also suggest a

  5. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution for hydrocarbons in furfuryl alcohol at T=(278.15 and 298.15) K, determined by g.l.c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, Marta K.; Letcher, Trevor M.; Domanska, Urszula

    2004-01-01

    The potential of the polar solvent, furfuryl alcohol, as a solvent in the separation of aromatics from aliphatics and other hydrocarbons, has been investigated by measuring activity coefficients at infinite dilution. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution for some alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes and benzene in furfuryl alcohol have been determined by g.l.c. at T=(278.15 and 298.15) K. The method used is we believe, a more controlled and reliable method than the alternative pre-saturation method. The results have been used to calculate the selectivity factor and hence predict the potential for furfuryl alcohol as a solvent in separating aromatic compounds from aliphatic compounds and other hydrocarbons using extractive distillation. The results have been compared to the recently published work on a related polar solvent - furfural. The excess enthalpies of mixing at infinite dilution have also been calculated

  6. New antiferromagnetic semiconductor CuCr1.5Sb0.5S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, Ya.A.; Koroleva, L.I.; Mikheev, M.G.; Odintsov, A.G.; Filimonov, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    New halcogenide compound with spinel-antiferromagnetic semiconductor CuCr 1.5 Sb 0.5 S 4 are obtained and studied for the first time. Magnetic properties of this compound, namely, magnetization linear dependence, maximum on PHI(T) curve in the low-temperature area and realization of the Curie-Weis law for paramagnetic susceptibility with negative paramagnetic temperature testiby to the fact that this compound is antiferromagnetic

  7. Reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Allan

    2010-01-01

    This book discusses reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors, which have evolved rapidly during the last 15 years. Johnston's perspective in the book focuses on high-reliability applications in space, but his discussion of reliability is applicable to high reliability terrestrial applications as well. The book is important because there are new reliability mechanisms present in compound semiconductors that have produced a great deal of confusion. They are complex, and appear to be major stumbling blocks in the application of these types of devices. Many of the reliability problems that were prominent research topics five to ten years ago have been solved, and the reliability of many of these devices has been improved to the level where they can be used for ten years or more with low failure rates. There is also considerable confusion about the way that space radiation affects compound semiconductors. Some optoelectronic devices are so sensitive to damage in space that they are very difficu...

  8. Studies of liver-specific metabolic reactions with /sup 15/N. 1. Metabolism of /sup 15/N-ammonium chloride in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, K; Jung, K; Faust, H; Matkowitz, R

    1987-07-01

    The /sup 15/N tracer technique was used to investigate liver-specific reactions (urea and hippurate synthesis) for studying the metabolism in the healthy and damaged pig liver. After (/sup 15/N)ammonium chloride administration the tracer distribution on non-protein compounds of serum and urine was followed. Blood samplings before and after liver passage rendered possible a direct analysis of the (/sup 15/N)ammonium metabolism. The thioacetamide-induced liver damage was used as model for an acute liver intoxication. The capacity for urea synthesis was not influenced by means of this noxious substance, but the metabolism of amino acids and hippuric acid. The considerably depressed excretion of (/sup 15/N)hippurate seems to be a suitable indicator of liver disfunction.

  9. A portable and inexpensive method for quantifying ambient intermediate volatility organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.; Carrasco, Erica; Karz, James; Chang, Kylee; Nguyen, Theodore; Ruiz, Daniel; Okonta, Vivian; Gilman, Jessica B.; Kuster, William C.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2014-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and intermediate volatility VOCs (IVOCs) are gas-phase organic compounds which may participate in chemical reactions affecting air quality and climate. The development of an inexpensive, field-portable quantification method for higher molecular weight VOCs and IVOCs utilizing commercially available components could be used as a tool to survey aerosol precursors or identify and monitor air quality in various communities. We characterized the performance characteristics for the HayeSep-Q adsorbent with a representative selection of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC standards and optimized experimental conditions and procedures for field collections followed by laboratory analysis. All VOCs were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Precision (average 22%) and accuracy were reasonable and the limit of detection ranged from 10 to 80 pmol/mol (ppt) for the studied compounds. The method was employed at the Los Angeles site during the CalNex campaign in summer 2010 and ambient mixing ratios agreed well (slope 0.69-1.06, R2 0.67-0.71) with measurements made using an in-situ GC-MS - a distinctly different sampling and quantification method. This new technique can be applied to quantify ambient biogenic and anthropogenic C8-C15 VOCs and IVOCs.

  10. A comparative study of the Aurivillius phase ferroelectrics CaBi 4Ti 4O 15 and BaBi 4Ti 4O 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, J.; Boullay, Ph.; Manier, M.; Mercurio, D.

    2004-06-01

    The room temperature structures of the four-layer Aurivillius phase ferroelectrics CaBi 4Ti 4O 15 and BaBi 4Ti 4O 15 are determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Regarding the CaBi 4Ti 4O 15 phase, in agreement with the tolerance factor, a significant deformation of the perovskite blocks is observed. The rotation system of the octahedra is typical from even layer Aurivillius phases and leads to the use of the space group A2 1am. For the BaBi 4Ti 4O 15 phase, only a weak variation with respect to the F2 mm space group can be suggested from single crystal X-ray diffraction. A significant presence of Ba atoms in the [ M2O 2] slabs is confirmed in agreement with the previous works but specific Ba 2+ and Bi 3+ sites have to be considered due to the large difference in bounding requirement of these cations. Possible origins for the ferroelectric relaxor behavior of the Ba-based compound are discussed in view of the presented structural analyses.

  11. Infrared absorption in pseudobinary InSb1-xBix compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Den, M.B.; Mina, N.K.; Samy, A.M.; El-Mously, M.K.

    1988-08-01

    The group III-V pseudobinary InSb 1-x Bi x compounds, with x = 0, 0.2 and 0.04, were prepared in thin ribbon forms (30 μ) by splat cooling in air. The optical absorption α(λ) was measured in the wavelength range from 4 to 15 μm. The optical energy gap E opt. , was calculated for the three compounds. A shift of the absorption edge towards longer wavelengths with increasing Bi content was observed. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  12. Compound-Specific Isotopic Analysis of Meteoritic Amino Acids as a Tool for Evaluating Potential Formation Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael C.; Charnley, Steven B.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of stable hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic ratios (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) of organic compounds can reveal information about their origin and formation pathways. Several formation mechanisms and environments have been postulated for the amino acids detected in carbonaceous chondrites. As each proposed mechanism utilizes different precursor molecules, the isotopic signatures of the resulting amino acids may point towards the most likely of these proposed pathways. The technique of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry provides compound-specific structural and isotopic information from a single splitless injection, enhancing the amount of information gained from small amounts of precious samples such as carbonaceous chondrites. We have applied this technique to measure the compound-specific C, N, and H isotopic ratios of amino acids from seven CM and CR carbonaceous chondrites. We are using these measurements to evaluate predictions of expected isotopic enrichments from potential formation pathways and environments, leading to a better understanding of the origin of these compounds.

  13. Analysis of isoelectron isonuclear series of holovalent tetraelectron compounds as a system of bicomponent chemical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigdorovich, V.N.; Dzhuraev, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Analogs and prototypes of the compounds supplementing the system of isoelectron isonuclear series of holovalent tetraelectron compounds by Gorunova are revealed. The investigation of all series of tetraelectron ovalenthol compounds allows one to supplement the variety of known series used for regular tracing and forecasting of compound properties (series of cation and anion substitutions by isonuclear series of the A 4 B 4 , A 3 B 5 , A 1 B 7 type and others compounds. The above series for medium ordinal numbers anti Z equal 10, 14, 18, 23 and 36 permit to illustrate the possibility of existence of such analogs or series, for example for the compounds of the type A 3 -- B 5 :AlN-BP or Z=1(f AlP-ScN-BV (for Z=14), ScP-AlV (for Z=18), GaP-AlAs-YN-BNb ( for Z=23) and YAs-GaNb-InV-ScSb-LaP-AlPr (for Z=36)

  14. Comportamiento eléctrico del compuesto Bi5FeTi3O15 y de sus soluciones sólidas con CaBi4Ti4O15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán, P.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bi5FeTi3O15 (BiFT compound has been prepared by solid state reaction between the corresponding oxides. Its crystalline structure has been established by X ray Diffraction, (XRD. Ceramic samples with apparent density > 95% Dth have been sintered. On these samples, electrical conductivity and Curie temperature have been measured. Solid solutions of Bi5FeTi3O15 (BiFT and CaBi4Ti4O15 (CBiT have been prepared. On poled samples of these solid solutions, piezoelectric parameters have been established. The BiFT compound shows electrical conductivity values very similar to those of the Bi4Ti3O12 (BiT compound. The electrical conductivity of solid solutions is a function of CBiT amount. A possible electrical conductivity mechanism which is different of that accepted for the BiT compound is discussed.Se ha preparado Bi5FeTi3O15 (BiFT por reacción en estado sólido de los óxidos correspondientes. Se ha determinado su estructura cristalina por Difracción de Rayos X (DRX. Se han preparado compactos sinterizados con densidades superiores al 95%. Se ha determinado su temperatura de Curie, y la conductividad eléctrica entre 150 y 850ºC. Se han preparado soluciones sólidas de Bi5FeTi3O15 con CaBi4Ti4O15, (CBiT y se han determinado los mismos parámetros de temperatura de Curie y de conductividad para ellas. En las soluciones sólidas se han determinado los parámetros Piezoeléctricos de muestras polarizadas Debe destacarse que el compuesto Bi5FeTi3O15 presenta unos valores de conducción eléctrica más próximos a los correspondientes al Bi4Ti3O12 (BiT que a los de los compuestos MeBi4Ti4O15. La conductividad eléctrica de las soluciones sólidas varía con el contenido de CBiT. Se discute la posible existencia de un modelo de conducción eléctrica que difiere del aceptado hasta el momento para el BiT, basado en los defectos localizados en las capas Bi2O2 2-.

  15. A bitumen compound for pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanadzava, K.; Simagata, R.

    1982-08-17

    A bitumen compound is proposed which is produced through addition of finely ground coal ash to a bituminous material and subsequent homogenization of the mixture. The following may be used as the bituminous material: solid petroleum bitumen (a penetration of 10 to 150), soft petroleum bitumen (a penetration of 150 to 500), a semioxidized bitumen, a mixture of semioxidized and directly distilled bitumen, bitumen diluted by a petroleum distillate, bituminous mixtures which include rubber, tar, synthetic resins and so on. It is best to use wastes from central thermal electric power plants (TETs), which operate on coal, with a great content of oxides of aluminum, iron and calcium, as the coal ash. The ash is added to the bitumen in a volume of 10 to 40 percent. The compound may include a surfactant (PAV), dispersers, additives which increase the stability to layering and others. The compound is marked by increased resistance to softening in the summer, reduced brittleness at low temperatures and good adhesion to a filler.

  16. Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Compounds from Valeriana wallichii and Identification of a Novel Nepetolactone Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Glaser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of Valeriana wallichii (V. wallichii rhizomes was investigated to elucidate the structures responsible for reported antileishmanial activity. Besides bornyl caffeate (1, already been reported by us previously, bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in two additional cinnamic acid derivatives 2–3 with moderate leishmanicidal activity. The structure of a novel nepetolactone derivative 4 having a cinnamic acid moiety was elucidated by means of spectral analysis. To the best of our knowledge villoside aglycone (5 was isolated from this plant for the first time. The bioassay-guided fractionation yielded two new (compounds 6–7 and two known valtrates (compounds 8–9 with leishmanicidal potential against Leishmania major (L. major promastigotes. In addition, β-bisabolol (10, α-kessyl alcohol (11, valeranone (12, bornyl isovalerate (13 and linarin-2-O-methylbutyrate (14 were identified. This is the first report on the isolation of 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin (15, podophyllotoxin (16 and pinoresinol (17 in V. wallichii. In total thirteen known and four new compounds were identified from the extract and their cytotoxic and antileishmanial properties were evaluated.

  17. 15 CFR 325.15 - Relinquishing a certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relinquishing a certificate. 325.15 Section 325.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS EXPORT TRADE CERTIFICATES...

  18. Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium; Quaternaere Oxidhalogenide der Gruppe 15 mit Zink und Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueck, Nadia

    2014-07-30

    The present thesis ''Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium'' deals with the chemical class of oxide halides, which contain d-block element cations and pnicogens. Over the past few years compounds containing pnicogene cations are intensively investigated. The reason for this is the free electron pair of the Pn{sup 3+} cation, which is responsible for some interesting properties. Free electron pairs do not only impact the spatial structure of molecules but also the properties of materials. The object of this work was the synthesis and characterization of compounds containing Pn{sup 3+} cations with free electron pairs. Due to the structure-determining effect of these free electron pairs and in combination with halides it is possible to synthesize compounds with low-dimensional structures like chains and layers. In these compounds the structure is separated into halophilic and chalcophilic sub-structures, which are held together only by weak Van der Waals forces.

  19. A Multiplexed Assay That Monitors Effects of Multiple Compound Treatment Times Reveals Candidate Immune-Enhancing Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziyan; Henowitz, Liza; Zweifach, Adam

    2018-05-01

    We previously developed a flow cytometry assay that monitored lytic granule exocytosis in cytotoxic T lymphocytes stimulated by contacting beads coated with activating anti-CD3 antibodies. That assay was multiplexed in that responses of cells that did or did not receive the activating stimulus were distinguished via changes in light scatter accompanying binding of cells to beads, allowing us to discriminate compounds that activate responses on their own from compounds that enhance responses in cells that received the activating stimulus, all within a single sample. Here we add a second dimension of multiplexing by developing means to assess in a single sample the effects of treating cells with test compounds for different times. Bar-coding cells before adding them to test wells lets us determine compound treatment time while also monitoring activation status and response amplitude at the point of interrogation. This multiplexed assay is suitable for screening 96-well plates. We used it to screen compounds from the National Cancer Institute, identifying several compounds that enhance anti-LAMP1 responses. Multiple-treatment-time (MTT) screening enabled by bar-coding and read via high-throughput flow cytometry may be a generally useful method for facilitating the discovery of compounds of interest.

  20. Distribution of perfluorinated compounds in aquatic systems in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Korytar, P.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) among eel (Anguilla anguilla), sediment, and water was investigated for 21 locations in The Netherlands. Furthermore, for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a 30 year time series was measured for three locations using historical eel samples. These

  1. Resonances in the nuclear reactions 15N + 12C and 15N + 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnehan, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    The reaction 12 C + 15 N have been studied at 15 N beam energies between 30 and 70 MeV. For each reaction, about twelve residual nuclei have been identified through the γ-ray detection method. Excitation functions were obtained for the fusion and peripheral channels. Resonances are seen in the channels containing at least one α particle at energies below 50 MeV. At higher energies, strong structures are observed in the direct reaction channels. The evolution of the fusion cross section is well reproduced by a model based on the statistical desexcitation of the compound nucleus if the discrete states of the residual nuclei are taken into account. The favourable observation of resonant phenomena in 15 N induced reactions can be understood in terms of a small number of channels open to the grazing wave. In the range 50 to 60 MeV, there is a strong coupling between the fusion and the direct reaction channels. The occurrence of resonances above E lab = 50 MeV in the peripheral channels is explained with the band crossing and effective barrier models. In the 15 N induced reactions, the absorption of the surface waves is weak [fr

  2. Analysis of isoelectron isonuclear series of holovalent tetraelectron compounds as a system of bicomponent chemical compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigdorovich, V.N.; Dzhuraev, T.D.

    1985-03-01

    Analogs and prototypes of the compounds supplementing the system of isoelectron isonuclear series of holovalent tetraelectron compounds by Gorunova are revealed. The investigation of all series of tetraelectron ovalenthol compounds allows one to supplement the variety of known series used for regular tracing and forecasting of compound properties (series of cation and anion substitutions by isonuclear series of the A/sup 4/B/sup 4/, A/sup 3/B/sup 5/, A/sup 1/B/sup 7/ type and others compounds. The above series for medium ordinal numbers anti Z equal 10, 14, 18, 23 and 36 permit to illustrate the possibility of existence of such analogs or series, for example for the compounds of the type A/sup 3/-- B/sup 5/:AlN-BP or Z=1(f AlP-ScN-BV (for Z=14), ScP-AlV (for Z=18), GaP-AlAs-YN-BNb (for Z=23) and YAs-GaNb-InV-ScSb-LaP-AlPr (for Z=36).

  3. Sulfur ylides in the synthesis of heterocyclic and carbocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakeev, Sergei N; Maydanova, Irina O; Galin, Fanur Z; Tolstikov, Genrikh A

    2001-01-01

    Data on the use of sulfonium ylides in the synthesis of carbocyclic and heterocyclic compounds published over the last 15 years are analysed, systematised and generalised. The bibliography includes 139 references.

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. T. Barroso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20 MPa at 323.15 K. The volatile compounds were obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction with moderate pressure (9 MPa, whereas the non-volatile compounds were extracted at higher pressure (12 to 20 MPa. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS and the main compounds identified were sabinene, limonene, D-germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. For the non-volatile extracts, the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Moreover, one of the goals of this study was to compare the experimental data with the simulated yields predicted by a mathematical model based on mass transfer. The model used requires three adjustable parameters to predict the experimental extraction yield curves.

  5. A CASE OF COMPOUND MAXILLARY ODONTOMA AND MANDIBULAR HYPODONTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Cholakova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are formations which are still classified as benign tumors by the World Health Organization. They are lesions on any odontogenic tissue – enamel, cement and dentin, which are affected in different proportions and degree. We present a case of compound odontoma on upper jaw, on a 15 year-old girl, causing retention of a permanent canine tooth. After the extirpation 16 tooth-like structures were uncovered. The mandible was diagnosed with hypodontia of both 2nd premolars. Patient’s history showed that there was a trauma in the area of the upper jaw at younger age. In this article we will present the clinical and radiographic examination, the stages of the complex surgical-orthodontic treatment and a discussion of the etiology of the diagnosis, complications and the treatment itself.

  6. Identification and Bioactivity of Compounds from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Racemic new cyclohexenone and cyclopentenone derivatives, (±-(4R*,5S*,6S*-3-amino-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (1 and (±-(4S*,5S*-2,4,5-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-4-methoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one (2, and two new xanthone derivatives 4-chloro-1,5-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (3 and 2,8-dimethoxy-1,6-dimethoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (4, along with one known compound, fischexanthone (5, were isolated from the culture of the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS (Mass, one and two dimensional NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] scavenging activities with EC50 values of 8.19 ± 0.15 and 16.09 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. In comparison to Triadimefon, compounds 2 and 3 exhibited inhibitory activities against Fusarium graminearum with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 215.52 and 107.14 μM, respectively, and compound 3 exhibited antifungal activity against Calletotrichum musae with MIC value of 214.29 μM.

  7. V1.42In1.83Mo15Se19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Potel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, vanadium indium pentadecamolybdenum nonadecaselenide, V1.42In1.83Mo15Se19, is isotypic with In2.9Mo15Se19 [Grüttner et al. (1979. Acta Cryst. B35, 285–292]. It is characterized by two cluster units Mo6Sei8Sea6 and Mo9Sei11Sea6 (where i represents inner and a apical atoms that are present in a 1:1 ratio. The cluster units are centered at Wyckoff positions 2b and 2c and have point-group symmetry overline{3} and overline{6}, respectively. The clusters are interconnected through additional Mo—Se bonds. In the title compound, the V3+ cations replace the trivalent indium atoms present in In2.9Mo15Se19, and a deficiency is observed on the monovalent indium site. One Mo, one Se and the V atom are situated on mirror planes, and two other Se atoms and the In atom are situated on threefold rotation axes.

  8. Novel spirotetracyclic zwitterionic dual H(1)/5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists for the treatment of sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Massimo; Botta, Maurizio; Brough, Stephen; Carletti, Renzo; Castiglioni, Emiliano; Corti, Corrado; Dal-Cin, Michele; Delle Fratte, Sonia; Korajac, Denana; Lovric, Marija; Merlo, Giancarlo; Mesic, Milan; Pavone, Francesca; Piccoli, Laura; Rast, Slavko; Roscic, Maja; Sava, Anna; Smehil, Mario; Stasi, Luigi; Togninelli, Andrea; Wigglesworth, Mark J

    2010-11-11

    Histamine H(1) and serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors mediate two different mechanisms involved in sleep regulation: H(1) antagonists are sleep inducers, while 5-HT(2A) antagonists are sleep maintainers. Starting from 9'a, a novel spirotetracyclic compound endowed with good H(1)/5-HT(2A) potency but poor selectivity, very high Cli, and a poor P450 profile, a specific optimization strategy was set up. In particular, we investigated the possibility of introducing appropriate amino acid moieties to optimize the developability profile of the series. Following this zwitterionic approach, we were able to identify several advanced leads (51, 65, and 73) with potent dual H(1)/5-HT(2A) activity and appropriate developability profiles. These compounds exhibited efficacy as hypnotic agents in a rat telemetric sleep model with minimal effective doses in the range 3-10 mg/kg po.

  9. Characterization of selected volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds at a roadside monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Chiu, Gloria M. Y.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PAHs and carbonyl compounds are the major toxic components in Hong Kong. Emissions from motor vehicles have been one of the primary pollution sources in the metropolitan areas throughout Hong Kong for a long time. A 1-yr monitoring program for VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds had been performed at a roadside urban station at Hong Kong Polytechnic University in order to determine the variations and correlations of each selected species (VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds). This study is aimed to analyze toxic volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), two carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde), and selective polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program started from 16 April 1999 to 30 March 2000. Ambient VOC concentrations, many of which originate from the same sources as particulate PAHs and carbonyls compounds, show significant quantities of benzene, toluene and xylenes. Correlations and multivariate analysis of selected gaseous and particulate phase organic pollutants were performed. Source identification by principle component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis allowed the identification of four sources (factors) for the roadside monitoring station. Factor 1 represents the effect of diesel vehicle exhaust. Factor 2 shows the contribution of aromatic compounds. Factor 3 explains photochemical products—formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Factor 4 explains the effect of gasoline vehicle exhaust.

  10. Process for production of a borohydride compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-19

    A process for production of a borohydride compound M(BH.sub.4).sub.y. The process has three steps. The first step combines a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.yM with aluminum, hydrogen and a metallic catalyst containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group; M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two; wherein the catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum. The second step combines the compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y with a borate, boroxine or borazine compound to produce M(BH.sub.4).sub.y and a byproduct mixture containing alkali metal and aluminum aryloxides. The third step separates M(BH.sub.4).sub.y from the byproduct mixture.

  11. 15N-labelled glycine synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Claudineia R.O.; Bendassolli, Jose A.; Sant'Ana Filho, Carlos R.; Prestes, Clelber V.; Coelho, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    This work describes a method for 15 N-isotope-labeled glycine synthesis, as well as details about a recovery line for nitrogen residues. To that effect, amination of α-haloacids was performed, using carboxylic chloroacetic acid and labeled aqueous ammonia ( 15 NH 3 ). Special care was taken to avoid possible 15 NH 3 losses, since its production cost is high. In that respect, although the purchase cost of the 13 N-labeled compound (radioactive) is lower, the stable tracer produced constitutes an important tool for N cycling studies in living organisms, also minimizing labor and environmental hazards, as well as time limitation problems in field studies. The tests were carried out with three replications, and variable 15 NH 3(aq) volumes in the reaction were used (50, 100, and 150 mL), in order to calibrate the best operational condition; glycine masses obtained were 1.7, 2, and 3.2 g, respectively. With the development of a system for 15 NH 3 recovery, it was possible to recover 71, 83, and 87% of the ammonia initially used in the synthesis. With the required adaptations, the same system was used to recover methanol, and 75% of the methanol initially used in the amino acid purification process were recovered. (author)

  12. Optimization of Mechanical, Dynamical and Thermal Properties of a High Performance Tread Compound for Radial Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Hamid Reza Ghoreishy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A high performance passenger tire tread compound was optimized for its mechanical, dynamical and thermal properties. A reference compound was based on a blend of SBR and BR, sulfur and other ingredients without accelerator, carbon black and aromatic oil. The effects of CBS/TMTD and TBBS/TMTD as accelerator systems were studied with different quantities and the best accelerator system was chosen. Then, the blends of N330 and N550 carbon blacks were added in different quantities and the properties of these samples were studied to determine the best carbon black blend. Finally, the effect of different quantities of aromatic oil was investigated and the optimized quantity of aromatic oil and the final properties of tire tread compound were defined. The mechanical and dynamical tests were carried out on appropriate samples to determine tensile strength, elongation-at-break, fatigue-to-failure, abrasion resistance, hardness, resilience, dynamical-mechanical properties and temperature rise due to the heat build-up. The results showed that the compound containing 0.8 phr CBS, 0.7 phr TMTD, 40 phr N330,20 phr N550 and 15 phr aromatic oils demonstrated the best properties.

  13. Influence of volatile compounds and food preservatives in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... suppress fumonisisin B1 production to maximum extent. Camphor at a concentration of 15 mg/ml could inhibit fumonisin B1 production among different food preservatives studied. From the above results it is concluded that volatile compounds and food preservatives can be employed in the management of fumonisins (B1) ...

  14. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G. E.; Crawford, B. E.; Grossmann, C. A.; Lowie, L. Y.; Bowman, J. D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S. J.; Smith, D. A.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Yuan, V. W.; Delheij, P. P. J.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Stephenson, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized

  15. HS-SPME optimization and extraction of volatile compounds from soursop (Annona muricata L. pulp with emphasis on their characteristic impact compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Leticia de SANTANA

    Full Text Available Abstract Aroma and taste are decisive factors in the selection of any food. The aim of this study was to extract the volatile compounds present in soursop (Annona muricata L. pulp by Solid-phase microextraction (SPME technique using 3 different fibers (DVB/CAR/ PDMS, CAR/PDMS and PDMS/DVB. An experimental design was set up to evaluate the best extraction conditions wherein the variables were adsorption temperature, ionic strength and pulp concentration. The separation of volatiles was performed in chromatographic columns of different polarity (polar and non-polar while volatile compounds were identified by analysis in high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry. The results obtained using 3 different fibers revealed the capture of about 40 compounds. The CAR/PDMS fiber was more efficient for the capture of esters and DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber for terpenes. The optimum conditions for capture of higher number of volatiles for polar column were 45 °C for extraction, 15% of ionic strength and 50% of pulp concentration which resulted in separation of 87 compounds. Among the principal character impact compounds from soursop are (E-2-hexenoate, methyl hexenoate and linalool.

  16. Gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry of Pinot Noir wine volatile compounds (δ13C) and solid residues (δ13C, δ15N) for the reassessment of vineyard water-status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E; Vogiatzaki, Maria; Zufferey, Vivian

    2017-09-29

    This paper describes a novel approach to reassess the water status in vineyards based on compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of wine volatile organic compounds (δ 13 C VOC/VPDB ) and bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, and the C/N molar ratios of the wine solid residues (δ 13 C SR/VPDB , δ 15 N SR/Air-N2 ). These analyses link gas chromatography/combustion and elemental analysis to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS, EA/IRMS). Field-grown cultivars of Pinot Noir grapevines were exposed during six growing seasons (2009-2014) to controlled soil water availability, while maintaining identical the other environmental variables and agricultural techniques. Wines were produced from the grapes by the same oenological protocol. This permitted for the assessment of the effects in the biochemistry of wines solely induced by the changes in the plant-soil water status. This mimicked the more recurrent and prolonged periods of soil water deficiency due to climate changes. Water stress in grapevine was assessed by the measurement of the predawn leaf water potential (Ψ pd ) and the stable carbon isotope composition of the berry sugars during harvest (must sugars). For quantitation purposes and the normalization of the measured stable carbon isotope ratios of the VOCs, the wine samples were spiked with three standard compounds with known concentration and δ 13 C VPDB values. VOCs were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and GC/C/IRMS. δ 13 C values were obtained for eighteen VOCs. The solid residues were obtained by freeze-drying wine aliquots and were analyzed for their C and N content and isotope composition by EA/IRMS. All the isotopic ratios (δ 13 C SR , δ 15 N SR , δ 13 C VOC ) are highly correlated with the Ψ pd values, indicating that the proposed gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry approach is a useful tool to

  17. Isolation and identification of antimicrobial compound from Mentha longifolia L. leaves grown wild in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bayati Firas A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae leaves have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation by the indigenous people of Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In the present study, an antimicrobial compound was isolated and characterized, and its biological activity was assessed. Methods The compound was isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oil using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of the compound was assessed using both disc diffusion and microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. Results A known compound was isolated from the essential oil of the plant and was identified as (- menthol. The isolated compound was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against seven selected pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the yeast Candida albicans. Menthol at different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 was active against all tested bacteria except for P. aeruginosa, and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against S. mutans (zone of inhibition: 25.3 mm using the disc diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentration MIC values ranged from 15.6–125.0 μg/ml, and the most promising results were observed against S. aureus and S. mutans (MIC 15.6 μg/ml while, S. faecalis, S. pyogenis and L. acidophilus ranked next (MIC 31.2 μg/ml. Furthermore, menthol achieved considerable antifungal activity against the yeast C. albicans (zone of inhibition range: 7.1–18.5 mm; MIC: 125.0. Conclusion The isolation of an antimicrobial compound from M. longifolia leaves validates the use of this plant in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation.

  18. Can macroalgae provide promising anti-tumoral compounds? A closer look at Cystoseira tamariscifolia as a source for antioxidant and anti-hepatocarcinoma compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Vizetto-Duarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are a prolific source of drug leads in a variety of therapeutic areas. In the last few years, biomedical, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries have shown growing interest in novel compounds from marine organisms, including macroalgae. Cystoseira is a genus of Phaeophyceae (Fucales macroalgae known to contain bioactive compounds. Organic extracts (hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from three Cystoseira species (C. humilis, C. tamariscifolia and C. usneoides were evaluated for their total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals, and antiproliferative activity against a human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2 cells. C. tamariscifolia had the highest TPC and RSA. The hexane extract of C. tamariscifolia (CTH had the highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 2.31 µg/mL, and was further tested in four human tumor (cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa; gastric adenocarcinoma AGS; colorectal adenocarcinoma HCT-15; neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, and two non-tumor (murine bone marrow stroma S17 and human umbilical vein endothelial HUVEC cell lines in order to determine its selectivity. CTH strongly reduced viability of all tumor cell lines, especially of HepG2 cells. Cytotoxicity was particularly selective for the latter cells with a selectivity index = 12.6 as compared to non-tumor cells. Incubation with CTH led to a 2-fold decrease of HepG2 cell proliferation as shown by the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation assay. CTH-treated HepG2 cells presented also pro-apoptotic features, such as increased Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI binding and dose-dependent morphological alterations in DAPI-stained cells. Moreover, it had a noticeable disaggregating effect on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. Demethoxy cystoketal chromane, a derivative of the meroditerpenoid cystoketal, was identified as the active compound

  19. Study on utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus from compound fertilizer by rice using isotopes 15N and 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Li Dongyang; Zhang Xizhong; Chen Yizhu

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the application of urea plus ordinary superphospate (OSP) which gave higher grains yield than by application of compound fertilizer UPA (ureaplus compound ammonium phosphates). Isotopes tracer experiment showed that the utilizations of nitrogen fertilizer are: mixed urea and OSP > urea and OSP separately > urea > urea - ammonium phosphates. The utilizations of phosphorus by rice are: urea-ammomium phosphate > mixed urea and OSP > urea and OSP separately > OSP. It is shown that the A N -value of soil was significantly correlated with yield of rice grains

  20. Crystal structure and thermochemical properties of a novel coordination compound sodium pyruvate C3H3O3Na(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen-Fei; Di, You-Ying; Liu, Su-Zhou; Lu, Dong-Fei; Dou, Jian-Min

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel coordination compound sodium pyruvate C 3 H 3 O 3 Na(s) is synthesised. Elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography are used to characterise the composition and crystal structure of the compound. The lattice potential energy and ionic volume of the anion are obtained from crystallographic data. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound is calculated by an isoperibol solution-reaction calorimeter. Molar enthalpies of dissolution of the compound at various molalities are measured at T = 298.15 K. According to Pitzer’s theory, molar enthalpy of dissolution of the title compound at infinite dilution is calculated. The values of relative apparent molar enthalpies and relative partial molar enthalpies of the solvent and the compound at different concentrations m/(mol · kg −1 ) are derived. - Highlights: • The sodium pyruvate was synthesised and crystal structure was determined. • The enthalpy change of the synthesis reaction was obtained. • Standard molar enthalpy of formation was obtained. • Molar enthalpy of dissolution at infinite dilution was calculated. - Abstract: A novel coordination compound sodium pyruvate C 3 H 3 O 3 Na(s) is synthesised by a liquid phase reaction. The compound has an obvious bioactivity and can be used as the biological carbon source and the chemical identification of primary and secondary alcohols. It can be also used to determinate transaminase. Elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography are used to characterise the composition and crystal structure of the compound. Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that the compound is formed by one CH 3 COCOO − anion and one Na + cation. An obvious feature of the crystal structure is the formation of the five-membered chelate ring by the coordination of O1 of carboxylate and O3 of keto form with Na + cation, and it is good for the stability of the compound in structure. The lattice potential energy and ionic volume of the anion are obtained

  1. A new compound - Ta3Pb : manufacture, structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleushev, A.Zh.; Tuleushev, Yu.Zh.; Volodin, V.N.; Zhakanbaev, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    For the first time by the magnetron sputtering and tantalum deposition on substrates from molybdenum and tungsten the covers presenting the lead solution in cubic α-tantalum (up to 2.5 at % Pb) were obtained. The lead dissolution is accompanying by the Ta lattice parameter increasing from 0.3314 to 0.3321 nm in the lead concentration range from 0.2 to 2.5 at. % Pb. The cryogenic examinations of the synthesised covers conducted by four-probes electric resistance method show the absence the superconductivity up to the 4.2 K temperature. So, for the first time the Ta 2 Pb compound with A15 structure was synthesised and data for its identification were determined

  2. The synthesis, characterization and optical properties of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole-containing imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Yanqing; Hao Benqian; Duan Guiyun; Wang Jianwu

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of 3-butyl-1-chloroimidazo[1,5-a]pyridine-7-carbohydrazide with propionyl chloride and substituted benzoic chloride in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride. The compounds were characterized using IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and HRMS. Absorption and fluorescence spectra were measured in dichloromethane; an intense absorption maxima was noted at ca. 290 nm and emission maxima was noted at ca. 470 nm. The absorption spectra of the 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives reveal that a phenyl and an ethyl group attached to the 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring markedly influenced the maximum absorption. The structures based on density function theory (DFT) calculation show planar configurations for the compounds. The calculated molecular orbital correlates well with their absorption. - Research highlights: → Novel imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine derivatives were synthesized. → The structures were determined by IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and HRMS spectra. → We investigated the absorption and fluorescence spectral characteristics of the compounds. → The side group in 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring can affect its photophysical properties markedly. → Quantum calculation correlates well with their absorption.

  3. Contemporary challenges of pharmaceutical compounding in southern nigeria: results of survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deghinmotei Alfred-Ugbenbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade the pharmacy practice worldwide has witness a trend shift from product-orientation to patient-orientation. This and other reasons encouraged the Nigerian government and its institutions to systematically de-emphasized through its budget, funding for the development of compounding unit.Aim: The aim of given article was to examine the challenges facing compounding pharmacists in hospital pharmacies, cost estimating of extemporaneous preparations and searching of solutions.Methods: A closed and open-ended format questionnaire was distributed to 50 compounding pharmacists in Rivers State of Nigeria. The questionnaire comprised of a cover letter and 10 items which cut across personnel training, staffing, premise and equipment, logistics, cost of compounding, national reference standards on compounding, in-pharmacy control.Results: From the survey results, challenges of compounding pharmacies in southern Nigeria such as inadequate manpower, absence of electronic documentation, facilities and funding; lack of national formulary on extemporaneous formulations and locally conducted stability tests were revealed. Cost of extemporaneous preparations ranged from 1–15 US dollars.Conclusions: Development and implementation of easily accessible national formulary on extemporaneous formulations and their stability study, development of standard operating procedures for all activities in the pharmacy and staff training on recent technologies in compounding preparations are recommended

  4. Measured operational neutron energies of compound refractive lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H. [Adelphi Technology Inc., 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, CA 94070 (United States)]. E-mail: hpark@adelphitech.com; Cremer, J.T. [Adelphi Technology Inc., 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, CA 94070 (United States); Piestrup, M.A. [Adelphi Technology Inc., 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, CA 94070 (United States); Gary, C.K. [Adelphi Technology Inc., 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, CA 94070 (United States); Hjelm, Rex P. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sellyey, W.C.L.J. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Pantell, R.H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The characteristics of two compound refractive lenses (CRLs) have been measured using a broadband spallation neutron source. One CRL consists of a stack of 98 biconcave, spherical lenses made of MgF{sub 2}, and another consists of 198 biconcave, spherical lenses made of Al. The bandwidth of the spallation source included wavelengths from 1.5 A to 15.7 A that we could use to test the CRLs. The MgF{sub 2} CRL was found to be useful from 9 to 15 A with the maximum transmission around 13 A, whereas the Al CRL was found to give good transmission around 5-15 A, with the maximum transmission around 8 A. Spectra with Al lens and MgF{sub 2} CRLs show multiple transmission dips due to Bragg diffraction of the microcrystal structure of the lens materials (Al or MgF{sub 2}). These measurements helped characterize the CRLs for possible applications at shorter wavelengths than previously used.

  5. Nitrogen-15 reference book: medicine and biosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.

    1983-04-01

    A comprehensive bibliography on the application of the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N in medicine, animal nutrition and physiology, biosciences, and related disciplines is presented. The literature pertaining to this paper covers the period from 1977 to 1981. The references are completed by an index of all authors and a subject index with special emphasis to the used organisms, labelled compounds, and tracer techniques, respectively. (author)

  6. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungback Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15% and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05 in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05 in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05 between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism.

