WorldWideScience

Sample records for a-15 compounds

  1. Anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae and identification of urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the main active compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Olivia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural products could play an important role in the challenge to discover new anti-malarial drugs. In a previous study, Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae was selected for its promising anti-plasmodial activity after a preliminary screening of several plants traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat malaria. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-plasmodial properties of this plant and to isolate the active anti-plasmodial compounds. Methods Eight crude extracts obtained from D. tomentosa whole plant were tested in vitro against two Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2 using the p-LDH assay (colorimetric method. The Peters’ four-days suppressive test model (Plasmodium berghei-infected mice was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity. An in vitro bioguided fractionation was undertaken on a dichloromethane extract, using preparative HPLC and TLC techniques. The identity of the pure compound was assessed using UV, MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity against WI38 human fibroblasts (WST-1 assay and haemolytic activity were also evaluated for extracts and pure compounds in order to check selectivity. Results The best in vitro anti-plasmodial results were obtained with the dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts, which exhibited a high activity (IC50 ≤ 5 μg/ml. Hot water and hydroethanolic extracts also showed a good activity (IC50 ≤ 15 μg/ml, which confirmed the traditional use and the promising anti-malarial potential of the plant. The activity was also confirmed in vivo for all tested extracts. However, most of the active extracts also exhibited cytotoxic activity, but no extract was found to display any haemolytic activity. The bioguided fractionation process allowed to isolate and identify a sesquiterpene lactone (urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the major anti-plasmodial compound of the plant (IC50 Conclusions The present study

  2. Structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of A15-type compounds V3X (X = Ir, Pt and Au) from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingliang; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Dong; Xia, Cunjuan; Wu, Yi

    2016-12-01

    The structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of the A15 structure V3Ir, V3Pt and V3Au were studied using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA) methods. The results have shown that both GGA and LDA methods can process the structural optimization in good agreement with the available experimental parameters in the compounds. Furthermore, the elastic properties and Debye temperatures estimated by LDA method are typically larger than the GGA methods. However, the GGA methods can make better prediction with the experimental values of Debye temperature in V3Ir, V3Pt and V3Au, signifying the precision of the calculating work. Based on the E-V data derived from the GGA method, the variations of the Debye temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion and heat capacity under pressure ranging from 0 GPa to 50 GPa and at temperature ranging from 0 K to 1500 K were obtained and analyzed for all compounds using the quasi-harmonic Debye model.

  3. Superconductivity in the A15 structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, G.R.

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Review of A-15 structure superconductors. • Comparison of A-15 superconductors with other superconducting classes. • Characteristic physical properties of A-15 superconductors. - Abstract: The cubic A15 structure metals, with over 60 distinct member compounds, held the crown of highest T{sub c} superconductor starting in 1954 with the discovery of T{sub c} = 18 K in Nb{sub 3}Sn. T{sub c} increased over the next 20 years until the discovery in 1973 of T{sub c} = 22.3 K (optimized to ≈23 K a year later) in sputtered films of Nb{sub 3}Ge. Attempts were made to produce – via explosive compression – higher (theorized to be 31–35 K) transition temperatures in not-stable-at-ambient-conditions A15 Nb{sub 3}Si. However, the effort to continue the march to higher T{sub c}’s in A15 Nb{sub 3}Si only resulted in a defect-suppressed T{sub c} of 19 K by 1981. Focus in superconductivity research partially shifted with the advent of heavy Fermion superconductors (CeCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, UBe{sub 13}, and UPt{sub 3} discovered in 1979, 1983 and 1984 respectively) and further shifted away from A15’s with the discovery of the perovskite structure cuprate superconductors in 1986 with T{sub c} = 35 K. However, the A15 superconductors – and specifically doped Nb{sub 3}Sn – are still the material of choice today for most applications where high critical currents (e.g. magnets with dc persistent fields up to 21 T) are required. Thus, this article discusses superconductivity, and the important physical properties and theories for the understanding thereof, in the A15’s which held the record T{sub c} for the longest time (32 years) of any known class of superconductor since the discovery of T{sub c} = 4.2 K in Hg in 1911. The discovery in 2008 of T{sub c} = 38 K at 7 kbar in A15 Cs{sub 3}C{sub 60} (properly a member of the fullerene superconductor class), which is an insulator at 1 atm pressure and otherwise also atypical of the A15 class of superconductors

  4. 42 CFR 59a.15 - Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Awards. 59a.15 Section 59a.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Establishment of Regional Medical Libraries § 59a.15 Awards. (a) General. The Secretary, with the advice of the...

  5. Metallurgy of continuous filamentary A15 superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, M

    1980-01-01

    The early history of the bronze process is recapitulated and modifications to the process which have since followed are described. The metallurgical principles, which are involved in the process, are described including the kinetics of the compound growth, the effects of additives on the growth, etc. The superconducting properties of these compounds are also discussed. The influence of metallurgical variables on the superconducting properties is discussed in detail. In discussing the superconducting current densities in these compounds, limits in applicability of existing magnetic-flux-pinning models are also treated as well as methods for determining critical magnetic fields.

  6. Pectus excavatum: a 15-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golladay, E S; Wagner, C W

    1991-09-01

    Pectus excavatum is relatively uncommon. Our experience with 177 children during a 15-year period produced changes in our surgical technique, which now includes a small transverse incision, minimal subcutaneous flap elevation, a muscle-relaxing incision over the fifth costal cartilage, complete resection of involved cartilage, use of Adkins' strut, suspension of sternum to strut, taut reefing of intercostal muscle, no tubes or drains, epidural analgesia, a patient-controlled analgesia device postoperatively, and eventual strut removal. Use of the evolved technique gives excellent cosmetic results, good functional results with minimal discomfort, and a shorter convalescent period.

  7. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  8. Erupted compound odontome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekar S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are considered to be hamartomas rather than a true neoplasm. They consist chiefly of enamel and dentin, with variable amount of pulp and cementum when fully developed. They are generally asymptomatic and are included under the benign calcified odontogenic tumors. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Eruption of an odontoma in the oral cavity is rare. Peripheral compound odontomas arise extraosseously and have a tendency to exfoliate. In this article we are reporting a case of a 15-year-old girl with peripheral compound odontoma, with a single rudimentary tooth-like structure in the mandibular right second molar region, which is about to be exfoliated. Its eruption in the oral cavity and location in the mandibular posterior region is associated with aplasia of the mandibular right second molar, making it an interesting case for reporting.

  9. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a... Receive Care? § 136a.15 Health Service Delivery Areas. (a) The Indian Health Service will designate and... Federal Indian reservations and areas surrounding those reservations as Health Service Delivery Areas....

  10. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  11. Laparoscopic myomectomy in Kenya : A 15 year retrospective review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laparoscopic myomectomy in Kenya : A 15 year retrospective review. ... offers all the advantages of laparoscopic surgery including less haemorrhage, quicker recovery ... The fertility outcomes are comparable to open myomectomy with better ...

  12. Intermetallic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  13. Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankland, Kenneth

    For many years, powder X-ray diffraction was used primarily as a fingerprinting method for phase identification in the context of molecular organic materials. In the early 1990s, with only a few notable exceptions, structures of even moderate complexity were not solvable from PXRD data alone. Global optimisation methods and highly-modified direct methods have transformed this situation by specifically exploiting some well-known properties of molecular compounds. This chapter will consider some of these properties.

  14. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  15. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  16. Acute alcohol intoxication in a 15-day-old neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Masafumi; Inada, Yukiko; Tashiro, Katsuya; Hayashi, Chiduru; Doi, Hirohito; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Matsuo, Muneaki

    2013-12-01

    We describe a 15-day-old newborn girl who was fed with formula milk that was accidentally diluted with sake (Japanese wine prepared from fermented rice). The clinical features were flushed skin, tachycardia and low blood pressure indicating circulatory failure, somnolence and metabolic acidosis without hypoglycemia. The serum ethanol concentration was 43.0 mg/dL at 3 h after intake. The patient recovered under intravenous fluid replacement without complications. Follow-up examinations at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months confirmed normal psychomotor development. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Cortex—A15架构的蓝图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    几乎在目前市面上所有的智能手机和平板电脑中都可以找到采用ARM架构的CPU。芯片制造商例如三星和英伟达需要获得ARM的授权才能进行移动处理器的制造。目前,旨在取代现在的Cortex—A9架构平台的Cortex-A15平台已经准备就绪。

  18. Bilateral Ota nevus in a 15 years old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Öztürk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a dermal melanocytosis, clinically localizedon skin that is innervated by the first and secondbranches of the trigeminal nerve. It occurs almost entirelyin Asian people. The clinical manifestations are usuallyunilateral; only 5% of cases are bilateral. In this article,due to rarity of the case, a 15-year-old patient, who was diagnosedwith bilateral ota nevus, without having any dermatologicalcomplaints other than cosmetic appearenceand stains in her eyes and around was presented.Key words: Bilateral ota nevus, child, melanocytosis

  19. Introducing death: a 15th century Croatian Glagolitic literary text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrigl, M A; Fatović-Ferencić, S

    2001-12-01

    We explored the notions of life and death as perceived and presented in a 15th century Croatian literary text, Slovo Mestra Polikarpa, in which master Polikarp, a well-learned man of medieval times, engages in a lengthy dialogue with Death itself. This contrast/debate is a rare piece of medieval literature, not only by its Old Croatian language, but also by the angular Glagolitic script in which it was written. As a part of Croatian cultural heritage, it is deeply rooted in and clearly belongs to the common context of Western European medieval views on life, health, ailing, and death. A medieval perspective on such issues might be interesting to broad readership and, in many aspects, to medical professionals, whose everyday practice necessarily involves not only practical and scientific, but also moral, philosophical, and religious deliberations about life and death.

  20. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Share Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: Introduction Sources Health Effects Levels in Homes Steps to Reduce Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds ( ...

  1. Reissert compound of bisbenzimidazole

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    A Reissert compound of bisbenzimidazole can be formed by first reacting benzimidazole with an aliphatic diacid chloride to form bisbenzimidazole and then reacting the bisbenzimidazole with an aliphatic acid chloride and cyanide to form the Reissert compound thereof.

  2. Slc25a15基因与机体代谢的研究进展%Research Progression of Slc25a15 and metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝茜; 吕社民; 李冬民

    2012-01-01

    线粒体运载家族成员Slc25a15承担着向线粒体内转运鸟氨酸的重要任务,直接调控尿素循环.Slc25a15基因的异常表达与HHH综合征直接相关,并严重影响线粒体代谢、肝脏代谢、能量代谢等.本文主要探讨Slc25a15基因表达缺陷对机体代谢的影响.

  3. Reduced Slc6a15 in Nucleus Accumbens D2-Neurons Underlies Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Francis, T Chase; Nam, Hyungwoo; Riggs, Lace M; Engeln, Michel; Rudzinskas, Sarah; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Russo, Scott J; Turecki, Gustavo; Iniguez, Sergio D; Lobo, Mary Kay

    2017-07-05

    Previous research demonstrates that Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, is associated with depression susceptibility. However, no study examined Slc6a15 in the ventral striatum [nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in depression. Given our previous characterization of Slc6a15 as a striatal dopamine receptor 2 (D2)-neuron-enriched gene, we examined the role of Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons in mediating susceptibility to stress in male mice. First, we showed that Slc6a15 mRNA was reduced in NAc of mice susceptible to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a paradigm that produces behavioral and molecular adaptations that resemble clinical depression. Consistent with our preclinical data, we observed Slc6a15 mRNA reduction in NAc of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). The Slc6a15 reduction in NAc occurred selectively in D2-neurons. Next, we used Cre-inducible viruses combined with D2-Cre mice to reduce or overexpress Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons. Slc6a15 reduction in D2-neurons caused enhanced susceptibility to a subthreshold social defeat stress (SSDS) as observed by reduced social interaction, while a reduction in social interaction following CSDS was not observed when Slc6a15 expression in D2-neurons was restored. Finally, since both D2-medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and D2-expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) interneurons express Slc6a15, we examined Slc6a15 protein in these interneurons after CSDS. Slc6a15 protein was unaltered in ChAT interneurons. Consistent with this, reducing Slc5a15 selectively in NAc D2-MSNs, using A2A-Cre mice that express Cre selectively in D2-MSNs, caused enhanced susceptibility to SSDS. Collectively, our data demonstrate that reduced Slc6a15 in NAc occurs in MDD individuals and that Slc6a15 reduction in NAc D2-neurons underlies stress susceptibility.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our study demonstrates a role for reduced Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in depression and stress susceptibility. The

  4. Ecotoxicology of organofluorous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret B; Loi, Eva I H; Kwok, Karen Y; Lam, Paul K S

    2012-01-01

    Organofluorous compounds have been developed for myriad purposes in a variety of fields, including manufacturing, industry, agriculture, and medicine. The widespread use and application of these compounds has led to increasing concern about their potential ecological toxicity, particularly because of the stability of the C-F bond, which can result in chemical persistence in the environment. This chapter reviews the chemical properties and ecotoxicology of four groups of organofluorous compounds: fluorinated refrigerants and propellants, per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), fluorinated pesticides, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. These groups vary in their environmental fate and partitioning, but each raises concern in terms of ecological risk on both the regional and global scale, particularly those compounds with long environmental half-lives. Further research on the occurrence and toxicities of many of these compounds is needed for a more comprehensive understanding of their ecological effects.

  5. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacetylenes (polyynes are compounds which contain two or more triple bonds in its structure. About 2 000 different polyacetylenes and biogenetically related substances were identified in 24 families of higher plants. However, most of these compounds were found in seven families of flowering plants: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae (Compositae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae. Polyacetylenes are relatively unstable, chemically and biologically active compounds, and present in fungi, microorganisms, marine invertebrates and other organisms except for plants. Acetylenes form distinct specialized group of chemically active natural compounds, which are biosynthesized in plants of unsaturated fatty acids. In addition to widespread aliphatic polyacetylenes thiophenes dithiacyclohexadienes (thiarubrines, thioethers, sulphoxides, sulphones, alkamides, chlorohydrins, lactones, spiroacetal enol ethers, furans, pyrans, tetrahydropyrans, isocoumarins, aromatic acetylenes were also found in plant species. Polyacetylenes are localized in different plant organs, and can be found both individually and as a compound with carbohydrates, terpene, phenolic and other compounds. Many polyacetylenes are found in the composition of the essential oils of plants and it confirms their strongly marked ecological functions. From biological point of view these compounds are often synthesized by plants as toxic or bitter antifeedants, allelopathic compounds, phytoalexins or broadly antibiotic components. Polyynes are strong photosensitizers. They exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-bacterial, antituberculosis, anti-fungal, anti-viral, neuroprotective and neurotoxic activity. Immunostimulatory influence associated with certain allergenicity of some of these substances was established. Therefore, without a doubt polyacetylenes are of interest for the modern pharmacy and medicine.

  6. Determination of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, G.K.J.; Suatoni, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Details are given of a procedure for separation and identification of phenolic compounds in aqueous solution by high-performance liquid chromatography. It can also be applied to non-aqueous samples after preliminary isolation of a polar fraction containing the phenolic compounds.

  7. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  8. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  9. Heart testing compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1983-06-29

    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  10. Polynitramino compounds outperform PETN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young-Hyuk; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2010-01-07

    New polynitramino compounds were synthesized and fully characterized using IR and multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N) NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  11. Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    General Techniques for Combustion of Liquid/Soli. Organic Compounds by Oxygen Bomb Calorimetry by Arthur J. Head, William D. Good, and Ccrnelius...Mosselman, Chap. 8; Combustion of Liquid/Solid Organic Compounds with Non-Metallic Hetero-Atoms by Arthur J. Head and William D. Good, Chap. 9; in...0 Box 95085 Washington, DC 20234 Los Angeles, CA 90045 National Bureau of Standards CINDAS Chemical Thermodynamics Division Purdue University

  12. Compound composite odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N

    2016-01-01

    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas.

  13. Compound composite odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Girish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas.

  14. Chemistry of peroxide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volnov, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  15. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  16. Highly trifluoromethylated platinum compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salvador, Sonia; Forniés, Juan; Martín, Antonio; Menjón, Babil

    2011-07-11

    The homoleptic, square-planar organoplatinum(II) compound [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(4)] (1) undergoes oxidative addition of CF(3) I under mild conditions to give rise to the octahedral organoplatinum(IV) complex [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(5)I] (2). This highly trifluoromethylated species reacts with Ag(+) salts of weakly coordinating anions in Me(2)CO under a wet-air stream to afford the aquo derivative [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (OH(2))] (4) in around 75% yield. When the reaction of 2 with the same Ag(+) salts is carried out in MeCN, the solvento compound [NBu(4) ][Pt(CF(3))(5)(NCMe)] (5) is obtained in around 80% yield. The aquo ligand in 4 as well as the MeCN ligand in 5 are labile and can be cleanly replaced by neutral and anionic ligands to furnish a series of pentakis(trifluoromethyl)platinate(IV) compounds with formulae [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (L)] (L=CO (6), pyridine (py; 7), tetrahydrothiophene (tht; 8)) and [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(5)X] (X=Cl (9), Br (10)). The unusual carbonyl-platinum(IV) derivative [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (CO)] (6) is thermally stable and has a ν(CO) of 2194 cm(-1). The crystal structures of 2⋅CH(2)Cl(2), 5, [PPh(4) ][Pt(CF(3))(5)(CO)] (6'), and 7 have been established by X-ray diffraction methods. Compound 2 has shown itself to be a convenient entry to the chemistry of highly trifluoromethylated platinum compounds. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 2 and 4-10 are the organoelement compounds with the highest CF(3) content to have been isolated and adequately characterized to date.

  17. Nomenclature of chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kaczmarek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the mechanisms of the inorganic chemistry nomenclature formation in French language. It shows the structure and the way of presenting the names of chemical compounds either descriptively or by giving the structural formulas’ characteristics, their transcription and order of reading the letters. The text specifies the rules of naming a chemical compound, according to the criteria of IUPAC (Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the organisation responsible for digesting the chemical nomenclature. The article contains the transcription chart and the manner of reading the structural formula, also called latero-numerical. Additionally, there is information conceming the usage of the common names given, still remaining in use next to the names compatible with those of IUPAC. Particular types of chemical compounds have served as models for description of other nomenclature formation rules from the simplest structures to the complicated compound ones. A short summary presents the relations and similarities between the names of particular types of chemical compounds.

  18. Hereditary multiple exostoses in a 15-year-old boy: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-06

    Sep 6, 2016 ... Methods: A case report of a 15- year-old Nigerian male with ... development of multiple osteochondromas (exostoses) and is frequently .... mon phenomena, the pattern of spontaneous resolution, .... compression. Report of two.

  19. The plant growth-promoting effect of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte Pseudomonas stutzeri A15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van T K; Rediers, Hans; Ghequire, Maarten G K; Nguyen, Hiep H; De Mot, René; Vanderleyden, Jos; Spaepen, Stijn

    2017-04-01

    The use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as a sustainable alternative for chemical nitrogen fertilizers has been explored for many economically important crops. For one such strain isolated from rice rhizosphere and endosphere, nitrogen-fixing Pseudomonas stutzeri A15, unequivocal evidence of the plant growth-promoting effect and the potential contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is still lacking. In this study, we investigated the effect of P. stutzeri A15 inoculation on the growth of rice seedlings in greenhouse conditions. P. stutzeri A15 induced significant growth promotion compared to uninoculated rice seedlings. Furthermore, inoculation with strain A15 performed significantly better than chemical nitrogen fertilization, clearly pointing to the potential of this bacterium as biofertilizer. To assess the contribution of BNF to the plant growth-promoting effect, rice seedlings were also inoculated with a nitrogen fixation-deficient mutant. Our results suggest that BNF (at best) only partially contributes to the stimulation of plant growth.

  20. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary or secondary metabolism and with a wide range of functions. The main focus of this research work has been put on flavour molecules that are produced during fermentation processes, mainly esters and alcohols derived...... region is directly regulated by the ScAro80 transcription factor. This interaction has been used to create a lacZ-reporter system to correlate the formation of two volatile compounds, 2- phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate in yeast with ARO9 expression levels. This indirect genetic assay also....... This resulted in the identification of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Pichia kluyveri as high producers of esters fruity compounds, which contribute to enhance the complexity of wine and beer product. In addition the strain Debaromyces subglobosus showed high yields of aldehydes and fruity ketones, which...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(15)-1 - Moving expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moving expenses. 31.3401(a)(15)-1 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(a)(15)-1 Moving expenses. (a) An amount paid to or on... moving expenses incurred or expected to be incurred is excepted from wages, and hence is not subject...

  2. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  3. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  4. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  5. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nasukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the initial stage of researches of natural polyacetylene compounds is resulted. The high reactionary ability leading to fast oxidation and degradation of these compounds, especially at influence of Uf-light, oxygen of air, pH and other factors, has caused the serious difficulties connected with an establishment of structure and studying of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore the greatest quantity of works of this stage is connected with studying of essential oils of plants from families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae where have been found out, basically, diacetylene compounds. About development of physical and chemical methods of the analysis of possibility of similar researches have considerably extended. More than 2000 polyacetylenes are known today, from them more than 1100 are found out in plants fam. Asteraceae. Revolution in the field of molecular biology has allowed to study processes of biosynthesis of these compounds intensively.

  6. Computing compound distributions faster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. den Iseger; M.A.J. Smith; R. Dekker (Rommert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe use of Panjer's algorithm has meanwhile become a widespread standard technique for actuaries (Kuon et al., 1955). Panjer's recursion formula is used for the evaluation of compound distributions and can be applied to life and general insurance problems. The discrete version of Panjer'

  7. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary or secondary metabolism and with a wide range of functions. The main focus of this research work has been put on flavour molecules that are produced during fermentation processes, mainly esters and alcohols derived...

  8. Fun with Ionic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

  9. Toxicity of dipyridyl compounds and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenggang; Crooks, Peter A; Wei, Xiaochen; de Leon, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Five dipyridyl isomers, 2,2'-, 2,3'-, 2,4'-, 3,3'-, and 4,4'-dipyridyl, are products resulting from the pyrolytic degradation of tobacco products and degradation of the herbicide paraquat, and therefore may be present in the environment. In this article, the toxicological properties of these dipyridyl isomers in humans and animals are reviewed. Epidemiological studies suggest that cancerous skin lesions in workers involved in the manufacturing of paraquat may be associated with exposure to dipyridyl compounds. Experimental animal studies suggest that dipyridyl isomers may have several toxicological effects. Three of the dipyridyl isomers (the 2,2', 2,4', and 4,4' isomers) appear to be inducers of some metabolic enzymes. The 2,2'-dipyridyl isomer, an iron chelator, appears to influence vasospasm in primate models of stroke. The cytotoxic effects of 2,2'-dipyridyl on several leukemia cell lines have been reported, and a potent teratogenic effect of 2,2'-dipyridyl has been observed in rats. Based on the results of paraquat studies in experimental animal models, it has been proposed that paraquat may have deleterious effects on dopaminergic neurons. These findings support the epidemiological evidence that paraquat exposure may be associated with the development of Parkinson's disease. Studies designed to determine an association between paraquat exposure and Parkinson's disease are complicated by the possibility that metabolic changes may influence the neurotoxicity of paraquat and/or its metabolites. Preliminary unpublished data in mice show that 300-mg/kg doses of 2,2'-dipyridyl are neurotoxic, and 300-mg/kg doses of 2,4'- and 4,4'-dipyridyls are lethal. These results are consistent with earlier studies in Sherman rats using high 2,2'- and 4,4'-dipyridyl doses. New studies are needed to further explore the toxicological properties of dipyridyls and their potential public health impact.

  10. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  11. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  12. Biodegradation of Organofluorine Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) XX-02-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Mar 2011 – Sep...compounds as sole carbon sources for growth, which was confirmed on two substrates: benzoyl fluoride and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane...Subsequent measurements of defluorination rates showed that benzoyl fluoride defluorinated very rapidly; therefore, the growth observed was probably

  13. Toxicity of platinum compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Jörg Thomas; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2003-06-01

    Since the introduction of platinum-based combination chemotherapy, particularly cisplatin, the outcome of the treatment of many solid tumours has changed. The leading platinum compounds in cancer chemotherapy are cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin. They share some structural similarities; however, there are marked differences between them in therapeutic use, pharmacokinetics and adverse effects profiles [1-4]. Compared to cisplatin, carboplatin has inferior efficacy in germ-cell tumour, head and neck cancer and bladder and oesophageal carcinoma, whereas both drugs seem to have comparable efficacy in advanced non-small cell and small cell lung cancer as well as ovarian cancer [5-7]. Oxaliplatin belongs to the group of diaminocyclohexane platinum compounds. It is the first platinum-based drug that has marked efficacy in colorectal cancer when given in combination with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid [8,9]. Other platinum compounds such as oral JM216, ZD0473, BBR3464 and SPI-77, which is a pegylated liposomal formulation of cisplatin, are still under investigation [10-13], whereas nedaplatin has been approved in Japan for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and other solid tumours. This review focuses on cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin.

  14. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  15. Light metal compound casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konrad; J.; M.; PAPIS; Joerg; F.; LOEFFLER; Peter; J.; UGGOWITZER

    2009-01-01

    Compound casting’simplifies joining processes by directly casting a metallic melt onto a solid metal substrate. A continuously metallurgic transition is very important for industrial applications, such as joint structures of spaceframe constructions in transport industry. In this project, ‘compound casting’ of light metals is investigated, aiming at weight-saving. The substrate used is a wrought aluminium alloy of type AA5xxx, containing magnesium as main alloying element. The melts are aluminium alloys, containing various alloying elements (Cu, Si, Zn), and magnesium. By replacing the natural oxygen layer with a zinc layer, the inherent wetting difficulties were avoided, and compounds with flawless interfaces were successfully produced (no contraction defects, cracks or oxides). Electron microscopy and EDX investigations as well as optical micrographs of the interfacial areas revealed their continu- ously metallic constitution. Diffusion of alloying elements leads to heat-treatable microstructures in the vicinity of the joining interfaces in Al-Al couples. This permits significant variability of mechanical properties. Without significantly cutting down on wettability, the formation of low-melting intermetallic phases (Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17 IMPs) at the interface of Al-Mg couples was avoided by applying a protective coating to the substrate.

  16. Light metal compound casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konrad J.M.PAPIS; Joerg F.LOEFFLER; Peter J.UGGOWITZER

    2009-01-01

    'Compound casting'simplifies joining processes by directly casting a metallic melt onto a solid metal substrate. A continuously metallurgic transition is very important for industrial applications, such as joint structures of spaceframe constructions in transport industry. In this project, 'compound casting' of light metals is investigated, aiming at weight-saving. The substrate used is a wrought aluminium alloy of type AA5xxx, containing magnesium as main alloying element. The melts are aluminium alloys, containing various alloying elements (Cu, Si, Zn), and magnesium. By replacing the natural oxygen layer with a zinc layer, the inherent wetting difficulties were avoided, and compounds with flawless interfaces were successfully produced (no contraction defects, cracks or oxides). Electron microscopy and EDX investigations as well as optical micrographs of the interfacial areas revealed their continu-ously metallic constitution. Diffusion of alloying elements leads to heat-treatable microstructures in the vicinity of the joining interfaces in Al-Al couples. This permits significant variability of mechanical properties. Without significantly cutting down on wettability, the formation of low-melting intermetallic phases (Al3Mg2 and AI12Mg17 IMPs) at the interface of Al-Mg couples was avoided by applying a protec-tive coating to the substrate.

  17. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia K. Shishido

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  18. atmospheric volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koss

    2016-07-01

    organic compounds (VOCs that cannot be ionized with H3O+ ions (e.g., in a PTR-MS or H3O+ CIMS instrument. Here we describe the adaptation of a high-resolution time-of-flight H3O+ CIMS instrument to use NO+ primary ion chemistry. We evaluate the NO+ technique with respect to compound specificity, sensitivity, and VOC species measured compared to H3O+. The evaluation is established by a series of experiments including laboratory investigation using a gas-chromatography (GC interface, in situ measurement of urban air using a GC interface, and direct in situ measurement of urban air. The main findings are that (1 NO+ is useful for isomerically resolved measurements of carbonyl species; (2 NO+ can achieve sensitive detection of small (C4–C8 branched alkanes but is not unambiguous for most; and (3 compound-specific measurement of some alkanes, especially isopentane, methylpentane, and high-mass (C12–C15 n-alkanes, is possible with NO+. We also demonstrate fast in situ chemically specific measurements of C12 to C15 alkanes in ambient air.

  19. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  20. Critical currents in A-15 structure Nb3Al converted from cold-worked bcc structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollam, J. A.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Haugland, E.; Webb, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers critical currents in A-15 structure Nb3Al converted from a cold-worked bcc structure. Nb3Al prepared in the ductile phase by quenching and mechanical working followed by conversion to the A-15 structure could carry currents above 10 to the 9th power A/sq m in fields near 20 T. These critical currents are comparable to those of Nb3Ge and V3Ga which are closest competing materials for use in high fields; further enhancement of the critical current is possible if thermal treatments are optimized.

  1. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Information regarding the contents of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in wastewater is limited, but it has been shown that at least 900 different compounds / compound groups could potentially be present in grey wastewater. Analyses of Danish grey wastewater revealed the presence of several...... hundred of XOCs, among them mainly originating from hygiene products: chlorophenols, detergents and phthalates. Several compounds not deriving from hygiene products were also identified e.g. flame-retardants and drugs. A environmental hazard identification showed that a large number of compounds with high...... aquatic toxicity were present and that data for environmental fate could only be retrieved for about half of the compounds....

  2. Nitrate Removal in Two Relict Oxbow Urban Wetlands: A 15N Mass-balance Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 15N-tracer method was used to quantify nitrogen (N) removal processes in two relict oxbow wetlands located adjacent to the Minebank Run restored stream reach in Baltimore County (Maryland, USA) during summer 2009 and early spring 2010. A mass-balance approach was used to determ...

  3. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  4. Tinea faciei and tinea capitis in a 15-day-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of tinea faciei and tinea capitis in a 15-day-old male infant caused by Trichophyton tonsurans is being reported because of its rarity. This may be the youngest infant from India where source of infection was his elder brother who had black dot type of tinea capitis and incubation period in the present case was 7 days.

  5. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  6. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  7. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info John_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 886 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name John_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 Handbook of Green Materials Processing Technologies, Properties and Applications Chapter 15 RUBBER COMPOUNDING AND PROCESSING MAYA JACOB JOHN1,2 1CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Polymers and Composites Competence Area, P.O. Box 1124...

  8. Oligosilanylated Antimony Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    By reactions of magnesium oligosilanides with SbCl3, a number of oligosilanylated antimony compounds were obtained. When oligosilanyl dianions were used, either the expected cyclic disilylated halostibine was obtained or alternatively the formation of a distibine was observed. Deliberate formation of the distibine from the disilylated halostibine was achieved by reductive coupling with C8K. Computational studies of Sb–Sb bond energies, barriers of pyramidal inversion at Sb, and the conformational behavior of distibines provided insight for the understanding of the spectroscopic properties. PMID:25937691

  9. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

  10. High temperature superconducting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Allen M.

    1992-11-01

    The major accomplishment of this grant has been to develop techniques for the in situ preparation of high-Tc superconducting films involving the use of ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The techniques are generalizable to the growth of trilayer and multilayer structures. Films of both the DyBa2Cu3O(7-x) and YBa2Cu3O(7-x) compounds as well as the La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 compound have been grown on the usual substrates, SrTiO3, YSZ, MgO, and LaAlO3, as well as on Si substrates without any buffer layer. A bolometer has been fabricated on a thermally isolated SiN substrate coated with YSZ, an effort carried out in collaboration with Honeywell Inc. The deposition process facilitates the fabrication of very thin and transparent films creating new opportunities for the study of superconductor-insulator transitions and the investigation of photo-doping with carriers of high temperature superconductors. In addition to a thin film technology, a patterning technology has been developed. Trilayer structures have been developed for FET devices and tunneling junctions. Other work includes the measurement of the magnetic properties of bulk single crystal high temperature superconductors, and in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, measurement of electric transport properties of T1-based high-Tc films.

  11. Optimizing Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Spatial compound images are constructed from synthetic aperture data acquired using a linear phased-array transducer. Compound images of wires, tissue, and cysts are created using a method, which allows both transmit and receive compounding without any loss in temporal resolution. Similarly to co...

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of human S100A15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeshans, Karen M. [X-ray Crystallography Facility, NIAMS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Wolf, Ronald; Voscopoulos, Christopher [Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Gillette, William; Esposito, Dominic [Protein Expression Laboratory, Research Technology Program, National Cancer Institute, SAIC-Frederick Inc., Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Mueser, Timothy C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Yuspa, Stuart H. [Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Ahvazi, Bijan, E-mail: ahvazib@mail.nih.gov [X-ray Crystallography Facility, NIAMS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2006-05-01

    S100 proteins are differentially expressed during epithelial cell maturation, tumorigenesis and inflammation. The novel human S100A15 protein has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in two crystal forms, a triclinic and a monoclinic form, which diffract to 1.7 and 2.0 Å, respectively. Human S100A15 is a novel member of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins and was recently identified in psoriasis, where it is significantly upregulated in lesional skin. The protein is implicated as an effector in calcium-mediated signal transduction pathways. Although its biological function is unclear, the association of the 11.2 kDa S100A15 with psoriasis suggests that it contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease and could provide a molecular target for therapy. To provide insight into the function of S100A15, the protein was crystallized to visualize its structure and to further the understanding of how the many similar calcium-binding mediator proteins in the cell distinguish their cognate target molecules. The S100A15 protein has been cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity and produced two crystal forms. Crystals of form I are triclinic, with unit-cell parameters a = 33.5, b = 44.3, c = 44.8 Å, α = 71.2, β = 68.1, γ = 67.8° and an estimated two molecules in the asymmetric unit, and diffract to 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals of form II are monoclinic, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.1, b = 33.6, c = 52.2 Å, β = 128.2° and an estimated one molecule in the asymmetric unit, and diffract to 2.0 Å resolution. This structural analysis of the human S100A15 will further aid in the phylogenic comparison between the other members of the S100 protein family, especially the highly homologous paralog S100A7.

  13. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  14. Trisomy 18 mosaicism in a 15-year-old boy with normal intelligence and short stature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-08

    We report a 15-year-old boy with mosaicism for trisomy 18 and normal intelligence. Approximately 50% of his leukocytes are trisomic. This patient represents the sixth report of an individual with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence. Those individuals with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence need to be advised of increased risks for offspring with chromosome abnormalities and offered the option of prenatal diagnosis for cytogenetic anomalies. 6 refs.

  15. Fatal pulmonary thromboembolism associated with hemoglobin SC disease in a 15 year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Trolez Amancio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of hemoglobin SC disease complicated by fatal pulmonarythromboembolism in a 15 year-old Brazilian boy, submitted to autopsy. Thiscase shows the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of sickle celldisease, which generates systemic involvement in youth and the importanceof considering the hypercoagulability in these patients. The autopsy was veryinstructive, revealing the florid morphologic aspect of sickle cell disease andits complications.

  16. Marine Mammal Strandings and Environmental Changes: A 15-Year Study in the St. Lawrence Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Hélène Truchon; Lena Measures; Vincent L'Hérault; Jean-Claude Brêthes; Peter S Galbraith; Michel Harvey; Sylvie Lessard; Michel Starr; Nicolas Lecomte

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have i...

  17. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    OpenAIRE

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy.

  18. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy. PMID:27274896

  19. Pressure-enhanced superconductivity in A15-type Nb3 Ge via increased Fermi surface nesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ryan; Jeffries, Jason; McCall, Scott; Jenei, Zsolt; Weir, Sam; Vohra, Yogesh

    The A15-type superconductors are the most widely used superconductors in industrial applications yet the physics behind maximizing the superconducting transition temperature is still not completely understood. The highest transition temperatures found to date have recently been reported for high-pressure hydride materials and it is believed that they too are BCS-type phonon-mediated superconductors, just like the A15-type superconductors. Understanding the electron-phonon coupling has therefore been brought front stage in the search to understand the mechanisms for optimizing high-temperature superconductors. Using a multi-faceted suite of high-pressure techniques we found that Nb3Ge has an isostructural phase transition at high pressure that correlates directly with a bandstructure change seen in high-pressure magnetotransport measurements. Our results suggest that A15-type superconductivity is not only phonon-mediated but that the degree of Fermi surface nesting is a controlling parameter for maximizing the superconducting transition temperature. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Representation of A15 composition and TC in internal-Sn Nb3Sn superconducting strands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andre; SULPICE; Jean-Louis; SOUBEYROUX; Christophe; VERWAERDE; Gia; Ky; HOANG

    2010-01-01

    Four sets of mono-element (ME) and two kinds of multifilament (MF) internal-Sn Nb3Sn superconducting strands were designed and fabricated through RRP method in which different compoment ratios, various composite configurations and some third element alloying were arranged. All the strand samples underwent a 210°C/50 h + 340°C/25 h thermal duration for Cu-Sn alloying. After that A15 phase formation heat treatment (HT) was applied for which the ME samples were chosen at three reaction temperatures of 675°C, 700°C and 725°C for 100 h and 200 h while the MF samples at four temperatures of 650°C, 675°C, 700°C and 725°C for 128 h and 200 h. The heat-treated samples were examined for A15 phase composition distribution by X-ray EDS. SQUID magnetization measurement was used to determine critical temperature TC. The obtained results demonstrate that for fully-reacted internal-Sn Nb3Sn superconductors the A15 phase composition and the intrinsic property TC are determined by the diffusion and solid state reaction mechanism and are independent of the factors including HT temperature, strand composite component and configuration arrangement, and the third element addition within the experimental range.

  1. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B....... The method is investigated using simulations and through measurements using both phased array and convex array transducers. The images all show an improved contrast compared to images without compounding, and by construction, imaging using an improved frame rate is possible. Using a phased array transducer...... and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging...

  2. Public chemical compound databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anthony J

    2008-05-01

    The internet has rapidly become the first port of call for all information searches. The increasing array of chemistry-related resources that are now available provides chemists with a direct path to the information that was previously accessed via library services and was limited by commercial and costly resources. The diversity of the information that can be accessed online is expanding at a dramatic rate, and the support for publicly available resources offers significant opportunities in terms of the benefits to science and society. While the data online do not generally meet the quality standards of manually curated sources, there are efforts underway to gather scientists together and 'crowdsource' an improvement in the quality of the available data. This review discusses the types of public compound databases that are available online and provides a series of examples. Focus is also given to the benefits and disruptions associated with the increased availability of such data and the integration of technologies to data mine this information.

