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Sample records for zwitterionic-supported phospholipid bilayers

  1. Slaved diffusion in phospholipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangfang; Granick, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The translational diffusion of phospholipids in supported fluid bilayers splits into two populations when polyelectrolytes adsorb at incomplete surface coverage. Spatially resolved measurements using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy show that a slow mode, whose magnitude scales inversely with the degree of polymerization of the adsorbate, coexists with a fast mode characteristic of naked lipid diffusion. Inner and outer leaflets of the bilayer are affected nearly equally. Mobility may vary from spot to spot on the membrane surface, despite the lipid composition being the same. This work offers a mechanism to explain how nanosized domains with reduced mobility arise in lipid membranes. PMID:15967988

  2. Possible mechanism of adhesion in a mica supported phospholipid bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsin, Alexander; Grunze, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipid bilayers supported on hydrophilic solids like silica and mica play a substantial role in fundamental studies and technological applications of phospholipid membranes. In both cases the molecular mechanism of adhesion between the bilayer and the support is of primary interest. Since the possibilities of experimental methods in this specific area are rather limited, the methods of computer simulation acquire great importance. In this paper we use the grand canonical Monte Carlo technique and an atomistic force field to simulate the behavior of a mica supported phospholipid bilayer in pure water as a function of the distance between the bilayer and the support. The simulation reveals a possible adhesion mechanism, where the adhesion is due to individual lipid molecules that protrude from the bilayer and form widely spaced links with the support. Simultaneously, the bilayer remains separated from the bilayer by a thin water interlayer which maintains the bilayer fluidity

  3. Neutron diffraction studies of amphipathic helices in phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, J.P.; Gilchrist, P.J. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Duff, K.C. [Univ. of Edinburgh Medical School (United Kingdom); Saxena, A.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The structural feature which is thought to facilitate the interaction of many peptides with phospholipid bilayers is the ability to fold into an amphipathic helix. In most cases the exact location and orientation of this helix with respect to the membrane is not known, and may vary with factors such as pH and phospholipid content of the bilayer. The growing interest in this area is stimulated by indications that similar interactions can contribute to the binding of certain hormones to their cell-surface receptors. We have been using the techniques of neutron diffraction from stacked phospholipid bilayers in an attempt to investigate this phenomenon with a number of membrane-active peptides. Here we report some of our findings with three of these: the bee venom melittin; the hormone calcitonin; and a synthetic peptide representing the ion channel fragment of influenza A M2 protein.

  4. Neutron diffraction studies of amphipathic helices in phospholipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, J.P.; Gilchrist, P.J.; Duff, K.C.; Saxena, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The structural feature which is thought to facilitate the interaction of many peptides with phospholipid bilayers is the ability to fold into an amphipathic helix. In most cases the exact location and orientation of this helix with respect to the membrane is not known, and may vary with factors such as pH and phospholipid content of the bilayer. The growing interest in this area is stimulated by indications that similar interactions can contribute to the binding of certain hormones to their cell-surface receptors. We have been using the techniques of neutron diffraction from stacked phospholipid bilayers in an attempt to investigate this phenomenon with a number of membrane-active peptides. Here we report some of our findings with three of these: the bee venom melittin; the hormone calcitonin; and a synthetic peptide representing the ion channel fragment of influenza A M2 protein

  5. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry at the phospholipid bilayer interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansfeld, Friederike M.; Au-Yeung, Ho Yu; Sanders, Jeremy K.M.; Otto, Sijbren

    2010-01-01

    Background: Molecular recognition at the environment provided by the phospholipid bilayer interface plays an important role in biology and is subject of intense investigation. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry is a powerful approach for exploring molecular recognition, but has thus far not been

  6. Pairing of cholesterol with oxidized phospholipid species in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Loubet, Bastien; Olzynska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    We claim that (1) cholesterol protects bilayers from disruption caused by lipid oxidation by sequestering conical shaped oxidized lipid species such as 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PZPC) away from phospholipid, because cholesterol and the oxidized lipid have complementary...... shapes and (2) mixtures of cholesterol and oxidized lipids can self-assemble into bilayers much like lysolipid–cholesterol mixtures. The evidence for bilayer protection comes from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Unimodal size distributions of extruded...... vesicles (LUVETs) made up of a mixture of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and PZPC containing high amounts of PZPC are only obtained when cholesterol is present in high concentrations. In simulations, bilayers containing high amounts of PZPC become porous, unless cholesterol is also present...