  7. Distribution of Organic Compounds from Municipal Solid Waste in the Groundwater Downgradient of a Landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rügge, Kirsten; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    , and xylenes as dominating. No pesticides were identified, but some phenoxy acids, which could be metabolites of known pesticides, were found. In a distance of approximately 60 m from the landfill, most of the specific organic compounds were no longer detectable. Since dilution and sorption apparently cannot......The distribution of organic compounds in the leachate plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill was mapped along two 300 m long transects (285 groundwater samples). At the border of the landfill, elevated concentrations of dissolved organic matter 30-1 10 mg of C L-' (measured as nonvolatile...... organic carbon, NVOC) were found. In a distance of 130 m downgradient of the landfill, the NVOC had decreased to background level, which is 1-3 mg of C L-l. More than 15 organic compounds were identified in the groundwater at the downgradient border of the landfill with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene...

  8. Data on volatile compounds in fermented materials used for salmon fish sauce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2018-02-01

    This article describes the analysis of volatile compounds in fermented materials used for salmon fish sauce production via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Ten types of fish sauces were produced from raw salmon materials, including various proportions of flesh, viscera, inedible portion (heads, fins, and backbones), and soft roe, by mixing them with salt and allowing them to ferment for up to three months. The volatile compounds were captured by a solid-phase microextraction method and then applied to GC/MS for separation and identification of the compounds in the fish sauce products. The number of volatile compounds identified in the starting materials varied from 15 to 29 depending on the ingredients. The number of compounds in the final fish sauce products was reduced by 3.4-94.7% of that in the original material. The retention times and names of the identified compounds, as well as their relative peak areas, are provided in a Microsoft Excel Worksheet.

  9. Structure and properties of intermetallic ternary rare earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The so called material science is an always growing field in modern research. For the development of new materials not only the experimental characterization but also theoretical calculation of the electronic structure plays an important role. A class of compounds that has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years is known as REME compounds. These compounds are often referred to with RE designating rare earth, actinide or an element from group 1-4, M representing a late transition metal from groups 8-12, and E belonging to groups 13-15. There are more than 2000 compounds with 1:1:1 stoichiometry belonging to this class of compounds and they offer a broad variety of different structure types. Although many REME compounds are know to exist, mainly only structure and magnetism has been determined for these compounds. In particular, in the field of electronic and transport properties relatively few efforts have been made. The main focus in this study is on compounds crystallizing in MgAgAs and LiGaGe structure. Both structures can only be found among 18 valence electron compounds. The f electrons are localized and therefor not count as valence electrons. A special focus here was also on the magnetoresistance effects and spintronic properties found among the REME compounds. An examination of the following compounds was made: GdAuE (E=In,Cd,Mg), GdPdSb, GdNiSb, REAuSn (RE=Gd,Er,Tm) and RENiBi (RE=Pr,Sm,Gd-Tm,Lu). The experimental results were compared with theoretic band structure calculations. The first half metallic ferromagnet with LiGaGe structure (GdPdSb) was found. All semiconducting REME compounds with MgAgAs structure show giant magnetoresistance (GMR) at low temperatures. The GMR is related to a metal-insulator transition, and the value of the GMR depends on the value of the spin-orbit coupling. Inhomogeneous DyNiBi samples show a small positive MR at low temperature that depends on the amount of metallic impurities. At higher fields the samples show a

  10. Structure and properties of intermetallic ternary rare earth compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casper, Frederick

    2008-12-17

    The so called material science is an always growing field in modern research. For the development of new materials not only the experimental characterization but also theoretical calculation of the electronic structure plays an important role. A class of compounds that has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years is known as REME compounds. These compounds are often referred to with RE designating rare earth, actinide or an element from group 1-4, M representing a late transition metal from groups 8-12, and E belonging to groups 13-15. There are more than 2000 compounds with 1:1:1 stoichiometry belonging to this class of compounds and they offer a broad variety of different structure types. Although many REME compounds are know to exist, mainly only structure and magnetism has been determined for these compounds. In particular, in the field of electronic and transport properties relatively few efforts have been made. The main focus in this study is on compounds crystallizing in MgAgAs and LiGaGe structure. Both structures can only be found among 18 valence electron compounds. The f electrons are localized and therefor not count as valence electrons. A special focus here was also on the magnetoresistance effects and spintronic properties found among the REME compounds. An examination of the following compounds was made: GdAuE (E=In,Cd,Mg), GdPdSb, GdNiSb, REAuSn (RE=Gd,Er,Tm) and RENiBi (RE=Pr,Sm,Gd-Tm,Lu). The experimental results were compared with theoretic band structure calculations. The first half metallic ferromagnet with LiGaGe structure (GdPdSb) was found. All semiconducting REME compounds with MgAgAs structure show giant magnetoresistance (GMR) at low temperatures. The GMR is related to a metal-insulator transition, and the value of the GMR depends on the value of the spin-orbit coupling. Inhomogeneous DyNiBi samples show a small positive MR at low temperature that depends on the amount of metallic impurities. At higher fields the samples show a

  11. Speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs in a pine forest during BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. H. Chan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding organic composition of gases and particles is essential to identifying sources and atmospheric processing leading to organic aerosols (OA, but atmospheric chemical complexity and the analytical techniques available often limit such analysis. Here we present speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs using a novel dual-use instrument (SV-TAG-AMS deployed at Manitou Forest, CO, during the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011 campaign. This instrument provides on-line speciation of ambient organic compounds with 2 h time resolution. The species in this volatility range are complex in composition, but their chemical identities reveal potential sources. Observed compounds of biogenic origin include sesquiterpenes with molecular formula C15H24 (e.g., β-caryophyllene and longifolene, which were most abundant at night. A variety of other biogenic compounds were observed, including sesquiterpenoids with molecular formula C15H22, abietatriene and other terpenoid compounds. Many of these compounds have been identified in essential oils and branch enclosure studies but were observed in ambient air for the first time in our study. Semivolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and alkanes were observed with highest concentrations during the day and the dependence on temperature suggests the role of an evaporative source. Using statistical analysis by positive matrix factorization (PMF, we classify observed S/IVOCs by their likely sources and processes, and characterize them based on chemical composition. The total mass concentration of elutable S/IVOCs was estimated to be on the order of 0.7 µg m−3 and their volatility distributions are estimated for modeling aerosol formation chemistry.

  12. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  13. Isolation and identification of antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muthanna J; Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2009-06-01

    The aerial parts of Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen. (Lamiaceae) and flower buds of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (Caryophyllaceae) have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of wounds, throat and gum infections and gastro-intestinal disorder by the indigenous people of northern Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In this study, antibacterial compounds from both plants were isolated and characterized, and the biological activity of each compound was assessed individually and combined. Compounds were isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oils of both plants using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentrations MIC values for the compounds were assessed individually and combined based on a microdilution and the checkerboard method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. Two known compounds were isolated from the essential oils of both plants and were identified as thymol and eugenol. The isolated compounds were investigated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against seven selected pathogenic bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thymol MIC values ranged from 15.6 to 250.0 microg/ml and B. cereus was found to be the most sensitive pathogen with a MIC value of 15.6 microg/ml. Eugenol achieved stronger MIC values against most tested pathogens and the best MIC value (15.6 microg/ml) was observed against B. cereus, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae whereas, S. aureus, P. mirabilis and E. coli were inhibited with a MIC value of 31.2 microg/ml. Combination results had antibacterial enhancement against most pathogens and the best synergistic result was seen against P. mirabilis and E. coli. The isolation of two antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower

  14. Application of Transforms in a Compound Demands Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Tang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The compound distribution is of interest for the study of inventoryproblem, since it provides a more flexible description ofthe stochastic properties of the system compared to many otherapproaches such as renewal processes. However, due to the difficultiesof obtaining analytical results for the compound distribution,such a type of study is usually limited to searching for agood approximation for replacing the complex model. This paperinvestigates the possibility to extend a previous stochastic inventorymodel to cover a compound demand process. Transformmethods again play an imp01tant role in the analysis forcapturing the stochastic prope1ties of the compound distribution.

  15. Microstructure and tribological properties of TiCu2Al intermetallic compound coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Chun; Zhou Jiansong; Zhao Jierong; Wang Linqian; Yu Youjun; Chen Jianmin; Zhou Huidi

    2011-01-01

    TiCu 2 Al ternary intermetallic compound coating has been in situ synthesized successfully on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding. Tribological properties of the prepared TiCu 2 Al intermetallic compound coating were systematically evaluated. It was found that the friction coefficient and wear rate was closely related to the normal load and sliding speed, i.e., the friction coefficient of the prepared TiCu 2 Al intermetallic compound coating decreased with increasing normal load and sliding speed. The wear rate of the TiCu 2 Al intermetallic compound coating decreased rapidly with increasing sliding speed, while the wear rate first increased and then decreased at normal load from 5 to 15 N.

  16. Microstructural characterization of a rapidly solidified ultrahigh strength Al94.5Cr3Co1.5Ce1 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, D.H.; Hono, K.; Inoue, A.

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure of a rapidly solidified Al 94.5 Cr 3 Co 1.5 Ce 1 alloy has been examined in detail by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM). In the as-quenched microstructure, nanoscale particles of a solute-enriched amorphous phase and an Al-Cr compound are dispersed in randomly oriented fine grains of α-Al ( 200nm ). The interface between the Al grains and the amorphous particles is not smooth but irregular with atomic protrusions and concavities, suggesting that interfacial instability occurs during the solidification process. Nanoscale amorphous particles are formed as a result of solute trapping within the rapidly grown Al grains. After annealing at 400 C for 15 minutes grain growth occurs, and the interface of the Al grains is smoothed. The amorphous region trapped within the grains if crystallized to an Al-Cr compound, but no icosahedral phase has been confirmed. The APFIM results have revealed that Cr and Ce atoms have a similar partitioning behavior, i.e., they are rejected from the α-Al phase and partitioned into the trapped amorphous regions. On the other hand, Co atoms are not partitioned between the two phases in the as-quenched state but are partitioned into the α-Al grains in the annealed alloys being rejected from the Al compounds and finally form Al-Co compounds. Based on these microstructural characterization results, the origins of high strength of this alloy are discussed

  17. Potential of the octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) to predict the dermal penetration behaviour of amphiphilic compounds in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Gintautas; Wellner, Tanja; Schaller, Karl Heinz; Drexler, Hans

    2012-11-23

    Aqueous amphiphilic compounds may exhibit enhanced skin penetration compared with neat compounds. Conventional models do not predict this percutaneous penetration behaviour. We investigated the potential of the octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) to predict dermal fluxes for eight compounds applied neat and as 50% aqueous solutions in diffusion cell experiments using human skin. Data for seven other compounds were accessed from literature. In total, seven glycol ethers, three alcohols, two glycols, and three other chemicals were considered. Of these 15 compounds, 10 penetrated faster through the skin as aqueous solutions than as neat compounds. The other five compounds exhibited larger fluxes as neat applications. For 13 of the 15 compounds, a consistent relationship was identified between the percutaneous penetration behaviour and the logP. Compared with the neat applications, positive logP were associated with larger fluxes for eight of the diluted compounds, and negative logP were associated with smaller fluxes for five of the diluted compounds. Our study demonstrates that decreases or enhancements in dermal penetration upon aqueous dilution can be predicted for many compounds from the sign of logP (i.e., positive or negative). This approach may be suitable as a first approximation in risk assessments of dermal exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction for organotin compounds - a comparison (P9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothes, S.; Wennrich, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Organotin compounds have been largely used in agricultural and industrial applications. Hyphenated techniques were developed for the sensitive and selective determination of such species. For this task GC has been coupled with atomic emission detection. Derivatization to transform the Sn-compounds into sufficiently volatile compounds was necessary and carried out using sodium tetrapropylborate. For sample preparation the application of solid phase microextraction (SPME) give recent advances in comparison to classical liquid-liquid extraction (LEE). A problem in the usage of SPME exists however in the small volume of the PDMS coating for enrichment the analytes. For improvement of both sample enrichment and extraction of the organotin compounds stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) was applied. It base on the application of stir bars coated with PDMS. Here the extraction yield is substantially higher. Aim of this study was to compare the capabilities of GC-AED in combination with SPME and SBSE. After optimization of the experimental parameters it was possible to reach detection limits in the pg / 1 - level. A comparison of both methods shows the expected results. By application of SBSE it was possible to increase the detection limits one order of magnitude. With SPME the reproducibility of the analytical results (in the 1 ng / 1 concentration range) was found to be between 10 and 15 %, it could be enhanced to 5-8 % by application of SBSE. These low limits of detection and the good reproducibility allowed the determination of organotin compounds according required regulations. Ref. 1 (author)

  19. Methods of clinical chemistry and isotopic technique for investigation of the nitrogen metabolism in man using 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Bornhak, H.; Hirschberg, K.; Jung, K.; Junghans, P.; Krumbiegel, P.; Reinhardt, R.

    1981-03-01

    The present manual is a catalogue of methods representing theoretical and practical aspects of application of the stable isotope 15 N in medicine as well as a reference book for users of 15 N techniques in life sciences. Special emphasis is given to the planning of 15 N tracer experiments and their interpretation, sources of error and standard values of nitrogen compounds, information on sampling of medical materials, methods of separation and determination of proteins and non-protein nitrogen compounds in serum and urine, and details of the isotopic analysis of nitrogen by emission and mass spectrometry. (author)

  20. Studies of liver-specific metabolic reactions with 15N. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, K.; Jung, K.; Faust, H.; Matkowitz, R.

    1987-01-01

    The 15 N tracer technique was used to investigate liver-specific reactions (urea and hippurate synthesis) for studying the metabolism in the healthy and damaged pig liver. After [ 15 N]ammonium chloride administration the tracer distribution on non-protein compounds of serum and urine was followed. Blood samplings before and after liver passage rendered possible a direct analysis of the [ 15 N]ammonium metabolism. The thioacetamide-induced liver damage was used as model for an acute liver intoxication. The capacity for urea synthesis was not influenced by means of this noxious substance, but the metabolism of amino acids and hippuric acid. The considerably depressed excretion of [ 15 N]hippurate seems to be a suitable indicator of liver disfunction. (author)

  1. Applications of stable isotopes of 2H, 13C and 15N to clinical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P.D.; Szczepanik, P.A.; Hachey, D.L.

    1974-01-01

    The function of the Argonne Program is to provide synthetic, analytical instrumental capability in a core facility for the clinical investigator who needs to use 2 H, 13 C, or 15 N labelled compounds for metabolic or clinical research on pregnant women, newborn infants, young children, or for mass screening. To carry out such application development, there were six stages which were recurrent steps in every application. Five fundamental strategies should be adopted to establish the use of stable isotopes in clinical work. The instrument required for measurements was a combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and its use was schematically illustrated. Some of the successful experiences with compounds labelled by stable isotopes, such as deuterium labelled chenodeoxycholic acid, and respective 13 C and 15 N-labelled glycine were described. Deutrium labelled bile acid enabled easy and safe determination of the size of the bile acid pool and the replacement rate, providing clearer diagnoses for cholestatic liver disease and gallstones. 13 C and 15 N labelled compounds were used in clinical studies, of children with genetic disorders of amino acid metabolism, i.e., non ketotic hyperflycinemia, B 12 -responsive methyl malonic acidemia, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. 15 N-labelled glycine was also studied in a child with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. (Mukohata, S.)

  2. Arsenic compounds in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessler, W.; Irgolic, K.J.; Kuehnelt, D.; Schlagenhaufen, C. [Institute for Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Maher, W. [CRC for Freshwater Ecology, University of Canberra, PO Box 1, Belconnen ACT. 2616 (Australia); Kaise, T. [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, School of Life Science, University of Pharmacy and Life Science, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachijoji, Tokyo 192-03 (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A three-organism food chain within a rock pool at Rosedale, NSW, Australia, was investigated with respect to arsenic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography - hydraulic high pressure nebulization - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HHPN-ICP-MS). Total arsenic concentration was determined in the seaweed Hormosira banksii (27.2 {mu}g/g dry mass), in the gastropod Austrocochlea constricta (74.4 {mu}g/g dry mass), which consumes the seaweed, and in the gastropod Morula marginalba (233 {mu}g/g dry mass), which eats Austrocochlea constricta. The major arsenic compounds in the seaweed were (2`R)-dimethyl[1-O-(2`,3`-dihydroxypropyl)-5-deoxy-{beta}-d-ribofuranos-5-yl]arsine oxide and an unidentified compound. The herbivorous gastropod Austrocochlea constricta transformed most of the arsenic taken up with the seaweed to arsenobetaine. Traces of arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenocholine, the tetramethylarsonium cation, and several unknown arsenic compounds were detected. Arsenobetaine accounted for 95% of the arsenic in the carnivorous gastropod Morula marginalba. In Morula marginalba the concentration of arsenocholine was higher, and the concentrations of the minor arsenic compounds lower than in the herbivorous gastropod Austrocochlea constricta. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  3. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H 2 S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS 2 ) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O 2 concentration (p −1 (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H 2 S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%

  4. Incorporation of 15N-inorganic nitrogen into free-amino acids in germinating corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samukawa, Kisaburo; Yamaguchi, Masuro

    1979-01-01

    Incorporation of 15 N-labeled compounds, (K 15 NO 3 ) and ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , into free-amino acids was measured in germinating corn. Sterilized seeds of sweet corn (Choko No. 865) were sown on the filter papers soaked in 10 ml of the solution containing one of the labeled compounds (40 ppm N, 99 atom % excess) in petri dishes and germinated at 30 deg C. After 48 hours and 72 hours, 15 N-incorporation was measured in 5 seedlings selected owing to uniform growth. A GC-MS was used for measuring the ratio of 15 N isotopes present in free-amino acids. 15 N incorporation into free-amino acids hardly occurred when corn was germinated in the solution containing K 15 NO 3 , which suggested that endogenous nitrogen was used during the early germination stage of corn when nitrate is present. Incorporation into amino acids was greater when corn was germinated in the medium containing ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , than the case of the solution containing K 15 NO 3 . When corn was germinated in the solution containing ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , assimilation of 15 N into asparagine or aspartic acid was comparatively higher than that into the other amino acids, though the incorporation rate was low. Thus, in intact germinating corn, the hydrolyzed product of protein was utilized for germination with priority, and dependence on exogenous nitrogen was low. (Kaihara, S.)

  5. A method of measuring the conductivity of air-sensitive substances in dependence on pressure (alkali metal anthracene addition compounds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad Luehder, Konrad

    1996-01-01

    The conductivity of alkali anthracene addition compounds of the general formula M x (atc) with x=2.0 and = 1.5 was measured in dependence on pressure up to 400 MPa, shoving values in the range of 10 -8 S/cm. A suitable apparatus is described. (authors)

  6. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research 29 Vol. 15, 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp

    Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research. 29. Vol. 15, 2010. Antibacterial & Antifungal Studies On Some Coordination Compound Of Metals. With Ampicillin. Pranay Guru. Department of Engineering Chemistry, People's College of Research & Technology, Bhopal. (M. P.) India, email:pranayguru@rediffmail.com. ABSTRACT.

  7. Structure Modification of an Active Azo-Compound as a Route to New Antimicrobial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Concilio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Some novel (phenyl-diazenylphenols 3a–g were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. A previously synthesized molecule, active against bacteria and fungi, was used as lead for modifications and optimization of the structure, by introduction/removal or displacement of hydroxyl groups on the azobenzene rings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the consequent changes of the antimicrobial activity and to validate the hypothesis that, for these compounds, a plausible mechanism could involve an interaction with protein receptors, rather than an interaction with membrane. All newly synthesized compounds were analyzed by 1H-NMR, DSC thermal analysis and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The in vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of each compound was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. Compounds 3b and 3g showed the highest activity against S. aureus and C. albicans, with remarkable MIC values of 10 µg/mL and 3 µg/mL, respectively. Structure-activity relationship studies were capable to rationalize the effect of different substitutions on the phenyl ring of the azobenzene on antimicrobial activity.

  8. Nonlinear absorption properties of some 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaalkylphthalocyanines and their metallated derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    BLAU, WERNER

    2003-01-01

    PUBLISHED The third-order nonlinear optical properties of a series of 15 unmetallated and metallated 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaalkylphthalocyanines have been investigated. The palladium-metallated compound is the strongest nonlinear absorber of the series, but, due to its comparatively high linear absorption coefficient, it exhibits a relatively low ratio of excited- to ground-state absorption cross-sections (?) when compared to the other compounds. The highest values for ? were found for d...

  9. Mutagenesis of metal compounds in bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H

    1974-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of 41 metal compounds was examined by applying the Rec-assay method with Bacillus subtilis H17 (rec/sup +/) and M45 (rec/sup -/) strains. Among these compounds, Na/sub 2/HAsO/sub 4/, CdCl/sub 2/, K/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/, CH/sub 3/HgCl, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/HgCl, CH/sub 3/COOHgC/sub 6/H/sub 5/, MnCl/sub 2/, MnNO/sub 3/, MnSO/sub 4/, Mn(CH/sub 3/COO)/sub 2/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ and KMoO/sub 4/ showed positive results. The reactions of K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ were especially strong in the assay. Therefore, mutation induction to reversion (try/sup +/) and streptomycin resistance (SM/sup r/) of E. coli B/r WP2 try/sup -/ (hcl/sup +/ and hcr/sup -/) by the two compounds were examined by the following two experimental procedures. Stationary phase bacteria were exposed to the compounds at high concentrations (6.9 x 10/sup -3/ approx. 3.44 x 10/sup -2/M) in M9 buffer for 15 min at 37/sup -/ with shaking. After incubation at 37/sup 0/ for 48 h visible colonies on the plates were scored. Bacteria in M9 buffer were plated in media supplemented with low concentrations (1.7 x 10/sup -5/ approx. 3.4 x 10/sup -5/M) of the compounds. K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ increased the mutation rate of SM/sup r/ and try/sup +/ in both strains treated with either procedure. No marked differences in mutation rate were found between hcr/sup +/ and hcr/sup -/. After treatment with high concentrations of compounds one can imagine that a peroxidation state produced by these peroxides in the media might affect the killing and mutation induction. These results suggest the possibility that the mutagenesis of the metals relate to their atomic values, rather than the peroxidation state as far as these two compounds are concerned.

  10. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  11. Co-cultivation of Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum stimulates the production of cytostatic compound(s) with immunotoxic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttinen, Piia; Pelkonen, Jukka; Huttunen, Kati; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2006-01-01

    We have recently shown that the actinobacterium Streptomyces californicus and the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum originating from moisture damaged buildings possess both immunotoxic and immunostimulatory characteristics, which are synergistically potentiated by microbial interaction. In the search for the causative agent(s) behind the immunotoxicity, the cytostatic effects of the co-cultivated spores of S. californicus and S. chartarum were compared to those caused by widely used cytostatic agents produced by streptomycetes. The RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to four doses of doxorubicin (DOX), actinomycin D (AMD), mitomycin C (MMC) or phleomycin (PHLEO) for 24 h. Kinetics of the spores of the co-cultivated and the separately cultivated microbes (1 x 10 6 spores/ml) was compared to DOX (0.15 μM). Apoptotic responses were analyzed by measuring DNA content and mitochondria membrane depolarization with flow cytometer, and by the fluorometric caspase-3 assay. The present data indicate that interactions during co-cultivation of S. californicus and S. chartarum stimulate the production of an unidentified cytostatic compound(s) capable of inducing mitochondria mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S-G 2 /M. The spores of co-cultivated microbes caused a 4-fold collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and an almost 6-fold caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation when compared to control. Similar responses were induced by DNA cleaving compounds, especially DOX and AMD, at the relatively low concentrations, but not the spores of the same microbes when they were grown separately. These data suggest that when growing in the same habitat, interactions between S. californicus and S. chartarum stimulates the production of an unknown cytostatic compound(s) which evoke immunotoxic effects similar to those by chemotherapeutic drugs

  12. Draft Genome Sequence Analysis of a Pseudomonas putida W15Oct28 Strain with Antagonistic Activity to Gram-Positive and Pseudomonas sp. Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lumeng; Hildebrand, Falk; Dingemans, Jozef; Ballet, Steven; Laus, George; Matthijs, Sandra; Berendsen, Roeland; Cornelis, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a member of the fluorescent pseudomonads known to produce the yellow-green fluorescent pyoverdine siderophore. P. putida W15Oct28, isolated from a stream in Brussels, was found to produce compound(s) with antimicrobial activity against the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, an unusual characteristic for P. putida. The active compound production only occurred in media with low iron content and without organic nitrogen sources. Transposon mutants which lost their antimicrobial activity had the majority of insertions in genes involved in the biosynthesis of pyoverdine, although purified pyoverdine was not responsible for the antagonism. Separation of compounds present in culture supernatants revealed the presence of two fractions containing highly hydrophobic molecules active against P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the draft genome confirmed the presence of putisolvin biosynthesis genes and the corresponding lipopeptides were found to contribute to the antimicrobial activity. One cluster of ten genes was detected, comprising a NAD-dependent epimerase, an acetylornithine aminotransferase, an acyl CoA dehydrogenase, a short chain dehydrogenase, a fatty acid desaturase and three genes for a RND efflux pump. P. putida W15Oct28 genome also contains 56 genes encoding TonB-dependent receptors, conferring a high capacity to utilize pyoverdines from other pseudomonads. One unique feature of W15Oct28 is also the presence of different secretion systems including a full set of genes for type IV secretion, and several genes for type VI secretion and their VgrG effectors. PMID:25369289

  13. Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol Over Pt/Al-SBA-15 Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi Jin; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Ryu, Changkook; Sohn, Jung Min; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Upgrading of bio-oil through catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction was investigated for guaiacol as a model compound. A batch reactor was used for the reaction condition of 40 bar and 250 degrees C. The target product was cyclohexane. Pt/Al-SBA-15 with the Si/Al ratios of 20, 40, and 80 and Pt/HZSM-5 were used as the catalyst. The SBA-15 catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction analysis, and temperature programmed desorption of ammonia. The order of cyclohexane yield was Pt/Al-SBA-15 (Si/Al = 20) > Pt/Al-SBA-15(40) > Pt/Al-SBA-15 (80), indicating that the quantity of acid sites plays an important role in the HDO reaction. On the other hand, Pt/HZSM-5 led to a very low cyclohexane yield, in spite of its abundant strong acid sites, due to its small pore size.

  14. Serendipitous preparation of fac-(acetonitrile-κNtrichlorido[(1,2,5,6-η-cycloocta-1,5-diene]iridium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Morris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A reaction between [(CODIrCl]2 (COD is cycloocta-1,5-diene, HCl and indene failed to provide the hoped for chloridoindenyliridium dimer, but instead produced the title compound, [IrCl3(CH3CN(C8H12], which is an octahedral complex of iridium(III with a chelating cycloocta-1,5-diene ligand, three chloride ligands in a fac arrangement, and one acetonitrile ligand. Attempts to devise a rational synthesis for the title compound were unsuccessful.

  15. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  16. A survey of synthetic and natural phytotoxic compounds and phytoalexins as potential antimalarial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajsa, Joanna; Singh, Kshipra; Nanayakkara, Dhammika; Duke, Stephen Oscar; Rimando, Agnes Mamaril; Evidente, Antonio; Tekwani, Babu Lal

    2007-09-01

    The apicomplexan parasites pathogens such as Plasmodium spp. possess an apicoplast, a plastid organelle similar to those of plants. The apicoplast has some essential plant-like metabolic pathways and processes, making these parasites susceptible to inhibitors of these functions. The main objective of this paper is to determine if phytotoxins with plastid target sites are more likely to be good antiplasmodial compounds than are those with other modes of action. The antiplasmodial activities of some compounds with established phytotoxic action were determined in vitro on a chloroquine (CQ) sensitive (D6, Sierra Leone) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we provide in vitro activities of almost 50 such compounds, as well as a few phytoalexins against P. falciparum. Endothall, anisomycin, and cerulenin had sufficient antiplasmodial action to be considered as new lead antimalarial structures. Some derivatives of fusicoccin possessed markedly improved antiplasmodial action than the parent compound. Our results suggest that phytotoxins with plastid targets may not necessarily be better antiplasmodials than those that act at other molecular sites. The herbicides, phytotoxins and the phytoalexins reported here with significant antiplasmodial activity may be useful probes for identification of new antimalarial drug targets and may also be used as new lead structures for new antiplasmodial drug discovery.

  17. How to Prepare SMC and BMC-like Compounds to Perform Relevant Rheological Experiments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, Olivier; Dumont, Pierre J. J.; Orgéas, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    The study of the rheology of injected or compression moulded compounds like SMC or BMC is made particularly difficult by the high content and the intricate arrangement of their fibrous reinforcement. For these two types of compounds, inappropriate rheological testing protocols and rheometers are often used, which leads to a very large scatter of the experimental data. This study describes specific sampling and specimen's preparation methods, as well as dedicated rheometry devices to test their rheology. Following the proposed protocols, it is possible to obtain rheological measurements showing low scatter of the recorded stress values: about ±10% for SMC and about ±15% for BMC-like compounds.

  18. The use of compound topical anesthetics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Neal D

    2007-10-01

    The author reviewed the history of, federal regulations regarding, risks of and adverse drug reactions of five compound topical anesthetics: tetracaine, adrenaline/epinephrine and cocaine (TAC); lidocaine, adrenaline/epinephrine and tetracaine (LET); lidocaine, tetracaine and phenylephrine (TAC 20 percent Alternate); lidocaine, prilocaine and tetracaine (Profound); and lidocaine, prilocaine, tetracaine and phenylephrine with thickeners (Profound PET). The author reviewed clinical trials, case reports, descriptive articles, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations and recent public advisory warnings regarding the federal approval of and risks associated with the use of compound topical anesthetics. Compound topical anesthetics are neither FDA-regulated nor -unregulated. Some compounding pharmacies bypass the new FDA drug approval process, which is based on reliable scientific data and ensures that a marketed drug is safe, effective, properly manufactured and accurately labeled. Two deaths have been attributed to the lay use of compound topical anesthetics. In response, the FDA has announced the strengthening of its efforts against unapproved drug products. Compound topical anesthetics may be an effective alternative to local infiltration for some minimally invasive dental procedures; however, legitimate concerns exist in regard to their safety. Until they become federally regulated, compound topical anesthetics remain unapproved drug products whose benefits may not outweigh their risks for dental patients.

  19. Specific heat of Nb3Sn and V2Zr compounds irradiated with high fluences fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar'kin, A.E.; Mirmel'shtejn, A.V.; Arkhipov, V.E.; Goshchitskij, B.N.

    1987-01-01

    Specific heat of Nb 3 Sn (structure A15) and V 2 Zr (C15) specimens irradiated with high fluences of bast neutrons has been measured. It is shown that in these compounds the temperature reduction of superconducting transition T c under neutron irradiation is accompanied with high decrease of N(E F ). Phonon spectrum of the irradiated V 2 Zr (amorphous phase) on the whole is harder, than at an initial state, for irradiated Nb 3 Sn state (disordered crystalline structure) phonon spectrum is differ weakly from initial one. General regularities of parameter change of electron and phonon subsystems for A15 compounds investigated here and earlier (V 3 Si, Mo 3 Si, Mo 3 Ge) have been analysed

  20. Structure characterization, photoluminescence and dielectric properties of a new hybrid compound containing chlorate anions of zincate (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassoued, Mohamed Saber; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Ben Soltan, Wissem; Lassoued, Abdelmajid; Ammar, Salah; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid; García-Granda, Santiago

    2018-04-01

    A new hybrid compound, bis (2-aminophenylenamonium) tetrachlorozincate (II), was synthesized and formulated as (C6H9N2)2ZnCl4. Its crystal structure was solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction reveling that compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c (N°: 15) with cell parameters a = 7.4957(4) Å, b = 25.6837(15) Å, c = 9.4041(5) Å, β = 94.35(0)°, V = 1805.23(45) Å3. Their atomic arrangement can be described as an alternation of inorganic and organic layers, [ZnCl4]2- tetrahedral anions and 2-aminophenylenamonium cations. The cohesion of the atomic arrangement is ensured by hydrogen bonds (strong Nsbnd H⋯N and weak Nsbnd H⋯Cl) and π-π stacking interactions between identical antiparallel organic moieties. In optical transmission and photoluminescence measurements, this material exhibit two absorption bands (253 and 316 nm) and a strong emission line (390 nm), while the thermal analysis disclosed a phase transition at 420-445 K previously to the sample decomposition at 476 K. Finally, electrical measurements were performed to discuss the phase-transition mechanism.

  1. Synthesis of puric bases labelled with carbon 14 and nitrogen 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorre, Yves

    1975-01-01

    In this report for graduation in organic chemistry engineering, the author reports the synthesis of adenine 14 C-2 et 14 C-6 by two different chemical ways from two derivatives of imidazole. He has used adenine 14 C-6 to obtain hypoxanthine 14 C-6, and then, by enzymatic processing, uric acid 14 C-6. He reports the study of the production of guanine 14 C-2 by cyclization of silylated derivative of imidazole with the carbon 14 C sulphur. However, a method of complete synthesis of this same compound revealed to be more practical. This complete synthesis way allowed the labelling of guanine in positions 1, 2 and 3 by the 96 per cent isotopic nitrogen. Nitrogen in positions 7 and 9 could have been labelled by the same way from the ethyl cyanoacetate 15 N and from the sodium nitrite 15 N. The study of the mass spectrum of these compounds labelled with nitrogen 15 N allowed most of fragments obtained during this analysis to be identified [fr

  2. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  3. Volatile compound diversity and conserved alarm behaviour in Triatoma dimidiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Concha, Irving; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Ramsey, Janine M

    2015-02-06

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is a key vector complex of Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease, as it spans North, Central, and South America. Although morphological and genetic studies clearly indicate existence of at least five clades within the species, there has been no robust or systematic revision, or appropriate nomenclature change for species within the complex. Three of the clades (haplogroups) are distributed in Mexico, and recent evidence attests to dispersal of clades across previously "presumed" monotypic geographic regions. Evidence of niche conservatism among sister species of this complex suggests that geographic dispersal is possible for non-sympatric populations, although no information is available on the behavioural aspects of potential interclade interactions, for instance whether differentiation of chemical signaling or response to these signals could impede communication among the haplogroups. Volatiles emitted by disturbed bugs, Brindley's (BGs), and metasternal (MGs) glands were identified using solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Volatile compounds emitted by BGs and MGs, and those secreted by disturbed nymphs and adults, of the three Mexican T. dimidiata haplogroups were tested for avoidance behaviour by conspecific nymphs and adults using an olfactometer. Triatoma dimidiata haplogroups all have three age-related alarm responses: absence of response by early stage nymphs, stage-specific response by 4-5th stage nymphs, and a shared 4-5th nymph and adult response to adult compounds. Disturbed bugs released 15 to 24 compounds depending on the haplogroup, among which were three pyrazines, the first report of these organoleptics in Triatominae. Isobutyric acid from BGs was the most abundant molecule in the response in all haplogroups, in addition to 15 (h1) to 21 (h2 and h3) MG compounds. Avoidance behaviour of disturbed bugs and volatiles emitted by BGs were haplogroup

  4. Introduction to Quality Control in a Compounding Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2016-01-01

    A quality-based program is vital in every compounding pharmacy to ensure that each preparation is compounded properly and is stable for its expected duration of use. This article discusses quality control, quality assurance, continuous quality improvement, and also describes the components of an in-house (in-pharmacy) quality program, as well as the role of outside laboratories. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  5. Compounds from the Fruits of the Popular European Medicinal Plant Vitex agnus-castus in Chemoprevention via NADP(H:Quinone Oxidoreductase Type 1 Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our continuing efforts in the search for potential biologically active compounds from medicinal plants, we have isolated 18 compounds including two novel nitrogen containing diterpenes from extracts of the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus. These isolates, along with our previously obtained novel compound vitexlactam A (1, were evaluated for potential biological effects, including cancer chemoprevention. Chemically, the nitrogenous isolates were found to be two labdane diterpene alkaloids, each containing an α, β-unsaturated γ-lactam moiety. Structurally, they were elucidated to be 9α-hydroxy-13(14-labden-16,15-amide (2 and 6β-acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-13(14-labden-15,16-amide (3, which were named vitexlactams B and C, respectively. The 15 known isolates were identified as vitexilactone (4, rotundifuran (5, 8-epi-manoyl oxide (6, vitetrifolin D (7, spathulenol (8, cis-dihydro-dehydro-diconiferylalcohol-9-O-β-D-glucoside (9, luteolin-7-O-glucoside (10, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (11, casticin (12, artemetin (13, aucubin (14, agnuside (15, β-sitosterol (16, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (17, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid glucose ester (18. All compound structures were determined/identified on the basis of 1D and/or 2D NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Compounds 6, 8, 9, and 18 were reported from a Vitex spieces for the first time. The cancer chemopreventive potentials of these isolates were evaluated for NADP(H:quinone oxidoreductase type 1 (QR1 induction activity. Compound 7 demonstrated promising QR1 induction effect, while the new compound vitexlactam (3 was only slightly active.

  6. Compounds from the Fruits of the Popular European Medicinal Plant Vitex agnus-castus in Chemoprevention via NADP(H):Quinone Oxidoreductase Type 1 Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghong; Qiu, Shengxiang; Yao, Ping; Sun, Handong; Fong, Harry H S; Zhang, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    As part of our continuing efforts in the search for potential biologically active compounds from medicinal plants, we have isolated 18 compounds including two novel nitrogen containing diterpenes from extracts of the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus. These isolates, along with our previously obtained novel compound vitexlactam A (1), were evaluated for potential biological effects, including cancer chemoprevention. Chemically, the nitrogenous isolates were found to be two labdane diterpene alkaloids, each containing an α , β -unsaturated γ -lactam moiety. Structurally, they were elucidated to be 9 α -hydroxy-13(14)-labden-16,15-amide (2) and 6 β -acetoxy-9 α -hydroxy-13(14)-labden-15,16-amide (3), which were named vitexlactams B and C, respectively. The 15 known isolates were identified as vitexilactone (4), rotundifuran (5), 8-epi-manoyl oxide (6), vitetrifolin D (7), spathulenol (8), cis-dihydro-dehydro-diconiferylalcohol-9-O- β -D-glucoside (9), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (10), 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (11), casticin (12), artemetin (13), aucubin (14), agnuside (15), β -sitosterol (16), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (17), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid glucose ester (18). All compound structures were determined/identified on the basis of 1D and/or 2D NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Compounds 6, 8, 9, and 18 were reported from a Vitex spieces for the first time. The cancer chemopreventive potentials of these isolates were evaluated for NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase type 1 (QR1) induction activity. Compound 7 demonstrated promising QR1 induction effect, while the new compound vitexlactam (3) was only slightly active.