  3. Tin compounds and insect fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butovskiy, R.O.

    1985-03-01

    A review of the literature of tin compounds serving as pesticides has resulted in the identification of 11 widely used compounds, both organic and inorganic, with largely fungicidal activity. Organotin compounds seem to be limited in use to the control of insect pests, with the majority of the compounds consisting of Sn(IV) and falling into the following four categories: R/sub 4/Sn, R/sub 3/SNX, R/sub 2/SnX/sub 2/, and RSnX/sub 3/, where R = aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon radicals, and X = organic or inorganic substituent. The insecticidal activity of these compounds appears to rest on inhibition of ATPase and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. As a result, these compounds act as larvicides, ovicides and imagocides. 77 references.

  4. Gouty arthritis in a 15-year-old girl with Bartter′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derakhshan Nima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old girl, a known case of Bartter′s syndrome (BS for 7 years, developed severe pain in her right knee and right and left ankle. Her older sister had BS and developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD at the age of 14 years. Her serum uric acid was 12.6 mg/dL, 6 months ago, and 15.4 mg/dL in her recent lab data. Hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis are commonly seen in adults with BS, but to our knowledge there is no report of gouty arthritis in pediatric literature.

  5. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ulterine cervix in a 15 year old girl: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Jee Eun; KIm, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye Young [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Cervical cancer is rare in the pediatric population. In cases of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma is predominantly reported. Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCAC) of the uterine cervix is a very rare tumor and accounts for only 4% of all adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix. Risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease are not exactly revealed. The intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) and associated non-steroidal estrogen during pregnancy before 18 weeks is the only known risk factor. This study reports the imaging finding of primary uterine cervical tumor in a 15-year-old girl, who was finally diagnosed with CCAC, with no maternal history of DES exposure in utero.

  6. A rare case of thymoma in a 15-month-old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boylan, Emma; Wyers, Mary; Jaffar, Reema [Children' s Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We report a case of thymoma in a 15-month-old girl successfully treated with thymectomy. This case is unique due to the very young age of the child and a family history of thymoma in the father, who was treated with resection at age 10. Radiographic and CT findings mimicked thymic hyperplasia, and highlight the difficulty of distinguishing between these two conditions, since the latter is more common in children. The case is followed by a discussion of thymic hyperplasia and thymoma. (orig.)

  7. Plummer-Vinson syndrome in a 15-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinler, Gönül; Tander, Burak; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi; Rizalar, Riza

    2009-01-01

    Plummer-Vinson syndrome presents as a classical triad of dysphagia, iron deficiency anemia and upper esophageal web(s). The syndrome usually occurs in adults, and is rare in childhood. We report a case of this syndrome occurring in a 15-year-old boy. He presented with dysphagia and anemia. Radiological examination showed the presence of webs at the cervical esophagus. The boy was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and iron supplementation and remains in good general condition six months after the treatment.

  8. Extra-adrenal composite phaeochromocytoma/neuroblastoma in a 15-month-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Monclair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 15-month-old boy was diagnosed with malignant hypertension caused by a catecholamine excreting retroperitoneal paraganglioma consisting of a composite phaeochromocytoma/differentiating neuroblastoma. After alpha-blockade the tumor was excised. No adjuvant treatment was given, and he is doing well eight years after the diagnosis. The patient is the first child known to have an extra-adrenal retroperitoneal composite tumor, and also the youngest child with a composite phaeochromocytoma/neuroblastoma reported in the English literature.

  9. Prevalencia de caries en escolares de 6 a 15 años, Isla de Pascua

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez González,V; R Cabello Ibacache; G. Rodríguez Martínez; Urzúa Araya,I; Silva Steffens,N; Phillips Letelier,M; Yévenes López,I

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y severidad de caries de piezas permanentes y algunos factores de riesgo relacionados en un grupo de escolares de Isla de Pascua. Materiales y Métodos: 116 niños de 6 a 15 años de edad fueron seleccionados al azar. Se efectuó examen clínico individualizado y se registraron los índices COP-D, significante de caries (SIC), de Higiene Oral de Greene y Vermillon (G-V) y se realizó una encuesta de dieta. Para conocer la frecuencia...

  10. [Relapse of bleeding ulcer in a 15 year-old boy with collagenous gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Anne-Mette; Kelsen, Jens

    2012-06-18

    Collagenous gastritis (CG) is a rare disorder. Two patient groups are known: 1) Children and young adults, presenting with anaemia and abdominal pain, and 2) adults presenting with watery diarrhoea. In the latter group, CG is frequently associated with collagenous colitis and/or coeliac disease. This case concerns a 15-year-old boy with a bleeding ulcer. The biopsies from corpus ventriculi showed a thickened subepithelial collagen band (> 10 micrometres), and the patient was diagnosed with CG. Ulcers are rarely linked to CG. CG should be considered when ulcers are found in children and young adults.

  11. Neuroretinitis with Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis with significant disc and peripapillary edema, branch retinal artery occlusion without macula involvement and well preserved central vision. A 15-year-old female presented with loss of vision over 4 weeks in the left eye. She had a history of cat exposure, but a cat scratch, insect bite or conjunctivitis was not reported. An inferotemporal arcuate scotoma developed during the acute phase and persisted over the course of the follow-up.

  12. Sesquiterpene compounds from Inula viscosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Gianfranco; La Rocca, Salvatore; Passannanti, Salvatore; Paternostro, Maria Pia

    2007-07-20

    Two new compounds, 2,5-dihydroxyisocostic acid and 2,3-dihydroxycostic acid together with three known sesquiterpene compounds, Isocostic acid, Carabrone and Tomentosin, have been isolated from the acetone extract of Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton. The structures of all new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, in particular 1D and 2D (1)H- and (13)C-NMR. The (13)C-NMR spectra of Isocostic acid and of Tomentosin are reported here for the first time.

  13. Potential Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    OpenAIRE

    Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compoun...

  14. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  15. Transition Metal Compounds Towards Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Dieckmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully proposed the application of transition metal compounds in holographic recording media. Such compounds feature an ultra-fast light-induced linkage isomerization of the transition-metal–ligand bond with switching times in the sub-picosecond regime and lifetimes from microseconds up to hours at room temperature. This article highlights the photofunctionality of two of the most promising transition metal compounds and the photophysical mechanisms that are underlying the hologram recording. We present the latest progress with respect to the key measures of holographic media assembled from transition metal compounds, the molecular embedding in a dielectric matrix and their impressive potential for modern holographic applications.

  16. Saturn's Stratospheric Oxygen Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Paul N.; Delgado Díaz, Héctor E.; Bjoraker, Gordon; Hesman, Brigette; Achterberg, Richard

    2016-10-01

    There are three known oxygenated species present in Saturn's upper atmosphere: H2O, CO and CO2. The ultimate source of the water must be external to Saturn as Saturn's cold tropopause effectively prevents any internal water from reaching the upper atmosphere. The carbon monoxide and dioxide source(s) could be internal, external, produced by the photochemical interaction of water with Saturn's stratospheric hydrocarbons or some combination of all of these. At this point it is not clear what the external source(s) are.Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) has detected emission lines of H2O and CO2 (Hesman et al., DPS 2015, 311.16 & Abbas et al. 2013, Ap. J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/2/73) on Saturn. CIRS also retrieves the temperature of the stratosphere using CH4 lines at 7.7 microns. Using CIRS retrieved temperatures, the mole fraction of H2O at the 0.5-5 mbar level can be retrieved and the CO2 mole fraction at ~1-10 mbar. Coupled with ground based observations of CO (Cavalié et al., 2010, A&A, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912909) these observations provide a complete oxygen compound data set to test photochemical models.Preliminary results will be presented with an emphasis on upper limit analysis to determine the percentage of stratospheric CO and CO2 that can be produced photochemically from CIRS observational constraints on the H2O profile.

  17. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here.

  18. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  19. Electrochemical reactions of organosilicon compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouikov, Vyacheslav V.

    1997-06-01

    Data on the processes of electrochemical reduction and oxidation of organosilicon compounds of various classes as well as on the interaction of these compounds with electrically generated reagents are generalised and surveyed systematically. The electrochemical reactivity of organic derivatives of silicon is considered taking into account their structures and reaction conditions. The bibliography includes 245 references.

  20. Testing of Experimental Antileishmanial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-19

    administrative and clerical assistance and Ms. Barbara L. Harris, Laboratory Technician II, for technical assistance with this study. Their efforts are appreciated...braziliensis) leishmaniasis . Although several new compounds have been identified with activity against L. (V.) braziliensis, none have shown adequate promise...to warrant initiation of clinical trials. However, among the most promising active compounds found against visceral leishmaniasis during these

  1. Cytotoxic Compounds from Zanthoxylum Americanum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Four pyranocoumarins: dipetaline, alloxanthoxyletin, xanthoxyletin, and xanthyletin, and two lignans: sesamin and asarinin were isolated from the northern prickly ash, Zanthoxylum americanum. To varying degrees, all six compounds inhibited the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into human leukemia (HL-60) cells and the inhibitory effect was dependent on the structures of the isolated compounds.

  2. Process for demethylating dimethylsulfonium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Theo; van der Maarel, Marc

    1998-01-01

    PCT No. PCT/EP94/01640 Sec. 371 Date Nov. 14, 1995 Sec. 102(e) Date Nov. 14, 1995 PCT Filed May 16, 1994 PCT Pub. No. WO94/26918 PCT Pub. Date Nov. 24, 1994Process for preparing S-methylmercapto and mercapto compounds comprising the step of demethylating a dimethylsulfonium compound of formula I to

  3. Assimilation of Unusual Carbon Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, Wouter J.

    Yeast taxa traditionally are distinguished by growth tests on several sugars and organic acids. During the last decades it became apparent that many yeast species assimilate a much greater variety of naturally occurring carbon compounds as sole source of carbon and energy. These abilities are indicative of a greater role of yeasts in the carbon cycle than previously assumed. Especially in acidic soils and other habitats, yeasts may play a role in the degradation of carbon compounds. Such compounds include purines like uric acid and adenine, aliphatic amines, diamines and hydroxyamines, phenolics and other benzene compounds and polysaccharides. Assimilation of purines and amines is a feature of many ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. However, benzene compounds are degraded by only a few ascomycetous yeasts (e.g. the Stephanoascus/ Blastobotrys clade and black yeastlike fungi) but by many basidiomycetes, e.g. Filobasidiales, Trichosporonales, red yeasts producing ballistoconidia and related species, but not by Tremellales. Assimilation of polysaccharides is wide-spread among basidiomycetes

  4. Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B Ramsey

    Full Text Available Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05; MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all.

  5. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  6. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Regan, Kevin; Maher, Michael M. [Mercy University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); O' Mahony, Edward; MacEneaney, Peter; Fitzgerald, Edward [Mercy University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management. (orig.)

  7. Dynamics and control of Stirling engines in a 15 kWe solar electric generation concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R. L.; Bahrami, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of kinematic and free piston Stirling engines in a 15 kWe dish-electric approach for solar thermal electric generation. Initially, the principle of operation of Stirling engines in solar thermal electric generation is discussed. Then, under certain simplifying assumptions, mathematical models describing the dynamic operation of the kinematic and free piston Stirling engines are developed. It is found that the engine dynamics may be approximated by second order models. Control mechanisms for both types of Stirling engines are discussed. An approach based on the modulation of the working fluid mean pressure is presented. It is concluded that this approach offers a fast and effective means of control. The free piston Stirling engine, being a thermally driven mechanical oscillator, presents unique control requirements. These are discussed in this paper.

  8. Automated capillary Western dot blot method for the identity of a 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Melissa; Ha, Sha; Rustandi, Richard R

    2015-06-01

    Simple Western is a new technology that allows for the separation, blotting, and detection of proteins similar to a traditional Western except in a capillary format. Traditionally, identity assays for biological products are performed using either an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or a manual dot blot Western. Both techniques are usually very tedious, labor-intensive, and complicated for multivalent vaccines, and they can be difficult to transfer to other laboratories. An advantage this capillary Western technique has over the traditional manual dot blot Western method is the speed and the automation of electrophoresis separation, blotting, and detection steps performed in 96 capillaries. This article describes details of the development of an automated identity assay for a 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV15-CRM197, using capillary Western technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mild phenotype in a 15-year-old boy with Pallister-Killian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevieve, D; Cormier-Daire, V; Sanlaville, D; Faivre, L; Gosset, P; Allart, L; Picq, M; Munnich, A; Romana, S; de Blois, Mc; Vekemans, M

    2003-01-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, coarse face, pigmentary skin changes, seizures, severe mental retardation, and the presence of an extra metacentric chromosome i(12p) confined to skin fibroblasts only. Here, we report on an unusual case of i(12p) in a 15-year-old boy presenting with mild mental retardation, minor facial features (long face, prognathism, short neck), normal weight, length, and OFC parameters as well as hyperpigmented streaks. The boy attended normal school until the age of 14 years. Because of hyperpigmented stripes, chromosome analysis was performed on skin fibroblasts. This study showed that 37% of the cells had an additional isochromosome for the short arm of chromosome 12. This observation illustrates the phenotypic variability of i(12p) and emphasizes the importance of skin fibroblasts chromosome analysis in patients with pigmentary skin changes.

  10. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin

    2012-01-31

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management.

  11. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin

    2009-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management.

  12. A 15-Month-Old Boy With Respiratory Distress and Parapharyngeal Abscess: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mirashrafi, Fatemeh; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Pak, Neda; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Eshaghi, Hamid; Gorji, Mojtaba; Memarian, Sara

    2016-12-01

    Parapharyngeal abscess is a life-threatening disease. Upper respiratory tract infection is the main cause in children. We present a 15-month-old boy admitted to the emergency ward with the chief complaint of difficulty in breathing caused by parapharyngealabscess. His condition deteriorated gradually, and he transferred to the operation theater quickly for abscess drainage and because of the difficulty in orotracheal intubation; a tracheostomy was performed. His respiratory condition deteriorated 2 days after PICU admission, and the medical team noticed an unexplainable respiratory distress. A chest x ray obtained and showed a right side pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema around theneck area. The case presented here, had not been diagnosed at the first examination; however, there were enough clinical clues (such as respiratory distress, drooling, torticollis, bulging of theneck, previous viral respiratory infection, possible pharyngeal trauma). The story of this case reminds us the importance of the precise physical exam and history taking which could be life-saving.

  13. Pelvic osteomyelitis in a 15-year-old girl: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural Kara, Tugce; Ozdemir, Halil; Fitoz, Suat; Ciftci, Ergin; Ince, Erdal

    2016-10-01

    Pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare infection. Ilium, ischium, pubis and acetabulum are commonly affected sites. Pelvic radiography, pelvic magnetic resonance and scintigraphy are useful imaging techniques for diagnosis. However, diagnoses should be confirmed with bone biopsy from the lesion. Sometimes diagnosis is delayed because of deep localization of infection site. Here in, we report a 15-year-old girl with left groin pain who was diagnosed as pelvic osteomyelitis one month after initial symptoms. Patient was successfully treated with antibiotics for 8 weeks. In conclusion, although pelvic osteomyelitis is an unusual infection in childhood, it should be considered as differential diagnoses of pain in groin, hips, thigh, abdomen and spine. If diagnosis is suspicious, empiric treatment should be started quickly, because it will be possible to achieve satisfactory clinical results with effective treatment.

  14. Dynamics and control of Stirling engines in a 15 kWe solar electric generation concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R. L.; Bahrami, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of kinematic and free piston Stirling engines in a 15 kWe dish-electric approach for solar thermal electric generation. Initially, the principle of operation of Stirling engines in solar thermal electric generation is discussed. Then, under certain simplifying assumptions, mathematical models describing the dynamic operation of the kinematic and free piston Stirling engines are developed. It is found that the engine dynamics may be approximated by second order models. Control mechanisms for both types of Stirling engines are discussed. An approach based on the modulation of the working fluid mean pressure is presented. It is concluded that this approach offers a fast and effective means of control. The free piston Stirling engine, being a thermally driven mechanical oscillator, presents unique control requirements. These are discussed in this paper.

  15. The price of a 15-year delay in diagnosis of Sheehan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Rohan; Buch, Varun; Makwana, Mitesh; Buch, Harit N

    2016-04-01

    We describe a case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with a 15-year history of recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia and hyponatremia leading to altered behavior and generalized seizures. She underwent full clinical assessment, endocrine tests, and a pituitary magnetic resonance scan that showed pananterior hypopituitarism secondary to postpartum pituitary necrosis (Sheehan's syndrome). She was commenced on appropriate hormone replacement therapy, which led to significant improvement in lethargy, anorexia, muscle weakness, and episodes of hypoglycemia. In addition to the alleviation of her physical symptoms, she experienced a significant improvement in her psychological well-being and reduction in hospital visits. This case illustrates the impact of delay in diagnosis of an easily treatable medical condition and its socioeconomic implications, especially for the population of a developing country like India.

  16. The price of a 15-year delay in diagnosis of Sheehan's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Rohan; Buch, Varun; Makwana, Mitesh

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with a 15-year history of recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia and hyponatremia leading to altered behavior and generalized seizures. She underwent full clinical assessment, endocrine tests, and a pituitary magnetic resonance scan that showed pananterior hypopituitarism secondary to postpartum pituitary necrosis (Sheehan's syndrome). She was commenced on appropriate hormone replacement therapy, which led to significant improvement in lethargy, anorexia, muscle weakness, and episodes of hypoglycemia. In addition to the alleviation of her physical symptoms, she experienced a significant improvement in her psychological well-being and reduction in hospital visits. This case illustrates the impact of delay in diagnosis of an easily treatable medical condition and its socioeconomic implications, especially for the population of a developing country like India. PMID:27034575

  17. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  18. Verkenning verkeersveiligheids-maatregelen op en rond de A15 Maasvlakte-Vaanplein : kortlopend onderzoek. In opdracht van De Verkeersonderneming.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braimaister, L. Stipdonk, H.L. & Schermers, G.

    2013-01-01

    Outlook road safety measures at and around the A15 Maasvlakte-Vaanplein interchange : a brief study. The A15 motorway between the Vaanplein interchange on the eastern side and the Maasvlakte on the western side, is one of the most important freeways providing access to the Rotterdam harbour area. Fr

  19. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  20. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    and the neighbourhood unity is a challenge for urban planners. However they represent good value for money, cost little to build, suit traditional inheritence patterns, allow independent life at low cost and allow sharing of services with a finite and known group (albeit within a potential conflictive domain). Compound...... of compound housing and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of life within such housing in Kumasi. Issues of privacy, image and communal life are usually cited by occupants dissatiesfied with life in compound houses, and the difficulty of extending them without spoiling the open spaces...

  1. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  2. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  3. First flush of dissolved compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, P.; Holzer, P.; Huisman, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In a crude conceptual approach it is commonly assumed that in a combined sewer system the concentration of dissolved compounds is diluted by an increasing flow rate due to rainwater inflow. However, theory of hydraulics suggests that these compounds are influenced by hydrodynamic effects....... It is known that since the wave celerity is higher than the flow velocity of the water, the increase of flow rate induced through rain runoff is recognised earlier at a certain downstream section of the combined sewer than the concentration increase of typical rain-water compounds originating from surface...... wash-off. This description implies that the wave front is formed from the fluid that was present in the sewer before the Bow rare increased, that is the sewage! By means of measurements and numerical simulations, it is shown that this effect may cause a significant impact of dissolved compounds...

  4. Optimization of compound gear pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾振辉

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the performances of compound gear pump. Based on the target of having the smallest mass per unit volume, the paper established a mathematical model of optimization, and obtained the results of optimization of the pump.

  5. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  6. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  7. Fourth symposium on macrocyclic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, J. J.; Izatt, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Both theoretical and experimental aspects of the properties and behavior of synthetic and naturally occurring macrocyclic compounds are covered in this symposium. This document contains abstracts of the papers. (DLC)

  8. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  9. Cytotoxic Compounds from Brucea mollis

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Mai Hung Thanh; Đuc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Nguyen Thanh DUONG; Do Thi PHUONG; Thao, Do Thi; Tai, Bui Huu; Kim, Young Ho; Bach, Tran The; Cuong, Nguyen Manh

    2012-01-01

    Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1), isobruceine B (2), 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3), bruceolline F (4), niloticine (5), octatriacontan-1-ol (6), bombiprenone (7), α-tocopherol (8), inosine (9), and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (...

  10. Heat Treatment Optimization of Rutherford Cable for a 15 T Nb3Sn Dipole Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, Emanuela [barzi@fnal.gov

    2016-12-22

    FNAL has been developing a 15 T Nb3Sn dipole demonstrator for a future Very High Energy pp Collider based on an optimized 60-mm aperture 4-layer “cos-theta” coil. To increase magnet efficiency, the coil was graded by using two cables with same 15 mm width and different thicknesses made of two different Restacked Rod Process (RRP®) wires. Due to the non-uniform field distribution in dipole coils the maximum field in the inner coil will reach 15-16 T, whereas the maximum field in the outer coil is 12-13 T. In preparation for the 15 T dipole coil reaction, heat treatment studies were performed on strands extracted from these cables with the goal of achieving the best coil performance in the corresponding magnetic fields. In particular, the effect of maximum temperature and time on the cable critical current was studied to take into account actual variations of these parameters during coil reaction. In parallel and in collaboration with OST, development was performed on optimizing Nb3Sn RRP® wire design and layout. Index Terms— Accelerator magnet, critical current density, Nb3Sn strand, Rutherford cable.

  11. On the development of a 15 mA direct current H - multicusp source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, T.; Yuan, D.; Jayamanna, K.; McDonald, M.; Baartman, R.; Schmor, P.; Dutto, G.

    1996-03-01

    A 15 mA dc H- multicusp source has been developed for injection into a TR30 cyclotron. This source is also used with a 900 kV tandem accelerator to obtain 10 mA protons at 1.8 MeV. The program is an extension of the 5-7 mA dc H- cusp source developed at TRIUMF during 1989-1990. Major efforts include the search for the optimal filament materials, shape, and location; comparison of cusp line confinement and magnetic filtering of electrons at the extraction region; optimization of extraction lense configuration; and upgrading of vacuum and power systems capability. The source is noncesiated and the maximum arc power available is only 5 kW. After the H- beams pass through an electron suppression grid and a 20 mm collimator, we obtained 15 mA with 0.66 π mm mrad 4 rms normalized emittance. At this output the e/H ratio was about 4. The best normalized emittance occurs around 5-7 mA, having a value of 0.37 π mm mrad. Further development in the near future is planned using cesium and multiple apertures in the hope of increasing dc H- currents to 30 mA while holding the normalized emittance below 0.75 π mm mrad.

  12. Activation products in a treatment room of a 15 MV linear accelerator for medical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon M, H. A.; Soto B, T. G.; Rivera P, E.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: asa_15@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Linacs working above 8 MV produce an undesirable neutron field mainly through ({gamma}, n) nuclear reactions. Due to room-return effect inside the vault there is a thermal neutron flux that is constant regarded the distance to the isocenter. When thermal neutrons collide with the bunker walls and the Linac head some radioisotopes are induced in the concrete, wedges and collimators due to neutron and photon activation. The aim of this work is to study the induced radioisotopes in concrete samples and a wedge, which emits gamma-ray during its decay, the presence of this protons will represent a radiological risk for the patient. Induced radioisotopes were studied with a 15 MV Linac, and a gamma-ray spectrometer with a Nal(Tl) scintillator where 846.8, 1368.6 and 1778.8 keV gamma-rays were observed, these photons are produced during the decay of {sup 54}Mn, {sup 24}Na and {sup 28}Al respectively, being in agreement with radionuclides reported in the literature. (Author)

  13. Oncolysis of malignant human melanoma tumors by Coxsackieviruses A13, A15 and A18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Richard D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many RNA viruses are displaying great promise in the field of oncolytic virotherapy. Previously, we reported that the picornavirus Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA21 possessed potent oncolytic activity against cultured malignant melanoma cells and melanoma xenografts in mice. In the present study, we demonstrate that three additional Group A Coxsackieviruses; Coxsackievirus A13 (CVA13, Coxsackievirus A15 (CVA15 and Coxsackievirus A18 (CVA18, also have similar oncolytic activity against malignant melanoma. Each of the viruses grew quickly to high titers in cancer cells expressing ICAM-1 and intratumoral injection of preformed subcutaneous SK-Mel-28 xenografts in mice with CVA13, CVA15 and CVA18 resulted in significant tumor volume reduction. As preexisting immunity could potentially hinder oncolytic virotherapy, sera from stage IV melanoma patients and normal controls were tested for levels of protective antibody against the panel of oncolytic Coxsackieviruses. Serum neutralization assays revealed that 3 of 21 subjects possessed low levels of anti-CVA21 antibodies, while protective antibodies for CVA13, CVA15 and CVA18 were not detected in any sample. Serum from individuals who were seropositive for CVA21 failed to exhibit cross-neutralization of CVA13, CVA15 and CVA18. From these studies it can be concluded that the administration of CVA13, CVA15 or CVA18 could be employed as a potential multivalent oncolytic therapy against malignant melanoma.

  14. Comparative analysis of hospital and forensic laboratory ethanol concentrations: A 15 month investigation of antemortem specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitman, Alec; Estrada, Julio; Fitzgerald, Robert L; McIntyre, Iain M

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative serum alcohol concentrations from regional hospitals (from specimens collected at time of hospital admission) were compared to results from whole blood (from specimens collected at the time of hospital admission) concentrations measured at the San Diego County Medical Examiner's Office (SDCMEO). Over a 15 month period (January 2012 to March 2013), the postmortem forensic toxicology laboratory analyzed a total of 2,321 cases. Of these, 280 were hospital cases (antemortem) representing 12% of the overall Medical Examiner toxicology casework. 59 of the 280 hospital cases (or 21%) screened positive for alcohol (ethanol). 39 of these 59 cases were included in the study based on available specimens for quantitative analyses. This investigation indicated that serum hospital ethanol concentrations correlated well (R(2) = 0.942) with ethanol values determined at SDCMEO (generally measured in whole blood). There was an observed negative bias with an average of -14.1%. A paired t-test was applied to the data and it was shown that this observed bias is statistically significant. These differences in ethanol concentrations could result from differences in specimen, analytical techniques, and/or calibration. The potential for specimen contamination is also discussed.

  15. A Neutrino-Driven Core Collapse Supernova Explosion of a 15 M Star

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzacappa, Anthony; Bruenn, Stephen W; Hix, W Raphael; Messer, O E Bronson; Endeve, Eirik; Blondin, John M; Harris, J Austin; Marronetti, Pedro; Yakunin, Konstantin N; Lingerfelt, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an ab initio three-dimensional, multi-physics core collapse supernova simulation for the case of a 15 M progenitor. Our simulation includes multi-frequency neutrino transport with state-of-the-art neutrino interactions in the "ray-by-ray" approximation, and approximate general relativity. Our model exhibits a neutrino-driven explosion. The shock radius begins an outward trajectory at approximately 275 ms after bounce, giving the first indication of a developing explosion in the model. The onset of this shock expansion is delayed relative to our two-dimensional counterpart model, which begins at approximately 200 ms after core bounce. At a time of 441 ms after bounce, the angle-averaged shock radius in our three-dimensional model has reached 751 km. Further quantitative analysis of the outcomes in this model must await further development of the post-bounce dynamics and a simulation that will extend well beyond 1 s after stellar core bounce, based on the results for the same progenitor ...

  16. Sarcoidosis with arteriovenous malformation in a 15 year old girl—the rarest of the rare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman eQaiser

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sarcoidosis is an uncommon multi-system disorder with many possible complications. Arteriovenous malformations are a rare vascular complication of sarcoidosis.Case Description: A 15 year old girl presented to the Pediatric Clinic at AKUH with pulmonary, hepatic, joint and skin manifestations. Physical examination and investigations pointed towards sarcoidosis, including raised ESR, ACE and ALT. An incidental finding of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM was noticed on echocardiography. She responded to oral corticosteroids, her ACE and ALT levels improved. There was lack of indication for pulmonary angio-embolization for her PAVM. On 4-year follow up, her condition improved and she is clinically well.Discussion: PAVM is an extremely rare complication of sarcoidosis, especially among the pediatric population. Hence, this is the first reported case of its kind. The relation between sarcoidosis and PAVM is difficult to establish, however, there are some theories. This condition may be treated depending on the symptoms. Since our patient did not have any significant symptoms of PAVM, she was treated for the underlying disease, i.e. sarcoidosis.Conclusion: While dealing with patients having multi-system disorders like sarcoidosis, one must be very vigilant so as not to miss out on any complication. Regular follow-up visits should be scheduled to rule out new complications and to monitor the past ones.

  17. A 15-Month-Old Boy With Respiratory Distress and Parapharyngeal Abscess: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdad Gharib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapharyngeal abscess is a life-threatening disease. Upper respiratory tract infection is the main cause in children. We present a 15-month-old boy admitted to the emergency ward with the chief complaint of difficulty in breathing caused by parapharyngealabscess. His condition deteriorated gradually, and he transferred to the operation theater quickly for abscess drainage and because of the difficulty in orotracheal intubation; a tracheostomy was performed. His respiratory condition deteriorated 2 days after PICU admission, and the medical team noticed an unexplainable respiratory distress. A chest x ray obtained and showed a right side pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema around theneck area. The case presented here, had not been diagnosed at the first examination; however, there were enough clinical clues (such as respiratory distress, drooling, torticollis, bulging of theneck, previous viral respiratory infection, possible pharyngeal trauma. The story of this case reminds us the importance of the precise physical exam and history taking which could be life-saving.

  18. Nonossifying fibroma (metaphyseal fibrous defect) of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Abul Ala; Singh, N Gopendro; Al-Waheeb, Salah; Taher, Taher N; Mohammed, Emad El Din El Din

    2015-06-01

    We describe a rare case of nonossifying fibroma of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy who presented with a left mandibular swelling. Conventional imaging showed an expansile radiolucent lesion involving the angle and the body of the left mandible. The lesion was curetted, and a miniplate was implanted at the excision site. Microscopic examination of the removed specimen revealed a cellular lesion characterized by a proliferation of uniform spindle-shaped cells in a vague but prominent storiform pattern, which represented the classic appearance of nonossifying fibroma. Three months later, radiography detected a fracture of the implantation plate. The area was re-explored with curettage of the soft tissue, which on microscopy demonstrated findings similar to the initial curettage findings. Follow-up radiology revealed satisfactory healing of the jaw, and no further recurrence was seen 2 years after the initial surgery. We present this case to highlight the importance of recognizing nonossifying fibroma in the mandible, which can be easily confused with more common mandibular lesions.

  19. Excimer ultraviolet sources for thin film deposition: a 15 year perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Ian W.; Liaw, Irving I.

    2010-02-01

    High intensity intensity ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation provide a singular dominant narrow-band emission at various wavelengths(λ) between 108 - 351 nm. The use of dielectric-barrier discharges in its embodiment of an excimer lamp as a photon-source provides a novel method to induce surface modification. From its in relatively humble beginnings in ozone generation, the excimer lamp has found new applications in the field of low-temperature processing of surfaces. Herein, a 15 year perspective of work done at the Materials & Devices Group at University College London between 1992 and 2007 is presented. The excimer lamps' application to the modification of surfaces for materials processing include: photo-induced formation of high-κ dielectric thin films and more recently the UV-induced photo-doping of silicon substrates, amongst others. With its robust yet inexpensive setup and flexibility of geometric configurations, they are easily coupled in parallel resulting in the provision of high photon fluxes over large areas. These sources also have an incoherent and almost monochromatic selectivity for application to process chemical pathway specific tasks by simple variation of the discharge gas mixture. These sources are an interesting addition to and an alternative to lasers for scalable industrial applications and have potential for a myriad of applications across different fields.

  20. Diffuse ultrasound monitoring of stress and damage development on a 15-ton concrete beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Planès, Thomas; Larose, Eric; Obermann, Anne; Rospars, Claude; Moreau, Gautier

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the use of an ultrasonic imaging technique (Locadiff) for the Non-Destructive Testing & Evaluation of a concrete structure. By combining coda wave interferometry and a sensitivity kernel for diffuse waves, Locadiff can monitor the elastic and structural properties of a heterogeneous material with a high sensitivity, and can map changes of these properties over time when a perturbation occurs in the bulk of the material. The applicability of the technique to life-size concrete structures is demonstrated through the monitoring of a 15-ton reinforced concrete beam subject to a four-point bending test causing cracking. The experimental results show that Locadiff achieved to (1) detect and locate the cracking zones in the core of the concrete beam at an early stage by mapping the changes in the concrete's micro-structure; (2) monitor the internal stress level in both temporal and spatial domains by mapping the variation in velocity caused by the acousto-elastic effect. The mechanical behavior of the concrete structure is also studied using conventional techniques such as acoustic emission, vibrating wire extensometers, and digital image correlation. The performances of the Locadiff technique in the detection of early stage cracking are assessed and discussed.

  1. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-04

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  2. Bioaccessibility testing of cobalt compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopford, Woodhall; Turner, John; Cappellini, Danielle; Brock, Tom

    2003-08-01

    Testing of metal compounds for solubility in artificial fluids has been used for many years to assist determining human health risk from exposure to specific compounds of concern. In lieu of obtaining bioavailability data from samples of urine, blood, or other tissues, these studies measured solubility of compounds in various artificial fluids as a surrogate for bioavailability. In this context, the measurement of metal "bioaccessibility" can be used as an in vitro substitute for measuring metal bioavailability. Bioaccessibility can be defined as a value representing the availability of metal for absorption when dissolved in in vitro surrogates of body fluids or juices. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the bioaccessibility of selected cobalt compounds in artificial human tissue fluids and human serum. A second aim was to initiate studies to experimentally validate an in vitro methodology that would provide a conservative estimate of cobalt bioavailability in the assessment of dose from human exposure to various species of cobalt compounds. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of cobalt(II) from 11 selected cobalt compounds and an alloy in 2 physical forms in 5 surrogate human tissue fluids and human serum. Four (4) separate extraction times were used up to 72 hours. The effect of variables such as pH, dissolution time, and mass-ion effect on cobalt bioaccessibility were assessed as well. We found that the species of cobalt compound as well as the physico-chemical properties of the surrogate fluids, especially pH, had a major impact on cobalt solubility. Cobalt salts such as cobalt(II) sulfate heptahydrate were highly soluble, whereas cobalt alloys used in medical implants and cobalt aluminate spinels used as pigments, showed minimal dissolution over the period of the assay.

  3. Long-term results of pneumatic dilation for achalasia: A 15 years' experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panagiotis Katsinelos; Jannis Kountouras; George Paroutoglou; Athanasios Beltsis; Christos Zavos; Basilios Papaziogas; Kostas Mlimidis

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Although most patients with achalasia respond to pneumatic dilation, one-third experienced recurrence, and prolonged follow-up studies on parameters associated with various outcomes are scanty. In this retrospective study, we reported a 15-years' experience with pneumatic dilation treatment in patients with primary achalasia, and determined whether previously described predictors of outcome remain significant after endoscopic dilation.METHODS: Between September 1989 and September 2004, 39 consecutive patients with primary symptomatic achalasia (diagnosed by clinical presentation, esophagoscopy,barium esophagogram, and manometry) who received balloon dilation were followed up at regular intervals in person or by phone interview. Remission was assessed by a structured interview and a previous symptoms score.The median dysphagia-free duration was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis.RESULTS: Symptoms were dysphagia (n = 39, 100%),regurgitation (n =23, 58.7%), chest pain (n = 4, 10.2%),and weight loss (n = 26, 66.6%). A total of 74 dilations were performed in 39 patients; 13 patients (28%) underwent a single dilation, 17 patients (48.7%) required a second procedure within a median of 26.7 mo (range 5-97 mo), and 9 patients (23.3%) underwent a third procedure within a median of 47.8 mo (range 37-120 mo). Post-dilation lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, assessed in 35 patients, has decreased from a baseline of 35.8±10.4-10.0±7.1 mmHg after the procedure. The median follow-up period was 9.3 years (range 0.5-15 years). The dysphagiafree duration by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 78%, 61%and 58.3% after 5, 10 and 15 years respectively.CONCLUSION: Balloon dilation is a safe and effective treatment for primary achalasia. Post-dilation LES pressure estimation may be useful in assessing response.

  4. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.].

  5. Pancreatic Heterotopia: Masquerading as Malignancy - A 15-Year Single Institutional Surgicalpathology Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Pancreatic heterotopia, the presence of pancreatic tissue anywhere outside of the anatomical pancreas, is rare and typically an incidental finding. This manuscript reports two index cases of unusual presentations of pancreatic heterotopia masquerading as malignant lesions. Case reports Case #1: Fifty-five year-old female with right upper quadrant pain was found to have a retroperitoneal tumor between the right kidney and liver. Case #2: Thirty-eight-year-old female with a 20-year history of right upper quadrant pain and pancreatitis was found to have an incidental jejunal mass. An intraoperative frozen section was ordered on these two patients for suspected malignancy. Frozen section analysis in both cases showed the presence of benign glandular tissue admixed with ducts in a typical lobular fashion consistent with benign pancreatic tissue, confirming pancreatic heterotopia. The two index cases were investigated and analyzed in detail with relevant review of the literature as available in PubMed and Medline. A 15-year retrospective computer-based histopathological surgical review was conducted in our laboratory and the results were analyzed in the context of evidence-based literature of pancreatic heterotopias. 153 pancreatic pathologies were identified of which the commonest lesion was adenocarcinoma (58.8% followed by pancreatic heterotopia (10.5%, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (7.2% and pancreatitis (7.2%. Conclusions Pancreatic heterotopia is rare and most often an incidental finding; however, occasionally patients may present with a mass suggestive of malignancy, leading to clinical diagnostic dilemmas. Awareness of this uncommon lesion is of particular importance at intraoperative frozen section analysis for lesions in atypical locations.

  6. Acute Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A 15-Year Experience with 41 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sakeena J; Mitzner, Ron; Kunchala, Sudhir; Roland, Lauren; McGinn, Johnathan D

    2016-04-01

    To describe a 15-year single-institution experience of 41 cases of acute invasive fungal sinusitis (AIFRS), identify clinical indicators predictive of AIFRS, and discuss our approach to these high-acuity patients. Case series with chart review. Tertiary referral center; The Pennsylvania State University Hershey Medical Center. A retrospective review was performed for AIFRS consultations between September 1999 and March 2014. Variables reviewed included underlying condition, presenting symptoms, absolute neutrophil count, disease extent on examination, radiographic findings, medical treatment, biopsy results, surgical treatment, and outcomes. Univariate analysis was performed to determine variables significantly associated with AIFRS. Outcome measures were assessed and patient assessment algorithm developed. Of 131 patients evaluated, 41 were diagnosed with AIFRS; 92.7% had an underlying hematologic malignancy. Disease predictive variables included absolute neutrophil count <500/μL (P < .0001; sensitivity = 78%), mucosal abnormalities of middle turbinate (P < .0001; specificity = 88%) and septum (P < .0001; specificity = 97%), and specifically, necrosis of the middle turbinate (P < .0001; specificity = 97%). Twenty-five AIFRS patients (61%) survived until discharge; 25% (n = 10) expired secondary to AIFRS infection explicitly. This series represents one of the largest single-institution experiences of AIFRS published to date. Timely diagnosis is necessary to improve patient outcomes and limit morbidity. Maintaining a high index of suspicion in at-risk patient populations, followed by prompt evaluation and management, is crucial in suspected AIFRS. The presence or absence of certain findings appear to correlate with biopsy results and may aid in appropriately gauging clinical suspicion for the presence of AIFRS. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  7. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L'Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  8. Probing the applicability of autotransporter based surface display with the EstA autotransporter of Pseudomonas stutzeri A15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolay Toon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autotransporters represent a widespread family of secreted proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. Their seemingly easy secretion mechanism and modular structure make them interesting candidates for cell surface display of heterologous proteins. The most widely applied host organism for this purpose is Escherichia coli. Pseudomonas stutzeri A15 is an interesting candidate host for environmentally relevant biotechnological applications. With the recently characterized P. stutzeri A15 EstA autotransporter at hand, all tools for developing a surface display system for environmental use are available. More general, this system could serve as a case-study to test the broad applicability of autotransporter based surface display. Results Based on the P. stutzeri A15 EstA autotransporter β-domain, a surface display expression module was constructed for use in P. stutzeri A15. Proof of concept of this module was presented by successful surface display of the original EstA passenger domain, which retained its full esterase activity. Almost all of the tested heterologous passenger domains however were not exposed at the cell surface of P. stutzeri A15, as assessed by whole cell proteinase K treatment. Only for a beta-lactamase protein, cell surface display in P. stutzeri A15 was comparable to presentation of the original EstA passenger domain. Development of expression modules based on the full-length EstA autotransporter did not resolve these problems. Conclusions Since only one of the tested heterologous passenger proteins could be displayed at the cell surface of P. stutzeri A15 to a notable extent, our results indicate that the EstA autotransporter cannot be regarded as a broad spectrum cell surface display system in P. stutzeri A15.

  9. Cytotoxic Compounds from Brucea mollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Hung Thanh TUNG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1, isobruceine B (2, 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3, bruceolline F (4, niloticine (5, octatriacontan-1-ol (6, bombiprenone (7, α-tocopherol (8, inosine (9, and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10, were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (human carcinoma of the mouth, LU-1 (human lung adenocarcinoma, LNCaP (human prostate adeno-carcinoma, and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cancer cell lines. Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.39, 0.40, 0.34, and 0.23 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 5 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values around 1–4 μg/mL. Compounds 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (3 and niloticine (5 have been discovered for the first time from the Brucea genus.

  10. Current Research on Antiepileptic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xi Wei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy affects about 1% of the world’s population. Due to the fact all antiepileptic drugs (AEDs have some undesirable side effects and about 30% of epileptic patients are not seizure-free with the existing AEDs, there is still an urgent need for the development of more effective and safer AEDs. Based on our research work on antiepileptic compounds and other references in recent years, this review covers the reported work on antiepileptic compounds which are classified according to their structures. This review summarized 244 significant anticonvulsant compounds which are classified by functional groups according to the animal model data, although there are some limitations in the data. This review highlights the properties of new compounds endowed with promising antiepileptic properties, which may be proven to be more effective and selective, and possibly free of unwanted side effects. The reviewed compounds represent an interesting possibility to overcome refractory seizures and to reduce the percentage of patients with a poor response to drug therapy.

  11. Associative asymmetry of compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Boulton, Kathy L; Gagné, Christina L

    2014-07-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A →?) and backward (?← B) cued recall. This was viewed as arguing against the independent-associations hypothesis and in favor of the hypothesis that associations are remembered as holistic units. Here we test the Holistic Representation hypothesis further by examining cued recall of compound words. If we suppose preexisting words are more unitized than novel associations, the Holistic Representation hypothesis predicts compound words (e.g., ROSE BUD) will have a higher forward-backward correlation than novel compounds (e.g., BRIEF TAX). We report the opposite finding: Compound words, as well as noncompound words, exhibited less associative symmetry than novel compounds. This challenges the Holistic Representation account of associative symmetry. Moreover, preexperimental associates (positional family size) influenced associative symmetry-but asymmetrically: Increasing family size of the last constituent increasing decoupled forward and backward recall, but family size of the 1st constituent had no such effect. In short, highly practiced, meaningful associations exhibit associative asymmetry, suggesting associative symmetry is not diagnostic of holistic representations but, rather, is a characteristic of ad hoc associations. With additional learning, symmetric associations may be replaced by directional, independently modifiable associations as verbal associations become embedded within a rich knowledge structure.

  12. Antitumor Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Salas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal peptides and others, and they exert antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis through DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase I or II inhibition, mitochondria permeabilization, inhibition of key enzymes involved in signal transduction like proteases, or cellular metabolism and in some cases by inhibiting tumor-induced angiogenesis. Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last years for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological lead compounds.

  13. [Triterpene compounds from Cirsium setosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Sun, Zheng; Shang, Xiaoya; Li, Jinjie; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Jie

    2012-04-01

    To investigate chemical constituents contained in cytotoxic petroleum ether extractive fractions from ethanol extracts of Cirsium setosum. The constituents were separated and purified by a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. Structures of the isolates were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR and MS methods. The compound structures were also determined by reference to literature. Twelve compounds were separated from the petroleum ether fraction of ethanolic extract and elucidated as lupenyl acetate (1), lupeol (2), lupenone (3), beta-amyrin (4), psi-taraxasterol (5), psi-taraxasteryl acetate (6), taraxasteryl acetate (7), marsformoxide B (8), alpha-amyrenone (9), beta-amyrenone (10), taraxasterone (11) and psi-taraxasterone (12). Of them, compounds 3, 5, 7-12 were separated from this genus for the first time.

  14. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria; A 15 Years Histopathologic Review (2000-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukekwe, FI; Olusina, DB; Banjo, AAF; Akinde, OR; Nzegwu, MA; Okafor, OC; Ocheni, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic has brought about a resurgence in tuberculosis (TB), especially in developing countries. Previous studies on TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) in South-Eastern Nigeria were done before the advent of the HIV pandemic making a review pertinent. Aim: To evaluate the role of TBLN as a cause of superficial lymphadenopathy in the post-HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) era of South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 15 years (2000-2014) retrospective review of all superficial lymph node biopsies (SLNBs) received at the Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla Enugu, Nigeria. Results: One hundred and seventy-two cases of TBLN were identified in this study constituting 14.6% (172/1,180) of SLNBs received at our Hospital's Morbid Anatomy Department during the 15 years period under review. Twenty-eight cases of TBLN were clinically screened for HIV, 23 of which tested positive, representing 82.1% (23/28) of clinically screened cases. Acid fast bacilli demonstration was positive in 15.1% (26/172) of cases using Ziehl-Neelsen stain. 48.8% (84/172) of TBLN cases were males, and 51.2% (88/172) were females with most (22) cases received in 2012 and least (5) cases in 2000. Most TBLN occurred in the 21-25 years age group with a total of 21.5% (37/172) of cases and a male to female ratio of 1:1.5 The most common biopsy site for TBLN was the cervical group followed by the axillary and inguinal groups with 73.8% (127/172), 14% (24/172), and 4.7% (8/172) of cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a remarkable decline in the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria indicating a change in trend from the pre- to the post-HIV/AIDS era with slightly more females now presenting with TBLN and most TB lymphadenitis patients now presenting with associated HIV/AIDS disease. There is an urgent need to provide modern diagnostic facilities in our medical

  15. en niños de 6 a 15 meses de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Mariel Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la incidencia del tipo de vínculo madre / hijo en el desarrollo de la inteligencia sensoriomotriz. La muestra estuvo integrada por 54 díadas de madre / bebé, argentinas con bebés de ambos sexos. Eran pacientes del Centro de Salud Eva Perón (Strobel, Prov. de Entre Ríos, del Sanatorio Adventista del Plata (Libertador San Martín, Prov. de Entre Ríos y miembros de la Iglesia Adventista (San Justo, Prov. de Buenos Aires. Se aplicaron los siguientes instrumentos: (a Escala Argentina de Inteligencia Sensorio-Motriz (de 6 meses a 2 años (Oiberman, Mansilla & Orellana, 2002, (b Perfil de la Observación del Vínculo Madre-Bebé (de 0 a 6 meses de Oiberman (2001 y (c Perfil de la Observación del Vínculo Madre-Bebé (de 7 a 15 meses de Oiberman (2001. Se estudiaron las siguientes variables: tiempo de lactancia, tiempo de gestación, orden de nacimiento, género, ocupación y nivel de instrucción de las madres. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el percentil de inteligencia del bebé, en función del vínculo madre / hijo. Se observó una influencia altamente significativa del tiempo de gestación en el tipo de vínculo y una influencia significativa del nivel de instrucción de la mamá en el vínculo madre / bebé. El orden de nacimiento, la lactancia, el género y la ocupación de la mamá no influirían significativamente en el vínculo madre / hijo. Se encontró una influencia altamente significativa del tiempo de gestación en la inteligencia de los bebés y una influencia significativa del tiempo de lactancia en la inteligencia sensoriomotriz. El género, orden de nacimiento, nivel de instrucción y ocupación de la mamá no influirían significativamente en la inteligencia del bebé.

  16. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Truchon

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193 and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO. Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance. For most species (75%, n = 6 species, a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata. This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively. This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a

  17. Injuries to Professional and Amateur Kickboxing Contestants: A 15-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lystad, Reidar P

    2015-11-01

    Kickboxing is a group of full-contact combat sports that allows both kicking and punching from a standing position. Despite its popularity, there is a scarcity of published data elucidating the injury epidemiology in kickboxing. To determine the injury incidence, describe the injury pattern, and identify potential risk factors for injury in kickboxing. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data describing fight outcomes and injuries sustained during professional and amateur kickboxing contests over a 15-year period were obtained from the official records of the Nevada Athletic Commission, United States. Injury incidence rates and rate ratios were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) and per 1000 minutes of exposure. The injury pattern was described using frequencies and proportions of injuries by anatomic region and type of injury. In addition, Poisson mixed-effects generalized linear modeling was used to examine the multivariate relationships between injury incidence rates and potential risk factors. The sample consisted of 481 unique fighters competing across 57 events, 976 AEs, 9562 minutes of exposure, and 380 injuries. The mean ± SD age of the fighters was 29.0 ± 5.3 years (range, 15-48 years). The overall injury incidence rates were 390.1 injuries (95% CI, 351.9-431.4) per 1000 AEs and 39.7 injuries (95% CI, 35.8-43.9) per 1000 minutes of exposure. The most commonly injured anatomic regions were the head (57.8%) and lower extremity (26.1%), while the most common types of injury were laceration (70.6%) and fracture (20.6%). Professional fighters were 2.5 times more likely to get injured compared with amateurs (rate ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.39-4.55), while defeated fighters were 3.5 times more likely to get injured compared with winners (rate ratio, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.73-4.44). Injuries are frequent and often significant in kickboxing, and better injury surveillance is strongly recommended. The scarcity of good

  18. Electronic Configuration of Yb Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmerman, W.M.; Szotek, Z. [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Svane, A. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Strange, P. [Physics Department, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Winter, H. [INFP, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Delin, A.; Johansson, B.; Eriksson, O.; Fast, L. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, University of Uppsala, Box 530, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Wills, J.M. [Center of Materials Science and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The total energy differences between divalent and trivalent configurations of Yb ions in a number of Yb compounds are studied. Two different band theoretical methods, which differ in the treatment of the localized f electrons, are used. The results show that in all Yb compounds the valence energy differences are equal to the energy needed to localize an f electron. These valence energy differences correlate with the number of f electrons hybridizing with the conduction bands in the trivalent configuration. For divalent YbS, the pressure induced f -electron delocalization implies an intermediate valency, as also indicated by experiment. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }

  19. Antiprotozoal compounds from Asparagus africanus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oketch-Rabah, H A; Dossaji, S F; Christensen, S B

    1997-01-01

    Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl)-bisphenol.......Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl...

  20. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  1. Superconductivity and crystal and electronic structures in hydrogenated and disordered Nb3Ge and Nb3Sn layers with A15 structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölscher, C.; Saemann-Ischenko, G.

    1985-08-01

    Superconducting and transport properties of Nb3Ge and Nb3Sn layers have been varied over a wide range by hydrogenation, ion irradiation, and annealing. After hydrogenation, both compounds remain in the A15 structure and no effects of hydride precipitations at low temperatures could be observed. At high ion-irradiation doses Nb3Ge becomes amorphous, but Nb3Sn remains in the A15 structure, although Tc behaves similarly. The long-range order parameter SA and the mean displacement amplitude u2>1/2 were determined for Nb3Sn with x-ray diffraction. Distinct differences between the irradiation- and annealing-induced correlations of Tc versus Sa, Tc versus u2>, and Tc versus lattice parameter were observed. This indicates the influence of topological short-range order. The correlations of Tc versus residual resistivity and Tc versus the temperature derivative of the upper critical field at Tc are distinctly different for hydrogenated and irradiated Nb3Sn and Nb3Ge, but the derived correlations of Tc versus the coefficient of the electronic specific heat are very similar. The results are interpreted by a dominant influence of the Γ12 band on high Tc. The measurements of the Hall constant RH indicate a filling of steep electronic bands as a result of hydrogenation. Irradiation has a similar influence as thermal-induced disorder on RH. A maximum in the temperature dependence of RH indicates a martensitic transformation of Nb3Sn at 50-55 K, which is unchanged in slightly hydrogenated samples with higher Tc but vanishes in irradiated samples.

  2. Persistence of artificial sweeteners in a 15-year-old septic system plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 μS/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 μg/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely

  3. Organophosphorus Compounds in Organic Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, Muhammad Anwar; Orthaber, Andreas

    2016-07-25

    This Minireview describes recent advances of organophosphorus compounds as opto-electronic materials in the field of organic electronics. The progress of (hetero-) phospholes, unsaturated phosphanes, and trivalent and pentavalent phosphanes since 2010 is covered. The described applications of organophosphorus materials range from single molecule sensors, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, to polymeric materials for organic photovoltaic applications.

  4. Students' Categorizations of Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John

    2008-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…

  5. Halogenated compounds from marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

    2010-08-09

    Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds.

  6. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  7. Moessbauer spectroscopy in neptunium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Tadahiro; Nakada, Masami; Masaki, Nobuyuki; Saeki, Masakatsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Moessbauer effects are observable in seven elements of actinides from {sup 232}Th to {sup 247}Cm and Moesbauer spectra have been investigated mainly with {sup 237}Np and {sup 238}U for the reasons of availability and cost of materials. This report describes the fundamental characteristics of Moessbauer spectra of {sup 237}Np and the correlation between the isomer shift and the coordination number of Np(V) compounds. The isomer shifts of Np(V) compounds had a tendency to increase as an increase of coordination number and the isomer shifts of Np(V) compounds showed broad distribution as well as those of Np(VI) but {delta} values of the compounds with the same coordination number were distributed in a narrow range. The {delta} values of Np(VI) complexes with O{sub x} donor set suggest that the Np atom in its hydroxide (NpO{sub 2}(OH){center_dot}4H{sub 2}O)might have pentagonal bipyramidal structure and at least, pentagonal and hexagonal bipyramidal structures might coexist in its acetate and benzoate. Really, such coexistence has been demonstrated in its nitrate, (NpO{sub 2}){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O. (M.N.)

  8. Bacterial degradation of fluorinated compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Maria Isabel Martins

    2007-01-01

    Fluorine was produced for the first time by Henri Moissan in 1886, for which he received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1906. The unique properties of fluorine have led to the development of fluorine chemistry and numerous synthetic fluorinated compounds have been prepared and tested for different

  9. Assimilation of Unusual Carbon Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Yeast taxa traditionally are distinguished by growth tests on several sugars and organic acids. During the last decades it became apparent that many yeast species assimilate a much greater variety of naturally occurring carbon compounds as sole source of carbon and energy. These abilities are indica

  10. Thermal Decomposition of Dicyclopentadienylarylvanadium Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, C.P.; Jelsma, A.; Teuben, J.H.; Liefde Meijer, H.J. de

    1977-01-01

    The thermolysis of compounds of the type Cp2VR (R = aryl) in the solid state has been studied. A distinct increase in thermal stability is observed upon substitution of the ortho-position of the aryl group. Thermal decomposition occurs with formation of RH, Cp2V, a vanadocene homologue with the

  11. Unpacking Noun-Noun Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Zlatev, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    In two complementary experiments we took an integrated approach to a set of tightly interwoven, yet rarely combined questions concerning the spontaneous interpretation of novel (unfamiliar) noun-noun compounds (NNCs) when encountered in isolation, and possible (re)interpretations of novel as well...

  12. Compounding errors in 2 dogs receiving anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Sandra E; Walker, Susan; Adams, Cathy

    2012-04-01

    Two cases that involve drug compounding errors are described. One dog exhibited increased seizure activity due to a compounded, flavored phenobarbital solution that deteriorated before the expiration date provided by the compounder. The other dog developed clinical signs of hyperkalemia and bromine toxicity following a 5-fold compounding error in the concentration of potassium bromide (KBr).

  13. A Review of the Properties of Nb3Sn and Their Variation with A15Composition, Morphology and Strain State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godeke, Arno

    2006-03-27

    Significant efforts can be found throughout the literature to optimize the current carrying capacity of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting wires. The achievable transport current density in wires depends on the A15 composition, morphology and strain state. The A15 sections in wires contain, due to compositional inhomogeneities resulting from solid state diffusion A15 formation reactions, a distribution of superconducting properties. The A15 grain size can be different from wire to wire and is also not necessarily homogeneous across the A15 regions. Strain is always present in composite wires, and the strain state changes as a result of thermal contraction differences and Lorentz forces in magnet systems. To optimize the transport properties it is thus required to identify how composition, grain size and strain state influence the superconducting properties. This is not accurately possible in inhomogeneous and spatially complex systems such as wires. This article therefore gives an overview of the available literature on simplified, well defined(quasi--)homogeneous laboratory samples. After more than 50 years of research on superconductivity in Nb{sub 3}Sn, a significant amount of results are available, but these are scattered over a multitude of publications. Two reviews exist on the basic properties of A15 materials in general, but no specific review for Nb{sub 3}Sn is available. This article is intended to provide such an overview. It starts with a basic description of the Niobium--Tin intermetallic. After this it maps the influence of Sn content on the electron--phonon interaction strength and on the field-temperature phase boundary. The literature on the influence of Cu, Ti and Ta additions will then be briefly summarized.This is followed by a review on the effects of grain size and strain. The article is concluded with a summary of the main results.

  14. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  15. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  16. Microstructural degradation in compound tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, J.; Auerkari, P. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In order to quantify microstructural degradation at high temperatures, samples of SA 210 / AISI 304 L compound tube material were annealed in the temperature range 540-720 deg C for 1 to 1 000 hours. The hardness of the annealed material was measured and the micro structure of the samples was investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Microstructural degradation was characterised by the carbide structure in the ferritic-pearlitic base material and by the depth of decarburised and carburised zones of the compound tube interface. The observed changes were quantified in terms of their time and temperature dependence and diffusion coefficients of the process. The results can be used in estimating the extent of thermal exposure of high-temperature components after long-term service or after incidences of overheating. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  17. Polymer-solvent molecular compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Guenet, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Crystallisable polymers represent a large share of the polymers used for manufacturing a wide variety of objects, and consequently have received continuous attention from scientists these past 60 years. Molecular compounds from crystallisable polymers, particularly from synthetic polymers, are receiving growing interest due to their potential application in the making of new materials such as multiporous membranes capable of capturing large particles as well as small pollutant molecules. The present book gives a detailed description of these promising systems. The first chapter

  18. Neoclassical compounds and language registers

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, Marine

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Neoclassical compounds are special in French morphology. With regard to their final elements, they are at the border of composition and derivation. If originally they were used to designate scientific or technical concepts, today they are commonly used in everyday language. In this paper, we will see how these different language registers come into play in the construction of these words containing neoclassical elements, both from a formal and from a semantic point of ...

  19. Triterpenes as potentially cytotoxic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzik, Malwina; Korzonek-Szlacheta, Ilona; Król, Wojciech

    2015-01-19

    Triterpenes are compounds of natural origin, which have numerously biological activities: anti-cancer properties, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal. These substances can be isolated from plants, animals or fungi. Nowadays, when neoplasms are main cause of death, triterpenes can become an alternative method for treating cancer because of their cytotoxic properties and chemopreventive activities.

  20. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another.

  1. Studying the Propensity of Compounds to Supersaturate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmelund, Henrik; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Plum, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    Supersaturating drug delivery systems can enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drug compounds. Supersaturation of such compounds has been studied in many different ways; however, a more standardized method is required. The rationale of choosing suitable concentrations of supersatura......Supersaturating drug delivery systems can enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drug compounds. Supersaturation of such compounds has been studied in many different ways; however, a more standardized method is required. The rationale of choosing suitable concentrations...... of supersaturation to study has previously been very inconsistent. This makes comparisons between studies and compounds difficult, as the propensity of compounds to supersaturate varies greatly. This study presents a standardized method to study the supersaturation of drug compounds. The method allows, both......, for a ranking of compounds according to their supersaturation propensity and the effectiveness of precipitation inhibitors. The time-concentration profile of supersaturation and precipitation was studied in situ for 4 different concentrations for 6 model compounds (albendazole, aprepitant, danazol, felodipine...

  2. Primary internal carotid artery aneurysm in a 15-year-old male: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Sarac, Timur; Lorenz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms are a rare entity in the adult population. Very little information is known in the pediatric population. We present a case of a 15-year-old male with an isolated internal carotid artery aneurysm and a review of the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  4. Design Concept and Parameters of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ Dipole Demonstrator for a 100 TEV Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab; Andreev, N. [Fermilab; Barzi, E. [Fermilab; Kashikhin, V. V. [Fermilab; Novitski, I. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    FNAL has started the development of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator for a 100 TeV scale hadron collider. This paper describes the design concept and parameters of the 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator. The dipole magnetic, mechanical and quench protection concept and parameters are presented and discussed.

  5. Can a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J. ); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether outcomes based on stopwatch time and power output (PO) over a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint test can be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, by studying their relationship with outcomes on a Wingate-based 30s-wheelchair ergometer sprint (WAnT)

  6. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  7. Investigations on organogermanium compounds XII. Reactions of trialkylgermylalkalimetal compounds in hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPT) with some inorganic and organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, E.J.; Noltes, J.G.

    1971-01-01

    Trialkylgermyl alkali metal compounds in HMPT have been found to be highly reactive nucleophiles. Reactions with some inorganic and organic compounds, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic and orgaanic halides, aldehydes, ketones, epoxides and lactones are described. Several new

  8. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  9. Nitrogen Compounds in Radiation Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, H.E. [NNL Sellafield (United Kingdom); Dey, G.R. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vaudey, C.E.; Peaucelle, C. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon - IPNL, 69 - Lyon (France); Boucher, J.L. [Lab. de Chimie et Biochimie Pharmacologiques et Toxicologiques, UMR 8601 CNRS 45 rue des Saints Peres, 75270 Paris cedex 06, Univ Paris 5, 75 (France); Toulhoat, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA/DEN, Centre de Saclay (France); Bererd, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); IUT Departement Chimie, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (France); Koppenol, W.H. [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Janata, E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie, Solar Energy Research, Berlin (Germany); Dauvois, V.; Durand, D.; Legand, S.; Roujou, J.L.; Doizi, D.; Dannoux, A.; Lamouroux, C. [Laboratoire de Speciation des Radionucleides et des Molecules, DEN/DPC/Service d' Etude du Comportement des Radionucleides, CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    Water radiolysis in presence of N{sub 2} is probably the topic the most controversy in the field of water radiolysis. It still exists a strong discrepancy between the different reports of ammonia formation by water radiolysis in presence of N{sub 2} and moreover in absence of oxygen there is no agreement on the formation or not of nitrogen oxide like NO{sub 2}- and NO{sub 3}-. These discrepancies come from multiple sources: - the complexity of the reaction mechanisms where nitrogen is involved - the experimental difficulties - and, the irradiation conditions. The aim of the workshop is to capitalize the knowledge needed to go further in simulations and understanding the problems caused (or not) by the presence of nitrogen / water in the environment of radioactive materials. Implications are evident in terms of corrosion, understanding of biological systems and atmospheric chemistry under radiation. Topics covered include experimental and theoretical approaches, application and fundamental researches: - Nitrate and Ammonia in radiation chemistry in nuclear cycle; - NOx in biological systems and atmospheric chemistry; - Formation of Nitrogen compounds in Nuclear installations; - Nitrogen in future power plant projects (Gen4, ITER...) and large particle accelerators. This document gathers the transparencies available for 7 of the presentations given at this workshop. These are: - H.E SIMS: 'Radiation Chemistry of Nitrogen Compounds in Nuclear Power Plant'; - G.R. DEY: 'Nitrogen Compounds Formation in the Radiolysis of Aqueous Solutions'; - C.E. VAUDEY et al.: 'Radiolytic corrosion of nuclear graphite studied with the dedicated gas irradiation cell of IPNL'; - J.L. BOUCHER: 'Roles and biosynthesis of NO in eukaryotes and prokaryotes'; - W.H. KOPPENOL: 'Chemistry of NOx'; - E. JANATA: 'Yield of OH in N{sub 2}O saturated aqueous solution'; - V. DAUVOIS: 'Analytical strategy for the study of radiolysis gases'

  10. Bacterial degradation of detergent compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, R A; Harrison, A P

    1972-10-01

    A survey for surfactant degradation among aerobic bacteria has been undertaken. Tests have been made in peptone medium where such a degradation, if it occurs, will be gratuitous. Tallow-alkyl-sulfate, alkyl-ethoxylate-sulfate, and linear-alkyl-benzene-sulfonate were used. Forty-five strains of 34 species in 19 genera degrade one or more of these detergent compounds. With some species, the surfactant inhibits degradation without inhibiting growth, whereas with one species slight degradation took place even at a toxic concentration of surfactant.

  11. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  12. Lipid encapsulated phenolic compounds by fluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound present in grain crops and lignocellulose biomass, was encapsulated with saturated triglycerides using a laboratory fluidizer. Stability of t...

  13. Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Soong Jung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds have been used to develop drugs for many decades. Vast diversities and minimum side effects make natural compounds a good source for drug development. However, the composition and concentrations of natural compounds can vary. Despite this inconsistency, half of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. Therefore, it is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of new pharmaceuticals. This review provides comprehensive information and analysis on natural compounds from plants (phytogenic compounds that may serve as anti-obesity and/or anti-diabetes therapeutics. Our growing understanding and further exploration of the mechanisms of action of the phytogenic compounds may afford opportunities for development of therapeutic interventions in metabolic diseases.

  14. Formation of Reissert compound of bisbenzimidazole

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A Reissert compound of bisbenzimidazole can be formed by first reacting benzimidazole with an aliphatic diacid chloride to form bisbenzimidazole and then reacting the bisbenzimidazole with an aliphatic acid chloride and cyanide to form the Reissert compound thereof.

  15. SELKIRK'S THEORY OF VERBAL COMPOUNDING: A CRITICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English verbal compounds are "endocentric adjective or noun compounds whose head ... from phrase structure and does not simply constitute the "lower" portion ..... to V-ing' can, pragmatically, be made somewhat more specific, and approach.

  16. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines.

  17. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva; Dulce Libna Ambriz-Pérez; Nayely Leyva-López; Ramón Ignacio Castillo-López; José Basilio Heredia

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowled...

  18. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Copp, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: RD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  19. Prebiotic Evolution of Nitrogen Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1999-01-01

    Support from this four year grant has funded our research on two general problems. One involves attempts to model the abiotic formation of simple source compounds for functional biomolecules, their concentration from dilute state in the hydrosphere and, in several cases, surface induced reactions to form precursor monomers for bioactive end products (refs. 1-5). Because of the pervasiveness and antiquity of phosphate based biochemistry and the catalytic activity of RNA we have exploring the hypothesis of an RNA World as an early stage in the emergence of life. This concept is now rather generally considered, but has been questioned due to the earlier lack of an experimentally demonstrated successful scheme for the spontaneous formation of ribose phosphate, the key backbone molecule in RNA. That impediment has now been removed. This has been achieved by demonstrating probable sources of activated (condensed) highly soluble and strongly sorbed phosphates in nature (Refs. 1,2) and effective condensation of aldehyde phosphates to form ribose phosphate in high yield (ref.6), thereby placing the RNA World concept on a somewhat safer experimental footing. Like all work in this field these experiments are oversimplifications that largely ignore competing side reactions with other compounds expected to be present. None the less our choice of experimental conditions aim at selective processes that eliminate interfering reactions. We have also sought to narrow the credibility gap by simulating geophysically and geochemically plausible conditions surrounding the putative prebiotic reactions.

  20. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Robert P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark, E-mail: mark.ellerby@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC{sub 6} and YbC{sub 6} in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  1. The usability of a 15-gene hypoxia classifier as a universal hypoxia profile in various cancer cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Knudsen, Anders Bisgård; Wittrup, Catja Foged

    2015-01-01

    genes, with BNIP3 not being upregulated at hypoxic conditions in 3 out of 6 colon cancer cell lines, and ALDOA in OE21 and FAM162A and SLC2A1 in SW116 only showing limited hypoxia induction. Furthermore, in the esophagus cell lines, the normoxic and hypoxic expression levels of LOX and BNIP3 were below......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A 15-gene hypoxia profile has previously demonstrated to have both prognostic and predictive impact for hypoxic modification in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. This gene expression profile may also have a prognostic value in other histological cancer types...... the tissue type dependency of hypoxia induced genes included in a 15-gene hypoxic profile in carcinoma cell lines from prostate, colon, and esophagus cancer, and demonstrated that in vitro, with minor fluctuations, the genes in the hypoxic profile are hypoxia inducible, and the hypoxia profile may...

  2. A multi-scale point of view on the structure-property relationships of A15 superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanlong Ding; Min Pan; Shuiquan Deng; Yong Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Nb3Sn and other A15 members have been widely applied in nuclear power, nuclear magnetic reso-nance, and high-energy particle accelerators for their high critical current density (Jc) and upper critical field (Bc2). There have been comprehensive and intensive studies on the applications, the fundamental lattice dynamic and electronic properties, etc., of A15 superconductors. Various reviews on the preparations, structures, and properties have already been written in the last few years. Nevertheless, on account of the large amount of existing facts and views, a coherent view on the relations between the structures and properties has not appeared to unify the facts. This article sketches a multi-scale point of view on the relations between the multi-scale structures and the corresponding properties.

  3. When to Compound Medications for Veterinary Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Lauren Eichstadt

    2017-01-01

    This article serves as a brief discussion about some of the restrictions applicable to compounding medications for veterinary patients based on U. S. Food and Drug Administration compliance policy guidelines and provides a brief summary of when it is appropriate to compound medications for veterinary patients. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  4. Five new bioactive compounds from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kun; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Li, Bao-Ming; Kang, Jie; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2015-05-01

    Five new bioactive compounds, chenopodiumamines A-D (1-4) and chenopodiumoside A (5), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic means (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compounds 1-3 had moderate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  5. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  6. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-19

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  7. Low-molecular compounds of erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Sorochan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and free amino acids levels in rats’ blood plasma and erythrocytes hemolysate under carcinoma Geuren Т8 development as well as after introduction of Rhenium (III and сys-Platinum compounds were studied. The complex Rhenium (III compounds with organic ligands act as antioxidant and normalize the concentration of low-molecular compounds in erythrocytes under the carcinogenesis.

  8. A CASE OF COMPOUND MAXILLARY ODONTOMA AND MANDIBULAR HYPODONTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Cholakova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are formations which are still classified as benign tumors by the World Health Organization. They are lesions on any odontogenic tissue – enamel, cement and dentin, which are affected in different proportions and degree. We present a case of compound odontoma on upper jaw, on a 15 year-old girl, causing retention of a permanent canine tooth. After the extirpation 16 tooth-like structures were uncovered. The mandible was diagnosed with hypodontia of both 2nd premolars. Patient’s history showed that there was a trauma in the area of the upper jaw at younger age. In this article we will present the clinical and radiographic examination, the stages of the complex surgical-orthodontic treatment and a discussion of the etiology of the diagnosis, complications and the treatment itself.

  9. A New Compound from Swertia cincta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-xing Liu; Qian Tian; Cui Yang; Hai-yan Wu; Shang-xiu Li; Gan-peng Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the whole plant of Swertia cincta.Methods The chemical constituents were purified by chromatographic methods such as silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20.The structures of these compounds were elucidated by MS,IR,and NMR analyses.Results Two compounds were isolated from S.cincta.Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound named swercinctlactone A.Compound 2 is identified as (±)-gentiolactone and its configuration is confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and optical specific rotation.

  10. Highly sweet compounds of plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Cheol; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2002-12-01

    The demand for new alternative "low calorie" sweeteners for dietetic and diabetic purposes has increased worldwide. Although the currently developed and commercially used highly sweet sucrose substitutes are mostly synthetic compounds, the search for such compounds from natural sources is continuing. As of mid-2002, over 100 plant-derived sweet compounds of 20 major structural types had been reported, and were isolated from more than 25 different families of green plants. Several of these highly sweet natural products are marketed as sweeteners or flavoring agents in some countries as pure compounds, compound mixtures, or refined extracts. These highly sweet natural substances are reviewed herein.

  11. Use of a compound of formula (I) to manufacture a medicament for treating gaucher's disease, pharmaceutical composition, a compound of formula (IB) and method for obtaining said compound

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Palacin, Pilar; Moya García, Aurelio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Pocovi Mieras, Miguel; Giraldo, Pilar; Ortiz-Mellet, Carmen; García Fernández, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Use of a compound of formula (I) to manufacture a medicament for treating Gaucher's disease in a human subject, a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (I), compounds of formula (Ib) and method for obtaining said compounds.

  12. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-10

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to drug residues. As beneficial as compounded medical therapies may be to animal patients, these therapies are not without risks, and serious adverse events may occur from poor quality compounds or excipients that are uniquely toxic when administered to a given species. Other challenges in extemporaneous compounding for animals include significant regulatory variation across the global veterinary community, a relative lack of validated compounding formulas for use in animals, and poor adherence by compounders to established compounding standards. The information presented in this article is intended to provide an overview of the current landscape of compounding for animals; a discussion on associated benefits, risks, and challenges; and resources to aid compounders in preparing animal compounds of the highest possible quality.

  13. Promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In the context of polypharmacology, compound promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets. To study promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds in detail, nearly 1 million compounds and more than 5.2 million activity records were analyzed. Compound sets were assembled by applying different data confidence criteria and selecting compounds with activity histories over many years. On the basis of release dates, compounds and activity records were organized on a time course, which ultimately enabled monitoring data growth and promiscuity progression over nearly 40 years, beginning in 1976. Surprisingly low degrees of promiscuity were consistently detected for all compound sets and there were only small increases in promiscuity over time. In fact, most compounds had a constant degree of promiscuity, including compounds with an activity history of 10 or 20 years. Moreover, during periods of massive data growth, beginning in 2007, promiscuity degrees also remained constant or displayed only minor increases, depending on the activity data confidence levels. Considering high-confidence data, bioactive compounds currently interact with 1.5 targets on average, regardless of their origins, and display essentially constant degrees of promiscuity over time. Taken together, our findings provide expectation values for promiscuity progression and magnitudes among bioactive compounds as activity data further grow.

  14. New permanent magnets; manganese compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coey, J M D

    2014-02-12

    The exponential growth of maximum energy product that prevailed in the 20th century has stalled, leaving a market dominated by two permanent magnet materials, Nd2Fe14B and Ba(Sr)Fe12O19, for which the maximum theoretical energy products differ by an order of magnitude (515 kJ m(-3) and 45 kJ m(-3), respectively). Rather than seeking to improve on optimized Nd-Fe-B, it is suggested that some research efforts should be devoted to developing appropriately priced alternatives with energy products in the range 100-300 kJ m(-3). The prospects for Mn-based hard magnetic materials are discussed, based on known Mn-based compounds with the tetragonal L10 or D022 structure or the hexagonal B81 structure.