  7. Microstructure and tribological properties of TiCu{sub 2}Al intermetallic compound coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Chun, E-mail: guochun@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Jiansong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao Jierong; Wang Linqian; Yu Youjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen Jianmin; Zhou Huidi [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-04-15

    TiCu{sub 2}Al ternary intermetallic compound coating has been in situ synthesized successfully on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding. Tribological properties of the prepared TiCu{sub 2}Al intermetallic compound coating were systematically evaluated. It was found that the friction coefficient and wear rate was closely related to the normal load and sliding speed, i.e., the friction coefficient of the prepared TiCu{sub 2}Al intermetallic compound coating decreased with increasing normal load and sliding speed. The wear rate of the TiCu{sub 2}Al intermetallic compound coating decreased rapidly with increasing sliding speed, while the wear rate first increased and then decreased at normal load from 5 to 15 N.

  8. a case of compound intussusceptions in a nigerian child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the treatment of intestinal obstruction. We report the first documented case of double compound intussusception in an. African child and reviewed relevant literature. Keywords: Antegrade and retrograde; Children; Compound; Intussusception. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate ...

  9. Utilization of natural variations in the abundance of nitrogen-15 as a tracer in hydrogeology - Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.

    1974-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds dissolved in natural waters exhibit considerable variations in nitrogen-15 content (more than 10 per mille). The authors describe briefly the analytical techniques used in measuring δ 15 N, the main features of the isotopic cycle of nitrogen and the results obtained so far. A simplified model of the nitrogen cycle and its isotopic implications is presented; with this model one can deduce from a number of observed variations the physical or biological mechanism (or mechanisms) involved. Isotopic studies of nitrogen may be a useful additional tool for detecting and interpreting certain forms of pollution. (author) [fr

  10. Six-membered ring aliphatic compounds: A search for regularities in phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Solomonov, Boris N.; Emel’yanenko, Vladimir N.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamics of sublimation and solution of halogen adamantanes is studied. • Sublimation enthalpies derived from transpiration and solution calorimetry in agreement. • Enthalpies of fusion measured by DSC and used to derive vaporization enthalpies. • Structure-property analysis of vaporization enthalpies was performed. - Abstract: Absolute vapor pressures of 1-Cl-adamantane, 2-Cl-adamantane, 1-Br-adamantane, 2-Br-adamantane, as well as of Br-cyclohexane were measured by using the transpiration method. Standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of halogen substituted adamantanes at 298.15 K were derived from vapor pressure temperature dependences. Standard molar enthalpies of solution of adamantane and halogen adamantanes in cyclohexane were measured with a high-precision solution calorimeter. A theoretical procedure based on the solution calorimetry was applied to derive sublimation enthalpies of halogen adamantanes independently. Molar enthalpies of fusion were measured with help of DSC. The consistent data set of phase transitions for each compound was evaluated and used for discussion of structure-property relations in adamantane and cyclohexane derivatives. A simple way to predict enthalpies of vaporization of compounds containing six-membered rings was suggested for practical thermochemical calculations.

  11. Rapid Identification of Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Compounds from Perilla frutescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hun Paek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethyl acetate (EtOAc soluble fraction of methanol extracts of Perilla frutescens (P. frutescens inhibits aldose reductase (AR, the key enzyme in the polyol pathway. Our investigation of inhibitory compounds from the EtOAc soluble fraction of P. frutescens was followed by identification of the inhibitory compounds by a combination of HPLC microfractionation and a 96-well enzyme assay. This allowed the biological activities to be efficiently matched with selected HPLC peaks. Structural analyses of the active compounds were performed by LC-MSn. The main AR inhibiting compounds were tentatively identified as chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid by LC-MSn. A two-step high speed counter current chromatography (HSCCC isolation method was developed with a solvent system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at 1.5 : 5 : 1 : 5, v/v and 3 : 7 : 5 : 5, v/v. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined by 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR. The main compounds inhibiting AR in the EtOAc fraction of methanol extracts of P. frutescens were identified as chlorogenic acid (2 (IC50 = 3.16 μM, rosmarinic acid (4 (IC50 = 2.77 μM, luteolin (5 (IC50 = 6.34 μM, and methyl rosmarinic acid (6 (IC50 = 4.03 μM.

  12. New phenolic compounds from the twigs of Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, X; Wang, S; Wang, B; Liu, Y; Yuan, H; Lou, H; Wang, X

    2013-02-01

    Two new chalcones, artocarpusins A and B (1 and 2), one new flavone, artocarpusin C (3), one new 2-arylbenzofuran derivative, artocarstilene A (4), and 15 flavonoids were isolated from the twigs of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 9 and 16 showed moderate inhibitory activity on the proliferation of the PC-3 and H460 cell lines.

  13. Development of New Cryocooler Regenerator Materials-Ductile Intermetallic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A.; Pecharsky, A.O.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    The volumetric heat capacities of a number of binary and ternary Er- and Tm-based intermetallic compounds, which exhibited substantial ductilities, were measured from ∼3 to ∼350 K. They have the RM stoichiometry (where R = Er or Tm, and M is a main group or transition metal) and crystallize in the CsCl-type structure. The heat capacities of the Tm-based compounds are in general larger than the corresponding Er-based materials. Many of them have heat capacities which are significantly larger than those of the low temperature ( 2 , Er 3 Ni and ErNi. Utilization of the new materials as regenerators in the various cryocoolers should improve the performance of these refrigeration units for cooling below 15 K

  14. Rapid, convenient method for screening imidazole-containing compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahakis, Jason Z; Rahman, Mona N; Roman, Gheorghe; Jia, Zongchao; Nakatsu, Kanji; Szarek, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    Sensitive assays for measuring heme oxygenase activity have been based on the gas-chromatographic detection of carbon monoxide using elaborate, expensive equipment. The present study describes a rapid and convenient method for screening imidazole-containing candidates for inhibitory activity against heme oxygenase using a plate reader, based on the spectroscopic evaluation of heme degradation. A PowerWave XS plate reader was used to monitor the absorbance (as a function of time) of heme bound to purified truncated human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) in the individual wells of a standard 96-well plate (with or without the addition of a test compound). The degradation of heme by heme oxygenase-1 was initiated using l-ascorbic acid, and the collected relevant absorbance data were analyzed by three different methods to calculate the percent control activity occurring in wells containing test compounds relative to that occurring in control wells with no test compound present. In the cases of wells containing inhibitory compounds, significant shifts in λ(max) from 404 to near 412 nm were observed as well as a decrease in the rate of heme degradation relative to that of the control. Each of the three methods of data processing (overall percent drop in absorbance over 1.5h, initial rate of reaction determined over the first 5 min, and estimated pseudo first-order reaction rate constant determined over 1.5h) gave similar and reproducible results for percent control activity. The fastest and easiest method of data analysis was determined to be that using initial rates, involving data acquisition for only 5 min once reactions have been initiated using l-ascorbic acid. The results of the study demonstrate that this simple assay based on the spectroscopic detection of heme represents a rapid, convenient method to determine the relative inhibitory activity of candidate compounds, and is useful in quickly screening a series or library of compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition

  15. Odour Detection Threshold Determination of Volatile Compounds in Topical Skin Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe; Taylor, Robert

    2018-01-01

    determination and also odour description by a trained sensory panel. In one case, the odour detection threshold value was 50 times higher (less detectable) in skin care products than in water, whereas for other volatile compounds the odour detection threshold value was only 1.5 times higher. The odour...

  16. Voltammetric Detection of Damage to DNA by Arsenic Compounds at a DNA Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wennrich

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA biosensor can serve as a powerfull tool for simple in vitro tests of chemicaltoxicity. In this paper, damage to DNA attached to the surface of screen-printed carbonelectrode by arsenic compounds in solution is described. Using the Co(III complex with1,10-phenanthroline, [Co(phen3]3+ , as an electrochemical DNA marker and the Ru(IIcomplex with bipyridyne, [Ru(bipy3]2+ , as a DNA oxidation catalyst, the portion of originaldsDNA which survives an incubation of the biosensor in the cleavage medium was evaluated.The model cleavage mixture was composed of an arsenic compound at 10-3 mol/Lconcentration corresponding to real contaminated water, 2x10-4 mol/L Fe(II or Cu(II ions asthe redox catalyst, and 1.5x10-2 mol/L hydrogen peroxide. DNA damage by arsenite,dimethylarsinic acid as the metabolic product of inorganic arsenic and widely used herbicide,as well as phenylarsonic acid and p-arsanilic acid as the representatives of feed additives wasfound in difference to arsenate.

  17. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  18. Screening and identification of phytotoxic volatile compounds in medicinal plants and characterizations of a selected compound, eucarvone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Yukari; Baba, Yohei; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Fujimura, Kaori; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Screening and identification of phytotoxic volatile compounds were performed using 71 medicinal plant species to find new natural compounds, and the characterization of the promising compound was investigated to understand the mode of action. The volatile compounds from Asarum sieboldii Miq. showed the strongest inhibitory effect on the hypocotyl growth of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Great Lakes 366), followed by those from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet and Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC.. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) identified four volatile compounds, α-pinene (2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene), β-pinene (6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane), 3-carene (3,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[4.1.0]hept-3-ene), and eucarvone (2,6,6-trimethy-2,4-cycloheptadien-1-one), from A. sieboldii, and three volatile compounds, limonene (1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene), menthone (5-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexan-1-one), and pulegone (5-methyl-2-propan-2-ylidenecyclohexan-1-one), from S. tenuifolia. Among these volatile compounds, eucarvone, menthone, and pulegone exhibited strong inhibitory effects on both the root and shoot growth of lettuce seedlings. Eucarvone-induced growth inhibition was species-selective. Cell death, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation were induced in susceptible finger millet seedlings by eucarvone treatment, whereas this compound (≤158 μM) did not cause the increase of lipid peroxidation and ROS production in tolerant maize. The results of the present study show that eucarvone can have strong phytotoxic activity, which may be due to ROS overproduction and subsequent oxidative damage in finger millet seedlings.

  19. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toluene and benzene are used for assessing the ability to measure disjunct eddy covariance (DEC fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS on aircraft. Statistically significant correlation between vertical wind speed and mixing ratios suggests that airborne VOC eddy covariance (EC flux measurements using PTR-MS are feasible. City-median midday toluene and benzene fluxes are calculated to be on the order of 14.1±4.0 mg/m2/h and 4.7±2.3 mg/m2/h, respectively. For comparison the adjusted CAM2004 emission inventory estimates toluene fluxes of 10 mg/m2/h along the footprint of the flight-track. Wavelet analysis of instantaneous toluene and benzene measurements during city overpasses is tested as a tool to assess surface emission heterogeneity. High toluene to benzene flux ratios above an industrial district (e.g. 10–15 g/g including the International airport (e.g. 3–5 g/g and a mean flux (concentration ratio of 3.2±0.5 g/g (3.9±0.3 g/g across Mexico City indicate that evaporative fuel and industrial emissions play an important role for the prevalence of aromatic compounds. Based on a tracer model, which was constrained by BTEX (BTEX– Benzene/Toluene/Ethylbenzene/m, p, o-Xylenes compound concentration ratios, the fuel marker methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE and the biomass burning marker acetonitrile (CH3CN, we show that a combination of industrial, evaporative fuel, and exhaust emissions account for >87% of all BTEX sources. Our observations suggest that biomass burning emissions play a minor role for the abundance of BTEX compounds in the MCMA (2–13%.

  20. Aqua ammonia 15 N obtaining and application with vainness for sugar-cane fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, Andre Cesar; Trivellin, Paulo Cesar O.; Oliveira, Claudineia R. de; Bendassoli, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds marked with the isotope 15 N are continuously being used in agronomic studies and, when associated to the isotopic dilution technique, they constitute an important tool in clarifying the N cycle. At the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), it was obtained ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 enhanced at 3,5% of 15 N atoms, by means of the ionic exchange chromatography technique, which made possible to produce aqua ammonia ( 15 NH 3 aq). Four repetitions were taken to the aqua ammonia production process to use the nitrogen compound in the field experiment. In each process 150g of ammonium sulfate enhanced at 3,5% of 15 N atoms was used, obtaining 31,0 ± 1,6 g of aqua ammonia on the average (80% yield), with the same enhancement. The incidence of isotopic dilution has not been observed during the procedure, what made the use of such methodology possible. After obtaining the aqua ammonia 15 N through this procedure, it was added to the vinasse (an equivalent to 50 m 3 ha -1 ) in doses that corresponded to 70 kg ha -1 of N-NH 3 aq. The mixture was applied to the sugar-cane straw on the soil's surface, aimed to the crop's fertilization. The compound's isotopic composition was analyzed by means of a spectrometer of masses ANCA-SL Europe Scientific, while the total-N volatilized, by the micro-Kjeldahl. Method. In accordance to the low NH 3 (6,4 ± 1,9 kg ha -1 ) volatilization results, it could be concluded that the application of vinasse and aqua ammonia mixture to the straw on the soil's surface was efficient, due to the vinasse's acid character, which allowed the NH 3 , in presence of the ion H + , to stay in the NH 4 + form in solution. (author)

  1. Analytic Methods Used in Quality Control in a Compounding Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2017-01-01

    Analytical testing will no doubt become a more important part of pharmaceutical compounding as the public and regulatory agencies demand increasing documentation of the quality of compounded preparations. Compounding pharmacists must decide what types of testing and what amount of testing to include in their quality-control programs, and whether testing should be done in-house or outsourced. Like pharmaceutical compounding, analytical testing should be performed only by those who are appropriately trained and qualified. This article discusses the analytical methods that are used in quality control in a compounding pharmacy. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  2. A fluorescence-based rapid screening assay for cytotoxic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Jessica; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Estrada, Abril; Martinez, Luis E.; Garza, Kristine; Aguilera, Renato J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple fluorescence-based assay was developed for the rapid screening of potential cytotoxic compounds generated by combinatorial chemistry. The assay is based on detection of nuclear green fluorescent protein (GFP) staining of a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) carrying an integrated histone H2B-GFP fusion gene. Addition of a cytotoxic compound to the HeLa-GFP cells results in the eventual degradation of DNA and loss of the GFP nuclear fluorescence. Using this assay, we screened 11 distinct quinone derivatives and found that several of these compounds were cytotoxic. These compounds are structurally related to plumbagin an apoptosis-inducing naphthoquinone isolated from Black Walnut. In order to determine the mechanism by which cell death was induced, we performed additional experiments with the most cytotoxic quinones. These compounds were found to induce morphological changes (blebbing and nuclear condensation) consistent with induction of apoptosis. Additional tests revealed that the cytotoxic compounds induce both necrotic and apoptotic modes of death

  3. SuperNatural: a searchable database of available natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Mathias; Fullbeck, Melanie; Neumann, Stefanie; Preissner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Although tremendous effort has been put into synthetic libraries, most drugs on the market are still natural compounds or derivatives thereof. There are encyclopaedias of natural compounds, but the availability of these compounds is often unclear and catalogues from numerous suppliers have to be checked. To overcome these problems we have compiled a database of approximately 50,000 natural compounds from different suppliers. To enable efficient identification of the desired compounds, we have implemented substructure searches with typical templates. Starting points for in silico screenings are about 2500 well-known and classified natural compounds from a compendium that we have added. Possible medical applications can be ascertained via automatic searches for similar drugs in a free conformational drug database containing WHO indications. Furthermore, we have computed about three million conformers, which are deployed to account for the flexibilities of the compounds when the 3D superposition algorithm that we have developed is used. The SuperNatural Database is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural. Viewing requires the free Chime-plugin from MDL (Chime) or Java2 Runtime Environment (MView), which is also necessary for using Marvin application for chemical drawing.

  4. Azo compound degradation kinetics and halonitromethane formation kinetics during chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Xiaomao; Bai, Weiliang; Yang, Hongwei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2017-05-01

    The chlorination of azo compounds can produce halonitromethanes (HNMs), which have attracted increasing concern due to their high genotoxicity. By impacting the speciation of chlorine and azo compounds, pH impacts apparent second-order rate constants of Methyl Orange (MO, 27.5-1.4 × 10 3  M -1  s -1 ), Acid Orange II (AO, 16.7-99.3 M -1  s -1 ), and Acid Red 1 (AR 1, 3.7-72.5 M -1  s -1 ) (pH range 6.3-9.0). The two-compartment first-order model successfully described the chloropicrin (TCNM) formation kinetics, suggesting that both fast- and slow-reacting precursors of TCNM are generated from the chlorination of azo compounds. The ratios between fast and slow formation rate constants for MO and AO were 15.6-5.4 × 10 2 , while that of AR 1 was 9.8-19.4 (pH range 6.5-9.0). The fraction of the fast-reacting TCNM precursors decreased with increasing pH for MO and AO; while that for AR 1 decreased when pH increased from 6.5 to 8.0, and then increased when pH increased from 8.0 to 9.0. The impact of pH on TCNM formation was also precursor-specific. The highest molar yields of TCNM predicted from the model in this study were 2.4%, 2.5%, and 1.5% for MO, AO, and AR 1, respectively. The study demonstrates that azo compounds are important HNM precursors, and pose a potential threat to drinking water safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-Phase Equilibrium and Solubilities of Aromatic Compounds and Inorganic Compounds in Sub- and Supercritical Water: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinli; Ding, Xin; Du, Bowen; Fang, Tao

    2017-11-02

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), as a novel and efficient technology, has been applied to wastewater treatment processes. The use of phase equilibrium data to optimize process parameters can offer a theoretical guidance for designing SCWO processes and reducing the equipment and operating costs. In this work, high-pressure phase equilibrium data for aromatic compounds+water systems and inorganic compounds+water systems are given. Moreover, thermodynamic models, equations of state (EOS) and empirical and semi-empirical approaches are summarized and evaluated. This paper also lists the existing problems of multi-phase equilibria and solubility studies on aromatic compounds and inorganic compounds in sub- and supercritical water.

  6. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flavonoid compound was identified as quercetin by 1H-. NMR and ESI-MS ... phenolic compounds were isolated, and their .... scored under a fluorescence microscope (Carl. Zeiss .... Antioxidant Properties of Sarcopyramis bodinieri.

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and isolated compound from Dalbergia stipulacea Roxb. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Bhat, Tahir Ahmad; Singh, Rattan Deep

    2017-07-01

    The study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of extracts and isolated compound of Dalbergia stipulacea. Combined extracts (chloroform and methanol) of plant leaves fractionated with n-butanol loaded with column afforded a flavonoid glycoside compound identified as luteolin 4'-rutinoside. Different extracts and isolated compound exhibited pronounced antibacterial and antifungal varied activities against four bacteria (Clostridium acetobutylinium, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans, and Pseudomonas sp.) and one fungus (Candida albicans) susceptibility were determined using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts and isolated compounds was determined by broth dilution method. The maximum activity was shown by chloroform extract against C. albicans with a zone of inhibition of 17 mm and minimum activity was displayed by methanolic extract against Pseudomonas sp. with 5 mm. However, isolated compound has shown maximum activity against Pseudomonas sp. with 15 mm. The MIC values higher in methanol extract against Pseudomonas sp. and isolated compound shows good against Pseudomonas sp. and B. subtilis. Our findings indicate that plant could be used as a good antimicrobial agent in food, pharmaceutical and bio-pesticide industries.

  8. PS-15: a potent, orally active antimalarial from a new class of folic acid antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, C J; Milhous, W K; Ager, A L; Rossan, R N; Sweeney, T R; Lewis, N J; Jacobus, D P

    1993-07-01

    A new, orally-active inhibitor of dihydrofolic acid reductase (DHFR), PS-15 (N-(3-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propyloxy)-N'-(1-methylethyl)- imidocarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride), has significant activity against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. It is not cross-resistant with other inhibitors of DHFR (e.g., pyrimethamine and cycloguanil). Although it bears similarities to proguanil, PS-15 represents a new antifolate class of drugs that we have named oxyguanils or hydroxylamine-derived biguanides. This compound displays intrinsic antimalarial activity and also is metabolized in vivo to WR99210, an extremely active triazine inhibitor of DHFR. When tested in vitro against drug-resistant clones of P. falciparum, PS-15 was more active than proguanil, and the putative metabolite, WR99210, was more active than the proguanil metabolite cycloguanil. The drug is also more active as well as less toxic than proguanil when administered orally to mice infected with P. berghei. When administered orally to Aotus monkeys infected with multidrug-resistant P. falciparum, PS-15 was more active than either proguanil or WR99210. In 1973, WR99210 underwent clinical trials for safety and tolerance in volunteers. The trials showed gastrointestinal intolerance and limited bioavailability; further development of the drug was abandoned. Because PS-15 has intrinsic antimalarial activity, is not cross-resistant with other DHFR inhibitors, and can be metabolized to WR99210 in vivo, oral administration of this new drug should circumvent the shortcomings and retain the advantages found with both proguanil and WR99210.

  9. Evaluation of a Silicone Membrane as an Alternative to Human Skin for Determining Skin Permeation Parameters of Chemical Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Takashi; Yakumaru, Masafumi; Nishioka, Keisuke; Higashi, Yoshihiro; Sano, Tomohiko; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a silicone membrane as an alternative to human skin using the skin permeation parameters of chemical compounds. An in vitro permeation study using 15 model compounds was conducted, and permeation parameters comprising permeability coefficient (P), diffusion parameter (DL(-2)), and partition parameter (KL) were calculated from each permeation profile. Significant correlations were obtained in log P, log DL(-2), and log KL values between the silicone membrane and human skin. DL(-2) values of model compounds, except flurbiprofen, in the silicone membrane were independent of the lipophilicity of the model compounds and were 100-fold higher than those in human skin. For antipyrine and caffeine, which are hydrophilic, KL values in the silicone membrane were 100-fold lower than those in human skin, and P values, calculated as the product of a DL(-2) and KL, were similar. For lipophilic compounds, such as n-butyl paraben and flurbiprofen, KL values for silicone were similar to or 10-fold higher than those in human skin, and P values for silicone were 100-fold higher than those in human skin. Furthermore, for amphiphilic compounds with log Ko/w values from 0.5 to 3.5, KL values in the silicone membrane were 10-fold lower than those in human skin, and P values for silicone were 10-fold higher than those in human skin. The silicone membrane was useful as a human skin alternative in an in vitro skin permeation study. However, depending on the lipophilicity of the model compounds, some parameters may be over- or underestimated.

  10. Quinolactacins A, B and C: novel quinolone compounds from Penicillium sp. EPF-6. II. Physico-chemical properties and structure elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Kakinuma, N; Iwai, H; Yanagisawa, T; Nagai, K; Suzuki, K; Tokunaga, T; Nakagawa, A

    2000-11-01

    Three novel quinolone compounds, quinolactacins A (1), B (2) and C (3), have been found from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp. EPF-6, a fungus isolated from the larvae of mulberry pyralid (Margaronia pyloalis Welker). The molecular formulas of 1, 2 and 3 were determined to be C16H18N2O2, C15H16N2O2 and C16H18N2O3, respectively by FAB-MS and NMR spectral analyses. The structures of these compounds have a novel quinolone skeleton with a gamma-lactam ring consisting of C12H8N2O2 as the common chromophore.

  11. Elastic properties of LaSnxNi5-x compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeheskel, O.; Nattrass, C.E.; Leisure, R.G.; Jacob, I.; Bowman, R.C. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic methods were used to measure the room-temperature elastic moduli of polycrystalline LaSn x Ni 5-x compounds for 0≤x≤0.5. These materials are of great importance for their hydrogen storage properties. The samples, prepared by a hot isostatic pressing method, had near-theoretical densities with calculated porosities ranging from 0 to 1.5%. The porosity-corrected moduli decreased with increasing x. Poisson's ratio was approximately constant at 0.314 for all the compounds. The Debye temperature, calculated from the RT polycrystalline moduli, decreased from 359 to 344 K as x increased from 0 to 0.5. The results were used to calculate the elastic interaction energy of an interstitial hydrogen atom with the strain fields of all the other interstitial hydrogen. This energy was in turn used to calculate the critical temperature below which phase separation occurs in LaM x Ni 5-x H y compounds (M=Sn or Al). It was found that the critical temperature decreases with increasing x, confirming in a more general way a conclusion drawn for a specific case from earlier thermodynamic measurements. It is suggested that the lowering of the critical temperature plays a role in limiting the width of the plateaus in pressure-composition isotherms for the two-phase regions of these compounds. This suggestion implies a relation between the elastic properties and the maximum hydrogen capacity

  12. Contribution to the study of chlorine, fluorine and oxygen compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberi, Paul.

    1976-09-01

    The combustion heat of excess hydrogen in chloro fluoride compounds ClF, ClF 3 , ClF 5 and oxychloro fluoride compounds O 2 ClF, O 3 ClF, OClF 3 were determined in an original bomb calorimeter. This apparatus which can work at temperature up to 473K and under 10 atmospheres pressure as two compartments and high frequency electric spark ignition. The enthalpies of formation and bond energies are calculated. The temperature and enthalpies of the solid/solid and solid/liquid transformations were determined with a differential micro-calorimeter, of the fluxmeter type (M.C.B.) (sensibility 70μV detector/mW.cell, temperature range 80-1000K, maximal pressure 15 atmospheres) [fr

  13. Erupted Compound Odontomas: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Tejasvi M.L.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumors in which odontogenic differentiation is fully expressed are the odontomas. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than a true neoplasm. These tumors are composed of enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp tissue. It is most commonly associated with the eruption of the teeth. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. In exceptional cases, the odontoma erupts in to the mouth. Nine cases of erupted compound odontomas are reported in the English literature, and the present paper reports another case of an erupted compound odontoma in a 22-year-old female patient.

  14. Infrared and Raman spectra of uric acid and its 15N and D labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majoube, Michel

    Infrared and Raman spectra of polycrystalline uric acid (2, 6, 8-trioxypurine) 1.3, 7 and 9- 15 N and deuterated analogues have been determined. Band shifts with 15 N substitution and with deuteration are discussed. An assignment of fundamental vibrations of uric acid is proposed from the comparison of the eight isotopically substituted analogues [fr

  15. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  16. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongyu [Beijing Building Materials Academy of Science Research/State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Material, Beijing 100041 (China); College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Schuchardt, Frank [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute, Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: ligx@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup −1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  17. Synthesis of 5-Substituted 3-Amino-1H-Pyrazole-4-Carbonitriles as Precursors for Microwave Assisted Regiospecific Syntheses of Pyrazolo[1,5-a]Pyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Al-Qalaf

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple route to 3-oxoalkanonitrile 5, aprecursor of the title compounds is described. Reaction of enaminones 2 with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in ethanol yielded aldoximes 3 that were converted readily into 5 in basic medium. This method has been successfully applied with a number of substrates and resulted in excellent yields of the products. Reacting 5 with trichloroacetonitrile afforded 3-amino-2-aroyl-4,4,4-trichloro-2-butenenitriles 6 that condensed with hydrazines to yield 3-amino-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonitrilederivatives 8. Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridmidines have been prepared with regioselective condensation reactions of 8 with nonsymmetrical dielectrophiles. The structures of compounds obtained were deduced based on 1H-NMR, 1H-15N HMBC- measurements.

  18. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid PEG-5 cocomonium methylsulfate at T = (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15) K: Experimental results and COSMO-RS predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Prashant; Aslam Siddiqi, M.; Atakan, Burak; Diedenhofen, Michael; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► γ 13 ∞ values reported for 25 organic solutes in the ionic liquid PEG-5 cocomonium methylsulfate. ► Measurements undertaken using the g.l.c. technique at T = (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15) K. ► Sound speed, density and refractive index data for ionic liquid PEG-5 cocomonium methylsulfate also reported. ► Measured γ 13 ∞ values compared to COSMO-RS predictions. -- Abstract: Activity coefficients at infinite dilution γ 13 ∞ have been determined for 25 polar and non-polar organic solutes (alkanes, cycloalkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, aromatic compounds, alcohols, and ketones) in the ionic liquid PEG-5 cocomonium methylsulfate with gas–liquid chromatography at four different temperatures, T = (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15) K. Packed columns with phase loadings of 0.28 and 0.34 ionic liquid mass fraction in the stationary phase were employed to obtain γ 13 ∞ values at each temperature investigated. Speed of sound, density, and refractive index values have also been measured for the pure ionic liquid at P = 0.1 MPa and T = (303.15, 313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15) K. The uncertainties in the sound speeds, densities, and refractive indices are estimated to be values of 0.9 m · s −1 , 0.00003 g · cm −3 , and 0.00002, respectively. Partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution ΔH 1 E,∞ were calculated for the solutes from the temperature dependency of the γ 13 ∞ values for the temperature range of this study. The uncertainties in the determinations of γ 13 ∞ and ΔH 1 E,∞ values are 5% and 10%, respectively. Selectivity values at infinite dilution S 12 ∞ for hexane/benzene, cyclohexane/benzene, hexane/hex-1-ene, and hexane/ethanol separations have been calculated. These have been compared against values obtained from COSMO-RS predictions

  19. Rare earth intermetallic compounds produced by a reduction-diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A reduction-diffusion process is given for producing novel rare earth intermetallic compounds, such as cobalt--rare earth intermetallic compounds, especially compounds useful in preparing permanent magnets. A particulate mixture of rare earth metal halide, cobalt and calcium hydride is heated to effect reduction of the rare earth metal halide and to diffuse the resulting rare earth metal into the cobalt to form the intermetallic compound

  20. NMR/NQR study of the superconductor Y2Ba4Cu7O15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on several important aspects of the high temperature superconductivity research. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) studies in Y-Ba-O compounds contribute information regarding various aspects, ranging from the direct observation of strong coupling between the adjacent planes in the double plane to conclusions concerning the spatial symmetry of paring state in these cuprates. We report the first results in the 93 K superconductor Y 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O 15 . This compound turns out to be a structure containing differently doped CuO 2 planes. The planes in the 1-2-3(1-2-4) block are only slightly lower (higher) doped than those in the corresponding parent compounds YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 and YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 . The results obtained from measurements on oxygen depleted Y 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O 15-x show two new features which could explain the dissimilar variation of T c with oxygen content compared to YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x : i) the double chains donate charge carriers to the planes and ii) the chain fragments which survive when emptying single chains are longer than in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . The pressure induced charge transfer from chain to plane in each block of Y 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O 15 is the same as in the corresponding parent compound. We explore the strong coupling between nonequivalent planes in this compound using the three main NMR/NQR quantities, K spin , 1/T 1 ; and T 2G,ind , and estimate its approximate strength directly from spin-echo double resonance (SEDOR) experiments. We obtain for the ratio of the effective inter- and intraplane exchange-coupling constants the value of 0.3 just above T c . This ratio decreases with increasing temperature. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  1. Low-Toxicity Diindol-3-ylmethanes as Potent Antifouling Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Ling; Xu, Ying; Lu, Liang; Li, Yongxin; Han, Zhuang; Zhang, Jun; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, eight natural products that belonged to di(1H-indol-3-yl)methane (DIM) family were isolated from Pseudovibrio denitrificans UST4-50 and tested for their antifouling activity against larval settlement (including both attachment and metamorphosis) of the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. All diindol-3-ylmethanes (DIMs) showed moderate to strong inhibitory effects against larval settlement of B. amphitrite with EC50 values ranging from 18.57 to 1.86 μM and could be considered as low-toxicity antifouling compounds since their LC50/EC50 ratios were larger than 15. Furthermore, the DIM- and 4-(di(1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)phenol (DIM-Ph-4-OH)-treated larvae completed normal settlement when they were transferred to clean seawater after being exposed to those compounds for 24 h. DIM also showed comparable antifouling performance to the commercial antifouling biocide Sea-Nine 211(™) in the field test over a period of 5 months, which further confirmed that DIMs can be considered as promising candidates of environmentally friendly antifouling compounds.

  2. Labelled compounds for agrochemical residue studies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Potential applications of stable and radioactive isotopic tracers for assessing undesirable contaminants in agriculture, fisheries and food are discussed as related to developing countries. Sources and types of residues are considered, and their local implications; also, the availability of suitably labelled compounds, including possible international cooperation to facilitate more centralized and economic preparation, and the distribution of labelled intermediates and compounds for use by local scientists. The provision of training courses and their syllabus are reviewed. Experience in the Joint FAO/IAEA chemical residue and pollution programme has indicated a need for longer-lived radioisotopically labelled pesticides (insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, fumigants, etc.) for studying their behaviour. 15 N-, 13 C- or 2 H-labelled fertilizers and fertilizer additives such as nitrification inhibitors will shortly be needed, for studying the behaviour of fertilizer nitrogen residues, and their regulation and conservation, under conditions prevailing in the developing countries. Compounds labelled with stable isotopes are considered particularly valuable under field conditions. The report reviews the present situation and presents specific recommendations to the Directors General of FAO and IAEA

  3. Phenylboronic acid catalysed synthesis of 1,5-benzodiazepines via ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Chem. Sci. Vol. 125, No. 4, July 2013, pp. 745–749. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Phenylboronic acid catalysed synthesis of 1,5-benzodiazepines via cyclocondensation of ... active compounds and gaining great consideration in the field of .... thesis of this heterocycles was accomplished by con- densation reaction of ...

  4. Organolanthanoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Up to little more than a decade ago organolanthanoid compounds were still a curiosity. Apart from the description of an isolated number of cyclopentadienyl and indenyl derivatives, very few significant contributions had been made to this interesting sector of organometallic chemistry. However, subsequent systematic studies using modern preparative and analytical techniques, together with X-ray single crystal structure determinations, enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of very interesting homoleptic and heteroleptic compounds in which the lanthanoid is bound to hydrogen, to substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl groups, to allyl or alkynyl groups, or even to phosphorus ylides, trimethylsilyl, and carbonylmetal groups. These compounds, which are all extremely sensitive to oxygen and water, open up new possibilities in the field of catalysis and have great potential in organic synthesis - as recent studies with pentamethylcyclopentadienyl derivatives, organolanthanoid(II) compounds, and hexamethyllanthanoid complexes have already shown. (orig.) [de

  5. Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueck, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis ''Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium'' deals with the chemical class of oxide halides, which contain d-block element cations and pnicogens. Over the past few years compounds containing pnicogene cations are intensively investigated. The reason for this is the free electron pair of the Pn"3"+ cation, which is responsible for some interesting properties. Free electron pairs do not only impact the spatial structure of molecules but also the properties of materials. The object of this work was the synthesis and characterization of compounds containing Pn"3"+ cations with free electron pairs. Due to the structure-determining effect of these free electron pairs and in combination with halides it is possible to synthesize compounds with low-dimensional structures like chains and layers. In these compounds the structure is separated into halophilic and chalcophilic sub-structures, which are held together only by weak Van der Waals forces.

  6. Certification, Accreditation, and Credentialing for 503A Compounding Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Jon; McCrory, Gary; Kraemer, Cheri; Jensen, Brenda; Allen, Loyd V

    2018-01-01

    The terms certification, accreditation, and credentialing are often used interchangeably when they apply to compounding-pharmacy qualifications, but they are not synonymous. The reasons for obtaining each, the requirements for each, and the benefits of each differ. Achieving such distinctions can negatively or positively affect the status of a pharmacy among peers and prescribers as well as a pharmacy's relationships with third-party payors. Changes in the third-party payor industry evolve constantly and, we suggest, will continue to do so. Compounding pharmacists must be aware of those changes to help ensure success in a highly competitive marketplace. To our knowledge at the time of this writing, there is no certification program for compounding pharmacists, although pharmacy technicians can achieve certification and may be required to do so by the state in which they practice (a topic beyond the scope of this article). For that reason, we primarily address accreditation and credentialing for 503A compounding pharmacies. In this article, the evolution of the third-party payment system for compounds is reviewed; the definitions of certification, accreditation, and credentialing are examined; and the benefits and recognition of obtaining accredited or credentialed status are discussed. Suggestions for selecting an appropriate agency that offers accreditation or credentialing, preparing for and undergoing an onsite survey, responding to findings, and maintaining a pharmacy practice that enables a successful survey outcome are presented. The personal experience of author CK during accreditation and credentialing is discussed, as is the role of a consultant (author BJ) in helping compounders prepare for the survey process. A list of agencies that offer accreditation and credentialing for compounding pharmacies is included for easy reference. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  7. Study of reticular defects in V3Si (A15 structure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Lamine, Abdelmottaleb

    1980-01-01

    The A15 crystal structure is that of superconductive compounds with high critical temperature. This research thesis aims at studying its possible reticular defects. In a first part, the author presents this structure and more particularly its crystallographic properties, reports the indexing of electronic diffraction diagrams (point diagrams and line diagrams of Kikuchi) in the case of V 3 Si. Then, after having described the sample preparation technique, the author reports the study of reticular defects by high voltage electronic microscopy on a raw V 3 Si crystal. The existence of a specific defect is highlighted and the crystallographic study of this defect is reported. It has been performed by means of computer-based simulation of contrast (TWODIS software). Results are then discussed

  8. Synthesis of Novel Heterocyclic Compounds Incorporate 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene Together with Their Cytotoxic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Amira Elsayed Mahmoud; Mohareb, Rafat Milad; Khalil, Eid Metwally; Elshamy, Menna Alla Mohamed Abd Elaleem

    2017-01-01

    The 2-amino-3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene was the key starting compound used to synthesize new thiazole, pyrimidine, pyran, pyridine and thiazine derivatives. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized compounds was studied towards the three cancer cell lines namely MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer) and SF-268 (central nervous system (CNS) cancer) in addition to the normal cell line (WI-38) using doxorubicin as the reference drug. The study showed that compounds 5, 9a, 15b, 17c, 18 and 21b were the most potent compounds.

  9. Inclusion Compound Based Approach to Forming Arrays of Artificial Dipolar Molecular Rotors: A Search for Optimal Rotor Structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobr, L.; Zhao, K.; Shen, X.; Shoemaker, R. K.; Rogers, C. T.; Michl, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2013), s. 443-448 ISSN 0935-9648 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 227756 - DIPOLAR ROTOR ARRAY Grant - others:NSF(US) CHE 0848663 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : inclusion compounds * molecular rotors * ferroelectricity * two-dimensional arrays Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 15.409, year: 2013

  10. Magnetic and transport properties of Ce 6MnSb 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godart, Claude; Rogl, Peter; Alleno, Eric; Gonçalves, António P.; Rouleau, Olivier

    2006-05-01

    In our effort to look for new Ce/Yb-based compounds with large unit cell, we studied Ce 6MnSb 15. Rietveld refinements of X-ray powder diffraction confirm that the material crystallizes in orthorhombic structure La 6MnSb 15-type, Imm2 space group, with 2 Ce sites (8e and 4d) and lattice parameters a=15.1643 Å, b=19.3875 Å and c=4.2794 Å, which closely agree with those already published. Magnetic susceptibility results show a paramagnetic behavior and no magnetic order down to 2 K in contrast to antiferromagnetic order previously reported at 7 K. Resistivity shows a metallic behavior and the Seebeck coefficient is very low, typically -2 μV/K.