  15. Antimicrobial compounds from Alpinia conchigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ahmad Nazif; Ibrahim, Halijah; Rosmy Syamsir, Devi; Mohtar, Mastura; Vejayan, Jaya; Awang, Khalijah

    2013-02-13

    The rhizome of Alpinia conchigerahas been used as a condiment in the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia and occasionally in folk medicine in the east coast to treat fungal infections. In some states of Peninsular Malaysia, the rhizomes are consumed as a post-partum medicine and the young shoots are prepared into a vegetable dish. This study aimed to investigate the chemical constituents of the pseudostems and rhizomes of Malaysian Alpinia conchigera and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the pseudostems, rhizomes and the isolated compounds against three selected fungi and five strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The dried and ground pseudostems (0.8kg) and rhizomes (1.0kg) were successively extracted in Soxhlet extractor using n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The n-hexane and DCM extracts of the pseudostem and rhizome were subjected to isolation and purification using column chromatography on silica gel using a stepwise gradient system (n-hexane to methanol). Briefly, a serial two fold dilutions of the test materials dissolved in DMSO were prepared prior to addition of 100μl overnight microbial suspension (108 cfu/ml) followed by incubation at 37°C (bacteria) or 26°C (dermatophytes and candida) for 24h. The highest concentration of DMSO remaining after dilution (5%, v/v) caused no inhibition to bacterial/candida/dermatophytes' growth. Antibiotic cycloheximide was used as reference for anticandidal and antidermatophyte comparison while oxacilin was used as reference for antibacterial testing. DMSO served as negative control. Turbidity was taken as indication of growth, thus the lowest concentration which remains clear after macroscopic evaluation was taken as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The isolation of n-hexane and DCM extracts of the rhizomes and pseudostems of Alpinia conchigera via column chromatography yielded two triterpenes isolated as a mixture of stigmasterol and

  16. Zirconium Compound with Boundless Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO FangCheng; ZHENG JingYi; LV WenGuang; CHEN ZhongXi; WU FengFeng

    2001-01-01

    @@ Zirconium compound has a wide-ranging use in the field of high and new technology. It is published in 2000'CHINA HIGH AND NEW TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT CATALOGUE , CHINA HIGH and NEW TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT EXPORT CATALOGUE, and INTERNATIONAL KEY AND URGING DEVELOPMENT CATALOGUE OF PROPERTY, COMMODITY AND TECHNOLNGY Zirconia with the characteristic of electricity, magnetism, optics and mechanies, has good advantageous in making configurable ceramic and functional ceramic, such as band filter, resonator, buzzer and other electronic elements; optical lens, upholster crystallize glasses and other glass; synthetic tooth, synthetic bones and other biological ceramic products; new type axletree, engine, valve, airproof loop and other components of internal-combustion engine and steamship; ferrozirconium and other high temperature ceramic paint. It become a new material which has a wide-ranging use in the field of electron, spaceflight, aerospace, metallurgy, chemistry, biology, medicine and etc.

  17. Zirconium Compound with Boundless Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO; FangCheng

    2001-01-01

    Zirconium compound has a wide-ranging use in the field of high and new technology. It is published in 2000'CHINA HIGH AND NEW TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT CATALOGUE , CHINA HIGH and NEW TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT EXPORT CATALOGUE, and INTERNATIONAL KEY AND URGING DEVELOPMENT CATALOGUE OF PROPERTY, COMMODITY AND TECHNOLNGY Zirconia with the characteristic of electricity, magnetism, optics and mechanies, has good advantageous in making configurable ceramic and functional ceramic, such as band filter, resonator, buzzer and other electronic elements; optical lens, upholster crystallize glasses and other glass; synthetic tooth, synthetic bones and other biological ceramic products; new type axletree, engine, valve, airproof loop and other components of internal-combustion engine and steamship; ferrozirconium and other high temperature ceramic paint. It become a new material which has a wide-ranging use in the field of electron, spaceflight, aerospace, metallurgy, chemistry, biology, medicine and etc.  ……

  18. Organic compounds in carbonaceous meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sephton, Mark A

    2002-06-01

    The carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are fragments of asteroids that have remained relatively unprocessed since the formation of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. These carbon-rich objects contain a variety of extraterrestrial organic molecules that constitute a record of chemical evolution prior to the origin of life. Compound classes include aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, amino acids, carboxylic acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, sugars, amines, amides, nitrogen heterocycles, sulfur heterocycles and a relatively abundant high molecular weight macromolecular material. Structural and stable isotopic characteristics suggest that a number of environments may have contributed to the organic inventory, including interstellar space, the solar nebula and the asteroidal meteorite parent body. This review covers work published between 1950 and the present day and cites 193 references.

  19. The formation of lithium diarylargentates from arylsilver compounds and the corresponding aryllithium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenkers, J.; Hofstee, H.K.; Boersma, J.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1979-01-01

    Diarylsilverlithium compounds of the type Ar2AgLi are formed by treating arylsilver compounds with the corresponding aryllithium compounds. Cryoscopy in benzene shows that the Ar2AgLi compounds are associated into dimers. NMR spectroscopic data indicate that only one type of aryl group is present in

  20. A 15-year-old boy with central nervous system vasculopathy presenting with dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Meredith R; Weiss, Shelly K; Ibrahim, Shahnaz H; deVeber, Gabrielle A

    2002-03-01

    Dysarthria-clumsy hand stroke syndrome has been described frequently in adults but not in children. We report a 15-year-old right-handed boy with sudden onset of dysarthria, dysphagia, right facial weakness, and mild right-hand clumsiness. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated infarction in the genu and posterior limb of the left internal capsule. Magnetic resonance angiography and conventional angiography demonstrated stenosis of the supraclinoid portion of the left internal carotid artery and the origin of the left ophthalmic artery. Lacunar infarction in an older adult is not the only mechanism leading to dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome.

  1. The Need of Vitrectomy in Young Danish Type 1 Diabetic Patients – A 15-year Follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broe, Rebecca; Grauslund, Jakob; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    the age of 18 (n=720) were examined in 1986-89. In 1995 45 % of the original cohort (n=324) participated in a clinical follow-up study focusing on vascular complications. In 2010 we used the Danish Patient Register to determine, how many in the remaining cohort who had undergone vitrectomy and the date...... worse than for the female patients. Conclusions: Our results indicate that high levels of HbA1c in childhood and adolescence increase the risk of severe diabetic retinopathy with a need of vitrectomy. One in ten patients had undergone vitrectomy in a 15-year follow-up of a population-based cohort...

  2. The Need of Vitrectomy in Young Danish Type 1 Diabetic Patients – A 15-year Follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broe, Rebecca; Grauslund, Jakob; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    the age of 18 (n=720) were examined in 1986-89. In 1995 45 % of the original cohort (n=324) participated in a clinical follow-up study focusing on vascular complications. In 2010 we used the Danish Patient Register to determine, how many in the remaining cohort who had undergone vitrectomy and the date...... worse than for the female patients. Conclusions: Our results indicate that high levels of HbA1c in childhood and adolescence increase the risk of severe diabetic retinopathy with a need of vitrectomy. One in ten patients had undergone vitrectomy in a 15-year follow-up of a population-based cohort...

  3. High-Strength, Superelastic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm; Noebe, Ronald; Dellacorte, Christopher; Bigelow, Glen; Thomas, Fransua

    2013-01-01

    In a previous disclosure, the use of 60- NiTiNOL, an ordered intermetallic compound composed of 60 weight percent nickel and 40 weight percent titanium, was investigated as a material for advanced aerospace bearings due to its unique combination of physical properties. Lessons learned during the development of applications for this material have led to the discovery that, with the addition of a ternary element, the resulting material can be thermally processed at a lower temperature to attain the same desirable hardness level as the original material. Processing at a lower temperature is beneficial, not only because it reduces processing costs from energy consumption, but because it also significantly reduces the possibility of quench cracking and thermal distortion, which have been problematic with the original material. A family of ternary substitutions has been identified, including Hf and Zr in various atomic percentages with varying concentrations of Ni and Ti. In the present innovation, a ternary intermetallic compound consisting of 57.6 weight percent Ni, 39.2 weight percent Ti, and 3.2 weight percent Hf (54Ni-45Ti-1Hf atomic percent) was prepared by casting. In this material, Hf substitutes for some of the Ti atoms in the material. In an alternate embodiment of the innovation, Zr, which is close in chemical behavior to Hf, is used as the substitutional element. With either substitution, the solvus temperature of the material is reduced, and lower temperatures can be used to obtain the necessary hardness values. The advantages of this innovation include the ability to solution-treat the material at a lower temperature and still achieve the required hardness for bearings (at least 50 Rockwell C) and superelastic behavior with recoverable strains greater than 2%. Most structural alloys will not return to their original shape after being deformed as little as 0.2% (a tenth of that possible with superelastic materials like 60 NiTiNOL). Because lower temperatures

  4. Compound cryopump for fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, M; Shephard, T

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider an old idea: a three-stage compound cryopump for use in fusion reactors such as DEMO. The helium "ash" is adsorbed on a 4.5 K charcoal-coated surface, while deuterium and tritium are adsorbed at 15-22 K on a second charcoal-coated surface. The helium is released by raising the first surface to ~30 K. In a separate regeneration step, deuterium and tritium are released at ~110 K. In this way, the helium can be pre-separated from other species. In the simplest design, all three stages are in the same vessel, with a single valve to close the pump off from the tokamak during regeneration. In an alternative design, the three stages are in separate vessels, connected by valves, allowing the stages to regenerate without interfering with each other. The inclusion of the intermediate stage would not affect the overall pumping speed significantly. The downstream exhaust processing system could be scaled down, as much of the deuterium and tritium could be returned directly to the reactor. This could reduce ...

  5. Insecticidal Activity of Cyanohydrin and Monoterpenoid Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Coats

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activities of several cyanohydrins, cyanohydrin esters and monoterpenoid esters (including three monoterpenoid esters of a cyanohydrin were evaluated. Topical toxicity to Musca domestica L. adults was examined, and testing of many compounds at 100 mg/fly resulted in 100% mortality. Topical LD50 values of four compounds for M. domestica were calculated. Testing of many of the reported compounds to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana Kellog resulted in 100% mortality at 10 ppm, and two compounds caused 100% mortality at 1 ppm. Aquatic LC50 values were calculated for five compounds for larvae of the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti (L.. Monoterpenoid esters were among the most toxic compounds tested in topical and aquatic bioassays.

  6. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  7. Salud bucal en nativos Maká de 12 a 15 años, Mariano Roque Alonso, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Burgos Florentín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir el estado de salud bucal en nativos Maká de 12 a 15 años de edad que residen en la ciudad de Mariano Roque Alonso, Paraguay. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal en 59 niños de 12 a 15 años, evaluados por medio de la inspección oral y la aplicación de un cuestionario para indagar aspectos relativos a factores de riesgo presentes. Resultados: El Índice CPO-D fue de 10.5, se pudo constatar la ausencia del componente de piezas obturadas. El 94.9% presentó gingivitis leve. Se halló una prevalencia de 30.5% de Fluorosis y lesiones no cariosas en un 11% de la población examinada. Conclusión: los resultados de los índices obtenidos para medir las condiciones bucales se encuentran por encima de la meta establecida por la OMS; demuestrando un importante deterioro en el estado bucal de los niños nativos Maká.

  8. Antibacterial and antifungal compounds from marine fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijian; Meng, Wei; Cao, Cong; Wang, Jian; Shan, Wenjun; Wang, Qinggui

    2015-06-02

    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review.

  9. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Lijian Xu; Wei Meng; Cong Cao; Jian Wang; Wenjun Shan; Qinggui Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review.

  10. High performance compound semiconductor SPAD arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Eric S.; Naydenkov, Mikhail; Bowling, Jared

    2016-05-01

    Aggregated compound semiconductor single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays are emerging as a viable alternative to the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Compound semiconductors have the potential to surpass SiPM performance, potentially achieving orders of magnitude lower dark count rates and improved radiation hardness. New planar processing techniques have been developed to enable compound semiconductor SPAD devices to be produced with pixel pitches of 11 - 25 microns, with thousands of SPADs per array.

  11. Automated compound classification using a chemical ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobach Claudia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification of chemical compounds into compound classes by using structure derived descriptors is a well-established method to aid the evaluation and abstraction of compound properties in chemical compound databases. MeSH and recently ChEBI are examples of chemical ontologies that provide a hierarchical classification of compounds into general compound classes of biological interest based on their structural as well as property or use features. In these ontologies, compounds have been assigned manually to their respective classes. However, with the ever increasing possibilities to extract new compounds from text documents using name-to-structure tools and considering the large number of compounds deposited in databases, automated and comprehensive chemical classification methods are needed to avoid the error prone and time consuming manual classification of compounds. Results In the present work we implement principles and methods to construct a chemical ontology of classes that shall support the automated, high-quality compound classification in chemical databases or text documents. While SMARTS expressions have already been used to define chemical structure class concepts, in the present work we have extended the expressive power of such class definitions by expanding their structure-based reasoning logic. Thus, to achieve the required precision and granularity of chemical class definitions, sets of SMARTS class definitions are connected by OR and NOT logical operators. In addition, AND logic has been implemented to allow the concomitant use of flexible atom lists and stereochemistry definitions. The resulting chemical ontology is a multi-hierarchical taxonomy of concept nodes connected by directed, transitive relationships. Conclusions A proposal for a rule based definition of chemical classes has been made that allows to define chemical compound classes more precisely than before. The proposed structure-based reasoning

  12. Integrated modelling of two xenobiotic organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Gernaey, K.V.; Henze, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    compounds, is carried out. Sorption and specific biological degradation processes are integrated with standardised water process models to model the fate of both compounds. Simulated mass flows of the two compounds during one dry weather day and one wet weather day are compared for realistic influent flow...... rate and concentration profiles. The wet weather day induces resuspension of stored sediments, which increases the pollutant load on the downstream system. The potential of the model to elucidate important phenomena related to origin and fate of the model compounds is demonstrated....

  13. Hydrodesulfurization catalysis by Chevrel phase compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Kevin F.; Schrader, Glenn L.

    1985-12-24

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M.sub.x Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts. The most active catalysts were the "large" cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the "small" cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  14. Electronic structure and magnetism in actinide compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durakiewicz, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: tomasz@lanl.gov; Joyce, J.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lander, G.H. [JRC, Institute of Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Olson, C.G. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 5011 (United States); Butterfield, M.T. [Lawrence Livermoore National Laboratory, Livermoore, CA 94550 (United States); Guziewicz, E. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Batista, C.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Arko, A.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morales, L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mattenberger, K. [Laboratorium fur Festkorperphysik, ETH, CH-8093, Zurich (Switzerland); Vogt, O. [Laboratorium fur Festkorperphysik, ETH, CH-8093, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-05-01

    A close relationship between electronic structure and magnetic properties is observed in actinide compounds. The exact nature of this relationship is under investigation. We present examples of a direct link between electronic structure and ordered magnetic moment and/or magnetization. Specifically, results obtained for cubic U, Np and Pu compounds and quasi-2D U compounds are be presented. In the case of cubic compounds, a direct relationship between binding energy of valence band features and magnetic moment will be discussed. A Stoner-like mechanism and simple mean-field explanation is proposed for ferromagnetic UTe.

  15. Antimicrobial Action of Compounds from Marine Seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Pérez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed produces metabolites aiding in the protection against different environmental stresses. These compounds show antiviral, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Macroalgae can be cultured in high volumes and would represent an attractive source of potential compounds useful for unconventional drugs able to control new diseases or multiresistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. The substances isolated from green, brown and red algae showing potent antimicrobial activity belong to polysaccharides, fatty acids, phlorotannins, pigments, lectins, alkaloids, terpenoids and halogenated compounds. This review presents the major compounds found in macroalga showing antimicrobial activities and their most promising applications.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF RUTIN-CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine the potential of beta-cyclodextrin to improve the solubility of rutin and obtain inclusion compounds that were analyzed by different techniques: UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis. The presence of β-cyclodextrin raises the content of rutin in water. The inclusion compounds were prepared by dry mixing, complexation in semisolid and liquid medium in 1:2 molar ratio rutin - β-cyclodextrin. The UV-Vis and IR analysis demonstrated the obtaining of inclusion compounds and the thermal analysis show that these compounds are more stable than the parent substance.

  17. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying

    2010-02-01

    Biofouling causes huge economic loss and a recent global ban on organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. Five structurally similar compounds were isolated from the crude extract of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared to probe structure-activity relationships of compounds. The functional moiety responsible for antifouling activity lies in the 2-furanone ring and that the lipophilicity of compounds substantially affects their antifouling activities. Based on these findings, a compound with a straight alkyl side-chain was synthesized and proved itself as a very effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement agent against three major fouling organisms. The strong antifouling activity, relatively low toxicity, and simple structures of these compounds make them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigations on organogermanium compounds XII. Reactions of trialkylgermylalkalimetal compounds in hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPT) with some inorganic and organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, E.J.; Noltes, J.G.

    1971-01-01

    Trialkylgermyl alkali metal compounds in HMPT have been found to be highly reactive nucleophiles. Reactions with some inorganic and organic compounds, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic and orgaanic halides, aldehydes, ketones, epoxides and lactones are described. Several new carbon-functiona

  19. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  20. Effects of Prolactin and Lactation on A15 Dopamine Neurones in the Rostral Preoptic Area of Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R S E; Herbison, A E; Grattan, D R

    2015-09-01

    There are several distinct populations of dopamine neurones in the hypothalamus. Some of these, such as the A12 tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurones and the A14 periventricular dopamine neurones, are known to be regulated by the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin, whereas others, such as the A13 zona incerta dopaminergic neurones, are not. The present study aimed to investigate the role of prolactin in the regulation of a fourth population of hypothalamic dopamine neurones: the A15 dopamine population in the rostral hypothalamus. These neurones may play a role in the regulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, and we hypothesised that they might contribute to the suppression of GnRH release and infertility caused by hyperprolactinaemia. Under basal (low prolactin) conditions, only 8% of A15 dopamine neurones in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of vehicle-treated dioestrous mice expressed phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), as labelled by immunohistochemistry. We have previously shown that this transcription factor can be used as an index of prolactin-receptor activation. Following acute prolactin administration, 35% of AVPV dopamine neurones co-expressed pSTAT5, whereas, during lactation, when endogenous prolactin levels are chronically elevated, 55% of AVPV dopamine neurones expressed pSTAT5. There was also a significant increase in dopamine turnover in the rostral hypothalamus, both in the diagonal band of Broca at the level of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and in the rostral preoptic area during lactation, with the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio increasing from 0.28 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.01 in dioestrous mice to 0.82 ± 0.06 and 0.38 ± 0.03, respectively, in day 7 lactating mice. It is not yet known whether this change is driven by the hyperprolactinaemia of lactation, or another lactation-specific signal. These data demonstrate that the A15

  1. Low-dose CT pulmonary angiography on a 15-year-old CT scanner: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Kaup

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Computed tomography (CT low-dose (LD imaging is used to lower radiation exposure, especially in vascular imaging; in current literature, this is mostly on latest generation high-end CT systems. Purpose To evaluate the effects of reduced tube current on objective and subjective image quality of a 15-year-old 16-slice CT system for pulmonary angiography (CTPA. Material and Methods CTPA scans from 60 prospectively randomized patients (28 men, 32 women were examined in this study on a 15-year-old 16-slice CT scanner system. Standard CT (SD settings were 100 kV and 150 mAs, LD settings were 100 kV and 50 mAs. Attenuation of the pulmonary trunk, various anatomic landmarks, and image noise were quantitatively measured; contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR were calculated. Three independent blinded radiologists subjectively rated each image series using a 5-point grading scale. Results CT dose index (CTDI in the LD series was 66.46% lower compared to the SD settings (2.49 ± 0.55 mGy versus 7.42 ± 1.17 mGy. Attenuation of the pulmonary trunk showed similar results for both series (SD 409.55 ± 91.04 HU; LD 380.43 HU ± 93.11 HU; P = 0.768. Subjective image analysis showed no significant differences between SD and LD settings regarding the suitability for detection of central and peripheral PE (central SD/LD, 4.88; intra-class correlation coefficients [ICC], 0.894/4.83; ICC, 0.745; peripheral SD/LD, 4.70; ICC, 0.943/4.57; ICC, 0.919; all P > 0.4. Conclusion The LD protocol, on a 15-year-old CT scanner system without current high-end hardware or post-processing tools, led to a dose reduction of approximately 67% with similar subjective image quality and delineation of central and peripheral pulmonary arteries.

  2. The impact of substance use disorders on the course of schizophrenia - a 15 year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse M.; Hesse, Morten; Lykke, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Background This follow-up study compared patients with schizophrenia with co-occurring substance use disorder to patients with schizophrenia and no substance use disorder. Aims To investigate the prognostic significance of the effects of substance use disorders on the course of schizophrenia. Met....... Method Patients with schizophrenia and co-occurring substance use disorder (n = 107), and patients with schizophrenia only (n = 119) were followed over a 15-year period through the use of national hospitalization registers, data for time and cause of death, and data for homelessness......-psychiatric disorders. In three types of hospital contacts, patients with co-occurring substance use had approximately two to three times as many hospitalizations as did patients with schizophrenia only. Rates for homelessness and institutionalization were similar in both groups. Patients with a dual diagnosis were...

  3. A 15N-poor isotopic composition for the solar system as shown by Genesis solar wind samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B; Chaussidon, M; Wiens, R C; Jurewicz, A J G; Burnett, D S

    2011-06-24

    The Genesis mission sampled solar wind ions to document the elemental and isotopic compositions of the Sun and, by inference, of the protosolar nebula. Nitrogen was a key target element because the extent and origin of its isotopic variations in solar system materials remain unknown. Isotopic analysis of a Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator target material shows that implanted solar wind nitrogen has a (15)N/(14)N ratio of 2.18 ± 0.02 × 10(-3) (that is, ≈40% poorer in (15)N relative to terrestrial atmosphere). The (15)N/(14)N ratio of the protosolar nebula was 2.27 ± 0.03 × 10(-3), which is the lowest (15)N/(14)N ratio known for solar system objects. This result demonstrates the extreme nitrogen isotopic heterogeneity of the nascent solar system and accounts for the (15)N-depleted components observed in solar system reservoirs.

  4. Cleidocranial dysplasia presenting with retained deciduous teeth in a 15-year-old girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Nagarathna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cleidocranial dysplasia is a rare congenital defect of autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the Cbfa1 gene, also called Runx2, located on the short arm of chromosome 6. It primarily affects bones which undergo intramembranous ossification. This condition is of clinical significance to dentistry due to the involvement of the facial bones, altered eruption patterns and multiple supernumerary teeth. Case presentation Our patient, a 15-year-old Indian girl, presented with the typical features of prolonged retention of deciduous dentition and delayed eruption of permanent teeth, that is, mandibular prognathism along with other skeletal abnormalities like shrugged shoulder and the absence of clavicles. A multidisciplinary approach was followed, comprising orthodontic, surgical and pedodontic teams for management. Conclusion Successful treatment of such a case lies in a holistic approach that takes care of all aspects, including the primary pathology, the deformity itself and even the psychological angle.

  5. WHO Grade 2 Neuroendocrine Tumor in a 15-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Johannesen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors, distinguished from adenocarcinomas by their neuroendocrine differentiation, are the most common pediatric epithelial malignancy that most often occurs in the appendix. In 2010, the WHO classified neuroendocrine neoplasms into three grades based on morphology, mitotic count, and Ki67 proliferation index. A 15-year-old male with a history of anemia and failure to thrive was diagnosed with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor in the jejunum that invaded into the subserosal soft tissue and metastasized to four lymph nodes. Pediatric neuroendocrine tumors frequently arise within hereditary tumor syndromes with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors being the most common. Several studies also indicate an elevated risk of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors in which children born to a parent with a history of neuroendocrine tumors in the small intestine have a significant increased risk of developing one.

  6. Manufacturing Challenges and Benefits When Scaling the HIAD Stacked-Torus Aeroshell to a 15 Meter Class System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, G. T.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade of work has been conducted in the development of NASA's Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) deployable aeroshell technology. This effort has included multiple ground test campaigns and flight tests culminating in the HIAD project's second generation (Gen-2) aeroshell system. The HIAD project team has developed, fabricated, and tested stacked-torus inflatable structures (IS) with flexible thermal protection systems (F-TPS) ranging in diameters from 3-6 meters, with cone angles of 60 and 70 degrees. To meet NASA and commercial near-term objectives, the HIAD team must scale the current technology up to 12-15 meters in diameter. Therefore, the HIAD project's experience in scaling the technology has reached a critical juncture. Growing from a 6-meter to a 15-meter class system will introduce many new structural and logistical challenges to an already complicated manufacturing process. Although the general architecture and key aspects of the HIAD design scale well to larger vehicles, details of the technology will need to be reevaluated and possibly redesigned for use in a 15-meter-class HIAD system. These include: layout and size of the structural webbing that transfers load throughout the IS, inflatable gas barrier design, torus diameter and braid construction, internal pressure and inflation line routing, adhesives used for coating and bonding, and F-TPS gore design and seam fabrication. The logistics of fabricating and testing the IS and the F-TPS also become more challenging with increased scale. Compared to the 6-meter aeroshell (the largest HIAD built to date), a 12-meter aeroshell has four times the cross-sectional area, and a 15-meter one has over six times the area. This means that fabrication and test procedures will need to be reexamined to account for the sheer size and weight of the aeroshell components. This will affect a variety of steps in the manufacturing process, such as: stacking the tori during assembly, stitching the

  7. Manufacturing Challenges and Benefits when Scaling the HIAD Stacked-Torus Aeroshell to a 15m-Class System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Gregory; Cheatwood, Neil; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony; Gilles, Brian; Anderson, Paul; Bond, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade of work has been conducted in the development of NASAs Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) deployable aeroshell technology. This effort has included multiple ground test campaigns and flight tests culminating in the HIAD projects second generation (Gen-2) aeroshell system. The HIAD project team has developed, fabricated, and tested stacked-torus inflatable structures (IS) with flexible thermal protection systems (F-TPS) ranging in diameters from 3-6m, with cone angles of 60 and 70 deg. To meet NASA and commercial near term objectives, the HIAD team must scale the current technology up to 12-15m in diameter. Therefore, the HIAD projects experience in scaling the technology has reached a critical juncture. Growing from a 6m to a 15m-class system will introduce many new structural and logistical challenges to an already complicated manufacturing process.Although the general architecture and key aspects of the HIAD design scale well to larger vehicles, details of the technology will need to be reevaluated and possibly redesigned for use in a 15m-class HIAD system. These include: layout and size of the structural webbing that transfers load throughout the IS, inflatable gas barrier design, torus diameter and braid construction, internal pressure and inflation line routing, adhesives used for coating and bonding, and F-TPS gore design and seam fabrication. The logistics of fabricating and testing the IS and the F-TPS also become more challenging with increased scale. Compared to the 6m aeroshell (the largest HIAD built to date), a 12m aeroshell has four times the cross-sectional area, and a 15m one has over six times the area. This means that fabrication and test procedures will need to be reexamined to ac-count for the sheer size and weight of the aeroshell components. This will affect a variety of steps in the manufacturing process, such as: stacking the tori during assembly, stitching the structural webbing, initial inflation of tori

  8. Manufacturing Challenges and Benefits when Scaling the HIAD Stacked-Torus Aeroshell to a 15m Class System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Swanson, Gregory T.; Johnson, R. Keith; Hughes, Stephen; Calomino, Anthony; Gilles, Brian; Anderson, Paul; Bond, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade of work has been conducted in the development of NASA's Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) deployable aeroshell technology. This effort has included multiple ground test campaigns and flight tests culminating in the HIAD project's second generation (Gen-2) aeroshell system. The HIAD project team has developed, fabricated, and tested stacked-torus inflatable structures (IS) with flexible thermal protection systems (F-TPS) ranging in diameters from 3-6m, with cone angles of 60 and 70 deg. To meet NASA and commercial near term objectives, the HIAD team must scale the current technology up to 12-15m in diameter. The HIAD project's experience in scaling the technology has reached a critical juncture. Growing from a 6m to a 15m class system will introduce many new structural and logistical challenges to an already complicated manufacturing process. Although the general architecture and key aspects of the HIAD design scale well to larger vehicles, details of the technology will need to be reevaluated and possibly redesigned for use in a 15m-class HIAD system. These include: layout and size of the structural webbing that transfers load throughout the IS, inflatable gas barrier design, torus diameter and braid construction, internal pressure and inflation line routing, adhesives used for coating and bonding, and F-TPS gore design and seam fabrication. The logistics of fabricating and testing the IS and the F-TPS also become more challenging with increased scale. Compared to the 6m aeroshell (the largest HIAD built to date), a 12m aeroshell has four times the cross-sectional area, and a 15m one has over six times the area. This means that fabrication and test procedures will need to be reexamined to account for the sheer size and weight of the aeroshell components. This will affect a variety of steps in the manufacturing process, such as: stacking the tori during assembly, stitching the structural webbing, initial inflation of tori, and

  9. Quantitative study on the fate of residual soil nitrate in winter wheat based on a 15N-labeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Ting; Wang, Zhi-Min; Liang, Shuang-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Hua; Lu, Lai-Qing; Wang, Run-Zheng

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of surplus nitrogen (N), which primarily takes the form of nitrate, accumulates in the soil profile after harvesting crops from an intensive production system in the North China Plain. The residual soil nitrate (RSN) is a key factor that is included in the N recommendation algorithm. Quantifying the utilization and losses of RSN is a fundamental necessity for optimizing crop N management, improving N use efficiency, and reducing the impact derived from farmland N losses on the environment. In this study, a 15N-labeling method was introduced to study the fate of the RSN quantitatively during the winter wheat growing season by 15N tracer technique combined with a soil column study. A soil column with a 2 m height was vertically divided into 10 20-cm layers, and the RSN in each layer was individually labeled with a 15N tracer before the wheat was sown. The results indicated that approximately 17.68% of the crop N derived from RSN was located in the 0–2 m soil profile prior to wheat sowing. The wheat recovery proportions of RSN at various layers ranged from 0.21% to 33.46%. The percentages that still remained in the soil profile after the wheat harvest ranged from 47.08% to 75.44%, and 19.46–32.64% of the RSN was unaccounted for. Upward and downward movements in the RSN were observed, and the maximum upward and downward distances were 40 cm and 100 cm, respectively. In general, the 15N-labeling method contributes to a deeper understanding of the fates of the RSN. Considering the low crop recovery of the RSN from deep soil layers, water and N saving practices should be adopted during crop production. PMID:28170440

  10. Platinum compounds with anti-tumour activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plooy, A.C.M.; Lohman, P.H.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ten platinum (Pt) coordination complexes with different ligands, comprising both Pt(II) and Pt(IV) complexes of which the cis-compounds all possessed at least some anti-tumour activity and the trans-compounds were inactive, were tested as to their effect on cell survival and the induction and repair

  11. Ambient Air Monitoring for Sulfur Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Joseph; Newman, Leonard

    1973-01-01

    A literature review of analytical techniques available for the study of compounds at low concentrations points up some of the areas where further research is needed. Compounds reviewed are sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate and bisulfate, metal sulfates, hydrogen sulfide, and organic sulfides. (BL)

  12. Two new compounds from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Fang; Yan, Yong-Ming; Wang, Xin-Long; Ma, Xiu-Jing; Fu, Xue-Yan; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Two pairs of new enantiomers, lucidulactones A and B (1 and 2), and two known compounds were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic methods. The chiral HPLC was used to separate the ( - )- and (+)-antipodes of the new compounds.

  13. Volatile organic compound emissions from silage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...

  14. The mechanocaloric potential of spin crossover compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeman, K. G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a first evaluation of the potential for spin crossover (SCO) compounds to be considered as a new class of giant mechanocaloric effect material. From literature data on the variation of the spin crossover temperature with pressure, we estimate the maximum available adiabatic temperature change for several compounds and the relatively low pressures that may be required to observe these effects.

  15. Hybrid Compounding in New Zealand English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Marta; Onysko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates hybrid compound formation of Maori and English terms in present day New Zealand English (NZE). On the background of Maori and English language contact, the phenomenon of hybrid compounding emerges as a process that, on the one hand, symbolizes the vitality of the Maori element in NZE and, on the other hand, marks the…

  16. Compounds from the roots of Jasminum sambac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin-Hong; Hu, Min; Yan, Yong-Ming; Lu, Qing; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2012-01-01

    Four new compounds (+)-jasminoids A, B, C, and D, together with seven known compounds, were isolated from the roots of Jasminum sambac. Their structures were identified using spectroscopic methods. This study provides a better understanding to the chemical composition of J. sambac roots that have been thought to be one ingredient of an ancient prescription 'Ma-Fei-San'.

  17. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  18. Heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander

    2011-11-18

    Sulfur aromatic compounds, such as mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraalkyl-substituted thiophene, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, are the molecular components of many fossils (petroleum, oil shale, tar sands, bitumen). Structural units of natural, cross-linked heteroaromatic polymers present in brown coals, turf, and soil are similar to those of sulfur aromatic compounds. Many sulfur aromatic compounds are found in the streams of petroleum refining and upgrading (naphthas, gas oils) and in the consumer products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, heating fuels). Besides fossils, the structural fragments of sulfur aromatic compounds are present in molecules of certain organic semiconductors, pesticides, small molecule drugs, and in certain biomolecules present in human body (pheomelanin pigments). Photocatalysis is the frontier area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions initiated by absorption of photons by photocatalysts, that is, upon electronic rather than thermal activation, under "green" ambient conditions. This review provides systematization and critical review of the fundamental chemical and physicochemical information on heterogeneous photocatalysis of sulfur aromatic compounds accumulated in the last 20-30 years. Specifically, the following topics are covered: physicochemical properties of sulfur aromatic compounds, major classes of heterogeneous photocatalysts, mechanisms and reactive intermediates of photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds, and the selectivity of these reactions. Quantum chemical calculations of properties and structures of sulfur aromatic compounds, their reactive intermediates, and the structure of adsorption complexes formed on the surface of the photocatalysts are also discussed.

  19. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  20. Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Paula; DʼAuria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

    2014-09-01

    Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications.

  1. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  2. Pickpocket compounds from Latin to Romance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen Whitehead, Benedicte

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the development in Proto–Indo–European, Latin and Romance of a word–formation pattern which the most adequate terminology in use dubs ‘verbal government compounds with a governing first member’; I use the shorthand ‘pickpocket compounds’. The first member of such compounds deri

  3. Preparation of Several Tritiated Macromolecular Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Bao-jun; YU; Ning-wen; FAN; Cai-yun

    2015-01-01

    Tritiated compounds are widely used in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies.They play an important role in new drug research.Isotope exchange method is a very effective method for the preparation of tritiated compounds.It is particularly suitable for labeling macromolecule

  4. Bacterial formation of hydroxylated aromatic compounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tweel, van den W.J.J.

    1988-01-01

    As stated in the introduction of this thesis, hydroxylated aromatic compounds in general are of great importance for various industries as for instance pharmaceutical, agrochemical and petrochemical industries. Since these compounds can not be isolated in sufficient amounts from natural resources, t

  5. Crystal structure analysis of intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, R. A., Jr.; Downey, J. W.; Dwight, A. E.

    1968-01-01

    Study concerns crystal structures and lattice parameters for a number of new intermetallic compounds. Crystal structure data have been collected on equiatomic compounds, formed between an element of the Sc, Ti, V, or Cr group and an element of the Co or Ni group. The data, obtained by conventional methods, are presented in an easily usable tabular form.

  6. Analysis of phenolic compounds for poultry feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds have generated significant interest recently as feed additives that can impart bioactive characteristics such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal properties to a feed formulation [1-2]. Such natural compounds may offer some preventive benefit to the routine administra...

  7. Amino acid modifiers in guayule rubber compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire producers are increasingly interested in biobased materials, including rubber but also as compounding chemicals. An alternative natural rubber for tire use is produced by guayule, a woody desert shrub native to North America. Alternative compounding chemicals include naturally-occurring amino a...

  8. Lattice anisotropy in uranium ternary compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskova, S.; Adamska, A.M.; Havela, L.

    2012-01-01

    Several U-based intermetallic compounds (UCoGe, UNiGe with the TiNiSi structure type and UNiAl with the ZrNiAl structure type) and their hydrides were studied from the point of view of compressibility and thermal expansion. Confronted with existing data for the compounds with the ZrNiAl structure...

  9. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  10. Chalcones: compounds possessing a diversity in applications

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Chalcones are a class of α, β- unsaturated carbonyl compounds that form the central core for a variety of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. They exhibit tremendous potential to act as a pharmacological agent. Besides their various pharmacological activities, chalcones have been explored for different optical applications including second harmonic generation materials in non- linear optics, fluorescent probe for sensing different molecules.

  11. Bis(1,3-dithiole) Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Engler, E. M.; Green, D. C.;

    1977-01-01

    There is described the preparation of bis-1,3-dithiole compounds (I) which are key synthetic precursors for the preparation of new polymeric metal bis(dithiolene) (i.e., II) and tetrathiafulvalene compounds (i.e., III): (Image Omitted)...

  12. Method for the detection of aquaretic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for detecting an aquaretic compound. In one embodiment, the method includes administering to a mammal a candidate compound that modulates a nociceptin receptor. Biological material is isolated from the mammal and expression of aquaporin-2 is measured. Modulation of the aquap......Disclosed is a method for detecting an aquaretic compound. In one embodiment, the method includes administering to a mammal a candidate compound that modulates a nociceptin receptor. Biological material is isolated from the mammal and expression of aquaporin-2 is measured. Modulation...... of the aquaporin-2 is taken to be indicative of a candidate compound having aquaretic activity. The invention has a wide spectrum of uses including helping to identify new diuretics that spare unwanted loss of sodium and potassium ions....

  13. Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitory compounds from Myristica fragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, To Dao; Hung, Tran Manh; Han, Hyoung Yun; Roh, Hang Sik; Seok, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Ja Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Jeong Ah; Min, Byung Sun

    2014-04-01

    The anti-cholinesterase activity was evaluated of the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt (Myristicaceae) seeds and of compounds isolated from it by various chromatographic techniques. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined from spectroscopic analyses (NMR data). Thirteen compounds (1-13) were isolated and identified. Compound 8 { [(7S)-8'-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-hydroxypropyl]benzene-2,4-diol) showed the most effective activity with an IC50 value of 35.1 microM, followed by compounds 2 [(8R,8'S)-7'-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-8,8'-dimethyl-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-butane] and 11 (malabaricone C) with IC50 values of 42.1 and 44.0 pM, respectively. This is the first report of significant anticholinesterase properties of M. fragrans seeds. The findings demonstrate that M. fragrans could be used beneficially in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Depyrogenation options for the compounding cleanroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Tom; Bell, Jeff; Dullinger, Roger; Allen, Vern; Anthenat, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies, especially those awarded 503B status under the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that resulted from the Drug Quality and Security Act, must meet increasingly strict standards for the preparation of sterile formulations. Depyrogenating the containers and tools used in such compounding is essential to meeting those standards and ensuring patient safety. Although pyrogens are relatively thermally stable, treating aseptic-compounding glassware and implements in a dry-heat oven or tunnel is the most common method of depyrogenation. Depyrogenation tunnels are used at larger facilities in which automation and a higher throughput can justify the cost of that equipment, but a small batch oven is an inexpensive and appropriate solution to meeting sterilization and depyrogenation requirements in a smaller compounding pharmacy. In this article, we discuss the appropriate use of depyrogenation ovens and tunnels, compare those types of equipment, and describe the selection and use of a cleanroom oven in a compounding pharmacy.

  15. Methods of making organic compounds by metathesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Timothy W.; Kaido, Hiroki; Lee, Choon Woo; Pederson, Richard L.; Schrodi, Yann; Tupy, Michael John

    2015-09-01

    Described are methods of making organic compounds by metathesis chemistry. The methods of the invention are particularly useful for making industrially-important organic compounds beginning with starting compositions derived from renewable feedstocks, such as natural oils. The methods make use of a cross-metathesis step with an olefin compound to produce functionalized alkene intermediates having a pre-determined double bond position. Once isolated, the functionalized alkene intermediate can be self-metathesized or cross-metathesized (e.g., with a second functionalized alkene) to produce the desired organic compound or a precursor thereto. The method may be used to make bifunctional organic compounds, such as diacids, diesters, dicarboxylate salts, acid/esters, acid/amines, acid/alcohols, acid/aldehydes, acid/ketones, acid/halides, acid/nitriles, ester/amines, ester/alcohols, ester/aldehydes, ester/ketones, ester/halides, ester/nitriles, and the like.

  16. Odor-active compounds in cardboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, Michael; Buettner, Andrea

    2009-11-11

    The odor-active compounds of cardboard were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis and HRGC-MS analysis. In total, 36 compounds were detected with medium to high intensities during HRGC-olfactometry. The highest odor intensities were evaluated for vanillin, (E)-non-2-enal, (R/S)-gamma-nonalactone, 2-methoxyphenol, (R/S)-delta-decalactone, p-anisaldehyde, 3-propylphenol, and a woody-smelling unknown compound. Most of the identified compounds were described as odor-active cardboard constituents for the first time. Sensory experiments demonstrated that extensive release of odor-active compounds occurred upon moistening of the cardboard. Accordingly, data indicated that the odorants are present in cardboard in relatively high amounts. In a further sensory study, a transfer of the released odor to food was demonstrated in a model experiment showing that cardboards with high odor potential can cause unwanted flavor changes in foods.

  17. Methods of making organic compounds by metathesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Timothy W.; Kaido, Hiroki; Lee, Choon Woo; Pederson, Richard L.; Schrodi, Yann; Tupy, Michael John

    2015-09-01

    Described are methods of making organic compounds by metathesis chemistry. The methods of the invention are particularly useful for making industrially-important organic compounds beginning with starting compositions derived from renewable feedstocks, such as natural oils. The methods make use of a cross-metathesis step with an olefin compound to produce functionalized alkene intermediates having a pre-determined double bond position. Once isolated, the functionalized alkene intermediate can be self-metathesized or cross-metathesized (e.g., with a second functionalized alkene) to produce the desired organic compound or a precursor thereto. The method may be used to make bifunctional organic compounds, such as diacids, diesters, dicarboxylate salts, acid/esters, acid/amines, acid/alcohols, acid/aldehydes, acid/ketones, acid/halides, acid/nitriles, ester/amines, ester/alcohols, ester/aldehydes, ester/ketones, ester/halides, ester/nitriles, and the like.

  18. 8 CFR 245a.15 - Continuous residence in an unlawful status since prior to January 1, 1982, through May 4, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... since prior to January 1, 1982, through May 4, 1988. 245a.15 Section 245a.15 Aliens and Nationality... unlawful status since prior to January 1, 1982, through May 4, 1988. (a) General. The Service will... unlawful status since such date through May 4, 1988, based on the evidence provided by the alien. An...

  19. Biochemical and medical importance of vanadium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbecki, Jan; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Vanadium belongs to the group of transition metals and is present in the air and soil contaminants in large urban agglomerations due to combustion of fossil fuels. It forms numerous inorganic compounds (vanadyl sulfate, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, vanadium pentoxide) as well as complexes with organic compounds (BMOV, BEOV, METVAN). Depending on the research model, vanadium compounds exhibit antitumor or carcinogenic properties. Vanadium compounds generate ROS as a result of Fenton's reaction or of the reaction with atmospheric oxygen. They inactivate the Cdc25B(2) phosphatase and lead to degradation of Cdc25C, which induces G(2)/M phase arrest. In cells, vanadium compounds activate numerous signaling pathways and transcription factors, including PI3K-PKB/Akt-mTOR, NF-κB, MEK1/2-ERK, that cause cell survival or increased expression and release of VEGF. Vanadium compounds inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis and promote entry into the S phase of cells containing functional p53 protein. In addition, vanadium compounds, in particular organic derivatives, have insulin-mimetic and antidiabetic properties. Vanadium compounds lower blood glucose levels in animals and in clinical trials. They also inhibit the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. By activating the PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway, vanadium compaunds increase the cellular uptake of glucose by the GLUT4 transporter. The PKB/Akt pathway is also used to inactivate glycogen synthase kinase-3. The impact of vanadium compounds on inflammatory reactions has not been fully studied. Vanadium pentoxide causes expression of COX-2 and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in a human lung fibroblast model. Other vanadium compounds activate NF-κB in macrophages by activating IKKβ.

  20. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  1. The reaction of diarylzinc compounds with silver salts : Synthesis and characterization of arylsilver(I) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, H.K.; Boersma, J.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1979-01-01

    The reaction of diarylzinc compounds with silver(I) salts is an excellent method of preparing stable arylsilver compounds in quantitative yields. These compounds have been characterized by IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy Cryoscopy in benzene shows phenylsilver to be polymeric, and the

  2. Water-soluble constituents of caraway: aromatic compound, aromatic compound glucoside and glucides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Tetsuko; Ishikawa, Toru; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-10-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of caraway (fruit of Carum carvi L.), an aromatic compound, an aromatic compound glucoside and a glucide were isolated together with 16 known compounds. Their structures were clarified as 2-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, junipediol A 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and L-fucitol, respectively.

  3. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  4. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  5. [Functional analysis of bioactive natural compounds using monoclonal antibodies against natural compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Takuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have recently attracted much importance owing to the rising interest in their health benefits. Hence, further elucidation of the functions and mechanisms of these natural compounds is necessary. Our laboratory has established more than 30 kinds of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against bioactive natural compounds. Moreover, we have developed highly sensitive measurement systems for natural compounds, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and eastern blotting using MAbs. To expand the application of these MAbs to the functional analysis of natural compounds, we established a new approach for the isolation of the target compound from plant extracts using an immunoaffinity column conjugated with an anti-natural compound MAb. Through one-step purification using a MAb-conjugated immunoaffinity column, we have succeeded in preparing a knockout (KO) extract containing all components except the target compound, used as a hapten. Furthermore, we examined the pharmacological effects of the KO extract to identify the precise roles of the bioactive compound in the plant extract. To confirm another beneficial use of MAbs, we investigated the cellular localization and target molecules of natural compounds by immunocytochemistry (ICC) and Western blotting using MAbs. Our results demonstrated that MAbs clearly determined the cellular localization and target molecules of the natural compounds. These approaches may make it possible to determine the potential functions and target molecules of bioactive natural compounds in herbal medicines.

  6. Synthesis of Novel Antifungal Triazole Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong CHU; Ming Xia XU; Ding LU

    2004-01-01

    Based on our previous studies of 3D-QSAR, 38 novel objective compounds belonging to 4 series were designed and successfully synthesized directed by the idea of reconstructing the structure of non-pharmacophores while reserving essential ones in triazoles. In vitro pilot studies on their antifungal activities showed that most compounds have inhibitory effects on C.albicans and some inhibit S.cerevisiae also. The effects on C.albicans of 5 compounds are more potent than or equal to that of fluconazole or itraconazole.

  7. Pickpocket compounds from Latin to Romance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehead, Benedicte Nielsen

    This thesis discusses the development in Proto–Indo–European, Latin and Romance of a word–formation pattern which the most adequate terminology in use dubs ‘verbal government compounds with a governing first member’; I use the shorthand ‘pickpocket compounds’. The first member of such compounds......–noun, represented by truck–driver, has the deverbal member second and carries an agentive suffix, -er. Pickpocket compounds are attested in early strata of Greek and Indo–Iranian and in medieval strata of Germanic, Slavic and Romance. Latin has around a dozen examples. The scholarly debate, continued in this thesis...

  8. Periodicity effects on compound guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2016-09-01

    Surface waves of different types can be compounded when a homogeneous layer is sandwiched between two half spaces filled with dissimilar periodically non-homogeneous dielectric materials and the intermediate layer is sufficiently thin. We solved the boundary-value problem for compound waves guided by a layer of a homogeneous and isotropic (metal or dielectric) material sandwiched between a structurally chiral material (SCM) and a periodically multi-layered isotropic dielectric material. We found that the periodicity of the SCM is crucial to excite a multiplicity of compound guided waves with strong coupling between the two interfaces.

  9. A new caffeate compound from Nardostachys chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-peng; Wang, Zhong-ping; Zheng, Hong-hong; Xu, Yan-tong; Zhu, Yani; Zhang, Peng; Wu, Hong-hua

    2016-01-01

    A new caffeate compound, (E)-erythro-syringylglyceryl caffeate (1), was isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Nardostachys chinensis Batal., together with nine known phenolic compounds, including (+)-licarin A (2), naringenin 4', 7-dimethyl ether (3), pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (4), caraphenol A (5), Z-miyabenol C (6), protocatechuic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), gallic acid (9) and vanillic acid (10). Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and physicochemical properties. Furthermore, this is the first report of compounds 2, 5 and 6 from Nardostachys genus.

  10. Microbial production of scent and flavor compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Austin L; Desai, Shuchi H; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-02-01

    Scents and flavors like those of fresh oranges are no longer limited to just the natural product. Fruit, flower, and essential oil scents have found place in cosmetics, soaps, candles, and food amongst many common household products. With their increasing global demand and difficulty in extractation from the natural source, alternative methods of their production are being sought. One sustainable method is to employ microorganisms for the production of these high value compounds. With the tools of metabolic engineering, microorganisms can be modified to produce compounds such as esters, terpenoids, aldehydes, and methyl ketones. Approaches and challenges for the production of these compounds from microbial hosts are discussed in this review.

  11. A growing codependency: compounding pharmacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Bryan; Lundevall, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians are in constant contact with potent compounds. When compounding with powders, there is a susceptibility to environmental conditions such that proper containment be in place to keep the employees safe, the medicine free from cross contamination or the introduction of outside contaminants, and the workplace free from floating active pharmaceutical ingredient particles. Adapting powder hoods as safety devices that work in direct relation to clearly defined standard operating procedures and good lab practices will facilitate a safer lab environment for employees and ensure good-quality prescriptions. This article discusses the safety concerns of compounding with powders and the safety measures to consider when purchasing powder hoods.

  12. Compound leaf development in model plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Maya; Ori, Naomi

    2015-02-01

    Plant leaves develop in accordance with a common basic program, which is flexibly adjusted to the species, developmental stage and environment. Two key stages of leaf development are morphogenesis and differentiation. In the case of compound leaves, the morphogenesis stage is prolonged as compared to simple leaves, allowing for the initiation of leaflets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how plant hormones and transcriptional regulators modulate compound leaf development, yielding a substantial diversity of leaf forms, focusing on four model compound leaf organisms: cardamine (Cardamine hirsuta), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), medicago (Medicago truncatula) and pea (Pisum sativum).

  13. Two novel compounds from Paeonia suffructicosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H C; Ding, H Y; Wu, Y C

    1998-03-01

    A new hexacyclic triterpenoid, mudanpinoic acid A (1), and a new gallic acid glycoside, mudanoside B (2), along with nine known compounds--benzoic acid, resacetophenone, paeoniflorigenone, beta-sitosterol, betulinic acid, oleanoic acid, quercetin, beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside, and trans-caffeic acid stearyl ester-were isolated from the dried root cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa. The structures of the novel compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral methods, and that of compound 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  14. Endocannabinoids, Related Compounds and Their Metabolic Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Fezza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators able to bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors, the primary molecular targets responsible for the pharmacological effects of the Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These bioactive lipids belong mainly to two classes of compounds: N-acylethanolamines and acylesters, being N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, respectively, their main representatives. During the last twenty years, an ever growing number of fatty acid derivatives (endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like compounds have been discovered and their activities biological is the subject of intense investigations. Here, the most recent advances, from a therapeutic point of view, on endocannabinoids, related compounds, and their metabolic routes will be reviewed.

  15. Endocannabinoids, related compounds and their metabolic routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezza, Filomena; Bari, Monica; Florio, Rita; Talamonti, Emanuela; Feole, Monica; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2014-10-24

    Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators able to bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors, the primary molecular targets responsible for the pharmacological effects of the Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These bioactive lipids belong mainly to two classes of compounds: N-acylethanolamines and acylesters, being N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), respectively, their main representatives. During the last twenty years, an ever growing number of fatty acid derivatives (endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like compounds) have been discovered and their activities biological is the subject of intense investigations. Here, the most recent advances, from a therapeutic point of view, on endocannabinoids, related compounds, and their metabolic routes will be reviewed.

  16. Nonlinear system compound inverse control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan ZHANG; Zengqiang CHEN; Peng YANG; Zhuzhi YUAN

    2005-01-01

    A compound neural network is utilized to identify the dynamic nonlinear system.This network is composed of two parts: one is a linear neural network,and the other is a recurrent neural network.Based on the inverse theory a compound inverse control method is proposed.The controller has also two parts:a linear controller and a nonlinear neural network controller.The stability condition of the closed-loop neural network-based compound inverse control system is demonstrated based on the Lyapunov theory.Simulation studies have shown that this scheme is simple and has good control accuracy and robustness.

  17. Clinical use of a 15-W diode laser in small animal surgery: results in 30 varied procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Dennis T.; Swalander, David; Hittenmiller, Donald; Newton, Jenifer

    1999-06-01

    The use of a 15-watt diode laser (CeramOptec)in 30 surgical procedures in dogs and cats was reviewed. Ease of use, operator safety, hemostasis control, wound healing, surgical time, complication rate, and pain control were observed and recorded. Procedures performed were partial pancreatectomy, nasal carcinoma ablation, medial meniscus channeling, perianal and anorectal mass removal (5), hemangioma and hemangiopericytoma removal from two legs, benign skin mass removal (7), liver lobectomy, partial prostatectomy, soft palate resection, partial arytenoidectomy, partial ablation of a thyroid carcinoma, photo-vaporization of the tumor bed following malignant tumor resection (4), neurosheath tumor removal from the tongue, tail sebaceous cyst resection, malignant mammary tumor and mast cell tumor removal. The laser was found to be very simple and safe to use. Hemostasis was excellent in all but the liver and prostate surgeries. The laser was particularly effective in preventing hemorrhage during perianal, anal, and tongue mass removal. It is estimated that a time and blood loss savings of 50% over that of conventional surgery occurred with the use of the laser. All external wounds made by laser appeared to heal faster and with less inflammation than those made with a conventional or electrosurgical scalpel.

  18. Rapid recovery following fulminant meningococcemia complicated by myocarditis in a 15-year-old Nepalese girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha P

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pratyush Shrestha,1 Nabin K Shrestha,2 Smith Giri31Department of Surgery, College of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur, Nepal; 2Department of Internal Medicine, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, NepalIntroduction: Fulminant meningococcemia is a relatively rare life-threatening disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The clinical presentation is varied, but, when associated with myocarditis, it carries a particularly poor prognosis. We report a case of a patient with fulminant meningococcemia who subsequently developed severe myocardial dysfunction and successfully recovered within a period of 14 days of hospitalization.Case presentation: A 15-year-old girl presented with headache, fever, body ache, and diarrhea for 1 day, and ecchymotic rash over her body for 4 hours. Blood cultures confirmed infection with N. meningitidis. After 6 days in the hospital, the patient developed anasarca, elevated jugular venous pressure, and shock. The patient was managed with intravenous ceftriaxone and captopril. Over the next 3 days the patient rapidly improved and started walking.Conclusion: Meningococcemia complicated by myocarditis has an extremely poor prognosis with high mortality. Our case suggests that recovery from a severe myocardial dysfunction can occur rapidly within a few days. Prompt recognition and management in this case might have contributed to the patient's rapid recovery from myocarditis.Keywords: Neisseria meningitidis, Nepal, recovery, shock

  19. A 15-year-old female with amenorrhea, abdominal distention, and elevated human chorionic gonadotropin: pregnancy, right? Not so fast….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arun; Ocon, Anthony J; Nibhanipudi, Kumara

    2012-10-01

    Nongestational choriocarcinoma, a rare ovarian tumor, may present in young women with amenorrhea, abdominal distention, and elevated urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), all of which may be mistaken for pregnancy. A 15-year-old Hispanic female, who reported no sexual activity, presented with 6 months of amenorrhea, abdominal pain, and progressive abdominal distension. Initially, suspicion of pregnancy was considered. Physical examination was significant for abdominal distension, but no uterine fundus or fetal anatomy could be palpated, and auscultation did not reveal any fetal heart sounds or bruits. Laboratory values showed elevated urine hCG, cancer antigen 125, and cancer antigen 19.9 levels but normal serum hCG level and was inconsistent with pregnancy. Computed tomographic scans revealed a large abdominal heterogeneous mass and pleural effusions. Salpingo-oophorectomy with total omentectomy and inversion appendectomy removed a 21 × 20.5 × 16.5-cm tumor. Pathological testing determined it to be a nongestational choriocarcinoma. This rare tumor is more common in the pediatric adolescent population than in adults. Surgical resection and chemotherapy often result in a positive prognosis. In female adolescent patients presenting with elevated hCG level, amenorrhea, and abdominal distention, choriocarcinoma should be considered, especially in those with no history of sexual activity or before menarche.

  20. Soft tissue recurrent ameloblastomas also show some malignant features: A clinicopathological study of a 15-year database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zitong; Sun, Guowen; Hu, Qingang; Chen, Fei; Wen, Shanhui

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the clinicopathological features of six cases of soft tissue recurrent ameloblastoma and explore the role of increased aggressive biological behavior in the recurrences and treatment of this type of ameloblastomas. Material and Methods In this study, we retrospectively reviewed recurrent ameloblastomas during a 15-year period; six cases were diagnosed as soft tissue recurrent ameloblastoma. The clinical, radiographic, cytological and immunohistochemical records of these six cases were investigated and analyzed. Results All the six soft tissue recurrent ameloblastomas occurred after radical bone resection, and were located in the adjacent soft tissues around the osteotomy regions. In Case 4, the patient developed pulmonary metastasis, extensive skull-base infiltration and cytological malignancy after multiple recurrences and malignant transformation was diagnosed. In the other five cases, although there were no cytological signs are sufficient to justify an ameloblastoma as malignant, some malignant features were observed. In Case 1, the tumor showed moderate atypical hyperplasia and the Ki-67 staining percentage was 40% positive, which are strongly suggestive of potential malignance. In Case 5, the patient developed a second soft tissue recurrence in the parapharyngeal region and later died of tumor-related complications. All the remaining three patients showed cytology atypia of varying degrees and high expression of PCNA or Ki-67, which confirmed active cell proliferation. Conclusions Increased aggressiveness is an important factor of soft tissue recurrence. An intraoperative rapid pathological examination and more radical treatment are suggested for these cases. Key words: Ameloblastoma, soft tissue recurrence, aggressive biological behaviour. PMID:25662548

  1. Fabrication, microstructure and luminescence properties of Cr3+ doped Lu3A15O12 red scintillator ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Qiang; Cao, Maoqing; Ma, Peng; Chen, Haohong; Liu, Qian; Li, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Cr3+ doped Lu3A15O12 transparent ceramics were developed as a new red scintillator ceramics. These ceramics were fabricated by a solid state reaction method under vacuum sintering at temperature range of 1550 °C-1890 °C for 10 h. The doping effect of different Cr3+ concentration (0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 at. %) and air annealing effect were investigated as well. The transparent ceramics (70% @1 mm in visible light range) with dense microstructure were obtained when sintered at 1890 °C for 10 h, the average grain size of 0.3 at.% Cr:LuAG was calculated to be 7 μm. Photo-luminescence spectra revealed that there are two typical excitation bands at around 450 nm and 600 nm which were ascribed to the d-d transitions of Cr3+. 0.3 at. % Cr:LuAG exhibited the optimum photoluminescence intensity and fast decay. Radio-luminescence under X-ray excitation indicated a characteristic Cr3+ emission peaking at 687 nm and 706 nm respectively. The Lu3+Al antisite defects related emission at around 300 nm was observed to decrease with the doping of Cr3+. The steady luminescence efficiency (XEL spectrum integral) is around 20 times of the commercial BGO crystals, more important, the broad and continuous red emission between 600 nm and 800 nm demonstrated Cr:LuAG ceramics a prospective application as new red scintillators.

  2. Stroke as the Sole Manifestation of Takayasu Arteritis in a 15-Year-Old Boy with Latent Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Benjaminsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Takayasu arteritis is a rare disease affecting the aorta and its main branches, causing arterial claudication and end-organ ischemia, including stroke. The etiology is unknown but is believed to be autoimmune. An association between Takayasu arteritis and tuberculosis has been suggested, but the possible relation is unclear. Case Presentation. A 15-year-old Somali boy was diagnosed with latent tuberculosis. He had a lesion in the right lung, and both the tuberculin skin test by the Mantoux method and Quantiferon GOLD test turned out positive. After he suffered a cerebral infarct in the right hemisphere, childhood Takayasu arteritis was diagnosed. The diagnosis was based on diagnostic imaging showing a high-grade stenosis of the origin of the right common carotid artery, an occluded common carotid artery on the left side, a circumferential thickening of the vessel walls in the right and left common carotid artery, and laboratory findings with elevated C-reactive protein. Conclusion. Takayasu arteritis is an uncommon cause of stroke. It should however be kept in mind as a cause of cerebrovascular disease, especially in the young.

  3. Concurrent little leaguer's elbow and shoulder in a 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domes, Christopher M; Petering, Ryan C; Chesnutt, James C; Mirarchi, Adam

    2012-01-16

    Little leaguer's elbow and Little leaguer's shoulder are overuse pathologies seen in overhead-throwing athletes. No instance of simultaneously occurring pathologies has been published. A 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback developed pain in his throwing shoulder and elbow during spring baseball, which partially resolved with several months of rest. During fall football practice, he felt a pop and pain over his medial throwing elbow. Five days after the initial injury, medial elbow tenderness, mild swelling, and decreased range of motion were noted. Radiographs revealed a Salter I avulsion fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle (Little leaguer's elbow) and a periosteal reaction along the lateral aspect of the humeral metadiaphysis with slight widening (Little leaguer's shoulder). Surgical fixation of the medial epicondyle fracture and nonoperative treatment of the shoulder pathology were performed. Two-year follow-up radiographs showed a healed medial epicondylar fracture and resolution of the periosteal reaction of the humeral metadiaphysis. The patient returned to full activity and was starting quarterback for his football team. Biomechanical forces specific to overhead-throwing activities are associated with the development of Little leaguer's elbow and shoulder. Treatments of both pathologies remain controversial, with either initial operative vs nonoperative care. In this patient, a good outcome was achieved with surgical fixation of the elbow fracture and conservative management of the shoulder pathology. Educating coaches and parents on proper throwing technique and pitching limits should be the first step in reducing the occurrence of either pathology in this population.

  4. A 15-year Analysis of Surface Ozone Pollution in the Context of Hot Spells Episodes over Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struzewska Joanna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of summertime temperature characteristics and ozone exposure indexes were carried out for eight locations in Poland for a 15-year period (1997-2011. The number of days with the maximum temperature exceeding 25°C and 30°C was calculated for each year. The analysis covered the 8-hour running average and daily maximum of near surface ozone concentrations. Also, the accumulated exposure when ozone concentrations were above 120 μg/m3 (AOT60 was calculated as a diagnostic indicator of adverse health effects for each year. Although high ozone concentrations are associated with hot temperatures, the exposure to values higher than 120 μg /m3 is correlated with the length of the hot weather period rather than with the occurrence of days with extremely high temperatures. In most cases the elevated ozone concentrations occurred during days when the maximum temperature was higher than 24°C. Episodes of very high ozone concentrations, exceeding 180 μg /m3, were not associated with heat wave periods at analysed locations.

  5. Orofacial granulomatosis affecting lip and gingiva in a 15-year-old patient: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG is a rare disorder affecting the orofacial region, and clinically characterized by diffuse, nontender, soft to firm, painless swelling restricted to one or both lips and intraoral sites such as tongue, gingiva and buccal mucosa. Histologically, OFG is characterized by noncaseating granulomatous inflammation. The early diagnosis of OFG is essential for the better prognosis of the lesion. Delay in diagnosis of OFG results into formation of indurated and permanent swelling of the lip that not only compromises esthetic appearance but also causes impairment in function such as speaking and eating. Early diagnosis of OFG is challenging to the health care professionals due to clinical and histological resemblance to other chronic granulomatous disorders. Thus, dentists may act as a first person to diagnose the lesion and play an important role in the multidisciplinary treatment of granulomatous disorders. Here, we present a case of OFG affecting lips and gingiva in a 15-year-old patient without any identifiable systemic or local causes.

  6. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A; Poterico, Julio A

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (pPeru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  7. A 15-Year Analysis of Surface Ozone Pollution in the Context of Hot Spells Episodes over Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzewska, Joanna; Jefimow, Maciej

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of summertime temperature characteristics and ozone exposure indexes were carried out for eight locations in Poland for a 15-year period (1997-2011). The number of days with the maximum temperature exceeding 25°C and 30°C was calculated for each year. The analysis covered the 8-hour running average and daily maximum of near surface ozone concentrations. Also, the accumulated exposure when ozone concentrations were above 120 μg/m3 (AOT60) was calculated as a diagnostic indicator of adverse health effects for each year. Although high ozone concentrations are associated with hot temperatures, the exposure to values higher than 120 μg /m3 is correlated with the length of the hot weather period rather than with the occurrence of days with extremely high temperatures. In most cases the elevated ozone concentrations occurred during days when the maximum temperature was higher than 24°C. Episodes of very high ozone concentrations, exceeding 180 μg /m3, were not associated with heat wave periods at analysed locations.

  8. Physical activity, fitness and body composition of Finnish police officers: a 15-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensen, L; Smolander, J; Louhevaara, V; Korhonen, O; Oja, P

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in the physical activity, fitness and body composition of 103 police officers during a 15-year follow-up. The absolute aerobic capacity was similar in 1981 and 1996, muscular performance had declined, and body weight had increased approximately 0.5 kg/year. More than half the subjects (53%) had increased their leisure-time physical activity in 1996. The correlation was significant between physical activity in 1981 and physical fitness in 1996, but weak between physical activity in 1996 and fitness in 1996. It was also significant between waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in 1996 and physical activity during the previous 5 and 15 years. No significant correlations were found between physical activity and work ability or perceived physical or mental job stress. The physical fitness of middle-aged police officers seems to be predicted strongly by physical activity in early adulthood. Therefore health and fitness promotion measures should start at that time. This, together with regular systematic training, should help to sustain work ability of middle-aged police officers.

  9. Chest wall TB and low 25-hidroxy-vitamin D levels in a 15-month-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonsenso, Danilo; Focarelli, Benedetta; Scalzone, Maria; Chiaretti, Antonio; Gioè, Claudia; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Valentini, Piero

    2012-04-17

    Parietal chest wall tuberculosis is an extremely rare manifestation of tuberculosis (TB) in children. We present the case of a 15 month-old girl presenting with a chest wall lesion initially thought to be of neoplastic origin and eventually diagnosed as chest wall TB, which was treated with surgical debridement and specific antitubercular therapy. The girl had not-measurable 25-hidroxy-vitamin D levels, an increasingly recognized risk factor for the development of active TB. To our knowledge, in the English literature there are no similar described cases in such young infants. This case highlight the possibility of dealing with TB and its different manifestations also in low TB burden countries, due to continuously increasing migration flows. A detailed history is a key point to reach the diagnosis. Moreover, our case confirm the possible non casual relationship between TB and low 25-hidroxy-vitamin D levels, pointing out the importance of measuring its levels in all TB patients and considering its supplementation in addition to specific antitubercular therapy.

  10. Structural characterization of S100A15 reveals a novel zinc coordination site among S100 proteins and altered surface chemistry with functional implications for receptor binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Jill I

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S100 proteins are a family of small, EF-hand containing calcium-binding signaling proteins that are implicated in many cancers. While the majority of human S100 proteins share 25-65% sequence similarity, S100A7 and its recently identified paralog, S100A15, display 93% sequence identity. Intriguingly, however, S100A7 and S100A15 serve distinct roles in inflammatory skin disease; S100A7 signals through the receptor for advanced glycation products (RAGE in a zinc-dependent manner, while S100A15 signals through a yet unidentified G-protein coupled receptor in a zinc-independent manner. Of the seven divergent residues that differentiate S100A7 and S100A15, four cluster in a zinc-binding region and the remaining three localize to a predicted receptor-binding surface. Results To investigate the structural and functional consequences of these divergent clusters, we report the X-ray crystal structures of S100A15 and S100A7D24G, a hybrid variant where the zinc ligand Asp24 of S100A7 has been substituted with the glycine of S100A15, to 1.7 Å and 1.6 Å resolution, respectively. Remarkably, despite replacement of the Asp ligand, zinc binding is retained at the S100A15 dimer interface with distorted tetrahedral geometry and a chloride ion serving as an exogenous fourth ligand. Zinc binding was confirmed using anomalous difference maps and solution binding studies that revealed similar affinities of zinc for S100A15 and S100A7. Additionally, the predicted receptor-binding surface on S100A7 is substantially more basic in S100A15 without incurring structural rearrangement. Conclusions Here we demonstrate that S100A15 retains the ability to coordinate zinc through incorporation of an exogenous ligand resulting in a unique zinc-binding site among S100 proteins. The altered surface chemistry between S100A7 and S100A15 that localizes to the predicted receptor binding site is likely responsible for the differential recognition of distinct

  11. Botanical Compounds: Effects on Major Eye Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Phat Huynh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical compounds have been widely used throughout history as cures for various diseases and ailments. Many of these compounds exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. These are also common damaging mechanisms apparent in several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, and retinitis pigmentosa. In recent years, there have been many epidemiological and clinical studies that have demonstrated the beneficial effects of plant-derived compounds, such as curcumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, danshen, ginseng, and many more, on these ocular pathologies. Studies in cell cultures and animal models showed promising results for their uses in eye diseases. While there are many apparent significant correlations, further investigation is needed to uncover the mechanistic pathways of these botanical compounds in order to reach widespread pharmaceutical use and provide noninvasive alternatives for prevention and treatments of the major eye diseases.

  12. DNA Modification with Photochromic Spiro Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The photochromic spiropyrans and spirooxazine having a succinimidyl ester or isothiocyanate pendant group can form covalent products with transaminated DNA.The absorption spectra and solid reflection spectra of modified DNA with these photochromic spiro compounds were investigated.

  13. Compositional differences in the phenolics compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This study evaluates phenolic composition of commercial and experimental ... white wines, some contained large number of phenolic compounds while the others showed smaller number of ..... Synthesis, Properties, and Significance. Plenum ...

  14. Security evaluation of compounded microbial flocculant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马放; 王博; 范春; 杨基先; 李百祥; 刘艳滨

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of compounded microbial flocculant (CMBF) for water and wastewater treatment has been developed through biological technology. In order to discuss its biological security, four groups of experiments, rat acute toxicity test via mouth, salmonella assay in vitro, mouse micronucleus in vivo test and teratogenesis test were conducted to evaluate its general toxicity, genotoxicity and generative toxicity. The experimental results showed that this type of compounded microbial fiocculant was a substantial non-toxic substance based on the fact that LD50 value was over 10 mg/kg. The results from salmonella in vivo test and mouse micronucleus in vivo test revealed that the compounded microbial flocculant is a genetically non-toxic substance. Furthermore, compounded microbial flocculant has little effect on the growth of all the rats, and any morphologic abnormal phenomenon hasnt appeared.

  15. Mechanochemical reactions on copper-based compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Bakker, H.; Poels, E.K.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanochemical reactions of copper and copper oxides with oxygen and carbon dioxide are discussed, as well as decomposition and reduction of copper compounds by mechanical milling under high-vacuum conditions.

  16. Atmospheric Chemistry of Micrometeoritic Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, M. E.; Belle, C. L.; Pevyhouse, A. R.; Iraci, L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Micrometeorites approx.100 m in diameter deliver most of the Earth s annual accumulation of extraterrestrial material. These small particles are so strongly heated upon atmospheric entry that most of their volatile content is vaporized. Here we present preliminary results from two sets of experiments to investigate the fate of the organic fraction of micrometeorites. In the first set of experiments, 300 m particles of a CM carbonaceous chondrite were subject to flash pyrolysis, simulating atmospheric entry. In addition to CO and CO2, many organic compounds were released, including functionalized benzenes, hydrocarbons, and small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the second set of experiments, we subjected two of these compounds to conditions that simulate the heterogeneous chemistry of Earth s upper atmosphere. We find evidence that meteor-derived compounds can follow reaction pathways leading to the formation of more complex organic compounds.

  17. Negative thermal expansion in framework compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Mittal

    2008-10-01

    We have studied negative thermal expansion (NTE) compounds with chemi- cal compositions of NX2O8 and NX2O7 (N=Zr, Hf and X=W, Mo, V) and M2O (M=Cu, Ag) using the techniques of inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics. There is a large variation in the negative thermal expansion coefficients of these compounds. The inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been carried out using polycrystalline and single crystal samples at ambient pressure as well as at high pressures. Experimental data are useful to confirm the predictions made from our lattice dynamical calculations as well as to check the quality of the interatomic potentials developed by us. We have been able to successfully model the NTE behaviour of these compounds. Our studies show that unusual phonon softening of low energy modes is able to account for NTE in these compounds.

  18. Compound Option Pricing under Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiandong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the uncertainty of a financial market includes two aspects: risk and vagueness; in this paper, fuzzy sets theory is applied to model the imprecise input parameters (interest rate and volatility. We present the fuzzy price of compound option by fuzzing the interest and volatility in Geske’s compound option pricing formula. For each α, the α-level set of fuzzy prices is obtained according to the fuzzy arithmetics and the definition of fuzzy-valued function. We apply a defuzzification method based on crisp possibilistic mean values of the fuzzy interest rate and fuzzy volatility to obtain the crisp possibilistic mean value of compound option price. Finally, we present a numerical analysis to illustrate the compound option pricing under fuzzy environment.

  19. The Industrial Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes methods for enriching an A-level chemistry course with a series of chemical company visits. The rationale is discussed for an emphasis of the visits on the industrial reduction of aromatic nitro compounds. (CS)

  20. Thermodynamic Analysis of Ionic Compounds: Synthetic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Claude H.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how thermodynamic cycles can be used to understand trends in heats of formation and aqueous solubilities and, most importantly, how they may be used to choose synthetic routes to new ionic compounds. (JN)

  1. New approach for screeninganti-tumor compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new screening approach for anticancer active compounds is presented. In this method, a target enzyme is incubated with a mixture of compounds, and then the complex formed by the target and small molecules is separated from the rest of the mixture by ultra-filtration. The complex that is retained on the membrane is subsequently washed with acid and small molecules that are specifically bound to the target are released and collected, then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatograph combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) analysis. We have successfully applied this method to screen anti-cancer compounds. DNA topoisomeraseⅡ is used as a target to capture anti-tumor candidates from a mixture of combinatorial compounds, such as doxorubicin, daunorubicin and pravastain.

  2. Trifluoromethylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Sodium Trifluoroacetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In the presence of copper (Ⅰ) halide as catalyst, a variety of carbonyl compounds could be trifluoromethylated with sodium trifluoroacetate to give the corresponding alcohols in moderate to high yields.

  3. Phytoestrogens: Plant-derived Estrogenic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Konar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is a hormone, which is produced in ovary and testis; however, it has many biological effects besides the reproductive system. Phytoestrogens are the compounds, which have estrogen-like structure and activities, taking place in structure of various edible plants at different levels and in different compositions. These compounds attracted notice after the first quarter of 20th century upon they had been associated with infertility seen in some of animals fed with alfalfa, and these compounds have been identified in human-derived biological samples and its effects on health have been taken under study in the recent 30 years. These materials have especially antioxidant role in plants while they have activities in animals and humans as estrogen agonist and antagonists. Based on their chemical structure, they may be gathered under especially isoflavon and lignan groups while some of members of coumestan and stilbene groups are also identified as phytoestrogenic compound.

  4. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Alessandro eDel Nobile

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables and cereal-based products where these compounds found application.

  5. Organolead compounds shown to be genetically active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlberg, J.; Ramel, C.; Wachtmeister, C.A.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether alkyllead compounds would cause a genetic effect similar to that caused by alkyl mercury compounds. Experiments were conducted on Allium cepa (onion) in order to determine the effect of lead compounds on the spindle fiber mechanism. Results indicate that disturbances of the spindle fiber mechanism occur even at very low concentrations. The lowest concentration at which such effects are observed seems to be between 10/sup -6/ and 10/sup -7/ M for the organic compounds. Although no effect can be observed on the spindle fibers at lower dosages, the mitotic index is changed even at a dose of 10/sup -7/ M with dimethyllead. A preliminary experiment was made on Drosophila with triethyllead in order to investigate whether the effects which were observed on mitoses in Allium would also be observed in a meiotic cell system in an animal.

  6. Perfluorinated Compounds In The Ohio River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in waterways include pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), alkylphenols, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs). Their distributions and persistence in the aquatic environment remain p...

  7. Electrode reactions and electroanalysis of organomercury compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurmaz, Vladimir A [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Gul' tyai, Vadim P [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-06-09

    Characteristic features of mechanisms and kinetics of electrode reactions of organomercury compounds (symmetrical, non-symmetrical) and organomercury salts on a mercury electrode are analyzed. Attention is focused on the effect of coordination, adsorption and the nature and properties of intermediates on these processes as well as on the formation of organomercury derivatives in the adsorption of organic and hetero-organic compounds on a mercury electrode. The kinetics of heterogeneous chemical equilibrium {sup o}rganic calomel{sup -}symmetrical organomercury compound in the adsorption layer and the relative stability of intermediates in the one-electron reduction of organomercury salts are discussed as well as the electrolytic hydrogen evolution catalyzed by organomercury intermediates. The problems of combined and separate electrochemical quantitation of organic and inorganic mercury compounds in natural objects are considered.