  11. Analysis of volatile organic compound from Elaeis guineensis inflorescences planted on different soil types in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Fahmi, M. H.; Ahmad Bukhary, A. K.; Norma, H.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    The main attractant compound for Eleidobius kamerunicus to male spikelet Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) were determined by analyzing volatile organic compound extracted from E. guineenses inflorescences planted on different soil types namely peat soil, clay soil and sandy soil. Anthesizing male oil palm inflorescences were randomly choosen from palm aged between 4-5 years old age. Extraction of the volatiles from the oil palm inflorescences were performed by Accelerated Solvent Extraction method (ASE). The extracted volatile compound were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Out of ten identified compound, estragole was found to be a major compound in sandy soil (37.49%), clay soil (30.71%) and peat soil (27.79%). Other compound such as 9,12-octadecadieonic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid were found as major compound in peat soil (27.18%) and (7.45%); sandy soil (14.15 %) and (9.31%); and clay soil (30.23%) and (4.99%). This study shows that estragole was the predominant volatile compound detected in oil palm inflorescences with highly concentrated in palm planted in sandy soil type.

  12. A systematic summary of natural compounds in Radix Glycyrrhizae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To accumulate data from studies on the compounds identified from Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae, GC, and then systematically summarize and classify these compounds according to their structural characteristics. Methods: Five databases (CNKI, VIP, Wanfang data, CBM, and Pubmed were used to search for studies on the chemical structure of compounds from GC. The retrieval time of the respective databases was from their inception to March 2016. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the papers were carefully screened, and the data were extracted. Results: A total of 653 compounds from GC were collated from 252 articles, including flavonols (n = 201 belonging to 10 subgroups, terpenes and saponins (n = 167, coumarins (n = 30 belonging to 3 subgroups, aliphatics (n = 206, aromatics (n = 35, and others (n = 14. The flavones, represented by liquiritin and liquiritigenin, were the most reported compounds isolated from GC, followed by terpenes and saponins such as glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid. Conclusion: The more than 600 natural compounds in GC may be responsible for GC’s anti-inflammatory, phlegm-expelling, cough- and pain-relieving activities.

  13. TDPAC study of complex structure semiconductor compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitu, J.; Renteria, M.; Massolo, C.P.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Desimoni, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for analyzing Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation spectra is presented and applied to study the hyperfine interaction of 100 Rh in the high temperature modification of niobium pentoxide. The measured quadrupole interactions are assigned to about 80% of the radioactive probes replacing niobium atoms in the lattice and about 20% located in perturbed sites. The origin of this perturbation, producing a high frequency component in the measured spectra is discussed and temptatively assigned to remaining radiation damage in the compound. The hyperfine interaction of 111 Cd probes, introduced through thermal diffusion into niobium pentoxide, is also presented. The temperature dependence of the hyperfine parameters in this case is studied in the temperature range RT-800 degrees C. The spectral analyzing method employed allows a direct comparison of experimental data with point charge model calculations and a simultaneous evaluation of the anti-shielding factor β. The obtained values (27 for 100 Rh and 15 for 111 Cd) are discussed in terms of the compound and probe's characteristics

  14. TDPAC study of complex structure semiconductor compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitu, J.; Renteria, M.; Massolo, C.P.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Desimonni, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for analyzing Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation spectra is presented and applied to study the hyperfine interaction of 100 Rh in the high temperature modification of niobium pentoxide. The measured quadrupole interactions are assigned to about 80% of the radioactive probes replacing niobium atoms in the lattice and about 20% located in perturbed sites. The origin of this perturbation, producing a high frequency component in the measured spectra is discussed and temptatively assigned to remaining radiation damage in the compound. The hyperfine interaction of 111 Cd probes, introduced through thermal diffusion into niobium pentoxide, is also presented. The temperature dependence of the hyperfine parameters in this case is studied in the temperature range RT-800 degrees C. The spectral analyzing method employed allows a direct comparison of experimental data with point charge model calculations and a simultaneous evaluation of the antishielding factor β. The obtained values (27 for 100 Rh and 15 for 111 Cd) are discussed in terms of the compound and probe's characteristics

  15. Distribution of volatile organic compounds over a semiconductor Industrial Park in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Wu, Ben-Zen; Chang, Chih-Chung; Sree, Usha; Lo, Jiunn-Guang

    2005-02-15

    This study examined volatile organic compounds (VOC) concentration in ambient air collected during the years 2000--2003 at several different locations of Hsinchu Science-based Industrial Park (HSIP) in Taiwan. A canister automated GC-MS system analyzed the volatile organics in ambient air grasp samples according to T0-15 method. Oxygenated volatiles were the most abundant VOC detected in HSIP followed by aromatics that are commonly used as solvents in the semiconductor industries. The major components measured in the ambient air are 2-propanol (29-135 ppbv), acetone (12-164 ppbv), benzene (0.7-1.7 ppbv), and toluene (13-20 ppbv). At some of the sampling locations, odorous compounds such as carbon disulfide and dimethyl sulfide levels exceed threshold values. The estimated toluene/benzene ratio is very high at most of the sites. However, the total amount of VOC is reduced over the years from 2000 to 2003 due to strict implementation on use and discharge of solvents in industries. There exists no definite seasonal pattern for sporadic occurrence of high levels of some of the volatile organics. Stagnant weather conditions with low wind speeds aid accumulation of toxic species at ground level. The results entail that hi-tech semiconductor industries are still a potential source for harmful organic substances to surrounding microenvironment.

  16. Lithium insertion in the two crystallographic forms of the binary-phase Mo15Se19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarascon, J. M.; Murphy, D. W.

    1986-02-01

    Compounds which can undergo topotactic insertion of lithium are of potential technological importance in secondary lithium batteries. In this paper we present the chemical and electrochemical insertion of lithium into the binary-phase Mo15Se19, which can exist in two crystallographic forms, denoted AA and BB, when prepared from In3Mo15Se19 and In2Mo15Se19, respectively. We show that both forms can reversibly accommodate up to eight lithium atoms, yielding two new series of compounds of formula LixMo15Se19. This behavior is consistent with the electronic structure of the host material predicted from band-structure calculations. The room-temperature phase diagram of both LixMo15Se19 systems as a function of x has been established using electrochemical test cells (based on Mo15Se19 as the cathode), and in situ x-ray measurements as the cells discharge. Both LixMo15Se19 systems contain three single-phase domains as a function of x: two hexagonal phases and an orthorhombic phase. The nature of the transitions between these single phases and the variation of the lattice parameters within a single-phase domain are reported. While the mechanism of intercalation of lithium is similar for both Mo15Se19 forms, there is a drastic difference in Li intercalation behavior for the parent indium phases In2Mo15Se19 and In3Mo15Se19. We found that In2Mo15Se19 can reversibly incorporate 6.4 lithium atoms while In3Mo15Se19 does not react. This behavior is explained on the basis of structural considerations.

  17. Large magnetic entropy change in melt-spun LaFe11.5Si1.5 ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Kun; Song Xiaoping; Zhu Yaoming; Lv Weipeng; Sun Zhanbo

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure transformation and the magnetic entropy change of LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 melt-spun ribbons were investigated. The melt-spun ribbons show a homogeneous distribution of elements, and the homogeneity develops further after 5 h annealing. XRD results show that the ribbons are composed of NaZn 13 -type LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 compounds and an α-Fe phase. After annealing, the ribbons crystallize well in the NaZn 13 -type structure and exhibit a very large magnetic entropy change. A first-order magnetic transition is observed in the annealed ribbons, and this is believed to be the origin of the large magnetic entropy. These results suggest that NaZn 13 -type LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 compounds with a large magnetic entropy change can be produced by melt-spinning, the annealing time can be shortened significantly and the production cost of the magnetic refrigerant will be cut down accordingly

  18. A new iridoid and effect on the rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation of isolated compounds from Buddleja officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bui Huu; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Quang, Tran Hong; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kim, Yohan; Lee, Jung-Jin; Myung, Chang-Seon; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-06-01

    A new iridoid, named methylscutelloside (1) together with 19 known compounds belonging to the iridoids (2-4), monoterpenoids (5), flavonoids (6-8), triterpenoids (9-14), and phenylethanoids (15-20) were isolated from the flowers of Buddleja officinalis. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties, and by spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR, and MS. All isolated compounds were tested in vitro for their effects on the proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Among them, iridoids were the main active components and showed significant inhibitory effects on PDGF-BB-induced proliferation in rat aortic VSMCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milovanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used in creating various functional food and feed products, but certain species of microalgae and cyanobacteria are known to produce various compounds causing off-flavour. In this work, we investigated selected cyanobacterial strains of Spirulina, Anabaena, and Nostoc genera originating from Serbia, with the aim of determining the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds produced by these organisms. Additionally, the influence of nitrogen level during growth on the production of volatile compounds was investigated for Nostoc and Anabaena strains. In addition, multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, were used for making distinction among different microalgal strains. The results show that the main volatile compounds in these species are medium chain length alkanes, but other odorous compounds such as 2-methylisoborneol (0.51–4.48%, 2-pentylfuran (0.72–8.98%, β-cyclocitral (0.00–1.17%, and β-ionone (1.15–2.72% were also detected in the samples. Addition of nitrogen to growth medium was shown to negatively affect the production of 2-methylisoborneol, while geosmin was not detected in any of the analyzed samples, which indicates that the manipulation of growth conditions may be useful in reducing levels of some unwanted odor-causing components.

  20. Applications of stable isotopes of /sup 2/H, /sup 13/C and /sup 15/N to clinical problems. Experience of a collaborative program at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, P D; Szczepanik, P A; Hachey, D L [Argonne National Lab., Evanston, Ill. (USA)

    1974-08-01

    The function of the Argonne Program is to provide synthetic, analytical instrumental capability in a core facility for the clinical investigator who needs to use /sup 2/H, /sup 13/C, or /sup 15/N labelled compounds for metabolic or clinical research on pregnant women, newborn infants, young children, or for mass screening. To carry out such application development, there were six stages which were recurrent steps in every application. Five fundamental strategies should be adopted to establish the use of stable isotopes in clinical work. The instrument required for measurements was a combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and its use was schematically illustrated. Some of the successful experiences with compounds labelled by stable isotopes, such as deuterium labelled chenodeoxycholic acid, and respective /sup 13/C and /sup 15/N-labelled glycine were described. Deutrium labelled bile acid enabled easy and safe determination of the size of the bile acid pool and the replacement rate, providing clearer diagnoses for cholestatic liver disease and gallstones. /sup 13/C and /sup 15/N labelled compounds were used in clinical studies, of children with genetic disorders of amino acid metabolism, i.e., non ketotic hyperflycinemia, B/sub 12/-responsive methyl malonic acidemia, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. /sup 15/N-labelled glycine was also studied in a child with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

  1. Template occluded SBA-15: An effective dissolution enhancer for poorly water-soluble drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Tingming; Guo Liwei; Le Kang; Wang Tianyao; Lu Jin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam by inclusion into template occluded SBA-15. Our strategy involves directly introducing piroxicam into as-prepared SBA-15 occluded with P123 (EO 20 PO 70 EO 20 ) by self assembling method in acetonitrile/methylene chloride mixture solution. Ultraviolet spectrometry experiment and thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) profiles show that the piroxicam and P123 contents in the inclusion compound are 12 wt% and 28 wt%, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction and DSC analysis reveal that the included piroxicam is arranged in amorphous form. N 2 adsorption-desorption experiment indicates that the piroxicam has been introduced to the mesopores instead of precipitating at the outside of the silica material. The inclusion compound was submitted to in vitro dissolution tests, the results show that the piroxicam dissolve from template occluded inclusion compound more rapidly, than these from the piroxicam crystalline and template removed samples in all tested conditions. Thus a facile method to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug was established, and this discovery opens a new avenue for the utilization of templates used for the synthesis of mesoporous materials.

  2. Carbon material formation on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 and residue constituents during acetylene decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Wu, Trong-Neng [Department of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Ho, Yung-Shou [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung 831, Taiwan (China); Zeng, Li-Xuan [Department of Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Acetylene was decomposed on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 at 650–850 °C. • Carbon spheres and filaments were formed after acetylene decomposition. • PAHs were determined in tar and residues. • Exhaust constituents include CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and hydrocarbon species. - Abstract: Carbon materials including carbon spheres and nanotubes were formed from acetylene decomposition on hydrogen-reduced SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 at 650–850 °C. The physicochemical characteristics of SBA-15, Ni-SBA-15 and carbon materials were analyzed by field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM), Raman spectrometry, and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). In addition, the contents of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the tar and residue and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaust were determined during acetylene decomposition on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15. Spherical carbon materials were observed on SBA-15 during acetylene decomposition at 750 and 850 °C. Carbon filaments and ball spheres were formed on Ni-SBA-15 at 650–850 °C. Raman spectroscopy revealed peaks at 1290 (D-band, disorder mode, amorphous carbon) and 1590 (G-band, graphite sp{sup 2} structure) cm{sup −1}. Naphthalene (2 rings), pyrene (4 rings), phenanthrene (3 rings), and fluoranthene (4 rings) were major PAHs in tar and residues. Exhaust constituents of hydrocarbon (as propane), H{sub 2}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} were 3.9–2.6/2.7–1.5, 1.4–2.8/2.6–4.3, 4.2–2.4/3.2–1.7% when acetylene was decomposed on SBA-15/Ni-SBA-15, respectively, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 650 to 850 °C. The concentrations of 52 VOCs ranged from 9359 to 5658 and 2488 to 1104 ppm for SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 respectively, at acetylene decomposition temperatures from 650 to 850 °C, and the aromatics contributed more than 87% fraction of VOC concentrations.

  3. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    OpenAIRE

    White, John R.; Belmont, Marco A.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the ...

  4. Thermal Expansion of Ni3Al Intermetallic Compound: Experiment and Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hai-Peng; Lü Peng; Zhou Kai; Wei Bing-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The thermal expansion of Ni 3 Al intermetallic compound is determined by a thermal dilatometer and simulated by the molecular dynamics method. The results of the linear thermal expansion coefficients are presented from 200 K up to the maximum temperature of 1600 K. The single phase of Ni 3 Al intermetallic compound is confirmed by x-ray diffraction together with DSC melting and solidification peaks, from which the solidus and the liquidus temperatures are obtained to be 1660 and 1695 K, respectively. The measured linear thermal expansion coefficient increases from 1.5 × 10 −5 to 2.7 × 10 −5 K −1 in the experimental temperature range, in good agreement with the data obtained by the molecular dynamics simulation, just a slight difference from the temperature dependence coefficient. Furthermore, the atomic structure and position are presented to reveal the atom distribution change during thermal expansion of Ni 3 Al compound. (paper)

  5. Simultaneous determination of oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and cadmium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, K.; Kuriki, T.; Ohsawa, K.; Ishii, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds were analysed for oxygen and cadmium by a modification of the Schutze-Unterzaucher method. Oxygen in some compounds such as cadmium oxide, nitrate and sulphate could not be determined by the usual method. The method of adding carbon was employed for the determination of total oxygen. Total oxygen could be determined by the addition of 5 mg of carbon to a sample boat and heating at 950 0 . The determination was also carried out by addition of naphthalene (2 mg). It was found that the cadmium powder and cadmium flake used contained ca. 1 and 0.15% oxygen, respectively. Oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and its compounds were simultaneously determined by the addition of 2 mg of naphthalene. Cadmium was determined colorimetrically by use of glyoxal-bis-(2-hydroxyanil). Oxygen and cadmium in the samples could be determined simultaneously with an average error of -0.02 and -0.22%, respectively. (author)

  6. Commensurately modulated 1/4 and 1/5 phases of deuterated betaine calcium chloride dihydrate: a neutron structural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, O.; Cousson, A.; Kiat, J.M.; Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry; Paulus, W.; Technische Hochschule Aachen; Ezpeleta, J.M.; Zuniga, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The structures of the commensurate 1/4 and 1/5 phases of the displacively modulated compound D-BCCD [deuterated betaine (trimethylammonioacetate) calcium chloride dihydrate, i.e. (CD 3 ) 3 NCD 2 COOCaCl 2 (D 2 O) 2 or CaCl 2 x C 5 D 11 NO 2 x 2D 2 O] have been determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction at 100 and 68 K, respectively. The structural model of the 1/4 phase is found to be quite different from that obtained previously from X-ray diffraction data of the hydrogenated compound. This discrepancy comes from the fact that X-ray irradiation induces in this compound an unusual time-dependent decrease of the intensity of high-order satellite diffraction peaks. As a consequence and due to the commensurate nature of the phases investigated, X-ray diffraction failed to detect the large anharmonicity of the structural modulation which is clearly present in the two structures determined by neutron diffraction. (orig.)

  7. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  8. Analysis of volatile compounds from Iberian hams: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Rivas, M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information on the study of the volatile compounds in raw and dry-cured Iberian hams. Different volatile compounds are identified and studies carried out by different authors are presented. This article reviews the analytical methods that have been used to determine the different volatiles of these samples. Furthermore, all volatile compounds identified (a total of 411 volatiles have been collected in several tables according to different series of compounds: hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and ethers, lactones, terpenes and chloride compounds, nitrogenous compounds, sulfur compounds and carboxylic acids. This review can be useful in subsequent research due to the complexity of the study.

    En este artículo se proporciona información sobre el estudio de los compuestos volátiles del jamón ibérico tanto fresco como curado. Se presentan los diferentes compuestos volátiles identificados por distintos autores. Además, se evalúan los métodos analíticos que han sido utilizados para determinar dichos compuestos volátiles en este tipo de muestras. Todos los compuestos identificados y descritos en esta revisión (un total de 411 compuestos volátiles han sido agrupados en diversas tablas de acuerdo a las diferentes familias a que pertenecen: hidrocarburos, aldehídos, cetonas, alcoholes, ésteres y éteres, lactonas, terpenos, compuestos halogenados, compuestos nitrogenados, compuestos de azufre y ácidos carboxílicos. Debido a la complejidad de este estudio, la presente revisión puede ser muy útil en investigaciones posteriores.

  9. Composition of volatile aromatic compounds and minerals of tarhana enriched with cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Hasan; Tarakçı, Zekai

    2017-03-01

    Different concentrations of cherry laurel pulp (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) were used to produce tarhana samples. Volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content were investigated. Volatile aromatic compounds were analyzed by using GC-MS with SPME fiber and minor mineral values were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The statistical analysis showed that addition of pulp affected volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content significantly. Thirty five volatile aromatic compounds were found in tarhana samples. The octanoic acid from acids, benzaldehyde (CAS) phenylmethanal from aldehydes, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one from ketones, octadecane (CAS) n -octadecane form terpenes, ethyl caprylate from esters and benzenemethanol (CAS) benzyl alcohol from alcohols had the highest percentage of volatile aromatic compounds. Tarhana samples were rich source of Mn, Cu and Fe content.

  10. Facile synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of some new heterocyclic compounds incorporating a biologically active sulfamoyl moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Elham S

    2014-01-01

    A facile and convenient synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds containing a sulfamoyl moiety suitable for use as antimicrobial agents was reported. The precursor 3-oxo-3-phenyl-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)propionamide was coupled smoothly with arenediazonium salt producing hydrazones which reacted with malononitrile or triethylorthoformate affording pyridazine and triazine derivatives, respectively. Also, the reactivity of the same precursor with DMF-DMA was followed by aminotriazole; aromatic aldehydes was followed by hydrazine hydrate, triethylorthoformate, or thiourea affording triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, pyrazole, acrylamide, and dihydropyrimidine derivatives, respectively. On the other hand, treatment of the precursor propionamide with phenyl isothiocyanate and KOH in DMF afforded the intermediate salt which was treated with dilute HCl followed by 2-bromo-1-phenylethanone affording carboxamide derivative. While the same intermediate salt reacted in situ with chloroacetone, ethyl 2-chloroacetate, 3-(2-bromoacetyl)-2H-chromen-2-one, methyl iodide, or 2-oxo-N-phenylpropane hydrazonoyl chloride afforded the thiophene, ketene N,S-acetal, and thiadiazole derivatives, respectively. The structure of the new products was established based on elemental and spectral analysis. Antimicrobial evaluation of some selected examples from the synthesized products was carried out whereby four compounds were found to have moderate activities and one compound showed the highest activity.

  11. Compounds in different aphasia categories: a study on picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Carlo; De Pellegrin, Serena; Battel, Irene; Garzon, Martina; Meneghello, Francesca; Chiarelli, Valentina

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the production of compounds in Italian-speaking patients affected by different aphasia categories (i.e., Broca's, Wernicke's, and anomic aphasia) in a confrontation naming task. Questions of theoretical interest concerning the processing of compounds within the framework of the "lemma theory" as well as the role of morphological productivity in compound processing are addressed. Results indicate that all persons with aphasia retain knowledge of the morphological status of words, even when they fail to retrieve the corresponding phonological form (the "compound effect"). A difference was found among aphasia categories in the type of errors produced (omission vs. substitution) and in the position (first or second) of these errors within the compound words. In Broca's aphasia, the first component is omitted more frequently than the second one, but only in verb-noun compounds. Anomic and Wernicke's aphasia, unlike in Broca's aphasia, seem to retain sensitivity to morphological productivity.

  12. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. White

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates.

  13. Studies on organic semiconductors. 15: Effects of the substituents on the photoconductivities of substituted anthracenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, A.; Kato, S.; Inoue, H.; Imoto, E.

    1985-01-01

    The photocurrents of the substituted anthracenes, 1,5-diacetylanthracene (2), 1-acetylanthracene (3), 9-acetylanthracene (4), 1,5-dichloroanthracene (5), 1,5-diethylanthracene (6), 1,5-dimethoxyanthracene (7), 9-cyanoanthracene (8), and anthracene (1) were measured by using their surface type cells in nitrogen. The compounds of (1), (5), (6), (7), and (8) showed the photocurrent spectra which corresponded to the absorption spectra of their evaporated films. In the cases of (2) and (3), however, the anomalous photocurrent appeared in the threshold region of their absorption spectra. The appearance of the anomalous photocurrent was characteristic of anthracenes having the acetyl group at 1- and/or 5-position. The magnitude of the photocurrents of the 1,5-disubstituted anthracenes was similar to that of (1). The photocurrents of the monosubstituted anthracenes were smaller than that of (1). Among the monosubstituted anthracenes, the compound (4) showed no photocurrent under the same conditions. Contrary to the results obtained in the cases of phenazines, the photoconductivities of the anthracene derivatives became better in air.

  14. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  15. Prediction of Positions of Active Compounds Makes It Possible To Increase Activity in Fragment-Based Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a computational method that predicts the positions of active compounds, making it possible to increase activity as a fragment evolution strategy. We refer to the positions of these compounds as the active position. When an active fragment compound is found, the following lead generation process is performed, primarily to increase activity. In the current method, to predict the location of the active position, hydrogen atoms are replaced by small side chains, generating virtual compounds. These virtual compounds are docked to a target protein, and the docking scores (affinities are examined. The hydrogen atom that gives the virtual compound with good affinity should correspond to the active position and it should be replaced to generate a lead compound. This method was found to work well, with the prediction of the active position being 2 times more efficient than random synthesis. In the current study, 15 examples of lead generation were examined. The probability of finding active positions among all hydrogen atoms was 26%, and the current method accurately predicted 60% of the active positions.

  16. Organoselenium compounds prevent hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins induced by the neurotoxic agent diphenyl ditelluride in cerebral cortex of young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, M.B.; Funchal, C.; Zeni, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.; Pessoa-Pureur, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigated the protective ability of the selenium compounds ebselen and diphenyl diselenide against the effect of diphenyl ditelluride on the in vitro incorporation of 32 P into intermediate filament (IF) proteins from slices of cerebral cortex of 17-day-old rats. We observed that ditelluride in the concentrations of 1, 15 and 50 μM induced hyperphosphorylation of the high-salt Triton insoluble neurofilament subunits (NF-M and NF-L), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, without altering the immunocontent of these proteins. Concerning the selenium compounds, diselenide (1, 15 and 50 μM) did not induce alteration of the in vitro phosphorylation of the IF proteins. Otherwise, ebselen induced an altered in vitro phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal proteins in a dose-dependent manner. At intermediate concentrations (15 and 30 μM) it increased the in vitro phosphorylation even though, at low (5 μM) or high (50 and 100 μM) concentrations this compound was ineffective in altering the activity of the cytoskeletal-associated phosphorylating system. In addition, 15 μM diselenide and 5 μM ebselen, presented a protective effect against the action of ditelluride, on the phosphorylation of the proteins studied. Considering that hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins is associated with neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration, it is probable that the effects of ditelluride could be related to the remarkable neurotoxicity of this organic form of tellurium. Furthermore the neuroprotective action of selenium compounds against tellurium effects could be a promising route to be exploited for a possible treatment of organic tellurium poisoning

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of MnCo1-xVxGe compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, G.H.; Tegus, O.; Zhang, W.G.; Song, L.; Huang, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of MnCo 1-x V x Ge (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30) compounds were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and magnetization measurements. The MnCo 1-x V x Ge compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic TiNiSi-type crystal structure for x ≤ 0.02 and in the hexagonal Ni 2 In-type structure for x > 0.02. The magnetization measurements show that the MnCo 1-x V x Ge compounds exhibit a complex magnetic behavior. The Curie temperature can be tuned from 360 K to 148 K by increasing x. The maximal magnetic-entropy change is 3.9 J/kg K for x = 0.06 at a field change from 0 to 1.5 T at about 265 K.

  18. Effective compounds screening from Rabdosia serra (Maxim) Hara against HBV and tumor in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Chen, Yang; Zhu, Hongyuan; Xiao, Yiyun; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Zhao, Jingfeng; Chen, Yuxiang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and investigate the anti-HBV and anti-tumor activities of separated compounds from Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) Hara to lay the basis for further isolate active entity. Three kinds of extractions from Rabdosia serra using different solvents (petroleum ether, acetidin, butyl alcohol) were prepared and used to analyze their anti-HBV activity in HepG2.2.15 cells for further separation. The cytotoxicity of each extraction was tested by MTT assay, the levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA in supernatants from HepG2.2.15 cells were detected by ELISA and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, the most effective extraction was further separated, the anti-HBV activities of separated compounds were also tested by MTT and ELISA, and three compounds with highest cytotoxicity were selected to further identify their anti-tumor activities on MCF-7, BGC-823 and HepG2 cells. Acetidin extraction C2 had the most effective anti-HBV activity that was used to be further separated, it led to statistically significant reduction in HBsAg and HBeAg secretion and HBV DNA. The separation of C2 resulted in 14 compounds, A3 and A5 markedly inhibited HBsAg secretion, while A9 inhibited HBeAg secretion in a dose-dependent manner with higher TI comparing with C2. A6, A7, A11 had different anti-tumor activity against different tumor cells. These data showed that the extraction and their separated effective compounds had strong inhibitory effect on HBV replication so as to have anti-HBV activity, and further separation and purification could enhance anti-HBV activity. Meanwhile, some compounds have high cytotoxicities on different tumor cells. Our study could provide a theoretical basis for the next clinical use and the development of potential and efficient drugs for HBV and tumor therapy from Rabdosia serra.

  19. Comparison of the neurotoxicities between volatile organic compounds and fragrant organic compounds on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and primary cultured rat neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasue Yamada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available These are many volatile organic compounds (VOCs that are synthesized, produced from petroleum or derived from natural compounds, mostly plants. Fragrant and volatile organic compounds from plants have been used as food additives, medicines and aromatherapy. Several clinical and pathological studies have shown that chronic abuse of VOCs, mainly toluene, causes several neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the mechanisms of neurotoxicity of the solvents. n-Octanal, nonanal, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, which are used catalyzers or intermediates of chemical reactions, are released into the environment. Essential oils have the functions of self-defense, sterilization, and antibiosis in plants. When volatile organic compounds enter the body, there is the possibility that they will pass through the blood–brain barrier (BBB and affect the central nervous system (CNS. However, the direct effects of volatile organic compounds on neural function and their toxicities are still unclear. We compared the toxicities of n-octanal, nonanal and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with those of five naturally derived fragrant organic compounds (FOCs, linalool, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, isoamyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol and n-phenethyl alcohol. MTT assay of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells showed that the IC50 values of linalool, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, isoamyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol and phenethyl alcohol were 1.33, 2.3, >5, >5, and 2.39 mM, respectively, and the IC50 values of toluene, n-octanal, nonanal and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were 850, 37.2, 8.31 and 15.1 μM, respectively. FOCs showed lower toxicities than those of VOCs. These results indicate that FOCs are safer than other compounds.

  20. Kinetic study of the formation of the superconducting A15 phase in the Nb-Al-Si system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh-Phung.

    1978-12-01

    So far, aluminum-containing superconductors showed excellent critical fields and temperatures. Powder Metallurgy shows the most promise in producing these particular kinds of superconductors in the near future. The scope of this research is to apply a kinetic study to observe the behavior of the Nb(Al,Si) system at elevated temperatures. From such observations, an optimized method of obtaining the A15 superconducting phase can be achieved. This study has resulted in a two step heat treatment to obtain the A15 phase. For the primary heat treatment of infiltrated rods, 600 0 C for 11 hours or 650 0 C for 1 hour was found suitable to form a barrier of intermetallic compound around the pores. For the secondary heat treatment, 1700 0 C for 15 seconds resulted in the formation of the A15 superconducting phase with a critical temperature of 18.25 0 K. A15 formation for wires is similar to infiltrated rods. The only difference is the diffusion path which is now much shorter. 600 0 C for 1 hour was found suitable for the primary heat treatment and 1700 0 C for 15 seconds was the most suitable for the secondary heat treatment. The highest critical temperature found thus far was 18.78 0 K

  1. What is a compound? The main criteria for compoundhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altakhaineh Abdel Rahman Mitib

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the main cross-linguistic criteria for compoundhood discussed in the relevant literature, with a special focus on English, ranking them from the most reliable to the least. These criteria - orthographic, phonological, syntactic and semantic in nature - have been proposed to make a distinction between compounds and phrases. The analysis reveals that the most reliable cross-linguistic criteria to distinguish between phrases and compounds are adjacency and referentiality. With regard to the former criterion, no intervening elements can be inserted between the head and the non-head of compounds, whilst such insertion is allowed in phrases. With regard to the latter criterion, the non-head of a phrase is always referential, whereas the non-head of a compound is normally non-referential. Other criteria have been found to be partially applicable, e.g. free pluralisation of the non-head, compositionality, stress, possibilities for modification and coordination, ellipsis, orthography and the replacement of the second element by a pro-form. The study also proposes a definition for compounds that may be the most widely applicable. Finally, the study concludes with ranking the main criteria for compoundhood discussed in the study.

  2. Gibbs energy formation of Sr5Nb4O15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samui, Pradeep; Padhi, Anyuna; Agarwal, Renu; Kulkarni, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Ternary oxides of strontium and niobium may form as fission product compounds in an operating nuclear reactor with oxide fuels under certain oxygen potential. Evaluations of thermodynamic stability of these ternary oxides are therefore important for assessment of fission product interactions. Furthermore, thermodynamic data of these oxides are also of relevance because of computation of phase diagram and phase stability of pseudo-ternary systems BaO-SrO-Nb 2 O 5 , SrO-Nb 2 O 5 -TaO 5 etc. in which some of the compounds are potential candidate materials for microwave ceramics with high dielectric constant, electro-optic, pyroelectric and piezoelectric devices. The system Sr-Nb-O contains many ternary oxides out of which we have investigated the thermodynamic parameters for the compound Sr 5 Nb 4 O 15 in the present study

  3. Phenazine–naphthalene-1,5-diamine–water (1/1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gdaniec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C12H8N2·C10H10N2·2H2O, contains one half-molecule of phenazine, one half-molecule of naphthalene-1,5-diamine and one water molecule. The phenazine and naphthalene-1,5-diamine molecules are located on inversion centers. The water molecules serve as bridges between the naphthalene-1,5-diamine molecules and also between the naphthalene-1,5-diamine and phenazine molecules. The naphthalene-1,5-diamine and water molecules are connected via N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming a T4(2 motif. They are arranged into a two-dimensional polymeric structure parallel to (10overline{1} in which the water molecule is a single donor and a double acceptor, whereas the amino group is a double donor and a single acceptor in the hydrogen bonding. These two-dimensional assemblies alternate with the layers of phenazine molecules arranged into a herringbone motif. Each phenazine molecule is hydrogen bonded to two water molecules and thus a three-dimensional framework of hydrogen-bonded molecules is generated.

  4. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  5. Cyanobacteria as a Source for Novel Anti-Leukemic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humisto, Anu; Herfindal, Lars; Jokela, Jouni; Karkman, Antti; Bjørnstad, Ronja; Choudhury, Romi R; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are an inspiring source of bioactive secondary metabolites. These bioactive agents are a diverse group of compounds which are varying in their bioactive targets, the mechanisms of action, and chemical structures. Cyanobacteria from various environments, especially marine benthic cyanobacteria, are found to be rich sources for the search for novel bioactive compounds. Several compounds with anticancer activities have been discovered from cyanobacteria and some of these have succeeded to enter the clinical trials. Varying anticancer agents are needed to overcome increasing challenges in cancer treatments. Different search methods are used to reveal anticancer compounds from natural products, but cell based methods are the most common. Cyanobacterial bioactive compounds as agents against acute myeloid leukemia are not well studied. Here we examined our new results combined with previous studies of anti-leukemic compounds from cyanobacteria with emphasis to reveal common features in strains producing such activity. We report that cyanobacteria harbor specific anti-leukemic compounds since several studied strains induced apoptosis against AML cells but were inactive against non-malignant cells like hepatocytes. We noted that particularly benthic strains from the Baltic Sea, such as Anabaena sp., were especially potential AML apoptosis inducers. Taken together, this review and re-analysis of data demonstrates the power of maintaining large culture collections for the search for novel bioactivities, and also how anti-AML activity in cyanobacteria can be revealed by relatively simple and low-cost assays.

  6. Structure and magnetic properties of Ba5Ce1.25Mn3.75O15, a new 10H-polytype in the Ba–Ce–Mn–O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías, Mario A.; Mentré, Olivier; Colis, Silviu; Cuello, Gabriel J.; Gauthier, Gilles H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the peculiar magnetic properties that are observed in pseudo one-dimensional manganites, we decided to synthesize the new Ba 5 Ce 1.25 Mn 3.75 O 15 compound. The preparation was performed by solid state reaction in air at about 1350 °C, for which we found that the compound crystallizes in a hexagonal symmetry with space group P6 3 /mmc (No-194) and cell parameters a=b=5.7861(2) Å and c=23.902(1) Å. The structural description was correlated with neutron diffraction and bond valence calculations, confirming the presence of Ce 4+ and Mn 4+ segregated in the different crystallographic positions. Ba 5 Ce 1.25 Mn 3.75 O 15 displays evidence for strong AFM couplings already set at room temperature. The main arrangement of Mn 4+ in magnetically isolated tetramers of face-sharing octahedra is responsible for a metamagnetic-like transition around 50 K. - Graphical abstract: The new Ba 5 Ce 1.25 Mn 3.75 O 15 polytype shows strong AFM couplings in magnetically isolated [Ce 0.25 Mn 3.75 O 15 ] tetramers of face-sharing octahedral, resulting in a metamagnetic-like transition around 50 K. Highlights: ► Ba 5 Ce 1.25 Mn 3.75 O 15 , a new 10H polytype, has been prepared in the Ba–Ce–Mn–O system. ► The compound crystallizes in the P6 3 /mmc space group with (cchhh) 2 stacking sequence. ► [Ce 0.25 Mn 3.75 O 15 ] tetramers are separated by [CeO 6 ] octahedra in the structure. ► Instead of robust AFM ordering, a metamagnetic-like transition is found around 50 K.

  7. Effects of irradiation on the volatile compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.J.; Yang, J.S.; Liu, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of 0.15 kGy gamma irradiation on the content of volatile compounds in garlic bulbs during storage at room temperature were evaluated. The content of diallyl disulphide decreased immediately after irradiation. However, at the end of 8-month storage both irradiated and unirradiated samples showed a significant increase in diallyl disulphide

  8. Effects of gasoline aromatic content on emissions of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes from a four-stroke motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng

    2013-01-01

    A new four-stroke carburettor motorcycle engine without any engine adjustments was used to study the impact of fuel aromatic content on the exhaust emissions of organic air pollutants (volatile organic compounds and carbonyls). Three levels of aromatic content, i.e. 15, 25, and 50% (vol.) aromatics mixed with gasoline were tested. The emissions of aromatic fuel were compared with those of commercial unleaded gasoline. The results indicated that the A 15 (15 vol% aromatics in gasoline) fuel exhibited the greatest total organic emission improvement among these three aromatic fuels as compared with commercial gasoline, reaching 59%. The highest emission factors of alkanes, alkenes, and carbonyl groups appeared in the reference fuel (RF) among all of the test fuels. A 15 showed the highest emission reduction in alkanes (73%), aromatics (36%), and carbonyls (28%), as compared to those of the RF. The highest emission reduction ofalkenes was observed when using A25 as fuel. A reduction in fuel aromatic content from 50 to 25 and 15 vol% in gasoline decreased benzene and toluene emissions, but increased the aldehyde emissions. In general, the results showed that the highest emission reductions for the most of measured organic pollutants appeared when using A 15 as the fuel.