  8. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  9. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attioua

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... natural habitat in Ivory Coast, in the forest region near Abidjan .... Structure of the isolated compounds from T. ivoiriensis: 1, .... Complex tannins are generally considered to have .... Forest production for tropical America.

  10. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kshale

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... spectrometry. K. Shale1*, J. Mukamugema2, R. J. Lues1, P. Venter3 and K. K. Mokoena1 ..... Cajka T, Riddellova K, Tomaniova M, Hajslova J (2010). Recognition of ... volatile organic compounds of coniferous needle litter.

  11. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes...

  12. Expatriate Compound Living: An Ethnographic Field Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    ethnographic field-work methodology, including interviews and participant observation during a period of three months, this exploratory study investigated 16 Danish business expatriates of a large Danish corporation and their families living in the same compound in Saudi Arabia. They shared their spare time...... and the expatriates had the same working hours in the same subsidiary. Results show that a Danish national group was established and maintained. This in-group dominated life in the compound and at work it may have contributed to the perceptual bias and discriminatory behaviour demonstrated by the Danish expatriates......In certain countries, closed expatriate compounds have developed.  They serve to provide resident expatriates and accompanying family members with a comfortable and safe environment. Unfortunately, not much is known about compound life since associated empirical research is scarce. Through...

  13. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Chitambar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  14. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much in their content. The external fractions of the grain, the bran and specially the aleurone, are the richest. We observed that processing the bran in whole-grain breads increased three times the leve...

  15. BASF Launches New Compounding Plant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ BASF, a leading international chemical company,kicked off construction of an engineering plastics compounding plant Pudong Area in Shanghai in midMay. The new facility is a world-scale plant with annual capacity of 45,000 tons. It is one of the most modern compounding plants in the world today, with "the highest environmental standards and the most efficient production capabilities available," according to a BASF official.

  16. Two new compounds from Zingiber officinale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new cyclic diarylheptanoid, 1,5-epoxy-3-hydroxy-1-(3-methoxy-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-heptane (1), as well as a new monoterpene, 10-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-hydroxy cineole (2) were isolated from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale.The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established based on their spectral data. In addition, the antioxidant activities of these compounds were also measured.

  17. Microwave Resonant Absorption of Potential Exothermic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-22

    exothermic materials: lead azide, lead styphnate , PETN, composition B, black powder, nitrocellulose, boron barium Chromate, and M-30 exhibit sharp...the exothermic materials. Table 1. Compounds Tested Compound Source 1 Lead Azide Broco Inc, Rialto CA 2 Lead Styphnate 3 PETN 4 Comp B 5 Black Powder 6...Nitrocellulose (12.6% Nitration) 7 Boron Barium Chromate ICI America, Valley Forge, PA 8 M30 (Gun Propellent) Radford Army Ammunition Plant, Radford

  18. Health promoting compounds in vegetables and fruits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K.; Christensen, L.P.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2004-01-01

    Vegetables contain unknown compounds with important health promoting effect. The described project defined and tested a two-step screening procedure for identification of such compounds. Step 1 is initial screening according to three criteria: 1.1, chemically reactive functional groups; 1.2, toxi...... in bioassay; and 2.3, possibility to control content in food. Falcarinol from carrots fulfilled all 6 criteria and subsequently showed anticancer effect in rats....

  19. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Thomas H.; Meredith A. Wilkes; Ali Khoddami

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the pre...

  20. Chalcones: compounds possessing a diversity in applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Berar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chalcones are a class of α, β- unsaturated carbonyl compounds that form the central core for a variety of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. They exhibit tremendous potential to act as a pharmacological agent. Besides their various pharmacological activities, chalcones have been explored for different optical applications including second harmonic generation materials in non- linear optics, fluorescent probe for sensing different molecules.

  1. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Bekki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  2. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-10-28

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  3. Semantic Analysis of Compound Verbs: A Cognitive Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴龙

    2015-01-01

    In compounding studies,NN compounds have caught great attention,while compound verbs are always kept outside of the main focus.Therefore much more efforts should be put on the study of compound verbs to balance this disproportion as well as to complete the research of compounding.

  4. Pediatric robot-assisted laparoscopic radical adrenalectomy and lymph-node dissection for neuroblastoma in a 15-month-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwaydah, Nabeel I; Jones, Alex; Elkaissi, Mahmoud; Yu, Zhongxin; Palmer, Blake W

    2014-09-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children and the most common malignancy in infants, with complete resection being curative in low-stage disease. The previous standard of treatment for many abdominal NBs involving the adrenal gland had been open surgery; however, there have been numerous descriptions of the safety and feasibility of a laparoscopic approach to resect adrenal masses in the pediatric population in benign and malignant disease, including improved cosmetic results, decreased length of stay, decreased surgical morbidity, and comparable oncological outcomes to open surgery. Despite these reported advantages over open surgery, the newer robot-assisted laparoscopy (RAL) offers benefits over the conventional laparoscopic approach that could further improve outcomes and expand the use of minimally invasive surgical approaches for pediatric adrenal masses. RAL offers many additional advantages over conventional laparoscopy, such as 3D visualization, increased range of motion of surgical instruments, tremor control, and a shorter learning curve compared with traditional laparoscopic surgery, while still maintaining the advantages of minimally invasive surgery. The body of literature concerning robot-assisted oncological surgery involving the adrenal gland in children is quite small, and to our knowledge no case reports have been published describing robot-assisted removal of an adrenal NB in a pediatric patient. We present our experience and technique of an RAL approach for lymph-node dissection and radical resection of a low-stage NB involving the adrenal gland with no image-defined risk factors in a 15-month-old infant.

  5. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Loret de Mola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001, wasting (p<0.001, and stunting (p<0.001 in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001, however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%. Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001; with higher reduction in urban (↓43% than in rural children (↓24%. BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001 across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. CONCLUSION: Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  6. OXITOCINA NO SÊMEN SUÍNO HETEROSPÉRMICO RESFRIADO A 15 oC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Luiz de Oliveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da oxitocina sobre a qualidade do sêmen suíno heterospérmico diluído em BTS e armazenado a 15 °C. Foram utilizadas três misturas de dois ejaculados, coletados de quatro animais mestiços. As doses contendo o sêmen foram armazenadas em geladeira, em garrafas plásticas, sem oxitocina (T1 e outra com adição de oxitocina (T2 na concentração de 2,5 UI/ dose. Amostras de sêmen foram retiradas nos tempos zero, 24 e 48 horas para avaliações de fertilidade. Os valores médios encontrados para motilidade, vigor, percentagem de espermatozóides vivos e integridade de acrossoma foram respectivamente de 63,0%, 2,9, 90,0% e 98,0% no tempo 24 h e 55,0%, 2,7, 90,6% e 97,2% no tempo 48 h de armazenamento. E para o sêmen tratado com oxitocina (T2 os valores médios encontrados foram: 63,0%, 3,0, 90,7% e 97%,1 no tempo 24 h e 58,0%, 2,8, 88,6% e 97,1% no tempo 48 h. As análises estatísticas mostraram que houve diferenças significativas apenas para o vigor espermático, mas que a oxitocina pode ser utilizada como meio de aumentar a taxa de concepção dos animais. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseminação artificial, suínos, sêmen heterospérmico.

  7. Use of a 15N tracer to determine linkages between a mangrove and an upland freshwater swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, R. A.; Cormier, N.

    2005-05-01

    Mangrove forests and adjacent upland freshwater swamps are important components of subsistence-based economies of Pacific islands. Mangroves provide valuable firewood (Rhizophora apiculata) and mangrove crabs (Scylla serrata); intact freshwater swamps are often used for agroforestry (e.g., taro cultivation). While these two systems are connected hydrologically via groundwater and surface flows, little information is available on how they may be biogeochemically or ecologically linked. For example, mangrove leaf litter was once thought to be an important food source for resident and transient nekton and invertebrates, but this value may have been overestimated. Instead, nutrients or allochthonous material (e.g., phytoplankton, detritus) delivered via groundwater or surface water from upland freshwater swamps may play a larger role in mangrove food webs. Understanding the linkages between these two ecologically and culturally important ecosystems will help us to understand the potential impacts of hydrological alterations that occur when roads or bridges are constructed through them. We conducted a 15N tracer study in the Yela watershed on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. K15NO3 was continually added at trace levels for 4 weeks to the Yela River in an upland freshwater swamp adjacent to a mangrove forest. Nitrate and ammonium pools, major primary producers, macroinvertebrates, and fish were sampled from stations 5 m upstream (freshwater swamp) and 138, 188, 213, and 313 m downstream (mangrove) from the tracer addition. Samples were collected once a week prior to, during, and after the 15N addition for a total of 6 weeks. Preliminary results revealed no significant enrichment (< 1 ‰) in the 15N isotope composition of either resident shrimp (Macrobrachium sp.) or mudskipper fish (Periophthalmus sp.). However, the 15N signature of ammonium pools was enriched 10-60 ‰ by the end of the third week. These results suggest that the tracer was present

  8. Mucinous Cystic Adenoma of Ovary in a 15-Year-Old Girl with an Unusual Presentation (A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Rahimi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ovarian cysts are relatively rare in children. Mucinous cystadenomas are rarely encountered in adolescent patients and can reach an enormous size. Mural nodules associated with mucinous tumors of the ovary may represent a benign or malignant process."nCase Presentation: Our case was a 15-year-old female, which referred with a painless abdominal distention gradually appearing during six months. There was no specific symptom only mild discomfort of bowel habits with the regular menstruation. On physical examination, there was complete distention of the abdomen without any tenderness. Ultrasonography revealed a large loculated cystic mass in the abdominopelvic cavity, which contained few septations and mural nodules without any vascularity on color Doppler ultrasonography. All other organs appeared normal. On contrast enhanced CT scan, there was a large intra-peritoneal 280×250×170 mm anteriorly located cystic mass which extended from the upper abdomen down to the lower pelvis displacing and compressing adjacent structures posterolaterally. Multiple enhancing septa and two mural nodules were found in the cystic mass. All solid organs appeared normal and no significant adenopathy or ascitis was detected. According to the above findings, omental cysts, adenexal cysts, urachal cysts, mesenteric cysts were our differential diagnosis. A 10 kg mass was resected (an exophytic cyst in the right ovary and histopathology revealed mucinous cystic adenoma of the right ovary with fibrotic mural nodules. No recurrence was detected after one year."nDiscussion: Mucinous cystadenomas are rarely encountered in adolescent patients and can reach an enormous size. The interesting point of this case was not only because of its rarity but also because of its unusual symptomless manifestation and also fibrotic mural nodules."nKeywords: Mucinous Cystic Adenoma, Ovary, Adolescence

  9. Flood-inundation maps for a 15-mile reach of the Kalamazoo River from Marshall to Battle Creek, Michigan, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, C.J.; Fowler, K.K.; Kim, M.H.; Menke, C.D.; Morlock, S.E.; Peppler, M.C.; Rachol, C.M.; Whitehead, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 15-mile reach of the Kalamazoo River from Marshall to Battle Creek, Michigan, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to help guide remediation efforts following a crude-oil spill on July 25, 2010. The spill happened on Talmadge Creek, a tributary of the Kalamazoo River near Marshall, during a flood. The floodwaters transported the spilled oil down the Kalamazoo River and deposited oil in impoundments and on the surfaces of islands and flood plains. Six flood-inundation maps were constructed corresponding to the flood stage (884.09 feet) coincident with the oil spill on July 25, 2010, as well as for floods with annual exceedance probabilities of 0.2, 1, 2, 4, and 10 percent. Streamflow at the USGS streamgage at Marshall, Michigan (USGS site ID 04103500), was used to calculate the flood probabilities. From August 13 to 18, 2010, 35 channel cross sections, 17 bridges and 1 dam were surveyed. These data were used to construct a water-surface profile for the July 25, 2010, flood by use of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The calibrated model was used to estimate water-surface profiles for other flood probabilities. The resulting six flood-inundation maps were created with a geographic information system by combining flood profiles with a 1.2-foot vertical and 10-foot horizontal resolution digital elevation model derived from Light Detection and Ranging data.

  10. The stability of life satisfaction in a 15-year follow-up of adult Finns healthy at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honkanen Risto J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While physical health has improved considerably over recent decades in Finland, the disease burden of mental health, especially that of depression, has become increasingly demanding. However, we lack long-term data on the natural course of subjective well-being in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term course of self-reported life satisfaction. Methods This was a 15-year prospective cohort study on a nationwide sample of adult Finnish twins (N = 9679, aged 18–45 and healthy at baseline, who responded to postal questionnaires in 1975, 1981 and 1990 including a 4-item life satisfaction scale (happiness/easiness/interest in life and feelings of loneliness. Life satisfaction score (range: 4–20 was classified into three categories: satisfied (4–6, intermediate (7–11 and dissatisfied group (12–20. The associations between life satisfaction scores during the follow-up were studied with linear/logistic regression. Results Moderate stability and only a slight effect of age or birth-cohort on mean life satisfaction score (LS were detected. In 1990, 56% of all and 31% of the dissatisfied remained in the same LS category as at baseline. Only 5.9% of the study subjects changed from being satisfied to dissatisfied or vice versa. Correlations between continuous scores (1975, 1981 and 1990 were 0.3–0.4. Baseline dissatisfaction (compared to satisfaction predicted dissatisfaction in 1981 (OR = 10.4; 95%CI 8.3–13.1 and 1990 (5.6; 4.6–6.8. Multiple adjustments decreased the risk only slightly. Conclusions Life satisfaction in adult Finns was moderately stable during 15 years. Among an identifiable group (i.e. the dissatisfied life dissatisfaction may become persistent, which places them at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes.

  11. A 15-year review of midface reconstruction after total and subtotal maxillectomy: part I. Algorithm and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Peter G; Chen, Constance M

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex midfacial defects is best approached with a clear algorithm. The goals of reconstruction are functional and aesthetic. Over a 15-year period (1992 to 2006), a single surgeon (P.G.C.) performed 100 flaps to reconstruct the following midfacial defects: type I, limited maxillectomy (n = 20); type IIA, subtotal maxillectomy with resection of less than 50 percent of the palate (n = 8); type IIB, subtotal maxillectomy with resection of greater than 50 percent of the palate (n = 8); type IIIA, total maxillectomy with preservation of the orbital contents (n = 22); type IIIB, total maxillectomy with orbital exenteration (n = 23); and type IV, orbitomaxillectomy (n = 19). Free flaps were used in 94 cases (94 percent), and pedicled flaps were used in six (6 percent). One hundred flaps were performed in 96 patients (69 males, 72 percent; 27 females, 28 percent); four patients underwent a second flap reconstruction due to recurrent disease (n = 4, 4 percent). Average patient age was 49.2 years (range, 13 to 81 years). Free-flap survival was 100 percent, with one partial flap loss (1 percent). Five patients suffered systemic complications (5.2 percent), and four died within 30 days of hospitalization (4.2 percent). Over 50 percent of patients returned to normal diet and speech. Almost 60 percent were judged to have an excellent aesthetic result. Free-tissue transfer offers the most effective and reliable form of reconstruction for complex maxillectomy defects. Rectus abdominis and radial forearm free flaps in combination with immediate bone grafting or as osteocutaneous flaps consistently provide the best functional and aesthetic results. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. Estandarizacion de las pruebas HOTV, Snellen y ETDRS en ninos de 5 a 15 anos de edad dentro del protocolo REISVO: una prueba piloto

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paez Castro, Angelica Maria; Bermudez Ruiz, Martha Luz

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el nivel de estandarizacion de las pruebas HOTV, Snellen y ETDRS para vision lejana, mediante prueba piloto, en ninos de 5 a 15 anos examinados en la Clinica de Optometria de la Universidad de La Salle. Metodologia...

  13. Neutron diffraction study of Er2Fe15A12 and Er2Fe12A15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The crystallographic and magnetic structures of Er2Fe15Al2 and Er2Fe12Al5 have been refined in Gaussian peak-shape by Rietveld analysis of Neutron diffraction data. The refined results indicated that Er2Fe15Al2 compound has Th2Ni17-typc hexagonal structure (space group: P63/mmc) and Er2Fe12Al5 has Th2Zn17-type rhombohedral structure (space group:R 3m). The Al atoms prefer 12j and 12k sites with ccupancies 0.21 and 0.13, respectively, in Er2Fe15Al2 and prefer 18f, 18h and 6c sites with occupancies 0.35, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively, in Er2Fe12Al5. The magnetic moments of all Fe atoms display ferromagnetically arrangement and the moments of Er atoms couple ferrimagnetically to the moments of the Fe atoms. The moments lie in the plane perpendicular to the six-fold axis and exhibit planar magnetic anisotropy in both samples. The values of Tc were given and the neutron refined results coincide with that of the magnetic measurements. The relation between magnetic properties and structures was discussed.

  14. Synthesis of a new series of anti-rhinovirus compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Yong Fan; Chun Lai Mi; Jun Yang; Song Li; Zhi Bing Zheng

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of 3,6-dichloropyridazine derivatives was described. In vitro experiment, all compounds exhibited an anti-rhinovirus activity, and one of the compounds 6g showed the comparable activity as our lead compound pirodavir.

  15. High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, J.

    2007-01-01

    High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites Jeroen Kool Biotransformation enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Usually, the detoxication of these compounds by biotransformation enzymes results in harmless metab

  16. A 15-year warranty period for asymptomatic individuals without coronary artery calcium: a prospective follow-up of 9715 individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Heo, Ran; Cho, Iksung; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Gransar, Heidi; Truong, Quynh A.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Knapper, Joseph; Kelkar, Anita A.; Sandesara, Pratik; Lin, Fay Y.; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Callister, Tracy Q.; Min, James K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine long-term prognosis of a zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score among asymptomatic individuals and its associated warranty period. Background Emerging evidence supports CAC=0 as a favorable cardiovascular short-to-intermediate term prognostic factor. Methods 9715 individuals undergoing CAC imaging were stratified by age, Framingham risk score (FRS) and Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) categories and followed for a mean of 14.6 (12.9–16.8) years. Cox regression, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification information (NRI) were used to assess all-cause mortality, discrimination and reclassification of CAC=0 compared with FRS and NCEP ATP III, respectively. A warranty period was pre-defined as <1% annual mortality rate. Vascular age was estimated by linear regression. Results Among 4864 individuals with baseline CAC=0 (mean age 52.1±10.8 years; 57.9% male), 229 deaths occurred. The warranty period of CAC=0 was almost 15 years for individuals at low and intermediate risk with no significant differences regarding age and gender. CAC=0 was associated with a vascular age of 1, 10, 20, and 30 years below chronologic age for individuals between 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and ≥80 years, respectively. CAC score was the strongest predictor of death (HR 2.67, 95% CI 2.29–3.11) that enabled discrimination and consistent reclassification beyond FRS (AUC 0.71 vs. 0.64, p<0.001) and NCEP ATP III (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.64, p<0.001). Conclusions CAC=0 confers a 15-year warranty period against mortality among individuals at low-to-intermediate risk, which is unaffected by age or gender. Furthermore, in individuals considered at high-risk by clinical risk scores the presence of CAC=0 confers better survival than in individuals at low-to-intermediate risk but with any CAC. PMID:26189116

  17. The effect of a paraffin screen on the neutron dose at the maze door of a 15 MV linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmar, M; Nikolić, D; Kuzmanović, A; Kuzmanović, Z; Ganezer, K

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a paraffin screen located at various positions in the maze on the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door. The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze door of a room containing a 15 MV linear accelerator for x-ray therapy. Measurements were performed for several positions of the paraffin screen covering only 27.5% of the cross-sectional area of the maze. The neutron dose equivalent was also measured at all screen positions. Two simple models of the neutron source were considered in which the first assumed that the source was the cross-sectional area at the inner entrance of the maze, radiating neutrons in an isotropic manner. In the second model the reduction in the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door due to the paraffin screen was considered to be a function of the mean values of the neutron fluence and energy at the screen. The results of this study indicate that the equivalent dose at the maze door was reduced by a factor of 3 through the use of a paraffin screen that was placed inside the maze. It was also determined that the contributions to the dosage from areas that were not covered by the paraffin screen as viewed from the dosimeter, were 2.5 times higher than the contributions from the covered areas. This study also concluded that the contributions of the maze walls, ceiling, and floor to the total neutron dose equivalent were an order of magnitude lower than those from the surface at the far end of the maze. This study demonstrated that a paraffin screen could be used to reduce the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door by a factor of 3. This paper also found that the reduction of the neutron dose equivalent was a linear function of the area covered by the maze screen and that the decrease in the dose at the maze door could be modeled as an exponential function of the product φ·E at the screen.

  18. The effect of a paraffin screen on the neutron dose at the maze door of a 15 MV linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmar, M.; Kuzmanović, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000 (Serbia); Nikolić, D. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Kuzmanović, Z. [International Medical Centers, Banja Luka 78000, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Ganezer, K. [Physics Department, California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California 90747 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a paraffin screen located at various positions in the maze on the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door.Methods: The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze door of a room containing a 15 MV linear accelerator for x-ray therapy. Measurements were performed for several positions of the paraffin screen covering only 27.5% of the cross-sectional area of the maze. The neutron dose equivalent was also measured at all screen positions. Two simple models of the neutron source were considered in which the first assumed that the source was the cross-sectional area at the inner entrance of the maze, radiating neutrons in an isotropic manner. In the second model the reduction in the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door due to the paraffin screen was considered to be a function of the mean values of the neutron fluence and energy at the screen.Results: The results of this study indicate that the equivalent dose at the maze door was reduced by a factor of 3 through the use of a paraffin screen that was placed inside the maze. It was also determined that the contributions to the dosage from areas that were not covered by the paraffin screen as viewed from the dosimeter, were 2.5 times higher than the contributions from the covered areas. This study also concluded that the contributions of the maze walls, ceiling, and floor to the total neutron dose equivalent were an order of magnitude lower than those from the surface at the far end of the maze.Conclusions: This study demonstrated that a paraffin screen could be used to reduce the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door by a factor of 3. This paper also found that the reduction of the neutron dose equivalent was a linear function of the area covered by the maze screen and that the decrease in the dose at the maze door could be modeled as an exponential function of the product φ·E at the screen.

  19. Analysing sediment production and transfer in a small Mediterranean mountain basin using a 15-year data period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Soler, Montserrat; Nord, Guillaume; Catari, Gusman

    2010-05-01

    Badland landscapes are known to be the main sediment sources in the upper Llobregat basin and particularly in the small Vallcebre research basins (Eastern Pyrenees). The dynamics of these badlands is dominated by physical weathering during winter and by water erosion during intense rainstorms in summer. Nevertheless, as these landscapes represent a small fraction of the basin area, their role as runoff source is only relevant when the basin is dry, but it becomes less important during major rainfall events under wet conditions. Thus, there is a temporal uncoupling between runoff and sediment supply that results in events with a large variety of sediment concentration - discharge relationships at the gauging stations, as well as sediment deposition and erosion phases in the stream channels. The main aim of this work is to analyse the relevance and renewal times of the sediment stored in the stream channels in the Ca l'Isard sub-basin (1.32 km2). Information on stream discharge and suspended sediment loads was taken from a 15-year record at the gauging station, whereas badland erosion for the same period was simulated using the soil erosion model KINEROS2. The model was calibrated and validated using 3-year sediment yield data obtained using containers provided with slot divisors in a 1,240 m2 elementary badland catchment. Other qualitative observations were also used for validation. The results demonstrated that there was a low correlation between badland erosion volumes and stream sediment loads at the event scale; the first were well correlated with rainfall intensities whereas the latter were better correlated with total event precipitations and stream discharges. Badland erosion was simulated as null for some events with large stream sediment loads because de model did not simulate any runoff on the hillslopes. Stream sediment transport was more compulsive than badland erosion, as 90% of the sediment exported from the basin was produced by only 21% of the events

  20. Chemical effect on diffusion in intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ting

    With the trend of big data and the Internet of things, we live in a world full of personal electronic devices and small electronic devices. In order to make the devices more powerful, advanced electronic packaging such as wafer level packaging or 3D IC packaging play an important role. Furthermore, ?-bumps, which connect silicon dies together with dimension less than 10 ?m, are crucial parts in advanced packaging. Owing to the dimension of ?-bumps, they transform into intermetallic compound from tin based solder after the liquid state bonding process. Moreover, many new reliability issues will occur in electronic packaging when the bonding materials change; in this case, we no longer have tin based solder joint, instead, we have intermetallic compound ?-bumps. Most of the potential reliability issues in intermetallic compounds are caused by the chemical reactions driven by atomic diffusion in the material; thus, to know the diffusivities of atoms inside a material is significant and can help us to further analyze the reliability issues. However, we are lacking these kinds of data in intermetallic compound because there are some problems if used traditional Darken's analysis. Therefore, we considered Wagner diffusivity in our system to solve the problems and applied the concept of chemical effect on diffusion by taking the advantage that large amount of energy will release when compounds formed. Moreover, by inventing the holes markers made by Focus ion beam (FIB), we can conduct the diffusion experiment and obtain the tracer diffusivities of atoms inside the intermetallic compound. We applied the technique on Ni3Sn4 and Cu3Sn, which are two of the most common materials in electronic packaging, and the tracer diffusivities are measured under several different temperatures; moreover, microstructure of the intermetallic compounds are investigated to ensure the diffusion environment. Additionally, the detail diffusion mechanism was also discussed in aspect of diffusion

  1. Phenolic compounds in Rosaceae fruits from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, Catalina; Riihinen, Kaisu; Ruales, Jenny; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    2009-02-25

    RP-HPLC-DAD was used to study the content of phenolic compounds in four Ecuadorian fruits (strawberry, Andean blackberry, plum, and capuli cherry). Compounds were identified using spectral characteristics of representative standards and reference samples. Further, LC-MS with MS/MS was used to confirm molecular assignments in previously unstudied capuli cherry. Gallic acid was detected in Andean blackberry, and galloyl esters were detected in strawberries. Both these berries contained ellagic acid derivatives as major compounds, followed by anthocyanins, cyanidin, and pelargonidin glycosides. Plums and capuli cherry showed similar profiles of phenolic compounds, with chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids being the most important hydroxycinnamates. (-)-Epicatechin was found in high amounts in Andean blackberry, plums, and capuli cherry, while (+)-catechin was only found in capuli cherry. Proanthocyanidins were major compounds in all fruits, and all contained considerable amounts of quercetin derivatives and smaller amounts of kaempferol derivatives. LC-MS analysis of capuli cherry revealed dimeric and trimeric procyanidins, quercetin and kaempferol hexosides and pentosides, and a kaempferol-O,C-dipentoside.

  2. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Rocio IR; Marin, Jose JG; Serrano, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with the kidney, constitute the main routes for the elimination of several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds into bile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterine life the biliary route of excretion for cholephilic compounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, is very poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem. PMID:19230042

  3. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  4. Cerium-iron-based magnetic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chen; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Herbst, Jan F.

    2017-01-17

    New magnetic materials containing cerium, iron, and small additions of a third element are disclosed. These materials comprise compounds Ce(Fe.sub.12-xM.sub.x) where x=1-4, having the ThMn.sub.12 tetragonal crystal structure (space group I4/mmm, #139). Compounds with M=B, Al, Si, P, S, Sc, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, and W are identified theoretically, and one class of compounds based on M=Si has been synthesized. The Si cognates are characterized by large magnetic moments (4.pi.M.sub.s greater than 1.27 Tesla) and high Curie temperatures (264.ltoreq.T.sub.c.ltoreq.305.degree. C.). The Ce(Fe.sub.12-xM.sub.x) compound may contain one or more of Ti, V, Cr, and Mo in combination with an M element. Further enhancement in T.sub.c is obtained by nitriding the Ce compounds through heat treatment in N.sub.2 gas while retaining the ThMn.sub.12 tetragonal crystal structure; for example CeFe.sub.10Si.sub.2N.sub.1.29 has T.sub.c=426.degree. C.

  5. Macrocyclic trichothecenes as antifungal and anticancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Maira Peres; Weich, Herbert; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by fungi and species of the plant genus Baccharis, family Asteraceae. They comprise a tricyclic core with an epoxide at C-12 and C-13 and can be grouped into non-macrocyclic and macrocyclic compounds. While many of these compounds are of concern in agriculture, the macrocyclic metabolites have been evaluated as antiviral, anti-cancer, antimalarial and antifungal compounds. Some known cytotoxic responses on eukaryotic cells include inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA syntheses, interference with mitochondrial function, effects on cell division and membranes. These targets however have been elucidated essentially employing non-macrocyclic trichothecenes and only one or two closely related macrocyclic compounds. For several macrocyclic trichothecenes high selectivity against fungal species and against cancer cell lines have been reported suggesting that the macrocycle and its stereochemistry are of crucial importance regarding biological activity and selectivity. This review is focused on compounds belonging to the macrocyclic type, where a cyclic diester or triester ring binds to the trichothecane moiety at C-4 and C- 15 leading to natural products belonging to the groups of satratoxins, verrucarins, roridins, myrotoxins and baccharinoids. Their biological activities, cytotoxic mechanisms and structure-activity relationships (SAR) are discussed. From the reported data it becomes evident that even small changes in the molecules can lead to pronounced effects on biological activity or selectivity against cancer cells lines. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may help to design highly specific drugs for cancer therapy.

  6. Nature of phenolic compounds in coffee melanoidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carina; Ribeiro, Miguel; Cruz, Ana C S; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A; Bunzel, Mirko; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-08-06

    Phenolic compounds are incorporated into coffee melanoidins during roasting mainly in condensed form (42-62 mmol/100 g) and also in ester-linked form (1.1-1.6 mmol/100 g), with incorporation levels depending on the green coffee chlorogenic acid content. The phenolic compounds are incorporated in different coffee melanoidin populations, but mainly in those soluble in 75% ethanol (82%), a significant correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and the amount of protein and color characteristics of the different melanoidin populations being observed. The incorporation of phenolic compounds into coffee melanoidins is a significant pathway of chlorogenic acid degradation during roasting, representing 23% of the chlorogenic acids lost. These account for the nearly 26% of the material not accounted for by polysaccharides and proteins present in coffee melanodins. The cleavage mechanism and the efficiency of alkaline fusion used to release condensed phenolics from coffee melanoidins suggest that the phenolic compounds can be linked to the polymeric material by aryl-ether, stilbene type, and/or biphenyl linkages.

  7. Basics and prospective of magnetic Heusler compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Felser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heusler compounds are a remarkable class of materials with more than 1000 members and a wide range of extraordinary multi-functionalities including halfmetallic high-temperature ferri- and ferromagnets, multi-ferroics, shape memory alloys, and tunable topological insulators with a high potential for spintronics, energy technologies, and magneto-caloric applications. The tunability of this class of materials is exceptional and nearly every functionality can be designed. Co2-Heusler compounds show high spin polarization in tunnel junction devices and spin-resolved photoemission. Manganese-rich Heusler compounds attract much interest in the context of spin transfer torque, spin Hall effect, and rare earth free hard magnets. Most Mn2-Heusler compounds crystallize in the inverse structure and are characterized by antiparallel coupling of magnetic moments on Mn atoms; the ferrimagnetic order and the lack of inversion symmetry lead to the emergence of new properties that are absent in ferromagnetic centrosymmetric Heusler structures, such as non-collinear magnetism, topological Hall effect, and skyrmions. Tetragonal Heusler compounds with large magneto crystalline anisotropy can be easily designed by positioning the Fermi energy at the van Hove singularity in one of the spin channels. Here, we give a comprehensive overview and a prospective on the magnetic properties of Heusler materials.

  8. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-04-23

    Polymers comprising residues of cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent are provided. The cage compound monomers are selected from borane cage compound monomers comprising at least 7 cage atoms and/or carborane cage compound monomers comprising 7 to 11 cage compound monomers. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Articles of manufacture comprising such polymers are also disclosed.

  9. Solid-State Fault Current Limiter Development : Design and Testing Update of a 15kV SSCL Power Stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ram Adapa; Mr. Dante Piccone

    2012-04-30

    limiting or current interrupting capabilities. It can be applied to variety of applications from distribution class to transmission class power delivery grids and networks. It can also be applied to single major commercial and industrial loads and distributed generator supplies. The active switching of devices can be further utilized for protection of substation transformers. The stress on the system can be reduced substantially improving the life of the power system. It minimizes the voltage sag by speedy elimination of heavy fault currents and promises to be an important element of the utility power system. DOE Perspective This development effort is now focused on a 15kV system. This project will help mitigate the challenges of increasing available fault current. DOE has made a major contribution in providing a cost effective SSCL designed to integrate seamlessly into the Transmission and Distribution networks of today and the future. Approach SSCL development program for a 69kV SSCL was initiated which included the use of the Super GTO advanced semiconductor device which won the 2007 R&D100 Award. In the beginning, steps were identified to accomplish the economically viable design of a 69kV class Solid State Current Limiter that is extremely reliable, cost effective, and compact enough to be applied in urban transmission. The prime thrust in design and development was to encompass the 1000A and the 3000A ratings and provide a modular design to cover the wide range of applications. The focus of the project was then shifted to a 15kV class SSCL. The specifications for the 15kV power stack are reviewed. The design changes integrated into the 15kV power stack are discussed. In this Technical Update the complete project is summarized followed by a detailed test report. The power stack independent high voltage laboratory test requirements and results are presented. Keywords Solid State Current Limiter, SSCL, Fault Current Limiter, Fault Current Controller, Power electronics

  10. Optimizing the extraction of antibacterial compounds from pineapple leaf fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhikai Zhuang; Jin Zhang; Mingfu Li; Ganran Deng; Zhongqing Ou; Wenwei Lian; Junyan He; Tao Huang

    2016-01-01

    ...) were used to extract antibacterial compounds from pineapple leaf fiber. Compounds extracted using acetone showed the greatest antibacterial effect against , measured by inhibition zone diameter...

  11. [Platinum compounds: metabolism, toxicity and supportive strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, H P; Hartmann, J T

    2005-02-09

    Although the leading platinum compounds, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, share some structural similarities, there are marked differences between them in therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects profiles. Compared with cisplatin, carboplatin has inferior efficacy in germ-cell tumors, head and neck cancers, and bladder and esophageal carcinomas, whereas the two drugs appear to have comparable efficacy in ovarian cancer, extensive small-cell lung cancers (SCLC), and advanced non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Oxaliplatin belongs to the group of diaminocyclohexane (DACH) platinum compounds. It is the first platinum-based drug that has marked efficacy in colorectal cancer when given in combination with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid. Nedaplatin has been registered in Japan, whereas other derivatives, like JM216 (which is the only orally available platinum derivative), ZD0473, BBR3464, and SPI-77 (a liposomal formulation of cisplatin), are still under investigation. The adverse effects of platinum compounds are reviewed together with possible prevention strategies.

  12. Magnetic phase transitions in layered intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushnikov, N. V.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Terent'ev, P. B.; Gaviko, V. S.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic, magnetoelastic, and magnetotransport properties have been studied for the RMn2Si2 and RMn6Sn6 (R is a rare earth metal) intermetallic compounds with natural layered structure. The compounds exhibit wide variety of magnetic structures and magnetic phase transitions. Substitution of different R atoms allows us to modify the interatomic distances and interlayer exchange interactions thus providing the transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state. Near the boundary of this transition the magnetic structures are very sensitive to the external field, temperature and pressure. The field-induced transitions are accompanied by considerable change in the sample size and resistivity. It has been shown that various magnetic structures and magnetic phase transitions observed in the layered compounds arise as a result of competition of the Mn-Mn and Mn-R exchange interactions.

  13. Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds, i.e. hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide have been identified as key odorants in livestock production due to their high concentration levels and low odor threshold values. At the same time their removal with abatement technologies based on mass transfer...... and, thus, odor removal in these systems. In this context, two processes based on the absorptive oxidation of sulfur compounds in trickling filters containing metal catalysts were examined. One process with iron chelated by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to remove hydrogen sulfide...... that the original sample composition was significantly impaired due to adsorption and diffusion at the walls of the measuring equipment. Generally, sulfur compounds were best preserved in both olfactometers and sample bags, while carboxylic acids, 4-methylphenol and trimethylamine were found to undergo substantial...

  14. Three new compounds from Morus nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Yan; Liu, Chao; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2010-06-01

    A new 2-arylbenzofuran derivative, mornigrol D (1), along with two new flavones, mornigrol G (2) and mornigrol H (3), and six known compounds, norartocarpetin (4), dihydrokaempferol (5), albanin A (6), albanin E (7), moracin M (8), and albafuran C (9), were isolated from the barks of Morus nigra. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 and 9 showed antioxidative activities in vitro with inhibition ratios of 98 and 99% at the concentration of 10(-4) mol/l, and of 74 and 75% at the concentration of 10(-5) mol/l. In addition, compounds 1 and 4 showed potent anti-inflammatory activities (inhibition of release of beta-glucuronidase from rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes induced by platelet activating factor) with inhibitory ratios of 65.9% (P < 0.01) and 67.7% (P < 0.01) at a concentration of 10(-5) mol/l.

  15. Compound control methodology for flight vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Yuanqing

    2013-01-01

    Compound Control Methodology for Flight Vehicles” focuses on new control methods for flight vehicles. In this monograph the concept of compound control is introduced. It is demonstrated that both Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) have their own advantages and limitations, i.e., chattering of SMC and the observability of extended state observer (ESO), respectively. It is shown that compound control combines their advantages and improves the performance of the closed-loop systems. The book is self-contained, providing sufficient mathematical foundations for understanding the contents of each chapter. It will be of significant interest to scientists and engineers engaged in the field of flight vehicle control.

  16. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  17. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  18. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  19. Compound imaging using Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Jensen, Jonas; Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) is a technique with low complexity and the ability to yield a more uniform lateral resolution with range. However, the presence of speckle artifacts in ultrasound images degrades the contrast. In conventional imaging speckle is reduced by using...... spatial compounding at the cost of a reduced frame rate. The objective is to apply spatial compounding to SASB and evaluate if the images have a reduced speckle appearance and thereby an improved image quality in terms of contrast compared to ordinary SASB. Using the simulation software Field II, RF data...... detection the five second stage images are added to form the compounded image. Using a ProFocus scanner and the 8804 linear array transducer (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark) measurements of a phantom containing water filled cysts are obtained to validate the simulation results. The setup is the same...

  20. Feasibility of a complex compound heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockenfeller, Uwe

    1987-07-01

    A feasibility study is described of a double effect gas fired heat pump using ammoniated solid vapor complex compounds as the working media. The cycle takes advantage of the coordinative characteristics of complex compound ligand bonds resulting in large coordination spheres with only one degree of freedom. The cycle has high efficiency, no moving parts, and minimum electrical parasitic requirements. Fluid properties of candidate materials were measured with respect to vapor pressure equilibria, coordination properties and thermal stability. Preliminary reaction rate measurements were performed in adsorption and desorption processes. A computer model of double effect cycle was developed in order to predict the operating performance of the candidate complex compound media. The computer model was used to determine preliminary heat balances and coefficients of performance.

  1. Chemical compounds from Chenopodium album Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive components from Chenopodium album Linn. were isolated and identified in this research. Light petroleum, dichloromethane and n-BuOH were firstly applied to partition the 75% EtOH extract of Chenopodium album Linn. which were then subjected to normal-phase silica, ODS silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography. By the employment of NMR method in this study, chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated. Three known compounds were isolated from Chenopodium album Linn., and identified as Isolariciresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (7’S, 8R, 8’R)-Isolariciresinol (2) and (7’S, 8R, 8’S)-Isolariciresinol (3) by comparison of their spectral data with references. This is the first time that isolation of the compounds mentioned above from Chenopodium album Linn. was achieved.

  2. Magnetic anisotropies of rare-earth compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenhaupt, M.; Rotter, M.; Kramp, S.

    2000-03-01

    There are two kinds of magnetic anisotropy in rare-earth compounds: the single-ion anisotropy caused by the crystal field (CF) and the anisotropy of the two-ion interactions. Both types of anisotropy have to be considered to arrive at a consistent description of the magnetic properties of the orthorhombic intermetallic compound NdCu 2. From the analysis of NdCu 2 we can derive predictions for the type of ordering in other isostructural RCu 2 compounds, that agree well with experimental results: If the magnetic moments point into the crystallographic b-direction, an ordering wave vector of (2/3 0 0) is expected. If the moments are oriented perpendicular to b then the ordering wave vector is (2/3 1 0) .

  3. Reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Allan

    2010-01-01

    This book discusses reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors, which have evolved rapidly during the last 15 years. Johnston's perspective in the book focuses on high-reliability applications in space, but his discussion of reliability is applicable to high reliability terrestrial applications as well. The book is important because there are new reliability mechanisms present in compound semiconductors that have produced a great deal of confusion. They are complex, and appear to be major stumbling blocks in the application of these types of devices. Many of the reliability problems that were prominent research topics five to ten years ago have been solved, and the reliability of many of these devices has been improved to the level where they can be used for ten years or more with low failure rates. There is also considerable confusion about the way that space radiation affects compound semiconductors. Some optoelectronic devices are so sensitive to damage in space that they are very difficu...

  4. Radiation synthesis of materials and compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kharisov, Boris Ildusovich; Ortiz Méndez, Ubaldo

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and engineers working in nuclear laboratories, nuclear electric plants, and elsewhere in the radiochemical industries need a comprehensive handbook describing all possible radiation-chemistry interactions between irradiation and materials, the preparation of materials under distinct radiation types, the possibility of damage of materials under irradiation, and more. Radiation nanotechnology is still practically an undeveloped field, except for some achievements in the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles under ionizing flows. Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds presents the state of the art of the synthesis of materials, composites, and chemical compounds, and describes methods based on the use of ionizing radiation. It is devoted to the preparation of various types of materials (including nanomaterials) and chemical compounds using ionizing radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, and neutron, proton, and ion beams). The book presents contributions from leaders ...

  5. Antiviral effect of cationic compounds on bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Huong eChatain-Ly

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antiviral activity of several cationic compounds - cetytrimethylammonium (CTAB, chitosan, nisin and lysozyme - was investigated on the bacteriophage c2 (DNA head and non-contractile tail infecting Lactococcus strains and the bacteriophage MS2 (F-specific RNA infecting E.coli. Firstly, these activities were evaluated in a phosphate buffer pH 7- 10 mM. The CTAB had a virucidal effect on the Lactococcus bacteriophages, but not on the MS2. After 1 min of contact with 0.125 mM CTAB, the c2 population was reduced from 6 log(pfu/mL to 1,5 log(pfu/mL and completely deactivated at 1 mM. On the contrary, chitosan inhibited the MS2 more than it did the bacteriophages c2. No antiviral effect was observed for the nisin or the lysozyme on bacteriophages after 1 min of treatment. A 1 and 2.5 log reduction was respectively observed for nisin and lysozyme when the treatment time increased (5 or 10 min. These results showed that the antiviral effect depended both on the virus and structure of the antimicrobial compounds. The antiviral activity of these compounds was also evaluated in different physico-chemical conditions and in complex matrices. The antiviral activity of CTAB was impaired in acid pH and with an increase of the ionic strength. These results might be explained by the electrostatic interactions between cationic compounds and negatively charged particles such as bacteriophages or other compounds in a matrix. Milk proved to be protective suggesting the components of food could interfere with antimicrobial compounds.

  6. Antiviral Lead Compounds from Marine Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth P. Minneman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV. The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed.

  7. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2010-10-11

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  8. Web-accessible Chemical Compound Information

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Dana L

    2008-01-01

    Web-accessible chemical compound information resources are widely available. In addition to fee-based resources, such as SciFinder Scholar and Beilstein, there is a wide variety of freely accessible resources such as ChemSpider and PubChem. The author provides a general description of various fee-based and free chemical compound resources. The free resources generally offer an acceptable alternative to fee-based resources for quick retrieval. It is assumed that readers will be familiar with ...

  9. Validation of EXAFS Analysis of Iridium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiters, M. C.; Longo, A.; Banerjee, D.; van der Ham, C. J. M.; Hetterscheid, D. G. H.

    2016-05-01

    Results of iridium L3 edge EXAFS measurements of compounds relevant for water oxidation catalysis are compared to those of other structural techniques. The structural results from EXAFS for the Ir compounds investigated here compare well to those of other structural techniques. Multiple scattering contributions are important in the coordinated Cp* and NHC ligands as well as in the IrCl6 unit and the IrO2 rutile structure. NHC is relatively weak compared to Ir, Cl, and even Cp* and O, and often out of phase with the other contributions.

  10. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  11. Web-accessible Chemical Compound Information

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Dana L

    2008-01-01

    Web-accessible chemical compound information resources are widely available. In addition to fee-based resources, such as SciFinder Scholar and Beilstein, there is a wide variety of freely accessible resources such as ChemSpider and PubChem. The author provides a general description of various fee-based and free chemical compound resources. The free resources generally offer an acceptable alternative to fee-based resources for quick retrieval. It is assumed that readers will be familiar with ...

  12. Reduction of Compound Lotteries with Objective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of compound lotteries axiom (ROCL) has assumed a central role in the evaluation of behavior toward risk and uncertainty. We present experimental evidence on its validity in the domain of objective probabilities. Our battery of lottery pairs includes simple one-stage lotteries, two....... Therefore, we provide a word of caution for experimenters interested in studying ROCL for other purposes, such as the relationship between ambiguity attitudes and attitudes toward compound lotteries, to carefully think about the design to study ROCL, payment protocols and their interaction...

  13. Exchange bias effect in alloys and compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, S; Patra, M; Majumdar, S

    2011-02-23

    The phenomenology of exchange bias effects observed in structurally single-phase alloys and compounds but composed of a variety of coexisting magnetic phases such as ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, spin-glass, cluster-glass and disordered magnetic states are reviewed. The investigations on exchange bias effects are discussed in diverse types of alloys and compounds where qualitative and quantitative aspects of magnetism are focused based on macroscopic experimental tools such as magnetization and magnetoresistance measurements. Here, we focus on improvement of fundamental issues of the exchange bias effects rather than on their technological importance.

  14. Basics of sterile compounding: bubble point testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies that compound sterile preparations must choose sterile filters that are approved for human use. They may rely on the filter manufacturer's Certificate of Quality to ensure the sterile filter is pyrogen free and has been tested for bacterial retention. The Certificate of Quality from the filter manufacturer also contains other useful information about the filter such as: flow rate and maximum pressure drop, thermal and hydraulic stress, and membrane results of the initial integrity test performed on the filter membrane with water, if a hydrophilic membrane. This article discusses the integrity test, which is often called the water bubble point test.

  15. NUMERICAL MODELING OF COMPOUND CHANNEL FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model capable of predicting flow characteristics in a compound channel was established with the 3-D steady continuity and momentum equations along with the transport equations for turbulence kinetic energy and dissipation rate. Closure was achieved with the aid of algebraic relations for turbulent shear stresses. The above equations were discretized with implicit difference approach and solved with a step method along the flow direction. The computational results showing the lateral distribution of vertical average velocities and the latio of total flow in the compound channel agree well with the available experimental data.

  16. Volatile compound formation during argan kernel roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; Giordano, Manuela; Guillaume, Dominique; Kartah, Badreddine; Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Saïd; Denhez, Clément; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Virgin edible argan oil is prepared by cold-pressing argan kernels previously roasted at 110 degrees C for up to 25 minutes. The concentration of 40 volatile compounds in virgin edible argan oil was determined as a function of argan kernel roasting time. Most of the volatile compounds begin to be formed after 15 to 25 minutes of roasting. This suggests that a strictly controlled roasting time should allow the modulation of argan oil taste and thus satisfy different types of consumers. This could be of major importance considering the present booming use of edible argan oil.

  17. Synthesis of Dibenzylidene Sorbitol Series Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Rongxiu; CHEN Ligong; HOU Zhongke; SONG Jian

    2007-01-01

    A series of alditol derivatives were designed and synthesized with relatively high yield. On the basis of reaction between sorbitol and a series of substituted benzaldehyde in the presence of an acid catalyst, a series of acetal derivatives were synthesized through free hydroxyl esterification. D-sorbitol acetal amido derivatives were prepared by reduction of nitryl and acylation of amino. Dsorbitol acetal carboxyl esterification derivatives were prepared through esterification and hydrolysis. By high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectra (HPLC-MS) and H nuclear magneticresonance spectra (1 H-NMR), 36 compounds prepared were identified. Among these derivatives prepared, 26 compounds have not been reported in the previous literatures.

  18. Bioactive compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Hernández, M L; Villarreal, M L

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds elicited activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, levadura and dermatophytes.

  19. Magnetic moment densities in selected UTX compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javorsky, P.; Schweizer, J.; Givord, F.; Boucherle, J.-X.; Andreev, A.V.; Divis, M.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Sechovsky, V

    2004-07-15

    We present results of polarized neutron-diffraction studies of magnetization distribution in several isostructural UTX compounds. Besides the uranium magnetic moment, we observe a significant magnetization also on the transition-metal sites and in the interstitial region, close to the X-atom site. The values of the moments induced on the T-atoms in the U-T and T-X basal planes are rather similar for compounds with 3d-metals, UNiGa, UNiAl, and UCoAl, while a difference occurs in UPtAl. Our results are compared with literature data for URhAl and URuAl.

  20. Phonological Processes in Complex and Compound Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Kord Zaferanlu Kambuziya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research at making a comparison between phonological processes in complex and compound Persian words. Data are gathered from a 40,000-word Persian dictionary. To catch some results, 4,034 complex words and 1,464 compound ones are chosen. To count the data, "excel" software is used. Some results of the research are: 1- "Insertion" is the usual phonological process in complex words. More than half of different insertions belongs to the consonant /g/. Then /y/ and // are in the second and the third order. The consonant /v/ has the least percentage of all. The most percentage of vowel insertion belongs to /e/. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third order. Deletion in complex words can only be seen in consonant /t/ and vowel /e/. 2- The most frequent phonological processes in compounds is consonant deletion. In this process, seven different consonants including /t/, //, /m/, /r/, / ǰ/, /d, and /c/. The only deleted vowel is /e/. In both groups of complex and compound, /t/ deletion can be observed. A sequence of three consonants paves the way for the deletion of one of the consonants, if one of the sequences is a sonorant one like /n/, the deletion process rarely happens. 3- In complex words, consonant deletion causes a lighter syllable weight, whereas vowel deletion causes a heavier syllable weight. So, both of the processes lead to bi-moraic weight. 4- The production of bi-moraic syllable in Persian is preferable to Syllable Contact Law. So, Specific Rules have precedence to Universals. 5- Vowel insertion can be seen in both groups of complex and compound words. In complex words, /e/ insertion has the most fundamental part. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third place. Whenever there are two sequences of ultra-heavy syllables. By vowel insertion, the first syllable is broken into two light syllables. The compounds that are influenced by vowel insertion, can be and are pronounced without any

  1. Phonological Processes in Complex and Compound Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Kord Zaferanlu Kambuziya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research at making a comparison between phonological processes in complex and compound Persian words. Data are gathered from a 40,000-word Persian dictionary. To catch some results, 4,034 complex words and 1,464 compound ones are chosen. To count the data, "excel" software is used. Some results of the research are: 1- "Insertion" is the usual phonological process in complex words. More than half of different insertions belongs to the consonant /g/. Then /y/ and // are in the second and the third order. The consonant /v/ has the least percentage of all. The most percentage of vowel insertion belongs to /e/. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third order. Deletion in complex words can only be seen in consonant /t/ and vowel /e/. 2- The most frequent phonological processes in compounds is consonant deletion. In this process, seven different consonants including /t/, //, /m/, /r/, / ǰ/, /d, and /c/. The only deleted vowel is /e/. In both groups of complex and compound, /t/ deletion can be observed. A sequence of three consonants paves the way for the deletion of one of the consonants, if one of the sequences is a sonorant one like /n/, the deletion process rarely happens. 3- In complex words, consonant deletion causes a lighter syllable weight, whereas vowel deletion causes a heavier syllable weight. So, both of the processes lead to bi-moraic weight. 4- The production of bi-moraic syllable in Persian is preferable to Syllable Contact Law. So, Specific Rules have precedence to Universals. 5- Vowel insertion can be seen in both groups of complex and compound words. In complex words, /e/ insertion has the most fundamental part. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third place. Whenever there are two sequences of ultra-heavy syllables. By vowel insertion, the first syllable is broken into two light syllables. The compounds that are influenced by vowel insertion, can be and are pronounced without any insertion

  2. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  3. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1

  4. SLC6A15, a novel stress vulnerability candidate, modulates anxiety and depressive-like behavior: involvement of the glutamatergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, S; Wagner, K V; Labermaier, C; Uribe, A; Dournes, C; Balsevich, G; Hartmann, J; Masana, M; Holsboer, F; Chen, A; Müller, M B; Schmidt, M V

    2016-01-01

    Major depression is a multifactorial disease, involving both environmental and genetic risk factors. Recently, SLC6A15 - a neutral amino acid transporter mainly expressed in neurons - was proposed as a new candidate gene for major depression and stress vulnerability. Risk allele carriers for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a SLC6A15 regulatory region display altered hippocampal volume, glutamate levels, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, all markers associated with major depression. Despite this genetic link between SLC6A15 and depression, its functional role with regard to the development and maintenance of depressive disorder is still unclear. The aim of the current study was therefore to characterize the role of mouse slc6a15 in modulating brain function and behavior, especially in relation to stress as a key risk factor for the development of mood disorders. We investigated the effects of slc6a15 manipulation using two mouse models, a conventional slc6a15 knock-out mouse line (SLC-KO) and a virus-mediated hippocampal slc6a15 overexpression (SLC-OE) model. Mice were tested under basal conditions and following chronic social stress. We found that SLC-KO animals displayed a similar behavioral profile to wild-type littermates (SLC-WT) under basal conditions. Interestingly, following chronic social stress SLC-KO animals showed lower levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior compared to stressed WT littermates. In support of these findings, SLC-OE animals displayed increased anxiety-like behavior already under basal condition. We also provide evidence that GluR1 expression in the dentate gyrus, but not GluR2 or NR1, are regulated by slc6a15 expression, and may contribute to the difference in stress responsiveness observed between SLC-KO and SLC-WT animals. Taken together, our data demonstrate that slc6a15 plays a role in modulating emotional behavior, possibly mediated by its impact on glutamatergic neurotransmission.

  5. Independent Community Pharmacists' Perspectives on Compounding in Contemporary Pharmacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Timothy B.; Fontane, Patrick E.; Berry, Tricia; Chereson, Rasma; Bilger, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To identify compounding practices of independent community pharmacy practitioners in order to make recommendations for the development of curricular objectives for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs. Methods Independent community practitioners were asked about compounding regarding their motivations, common activities, educational exposures, and recommendations for PharmD education. Results Most respondents (69%) accepted compounding as a component of pharmaceutical care and compounded dermatological preparations for local effects, oral solutions, and suspensions at least once a week. Ninety-five percent were exposed to compounding in required pharmacy school courses and most (98%) who identified compounding as a professional service offered in their pharmacy sought additional postgraduate compounding education. Regardless of the extent of compounding emphasis in the practices surveyed, 84% stated that PharmD curricula should include compounding. Conclusions Pharmacy schools should define compounding curricular objectives and develop compounding abilities in a required laboratory course to prepare graduates for pharmaceutical care practice. PMID:19564997

  6. Study on Compound Effect of Bonded Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Ying; Ma Nuo; Yu xiaojun; Li Wei; Liu Changsheng; Lian Fazeng

    2004-01-01

    The compound effect of Nd2Fe14B/Fe3B-Ferrite bonded magnets was studied.The result shows that the value ofβjHC obviously decreases with the ferrite content increasing.In addition, a functional relation between magnetic properties and ferrite content was clearly revealed by the physical relation in the magnetic powders.

  7. Spatial Information Capacity of Compound Eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snyder, Allan W.; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Laughlin, Simon B.

    1977-01-01

    The capacity of the compound eye to perceive its spatial environment is quantified by determining the number of different pictures that can be reconstructed by its array of retinula cells. We can then decide on the best compromise between an animal's capacity for fine detail and contrast sensitivity

  8. Mutagenic compounds from chlorination of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbom, Bjarne

    Chlorination of natural humic substances, as well as of lignin, produces a myriad of non-chlorinated and chlorinated compounds. The identification of an important class of strongly mutagenic compounds is reviewed. The most important Ames mutagen in chlorinated drinking waters of various origin is the compound 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone ("MX"). This compound occurs at neutral pH in the acyclic form, i.e. in the form of Z-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid. Its E-isomer (E-MX) is present in chlorinated drinking waters at a similar concentration, but is less mutagenic in Ames test. Both oxidised and reduced forms of MX and E-MX are also present in chlorinated waters. The present knowledge of the chemistry and toxicology of these mutagens is examined. The formation and possible elimination of the chlorination mutagens is discussed. The need of understanding the mechanisms of formation of these mutagens from humic substances during drinking water chlorination is emphasized.

  9. Effects of polycationic compounds on mitogen stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, I; Larsen, B; Hokland, M

    1981-01-01

    and cell density experiments. The direct effect on cells was found not to be due to monocyte bypass or to activation of non-T cells by the mitogen. It is pointed out that effect of chemicals on in vitro immunresponses have to be considered in relation to the charge properties of the compound...

  10. Alkylcobalt(III) compounds with ammine ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    Amminecobalt(III) compounds with a coordinated primary alkyl group (ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, 2-phenylethyl, 3-aminopropyl) have been prepared using monoalkylhydrazines as alkylating agents. The identities have been established using solution 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis...

  11. Two new compounds from Trollius chinensis Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie-Shi, Ya; Wei-Sang, Lin; Yan, Rui; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Yang; Yun-Zhao, Gui; Cong-Li, Yun; Chen, Xue; Yu-Zhang, Chong; Qiao, Hua; Gang-Zhang, Guo

    2017-01-01

    Two new compounds, 2″-O-feruloylisoswertiajaponin (1) and (2E)-2-methyl-1-O-vaniloyl-4-β-D-glucopyranoside-2-butene (2), along with one indole alkaloid and five known flavonoids, were isolated from the flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, NMR).

  12. Soil science: Heat-proof carbon compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Cindy

    2008-12-01

    Two-thirds of terrestrial carbon is stored as organic matter in soils, but its response to warming has yet to be resolved. A soil warming experiment in a Canadian forest has revealed that the leaf-derived compound cutin is resistant to decomposition under elevated temperatures.

  13. Process for the preparation of aromatic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, N.J.; Biesbroek, Arnold; Heeres, André; Heeres, Hero

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are prepared from a feed stream comprising biomass or a mixture of biomass and synthetic polymer in a process, comprising: a) subjecting the feed stream to a pyrolysis treatment in the presence of a cracking catalyst to yield a vaporous fraction comprising hydrocarbons with

  14. Study on resistance coefficient in compound channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kejun Yang; Shuyou Cao; Xingnian Liu; Ron Marshall

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a further study of the Manning and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficients, as they play a significant role in assessing the cross-sectional mean velocity, conveyance capacity and determining the lateral distribution of depth mean velocity and local boundary shear stress in compound channels. The relationships between the local, zonal and overall resistance coefficients, and a wide range of geometries and different roughness between the main channel and the flood plain are established by analyzing a vast amount of experimental data from a British Science and Engineering Research Council Flood Channel Facility (SERC-FCF). And the experimental results also show that the overall Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient for a compound channel is the function of Reynolds number, but the function relationship is different from that for a single channel. By comparing and analyzing the conventional methods with the experimental data to predict composite roughness in compound channels, it is found that these methods are not suitable for compound channels. Moreover, the reason why the conventional methods cannot assess correctly the conveyance capacity of com pound channels is also analyzed in this paper.

  15. Atmospheric degradation mechanism of organic sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benter, T.; Arsene, C.

    2002-02-01

    In the present work a detailed product study has been performed on the OH radical initiated oxidation of dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl sulphoxide, under different conditions of temperature, partial pressure of oxygen and NO{sub x} concentration, in order to better define the degradation mechanism of the above compounds under conditions which prevail in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  16. Testing of Compounds for Efficacy against Schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-25

    n the snail intermediate host is Oncomelani " hnsi q u ada from the Philippine Islands. Protocol WRHN:-IIa and WRHN-IIb. A total of 31 compounds were...1978. Linhagem humana, de S fanm. resistente a esquistossomicidas. Revista de Saude Publica de Sao Paulo, 12:110. 3. Dias, L.C.S., Pedro, R.J., and

  17. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rocio IR Macias; Jose JG Marin; Maria A Serrano

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with thekidney, constitute the main routes for the eliminationof several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds intobile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterinelife the biliary route of excretion for cholephiliccompounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, isvery poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem.

  18. A view on organocopper compounds an cuprates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van

    1990-01-01

    Research on the chemistry and structural aspects of ortho-substituted-arylcopper and -cuprate compounds in which the ortho-substituents either interfere sterically with the C{i}{p}{s}{o}-to-copper bonding or have a potentially coordinating heteroatom, is described. Concluded is that the simple arylc

  19. Teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Pournara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing acknowledgement that teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics is multifaceted and topic specific. Given the paucity of research on the teaching and learning of financial mathematics in general, little can be known about teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest. However, since financial mathematics is a component of the school curriculum in South Africa, and an important element of financial literacy more broadly, attention needs to be given to knowledge for teaching financial mathematics, and compound interest in particular. Drawing from a larger study in which the author taught a financial mathematics course to pre-service secondary mathematics teachers, a theoretical elaboration is provided of the underlying mathematics of compound interest, and connections with the world of banking. Based on findings from the study, two key student errors are identified: the over-generalisation of linear thinking in multiplicative scenarios, and the over-generalisation of reversible operations in percentage-change scenarios. Taken together, teachers’ knowledge of relevant mathematics, of the banking context and of learners’ conceptions will contribute to building a knowledge-base for teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest.

  20. Antibacterial compounds from Salvia adenophora Fernald (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Angela; Schito, Anna Maria; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Hamburger, Matthias; Mele, Giacomo; Piatti, Gabriella; Romussi, Giovanni; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2015-02-01

    From the aerial parts of Salvia adenophora Fernald four derivatives of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (1-4) together with five clerodane diterpenoids (5, 6, 8-10), and one known diterpene (7) have been isolated. Compounds 1-6 and 8-10 are described for the first time. The structures were established by extensive 1D, 2D NMR and HRESI-TOFMS spectroscopic methods. Finally, the absolute configuration has been established by comparing of experimental and quantum chemical calculation of ECD spectra. Despite a total lack of antimicrobial activity of the plant extract, hinting to the existence of antagonistic interactions in the crude material, three oxylipins (2-4) displayed a promising inhibition on Gram-positive multidrug-resistant clinical strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and, particularly, Staphylococcus epidermidis, while the compounds 9 and 10 revealed a specific and strain-dependent activity against S. epidermidis. Interestingly, the inhibition provided by these compounds was independent of the resistance patterns of these pathogens to classic antibiotics. No action was reported on Gram-negative strains nor on Candida albicans. These results confirm that clerodanes and, particularly, prostaglandin-like compounds can be considered as interesting antimicrobial agents deserving further study.

  1. Iron(III) spin crossover compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koningsbruggen, PJ; Maeda, Y; Oshio, H

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, selected results obtained so far on Fe(III) spin crossover compounds are summarized and discussed. Fe(III) spin transition materials of ligands containing chalcogen donor atoms are considered with emphasis on those of N,N-disubstituted-dithiocarbamates, N,N-disubstituted-XY-carbamat

  2. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods, or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography i...

  3. Baseline isotopic data of polyhalogenated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Walter [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstr. 28, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: w-vetter@uni-hohenheim.de; Armbruster, Wolfgang [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstr. 28, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Betson, Tatiana R. [Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Schleucher, Juergen [Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Kapp, Thomas [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstr. 28, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Lehnert, Katja [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstr. 28, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-09-08

    The {delta} {sup 2}H- and {delta} {sup 13}C-values of polyhalogenated compounds were determined by EA-IRMS. Most of the compounds were related to the chloropesticides DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and toxaphene, as well as several polybrominated compounds such as bromophenols and -anisoles. {delta} {sup 2}H-values ranged between -235 per mille and +75 per mille whereas {delta} {sup 13}C-values were found in the range -22 per mille to -38 per mille . No correlation between {delta} {sup 2}H- and {delta} {sup 13}C-values could be identified. Comparative analysis clarified that bromophenols and the corresponding bromoanisoles may vary in their isotopic distribution. {sup 2}H NMR was used to quantify abundances of {sup 2}H isotopomers. Quantification of isotopomers of 2,4-dibromophenol and 2,4-dibromoanisole proved that both compounds from different suppliers do not originate from the same source. Differences in the {delta} {sup 2}H-values of two toxaphene products were further investigated by the synthesis of products of different degree of chlorination from camphene. It was shown that the {delta} {sup 13}C-values remained mostly unaltered as was expected since no carbon is lost in this procedure. However, the reaction products became enriched in {sup 2}H with increasing degree of chlorination. Different {delta} {sup 2}H-values of the starting material will also impact the {delta} {sup 2}H-values of the chlorination products.

  4. Visualizing Compound Rotations with Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…

  5. Photoelectron spectroscopy of strongly correlated Yb compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, J.J.; Andrews, A.B.; Arko, A.J.; Bartlett, R.J.; Blythe, R.I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Olson, C.G.; Benning, P.J.; Canfield, P.C. [Ames Laboratory, U. S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Poirier, D.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The electronic properties of the Yb compounds YBCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, YBAgCu{sub 4}, and YbAl{sub 3} along with purely divalent Yb metal, have been investigated by means of high-resolution ultraviolet and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We present the intrinsic characteristic features of the 4{ital f} levels of Yb while accounting for lattice vibrations and the manifestation of corelike energy levels degenerate with the valence states and modified by the temperature-dependent Fermi function. For these strongly correlated Yb-based compounds, the hole occupancy values ({ital n}{sub {ital f}}{approximately}0.6) directly obtained from integration of the divalent and trivalent portions of the 4{ital f} photoemission features indicate that these compounds are strongly mixed valent. The small intensity modulation with temperature in the divalent Yb 4{ital f} levels (0{endash}10{percent} over a {ital T}=20{minus}300 K range) is discussed within the conventional framework of the photoemission process and nominal allowances for lattice variations with temperature. Results from photoemission experiments on the divalent 4{ital f} levels of strongly correlated Yb compounds are remarkably similar to the 4{ital f} levels of purely divalent Yb metal. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. A Novel Route of Furan Compounds Syntheses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A series of compounds that contained furan skeletons were synthesized using 3,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)furan as staring material. 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and EA had identified these new molecules. The important factors that influenced reactions were discussed, and the new furan intermediates could be used in various organic syntheses.

  7. Quantum chemical studies of estrogenic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantum chemical methods are potent tools to provide information on the chemical structure and electronic properties of organic molecules. Modern computational chemistry methods have provided a great deal of insight into the binding of estrogenic compounds to estrogenic receptors (ER), an important ...

  8. Adsorption of Organic Compounds to Building Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ulla Dorte

    The presence of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) in the indoor air may be a contributory cause of complaints about irritation of mucous membranes in eyes, nose and throat, difficulty in breathing, frequent airway inflammation, skin irritation, fatigue, concentration difficulty, dizziness and hea...

  9. Screening for bioactive compounds from algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, M; Santoyo, S; Jaime, L; García-Blairsy Reina, G; Herrero, M; Señoráns, F J; Ibáñez, E

    2010-01-20

    In the present work, a comprehensive methodology to carry out the screening for novel natural functional compounds is presented. To do that, a new strategy has been developed including the use of unexplored natural sources (i.e., algae and microalgae) together with environmentally clean extraction techniques and advanced analytical tools. The developed procedure allows also estimating the functional activities of the different extracts obtained and even more important, to correlate these activities with their particular chemical composition. By applying this methodology it has been possible to carry out the screening for bioactive compounds in the algae Himanthalia elongata and the microalgae Synechocystis sp. Both algae produced active extracts in terms of both antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The obtained pressurized liquid extracts were chemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. Different fatty acids and volatile compounds with antimicrobial activity were identified, such as phytol, fucosterol, neophytadiene or palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids. Based on the results obtained, ethanol was selected as the most appropriate solvent to extract this kind of compounds from the natural sources studied.

  10. Exit problems for oscillating compound Poisson process

    CERN Document Server

    Kadankova, Tetyana

    2011-01-01

    In this article we determine the Laplace transforms of the main boundary functionals of the oscillating compound Poisson process. These are the first passage time of the level, the joint distribution of the first exit time from the interval and the value of the overshoot through the boundary. Under certain conditions we establish the asymptotic behaviour of the mentioned functionals.

  11. Fluorescent compounds for plastic scintillation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla-Dalmau, A.; Bross, A.D.

    1994-04-01

    Several 2-(2{prime}-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole, -benzoxazole, and -benzimidazole derivatives have been prepared. Transmittance, fluorescence, light yield, and decay time characteristics of these compounds have been studied in a polystyrene matrix and evaluated for use in plastic scintillation detectors. Radiation damage studies utilizing a {sup 60}C source have also been performed.

  12. Self injection of Dichlorvos, an Organophosphorus Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Raina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We report two patients who injected themselves a strong organophosphate compound, dichlorvas, and showed the typical clinical picture of organophosphate intoxication. There are very few case reports of parenteral organophosphorous poisoning. With the appropriate therapy, their symptoms disappeared in a few days. The cases are reported because of unusual and interesting way of intoxication.

  13. Analysis of cell death inducing compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicker, Jeppe; Pedersen, Henrik Toft; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers for early detection of toxicity hold the promise of improving the failure rates in drug development. In the present study, gene expression levels were measured using full-genome RAE230 version 2 Affymetrix GeneChips on rat liver tissue 48 h after administration of six different compounds...... in the literature and the novel finding represents a putative hepatotoxicity biomarker....

  14. Microscale Group Test for Carbonyl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures are provided for a test that (1) demonstrates principles of derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine; (2) is a thin layer chromatography experiment that visually demonstrates separation of colored compounds of different polarities; and (3) introduces microscale experimentation to students in sophomore organic chemistry…

  15. XANES spectra of transition metal compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X

    2009-01-01

    An overview is given of the interactions that determine the XANES spectral shapes of transition metal compounds. The interactions are divided into ground state effects, final state effects and transition effects. The metal L edges, metal K edges and ligand K edges are analysed with respect to these

  16. Storage compound production by phototrophic diatoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, P.R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2015-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method for producing an enriched diatom culture, comprising subjecting a starting culture comprising one or more diatom species to selective pressure, thus giving a competitive advantage to storage compound producing species of diatoms, by subjecting said starting cult

  17. Targeting Platinum Compounds: synthesis and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    VAN ZUTPHEN, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by cisplatin, the inorganic drug discovered by Barnett Rosenberg in 1965, the research described in this thesis uses targeting ligands, or ligands varied in a combinatorial fashion, to find platinum complexes with more specific modes of action. These studies have lead to the development of novel (solid-phase) synthetic methods and to the discovery of several compounds with promising biological properties.

  18. Aryldicyclopentadienyltitanium compounds and their dinitrogen complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuben, Jan Harmannus

    1973-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and some characteristic properties of organotitanium compounds of the type Cp2TiR and the dinitrogen complexes (Cp2TiR)2N2 (R= aryl, benzyl; Cp = n-cyclopentadienyl). ... Zie: Summary

  19. The Compoundness and Sequentiality of Digital Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van Alexander; Helsper, Ellen; Eynon, Rebecca; Dijk, van Jan

    2017-01-01

    Through a survey with a representative sample of Dutch Internet users, this article examines compound digital exclusion: whether a person who lacks a particular digital skill also lacks another kind of skill, whether a person who does not engage in a particular way online is also less likely to enga

  20. Two new phenolic compounds from Artemisia sphaerocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Bao Zhao; Lin Xi Li; Xiu Hua Liu; Ming Jing Li; Wen Ling Wang

    2007-01-01

    Two new phenolic compounds were isolated from whole plant of Artemisia sphaerocephala. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods as 4-(1-hydroxylethyl)-phenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 4-O-acetophenone-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-β-D-glucopyranoside.

  1. Xeno-estrogenic compounds in precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Beeltje, H.; Delft, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The exposure to some chemicals can lead to hormone disrupting effects. Presently, much attention is focused on so-called xeno-estrogens, synthetic compounds that interact with hormone receptors causing a number of reactions that eventually lead to effects related to reproduction and development. The

  2. Two new phenolic compounds from Ardisia gigantifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yang; Ping Wen; Nai Li Wang; Xin Sheng Yao

    2008-01-01

    Two new compounds were isolated from the 60% ethanol extract of the dried rhizome of Ardisia gigantifolia Stapf. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods as (+)-5-(1,2-dihydroxypentyl)-benzene-1,3-diol and (-)-5-(1,2-dihydroxypentyl) benzene-1,3-diol.

  3. Flavor compounds of popped amaranth seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Amaranth caudatus seeds were popped and studied for optimal popping conditions and flavor compounds. The optimum popping temperature for the seeds was 180C. At this temperature, the expansion volume, flake size and unpopped kernel proportion were 9.4¿11.3 cm3/g, 0.010¿0.012 cm/g and 10¿2%, respectiv

  4. Atmospheric nitrogen compounds: Occurrence, composition and deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Pilegaard, K.; Egeløv, A.H.;

    1996-01-01

    Traffic in cities and on highways is an important contributor to NOy atmospheric pollution in open areas. In this situation both the concentration and composition of NOy compounds show a wide variation and are dependent on meteorological and atmospheric chemical conditions. The proportion of NOz...

  5. Visualizing Compound Rotations with Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…

  6. Distribution of antiherbivory compounds in Flourensia cernua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flourensia cernua is serving as a shrub model to study the influence of terpenes on intake by livestock at this location. Two studies (n=20 plants per study) were conducted to examine within plant distribution of volatile compounds to improve sampling protocol. Leaves from 3 positions (outer canopy,...

  7. Fast Screening of Antibacterial Compounds from Fusaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Fredborg, Marlene; Christensen, Ann-Maria Oppenhagen

    2016-01-01

    Bio-guided screening is an important method to identify bioactive compounds from fungi. In this study we applied a fast digital time-lapse microscopic method for assessment of the antibacterial properties of secondary metabolites from the fungal genus Fusarium. Here antibacterial effects could be...

  8. Determination of Phytochemical Compounds, and Tyrosinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compounds, namely, (E)-2,4-dihydroxy-3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl) benzaldehyde ... natural whitening agents. ... yield a petroleum ether extract. ... carrier gas was helium 5.6 at a flow rate 1.2 .... needles, soluble in methanol and dimethyl.

  9. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

    2012-12-01

    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species (Ficus hispida) showed different bVOC signals pre- and post pollination. For Ficus hispida, there are three floral stages of a fig-wasp dependency mechanism: receptive, post pollinator and interfloral. Of 28 compounds detected, transcaryophyllene with trans-β-farnesene were the most important at the receptor stage, trans-caryophyllene was the most abundant at the post-pollinator stage, and isoprene was the most abundant in the interfloral stage. Alpinia kwangsiensis presents two morphologies for the reproductive parts of the flower. The "anaflexistyle" morphology has the flower style lowered in the

  10. Special Heusler compounds for spintronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balke, B.

    2007-07-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of Heusler compounds in a wide range of spintronic applications. Using electronic structure calculations it is possible to design compounds for specific applications. Examples for GMR and TMR applications, for spin injection into semiconductors, and for spin torque transfer applications will be shown. After a detailed introduction about spintronics and related materials chapter 5 reports about the investigation of new half-metallic compounds where the Fermi energy is tuned in the middle of the gap to result in more stable compounds for GMR and TMR applications. The bulk properties of the quaternary Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si with the Fe concentration ranging from x=0 to 1 are reported and the results suggest that the best candidate for applications may be found at an iron concentration of about 50%. Due to the effect that in the Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si series the transition metal carrying the localized moment is exchanged and this might lead to unexpected effects on the magnetic properties if the samples are not completely homogeneous chapter 6 reports about the optimization of the Heusler compounds for GMR and TMR applications. The structural and magnetic properties of the quaternary Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} with varying Si concentration are reported. From the combination of experimental (better order for high Si content) and theoretical findings (robust gap at x=0.5) it is concluded that a compound with an intermediate Si concentration close to x=0.5-0.7 would be best suited for spintronic applications, especially for GMR and TMR applications. In chapter 7 the detailed investigation of compounds for spin injection into semiconductors is reported. It is shown that the diluted magnetic semiconductors based on CoTiSb with a very low lattice mismatch among each other are interesting materials for spintronics applications like Spin-LEDs or other spin injection devices. Chapter 8 refers

  11. A novel R275X mutation of the SLC25A15 gene in a Japanese patient with the HHH syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torisu, Hiroyuki; Kira, Ryutaro; Kanazawa, Naomi; Takemoto, Megumi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Sakai, Yasunari; Tsujino, Seiichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2006-06-01

    The hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome (MIM 238970) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial ornithine transporter, one of the urea cycle components. Mutations in the SLC25A15 gene have been coupled to the HHH syndrome. We describe a Japanese female patient with the HHH syndrome due to a novel homozygous R275X SLC25A15 mutation and male sibling who presumably carried the same mutation. He exhibited slowly progressive deterioration with seizures, a gait disturbance due to polyneuropathy, episodic confusion, and died of acute encephalopathy at 34 years of age while the proband exhibited moderate mental retardation, seizures, mild spastic paraplegia, and deafness without neurological deterioration for more than 20 years. The clinical features of previously documented patients with the homozygous SLC25A15 mutation demonstrated that genotype did not simply correlate with clinical severity. The phenotypic variability might depend on other factors, such as dietary and other genetic ones.