  9. Lithium insertion in the two crystallographic forms of the binary-phase Mo15Se19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarascon, J.M.; Murphy, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Compounds which can undergo topotactic insertion of lithium are of potential technological importance in secondary lithium batteries. In this paper we present the chemical and electrochemical insertion of lithium into the binary-phase Mo 15 Se 19 , which can exist in two crystallographic forms, denoted AA and BB, when prepared from In 3 Mo 15 Se 19 and In 2 Mo 15 Se 19 , respectively. We show that both forms can reversibly accommodate up to eight lithium atoms, yielding two new series of compounds of formula Li/sub x/Mo 15 Se 19 . This behavior is consistent with the electronic structure of the host material predicted from band-structure calculations. The room-temperature phase diagram of both Li/sub x/Mo 15 Se 19 systems as a function of x has been established using electrochemical test cells (based on Mo 15 Se 19 as the cathode), and in situ x-ray measurements as the cells discharge. Both Li/sub x/Mo 15 Se 19 systems contain three single-phase domains as a function of x: two hexagonal phases and an orthorhombic phase. The nature of the transitions between these single phases and the variation of the lattice parameters within a single-phase domain are reported. While the mechanism of intercalation of lithium is similar for both Mo 15 Se 19 forms, there is a drastic difference in Li intercalation behavior for the parent indium phases In''Mo 15 Se 19 and In 3 Mo 15 Se 19 . We found that In 2 Mo 15 Se 19 can reversibly incorporate 6.4 lithium atoms while In 3 Mo 15 Se 19 does not react. This behavior is explained on the basis of structural considerations

  10. Seasonal changes in nitrogen availability, and root and microbial uptake of 15N13C9-phenylalanine and 15N-ammonium in situ at a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Louise C.; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2011-01-01

    In the plant biosynthesis of secondary compounds, phenylalanine is a precursor of condensed tannins. Tannins are deposited into the soil in plant root exudates and dead plant material and have been suggested to precipitate some soil nutrients and hence reduce nutrient availability for plants. Free...... amino acid,inorganic and microbial N concentration during the growing season was investigated in an ecosystem with a natural tannin chemosphere. The influence of tannins on the uptake of nitrogen in plants and microbes was followed by injecting tannic acid (TA), ammonium-15N and phenylalanine-15N/13C9...

  11. Orientation distribution in Bi2Te3-based compound prepared by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.T.; Kim, Y.H.; Lim, C.H.; Cho, D.C.; Lee, Y.S.; Lee, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    P-type Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 compounds doped with 3wt.% Te were fabricated by spark plasma sintering after mixing large powders(P L ) and small powders(P S ). We could obtained the highest figure of merit(Z C ) of 2.89 x 10 -3 /K in sintered compound mixed to P L :P S =80:20. This resulted from the increase of orientation by large powders(P S ) and the reduce of pores by small powders. The figure of merit(Z C ) of the sintered compound using only small powders(P S ) showed lower value of 2.67 x 10 -3 /K compared with that of sintered compound mixed to P L :P S =80:20 due to the increase of electrical resistivity. (orig.)

  12. Frenolicins C-G, pyranonaphthoquinones from Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiachang; Shaaban, Khaled A; Elshahawi, Sherif I; Ponomareva, Larissa V; Sunkara, Manjula; Zhang, Yinan; Copley, Gregory C; Hower, James C; Morris, Andrew J; Kharel, Madan K; Thorson, Jon S

    2013-08-23

    Appalachian active coal fire sites were selected for the isolation of bacterial strains belonging to the class actinobacteria. A comparison of high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and ultraviolet (UV) absorption profiles from isolate extracts to natural product databases suggested Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15 to produce unique metabolites. Four new pyranonaphthoquinones, frenolicins C-F (1-4), along with three known analogues, frenolicin (6), frenolicin B (7), and UCF76-A (8), were isolated from the fermentation of this strain. An additional new analogue, frenolicin G (5), along with two known compounds, deoxyfrenolicin (9) and UCF 13 (10), were isolated from the fermentation supplied with 18 mg/L of scandium chloride, the first example, to the best of our knowledge, wherein scandium chloride supplementation led to the confirmed production of new bacterial secondary metabolites. Structures 1-5 were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical modification. While frenolicins are best known for their anticoccidial activity, the current study revealed compounds 6-9 to exhibit moderate cytotoxicity against the human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) and thereby extends the anticancer SAR for this privileged scaffold.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect of a phytoestrogen compound on rat microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, F; Mao, G S; Liu, T; Chui, D H; Lorenzetti, A; Xiao, Y; Marandola, P

    2006-11-01

    Ovariectomized Wistar rats received orally 15 mg/kg of a phytoestrogen compound (genistein, daidzein, glycitein, black cohosh, angelica sin., licorice, vitex agnus) for 2 weeks to test its ability to modulate inflammatory microglia response. Microglial proliferation was tested by trypan blue and by absorbance. Serial supernatant sampling was performed for 24 h to check TNF-alpha, IL-beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta. LPS caused a time course increase of all cytokines, with IL-beta and TNF-alpha peaking at the 12th hour, whereas IL-6 and TGF-beta peaked at the 24 h observation. Rats fed with the phytoestrogen displayed a significantly lower level of proinflammatory cytokines and a higher level of TGF-beta, as shown also by Western blot analysis. This finding may offer promise in the field of nutraceutical intervention.

  14. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared to conve......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  15. CuI nanoparticles as a remarkable catalyst in the synthesis of benzo[b][1,5]diazepines: an eco-friendly approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Safaei-Ghomi, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Highly efficient CuI nanoparticles catalyzed one-pot synthesis of some benzo[b][1,5]diazepine derivatives via multi-component condensation of aromatic diamines, Meldrum's acid and isocyanides. The present approach creates a variety of benzo[b][1,5]diazepines as pharmaceutical and biologically active heterocyclic compounds in excellent yields and short reaction times. The salient features of the copper iodide nanoparticles are: easy preparation, cost-effective, high stability, low loading and reusability of the catalyst. The prepared copper iodide nanoparticles were fully characterized by XRD, EDX, FT-IR, SEM and TEM analysis.

  16. Identification of a potential superhard compound ReCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xiaofeng; Li, M.M.; Singh, David J.; Jiang, Qing; Zheng, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We identify a new ternary compound ReCN with theoretical calculation. • The ternary compound ReCN is with two stable structures with P63mc and P3m1. • ReCN is a semiconductor from the calculation of electronic structures. • ReCN is found to possess the outstanding mechanical properties. • ReCN may be synthesized relatively easily. - Abstract: We identify a new ternary compound, ReCN and characterize its properties including structural stability and indicators of hardness using first principles calculations. We find that there are two stable structures with space groups P63mc (HI) and P3m1 (HII), in which there are no C–C and N–N bonds. Both structures, H1 and III are elastically and dynamically stable. The electronic structures show that ReCN is a semiconductor, although the parent compounds, ReC 2 and ReN 2 are both metallic. ReCN is found to possess the outstanding mechanical properties with the large bulk modulus, shear modulus and excellent ideal strengths. In addition, ReCN may perhaps be synthesized relatively easily because it becomes thermodynamic stable with respect to decomposition at very low pressures

  17. Process for the manufacture of a superconductor with an intermetallic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, M.

    1980-01-01

    A superconductor with a superconducting intermetallic compound consisting of at least two elements can be manufactured by producing a conductor preproduct with a first component containing one element of the compound and a second component consisting of a carrier metal and the remaining element or elements of the alloy containing the compound, and by heat treating the conductor preproduct, so that the compound is formed by the reaction of the element of the first compound with the remaining element or elements of the second compound. In such a superconductor, one tries to increase the effective current density and critical current. The invention states that the heat treatment should be carried out in a hydrogen atmosphere. Superconductors produced by this process can be used for superconductor devices whose magnetic fields have a flux density above 10 Tesla. (orig.) [de

  18. Effect of solvent on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of hazelnut kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Chiara; Tripodo, Giusy; Russo, Marina; Della Posta, Susanna; Pasqualetti, Valentina; De Gara, Laura

    2018-03-22

    Hazelnut kernel phenolic compounds were recovered applying two different extraction approaches, namely ultrasound-assisted solid/liquid extraction (UA-SLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE). Different solvents were tested evaluating total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids contents together to antioxidant activity. The optimum extraction conditions, in terms of the highest value of total phenolic compounds extracted together to other parameters like simplicity and cost were selected for method validation and individual phenolic compounds analysis. The UA-SLE protocol performed using 0.1 g of defatted sample and 15 mL of extraction solvent (1 mL methanol/1 mL water/8 mL methanol 0.1% formic acid/5 mL acetonitrile) was selected. The analysis of hazelnut kernel individual phenolic compounds was obtained by HPLC coupled with DAD and MS detections. Quantitative analysis was performed using a mixture of six phenolic compounds belonging to phenolic classes' representative of hazelnut. Then, the method was fully validated and the resulting RSD% values for retention time repeatability were below 1%. A good linearity was obtained giving R 2 no lower than 0.997.The accuracy of the extraction method was also assessed. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of phenolic compounds in three different hazelnut kernel varieties observing a similar qualitative profile with differences in the quantity of detected compounds. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Small-Molecule Compounds Exhibiting Target-Mediated Drug Disposition (TMDD): A Minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua

    2017-02-01

    Nonlinearities are commonplace in pharmacokinetics, and 1 special source is the saturable binding of the drug to a high-affinity, low-capacity target, a phenomenon known as target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD). Compared with large-molecule compounds undergoing TMDD, which has been well recognized due to its high prevalence, TMDD in small-molecule compounds is more counterintuitive and has not been well appreciated. With more and more potent small-molecule drugs acting on highly specific targets being developed as well as increasingly sensitive analytical techniques becoming available, many small-molecule compounds have recently been reported to have nonlinear pharmacokinetics imparted by TMDD. To expand our current knowledge of TMDD in small-molecule compounds and increase the awareness of this clinically important phenomenon, this minireview provides an overview of the small-molecule compounds that demonstrate nonlinear pharmacokinetics imparted by TMDD. The present review also summarizes the general features of TMDD in small-molecule compounds and highlights the differences between TMDD in small-molecule compounds and large-molecule compounds. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Assessment of A Simple Compound-Saving Method To Study Insecticidal Activity of Natural Extracts and Pure Compounds Against Mosquito Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Michaël; Jahn-Oyac, Arnaud; Ferrero, Emma; Issaly, Jean; Eparvier, Véronique; Girod, Romain; Rodrigues, Alice M S; Stien, Didier; Houël, Emeline; Dusfour, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    Research on natural insecticides has intensified with the spread of resistance to chemicals among insects, particularly disease vectors. To evaluate compounds, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published standardized procedures. However, those may be excessively compound-consuming when it comes to assessing the activity of natural extracts and pure compounds isolated in limited amount. As part of our work on the discovery of new mosquito larvicides from Amazonian plants, we developed a compound-saving assay in 5-ml glass tubes instead of WHO larval 100-ml cups. Comparing activity of synthetic and natural chemicals validated the glass tube assay. Raw data, lethal doses that kill 50% (LD 50 ) and 90% (LD 90 ) at 24 and 48 h, were highly correlated (0.68 natural extracts and molecules, identifying active compounds using 10 times less material than in the WHO protocol.

  1. Synthesis of metastable A-15 ''Nb3Si'' by ion implantation and on its superconducting transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapp, M.T.; Rose, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    The authors have found a new technique for the synthesis of metastable compounds of well-defined composition: namely, ion implantation of a selected element into the desired crystal structure. [M.T. Clapp and R.M. Rose, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 205 (1978)]. Starting with a substrate material of A-15 Nb 3 Al/sub 0.9/Si/sub 0.1/, two basic approaches were tried towards the formation of A-15 Nb 3 Si by Si implantation: (1) direct replacement of the Al by Si and (2) implantation into a surface layer depleted of Al. This latter approach proved to be the most successful. It consisted of removing the Al by a diffusion anneal and replacing the Al deficiency by sequential Si implantations. Upon subsequent heat treatment a surface layer of A-15 Nb 3 Al/sub 0.2/Si/sub 0.8/ was produced. Details of the experimental procedure and a discussion of the superconducting transition temperature measurements of the implanted surfaces are presented

  2. Antimicrobial compounds from leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Mohamed, M T M; Ab Rahman, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  3. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Bi-Fong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. Nees (Acanthaceae is a medicinal plant used in many countries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Among the single compounds extracted from A. paniculata, andrographolide is the major one in terms of bioactive properties and abundance. Among the andrographolide analogues, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-atherosclerotic; neoandrographolide is anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and anti-hepatotoxic; 14-deoxyandrographolide is immunomodulatory and anti-atherosclerotic. Among the less abundant compounds from A. paniculata, andrograpanin is both anti-inflammatory and anti-infective; 14-deoxy-14,15-dehydroandrographolide is anti-inflammatory; isoandrographolide, 3,19-isopropylideneandrographolide and 14-acetylandrographolide are tumor suppressive; arabinogalactan proteins are anti-hepatotoxic. The four flavonoids from A. paniculata, namely 7-O-methylwogonin, apigenin, onysilin and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid are anti-atherosclerotic.

  4. INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS ON THE FORMING OF ELECTRIC ARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is a comparative analysis of chemical compounds influence on the process of electric arc forming and condition of its burning. Methodology. Material for an electrode was a wire 3 mm in diameter of low carbon steel with contain of carbon 0.15%. As chemical compounds, which determine the terms of forming of arc welding were used kaolin; CaCO3 with the admixtures of gypsum to 60%; SiO2 and Fe – Si with the iron concentration to 50%. Researches were conducted at the use of direct electric current and the arc of reverse polarity. As a source of electric current the welding transformer of type PSO-500 was used. On the special stand an initial gap between the electrode and metal-plate was equal to 1–1.5 mm. The interelectrode interval was filled with the probed chemical compounds and it was formed an electric arc. In the moment of electric arc arise the values of electric current and the arc voltage were determined. After the natural break of electric arc, the final size of the gap between electrodes was accepted as the maximal value of the arc lengths. Findings. In the conditions of experiment the metal transfer in interelectrode interval corresponded to the drop mechanism. According to external characteristics the ratio between the maximal arc length and the power of electric discharge has the appearance of exponential dependence. Specific power of electric arc characterizes environment of interelectrode interval in the moment of arc forming per unit of its length. Originality. 1. On the basis of influence analysis of the studied chemical compounds on the formation processes of electric arc inversely proportional relationship between the power of the electric current and the maximum arc length to the moment of its natural break is defined. 2. The ratio between the maximal arc length and the power of electric current with sufficiently high correlation coefficient is subjected to the exponential dependence. Influence of

  5. Chapter 3. Determination of semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Burbank, Teresa L.; Olson, Mary C.; Iverson, Jana L.; Schroeder, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    commonly used gel permeation chromatography. The performance of the method (as expressed by mean recoveries and mean precision) was determined using Ottawa sand, a commercially available topsoil, and an environmental stream sediment, fortified at 1.5 and 15 micrograms per compound. Recoveries of PAH and semivolatile compounds in Ottawa sand samples fortified at 1.5 micrograms averaged 88 percent ? 9.4 percent relative standard deviation, and calculated initial method detection limits per compound averaged 14 micrograms per kilogram, assuming a 25-gram sample size. The recovery for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene is less than 60 percent; thus, the concentration of this compound will always be reported as estimated with the E remark code. The analysis of 25 alkylated PAH homolog groups also can be determined with this method with extra data analysis and review, but because of the lack of authentic reference standard compounds, these results are considered to be semiquantitative. The PAH homolog groups are quantitated using the response factor of a parent PAH method compound, if available. Precision data for the alkylated PAH homologs detected in a marine sediment standard reference material (SRM 1944) also are presented to document and demonstrate method capability.

  6. Distribution and retention of inhaled selenium compounds in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkstaller, M.A.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Selenium containing compounds released into the atmosphere during coal combustion are principally of the elemental form or the dioxide. These compounds differ greatly in their chemical properties. Fischer-344 rats were exposed via inhalation to both the dioxide and the red elemental form of selenium. Subsequently, measurements were made of internal absorption, organ distribution and retention, and modes of excretion. A radiotracer, 75 Se, was incorporated into the aerosol to facilitate these measurements. Retention of both aerosols in the total body showed long term components with half lives of 43 and 15 days accounting for 25 to 35% of the initially deposited selenium. Excretion occurred principally by way of urine. For both aerosols, selenium absorbed into the systemic circulation was mainly found in the liver, kidney, blood, gastrointestinal tract and bone

  7. Geographic variation in tissue accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in grazing sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhind, S.M., E-mail: s.rhind@macaulay.ac.u [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Kyle, C.E.; Mackie, C.; Yates, K. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Duff, E.I. [Biomathematics and Statistics, Scotland, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Muscle tissue was collected from ewes and lambs derived from farms throughout Scotland and sample concentrations of five endocrine disrupting compound groups were determined. Farms of origin were categorised according to geographic region. There were few statistically-significant differences with region or distance from cities. However, the magnitude of the difference between the highest and lowest mean values in ewe muscle from different regions exceeded 30% for 13 of the 15 compounds that were consistently detected in muscle, with animals derived from the industrialised region having the highest mean values for 11 of the 13 compounds. A less marked trend was apparent in the lamb muscle (8 of 13 highest were in the industrialised region). The physiological effects of such small differences in exposure to mixtures of pollutants remain to be determined. - Research highlights: Muscle tissue collected from sheep from different regions of Scotland. Concentrations of selected endocrine disrupting compounds measured. Few significant differences in concentrations, with region. Highest concentrations in sheep from industrialised areas and near to cities. - Muscle concentrations of few of the endocrine disrupting compounds, measured in the muscle of sheep from regions exposed to greater pollution, were elevated.

  8. Mining collections of compounds with Screening Assistant 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloux, Vincent Le; Arrault, Alban; Colliandre, Lionel; Bourg, Stéphane; Vayer, Philippe; Morin-Allory, Luc

    2012-08-31

    High-throughput screening assays have become the starting point of many drug discovery programs for large pharmaceutical companies as well as academic organisations. Despite the increasing throughput of screening technologies, the almost infinite chemical space remains out of reach, calling for tools dedicated to the analysis and selection of the compound collections intended to be screened. We present Screening Assistant 2 (SA2), an open-source JAVA software dedicated to the storage and analysis of small to very large chemical libraries. SA2 stores unique molecules in a MySQL database, and encapsulates several chemoinformatics methods, among which: providers management, interactive visualisation, scaffold analysis, diverse subset creation, descriptors calculation, sub-structure / SMART search, similarity search and filtering. We illustrate the use of SA2 by analysing the composition of a database of 15 million compounds collected from 73 providers, in terms of scaffolds, frameworks, and undesired properties as defined by recently proposed HTS SMARTS filters. We also show how the software can be used to create diverse libraries based on existing ones. Screening Assistant 2 is a user-friendly, open-source software that can be used to manage collections of compounds and perform simple to advanced chemoinformatics analyses. Its modular design and growing documentation facilitate the addition of new functionalities, calling for contributions from the community. The software can be downloaded at http://sa2.sourceforge.net/.

  9. Low-temperature heat-capacity study of the U6X (XequivalentMn, Fe, Co, Ni) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K.N.; Maple, M.B.; DeLong, L.E.; Huber, J.G.; Junod, A.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the superconducting- and normal-state heat capacity of U 6 X (XequivalentMn, Fe, Co, Ni) compounds have been performed over a temperature range 1 Kapprox. 6 X compounds have strong renormalizations of the free-carrier effective mass m/sup */ in the range 10m/sub e/approx. 6 X heat capacities suggest the presence of high densities of low-energy excitations of undetermined nature. The results are analyzed in terms of models appropriate to heavy-fermion liquids, and anisotropic or strong-coupled superconductors. The U 6 X compounds form a link between relatively low-m/sup */, high-transition-temperature A15 compounds and the more extreme examples of heavy-fermion superconductors such as UBe/sub 13/, UPt 3 , and CeCuSi 2 for which m/sup */∼10 2 m/sub e/. .AE

  10. Preparation of Ferroelectric Thin Films of Bismuth Layer Structured Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Mihara, Takashi; Yoshimori, Hiroyuki; Araujo, Carlos

    1995-09-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of bismuth layer structured compounds, SrBi2Ta2O9, SrBi2Nb2O9, SrBi4Ti4O15 and their solid solutions, were formed onto a sputtered platinum layer on a silicon substrate using spin-on technique and metal-organic decomposition (MOD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and some electrical measurements were performed on the prepared thin films. XRD results of SrBi2(Ta1- x, Nb x)2O9 films (0≤x≤1) showed that niobium ions substitute for tantalum ions in an arbitrary ratio without any change of the layer structure and lattice constants. Furthermore, XRD results of SrBi2 xTa2O9 films (0≤x≤1.5) indicated that the formation of the bismuth layer structure does not always require an accurate bismuth content. The layer structure was formed above 50% of the stoichiometric bismuth content in the general formula. SrBi2(Ta1- x, Nb x)2O9 films with various Ta/Nb ratios have large enough remanent polarization for nonvolatile memory application and have shown high fatigue resistance against 1011 cycles of full switching of the remanent polarization. Mixture films of the three compounds were also investigated.

  11. Formation and ecotoxicity of N-heterocyclic compounds on ammoxidation of mono- and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Karl Michael; Liebner, Falk; Fritz, Ines; Potthast, Antje; Rosenau, Thomas

    2013-09-25

    Ammoxidation of technical lignins under mild conditions is a suitable approach to artificial humic substances. However, carbohydrates as common minor constituents of technical lignins have been demonstrated to be a potential source of N-heterocyclic ecotoxic compounds. Ethyl acetate extracts of ammoxidation mixtures of the monosaccharides glucose and xylose exhibited considerable growth inhibiting activity in the OECD 201 test, with 4-methyl-1H-imidazole, 4-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-imidazole, and 3-hydroxypyridine being the most active compounds. The amount of N-heterocyclic compounds formed at moderate ammoxidation conditions (70 °C, 0.2 MPa O2, 3 h) was significantly lower for the polysaccharides cellulose and xylan (16-30 μg/g of educt) compared to glucose (15.4 mg). Ammoxidation at higher temperature is not recommendable for carbohydrate-rich materials as much higher amounts of N-heterocyclic compounds were formed from both monosaccharides (100 °C: 122.4-160.5 mg/g of educt) and polysaccharides (140 °C: 5.52-16.03 mg/g of educt).

  12. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  13. Mn(III)-initiated facile oxygenation of heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Taifur; Haque, Md Aminul; Igarashi, Hikaru; Nishino, Hiroshi

    2011-11-16

    The Mn(III)-initiated aerobic oxidation of heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, such as 4-alkyl-1,2-diphenylpyrazolidine-3,5-diones, 1,3-dialkylpyrrolidine-2,4-diones, 3-alkyl-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acids, and 3-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-quinolinone gave excellent to good yields of the corresponding hydroperoxides, which were gradually degraded by exposure to the metal initiator after the reaction to afford the corresponding alcohols. The synthesis of 30 heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, the corresponding hydroperoxides and the 10 alcohols, their characterization, and the limitations of the procedure are described. In addition, the mechanism of the hydroperoxidation and the redox decomposition of the hydroperoxides are discussed.

  14. Effect of maceration duration on physicochemical characteristics, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine from Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabey, N; Yilmaztekin, M; Hayaloglu, A A

    2016-09-01

    Effects of different maceration times (5, 10 and 15 days) on composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of red wines made from the Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan grown in Malatya were investigated. Maceration duration changed some chemical constituents and color of Karaoglan red wines. A linear relationship was observed between antioxidant activity of wine and maceration duration. Major organic acid was tartaric acid which was at the highest concentration in wine macerated for 10 days. A total of 25 phenolic compounds was determined in wine samples. Within these phenolics; procyanidin B2, trans -caftaric acid, gallic acid, trans -caffeic acid, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and quercetin-3- O -glucoside were the most abundant phenolics regardless of maceration duration. In general, extended maceration duration resulted in increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, reflecting the antioxidant activities of wine. In conclusion, the highest concentrations of total and individual phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found in wines macerated for 15 days.

  15. Metallurgy of continuous filamentary A15 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.

    1980-01-01

    The early history of the bronze process is recapitulated and modifications to the process which have since followed are described. The metallurgical principles, which are involved in the process, are described including the kinetics of the compound growth, the effects of additives on the growth, etc. The superconducting properties of these compounds are also discussed. The influence of metallurgical variables on the superconducting properties is discussed in detail. In discussing the superconducting current densities in these compounds, limits in applicability of existing magnetic-flux-pinning models are also treated as well as methods for determining critical magnetic fields

  16. Discovery of 8-Amino-imidazo[1,5- a ]pyrazines as Reversible BTK Inhibitors for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Guiadeen, Deodial; Krikorian, Arto; Gao, Xiaolei; Wang, James; Boga, Sobhana Babu; Alhassan, Abdul-Basit; Yu, Younong; Vaccaro, Henry; Liu, Shilan; Yang, Chundao; Wu, Hao; Cooper, Alan; de Man, Jos; Kaptein, Allard; Maloney, Kevin; Hornak, Viktor; Gao, Ying-Duo; Fischmann, Thierry O.; Raaijmakers, Hans; Vu-Pham, Diep; Presland, Jeremy; Mansueto, My; Xu, Zangwei; Leccese, Erica; Zhang-Hoover, Jie; Knemeyer, Ian; Garlisi, Charles G.; Bays, Nathan; Stivers, Peter; Brandish, Philip E.; Hicks, Alexandra; Kim, Ronald; Kozlowski, Joseph A. (Merck); (WuXi App Tec)

    2016-02-11

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a Tec family kinase with a well-defined role in the B cell receptor (BCR) pathway. It has become an attractive kinase target for selective B cell inhibition and for the treatment of B cell related diseases. We report a series of compounds based on 8-amino-imidazo[1,5-a]pyrazine that are potent reversible BTK inhibitors with excellent kinase selectivity. Selectivity is achieved through specific interactions of the ligand with the kinase hinge and driven by aminopyridine hydrogen bondings with Ser538 and Asp539, and by hydrophobic interaction of trifluoropyridine in the back pocket. These interactions are evident in the X-ray crystal structure of the lead compounds 1 and 3 in the complex with the BTK enzyme. Our lead compounds show desirable PK profiles and efficacy in the preclinical rat collagen induced arthritis model.

  17. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivovichev, S.V.; Krivovichev, S.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Single crystals of [C 10 H 26 N 2 ][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)](H 2 SeO 4 ) 0.85 (H 2 O) 2 (1), [C 10 H 26 N 2 ][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 ] (H 2 SeO 4 ) 0.50 (H 2 O) (2), and [C 8 H 20 N] 2 [(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] (H 2 O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO 7 and SeO 4 polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] 2- chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 NH 3 ] 2+ molecules, H 2 O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H 2 SeO 4 ) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 ] 2- sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H 2 SeO 4 ) groups but is based upon alternating [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] 2- sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 ] + . The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in general, actinyl) chemistry, it requires specific additional mechanisms: (a) in long-chain-amine-templated compounds, protonated amine molecules inter-digitate; (b) in long-chain-diamine-templated compounds, incorporation of acid-water interlayers into

  18. A high stability wavelength-tunable narrow-linewidth and single-polarization erbium-doped fiber laser using a compound-cavity structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ting; Yan, Fengping; Peng, Wanjing; Liu, Shuo; Tan, Siyu; Liang, Xiao; Wen, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    A high stability wavelength-tunable narrow-linewidth and single-polarization erbium-doped fiber laser using a compound-cavity structure is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The compound-cavity is composed of a main-linear-cavity and a subring-cavity. Using a pump power of 150 mW, the optical signal to noise ratio of the laser output is as high as ∼67 dB; the wavelength and output power fluctuation are 0.7 pm and 0.07 dBm respectively in an experimental period of 1 h; the linewidth of the laser output is as narrow as 650 Hz; the degree of polarization of the laser output is stable at a value of 100.8% in 15 min and the polarization extinction ratio is as high as 30.57 dB; the wavelength-tunable range is as wide as ∼8.1 nm. The proposed fiber laser can be used in areas where high stability, narrow-linewidth, single-polarization and wide wavelength-tunable range are needed. (letter)

  19. EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM PETAI LEAVES (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK. USING MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND ASSISTED METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buanasari Buanasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant has an activity to neutralize free radical compound that the body needs to avoid damage cells and tissues. Phenolic is one of the compounds that have an antioxidant activity. The influences of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE conditions on phenolic compounds of Parkia speciosa Hassk. leaves were investigated. The effects of temperature (40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, time (10, 30 and 50 minutes and material-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:13, 1:15 were evaluated based on the yield, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity. The result showed that the highest yield (15.82% was obtained at 1:15 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 50°C of temperature and 50 minutes of extraction time for MAE. The highest yield of UAE is 15.53% that sample was obtained at 1:13 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 60°C of optimal temperature and 30 minutes extraction time. The highest IC50 of UAE method extract was 52.55 ppm, while the extract obtained using MAE method was 50.44 ppm. UAE is more stable at higher temperatures. Time and solvent which was used more efficient than MAE. Extract of petai leaves (Parkia speciosa Hassk. were very potential to be used as a source of natural antioxidants because they have IC50 values from 41.39 to 66.00 ppm. Its antioxidants capacity is ranged from strong to very strong capacity.

  20. Template occluded SBA-15: An effective dissolution enhancer for poorly water-soluble drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Tingming, E-mail: futingming@gmail.com [College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Guo Liwei; Le Kang; Wang Tianyao; Lu Jin [College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of the present work was to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam by inclusion into template occluded SBA-15. Our strategy involves directly introducing piroxicam into as-prepared SBA-15 occluded with P123 (EO{sub 20}PO{sub 70}EO{sub 20}) by self assembling method in acetonitrile/methylene chloride mixture solution. Ultraviolet spectrometry experiment and thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) profiles show that the piroxicam and P123 contents in the inclusion compound are 12 wt% and 28 wt%, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction and DSC analysis reveal that the included piroxicam is arranged in amorphous form. N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption experiment indicates that the piroxicam has been introduced to the mesopores instead of precipitating at the outside of the silica material. The inclusion compound was submitted to in vitro dissolution tests, the results show that the piroxicam dissolve from template occluded inclusion compound more rapidly, than these from the piroxicam crystalline and template removed samples in all tested conditions. Thus a facile method to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug was established, and this discovery opens a new avenue for the utilization of templates used for the synthesis of mesoporous materials.

  1. Organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids and wastewaters: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luek, Jenna L; Gonsior, Michael

    2017-10-15

    High volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) of shale to stimulate the release of natural gas produces a large quantity of wastewater in the form of flowback fluids and produced water. These wastewaters are highly variable in their composition and contain a mixture of fracturing fluid additives, geogenic inorganic and organic substances, and transformation products. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of organic compounds identified in HVHF fluids, flowback fluids, and produced waters are reviewed here to communicate knowledge gaps that exist in the composition of HVHF wastewaters. In general, analyses of organic compounds have focused on those amenable to gas chromatography, focusing on volatile and semi-volatile oil and gas compounds. Studies of more polar and non-volatile organic compounds have been limited by a lack of knowledge of what compounds may be present as well as quantitative methods and standards available for analyzing these complex mixtures. Liquid chromatography paired with high-resolution mass spectrometry has been used to investigate a number of additives and will be a key tool to further research on transformation products that are increasingly solubilized through physical, chemical, and biological processes in situ and during environmental contamination events. Diverse treatments have been tested and applied to HVHF wastewaters but limited information has been published on the quantitative removal of individual organic compounds. This review focuses on recently published information on organic compounds identified in flowback fluids and produced waters from HVHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Organic compound emissions from a landfarm used for oil and gas solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Seth N; Mansfield, Marc L

    2018-04-13

    Solid or sludgy hydrocarbon waste is a by-product of oil and gas exploration and production. One commonly used method of disposing of this waste is landfarming. Landfarming involves spreading hydrocarbon waste on soils, tilling it into the soil, and allowing it to biodegrade. We used a dynamic flux chamber to measure fluxes of methane, a suite of 54 nonmethane hydrocarbons, and light alcohols from an active and a remediated landfarm in eastern Utah. Fluxes from the remediated landfarm were not different from a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sheet or from undisturbed soils in the region. Fluxes of methane, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, and alcohols from the landfarm in active use were 1.41 (0.37, 4.19) (mean and 95% confidence limits), 197.90 (114.72, 370.46), and 4.17 (0.03, 15.89) mg m -2  hr -1 , respectively. Hydrocarbon fluxes were dominated by alkanes, especially those with six or more carbons. A 2-ha landfarm with fluxes of the magnitude we observed in this study would emit 95.3 (54.3, 179.7) kg day -1 of total hydrocarbons, including 11.2 (4.3, 33.9) kg day -1 of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes). Solid and sludgy hydrocarbon waste from the oil and gas industry is often disposed of by landfarming, in which wastes are tilled into soil and allowed to decompose. We show that a land farm in Utah emitted a variety of organic compounds into the atmosphere, including hazardous air pollutants and compounds that form ozone. We calculate that a 2-ha landfarm facility would emit 95.0 ± 66.0 kg day -1 of total hydrocarbons, including 11.1 ± 1.5 kg day -1 of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes).

  3. Structure-based virtual screening and characterization of a novel IL-6 antagonistic compound from synthetic compound database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wang,1,* Chunxia Qiao,1,* He Xiao,1 Zhou Lin,1 Yan Li,1 Jiyan Zhang,1 Beifen Shen,1 Tinghuan Fu,2 Jiannan Feng1 1Department of Molecular Immunology, Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, 2First Affiliated Hospital of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: According to the three-dimensional (3D complex structure of (hIL-6·hIL-6R·gp 1302 and the binding orientation of hIL-6, three compounds with high affinity to hIL-6R and bioactivity to block hIL-6 in vitro were screened theoretically from the chemical databases, including 3D-Available Chemicals Directory (ACD and MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR, by means of the computer-guided virtual screening method. Using distance geometry, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics trajectory analysis methods, the binding mode and binding energy of the three compounds were evaluated theoretically. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis demonstrated that all the three compounds could block IL-6 binding to IL-6R specifically. However, only compound 1 could effectively antagonize the function of hIL-6 and inhibit the proliferation of XG-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it showed no cytotoxicity to SP2/0 or L929 cells. These data demonstrated that the compound 1 could be a promising candidate of hIL-6 antagonist. Keywords: virtual screening, structural optimization, human interlukin-6, small molecular antagonist, XG-7 cells, apoptosis

  4. Converting a C-130 Hercules into a Compound Helicopter: A Conceptual Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Anjaney P.; Harris, Franklin D.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the performance and weight changes for a Compound C-130 as compared to the Baseline C-130H Hercules, using NDARC as the primary analysis tool. First, the C-130H was modeled within NDARC, from which performance at various conditions and a parametric weight statement were generated. Then, the C-130H NDARC file was modified to represent the Compound C-130, which was then put through the same performance analysis as the C-130H. A parametric weight statement was also calculated for the Compound C-130, which allowed for comparison to the C-130H. As part of the modeling of the Compound C-130, a Rotor Design Spreadsheet was created that would allow the direct calculation of the weight of the main rotors being added. Using composite materials led to considerable weight savings for both the rotor system and the hub weights. These weight savings are reflected in the NDARC Technology Factors which were determined to be 0.71 and 0.5 for the rotor blades and the hub/hinge system, respectively. Such Technology Factors suggest that using composites for other components could drastically lighten the Operating Empty Weight of the aircraft. The weight statements show the weights for each of the components on each aircraft. It is quite evident that the Compound C-130 has a higher Operating Empty Weight due to the addition of the two main rotors and a drive system to connect each engine group on the wing tips. Upon further analysis, the main weight driver is the drive system. While the main rotor/hub/hinge weight increase is to be expected, the weight increase due to the transmission drive and gear boxes are cause for concern. Unless a method can be found of reducing the weight of the drive system, the weight penalty makes the Compound a C-130 an inefficient aircraft in terms of payload/fuel capacity. Possible solutions are either off-loading some of the power requirements through the drive system or using composite materials in the construction of the drive system

  5. Anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds: a genetic and genomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F; Valderrama, J Andrés; Barragán, María J L; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

  6. A brief review on synthesis & applications of β-enamino carbonyl compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yellajyosula L N Murthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the wide range applications of β-enamino esters (enamines of β–dicarbonyl compounds in pharmaceuticals and as building blocks for the synthesis of a variety of heterocyclic compounds, β-amino esters, β-amino acids, γ-amino alcohols, peptides and alkaloids a number of methods have been developed so far for the synthesis of these compounds. Due to the importance of these compounds as intermediates in organic synthesis, a concised review is presented.

  7. Raman scattering in transition metal compounds: Titanium and compounds of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Ederer, D.L.; Shu, T. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The transition metal compounds form a very interesting and important set of materials. The diversity arises from the many states of ionization the transition elements may take when forming compounds. This variety provides ample opportunity for a large class of materials to have a vast range of electronic and magnetic properties. The x-ray spectroscopy of the transition elements is especially interesting because they have unfilled d bands that are at the bottom of the conduction band with atomic like structure. This group embarked on the systematic study of transition metal sulfides and oxides. As an example of the type of spectra observed in some of these compounds they have chosen to showcase the L{sub II, III} emission and Raman scattering in some titanium compounds obtained by photon excitation.

  8. Soil biochemical properties of grassland ecosystems under anthropogenic emission of nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrevatykh, Irina; Ivashchenko, Kristina; Ananyeva, Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Inflow of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems nowadays increases dramatically, that might be led to disturbance of natural biogeochemical cycles and landscapes structure. Production of nitrogen fertilizers is one of the air pollution sources, namely by nitrogen compounds (NH4+, NO3-, NO2-). Air pollution by nitrogen compounds of terrestrial ecosystems might be affected on soil biochemical properties, which results increasing mineral nitrogen content in soil, changing soil P/N and Al/Ca ratios, and, finally, the deterioration of soil microbial community functioning. The research is focused on the assessment of anthropogenic emission of nitrogen compounds on soil properties of grassland ecosystems in European Russia. Soil samples (Voronic Chernozem Pachic, upper 10 cm mineral layer, totally 10) were taken from grassland ecosystem: near (5-10 m) nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), and far from it (20-30 km, served as a control) in Tula region. In soil samples the NH4+ and NO3- (Kudeyarov's photocolorimetric method), P, Ca, Al (X-ray fluorescence method) contents were measured. Soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was analyzed by substrate-induced respiration method. Soil microbial respiration (MR) was assessed by CO2 rate production. Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) was calculated as MR/Cmic ratio. Near NFF the soil ammonium and nitrate nitrogen contents were a strongly varied, variation coefficient (CV) was 42 and 86This study was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research Grant No. 14-04-00098, 15-44-03220, 15-04-00915.