  12. Comparative angioprotective effects of magnesium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonova, Maria; Iezhitsa, Igor; Zheltova, Anastasia; Ozerov, Alexander; Spasov, Alexander; Skalny, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is implicated in the development of numerous disorders of the cardiovascular system. Moreover, the data regarding the efficacy of different magnesium compounds in the correction of impaired functions due to low magnesium intake are often fragmentary and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the most bioavailable Mg compounds (Mg l-aspartate, Mg N-acetyltaurate, Mg chloride, Mg sulphate and Mg oxybutyrate) on systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in rats fed a low Mg diet for 74 days. A low Mg diet decreased the Mg concentration in the plasma and erythrocytes, which was accompanied by a reduced concentration of eNOs and increased levels of endothelin-1 level in the serum and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. These effects increased the concentration of proinflammatory molecules, such as VCAM-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP, indicating the development of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The increased total NO level, which estimated from the sum of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the serum, may also be considered to be a proinflammatory marker. Two weeks of Mg supplementation partially or fully normalised the ability of the vascular wall to effect adequate endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and reversed the levels of most endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory markers (except CRP) to the mean values of the control group. Mg sulphate had the smallest effect on the endothelin-1, TNF-α and VCAM-1 levels. Mg N-acetyltaurate was significantly more effective in restoring the level of eNOS compared to all other studied compounds, except for Mg oxybutyrate. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate that all Mg compounds equally alleviate endothelial dysfunction and inflammation caused by Mg deficiency. Mg sulphate tended to be the least effective compound.

  13. Student Evaluation of Online Pharmaceutical Compounding Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanna L; Shrewsbury, Robert P

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To describe pharmacy students' views on the effectiveness of an expansion of the compounding laboratory website at the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy. Methods. Originally, there were 39 videos and three animations available. In 2011, an additional 59 videos and two animations were added. Concurrently, all of the interactive questions were updated to fully integrate with the expanded video library. Students were surveyed about the expanded video library regarding accessibility, functionality, and usefulness, and how using the library impacted their learning of compounding. Surveys were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Means and SDs were calculated for the rating scale questions; independent t tests and Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to find differences between professional classes and campuses. Analytical results were evaluated with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), z test, and a homogeneity of variance (Levene's) test. Results. The response rate to the survey was 85%. Compounding videos were used by 386/391 students. Thirty-four percent of students used the videos an average of 30 minutes or less per week; 56% used the videos 1-2 hours per week. Approximately 80% of students were satisfied with the functionality and accessibility of the videos. All students, regardless of professional year or campus affiliation, put their confidence/competence at about 70% of the rating scale. Conclusions. As no standardized compounding curriculum was found in US schools of pharmacy and students reported being satisfied with the website, it could be an accessible, functional, and useful resource for pharmaceutical compounding in schools of pharmacy.

  14. Spin state switching in iron coordination compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Gütlich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with coordination compounds of iron(II that may exhibit thermally induced spin transition, known as spin crossover, depending on the nature of the coordinating ligand sphere. Spin transition in such compounds also occurs under pressure and irradiation with light. The spin states involved have different magnetic and optical properties suitable for their detection and characterization. Spin crossover compounds, though known for more than eight decades, have become most attractive in recent years and are extensively studied by chemists and physicists. The switching properties make such materials potential candidates for practical applications in thermal and pressure sensors as well as optical devices.The article begins with a brief description of the principle of molecular spin state switching using simple concepts of ligand field theory. Conditions to be fulfilled in order to observe spin crossover will be explained and general remarks regarding the chemical nature that is important for the occurrence of spin crossover will be made. A subsequent section describes the molecular consequences of spin crossover and the variety of physical techniques usually applied for their characterization. The effects of light irradiation (LIESST and application of pressure are subjects of two separate sections. The major part of this account concentrates on selected spin crossover compounds of iron(II, with particular emphasis on the chemical and physical influences on the spin crossover behavior. The vast variety of compounds exhibiting this fascinating switching phenomenon encompasses mono-, oligo- and polynuclear iron(II complexes and cages, polymeric 1D, 2D and 3D systems, nanomaterials, and polyfunctional materials that combine spin crossover with another physical or chemical property.

  15. Production of the rare ginsenosides compound K, compound Y, and compound Mc by a thermostable beta-glycosidase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyeong-Hwan; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2009-11-01

    The rare ginsenosides compound K, compound Y, and compound Mc were produced from the major ginsenosides Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, and Rd by a thermostable beta-glycosidase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius via three pathways: Rb(1)-->Rd-->compound K, Rb(2)-->compound Y-->compound K, and Rc-->compound Mc. Each of the ginsenosides was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography using standards and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based on their molecular weights. The catalytic efficiency of the enzyme for ginsenosides followed the order Rb(1) (4.8)>Rc (4.5)>Rd (1.0)>Rb(2) (0.77 mM(-1) min(-1)). The enzyme converted 1 mg/ml reagent-grade Rb(1), Rb(2), and Rc to 0.53 mg/ml compound K, 0.56 mg/ml compound Y, and 0.70 mg/ml compound Mc, respectively, at pH 5.5 and 85 degrees C after 180 min, corresponding to mole conversion yields of 94, 80, and 100% (mol/mol), respectively. The enzyme converted the major ginsenosides Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, and Rd in 10% (w/v) ginseng root extract to the rare ginsenosides with a mole yield of 99% after 24 h. These results suggest that beta-glycosidase from S. acidocaldarius can be used to produce compound K, compound Y, and compound Mc.

  16. Synthesis of a naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-02

    The objective of this project was the synthesis of one pound of a new naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound for use in coal combustion studies. Since this compound was an unreported compound, this effort also required the development of a synthetic route to this compound (including routes to the unique and unreported intermediates leading to its synthesis).

  17. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Moosa Faniband; Lindh, Christian H; Bo AG Jönsson

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and o...

  18. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  19. A New Nonlinear Compound Forecasting Method Based on ANN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the compound-forecasting method is discussed. The compound-forecasting method is one of the hotspots in the current predication. Firstly, the compound-forecasting method is introduced and various existing compound-forecasting methods arediscussed. Secondly, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is brought in compound-prediction research and a nonlinear compound-prediction model based on ANN is presented. Finally, inorder to avoid irregular weight, a new method is presented which uses principal component analyses to increase the availability of compound-forecasting information. Higherforecasting precision is achieved in practice.

  20. Synthesis, Chemistry, and Applications of Heterocyclic Cage Compounds (V)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The synthesis and chemistry of polycyclic of cage compounds have attracted considerable attention in recent years. The vast majority of the work reported in this area has dealt with carbocylic cage compounds. On the other hand, the synthesis and chemistry of heterocyclic cage compounds have received less attention. Recently, we envisioned that studies on the synthesis and chemistry of heterocyclic cage compounds can greatly expand the scopes and utilities of cage compounds.1 As part of a program that involves the synthesis, chemistry, and application of heterocyclic cage compounds, we report here the synthesis of new thia-oxa-cage compounds and the chemical nature of these thia-cages.

  1. THE COMPOUND NOUNS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ALBANIAN LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    The compound words are all the words that are compound from two or more words and both of them creative the new words with the new meaning. In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem. Compounding or composition is the word-formation that creates compound lexemes (the other word-formation process being derivation). Compounding or Word-compounding refers to the faculty and device of language to form new words by combining or putting toget...

  2. Raman scattering in transition metal compounds: Titanium and compounds of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Ederer, D.L.; Shu, T. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The transition metal compounds form a very interesting and important set of materials. The diversity arises from the many states of ionization the transition elements may take when forming compounds. This variety provides ample opportunity for a large class of materials to have a vast range of electronic and magnetic properties. The x-ray spectroscopy of the transition elements is especially interesting because they have unfilled d bands that are at the bottom of the conduction band with atomic like structure. This group embarked on the systematic study of transition metal sulfides and oxides. As an example of the type of spectra observed in some of these compounds they have chosen to showcase the L{sub II, III} emission and Raman scattering in some titanium compounds obtained by photon excitation.

  3. Trisomy rescue mechanism: the case of concomitant mosaic trisomy 14 and maternal uniparental disomy 14 in a 15-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbeur, Samuel; Grisart, Bernard; Parmentier, Benoit; Sartenaer, Daniel; Leonard, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ullmann, Urielle; Boulanger, Sébastien; Leroy, Luc; Ngendahayo, Placide; Lungu-Silviu, Constantin; Lysy, Philippe; Maystadt, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (upd(14)mat) is responsible for a Prader-Willi-like syndrome with precocious puberty. Although upd(14) is often hypothesized to result from trisomy rescue mechanism, T14 cell lines are usually not found with postnatal cytogenetic investigations. We report the coexistence of both chromosomal abnormalities in a 15-year-old girl.

  4. Amberlyst A-15: Reusable catalyst for the synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted and 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted-1-imidazoles under MW irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shivaji S Pandit; Swapnil K Bhalerao; Uddhav S Aher; Gorakshanath L Adhav; Vikram U Pandit

    2011-07-01

    One-pot multi-component condensation of benzyl, aldehydes, ammonium acetate and primary amines were used for synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted and 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted-1-imidazole derivatives underMWradiation using amberlyst A-15 as a catalysts. This catalyst has several advantages (simple work-up, low cost and reusability).

  5. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Poststroke Patients with Upper Limb Hemiparesis: Preliminary Study of a 15-Day Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Fukuda, Akiko; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Ayumi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a 15-day protocol of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) on motor function and spasticity in hemiparetic upper limbs in poststroke patients. Fifteen poststroke patients (age at study entry 55 [plus…

  6. The Paippalādasaṁhitā of the Atharvaveda Kāṇḍa 15 : a new edition with translation and commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelli, Duccio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the dissertation is to present a critical edition of kāṇḍa 15 of the Paippalādasaṁhitā of the Atharvaveda. The work is divided into two main parts: an Introduction and the critical edition itself. The Introduction deals first with topics related to the transmission of the text. After th

  7. Volatile compounds of commercial Milano salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynier, A; Novelli, E; Chizzolini, R; Zanardi, E; Gandemer, G

    1999-02-01

    The relationship between extracted volatiles of Milano salami, one of the main dry-cured sausages produced in Italy, and their olfactory properties was studied. Volatile compounds were extracted by a purge-and-trap method, quantified using a flame ionisation detector and identified by mass spectrometry. Olfactory analysis was performed by sniffing the gas chromatographic effluent. Nearly 80 compounds were identified and quantified: most came from spices (60.5%), 18.9% from lipid oxidation, 11.8% from amino acid catabolism and 4.9% from fermentation processes. Panellists detected 19 odours by sniffing. These odours were associated with spices, lipid oxidation or fermentation and were in agreement with the contributions of each reaction to the overall aroma of the product.

  8. Screening Some Plants for their Antiproliferative Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Kolak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the screening of the secondary plant products to find a cure against cancer which were piled up during the years. In early stages of these studies highly active antitumor glycoproteins were obtained from native Arizona (USA plants. Later smaller molecules were isolated showing antitumor activity in different test systems. Among these compounds sesquiterpene lactones with an exo-methylene group in the lactone ring, unsaturated diterpenoids and some triterpenoids exhibited activity in vivo and in vitro test systems. A few Colchicum alkaloids showed high activity against murine lymphocytic leukemia (P388. Activity also established in some flavonoidal compounds. Today all around the world research on Natural Products is still going on.

  9. Synthesis and properties of trifluoromethylating steroid compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钟麒; 卢寿福; 张建蓉

    1997-01-01

    Trifluoromethyl steroids la,b; 2a,b; 3a,b have been synthesized by starting from estren 3,17-dicarbonyl-3,3-dimethyl ether (4) and dl-18-methyl-2(3)l5(10)-estra-diene-17-carbonyl-3-methyl ether (5),and by using trimthyltrifluoromethylsilane as the trifluoromethylating agent under the catalysis of tetrarnethylam-monium fluoride.The overall yields were 82%,76%; 54%,62%; and 27%,25%,respectively The α-configura tion of trifluoromethyl group of 17-position was determined by X-ray crystal diffraction method Compounds 1a,2a and 3a showed high affinity for rat uterus PRc.The test of biological activities of compounds 1b,2b and 3b is proceeding.

  10. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  11. [Today's threat of use of organophosphorus compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Rafał; Płusa, Tadeusz

    2015-09-01

    Organophosphates are stable cholinesterases inhibitors (AChE). Inhibition of AChE activity leads to the accumulation of large amounts of acetylcholine and hyperactivity of the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine receptors - muscarinic and nicotinic. This group included tabun, sarin, soman and VX gases. Exposure to gaseous form causes symptoms within a few seconds of exposure. This depends on the gas concentration in the atmosphere. The most sensitive organ is the eyes and the respiratory system. Severe poisoning are characterized by the immediate loss of consciousness with convulsions. Therapeutic management of acute poisoning organophosphorus compounds boils down to treating symptomatic and supportive vital functions. Monitoring of cardiovascular, respiratory and renal failure in intensive care gives only guarantee the effective treatment of poisoning. Properties toxic organophosphorus compounds also are of interest to terrorist groups.

  12. Quaternary ammonium compounds – New occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic crossreactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. Med Pr 2014;65(5:675–682

  13. Pickpocket compounds from Latin to Romance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehead, Benedicte Nielsen

    –noun, represented by truck–driver, has the deverbal member second and carries an agentive suffix, -er. Pickpocket compounds are attested in early strata of Greek and Indo–Iranian and in medieval strata of Germanic, Slavic and Romance. Latin has around a dozen examples. The scholarly debate, continued in this thesis....... It contains a cursory discussion of Homeric Greek, Indo–Iranian and Germanic representatives. This comparative perspective on the morphology of the type is continued in chapters 3–5 on Latin and Romance. An important conclusion, and an answer to one of the most–discussed questions in the debate......, is that these compounds cannot be considered univerbated imperative clauses. (2) is likewise assessed preliminarily in chapter 2, offering an outline of the history of the Greek and Indo–Aryan material. Taking the history of the Latin/Romance material up for revision, chapters 3–5 conclude that Latin offers no evidence...

  14. Reactive spreading: Adsorption, ridging and compound formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz, E.; Cannon, R.M.; Tomsia, A.P.

    2000-09-11

    Reactive spreading, in which a chemically active element is added to promote wetting of noble metals on nonmetallic materials, is evaluated. Theories for the energetics and kinetics of the necessary steps involved in spreading are outlined and compared to the steps in compound formation that typically accompany reactive wetting. These include: fluid flow, active metal adsorption, including nonequilibrium effects, and triple line ridging. All of these can be faster than compound nucleation under certain conditions. Analysis and assessment of recently reported experiments on metal/ceramic systems lead to a focus on those conditions under which spreading proceeds ahead of the actual formation of a new phase at the interface. This scenario may be more typical than believed, and perhaps the most effective situation leading to enhanced spreading. A rationale for the pervasive variability and hysteresis observed during high temperature wetting also emerges.

  15. Adsorption of lignosulfonate compounds using powdered eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Zulfikar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption of lignosulfonates using untreated powdered eggshell under the influences of mixing time, pH,particle size and dose of powdered eggshell was investigated. Adsorption isotherms of lignosulfonates onto powder eggshellwere also studied. Eggshells were collected from the Balubur traditional market in Bandung, Indonesia, washed with distilledwater, air dried, and then ground into powder of different particle sizes. Kinetic studies found that equilibrium time was ashigh as 90 minutes. From experiments carried out at different pH, it was observed that pH plays an important role in theadsorption of lignosulfonate compounds. It was also observed that particles size has no significant effect on the adsorptionof lignosulfonate compounds. The optimum dosage of powdered eggshell was 30 g/100 mL of 500 mg/L lignosulfonatesolution. Adsorption isotherms studied through the use of graphical methods revealed that the adsorption of lignosulfonatesonto powdered eggshell follows the Langmuir model.

  16. NOVEL BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM MANGROVE DERIVED ACTINOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Amrita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove is most productive and unexplored ecosystem that approximately covers one fourth of world coastline with high diversity of thriving organism. Recently the rate of isolation of novel bioactive compounds from microorganism living in mangrove forest has tremendously increased which is reflected in significant hasten for exploration of mangrove actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are group of bacteria which are extremely interesting as active producers of many primary and secondary metabolites. Many survey reports has depicted that the biologically active compounds which have been obtained so far from microbes, 45 percent are produced by actinomycetes, 38 percent by fungi and 17 percent by unicellular bacteria. Actinomycetes from mangrove environment provide diverse and are potential rich source of antibiotics, anticancer, antifungal and antiviral agent, enzyme and enzyme inhibitor. Mangrove actinomycetes are a prolific but underexploited source for the discovery of novel secondary metabolites.

  17. Compound Composite Odontoma and Its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morawala Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are odontogenic benign tumors composed of dental tissue. Majority of these lesions are asymptomatic and are often detected on routine radiographs. They can be thought of as “tooth hamartomas" with the lesion consisting of various tooth components. They are divided histologically into complex odontomas and compound odontomas. This paper describes the case of a compound odontoma in a 13-year-old girl diagnosed due to the retention of the primary right mandibular second molar. A surgical excision was performed without disturbing the unerupted premolar. The results achieved indicate that early diagnosis of odontomas enables adoption of less complex treatment, a better prognosis, and displacement or devitalisation of adjacent tooth.

  18. Oxyfluoride Chemistry of Layered Perovskite Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Tsujimoto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review recent progress and new challenges in the area of oxyfluoride perovskite, especially layered systems including Ruddlesden-Popper (RP, Dion-Jacobson (DJ and Aurivillius (AV type perovskite families. It is difficult to synthesize oxyfluoride perovskite using a conventional solid-state reaction because of the high chemical stability of the simple fluoride starting materials. Nevertheless, persistent efforts made by solid-state chemists have led to a major breakthrough in stabilizing such a mixed anion system. In particular, it is known that layered perovskite compounds exhibit a rich variety of O/F site occupation according to the synthesis used. We also present the synthetic strategies to further extend RP type perovskite compounds, with particular reference to newly synthesized oxyfluorides, Sr2CoO3F and Sr3Fe2O5+xF2−x (x ~ 0.44.

  19. A New Compound Along With Seven Known Compounds from an Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. HS-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of EtOAc extract from the fermentation broth of the endophytic fungus Asperilligus sp. HS-05 led to the isolation of a new compound (1 of spiro moiety named aspergispiroketal and seven known compounds (2-8. Their structures were elucidated mainly by NMR and HR-TOF-MS, as well as on comparison with the reported data. The absolute configuration of 1 was defined by comparison of quantum chemical TDDFT calculated and experimental ECD spectra.

  20. Metals and metal compounds in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoize, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Metals and metal compounds have been used in medicine for several thousands of years. In this review we summarized the anti-cancer activities of the ten most active metals: arsenic, antimony, bismuth, gold, vanadium, iron, rhodium, titanium, gallium and platinum. The first reviewed metal, arsenic, presents the anomaly of displaying anti-cancer and oncogenic properties simultaneously. Some antimony derivatives, such as Sb2O3, salt (tartrate) and organic compounds, show interesting results. Bismuth directly affects Helicobacter pylori and gastric lymphoma; the effects of bismuth complexes of 6-mercaptopurine are promising. Gold(I) and (III) compounds show anti-tumour activities, although toxicity remains high. Research into the potential use of gold derivatives is still ongoing. Several derivatives of vanadium show anti-proliferative activity, but their toxicity must be overcome. Several pieces of evidence indicate that iron deprivation could be an excellent therapeutic approach; furthermore, it is synergistic with classic anti-cancer drugs. Rhodium belongs to the same group as platinum and it also presents interesting activity, but with the same nephrotoxicity. Several rhodium compounds have entered phase I clinical trials. In contrast to the platinum complexes, titanium derivatives showed no evidence of nephrotoxicity or myelotoxicity; titanocene dichloride is undergoing clinical trial. The anti-proliferative effect of gallium could be related to its competition with the iron atom; in addition a derivative appears to reverse the multidrug resistance. The last metal reviewed, platinum, has given some of the very best anti-cancer drugs. Four derivatives are used today in the clinic; their mechanism of action and of resistance are described.

  1. Characterization of A New Organic Photochromic Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Guang-Fei; LIU,Lang; JIA,Dian-Zeng; HU,Xin; YU,Kai-Bei

    2004-01-01

    @@ A new organic photochromic compound, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(4-fluoro)-benzal-5-pyrazolone ethanyl-thiosemicarbazone (PM4FBP-ETSC) was found to undergo photochromic reactions in the solid state. Upon irradiation with 365nm light the white powder sample turned light yellow. The photochromic properties were characterized by the time-dependent UV-vis reflective spectra. The structure of PM4FBP-ETSC was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  2. Fungal Endophthalmitis Associated with Compounded Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mikosz, Christina A.; Rachel M. Smith; Kim, Moon; Tyson, Clara; Lee, Ellen H.; Adams, Eleanor; Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Sowadsky, Rick; Arroyo, Shannon; Grant-Greene, Yoran; Duran, Julie; Vasquez, Yvonne; Robinson, Byron F.; Harris, Julie R.; Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare but serious infection. In March 2012, several cases of probable and laboratory-confirmed fungal endophthalmitis occurring after invasive ocular procedures were reported nationwide. We identified 47 cases in 9 states: 21 patients had been exposed to the intraocular dye Brilliant Blue G (BBG) during retinal surgery, and the other 26 had received an intravitreal injection containing triamcinolone acetonide. Both drugs were produced by Franck’s Compounding Lab (Oc...

  3. Novel ocular antihypertensive compounds in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available June Chen1, Stephen A Runyan1, Michael R Robinson21Department of Biological Sciences, 2Ophthalmology Clinical Research, Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA, USAIntroduction: Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease characterized by progressive optic nerve injury and visual field defects. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is the most widely recognized risk factor for the onset and progression of open-angle glaucoma, and IOP-lowering medications comprise the primary treatment strategy. IOP elevation in glaucoma is associated with diminished or obstructed aqueous humor outflow. Pharmacotherapy reduces IOP by suppressing aqueous inflow and/or increasing aqueous outflow.Purpose: This review focuses on novel non-FDA approved ocular antihypertensive compounds being investigated for IOP reduction in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients in active clinical trials within approximately the past 2 years.Methods: The mode of IOP reduction, pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of these new agents were assessed. Relevant drug efficacy and safety trials were identified from searches of various scientific literature databases and clinical trial registries. Compounds with no specified drug class, insufficient background information, reformulations, and fixed-combinations of marketed drugs were not considered.Results: The investigational agents identified comprise those that act on the same targets of established drug classes approved by the FDA (ie, prostaglandin analogs and β-adrenergic blockers as well as agents belonging to novel drug classes with unique mechanisms of action. Novel targets and compounds evaluated in clinical trials include an actin polymerization inhibitor (ie, latrunculin, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitors, adenosine receptor analogs, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a serotonin receptor antagonist.Conclusion: The clinical value of novel compounds for the treatment of glaucoma will depend

  4. Basics of compounding foam dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information on the use of foam dosage forms and pharmacists' ability to extemporaneously compound them. The article provides: (1) a discussion on the rationale and advantages of using foams, (2) a differentiation between the various types and structures of foams, (3) a list of the various types of ingredients and examples of each, and (4) a description of the preparation of pharmaceutical foams.

  5. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, S. F. S.; Pang, K. D.; Cutts, J. A.; Ajello, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Ultraviolet-stimulated catalytic oxidation is proposed as a mechanism for the destruction of organic compounds on Mars. The process involves the presence of gaseous oxygen, UV radiation, and a catalyst (titanium dioxide), and all three of these have been found to be present in the Martian environment. Therefore it seems plausible that UV-stimulated oxidation of organics is responsible for degrading organic molecules into inorganic end products.

  6. Fipronil Compound Consumption Presenting as Status Epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    Bharathraj, M.Y; Venugopal, K; Jaligidad, Kadappa; Karibasappa, Halli; Kumar, Hemantha

    2015-01-01

    Fipronil is a broadspectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide with gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor inhibitory action causing hyperexcitability of central nervous system. There is no literature reported in the past concerning its acute toxicity in human beings. A case report is useful for workers in medical and veterinary field. Hence, we are reporting a case in which young male intoxicated with fipronil compound was presented to the emergency department for having generalized tonic-clonic ...

  7. Cometary micrometeorites and input of prebiotic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The apparition of life on the early Earth was probably favored by inputs of extraterrestrial matter brought by carbonaceous chondrite-like objects or cometary material. Interplanetary dust collected nowadays on Earth is related to carbonaceous chondrites and to cometary material. They contain in particular at least a few percent of organic matter, organic compounds (amino-acids, PAHs,…), hydrous silicates, and could have largely contributed to the budget of prebiotic matter on Earth, about 4 ...

  8. Tetrazolium Compounds: Synthesis and Applications in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xi Wei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetrazoles represent a class of five-membered heterocyclic compounds with polynitrogen electron-rich planar structural features. This special structure makes tetrazole derivatives useful drugs, explosives, and other functional materials with a wide range of applications in many fields of medicine, agriculture, material science, etc. Based on our research works on azoles and other references in recent years, this review covers reported work on the synthesis and biological activities of tetrazole derivatives.

  9. Expatriate Compound Living: An Ethnographic Field Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    and the expatriates had the same working hours in the same subsidiary. Results show that a Danish national group was established and maintained. This in-group dominated life in the compound and at work it may have contributed to the perceptual bias and discriminatory behaviour demonstrated by the Danish expatriates...... in their management of the foreign national employees. Implications of these findings are discussed in detail....

  10. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  11. Growing Single Crystals of Compound Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert J.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1987-01-01

    Defect reduced by preventing melt/furnace contact and suppressing convention. Large crystals of compound semiconductors with few defects grown by proposed new method. Such materials as gallium arsenide and cadmium telluride produced, with quality suitable for very-large-scale integrated circuits or for large focal-plane arrays of photodetectors. Method used on small scale in Earth gravity, but needs microgravity to provide crystals large enough for industrial use.

  12. Antimalarial compounds from Kniphofia foliosa roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wube, Abraham Abebe; Bucar, Franz; Asres, Kaleab; Gibbons, Simon; Rattray, Lauren; Croft, Simon L

    2005-06-01

    During the course of screening Ethiopian medicinal plants for their antimalarial properties, it was found that the dichloromethane extract of the roots of Kniphofia foliosa Hochst. (Asphodelaceae), which have long been used in the traditional medicine of Ethiopia for the treatment of abdominal cramps and wound healing, displayed strong in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum with an ED50 value of 3.8 microg/mL and weak cytotoxic activity against KB cells with an ED50 value of 35.2 microg/mL. Five compounds were isolated from the roots and evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial activity. Among the compounds tested, 10-(chrysophanol-7'-yl)-10-(xi)-hydroxychrysopanol-9-anthrone and chryslandicin, showed a high inhibition of the growth of the malaria parasite, P. falciparum with ED50 values of 0.260 and 0.537 microg/mL, respectively, while the naphthalene derivative, 2-acetyl-1-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3-methylnaphthalene, exhibited a less significant antimalarial activity with an ED50 value of 15.4 microg/mL. To compare the effect on the parasite with toxicity to mammalian cells, the cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds against the KB cell line were evaluated and 10-(chrysophanol-7'-yl)-10-(xi)-hydroxychrysopanol-9-anthrone and chryslandicin displayed very low toxicity with ED50 values of 104 and 90 microg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of the inhibition of the growth of P. falciparum by anthraquinone-anthrone dimers and establishes them as a new class of potential antimalarial compounds with very little host cell toxicity.

  13. Measurement of volatile organic compounds inside automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoruk, Marion J; Kerger, Brent D

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the types and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the passenger cabin of selected sedan automobiles under static (parked, unventilated) and specified conditions of operation (i.e., driving the vehicle using air conditioning alone, vent mode alone, or driver's window half open). Data were collected on five different passenger sedan vehicles from three major automobile manufacturers. Airborne concentrations were assessed using 90-min time-weighted average (TWA) samples under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method IP-1B to assess individual VOC compounds and total VOCs (TVOCs) calibrated to toluene. Static vehicle testing demonstrated TVOC levels of approximately 400-800 microg/m(3) at warm interior vehicle temperatures (approximately 80 degrees F), whereas TVOCs at least fivefold higher were observed under extreme heat conditions (e.g., up to 145 degrees F). The profile of most prevalent individual VOC compounds varied considerably according to vehicle brand, age, and interior temperature tested, with predominant compounds including styrene, toluene, and 8- to 12-carbon VOCs. TVOC levels under varied operating conditions (and ventilation) were generally four- to eightfold lower (at approximately 50-160 microg/m(3)) than the static vehicle measurements under warm conditions, with the lowest measured levels generally observed in the trials with the driver's window half open. These data indicate that while relatively high concentrations of certain VOCs can be measured inside static vehicles under extreme heat conditions, normal modes of operation rapidly reduce the inside-vehicle VOC concentrations even when the air conditioning is set on recirculation mode.

  14. Effect of intermediate compounds and products on wet oxidation and biodegradation rates of pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Sergio; Laca, Adriana; Diaz, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Kinetics of pure compounds in batch agitated reactors are useful data to clarify the characteristics of a given reaction, but they frequently do not provide the required information to design industrial mixed continuous processes because in this case the final and intermediate products interact with the reaction of interest, due to backmixing effects. Simultaneously, the presence and transformations of other compounds, frequent in industrial wastewater treatments, adds more complexity to these types of interactions, whose effect can be different, favorable or unfavorable, for chemical or biological reactions. In this work, batch laboratory reactor data were obtained for the wet oxidation and biodegradation of four phenolic compounds present in a pharmaceutical wastewater and then compared with those collected from industrial continuous stirred tank reactors. For wet oxidation, batch laboratory degradation rates were significantly lower than those found in industrial continuous stirred operation. This behavior was explained by a different distribution of intermediate compounds in lab and industrial treatments, caused by the degree of backmixing and the synergistic effects between phenolic compounds (matrix effects). On the other hand, the specific utilization rates during aerobic biodegradation in the continuous industrial operation were lower than those measured in the laboratory, due to the simultaneous presence of the four pollutants in the industrial process (matrix effects) increasing the inhibitory effects of these compounds and its intermediates.

  15. Guanidino compounds as uremic (neuro)toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deyn, Peter Paul; Vanholder, Raymond; Eloot, Sunny; Glorieux, Griet

    2009-01-01

    Neurological and vascular impairment are important sources of morbidity in patients with renal failure. A portion of patients still suffers from uremic encephalopathy or other signs of nervous system impairment. Several reports demonstrate increased incidence of cardiac infarction and cerebrovascular accidents in chronic renal failure patients, even in those otherwise adequately dialyzed. Epileptic and cognitive symptoms are among the most typical manifestations of uremic encephalopathy. Several guanidino compounds (GCs) may play an important role in the etiology of uremic encephalopathy. Four GCs appeared to be substantially increased as well in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain of uremic patients. These compounds, "uremic" GCs, are creatinine, guanidine (G), guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA), and methylguanidine. All four compounds are experimental convulsants in concentrations similar to those found in uremic brain. We described a possible mechanism for the contribution of GCs to uremic hyperexcitability, referring to the in vitro effects of uremic GCs on inhibitory and excitatory amino acid receptors. It was demonstrated that the excitatory effects of uremic GCs on the central nervous system can be explained by the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors by GSA, concomitant inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors by uremic GCs, and other depolarizing effects. These effects might also indicate the putative contribution of uremic GCs to the etiology of uremic encephalopathy. In this article, we review the uremic GCs with particular attention to their neurotoxicity. We elaborate in detail on the mechanisms of action of the neurotoxic uremic GCs and summarize the kinetics of these toxins.

  16. Endogenous guanidino compounds as uremic neurotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deyn, P P; D'Hooge, R; Van Bogaert, P P; Marescau, B

    2001-02-01

    Epileptic and cognitive symptomatologies are among the most typical manifestations of uremic encephalopathy. Several guanidino compounds (GCs) may play an important role in the etiology of uremic encephalopathy. Four GCs appeared to be highly increased as well in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain of uremic patients, whereas the levels of other metabolically relevant GCs were not or only moderately increased and others were even decreased. These highly increased compounds or "uremic" GCs are creatinine (CTN), guanidine (G), guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA), and methylguanidine (MG). All four compounds were shown to be experimental convulsants in brain concentrations similar to those found in uremic brain. We have described a possible mechanism for the contribution of GCs to uremic hyperexcitability, referring to the in vitro effects of uremic GCs on inhibitory and excitatory amino acid receptors. The excitatory effects of uremic GCs on the central nervous system may be explained by the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by GSA, concomitant inhibition of GABA(A) receptors by uremic GCs, and other depolarizing effects. These effects might also indicate the putative contribution of uremic GCs to the etiology of uremic encephalopathy.

  17. A Novel Antibacterial Compound from Siegesbeckia glabrescens

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    Deokhoon Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The crude methanol extract of the dried aerial parts of Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Compositae showed antibacterial activity against the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Bioactivity-guided separation led to the isolation of 3-(dodecanoyloxy-2-(isobutyryloxy-4-methylpentanoic acid from nature for the first time. The structure was determined by spectroscopic data analysis (UV, MS, and NMR. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 3-(dodecanoyloxy-2-(isobutyryloxy-4-methylpentanoic acid against S. aureus was found to be 3.12 μg/mL. In addition, in a further antimicrobial activity assay against Gram-positive (B. subtilis, E. faecalis, P. acnes, S. epidermidis, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. agalactiae and S. pyrogens, and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and yeast strains (C. alibicans and F. neoformans, the antimicrobial activity of the compound was found to be specific for Gram-positive bacteria. The MIC values of the compound for Gram-positive bacteria ranged from 3.12 to 25 mg/mL. Furthermore, it was found that the 2-(isobutyryloxy-4-methylpentanoic acid substituent may operate as a key factor in the antibacterial activity of the compound, together with the laurate group.

  18. Water encapsulation in a polyoxapolyaza macrobicyclic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Pedro; Delgado, Rita; Groves, Patrick; Campos, Sara R R; Baptista, António M; Brandão, Paula; Félix, Vítor

    2012-08-17

    A new heteroditopic macrobicyclic compound (t(2)pN(5)O(3)) containing two separate polyoxa and polyaza compartments was synthesized in good yield through a [1 + 1] "tripod-tripod coupling" strategy. The X-ray crystal structure of H(3)t(2)pN(5)O(3)(3+) revealed the presence of one encapsulated water molecule accepting two hydrogen bonds from two protonated secondary amines and donating a hydrogen bond to one amino group. The acid-base behavior of the compound was studied by potentiometry at 298.2 K in aqueous solution and at ionic strength 0.10 M in KCl. The results revealed unusual protonation behavior, namely a surprisingly low fourth protonation constant contrary to what was expected for the compound. (1)H NMR and DOSY experiments, as well as molecular modeling studies, showed that the water encapsulation and the conformation observed in the solid state are retained in solution. The strong binding of the encapsulated water molecule, reinforced by the cooperative occurrence of a trifurcated hydrogen bond at the polyether compartment of the macrobicycle, account for the very low log K(4)(H) value obtained.

  19. Antitumor activity of chemical modified natural compounds

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    Marilda Meirelles de Oliveira

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Search of new activity substances starting from chemotherapeutic agents, continously appears in international literature. Perhaps this search has been done more frequently in the field of anti-tumor chemotherapy on account of the unsuccess in saving advanced stage patients. The new point in this matter during the last decade was computer aid in planning more rational drugs. In near future "the accessibility of supercomputers and emergence of computer net systems, willopen new avenues to rational drug design" (Portoghese, P. S. J. Med. Chem. 1989, 32, 1. Unknown pharmacological active compounds synthetized by plants can be found even without this eletronic devices, as tradicional medicine has pointed out in many contries, and give rise to a new drug. These compounds used as found in nature or after chemical modifications have produced successful experimental medicaments as FAA, "flavone acetic acid" with good results as inibitors of slow growing animal tumors currently in preclinical evaluation for human treatment. In this lecture some international contributions in the field of chemical modified compounds as antineoplasic drugs will be examined, particularly those done by Brazilian researches.

  20. Heavy metal screening in compounds feeds

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    Tomas Toth

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are generally classified as basic groups of pollutants that are now a days found in different environmental compartments. This is quite a large group of contaminants, which have different characteristics, effects on the environment and sources of origin. For environment pose the greatest risks, especially heavy metals produced by anthropogenic activities that adversely affect the health and vitality of organisms and natural environmental conditions. Livestock nutrition is among the main factors which affect not only the deficiency of livestock production and quality of food of animal origin, but they are also a factor affecting the safety and wholesomeness and the animal health. Compound feeds is characterized as a mixture of two or more feed grain. Containing organic, inorganic nutrients and specifically active compound feed meet the nutritional requirements of a given kind and age category of animals. They are used mainly in the diet of pigs, poultry, but also the nutrition of cattle, sheep, horses and other animal categories. The basic ingredients are cereals in proportion of 60-70 %. The aim of this thesis was to analyze the content of hazardous elements (copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, mercury in 15 samples of compound feeds and then evaluating their content in comparison with maximum limits laid down by Regulation of the Government of the Slovak Republic and Regulation Commission (EC.