  9. Development of a SPME-GC-MS method for the determination of volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar and its analytical characterization by aroma wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Zaigui

    2016-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed to determine the volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar. The optimal extraction conditions were: 50 °C for 20 min with a PDMS/DVB fiber. This analytical method was validated and showed satisfactory repeatability (0.5 %15.6 %), accuracy and linearity in analysis of volatile compounds. According to the calculation of odor activity value, 19 volatile compounds were identified as aroma-active compounds. Among them, propanoic acid, acetic acid, trimethyl-oxazole, butanoic acid, acetoin, 3-methylbutanoic acid and furfural were the most powerful odorants. The aroma wheel of Shanxi aged vinegar showed that the classes of sensory descriptors are first fatty and roasty, next woody and nutty and minor fruity and floral. Principal component analysis enabled us to investigate dissimilarity/similarity of Shanxi aged vinegar sample of different raw material and ageing time.

  10. Avocado roots treated with salicylic acid produce phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl), a compound with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Sánchez, Gerardo; Castro-Mercado, Elda; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2014-02-15

    We demonstrated the ability of salicylic acid (SA) to induce a compound in avocado roots that strengthens their defense against Phytophthora cinnamomi. The SA content of avocado roots, before and after the application of exogenous SA, was determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). After 4h of SA feeding, the endogenous level in the roots increased to 223 μg g(-1) FW, which was 15 times the amount found in control roots. The methanolic extract obtained from SA-treated avocado roots inhibited the radial growth of P. cinnamomi. A thin layer chromatographic bioassay with the methanolic extract and spores of Aspergillus showed a distinct inhibition zone. The compound responsible for the inhibition was identified as phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the substance reduced germinative tube length in Aspergillus and radial growth of P. cinnamomi. A commercial preparation of phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) caused the same effects on mycelium morphology and radial growth as our isolate, confirming the presence of this compound in the root extracts. This is the first report of the induction of this compound in plants by SA, and the results suggest that it plays an important role in the defense response of avocado. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of {sup 15}N isotope labeled alanine; Sintese da alanina enriquecida com {sup 15}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Claudineia R. de; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Sant' Ana, Carlos Roberto; Tagliassachi, Romulo Barbieri; Maximo, Everaldo; Prestes, Clelber Vieira [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Isotopos Estaveis]. E-mail: crolivei@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The application of light chemical elements and their stable isotopes in biological studies have been increased over the last years. The use of {sup 15}N labeled amino acids is an important tool for elucidation of peptides structures. This paper describe a method for the synthesis of {sup 15}N isotope labeled alanine at lower costs than international ones, as well as the details of the recovery system of the nitrogen residues. In the present work an amination of {alpha}-haloacids, with the bromopropionic carboxylic acid and labeled aqua ammonia ({sup 15}NH{sub 3} aq) was carried out. In order to avoid eventually losses of {sup 15}NH{sub 3}, special cares were adopted, since the production cost is high. Although the acquisition cost of the {sup 13}N (radioactive) labeled compounds is lower, the obtained stable tracer will allow the accomplishment of important studies of the nitrogen cycling in living things, less occupational and environment hazards, and the time limitation problems in field studies. The tests took place in triplicates with NH{sub 3} (aq) being employed. With the establishment of the system for {sup 15}NH{sub 3} recovery, an average of 94 % of the ammonia employed in the synthesis process was recovered. The purity of the amino acid was state determined by TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography) and HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) with a fluorescence detector. The Rf and the retention time of the synthesized sample were similar the sigma standard. Finally, regarding the established conditions, it was possible to obtain the alanine with a production cost about 40 % lower than the international price. (author)

  12. SEURAT-1 liver gold reference compounds: a mechanism-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Paul; Schwarz, Michael; Landesmann, Brigitte; Maggioni, Silvia; Goumenou, Marina; Bower, David; Leonard, Martin O; Wiseman, Jeffrey S

    2014-12-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of alternative methods to replace animal testing for the prediction of repeat dose chemical toxicity. To address this need, the European Commission and Cosmetics Europe have jointly funded a research program for 'Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing.' The goal of this program was the development of in vitro cellular systems and associated computational capabilities for the prediction of hepatic, cardiac, renal, neuronal, muscle, and skin toxicities. An essential component of this effort is the choice of appropriate reference compounds that can be used in the development and validation of assays. In this review, we focus on the selection of reference compounds for liver pathologies in the broad categories of cytotoxicity and lipid disorders. Mitochondrial impairment, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are considered under the category of cytotoxicity, while steatosis, cholestasis, and phospholipidosis are considered under the category of lipid dysregulation. We focused on four compound classes capable of initiating such events, i.e., chemically reactive compounds, compounds with specific cellular targets, compounds that modulate lipid regulatory networks, and compounds that disrupt the plasma membrane. We describe the molecular mechanisms of these compounds and the cellular response networks which they elicit. This information will be helpful to both improve our understanding of mode of action and help in the selection of appropriate mechanistic biomarkers, allowing us to progress the development of animal-free models with improved predictivity to the human situation.

  13. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  14. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Hernández-Bautista, Blanca E; Oropeza, Fabiola; Duarte, Georgina; González, María C; Glenn, Anthony E; Hanlin, Richard T; Anaya, Ana Luisa

    2010-10-01

    Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) in a dry, semideciduous tropical forest in the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. We tested the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for allelochemical effects against other endophytic fungi, phytopathogenic fungi and fungoids, and plants. VOCs were lethal to Guignardia mangifera, Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia sp., Phytophthora capsici, and P. parasitica, but had no effect on Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., the endophytic isolate 120, or M. yucatanensis. VOCs inhibited root elongation in amaranth, tomato, and barnyard grass, particularly those produced during the first 15 days of fungal growth. VOCs were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and included compounds not previously reported from other Muscodor species and the previously reported compounds octane, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 2-pentyl furan, caryophyllene, and aromadendrene. We also evaluated organic extracts from the culture medium and mycelium of M. yucatanensis on the same endophytes, phytopathogens, and plants. In general, extracts inhibited plants more than endophytic or phytopathogens fungi. G. mangifera was the only organism that was significantly stimulated by both extracts regardless of concentration. Compounds in both organic extracts were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We discuss the possible allelopathic role that metabolites of M. yucatanensis play in its ecological interactions with its host plant and other organisms.

  15. Compound cast product and method for producing a compound cast product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas N.; Viswanathan, Srinath

    2002-09-17

    A compound cast product is formed in a casting mold (14) having a mold cavity (16) sized and shaped to form the cast product. A plurality of injectors (24) is supported from a bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). The injectors (24) are in fluid communication with the mold cavity (16) through the bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). A molten material holder furnace (12) is located beneath the casting mold (14). The holder furnace (12) defines molten material receiving chambers (36) configured to separately contain supplies of two different molten materials (37, 38). The holder furnace (12) is positioned such that the injectors (24) extend downward into the receiving chamber (36). The receiving chamber (36) is separated into at least two different flow circuits (51, 52). A first molten material (37) is received in a first flow circuit (51), and a second molten material (38) is received into a second flow circuit (52). The first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into the mold cavity (16) by the injectors (24) acting against the force of gravity. The injectors (24) are positioned such that the first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into different areas of the mold cavity (16). The molten materials (37, 38) are allowed to solidify and the resulting compound cast product is removed from the mold cavity (16).

  16. Synthesis of novel 3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid-derived nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and their evaluation for tuberculostatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobis, Katarzyna; Foks, Henryk; Bojanowski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Napiórkowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel 3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid derivatives and 3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid-derived nitrogen heterocyclic compounds (1-8) have been synthesized and evaluated for tuberculostatic activity. Compounds 1a, 1c, 1e and 1f bearing benzimidazole or benzimidazole-like systems showed the most potent tuberculostatic activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with MIC values ranging from 1.5 to 12.5μg/mL. More importantly 1a (6-chloro-2-(2-cyclohexylethyl)-4-nitro-1H-benzo[d]imidazole) and 1f (2-(2-cyclohexylethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]phenazine) appeared selective for M. tuberculosis as compared with eukaryotic cells (human fibroblasts), and other antimicrobial strains. These compounds may thus represent a novel, selective class of antitubercular agents. Additionally compound 1a stimulated type I collagen output by fibroblasts, in vitro. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. From energy-rich phosphate compounds to warfare agents: A review on the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Albino Giusti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of the phosphorus-oxygen bond is widely used in biological systems in many processes, such as energy transduction and the storage, transmission and expression of genetic information, which are essential to living beings in relation to a wide variety of functions. Compounds containing this bond have been designed for many purposes, ranging from agricultural defense systems, in order to increase food production, to nerve agents, for complaining use in warfare. In this review, features related to the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of phosphate compounds in biochemical events and in nerve agents. To this aim, the energy-rich phosphate compounds are focused, particularly the mode of their use as energy currency in cells. Historical and recent studies carried out by research groups have tried to elucidate the mechanism of action of enzymes responsible for energy transduction through the use of biochemical studies, enzyme models, and artificial enzymes. Finally, recent studies on the detoxification of nerve agents based on phosphorous esters are presented, and on the utilization of chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for the detection of these phosphate species.

  18. Representation and Validation of Liquid Densities for Pure Compounds and Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, J.; V. Dicky, V.; Abildskov, Jens

    Reliable correlation and prediction of liquid densities are important for designing chemical processes at normal and elevated pressures. We have extended a corresponding states model from molecular theory to yield a robust method for quality testing of experimental data that also provides predicted...... values at unmeasured conditions. The model has been shown to successfully validate and represent the pressure and temperature dependence of liquid densities greater than 1.5 of the critical density for pure compounds, binary mixtures, and ternary mixtures from the triple to critical temperatures...... at pressures up to 1000 MPa. The systems include the full range of organic compounds, including complex mixtures, and ionic liquids. Minimal data are required for making predictions.The presentation will show the implementation of the method, criteria for its deployment, examples of its application to a wide...

  19. Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Maarit J.; Renouf, Mathieu; Cruz‐Hernandez, Cristina; Actis‐Goretta, Lucas; Thakkar, Sagar K.; da Silva Pinto, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unravelling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds. PMID:22897361

  20. Compound-specific nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis of nitroaromatic compounds in aqueous samples using solid-phase microextraction coupled to GC/IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Michael; Bolotin, Jakov; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2007-03-15

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry was used to determine the delta15N and delta13C signatures of selected nitroaromatic contaminants such as the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) for derivation of isotopic enrichment factors of contaminant transformation. Parameters for efficient extraction of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) and substituted anilines from water samples were evaluated by SPME-GC/MS. delta13C signatures determined by SPME-GC/IRMS and elemental analyzer IRMS (EA-IRMS) were in good agreement, generally within +/-0.7 per thousand, except for 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and TNT, which showed slight deviations (IRMS were between 73 and 780 microg L-1 and correlated with the extraction efficiencies of the compounds determined by SPME-GC/MS. Nitrogen isotope measurements by SPME-GC/IRMS were of similar precision (standard deviations IRMS within +/-1.3 per thousand (+2.5 per thousand for TNT), but no systematic trend was found for the deviations. LODs of delta15N measurements ranged from 1.6 to 9.6 mg L-1 for nitrotoluenes, chlorinated NACs and DNTs (22 mg L-1 for TNT). The SPME-GC/IRMS method is well suited for the determination of isotopic enrichment factors of various NAC transformation processes and provides so far unexplored possibilities to elucidate behavior and degradation mechanisms of nitroaromatic contaminants in soils and groundwaters.

  1. Determination of total phenolic compound contents and antioxidant capacity of persimmon skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohamadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse side effects of synthetic antioxidants, the search for natural and safe antioxidants has become crucial. In this study, the total phenolic compound contents and antioxidants activity of persimmon skin was investigated. The extraction was carried out by means of maceration method using ethanol and methanol solvents with ratio of 1 part persimmon skin to 5 parts of solvents. Afterwards, the total phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity was measured. According to the results, ethanolic and methanolic extracts contained 255.6 and 214.15 mg gallic acid per 100 g of persimmon skin, respectively. Moreover, ethanolic extracts showed a higher activity for scavenging free radicals compared to methanolic extracts.

  2. Bio-guided isolation of antioxidant compounds from Chrysophyllum perpulchrum, a plant used in the Ivory Coast pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Bidie Alain; Karine, Ndjoko; Barthélemy, Attioua Koffi; Noél, Zirihi Guédé; David, N'guessan Jean; Joseph, Djaman Allico; Hosttetmann, Kurt

    2010-09-13

    Chrysophyllum perpulchrum (Sapotaceae) is used in the traditional Ivory Coast pharmacopeia to cure fevers. The extract of C. perpulchrum used for this study was the powdered form obtained from the maceration of the dried plant bark in 96% methanol, followed by evaporation to dryness. In the present study, the antioxidative and radical-scavenging activities of the methanolic extract were studied with three standard biological tests: DPPH reduction, ferric thiocyanate (FTC) lipidic peroxidation inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Gallic acid and quercetin were used as references. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the extract was determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Catechin and two dimeric procyanidins were found to be the compounds responsible for the activities. They were chemically dereplicated in the extract by LC-MS. For quantitation purposes, they were isolated by successive chromatographic methods and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. The quantities of these compounds in C. perpulchrum were 5.4% for catechin (P1), and 5.6 and 9.2% for dimers (compounds 2 (P2) and 3 (P3)), respectively. They displayed antioxidant activity with IC(50) values of 2.50 ± 0.15 µg/mL (P1), 2.10 ± 0.2 µg/mL (P2) and 2.10 ± 0.1 µg/mL (P3). The total extract, the active fractions and the pure compounds inhibited the lipid peroxidation by the FTC method and the TBARS method in the range of 60%. These values were comparable to those seen for quercetin.

  3. Exploring the physicochemical profile and the binding patterns of selected novel anticancer Himalayan plant derived active compounds with macromolecular targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Bahadur Gurung

    Full Text Available Plants are vital source of compounds offering plethora of therapeutic effects against various ailments without much side effects. Due to wide spread prevalence and drug resistance in cancer; there is an urgent need for discovery of new anti-cancer drugs. In the present study, selected novel anti-cancer plants derived compounds (cmpd1 to cmpd15 from Himalayan region were docked with defined molecular targets that regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. The binding energies of best docked compounds ranged between −8.0 kcal/mol and −11.71 kcal/mol. Further analysis revealed critical hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between compounds and targets. The best docked compounds viz., cmpd15 against cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK-2, cmpd8 against CDK-6 and cmpd9 against Topoisomerase I and II showed higher binding affinities than the native co-crystal ligands. The root mean square deviation (RMSD and potential energy plot clearly indicates the stability of the complexes during 20 ns molecular dynamics (MD simulation. The Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA binding energy analysis revealed Van der Waals energy component which is the principal stabilizing energy for their interactions except CDK-2/cmpd15 complex. The polar solvation energy did not have favorable contribution to their stabilization. The binding energy decomposition analysis revealed per residue contribution for each docked complexes. Physicochemical profile studies showed that majority of the compounds conform to Lipinski's rule of five (ROF having low to high blood brain barrier (BBB penetration, human intestinal absorption, plasma binding protein inhibition and P glycoprotein inhibition. Keywords: ADMET, Anticancer, MM/PBSA, Molecular docking, Molecular dynamics simulation and plant derived compounds

  4. Evaluation of a screening system for obesogenic compounds: screening of endocrine disrupting compounds and evaluation of the PPAR dependency of the effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pereira-Fernandes

    Full Text Available Recently the environmental obesogen hypothesis has been formulated, proposing a role for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs in the development of obesity. To evaluate this hypothesis, a screening system for obesogenic compounds is urgently needed. In this study, we suggest a standardised protocol for obesogen screening based on the 3T3-L1 cell line, a well-characterised adipogenesis model, and direct fluorescent measurement using Nile red lipid staining technique. In a first phase, we characterised the assay using the acknowledged obesogens rosiglitazone and tributyltin. Based on the obtained dose-response curves for these model compounds, a lipid accumulation threshold value was calculated to ensure the biological relevance and reliability of statistically significant effects. This threshold based method was combined with the well described strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD method for classification of non-, weak- or strong obesogenic compounds. In the next step, a range of EDCs, used in personal and household care products (parabens, musks, phthalates and alkylphenol compounds, were tested to further evaluate the obesogenicity screening assay for its discriminative power and sensitivity. Additionally, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ dependency of the positive compounds was evaluated using PPARγ activation and antagonist experiments. Our results showed the adipogenic potential of all tested parabens, several musks and phthalate compounds and bisphenol A (BPA. PPARγ activation was associated with adipogenesis for parabens, phthalates and BPA, however not required for obesogenic effects induced by Tonalide, indicating the role of other obesogenic mechanisms for this compound.

  5. Separation of ammonium and hydroxylamine nitrogen for the 15N determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russow, R.

    1990-01-01

    After preseparation of the nitrogen compounds derived from microbial nitrification on a strong basic anion exchanger it is found hydroxylamine together with ammonium in one fraction. The nitrogen of this two compounds can be separated for the emission spectrometric 15 N analysis by the selective oxidation of the hydroxylamine to nitrite/nitrate using an iodine solution. Thus the hydroxylamine is protected against disproportionation during the following ammonium isolation by means of steam disillation in an alkaline medium. After that the nitrite/nitrate is reduced to ammonium using ferrous hydroxide and can than be librated by steam distillation. The performance of the method under discussion will be demonstrated by analysing solutions with known ammonium and hydroxylamine contents. (author)

  6. Discovery of 1-[2-(2,4-dimethylphenylsulfanyl)phenyl]piperazine (Lu AA21004): a novel multimodal compound for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang-Andersen, Benny; Ruhland, Thomas; Jørgensen, Morten; Smith, Garrick; Frederiksen, Kristen; Jensen, Klaus Gjervig; Zhong, Huailing; Nielsen, Søren Møller; Hogg, Sandra; Mørk, Arne; Stensbøl, Tine Bryan

    2011-05-12

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationship of a novel series of compounds with combined effects on 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(1A) receptors and on the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) are described. Compound 5m (Lu AA21004) was the lead compound, displaying high affinity for recombinant human 5-HT(1A) (K(i) = 15 nM), 5-HT(1B) (K(i) = 33 nM), 5-HT(3A) (K(i) = 3.7 nM), 5-HT(7) (K(i) = 19 nM), and noradrenergic β(1) (K(i) = 46 nM) receptors, and SERT (K(i) = 1.6 nM). Compound 5m displayed antagonistic properties at 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(7) receptors, partial agonist properties at 5-HT(1B) receptors, agonistic properties at 5-HT(1A) receptors, and potent inhibition of SERT. In conscious rats, 5m significantly increased extracellular 5-HT levels in the brain after acute and 3 days of treatment. Following the 3-day treatment (5 or 10 (mg/kg)/day) SERT occupancies were only 43% and 57%, respectively. These characteristics indicate that 5m is a novel multimodal serotonergic compound, and 5m is currently in clinical development for major depressive disorder.

  7. Partial purification of endogenous digitalis-like compound(s) in cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzan, S.; Ghione, S.; Biver, P.; Gazzetti, P.; Montali, U. (C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy))

    1991-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of endogenous digitalis-like compound(s) in human body fluids. In this preliminary report, we describe a study of the partial purification by HPLC of these compounds in the plasma of neonates (who have particularly high concentrations of this substance) and adults. Plasma samples from neonates (cord blood) and adults, lyophilized and extracted with methanol, were applied on a 300 x 3.9 mm C18 Nova Pak column and eluted with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/methanol/water (17/17/66 or 14/14/72 by vol) and, after 30 min, with 100% methanol. We assayed eluted fractions for inhibitory activity of 86Rb uptake and for digoxin-like immunoreactivity. The elution profile revealed a first peak of inhibitory activity of 86Rb uptake at the beginning of the chromatography; another peak was eluted with the 100% methanol. The two peaks also cross-reacted with antidigoxin antibodies. Because the second peak could possibly reflect the nonspecific interference of various lipophilic compounds, we focused our attention on the first peak. For these fractions dose-response curves for 86Rb uptake and for displacement of digoxin were parallel, respectively, to those of ouabain and digoxin, suggesting similarities of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance to cardiac glycosides. Similar chromatographic profiles were also obtained for plasma from adults, suggesting that the endogenous glycoside-like compound(s) in the neonate may be the same as those in the adult.

  8. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the aleurone grains of Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Konopska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aleurone grains from Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons were isolated partly according to Tombs's method (1967. Nitrogen compounds content was determined in them by Kjeldahl's micromethod, and in the particular fractions after Thiman and Laloraya (1960. Mainly protein N was detected in the aleurone grains, constituting 14.8 and 15.2 per cent of the dry mass of pea and Iris seeds, respectively. Moreover, phosphorus compounds were fractionated according to Holden and Pirie (1955. Analyses demonstrated the presence in aleurone grains of inorganic P, acid-soluble organophosphorus compounds, phospholipids and RNA.

  9. Compound-complex odontoma: A case report of a rare variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishath Khanum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The odontoma is a benign tumor containing all the various component tissues of the teeth. It is the most common odontogenic tumor representing 67% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontomas are considered to be developmental anomalies (hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Based on the degree of morphodifferentiation or on the basis of their resemblance to normal teeth, they are divided into compound and complex odontomas. The compound odontoma is composed of multiple, small tooth-like structures. The complex odontoma consists of a conglomerate mass of enamel and dentin, which bears no anatomic resemblance to a tooth. They are usually diagnosed on routine radiological examinations in the second decade of life and are often slow growing and non-aggressive in nature. Here, we report a case of rare, unusually large, compound-complex odontoma, located in the left anterior maxilla of a 13-year-old male patient.

  10. HIV-1 pseudovirus neutralisation by a natural compound: a potential microbicide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Berg, N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available . The mode of action of the compound is, however, yet to be determined. The aim is to develop a microbicide based on an indigenous plant for people infected with HIV-1. The compound will also be screened against other HIV-1 subtypes to test the neutralisation...

  11. Rhodium-catalyzed NH insertion of pyridyl carbenes derived from pyridotriazoles: a general and efficient approach to 2-picolylamines and imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yi; Gulevich, Anton V; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2014-12-15

    A general and efficient NH insertion reaction of rhodium pyridyl carbenes derived from pyridotriazoles was developed. Various NH-containing compounds, including amides, anilines, enamines, and aliphatic amines, smoothly underwent the NH insertion reaction to afford 2-picolylamine derivatives. The developed transformation was further utilized in a facile one-pot synthesis of imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and DFT Calculations of Three New Cyano(phenylsulfonylindoles and a Key Synthetic Precursor Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Montgomery

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three cyano-1-(phenylsulfonylindole derivatives, 3-cyano-1-(phenylsulfonyl indole, (I, 2-cyano-1-(phenylsulfonylindole, (II, and 2,3-dicyano-1-(phenylsulfonyl indole, (III, and a key synthetic precursor 1-(phenylsulfonyl-1-(1,1-dimethylethyl indole-3-carboxamide, (IV, have been synthesized and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. (I, C15H10N2O2S, is orthorhombic with space group P 212121 and cell constants: a = 4.9459(3 Å, b = 10.5401(7 Å, c = 25.0813(14 Å, V = 1307.50(14 Å3 and Z = 4. (II, C15H10N2O2S, is monoclinic with space group C 2/c and cell constants: a = 18.062(2 Å, b = 11.293(2 Å, c = 15.922(3 Å, α = 90°, β = 124.49(2°, g = 90°, V = 2676.7 Å3 and Z = 8. (III, C16H9N3O2S, is triclinic with space group P-1 and cell constants: a = 8.1986(8 Å, b = 9.6381(11 Å, c = 9.8113(5 Å, α = 95.053(6°, β = 101.441(6°, g = 108.071(9°, V = 713.02(11 Å3 and Z = 2. (IV, C19H20N2O3S, is orthorhombic with space group P ccn and cell constants: a = 13.7605(8 Å, b = 27.3177(14 Å, c = 9.7584(6 Å, α = 90°, β = 90°, g =90°, V = 3668.2(4 Å3 and Z = 8. All four compounds have the same indole nitrogen phenylsulfonyl substituent and (I, (II, and (III are nitrile derivatives. (IV is a tert-butylamide. In the crystals, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the indole and phenylsulfonyl groups are 85.4(2° (I, 87.2(7° (II, 75.1(7° (III, and 88.6(2° (IV, respectively. Additionally, DFT geometry-optimized molecular orbital calculations were performed and frontier molecular orbitals of each compound are displayed. Correlation between the calculated molecular orbital energies (eV for the surfaces of the frontier molecular orbitals to the electronic excitation transitions from the absorption spectra of each compound has been proposed.

  13. Influence of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Growth and Phenolic Compounds Production in Photosynthetic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Comotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (pure anatase and 15% N doped anatase on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Haematococcus pluvialis, and Arthrospira platensis was investigated. Results showed that pure anatase can lead to a significant growth inhibition of C. vulgaris and A. platensis (17.0 and 74.1%, resp., while for H. pluvialis the nanoparticles do not cause a significant inhibition. Since in these stress conditions photosynthetic microorganisms can produce antioxidant compounds in order to prevent cell damages, we evaluated the polyphenols content either inside the cells or released in the medium. Although results did not show a significant difference in C. vulgaris, the phenolic concentrations of two other microorganisms were statistically affected by the presence of titanium dioxide. In particular, 15% N doped anatase resulted in a higher production of extracellular antioxidant compounds, reaching the concentration of 65.2 and 68.0 mg gDB-1 for H. pluvialis and A. platensis, respectively.

  14. Development of a Polyphenol Oxidase Biosensor from Jenipapo Fruit Extract (Genipa americana L. and Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Textile Industrial Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Souza Antunes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an innovative polyphenol oxidase biosensor was developed from Jenipapo (Genipa americana L. fruit and used to assess phenolic compounds in industrial effluent samples obtained from a textile industry located in Jaraguá-GO, Brasil. The biosensor was prepared and optimized according to: the proportion of crude vegetal extract, pH and overall voltammetric parameters for differential pulse voltammetry. The calibration curve presented a linear interval from 10 to 310 µM (r2 = 0.9982 and a limit of detection of 7 µM. Biosensor stability was evaluated throughout 15 days, and it exhibited 88.22% of the initial response. The amount of catechol standard recovered post analysis varied between 87.50% and 96.00%. Moreover, the biosensor was able to detect phenolic compounds in a real sample, and the results were in accordance with standard spectrophotometric assays. Therefore, the innovatively-designed biosensor hereby proposed is a promising tool for phenolic compound detection and quantification when environmental contaminants are concerned.

  15. Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Maarit J; Renouf, Mathieu; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Thakkar, Sagar K; da Silva Pinto, Marcia

    2013-03-01

    Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unravelling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds. © 2012 Nestec S. A.. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Effect of La-substitution on the structure and dielectric properties of BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, A.; Bera, J.

    2010-01-01

    Four-layer Aurivillius compound BaBi 4-x La x Ti 4 O 15 (x = 0.1-1.0) is synthesized by a modified chemical route. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the formation of single-phase Aurivillius compound. The crystal structure of compound changes from orthorhombic to pseudo-tetragonal at x = 0.5. BaBi 4-x La x Ti 4 O 15 shows typical relaxor behaviour. With increasing La 3+ substitution, shift of T m towards lower temperature and increased relaxor behaviour is observed. The substitution also results in a marked improvement in the remnant polarization and coercive field. The Cole-Cole plots show the presence of two semicircular arcs, suggesting the existence of grain and grain-boundary effects. The dc-conductivity and activation energies for both grain and grain boundary are evaluated. The ceramics with x = 0.3 presents the lowest conductivity among all compositions.

  17. Magnetocaloric effects in Mn1.35Fe0.65P1−xSix compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Yao-Xiang; Tegus O; Bi Li-Ge

    2012-01-01

    The structural and magnetocaloric properties of Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 1−x Si x compounds are investigated. The Si-substituted compounds, Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 1−x Si x with x = 0.52, 0.54, 0.55, 0.56, and 0.57, are prepared by high-energy ball milling and the solid-state reaction. The X-ray diffraction shows that the compounds crystallize into the Fe 2 P-type hexagonal structure with space group P6-bar2m. The magnetic measurements show that the Curie temperature of the compound increases from 253 K for x = 0.52 to 296 K for x = 0.56. The isothermal magnetic-entropy change of the Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 1−x Si x compound decreases with the Si content increasing. The maximal value of the magnetic-entropy change is about 7.0 J/kg·K in the Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 0.48 Si 0.52 compound with a field change of 1.5 T. The compound quenched in water possesses a larger magnetic entropy change and a smaller thermal hysteresis than the non-quenched samples. The thermal hysteresis of the compound is less than 3.5 K. The maximum adiabatic temperature change is about 1.4 K in the Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 0.45 Si 0.55 compound with a field change of 1.48 T. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Taste-active compounds in a traditional Italian food: 'lampascioni'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Gigliola; Caimi, Sara; Morini, Gabriella; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Nature is a rich source of taste-active compounds, in particular of plant origin, many of which have unusual tastes. Many of these are found in traditional food, where spontaneous plants are used as ingredients. Some taste-active compounds were identified in the bulbs of Muscari comosum, a spontaneous plant belonging to the family of the Liliaceae, very common in the Mediterranean area, and used in traditional gastronomy (called 'lampascioni' in South Italy). The bulbs were extracted with a series of solvents of different polarity. The different fractions were submitted to a preliminary sensory evaluation, and the most interesting ones, characterized by a strong bitter taste and some chemestetic properties, were submitted to further purification and structural analysis. From the ethereal extract, several 3-benzyl-4-chromanones and one stilbene derivative were isolated. Pure compounds were examined for their taste activity by means of sensory evaluation, and proved to be responsible for the characteristic taste of this food. Some of these compounds have been synthesized de novo to confirm their structure.

  19. Investigating the synergistic antioxidant effects of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajimehdipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic and flavonoid compounds are secondary metabolites of plants which possess various activities such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetes and anticancer effects. It has been established that these compounds can scavenge free radicals produced in the body. Because of this ability, not only the plants containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds but also, the pure compounds are used in medicinal products for prevention and treatment of many disorders. Considering that the golden aim of the pharmaceutical industries is using the most effective compounds with lower concentrations, determination of the best combination of the compounds with synergistic effects is important. In the present study, synergistic antioxidant effects of four phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, gallic acid, rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid and two flavonoids,  rutin and quercetin, have been investigated by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power method. The synergistic effect was assessed by comparing the experimental antioxidant activity of the mixtures with calculated theoretical values and the interactions of the compounds were determined. The results showed that combination of gallic acid and caffeic acid demonstrated considerable synergistic effects (137.8% while other combinations were less potent. Among examined substances, rutin was the only one which had no effect on the other compounds. The results of ternary combinations of compounds demonstrated antagonistic effects in some cases. This was more considerable in mixture of rutin, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid (-21.8%, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid (-20%, rutin, rosmarinic acid, gallic acid (-18.5% and rutin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid (-15.8%, while, combination of quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid (59.4% and quercetin, gallic acid, rutin (55.2% showed the most synergistic effects. It was concluded that binary and ternary combination of quercetin, rutin, caffeic acid

  20. Recycling of Gamma Irradiated Inner Tubes in Butyl Based Rubber Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaagac, B.

    2006-01-01

    Crosslinked elastomeric materials, such as tyres are of great challenge concerning the environmental and ecological reasons. Ionizing radiation seems to offer unique opportunities to tackle the problem of recycling of polymers and rubbers on account of its ability to cause chain scission and/or cross-linking of polymeric materials. There is only limited amount of work reported on the irradiation-induced degradation of rubbers. Unlike the majority of the elastomers with high levels of unsaturation, butyl rubber exhibits significant degradation by ionizing radiation action. In this study, recycling of gamma irradiated inner tubes made of butyl rubber in butyl based rubber compounds was studied. Used inner tubes were irradiated with gamma rays in air at 100 and 120 kGy absorbed doses. The compatibility of irradiated inner tubes with virgin butyl rubber was first investigated. Gamma irradiated inner tube wastes were replaced with butyl rubber up to 15 phr in the compound recipe. Similar recipes were also prepared by using the same quantity of commercial butyl rubber crumbs devulcanized by conventional methods. The rheological and mechanical properties and carbon black dispersion degree for both types of compounds prepared by using inner tubes scraps and commercial butyl crumbs were measured and were compared to the values of virgin butyl rubber compound. It is well known that mechanical properties are deteriorated when rubber crumb is added to the virgin compound. It was observed that the decrease in the mechanical properties was much lower for the compounds prepared from the tubes irradiated at 120 kGy than irradiated at 100 kGy. The better mechanical properties were obtained for the compounds prepared by recycling of irradiated inner tubes at 120 kGy than the compounds prepared by using commercial butyl crumbs. Almost similar carbon black distributions were observed for the all compounds studied. It has been concluded that gamma irradiated inner tubes are compatible

  1. Polycarbonyl(quinonyl) organic compounds as cathode materials for sustainable lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Ronghua; Xing, Lidan; Qiu, Yongcai; Wang, Yating; Huang, Wenna; Li, Weishan; Yang, Shihe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Quinonyl compounds containing –OH groups are reported as cathode of sustainable Li-ion battery. • Lithiation potential of these compounds is positively correlated to -OH group number on them. • These compounds exhibit a discharge plateau of 3 V and deliver a capacity of over 180 mAh g -1 at 20 mA g -1 . - Abstract: Suitably designed organic compounds are promising renewable electrode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with minimal environmental impacts and no CO 2 release. Herein we report a series of polycarbonyl organic compounds with different number of hydroxyl groups, which can be obtained from renewable plants, as cathode materials for LIBs. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations based on the natural bond orbital (NBO) reveal a positive correlation between the reduction potentials and the number of hydroxyl groups, which is borne out experimentally. Anthraquinone (AQ) with three or four -OH groups has the structural advantages for improving the discharge plateaus. Mechanistic studies show that AQ containing neighbouring carbonyl groups and hydroxyl groups facilitates the formation of six or five-membered rings with lithium ion. Charge/discharge tests show that AQ, 1,5-DHAQ, 1,2,7-THAQ, and 1,2,5,8-THAQ can achieve initial discharge capacities of 215, 190, 186 and 180 mAh g -1 at a current density of 20 mA g -1 , corresponding to 84%, 85%, 89% and 91% of their theoretical capacities, respectively

  2. Tritium pollution in the Swiss luminous compound industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, K.; Zeller, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Swiss luminous compound industry is an important consumer of tritium. About 350kCi go into production of tritium gas-filled light sources and 40kCi into production of tritium luminous compound annually. To illustrate the pollution problem, a factory is mentioned that handles 200kCi annually and a chain of luminizers, processing 20kCi over the same period as tritium luminous compound. This material is manufactured by coating phosphors with tritiated polystyrene having a specific activity up to 200Ci/g. Because of the high specific activity, the radiation damage produces an average activity release of 5.2% annually, which is one of the main reasons for public and occupational exposure. The processing of large quantities of tritium gas requires special equipment, such as units made entirely of stainless steel for purification and hydrogenation, oxidation systems for highly contaminated air, glove boxes, ventilation and monitoring systems. Nevertheless, contamination of air, surfaces, water and workers cannot be avoided. Only in a few cases were MPC-values for tritium content in urine of workers exceeded. From these results, biological half-lives between 5-15 days were estimated. Regular medical examinations showed no significant influence in blood picture parameters, except in one single case with a tritium concentration in urine of 2.8mCi/litre. Entirely different problems arise in most luminizing factories where luminous paint is processed as an open radioactive source. (author)

  3. A review of phenolic compounds in oil-bearing plants: Distribution, identification and occurrence of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Al-Mahasneh, Majdi A; Almajwal, Ali; Gammoh, Sana; Ereifej, Khalil; Johargy, Ayman; Alli, Inteaz

    2017-03-01

    Over the last two decades, separation, identification and measurement of the total and individual content of phenolic compounds has been widely investigated. Recently, the presence of a wide range of phenolic compounds in oil-bearing plants has been shown to contribute to their therapeutic properties, including anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, hypo-lipidemic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Phenolics in oil-bearing plants are now recognized as important minor food components due to several organoleptic and health properties, and they are used as food or sources of food ingredients. Variations in the content of phenolics in oil-bearing plants have largely been attributed to several factors, including the cultivation, time of harvest and soil types. A number of authors have suggested that the presence phenolics in extracted proteins, carbohydrates and oils may contribute to objectionable off flavors The objective of this study was to review the distribution, identification and occurrence of free and bound phenolic compounds in oil-bearing plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of eight compounds isolated from Entada abyssinica (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoyem, Jean P; Melong, Raduis; Tsamo, Armelle T; Tchinda, Alembert T; Kapche, Deccaux G W F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2017-03-06

    Entada abyssinica is a plant traditionally used against gastrointestinal bacterial infections. Eight compounds including three flavonoids, three terpenoids, a monoglyceride and a phenolic compound isolated from E. abyssinica were investigated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Compounds 7 and 2 had remarkable activity against Salmonella typhimurium with the lowest respective minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1.56 and 3.12 µg/mL. The antioxidant assay gave IC 50 values varied from 0.48 to 2.87 μg/mL in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, from 2.53 to 17.04 μg/mL in the 2,2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay and from 1.43 to 103.98 µg/mL in the FRAP assay. Compounds had relatively low cytotoxicity (LC 50 values ranging from 22.42 to 80.55 µg/mL) towards Vero cells. Ursolic acid had the most potent cytotoxicity against THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells with LC 50 values of 9.62 and 4.56 μg/mL respectively, and selectivity index values of 7.32 and 15.44 respectively. Our findings suggest that among the terpenoid and flavonoid compounds studied, entadanin (compound 7) possess tremendous antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium and could be developed for the treatment of bacterial diseases.

  5. Novel CLCN7 compound heterozygous mutations in intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Nana; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Komori, Takahide; Imoto, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a heritable disorder of the skeleton that is characterized by increased bone density on radiographs caused by defects in osteoclast formation and function. Mutations in >10 genes are identified as causative for this clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease in humans. We report two novel missense variations in a compound heterozygous state in the CLCN7 gene, detected through targeted exome sequencing, in a 15-year-old Japanese female with intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis.

  6. Unbiased ascertainment of a patient with a 47,XY, +pseudic (15)t(15;15)(q13;q13) karyotype by amniocentesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, E.; Prochazka, G.; Hamilton, S. [Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A 47,XY,+mar male karyotype was found in all metaphases on an amniocentesis from a 36-year-old woman (G1,P0). The marker was G group size. Chromosome studies on the parents were normal. C-banding, NOR staining and FISH demonstrated that the marker was dicentric, bisatellited, derived from No. 15 and contained 2 copies of the chromosomal region flanked by the Prader-Willi/Angelman A and B probes. The final karyotype was: 47,XY,+pseudic(15)t(15;15)(q13;q13), making the fetus tetrasomic for the genes in the duplicated region. DNA marker studies for No. 15 (performed in the laboratory of Dr. David Ledbetter) revealed that the fetus had inherited on No. 15 from each parent and that the marker was derived from both maternal No. 15 chromosomes. The parents chose to continue the pregnancy. The baby was born at 38 weeks gestation, was mildly edematous and had Apgar scores of 4, 7, and 8 at 1, 5, and 10 min, respectively. The marker was confirmed to be present in placenta and the baby`s blood. Examination at 6 weeks showed appropriate growth and development. Data from published cases predict that this baby will be mentally retarded and may have seizures because he is tetrasomic for 15pter-q13, but will not have Prader-Willi or Angelman syndromes since he has biparental inheritance of his normal No. 15s. However, the published cases may represent a biased sample as most were identified in mentally retarded individuals, not by prenatal diagnosis. This infant`s development will continue to be followed closely.

  7. Study on ionizing radiation effects in diesel and crude oil: organic compounds, hydrocarbon, sulfur and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Luana dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum is the most important energy and pollution source in the world, nowadays. New technologies in petrochemical industry aim to minimize energy spending at the process and to reduce pollution products. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds generate environmental problems; the most relevant is air pollution that affects the population health directly. The nuclear technology has been used in environmental protection through pollutants removal by free radicals produced at action of the radiation in water molecule. The objective of this study is to evaluate the radiation effects on oil and diesel, mainly in the hydrocarbons, organic sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. It was studied a molecule model of sulfur, named benzothiophene, diesel and crude oil samples. The samples were irradiated using a Co-60 source, Gammacell type. The total sulfur concentration in the samples was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study of molecular model showed that 95% was degraded at 20 kGy dose rate. Irradiation at 15 kGy of absorbed dose showed some cracking in petrol hydrocarbons, however with higher doses it was observed polymerization and low efficiency of cracking. It was observed that the sulfur compounds from diesel and petroleum was efficiently reduced. The applied doses of 15 kGy and 30 kGy were the most efficient on desulfurization of petroleum, and for diesel the highest variation was observed with 30 kGy and 50 kGy of absorbed dose. The distillation and chromatographic separation using an open column with palladium chloride as stationary phase showed a preferential separation of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (author)

  8. Experimental investigation of densification of powdered A15 phase in the system Nb--Al--Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, D.P.

    1976-02-01

    An investigation of the densification of precompounded powder of the A15 phase Nb 3 (Al,Ge) was made. The influence of various parameters such as additives, temperature, pressure and time in sintering of this material was studied. Since cold pressing followed by sintering did not produce sufficient density, the hot pressing technique was used. By hot pressing at 1450 0 C for 1 / 2 hour under 6 ksi pressure, about 95 percent densification was achieved. Results provide information that could lead to the development of a viable process for producing superconductors based on this compound. 14 figures, 17 references

  9. Mn(III-Initiated Facile Oxygenation of Heterocyclic 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Aminul Haque

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mn(III-initiated aerobic oxidation of heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, such as 4-alkyl-1,2-diphenylpyrazolidine-3,5-diones, 1,3-dialkylpyrrolidine-2,4-diones, 3-alkyl-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acids, and 3-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-quinolinone gave excellent to good yields of the corresponding hydroperoxides, which were gradually degraded by exposure to the metal initiator after the reaction to afford the corresponding alcohols. The synthesis of 30 heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, the corresponding hydroperoxides and the 10 alcohols, their characterization, and the limitations of the procedure are described. In addition, the mechanism of the hydroperoxidation and the redox decomposition of the hydroperoxides are discussed.

  10. Optimized formation of detergent micelles of beta-carotene and retinal production using recombinant human beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Hee; Kim, Yeong-Su; Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2008-01-01

    The formation of beta-carotene detergent micelles and their conversion into retinal by recombinant human beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase was optimized under aqueous conditions. Toluene was the most hydrophobic among the organic solvents tested; thus, it was used to dissolve beta-carotene, which is a hydrophobic compound. Tween 80 was selected as the detergent because it supported the highest level of retinal production among all of the detergents tested. The maximum production of retinal was achieved in detergent micelles containing 200 mg/L of beta-carotene and 2.4% (w/v) Tween 80. Under these conditions, the recombinant enzyme produced 97 mg/L of retinal after 16 h with a conversion yield of 48.5% (w/w). The amount of retinal produced, which is the highest ever reported, is a result of the ability of our system to dissolve large amounts of beta-carotene.

  11. The formation of lithium diarylargentates from arylsilver compounds and the corresponding aryllithium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenkers, J.; Hofstee, H.K.; Boersma, J.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1979-01-01

    Diarylsilverlithium compounds of the type Ar2AgLi are formed by treating arylsilver compounds with the corresponding aryllithium compounds. Cryoscopy in benzene shows that the Ar2AgLi compounds are associated into dimers. NMR spectroscopic data indicate that only one type of aryl group is present in

  12. Volatile organic compounds at swine facilities: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Robarge, Wayne P; Xiao, Changhe; Heber, Albert J

    2012-10-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regulated aerial pollutants that have environmental and health concerns. Swine operations produce and emit a complex mixture of VOCs with a wide range of molecular weights and a variety of physicochemical properties. Significant progress has been made in this area since the first experiment on VOCs at a swine facility in the early 1960s. A total of 47 research institutions in 15 North American, European, and Asian countries contributed to an increasing number of scientific publications. Nearly half of the research papers were published by U.S. institutions. Investigated major VOC sources included air inside swine barns, in headspaces of manure storages and composts, in open atmosphere above swine wastewater, and surrounding swine farms. They also included liquid swine manure and wastewater, and dusts inside and outside swine barns. Most of the sample analyses have been focusing on identification of VOC compounds and their relationship with odors. More than 500 VOCs have been identified. About 60% and 10% of the studies contributed to the quantification of VOC concentrations and emissions, respectively. The largest numbers of VOC compounds with reported concentrations in a single experimental study were 82 in air, 36 in manure, and 34 in dust samples. The relatively abundant VOC compounds that were quantified in at least two independent studies included acetic acid, butanoic acid (butyric acid), dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, iso-valeric, p-cresol, propionic acid, skatole, trimethyl amine, and valeric acid in air. They included acetic acid, p-cresol, iso-butyric acid, butyric acid, indole, phenol, propionic acid, iso-valeric acid, and skatole in manure. In dust samples, they were acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, p-cresol, hexanal, and decanal. Swine facility VOCs were preferentially bound to smaller-size dusts. Identification and quantification of VOCs were restricted by using instruments based on

  13. A process for producing lignin and volatile compounds from hydrolysis liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraie, Tooran; Zhang, Yiqian; Tarasov, Dmitry; Gao, Weijue; Price, Jacquelyn; DeMartini, Nikolai; Hupa, Leena; Fatehi, Pedram

    2017-01-01

    Hot water hydrolysis process is commercially applied for treating wood chips prior to pulping or wood pellet production, while it produces hydrolysis liquor as a by-product. Since the hydrolysis liquor is dilute, the production of value-added materials from it would be challenging. In this study, acidification was proposed as a viable method to extract (1) furfural and acetic acid from hot water hydrolysis liquor and (2) lignin compounds from the liquor. The thermal properties of the precipitates made from the acidification of hydrolysis liquor confirmed the volatile characteristics of precipitates. Membrane dialysis was effective in removing inorganic salts associated with lignin compounds. The purified lignin compounds had a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 180-190 °C, and were thermally stable. The results confirmed that lignin compounds present in hot water hydrolysis liquor had different characteristics. The acidification of hydrolysis liquor primarily removed the volatile compounds from hydrolysis liquor. Based on these results, a process for producing purified lignin and precipitates of volatile compounds was proposed.

  14. The Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers metabolic adaptation to ingested material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Taubert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II (Pol(II dependent gene expression requires accessory factors termed transcriptional coregulators. One coregulator that universally contributes to Pol(II-dependent transcription is the Mediator, a multisubunit complex that is targeted by many transcriptional regulatory factors. For example, the Caenorhabditis elegans Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers the regulatory actions of the sterol response element binding protein SBP-1 and the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49 on fatty acid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that MDT-15 displays a broader spectrum of activities, and that it integrates metabolic responses to materials ingested by C. elegans. Depletion of MDT-15 protein or mutation of the mdt-15 gene abrogated induction of specific detoxification genes in response to certain xenobiotics or heavy metals, rendering these animals hypersensitive to toxin exposure. Intriguingly, MDT-15 appeared to selectively affect stress responses related to ingestion, as MDT-15 functional defects did not abrogate other stress responses, e.g., thermotolerance. Together with our previous finding that MDT-15:NHR-49 regulatory complexes coordinate a sector of the fasting response, we propose a model whereby MDT-15 integrates several transcriptional regulatory pathways to monitor both the availability and quality of ingested materials, including nutrients and xenobiotic compounds.

  15. Termite Resistance of MDF Panels Treated with Various Boron Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Ondaral

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of various boron compounds on the termite resistance of MDF panels were evaluated. Either borax (BX, boric acid (BA, zinc borate (ZB, or sodium perborate tetrahydrate (SPT were added to urea-formaldehyde (UF resin at target contents of 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% based on dry fiber weight. The panels were then manufactured using 12% urea-formaldehyde resin and 1% NH4Cl. MDF samples from the panels were tested against the subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Laboratory termite resistance tests showed that all samples containing boron compounds had greater resistance against termite attack compared to untreated MDF samples. At the second and third weeks of exposure, nearly 100% termite mortalities were recorded in all boron compound treated samples. The highest termite mortalities were determined in the samples with either BA or BX. Also, it was found that SPT showed notable performance on the termite mortality. As chemical loadings increased, termite mortalities increased, and at the same time the weight losses of the samples decreased.

  16. Biotransformation of major ginsenosides into compound K by a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotransformation of major ginsenosides into compound K by a new Penicillium dipodomyicola ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... ginsenoside Rb1 to minor ginsenosides compound K. The transformation products were identified by thin ...

  17. Mining collections of compounds with Screening Assistant 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilloux Vincent

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput screening assays have become the starting point of many drug discovery programs for large pharmaceutical companies as well as academic organisations. Despite the increasing throughput of screening technologies, the almost infinite chemical space remains out of reach, calling for tools dedicated to the analysis and selection of the compound collections intended to be screened. Results We present Screening Assistant 2 (SA2, an open-source JAVA software dedicated to the storage and analysis of small to very large chemical libraries. SA2 stores unique molecules in a MySQL database, and encapsulates several chemoinformatics methods, among which: providers management, interactive visualisation, scaffold analysis, diverse subset creation, descriptors calculation, sub-structure / SMART search, similarity search and filtering. We illustrate the use of SA2 by analysing the composition of a database of 15 million compounds collected from 73 providers, in terms of scaffolds, frameworks, and undesired properties as defined by recently proposed HTS SMARTS filters. We also show how the software can be used to create diverse libraries based on existing ones. Conclusions Screening Assistant 2 is a user-friendly, open-source software that can be used to manage collections of compounds and perform simple to advanced chemoinformatics analyses. Its modular design and growing documentation facilitate the addition of new functionalities, calling for contributions from the community. The software can be downloaded at http://sa2.sourceforge.net/.

  18. Mining collections of compounds with Screening Assistant 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background High-throughput screening assays have become the starting point of many drug discovery programs for large pharmaceutical companies as well as academic organisations. Despite the increasing throughput of screening technologies, the almost infinite chemical space remains out of reach, calling for tools dedicated to the analysis and selection of the compound collections intended to be screened. Results We present Screening Assistant 2 (SA2), an open-source JAVA software dedicated to the storage and analysis of small to very large chemical libraries. SA2 stores unique molecules in a MySQL database, and encapsulates several chemoinformatics methods, among which: providers management, interactive visualisation, scaffold analysis, diverse subset creation, descriptors calculation, sub-structure / SMART search, similarity search and filtering. We illustrate the use of SA2 by analysing the composition of a database of 15 million compounds collected from 73 providers, in terms of scaffolds, frameworks, and undesired properties as defined by recently proposed HTS SMARTS filters. We also show how the software can be used to create diverse libraries based on existing ones. Conclusions Screening Assistant 2 is a user-friendly, open-source software that can be used to manage collections of compounds and perform simple to advanced chemoinformatics analyses. Its modular design and growing documentation facilitate the addition of new functionalities, calling for contributions from the community. The software can be downloaded at http://sa2.sourceforge.net/. PMID:23327565

  19. Carrier system for a plant extract or bioactive compound from a plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    This invention relates to a carrier system for use in producing a beverage with a metered amount of plant extract or bioactive compound.......This invention relates to a carrier system for use in producing a beverage with a metered amount of plant extract or bioactive compound....

  20. Ambiental volatile organic compounds in the megacity of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Droprinchinski Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the composition of the main urban air organic compounds in the megacity of Sao Paulo, analysis of samples collected during the winter of 2003 downtown was carried out. The samplings were performed on the roof of a building in the commercial center of São Paulo. Hydrocarbons and carbonyls compounds were collected on August 4, 5 and 6. Comparing to previous data, the concentration of hydrocarbons presented no decrease in the concentration, except for the aldehydes, which decreased when compared to previous data. Among the HCs species analyzed, the highest concentrations observed were those of toluene (7.5 ± 3.4 ppbv, n-decane (3.2 ± 2.0 ppbv, benzene (2.7 ± 1.4 ppbv and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (2.2 ± 1.5 ppbv.

  1. Dual solid-phase and stir bar sorptive extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis provides a suitable tool for assaying limonene-derived mint aroma compounds in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Magali; Franc, Céline; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2018-02-25

    A novel analytical method was developed for quantitative determination of eight limonene-derived monoterpenes responsible for the mint aroma in red wine. As these aromatic compounds are present at trace levels, a new dual extraction approach was proposed, combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The various parameters affecting the efficiency of extracting the analytes from wine samples in both the SPE and SBSE steps were first investigated, to determine the best compromise for the simultaneous analysis of the compounds studied. Following preliminary optimization of the dilution factor, phase ratio, and methanol content in the SBSE sample, cartridge sorbent mass, type of solvent, elution volume, and wine sample volume in the pre-concentration SPE step were studied. Highest response values were obtained when a 90 mL wine sample was extracted on a 500 mg SPE C18 cartridge and eluted with 1.5 mL methanol. The wine extract was then diluted in 10 mL water to obtain a final methanol content of 15% before the SBSE step. Good linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy and the required low detection and quantification limits were obtained under the conditions described, making this SPE-SBSE combination a suitable, powerful tool for routine analysis of the selected limonene-derived mint aroma compounds in large series of wine samples. Finally, the validated method was applied to 15 commercial red Bordeaux wines, aged from 3 to 23 years. Most of the compounds studied, present within the ng.L -1 range, were easily quantified for the first time in wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of Active Compounds in the Root of Merung (Coptosapelta tomentosa Valeton K. Heyne)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriyana

    2018-04-01

    The roots of Merung (Coptosapelta tomentosa Valeton K. Heyne) are a group of shrubs usually found on the margins of secondary dryland forest. Empirically, local people have been using the roots of Merung for medical treatment. However, some researches show that the plant extract is used as a poisonous material applied on the tip of the arrow (dart). Based on the online literature study, there are less than 5 articles that provide information about the active compound of this root extract. This study aimed to give additional information more deeply about the content of active compound of Merung root extract in three fractions, n-hexane (nonpolar), ethyl acetate (semi polar) and methanol (polar). The extract was then analysed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of root extract in n-hexane showed there were 56 compounds, with the main compound being decanoic acid, methyl ester (peak 5, 10.13%), 11-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (peak 15, 10.43%) and 1H-Pyrazole, 3- (4-chlorophenyl) -4, 5-dihydro-1-phenyl (peak 43, 11.25%). Extracts in ethyl acetate fraction obtained 81 compounds. The largest component is Benzoic acid (peak 19, 22.40%), whereas in methanol there are 38 compounds, of which the main component is 2-Furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxyl methyl) (peak 29, 30.46%).

  3. Fungicidal compounds from a marine Ascidian-associated fungus Trichoderma harzianum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Ciavatta, M.L.; Wahidullah, S.; Vuppala, S.; DeSouza, L.

    . Of the five isolated secondary metabolites, compounds 2 and 5 are being reported here for the first time from T. harzianum. Compounds 1 and 4 inhibited the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii causing sclerotium wilt or rot disease in tropical plants. Compound 2 and 5...

  4. Moessbauer study of (Fe1-x Cu x )4N (0.05≤x≤0.15) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Khiraoui, S.; Sajieddine, M.; Vergnat, M.; Bauer, Ph.; Mabrouki, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we have prepared nitrogenated Fe 1- x Cu x alloys by reactive evaporation under a flow of nitrogen ions. After annealing, X-ray diffraction shows that we have synthesized the γ'-(Fe 1- x Cu x ) 4 N (0.05≤x≤0.15) compounds. The films were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The crystallographic structure and the respective positions of the Fe and Cu atoms in the compounds have been determined

  5. Dissipation kinetics of asparagine in soil measured by compound-specific analysis with metabolite tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Weronika; Rasmussen, Jim; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    labeled glutamic acid were detected in soil. This highlights the fast turnover of amino acid in soil and that the estimation of concentration of the formed compounds is important when evaluating plant available organic N. Efficiency of the compound-specific analysis showed to be a powerful technique......Estimating the potential for direct plant acquisition of organic N, in particular amino acids, requires assessment of their turnover times in soil. It is well known from 14C studies that mineralization of amino acids occurs within hours, but mineralization to 14CO2 does not indicate the rate...... of disappearance of the intact amino acid or the possible formation of metabolites during amino acid dissipation. We here used compound-specific isotope analysis with metabolite tracking to investigate the dissipation rate of universally labeled intact 13C15N-asparagine at two concentrations and the subsequent...

  6. Fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on a naphthalene-benzofuran compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics and electrochemical properties of naphthalene-benzofuran compound 1 and its application in organic light emitting devices. Fluorescent deep-blue emitting devices employing 1 as the emitting dopant embedded in 4-4′-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2′-biphenyl (CBP) host show the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.5% and Commission Internationale d\\'Énclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.07). Hybrid white devices using fluorescent blue emitting layer with 1 and a phosphorescent orange emitting layer based on an iridium-complex show the peak external quantum efficiency above 10% and CIE coordinates of (0.31, 0.37). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Production of polyoxoboronate as novel boron compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Mitsui, Sayaka; Ogata, Aya

    2006-01-01

    Polyoxometalates are negatively charged inorganic substances which contain early transitional metal ions such as tungsten, molybdenum, making a cluster with the surrounding oxygen atoms. We prepared novel boron compound, (H 15 [V 12 10 B 32 O 84 Na 4 ]·13H 2 O; 10 B32), as the structure of polyoxometalates. With thermal neutron irradiation, 10 B32 shows cytotoxic effect on the proliferation of AsPC-1 cells in colony formation assay. On BNCT model mice bearing AsPC-1, 10 B32 shows tumor growth suppression, as well. These results indicate that 10 B32 has anti-tumor activity being functioned as a novel neutron capture agent. (author)

  8. Preventing droplet deformation during dielectrophoretic centering of a compound emulsion droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Greg; Blue, Brent

    2012-11-01

    Compound droplets, or droplets-within-droplets, are traditionally key components in applications ranging from drug delivery to the food industry. Presently, millimeter-sized compound droplets are precursors for shell targets in inertial fusion energy work. However, a key constraint in target fabrication is a uniform shell wall thickness, which in turn requires a centered core droplet in the compound droplet precursor. Previously, Bei et al. (2009, 2010) have shown that compound droplets could be centered in a static fluid using an electric field of 0.7 kV/cm at 20 MHz. Randall et al. (2012) developed a process to center the core of a moving compound droplet, though the ~kV/cm field induced small (fluid mechanics and interfacial rheology perspective and we discuss the effective interfacial charge from an emulsifier and its impact on centering. Work funded by General Atomics Internal R&D.

  9. Technology developments for a compound cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobula, George A.; Wintucky, William T.; Castor, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the light weight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hour (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. Results of recent activities in a program to establish the technology base for a CCE are presented. The objective of this program is to research and develop those critical technologies which are necessary for the demonstration of a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990s. A major accomplishment was the initial screening and identification of a lubricant which has potential for meeting the material wear rate limits of the application. An in-situ wear measurement system also was developed to provide accurate, readily obtainable, real time measurements of ring and liner wear. Wear data, from early single cylinder engine tests, are presented to show correlation of the in-situ measurements and the system's utility in determining parametric wear trends. A plan to demonstrate a compound cycle engine by the mid 1990s is included.

  10. Fruits Bioactive Compounds Characterization from a New Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Mariana RUS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (I to create a new product, smart bar type which can be consumed as protective food by adults and children (II to characterize the bioactive compounds from the designed food. The bioactive compounds were identified from nuts, raw seeds of almonds, dry cranberries, dry plums and flax seeds. Secoisolariciresinol (683 ppm has been identified as a major compound in flax seeds.  The vitamin C was quantified by HPLC in a concentration of 35.02 mg% in cranberries extract. The total phenolic content varied from 7.1 mg/g for walnut to 71.8 mg/g for cranberries. In addition, the antioxidative capability of phenolic compounds was monitored and evaluated using a colored free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Almond showed better results than walnut in the antioxidant capacity test. The results obtained in this study collect information that enables the use of nuts, raw seeds of almonds, dry cranberries, dry plums and flax seeds as raw material for the production of smart bar which may serve as a new product for food market.

  11. Phytochemical analysis and docking study of compounds present in a polyherbal preparation used in the treatment of dermatophytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri Vsdna, Nagesh; Muniappan, Muthuchamy; Kannan, Iyanar; Viswanathan, Subramanyam

    2017-12-01

    Soleshine is a polyherbal preparation established in the market for the treatment of cracks and tinea pedis, which is applied externally. This preparation is composed of the extracts of indigenous plants, namely Azadirachta indica, Lawsonia alba, and Shorea robusta , mixed with castor oil and sesame oil. In the present study, an attempt was made to identify the constituents of soleshine and identify some potential drug-like molecules that can inhibit important drug targets of the dermatophytes using molecular docking method. The active ingredients of polyherbal preparation were identified with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two major compounds were selected based on the retention time and percentage of the area covered in the graph for docking study. The three-dimensional structures of 1,3-β-glucan synthase, chitinase, fungalysin, and lumazine synthase were derived by homology modelling using MODELLER software, version 9.0. The docking of the ligand and receptor was performed using iGEMDOCK and AutodockVina software. The physicochemical properties, lipophilicity, hydrophilicity, and drug likeness properties were obtained from the Swiss ADME online server tool. The GC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of different phytochemical compounds in the extract of polyherbal preparation. A total of 20 compounds were identified, among which 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienaland 2-pentene-2-methyl were the major compounds. Regarding 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal, the covered area and height were 40.15% and 46.17%, respectively. These values were 31.90% and 23.33% for 2-pentene-2-methyl, respectively. These two major compounds had an excellent binding affinity and obeyed the rules for the drug likeness and lead likeness. As the findings indicated, the two major ingredients present in soleshine showed a good antifungal activity as they inhibited the enzymes responsible for the survival of fungal organism; furthermore, they were appropriate for the lead

  12. Bio-guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from Chrysophyllum perpulchrum, a Plant Used in the Ivory Coast Pharmacopeia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Hosttetmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysophyllum perpulchrum (Sapotaceae is used in the traditional Ivory Coast pharmacopeia to cure fevers. The extract of C. perpulchrum used for this study was the powdered form obtained from the maceration of the dried plant bark in 96% methanol, followed by evaporation to dryness. In the present study, the antioxidative and radical-scavenging activities of the methanolic extract were studied with three standard biological tests: DPPH reduction, ferric thiocyanate (FTC lipidic peroxidation inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS. Gallic acid and quercetin were used as references. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the extract was determined by ultraviolet (UV spectrometry and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Catechin and two dimeric procyanidins were found to be the compounds responsible for the activities. They were chemically dereplicated in the extract by LC-MS. For quantitation purposes, they were isolated by successive chromatographic methods and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectrometry. The quantities of these compounds in C. perpulchrum were 5.4% for catechin (P1, and 5.6 and 9.2% for dimers (compounds 2 (P2 and 3 (P3, respectively. They displayed antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.50 ± 0.15 µg/mL (P1, 2.10 ± 0.2 µg/mL (P2 and 2.10 ± 0.1 µg/mL (P3. The total extract, the active fractions and the pure compounds inhibited the lipid peroxidation by the FTC method and the TBARS method in the range of 60%. These values were comparable to those seen for quercetin.

  13. Quinolone Amides as Antitrypanosomal Lead Compounds with In Vivo Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltensperger, Georg; Hecht, Nina; Kaiser, Marcel; Rybak, Jens-Christoph; Hoerst, Alexander; Dannenbauer, Nicole; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus; Bruhn, Heike; Esch, Harald; Lehmann, Leane; Meinel, Lorenz; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2016-08-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a major tropical disease for which few drugs for treatment are available, driving the need for novel active compounds. Recently, morpholino-substituted benzyl amides of the fluoroquinolone-type antibiotics were identified to be compounds highly active against Trypanosoma brucei brucei Since the lead compound GHQ168 was challenged by poor water solubility in previous trials, the aim of this study was to introduce structural variations to GHQ168 as well as to formulate GHQ168 with the ultimate goal to increase its aqueous solubility while maintaining its in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. The pharmacokinetic parameters of spray-dried GHQ168 and the newly synthesized compounds GHQ242 and GHQ243 in mice were characterized by elimination half-lives ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 h after intraperitoneal administration (4 mice/compound), moderate to strong human serum albumin binding for GHQ168 (80%) and GHQ243 (45%), and very high human serum albumin binding (>99%) for GHQ242. For the lead compound, GHQ168, the apparent clearance was 112 ml/h and the apparent volume of distribution was 14 liters/kg of body weight (BW). Mice infected with T. b. rhodesiense (STIB900) were treated in a stringent study scheme (2 daily applications between days 3 and 6 postinfection). Exposure to spray-dried GHQ168 in contrast to the control treatment resulted in mean survival durations of 17 versus 9 days, respectively, a difference that was statistically significant. Results that were statistically insignificantly different were obtained between the control and the GHQ242 and GHQ243 treatments. Therefore, GHQ168 was further profiled in an early-treatment scheme (2 daily applications at days 1 to 4 postinfection), and the results were compared with those obtained with a control treatment. The result was statistically significant mean survival times exceeding 32 days (end of the observation period) versus 7 days for the GHQ168 and control treatments

  14. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Vanja; Putnik, Predrag; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Jukić, Marijana; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2017-06-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays). The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70% aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol), extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min) and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences at a 95% confidence level (p≤0.05). The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols) than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70% aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50% aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval) has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  15. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lovrić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70 % aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol, extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to evaluate the differences at a 95 % confidence level (p≤0.05. The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70 % aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50 % aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  16. Synthesis, Antiproliferative, and Multidrug Resistance Reversal Activities of Heterocyclic α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ju-Feng; Hou, Gui-Ge; Zhao, Feng; Cong, Wei; Li, Hong-Juan; Liu, Wen-Shuai; Wang, Chunhua

    2016-10-01

    A series of heterocyclic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (1a-1d, 2a-2d, 3a-3d, 4a-3d, and 5a-5d) with 1,5-diaryl-3-oxo-1,4-pentadienyl pharmacophore were synthesized for the development of anticancer and multidrug resistance reverting agents. The antiproliferative activities were tested against nine human cancer cell lines. Approximately 73% of the IC50 values were below 5 μm, while 35% of these figures were submicromolar, and compounds 3a-3d with 4-trifluoro methyl in the arylidene benzene rings were the most potent, since their IC50 values are between 0.06 and 3.09 μm against all cancer cell lines employed. Meanwhile, their multidrug resistance reversal properties and cellular uptake were further examined. The data displayed that all of these compounds could reverse multidrug resistance, particularly, compounds 3a and 4a demonstrated both potent multidrug resistance reverting properties and strong antiproliferative activities, which can be taken as leading molecules for further research of dual effect agents in tumor chemotherapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. NOD2/CARD15 genotype, cardiovascular disease and cancer in 43 600 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, S.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    from two large Danish general population cohorts followed for 31 years: the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n = 10 597) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (n = 32 999). We examined the risk of cardiovascular disease (2743 and 3890, respectively, in the two studies) and cancer (2144 and 3241......, respectively) by NOD2/CARD15 genotype using Cox and logistic regressions in both studies. To maximize statistical power, the three NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants were analysed together as follows: noncarriers for all three variants, heterozygotes for one of the three variants and homozygotes for one of the three...... variants pooled with compound heterozygotes for two variants. Results. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease and cancer in NOD2/CARD15 heterozygotes or homozygotes/compound heterozygotes versus noncarries did not differ from 1.0 in the Copenhagen City Heart Study...

  18. The crystal structure and electronic properties of a new metastable non-stoichiometric BaAl{sub 4}-type compound crystallized from amorphous La{sub 6}Ni{sub 34}Ge{sub 60} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Masashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Katahira 980-8577 (Japan); Suzuki, Shoichiro [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Katahira 980-8577 (Japan); Ohsuna, Tetsu [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Katahira 980-8577 (Japan); Matsubara, Eiichiro [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Katahira 980-8577 (Japan); Endo, Satoshi [Center for Low Temperature Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Katahira 980-8577 (Japan); Inoue, Akihisa [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Katahira 980-8577 (Japan)

    2004-11-17

    A new metastable La-Ge-Ni ternary BaAl{sub 4}-type (ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type) compound, of which the space group is I4/mmm is synthesized. It is obtained by a polymorphic transformation from an La{sub 6}Ni{sub 34}Ge{sub 60} amorphous alloy on crystallizing. The formula of the compound is (La{sub 0.3}Ge{sub 0.7})(Ni{sub 0.85}Ge{sub 0.15}){sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. This indicates that it is highly non-stoichiometric compared to the stoichiometric LaNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. It is found that the c-axis lattice parameter of this compound is much longer than that of LaNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. It should be noted that the longer c-axis unit cell parameter is attributable only to the longer interlayer distance between Ge site and Ni site layers. The temperature dependences of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of the (La{sub 0.3}Ge{sub 0.7})(Ni{sub 0.85}Ge{sub 0.15}){sub 2}Ge{sub 2} compound and La{sub 6}Ni{sub 34}Ge{sub 60} amorphous alloy are also clarified. The comparison of these electronic properties between the two materials indicates that sp-electrons mainly contribute to the density of states around the Fermi level of this compound.

  19. Novel phases and superconductivity of tin sulfide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Joseph M.; Nguyen-Cong, Kien; Steele, Brad A.; Oleynik, Ivan I.

    2018-05-01

    Tin sulfides, SnxSy, are an important class of materials that are actively investigated as novel photovoltaic and water splitting materials. A first-principles evolutionary crystal structure search is performed with the goal of constructing the complete phase diagram of SnxSy and discovering new phases as well as new compounds of varying stoichiometry at ambient conditions and pressures up to 100 GPa. The ambient phase of SnS2 with P 3 ¯ m 1 symmetry remains stable up to 28 GPa. Another ambient phase, SnS, experiences a series of phase transformations including α-SnS to β-SnS at 9 GPa, followed by β-SnS to γ-SnS at 40 GPa. γ-SnS is a new high-pressure metallic phase with P m 3 ¯ m space group symmetry stable up to 100 GPa, which becomes a superconductor with a maximum Tc = 9.74 K at 40 GPa. Another new metallic compound, Sn3S4 with I 4 ¯ 3 d space group symmetry, is predicted to be stable at pressures above 15 GPa, which also becomes a superconductor with relatively high Tc = 21.9 K at 30 GPa.

  20. Synthesis of 15N isotope labeled alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Claudineia R. de; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Sant'Ana, Carlos Roberto; Tagliassachi, Romulo Barbieri; Maximo, Everaldo; Prestes, Clelber Vieira

    2005-01-01

    The application of light chemical elements and their stable isotopes in biological studies have been increased over the last years. The use of 15 N labeled amino acids is an important tool for elucidation of peptides structures. This paper describe a method for the synthesis of 15 N isotope labeled alanine at lower costs than international ones, as well as the details of the recovery system of the nitrogen residues. In the present work an amination of α-haloacids, with the bromopropionic carboxylic acid and labeled aqua ammonia ( 15 NH 3 aq) was carried out. In order to avoid eventually losses of 15 NH 3 , special cares were adopted, since the production cost is high. Although the acquisition cost of the 13 N (radioactive) labeled compounds is lower, the obtained stable tracer will allow the accomplishment of important studies of the nitrogen cycling in living things, less occupational and environment hazards, and the time limitation problems in field studies. The tests took place in triplicates with NH 3 (aq) being employed. With the establishment of the system for 15 NH 3 recovery, an average of 94 % of the ammonia employed in the synthesis process was recovered. The purity of the amino acid was state determined by TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography) and HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) with a fluorescence detector. The Rf and the retention time of the synthesized sample were similar the sigma standard. Finally, regarding the established conditions, it was possible to obtain the alanine with a production cost about 40 % lower than the international price. (author)

  1. Formation and decay of a hot compound nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson B.V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The compound nucleus plays an important role in nuclear reactions over a wide range of projectile-target combinations and energies. The limits that angular momentum places on its formation and existence are, for the most part, well understood. The limits on its excitation energy are not as clear. Here we first analyze general geometrical and thermodynamical features of a hot compound nucleus. We then discuss the manners by which it can decay and close by speculating on the high energy limit to its formation and existence.

  2. Fate of 15N and 14C from labelled plant material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Gjettermann, Birgitte; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    strength of labelled plant residues in dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and dissolved organic N (DON) in pore water from the plough layer, and (ii) the plant uptake of organically bound N. Litterbags containing 14C- and 15N-labelled ryegrass or clover roots or leaves were inserted into the sward of a ryegrass......–clover mixture in early spring. The fate of the released 14C and 15N was monitored in harvested biomass, roots, soil, and pore water percolating from the plough layer. No evidence of plant uptake of dual-labelled organic compounds from the dual-labelled residues could be observed. N in pore water from the plough...

  3. Phosphorus–nitrogen compounds: Part 15. Synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    a. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, Tandoğan, Ankara 06100, Turkey b ... Nuran Asmafılız et al. 364 ...... W, Weynand U, Gschwind R M and Niecke E 2006. Angew. .... Cremer D and Pople J A 1975 J. Am. Chem.

  4. Determination of activity coefficients at infinite dilution of water and organic solutes (polar and non-polar) in the Ammoeng 100 ionic liquid at T = (308.15, 313.5, 323.15, and 333.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Prashant; Chiyen, Kaleng J.; Deenadayalu, Nirmala; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Activity coefficients at infinite dilution in the ionic liquid Ammoeng 100. → Twenty-seven solutes investigated at T = (308.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K. → Ammoeng 100 not suited to aromatic/aliphatic and alkane/alcohol separations. - Abstract: Activity coefficients at infinite dilution (γ 13 ∞ ) have been determined for 27 solutes, viz. water and organic compounds (n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, 1-alkenes, 1-alkynes, aromatics, alcohols, and ketones) in the ionic liquid Ammoeng 100, by gas-liquid chromatography at four different temperatures, T = (308.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K. Columns with different phase loadings (20 to 24)% of the ionic liquid in the stationary phase were employed to obtain γ 13 ∞ values at each temperature investigated. Partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution (ΔH 1 E,∞ ) were calculated for the solutes from the temperature dependency relationship of the ln(γ 13 ∞ ) values for the temperature range in this study. The uncertainties in the determinations of the γ 13 ∞ and ΔH 1 E,∞ values are 6% and 10%, respectively. Selectivity values at infinite dilution (S ij ∞ ), have been computed from the γ 13 ∞ values to assess the potential candidacy of the Ammoeng 100 ionic liquid for the separation of alkane/alcohol mixtures. The results from this study have been compared to those available for several ionic liquids from previous investigations.

  5. Transcriptome analyzis of germinatiing maize kernels exposed to smoke-water and active compound KAR1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soós, V.; Sebestyén, E.; Juhász, A.; Light, M. E.; Kohout, Ladislav; Szalai, G.; Tandori, J.; van Staden, J.; Balázs, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 236 (2010), s. 1-15 ISSN 1471-2229 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : smoke compound * transcriptome * KAR1 * butenolide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  6. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  7. The behavior of intermetallic compounds at large plastic strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, G.T.; Embury, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper contains a summary of a broad study of intermetallics which includes the following materials, Ni 3 Al, Ti-48Al-1V, Ti-24Al-11Nb, Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb, and Ti-24.5 Al-10.5Nb-1.5Mo. Much effort has been devoted to the study of ordered materials at modes plastic strains and the problem of premature failure. However by utilizing stress states other than simple tension it is possible to study the deformation of intermetallic compounds up to large plastic strains and to consider the behavior of these materials in the regime where stresses approach the theoretical stress. The current work outlines studies of the work hardening rate of a number of titanium and nickel-based intermetallic compounds deformed in compression. Attention is given to the structural basis of the sustained work hardening. The large strain plasticity of these materials is summarized in a series of diagrams. Fracture in these materials in compression occurs via catastrophic shear at stresses of the order of E/80 (where E is the elastic modulus)

  8. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  9. Resorcinol ninhydrin complex: 1,5,9-trihydroxy-8-oxatetracyclo[7.7.0.02,7.010,15]hexadeca-2,4,6,10(15,11,13-hexaen-16-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sridhar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H10O5, the cyclopentanone (r.m.s. deviation = 0.049 Å and oxolane (r.m.s. deviation = 0.048 Å rings make a dihedral angle of 67.91 (4°. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, molecules associate via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  10. A Yeast/Drosophila Screen to Identify New Compounds Overcoming Frataxin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Seguin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich’s ataxia (FA is a rare neurodegenerative disease which is very debilitating for the patients who progressively lose their autonomy. The lack of efficient therapeutic treatment of the disease strongly argues for urgent need to search for new active compounds that may stop the progression of the disease or prevent the appearance of the symptoms when the genetic defect is diagnosed early enough. In the present study, we used a yeast strain with a deletion of the frataxin homologue gene as a model of FA cells in a primary screen of two chemical libraries, a fraction of the French National Chemical Library (5500 compounds and the Prestwick collection (880 compounds. We ran a secondary screen on Drosophila melanogaster flies expressing reduced levels of frataxin during larval development. Half of the compounds selected in yeast appeared to be active in flies in this developmental paradigm, and one of the two compounds with highest activities in this assay partially rescued the heart dilatation phenotype resulting from heart specific depletion of frataxin. The unique complementarity of these two frataxin-deficient models, unicellular and multicellular, appears to be very efficient to select new compounds with improved selectivity, bringing significant perspectives towards improvements in FA therapy.

  11. Utilization of 15N-labelled urea in laying hens. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Hennig, A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the utilization of urea in poultry, 3 colostomized laying hybrids were orally supplied with a traditional ration supplemented with 1% 15 N'-labelled urea with a 15 N excess ( 15 N') of 96.06 atom-% over a period of 6 days. After another 2 days on which the hens received the same ration with unlabelled urea, they were killed. The atom-% 15 N' of the blood on an average of the 3 hens was 0.64, of the plasma 1.40 and of the corpuscles 0.47. The TCA-soluble fraction of the blood had an average 15 N' of 1.14 atom-%; the 15 N amount was 9.7% of the total amount of 15 N in the blood. The amount of 15 N' in the urea in the blood was 6.8 atom-%. This shows that the absorbed urea is decomposed very slowly. The quota of 15 N' in the basic amino acids from the total 15 N' of the blood plasma was only 0.3% and that of the corpuscles 2.2%. The average 15 N' of the mature follicles was 2.39 atom-% whereas the smallest and the remaining ovary contain 1.12 atom-%. The labelling level of lysine in mature egg cells was, in contrast to this, only 0.08 atom-% 15 N' and in infantile follicles 0.04 atom-% 15 N'. 1% of the 15 N' quota was in the follicles and the remaining ovary. Of the basic amino acids, histidine is most strongly labelled. The lower incorporation of the 15 N' from urea into the basic amino acids shows that the nitrogen of this compound can be used for the synthesis of the essential amino acids to a low degree only. (author)

  12. Adsorption of Organic Compounds to Building Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ulla Dorte

    The presence of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) in the indoor air may be a contributory cause of complaints about irritation of mucous membranes in eyes, nose and throat, difficulty in breathing, frequent airway inflammation, skin irritation, fatigue, concentration difficulty, dizziness and hea...... (6 pages). Detailed summary in English (15 pages). Background (23 pages). Objective and hypotheses (2 pages). Methods and materials (20 pages). Results (26 pages). Discussion (12 pages). Conclusion (3 pages). References (14 pages). Appendices (95 pages)....... on sorption equilibrium and kinetics of temperature, relative humidity, VOC concentrations and air velocity past the surface of the building product. Four common building materials were carefully selected for the sorption/desorption experiments: Painted gypsum board, lacquered beechwood parquet, PVC flooring...

  13. Rapid determination of phenolic compounds in water samples by alternating-current oscillopolarographic titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jun-ping; WANG Xue-feng; ZHOU Qing-xiang; FAN Xiao-yuan; SU Xian-fa; Bai Hua-hua; DUAN Hai-jing

    2007-01-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method was demonstrated for the determination of phenolic compounds in water samples by alternating-current oscillopolarographic titration. With the presence of sulfuric acid, phenol could be transferred into a nitroso-compound by reacting with NaNO2. The titration end-point was obtained by the formation of a sharp cut in the oscillopolarographic with infinitesimal NaNO2 on double platinum electrodes. The results showed that phenol had an excellent linear relationship over the range of 4.82×10-6 -9.65×10-3 mol/L, the RSD of the proposed method was lower than 1.5%, and the spiked recoveries of three real water samples were in the range of 95.6%-106.9%.

  14. Schiff bases derived from 1-aminoanthraquinone: a new class of analgesic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, G.; Rizwan, G.H.; Fareed, N.

    2017-01-01

    A series of Schiff bases 1-17 were synthesised by way of a facile condensation between 1-amino-anthraquinone with a variety of carbonyl compounds in the presence of a catalytic amount of dodeca-tungstosilicic acid/P 2O5 under solvent free conditions at room temperature. These were charachterised by1H- and 13C-NMR, LCMS, FTIR and elemental analyses. All the compounds were screened for their analgesic activity using hot plate thermal stimuli method at dose of 10 and 30 mg/kg. Diclofenac sodium was used as a reference drug. All the compounds at dose of 10 and 30 mg/kg body weight showed the significant (p<0.05) increase in latency time as compared to control (normal saline). Compound 5 showed excellent activity after 120 min of drug administration (10 mg/kg) of body weight. Compound 10 was found to be potent (10.48+-1.19s, 11.27+-1.2s and 10.24+-1.9s) at dose of 30 mg/kg at 30, 60 and 120 min, respectively when compared to the standard drug. Compound 6 (10.13+-0.4s) was also found to be an excellent analgesic compound at a dose of 30 mg/kg at 120 min. However, the studies on analgesic activity revealed that some of the target compounds may be strong candidates as an analgesic drug. (author)

  15. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  16. BIOASSAY-GUIDED FRACTINATION OF ANTIMITOTIC COMPOUND FROM ONGKEA CORTEX (MEZZETTIA PARVIFLORA BECC TOWARDS SEA URCHIN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Akbar Bahar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongkea cortex, the wood bark of Mezzettia Parviflora Becc, is a traditional medicine originated from Southeastern Sulawesi (Indonesia. It has been empirically known to have antitumor property. In this study, we examined the antiproliferative activity and obtained the antimitotic compound of ongkea cortex. Antimitotic activity was ultimately determined by the inhibition of cleavage-stage of newly fertilized sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus eggs. A bioassay-guided fractination was performed in order to find the bioactive substance of ongkea cortex. The IC50 values of methanolic extract, ethyl acetate-soluble part of metanolic extract and ethil acetat insoluble part of metanolic extract were      1221.68 µg/mL,  2.69 µg/mL, and 15.15 µg/mL, respectively. Ethyl acetate-soluble part of metanolic extract was further investigated. It was partitionated using vacuum liquid column chromatoghraphy with different solvent system by increasing their polarities. There were three different fractions obtained. Fraction III exerted the highest inhibition activity with IC50 value of 1.33 µg/mL.  It was separated subsequently to result four groups of compounds. III-C group presented the most potent inhibition activity with IC50 value of  0.7147 µg/mL. It was then subjected to preparative TLC and yieldedsix groups of subfractions. III-C-3 subfraction was indicated as the most potent compound with IC50 value of 0.3378 µg/mL. It was ten times weaker compared with antimitotic activity of Vincristine with IC50 of 0.0351 µg/mL. As a conclusian, ongkea cortex might have antimitotic property with the highest rate inhibition activity exhibited by III-C-3 compound. Keywords: ongkea cortex, Mezzettia Parviflora Becc, sea urchin eggs, antimitotic compound, antiproliverative activity

  17. Brazilian gorgonians: a source of odoriferous compounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Siag Oigman

    Full Text Available Abstract The gorgonian Phyllogorgia dilatata Esper is an octocoral known to be source of biologically active terpenes. In this study, odoriferous compounds present in P. dilatata tissues were investigated, due to their exotic olfactory notes. The search of volatile compounds was performed in a dichloromethane/methanol extract submitted to a silica gel vacuum chromatography and HPLC, yielding the isomers (Z,E and (E,E-germacrones, identified by GC/MS, 1 and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of (E,E-germacrone, as well as its preferred conformation, was confirmed by NOESY. Sensory analysis of the two isomers revealed a fragrant, citrus, woody and weak marine odor, similar to the odor of the natural gorgonian, and (E,E-germacrone has a three times more intense aroma than the (Z,E isomer.

  18. Chemical properties of 2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepinone-2 derivatives – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Gaponov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensed heterocyclic systems with two nitrogen atoms in the seven-membered ring – benzodiazepines and their derivatives – are interesting and important objects from both theoretical and applied point of view. They attract a lot of attention due to their potent and diverse biological activities. These compounds include numerous tranquilizers, sedatives, analgesics, as well as anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agents. The presence of several reactive centers in 1,5-benzodiazepines leads to a variety of reactions with both electrophilic and nucleophilic agents. The first part of this review covers electrophilic substitution of 2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-ones (nitration, halogenation, alkylation, acylation, formylation, etc. The data shows that the reaction outcome is determined by the nature of both the substrate and the electrophilic agent, as well as by the reaction conditions: temperature, time, and solvent. 

  19. Recovery of Agricultural Odors and Odorous Compounds from Polyvinyl Fluoride Film Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David B.; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L.; Cole, N. Andy; Koziel, Jacek A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m−3) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m−3), propionic (15,800 μg m−3), isobutyric (1,686 μg m−3), butyric (1,049 μg m−3), isovaleric (1,236 μg m−3), valeric (643 μg m−3), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m−3) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. PMID:22163671

  20. Influence of day length and temperature on the content of health-related compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Mølmann, Jørgen; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Johansen, Tor J

    2013-11-13

    Vegetables grown at different latitudes are exposed to various temperatures and day lengths, which can affect the content of health- and sensory-related compounds in broccoli florets. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted under controlled growth conditions, with contrasting temperatures (15/9 and 21/15 °C) and day lengths (12 and 24 h), to investigate the effect on glucosinolates, vitamin C, flavonols, and soluble sugars. Aliphatic glucosinolates, quercetin, and kaempferol were at their highest levels at high temperatures combined with a 12 h day. Levels of total glucosinolates, d-glucose, and d-fructose were elevated by high temperatures. Conversely, the content of vitamin C was highest with a 12 h day length combined with 15/9 °C. Our results indicate that temperature and day length influence the contents of health-related compounds in broccoli florets in a complex way, suggesting no general superiority of any of the contrasting growth conditions.

  1. Effects of photoperiodism on the metabolism of carbon compounds and the migration of these products in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farineau, Jack

    1961-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the influence of photoperiodism on migrations. The author more particularly studied migrations of carbon-compound metabolism products by using a tobacco leaf in presence of "1"4CO_2, and which thus contained a high quantity of radioactive compounds. Some experiments were performed on short durations (few hours), and others on longer durations (15 days). As far as the first ones were concerned, the author studied the content of the petiole and of the terminal bud, and the first reactions of integration of carbon 14 compounds of the sap in the leaf. As far as the second type of experiments is concerned, the author measured the quantities of radioactive products migrating towards the terminal bud [fr

  2. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a compound library of triazolylcyclitols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrau, Gonzalo; Drewes, Carine C; Shimada, Ana Lúcia B; Bertucci, Ana; Farsky, Sandra H P; Stefani, Helio A; Gonzalez, David

    2013-07-15

    A small library of compounds was prepared by a combination of toluene dioxygenase (TDO)-catalyzed enzymatic dihydroxylation and copper(I)-catalyzed Hüisgen cycloaddition. Some compounds were obtained by coupling an alkyne and a conduritol derivative, while more complex structures were obtained by a double Hüisgen reaction of a dialkyne and two molecules of the cyclitol. The compounds were fully characterized and subjected to preliminary biological screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enthalpies of fusion and enthalpies of solvation of aromatic hydrocarbons derivatives: Estimation of sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomonov, Boris N., E-mail: boris.solomonov@kpfu.ru; Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Buzyurov, Aleksey V.; Mukhametzyanov, Timur A.

    2016-03-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solution enthalpies of aromatic hydrocarbons derivatives (ArHD) were measured at 298.15 K. • Solution enthalpies of ArHD in benzene at 298.15 K are equal to their fusion enthalpy at melting point. • Sublimation enthalpies of 80 ArHD were calculated as a sum of fusion and solvation enthalpies. • Obtained sublimation enthalpies are in good agreement with the recommended literature data. - Abstract: Enthalpy of sublimation of solid compound can be found using the values of solution enthalpy and solvation enthalpy in any solvent. In this work enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution of a number of aromatic hydrocarbons derivatives in benzene were measured at 298.15 K. Comparison between experimental and literature solution enthalpies in benzene at 298.15 K and fusion enthalpies at melting temperature of aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives showed, that these values are approximately equal. Thereby, fusion enthalpies at melting temperature can be used instead of their solution enthalpies in benzene at 298.15 K for calculation of sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K. Solvation enthalpies in benzene at 298.15 K required for this procedure were calculated using group additivity scheme. The sublimation enthalpies of 80 aromatic hydrocarbons derivatives at 298.15 K were evaluated as a difference between fusion enthalpies at melting temperature and solvation enthalpies in benzene at 298.15 K. Obtained in this work values of sublimation enthalpy at 298.15 K for studied compounds were in a good agreement with available literature data.

  4. The effect of herbicide BASTA 15 on the development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, D; Bystriansky, J; Burkuš, J; Rehák, P; Legáth, J; Koppel, J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of maternal poisoning by BASTA-15 on developmental capacities and quality of preimplantation embryos in a mouse model. During in vivo tests, fertilized mice were fed with various doses of BASTA-15 for several days. During in vitro tests, isolated embryos were cultured in a medium with the addition of herbicide or its main compound glufosinate ammonium. Stereomicroscopic evaluation of embryonic pools obtained from treated dams showed that BASTA-15 at dose 58 μl/kg bw negatively affected their ability to reach the blastocyst stage. Moreover, as shown by morphological evaluation, based on cell counting and cell death assay, even the application of herbicide at the lowest dose (approx. 1/100 LD50) had a negative effect on obtained embryo quality. In vitro tests proved the direct ability of BASTA-15 to negatively affect embryo growth and quality. On the other hand, the addition of glufosinate ammonium at equivalent concentrations (from 0.015 to 15 μg/ml) had almost no damaging effect on embryos. It was harmful only at very high doses. Results show that maternal intoxication with BASTA-15 might affect the development of preimplantation embryos and suggest that the responsibility for this effect lies probably not solely with glufosinate ammonium, but in combination with the herbicide's secondary compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Triorganotin as a compound with potential reproductive toxicity in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Delgado Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organotin compounds are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine-disrupting substances, which cause irreversible sexual abnormality in female mollusks, called "imposex". However, little is known about the capability of triorganotin compounds, such as tributyltin and triphenyltin, to cause disorders in the sexual development and reproductive functions of mammals, including humans and rodents. Moreover, these compounds can act as potential competitive inhibitors of aromatase enzyme and other steroidogenic enzymes, affecting the reproductive capacity of male and female mammals. In this review, we discuss the cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms by which triorganotin compounds induce adverse effects in the mammalian reproductive function.

  6. 15-(para-[123I]iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid obtained using mercuration and subsequent [123I] radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, H.; Vincent, J.S.; Lyster, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    The present work explores the basic reactions necessary for the preparation of [ 123 I] 15-(paraiodophenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) from organo mercury compounds. It was found that the essential reactions occur readily and with good yield. The steps were as follows: phenyl pentadecanoic acid or its ethyl ester may be mercurated using Hg(TFA) 2 in TFA solvent, and the para-chloromercury compounds may be recovered. [ 123 I] radioiodination may be carried out in a variety of solvents in the presence of chloramine T. When radioiodination was conducted at room temperature the isomeric purity of the ester or fatty acid was found to be 99.9% para. The results indicate that poor solubility of certain mercurated pentadecanoic acid compounds will limit the development of a kit for [ 123 I]IPPA. (author) 16 refs.; 2 tabs

  7. Novel approaches mediated by tailor-made green solvents for the extraction of phenolic compounds from agro-food industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María de Los Ángeles; Espino, Magdalena; Gomez, Federico J V; Silva, María Fernanda

    2018-01-15

    An environmentally friendly method for the phenolic compound extraction from agro-food industrial by-products was developed in order to contribute with their sustainable valorization. A Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent was chemometrically-designed for the first time and compared with traditional solvents in terms of analyte stabilization. The combination of lactic acid, glucose and 15% water (LGH-15) was selected as optimal. A high-efficiency ultrasound-assisted extraction mediated by LGH-15 prior to HPLC-DAD allows the determination of 14 phenols in onion, olive, tomato and pear industrial by-products. NADES synthesis as well as the extraction procedures were optimized by Response Surface Methodology. Thus, phenolic determination in these complex samples was achieved by a simple, non-expensive, eco-friendly and robust system. The application to different matrices demonstrated the versatility of the proposed method. NADES opens interesting perspectives for their potential use as vehicles of bioactive compounds as food additives or pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure of 1,5-Anhydro-D-Fructose: X-ray Analysis of Crystalline Acetylated Dimeric Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundt, Inge; Andersen, Søren Møller; Marcussen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Acetylation of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose under acidic conditions gave two crystalline acetylated dimeric forms, which by X-ray analysis were shown to be diastereomeric spiroketals formed between C-2 and C-2´/C-3´. The structures of the compounds differed only at the configuration at C-2. Acetylation...... or benzoylation of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose in pyridine yielded 3,6-di-O-acetyl-1,5-anhydro-4-deoxy-D-glycero-hex-3-enos-2-ulopyra -nose or crystalline 1,5-anhydro-3,6-di-O-benzoyl-4-deoxy-D-glycero-hex-3-enos-2-ulo-py ranose....

  9. Capillary electrophoretic separation of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greschonig, H. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz (Austria); Schmid, M.G.; Guebitz, G. [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis was used to separate arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic and diphenylarsinic acid, methanearsonic acid, phenyl- and p-aminophenyl arsonic acid, phenylarsineoxide and phenarsazinic acid. Anionic and uncharged species were separated in a fused silica capillary with on-column UV detection at 200 nm. A 15 mM phosphate solution adjusted to pH 6.5 containing 10 mM sodium dodecylsulfonate served as background electrolyte. The influence of pH and applied voltage on separation efficiency, as well as the feasibility of identification of arsenic compounds in spiked urine, were investigated. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 22 refs.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of crude fractions and morel compounds from wild edible mushrooms of North western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2017-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of morel compounds from wild edible mushrooms (Morchella esculenta and Verpa bohemica) from Kashmir valley was investigated against different clinical pathogens. The butanol crude fraction of most popular or true morel M. esculenta showed highest 19 mm IZD against E.coli while as same fraction of Verpa bohemica exhibited 15 mm IZD against same strain. The ethyl acetate and butanol crude fractions of both morels also exhibited good antifungal activity with highest IZD shown against A. fumigates. The three morel compounds showed quite impressive anti bacterial and fungal activities. The Cpd 3 showed highest inhibitory activity almost equivalent to the synthetic antibiotics used as control. The MIC/MBC values revealed the efficiency of isolated compounds against the pathogenic strains. In the current study significant inhibitory activity of morel compounds have been obtained paying the way for their local use from ancient times. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Assessment of locomotion behavior in adult Zebrafish after acute exposure to different pharmacological reference compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to assess locomotor behavior of adult zebrafish after acute exposure to different pharmacological reference compounds. Materials and Methods: Adult zebrafish of 4-5-months-old were exposed to different concentrations of known reference compounds for 15 min. The test was conducted separately for each drug concentration as well as control. Locomotor activity parameters viz. distance travelled, speed, total mobile time, and total immobile time were recorded for each animal during the exposure period. Results: Out of 11 compounds tested, nine compounds showed decrease in locomotor behavior with significant changes in distance travelled, speed, total mobile time, and total immobile time. Caffeine exhibited biphasic response in locomotion behavior, while scopolamine failed to induce any significant changes. Conclusion: In view of the above findings, these results suggested that exposure of adult zebrafish with different known compounds produce the expected changes in the locomotion behavior; therefore, adult zebrafish can be used an alternative approach for the assessment of new chemical entities for their effect on locomotor behavior.

  12. Application of HPLC-DAD Technique for Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Bee Pollen Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was elaborated to determine phenolic compounds (vanillin, caffeic, p-coumaric and salicylic acids, and flavonoids: rutin, hesperetin, quercetin, pinocembrin, apigenin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, chrysin, and acacetin in bee pollen loads using highperformance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. Phenolic compounds from bee pollen were isolated on Cleanert C18-SPE columns (500 mg/6 mL, Agela Technologies. Polyphenols were identified by comparing the retention times and spectra of compounds found in pollen load samples with the ones of the standard mixture. Quantitative analysis was conducted using the external standard method. In addition, basic validation parameters for the method were determined. For the identified compounds (except for the salicylic acid, satisfactory (≥0.997 linear correlations were obtained. The elaborated method showed high repeatability and inter-laboratory reproducibility. Variability coeffcients of the majority of phenolic compounds did not exceed 10% in conditions of repeatability and inter-laboratory reproducibility, and for the total polyphenolic content they were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The pollen load samples (n = 15 differed in qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic compounds. In all the samples, we identified the p-coumaric and salicylic acids and flavonoids rutin, hesperetin, and apigenin nevertheless, these compounds’ contents significantly differed among individual samples. The total phenolic content in the tested samples of pollen loads ranged from 0.653 to 5.966 mg/100 g (on average 2.737 mg/100 g.

  13. Gas Phase Thz Spectroscopy of Organosulfide and Organophosphorous Compounds Using a Synchrotron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale

    2011-06-01

    This study concerns the gas phase rovibrational spectroscopy of organosulfide and organophosphorous which are considered as non toxic model compounds in the analysis of chemical weapon materials, high pathogenic and mutagenic agents, and other environmentally interesting air-borne species. The coupling of the synchrotron radiation with multipass cells and the FTIR spectrometer allowed to obtain very conclusive results in term of sensitivity and resolution and improved the previous results obtained with classical sources. For DMSO, using an optical path of 150 m the spectra have been recorded at the ultimate resolution of 0.001 Cm-1 allowing to fully resolve the rotational structure of the lowest vibrational modes observed in the THz region. In the 290 - 420 Cm-1 region, the rovibrational spectrum of the "perpendicular" and "parallel" vibrational bands associated with, respectively, the asymmetric ν23 and symmetric ν11 bending modes of DMSO have been recorded with a resolution of 1.5× 10-3 Cm-1. The gas phase vibrational spectra of organophosphorous compounds were measured by FTIR spectroscopy using the vapor pressure of the compounds. Except for TBP, the room temperature vapor pressure was sufficient to detect all active vibrational modes from THz to NIR domain. Contrary to DMSO, the rotational patterns of alkyl phosphates and alkyl phosphonates could not be resolved; only a vibrational analysis may be performed. Nevertheless, the spectral fingerprints observed in the THz region allowed a clear discrimination between the molecules and between the different molecular conformations. A. Cuisset, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, F. Cazier, H. Nouali, J. Demaison, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2008, 112:, 12516-12525 A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy and D. A. Sadovskií, Chem. Phys. Lett., 2010, 492: 30-34 I. Smirnova, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2010, 114: 16936-16947.

  14. Fermi surface properties of AB3 (A = Y, La; B = Pb, In, Tl) intermetallic compounds under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ram, Swetarekha; Kanchana, V; Svane, Axel

    2013-01-01

    –correlation functional and including spin–orbit coupling. Fermi surface topology changes are found for all the isostructural AB3 compounds under compression (at V=V0 = 0.90 for LaPb3 (pressure = 8 GPa), at V=V0 = 0.98 for AIn3 (pressure = 1.5 GPa), at V=V0 = 0.80 for ATl3 (pressure in excess of 18 GPa)) apart from YPb3...

  15. A Rapid and Efficient Screening Method for Antibacterial Compound-Producing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Sachithra; Lee, Su-Jin; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kwon, Young-Kyung; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Moon, Song; Jo, Eunyoung; Kim, Taeho; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong

    2017-08-28

    Antibacterial compounds are widely used in the treatment of human and animal diseases. The overuse of antibiotics has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria, making the development of new antibacterial compounds essential. This study focused on developing a fast and easy method for identifying marine bacteria that produce antibiotic compounds. Eight randomly selected marine target bacterial species ( Agrococcus terreus, Bacillus algicola, Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens, Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida, P. rubra , and Zunongwangia atlantica ) were tested for production of antibacterial compounds against four strains of test bacteria ( B. cereus, B. subtilis, Halomonas smyrnensis , and Vibrio alginolyticus ). Colony picking was used as the primary screening method. Clear zones were observed around colonies of P. flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra tested against B. cereus, B. subtilis , and H. smyrnensis . The efficiency of colony scraping and broth culture methods for antimicrobial compound extraction was also compared using a disk diffusion assay. P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra showed antagonistic activity against H. smyrnensis, B. cereus , and B. subtilis , respectively, only in the colony scraping method. Our results show that colony picking and colony scraping are effective, quick, and easy methods of screening for antibacterial compound-producing bacteria.

  16. Rac1 modification by an electrophilic 15-deoxy Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Wall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial cells (ECs are important for maintaining vascular homeostasis. Dysfunction of ECs contributes to cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, and can impair the healing process during vascular injury. An important mediator of EC response to stress is the GTPase Rac1. Rac1 responds to extracellular signals and is involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement, reactive oxygen species generation and cell cycle progression. Rac1 interacts with effector proteins to elicit EC spreading and formation of cell-to-cell junctions. Rac1 activity has recently been shown to be modulated by glutathiolation or S-nitrosation via an active site cysteine residue. However, it is not known whether other redox signaling compounds can modulate Rac1 activity. An important redox signaling mediator is the electrophilic lipid, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2. This compound is a downstream product of cyclooxygenase and forms covalent adducts with specific cysteine residues, and induces cellular signaling in a pleiotropic manner. In this study, we demonstrate that a biotin-tagged analog of 15d-PGJ2 (bt-15d-PGJ2 forms an adduct with Rac1 in vitro at the C157 residue, and an additional adduct was detected on the tryptic peptide associated with C178. Rac1 modification in addition to modulation of Rac1 activity by bt-15d-PGJ2 was observed in cultured ECs. In addition, decreased EC migration and cell spreading were observed in response to the electrophile. These results demonstrate for the first time that Rac1 is a target for 15d-PGJ2 in ECs, and suggest that Rac1 modification by electrophiles such as 15d-PGJ2 may alter redox signaling and EC function.

  17. SELKIRK'S THEORY OF VERBAL COMPOUNDING: A CRITICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selkirk presents her theory of verbal compounding as part of a more general theory ... typical lexicalist vein, words are assigned a dual status (Selkirk 1981: 230), On ..... nonhead and a deverbal head ~s an extremely product~ve process. Con-.

  18. [Determination of flavor compounds in foxtail millet wine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Zhang, Aixia; Li, Shaohui; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yuzong; Xing, Guosheng

    2017-11-08

    To comprehensively understand flavor compounds and aroma characteristics of foxtail millet wine, extraction conditions were optimized with 85 μm polyacrylate (PA), 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), 75 μm carboxen (CAR)/PDMS and 50/30 μm divinylbenzene (DVB)/CAR/PDMS fibers. The flavor compounds in foxtail millet wine were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and the odor characteristics and intensity were analyzed by odor active values (OAVs). The samples of 8 mL were placed in headspace vials with 1.5 g NaCl, then the headspace vials were heated at 60℃ for 40 min. Using HS-SPME with different fibers, a total of 55 flavor compounds were identified from the samples, including alcohols, esters, benzene derivatives, hydrocarbons, acids, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes, phenols and heterocycle compounds. The main flavor compounds were alcohols compounds. According to their OAVs, phenylethyl alcohol, styrene, 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and 2-methoxy-phenol were established to be odor-active compounds. Phenylethyl alcohol and benzeneacetaldehyde were the most prominent odor-active compounds. PA and PDMS fibers had good extraction effect for polar and nonpolar compounds, respectively. CAR/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS provided a similar compounds profile for moderate polar compounds. This research comprehensively determined flavor compounds of foxtail millet wine, and provided theoretical basis for product development and quality control.

  19. 2. Intermetallic compounds with lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemans, J.B.A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations are given concerning the structures of intermetallic compounds of the lanthanides and thorium (R) on the one hand, and with Fe, Co or Ni (M) on the other. They all derive from the parent composition RM 5 with the CaCu 5 hexagonal structure. This consists of alternate layers in which the M atoms are distinguished as M 1 and M 2 . The other compounds whose structures are studied are obtained by systematic replacement of R by M, or vice versa. In the first type, every third R is replaced by two M's yielding R 2 M 17 compounds. The substitution may be truly random or structured in two ways: so that either the hexagonal structure is maintained or that it is converted into a rhombihedral one. In the second type, one M (in a M 1 position) out of every five is replaced by one R, giving rise to RM 2 compounds which form Laves phases. In the third type, the M 1 's are replaced by R's, resulting in compounds RM 3 . In the fourth type, every third M is replaced by R, yielding R 2 M 7 compounds. With M = Co and R a light lanthanide, the compounds are ferromagnets; with R yttrium, thorium, or a heavy lanthanide, they are ferrimagnets. The preparation of the compounds in an arc-melting apparatus under an Ar-atmosphere followed by annealing is described

  20. Adsorptive performance of chromium-containing ordered mesoporous silica on volatile organic compounds (VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are the primary poisonous emissions into the atmosphere in natural gas exploitation and disposing process. The adsorption method has been widely applied in actual production because of its good features such as low cost, low energy consumption, flexible devices needed, etc. The commonly used adsorbents like activated carbon, silicon molecular sieves and so on are not only susceptible to plugging or spontaneous combustion but difficult to be recycled. In view of this, a new adsorbent (CrSBA15 was made by the co-assembly method to synthesize the ordered mesoporous silica materials with different amounts of chromium to eliminate VOCs. This new adsorbent was characterized by small-angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Its adsorption performance to eliminate VOCs (toluene, benzene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate used as typical pollutants was also tested systematically. Research results indicate that this new adsorbent of CrSBA-15(30, with the silicon/chromium ration being 30, owns the maximum micropore volume, and shows a higher adsorption performance in eliminating toluene, benzene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate. Besides, it is cost-effective and much easier to be recycled than the activated carbon. In conclusion, CrSBA-15(30 is a good adsorbent to eliminate VOCs with broad application prospects. Keywords: Mesoporous materials, Silicon dioxide, Synthesis, Adsorption, Volatile organic compounds (VOCs, Recyclability, Energy saving

  1. Effect of the supply dose on the 15N enrichment level of cow's milk nitrogenous fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, O.; Laurent, F.; Vignon, B.; Antoine, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Production of cow milk 15 N-labelled proteins is necessary for the study of their digestion by man. An adequate enrichment is required for compatibility with utilization constraints (application dose, studied fractions...). A test was conducted with five cows in order to optimize the utilization of labelled ammonium sulphate in the cow diet for 15 N enrichment of the milk nitrogenous matter. Doses and supply timing of labelled compounds are discussed. 3 figs., 3 refs

  2. Isolaurenidificin and Bromlaurenidificin, Two New C15-Acetogenins from the Red Alga Laurencia obtusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed O. Bawakid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic fractionation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of the Red Sea red alga Laurencia obtusa gave two new hexahydrofuro[3,2-b]furan-based C15-acetogenins, namely, isolaurenidificin (1 and bromlaurenidificin (2. The chemical structures were elucidated based on extensive analyses of their spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 showed no toxicity (LC50 > 12 mM using Artemia salina as test organism. Both compounds showed weak cytotoxicity against A549, HepG-2, HCT116, MCF-7, and PC-3 cells, however, they exhibited a relatively potent cytotoxic activity against peripheral blood neutrophils. This can be attributed partly to induction of apoptosis.

  3. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  4. Synthesis and optical resolution of the neurotoxin 2-amino-3-([15N]-methylamino)propanoic acid (BMAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulin Hu; Ziffer, H.

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of 2-amino-3-([ 15 N]-methylamino)propanoic acid (synonyms, BMAA, β-N-mehylamino-alanine) from α-acetamidoacrylic acid and [ 15 N]-methylamine is described. Enantioselective hydrolysis of the acetamide group, mediated by the enzyme Acylase 1 (EC 3.5.1.14), yielded (R)-BMAA and the (S)-α-acetamido derivative. Acid hydrolysis of the latter compound yielded (S)-BMAA. (author)

  5. Phase formation and magnetic properties of YFe12-xNbx (x=0.70-0.90) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquan, B.; Wang, J.L.; Tegus, O.; Dagula, W.; Tang, N.; Yang, F.M.; Wu, G.H.; Brueck, E.; Boer, F.R. de; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The phase formation and the magnetic properties of YFe 12-x Nb x (x=0.70-0.90) compounds have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that all compounds investigated crystallize single phase in the tetragonal ThMn 12 -type of structure. The lattice parameters and the unit-cell volume increase slightly with increasing Nb content, but the Curie temperature does not change. The X-ray-diffraction patterns of aligned powders of the samples show that all the compounds investigated have uniaxial anisotropy at room temperature. At 1.5K, the spontaneous magnetization, the anisotropy field and the anisotropy constant K 1 decrease with increasing Nb content

  6. A study on magnetoelastic properties of Tb3 (Fe28-xCox) V1.0 (x=0, 3, 6) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholizadeh, A.; Tajabor, N.; Pourarian, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, The magnetoelastic properties of polycrystalline samples of Tb 3 (Fe 28-x Co x ) V 1.0 (x=0, 3, 6) intermetallic compounds are investigated by means of linear thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements in the temperature range of 77-515 K under applied magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. The linear thermal expansion increases with the Co content. The well-defined anomalies observed in the linear thermal expansion coefficients for Tb 3 (Fe 28-x Co x ) V 1.0 (x=0, 3, 6) compounds are associated with the magnetic ordering temperature for x=0 and spin reorientation temperatures for x=3, 6. Below transition temperatures, the value of the longitudinal magnetostriction (λ Pa ) at 1.6 T increases with Co content.

  7. Exposure to volatile organic compounds: Comparison among different transportation modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Duc Hoai; Van Langenhove, Herman; Chigbo, Stephen Izuchukwu; Amare, Abebech Nuguse; Demeestere, Kristof; Walgraeve, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    The increasing trend of promoting public transportation (bus tram, metro, train) and more environmental friendly and sustainable non fossil-fuel alternatives (walking, cycling etc) as substitutes for auto vehicles brings forward new questions with regard to pollutant levels to which commuters are exposed. In this study, three transportation modes (tram, auto vehicle and bicycle) are studied and concentration levels of 84 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygen containing hydrocarbons, terpenes and halogenated compounds) are measured along a route in the city of Ghent, Belgium. The concentration levels are obtained by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent tubes followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) using deuterated toluene as an internal standard. The median total VOC concentrations for the tram mode (33 μg/m³) is 1.7 times higher than that of the bicycle mode (20 μg/m³) and 1.5 times higher than for the car mode (22 μg/m³). It is found that aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant proportion in the total VOCs concentration (TVOCs) being as high as 41-57%, 59-72% and 58-72% for the tram, car and bicycle respectively. In all transportation modes, there was a high (r > 0.6) degree of correlation between BTEX compounds, isopropylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. When comparing time weighed average concentrations along a fixed route in Ghent, it is found that commuters using the tram mode experience the highest TVOCs concentration levels. However, next to the concentration level to which commuters are exposed, the physical activity level involving the mode of transportation is important to assess the exposure to toxic VOCs. It is proven that the commuter using a bicycle (4.3 ± 1.5 μg) inhales seven and nine times more benzene compared to the commuter using the car and tram respectively, when the same route is followed.

  8. Nd(NH2SO3)(SO4) . 1.5 H2O: a non-centrosymmetric amidosulfate-sulfate of neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickleder, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of Nd(NH 2 SO 3 ) 3 . 2 H 2 O in a closed tube leads to violet single crystals of Nd(NH 2 SO 3 )(SO 4 ) . 1.5 H 2 O. The compound crystallizes with the space group P1 (Z = 2, a = 689.2, b = 691.4, c = 962.0 pm, α = 109.64, β = 97.00, γ = 109.62 ). The triclinic unit cell can be transformed into the respective bodycentered setting I1 (Z = 2, a = 977.9, b = 795.6, c = 1113.0 pm, α = 90.69, β = 115.06, γ = 88.98 ) leading to a nearly monoclinic unit cell for the compound. In the crystal structure of Nd(NH 2 SO 3 )(SO 4 ) . 1.5 H 2 O two Nd 3+ ions are present. Nd(1) 3+ is coordinated by four NH 2 SO 3 - and two SO 4 2- ions, and one H 2 O molecule. Owing to the chelating attack of the sulfate groups, the CN is nine. Nd(2) 3+ is surrounded by four monodentate SO 4 2- and two NH 2 SO 3 - groups. Two H 2 O ligands fill up the coordination sphere and lead to a CN of eight. The linkage of the polyhedra leads to a three-dimensional network. (orig.)

  9. Natural products as a resource for biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate various sources of biologically active natural products in an effort to identify the active pesticidal compounds involved. The study is divided into several parts. Chapter 1 contains a discussion of several new compounds from plant and animal sources. Chapter 2 introduces a new NMR technique. In section 2.1 a new technique for better utilizing the lanthanide relaxation agent Gd(fod) 3 is presented which allows the predictable removal of resonances without line broadening. Section 2.2 discusses a variation of this technique for use in an aqueous solvent by applying this technique towards identifying the binding sites of metals of biological interest. Section 2.3 presents an unambiguous 13 C NMR assignment of melibiose. Chapter 3 deals with work relating to the molting hormone of most arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Section 3.1 discusses the use of two-dimensional NMR (2D NMR) to assign the 1 H NMR spectrum of this biologically important compound. Section 3.2 presents a new application for Droplet countercurrent chromatography (DCCC). Chapter 4 presents a basic improvement to the commercial DCCC instrument that is currently being applied to future commercial instruments. Chapter 5 discusses a curious observation of the effects that two previously known compounds, nagilactone C and (-)-epicatechin, have on lettuce and rice and suggest a possible new role for the ubiquitous flavanol (-)-epicatechin in plants

  10. Antimalarial activity of compounds comprising a primary benzene sulfonamide fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Katherine T; Fisher, Gillian M; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Moeker, Janina; Lopez, Marie; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2013-11-15

    Despite the urgent need for effective antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action no new chemical class of antimalarial drug has been approved for use since 1996. To address this, we have used a rational approach to investigate compounds comprising the primary benzene sulfonamide fragment as a potential new antimalarial chemotype. We report the in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum drug sensitive (3D7) and resistant (Dd2) parasites for a panel of fourteen primary benzene sulfonamide compounds. Our findings provide a platform to support the further evaluation of primary benzene sulfonamides as a new antimalarial chemotype, including the identification of the target of these compounds in the parasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TEST OF