  7. Cholesterol autoxidation in phospholipid membrane bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevanian, A.; McLeod, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation in unilamellar liposomes of known cholesterol-phospholipid composition was monitored under conditions of autoxidation or as induced by a superoxide radical generating system, gamma-irradiation or cumene hydroperoxide. Formation of cholesterol oxidation products was indexed to the level of lipid peroxidation. The major cholesterol oxidation products identified were 7-keto-cholesterol, isomeric cholesterol 5,6-epoxides, isomeric 7-hydroperoxides and isomeric 3,7-cholestane diols. Other commonly encountered products included 3,5-cholestadiene-7-one and cholestane-3 beta, 5 alpha, 6 beta-triol. Superoxide-dependent peroxidation required iron and produced a gradual increase in 7-keto-cholesterol and cholesterol epoxides. Cholesterol oxidation was greatest in liposomes containing high proportions of unsaturated phospholipid to cholesterol (4:1 molar ratio), intermediate with low phospholipid to cholesterol ratios (2:1) and least in liposomes prepared with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. This relationship held regardless of the oxidizing conditions used. Cumene hydroperoxide-dependent lipid peroxidation and/or more prolonged oxidations with other oxidizing systems yielded a variety of products where cholesterol-5 beta,6 beta-epoxide, 7-ketocholesterol and the 7-hydroperoxides were most consistently elevated. Oxyradical initiation of lipid peroxidation produced a pattern of cholesterol oxidation products distinguishable from the pattern derived by cumene hydroperoxide-dependent peroxidation

  8. Effect of Ca2+ on the morphology of mixed DPPC-DOPS supported phospholipid bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reviakine, [No Value; Simon, A; Brisson, A

    2000-01-01

    The morphology of supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) containing mixtures of phospholipids in gel (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, DPPC) and fluid (dioleoyl phosphatidylserine (DOPS) or -choline (DOPC)) states at room temperature was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fluid-gel phase

  9. Calculations of the electrostatic potential adjacent to model phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, R M; Eisenberg, M; Sharp, K A; McLaughlin, S

    1995-03-01

    We used the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation to calculate electrostatic potentials in the aqueous phase adjacent to model phospholipid bilayers containing mixtures of zwitterionic lipids (phosphatidylcholine) and acidic lipids (phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol). The aqueous phase (relative permittivity, epsilon r = 80) contains 0.1 M monovalent salt. When the bilayers contain equipotential surfaces are discrete domes centered over the negatively charged lipids and are approximately twice the value calculated using Debye-Hückel theory. When the bilayers contain > 25% acidic lipid, the -25 mV equipotential profiles are essentially flat and agree well with the values calculated using Gouy-Chapman theory. When the bilayers contain 100% acidic lipid, all of the equipotential surfaces are flat and agree with Gouy-Chapman predictions (including the -100 mV surface, which is located only 1 A from the outermost atoms). Even our model bilayers are not simple systems: the charge on each lipid is distributed over several atoms, these partial charges are non-coplanar, there is a 2 A ion-exclusion region (epsilon r = 80) adjacent to the polar headgroups, and the molecular surface is rough. We investigated the effect of these four factors using smooth (or bumpy) epsilon r = 2 slabs with embedded point charges: these factors had only minor effects on the potential in the aqueous phase.

  10. Confocal Raman Microscopy for in Situ Measurement of Phospholipid-Water Partitioning into Model Phospholipid Bilayers within Individual Chromatographic Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitt, Jay P; Bryce, David A; Minteer, Shelley D; Harris, Joel M

    2018-06-05

    The phospholipid-water partition coefficient is a commonly measured parameter that correlates with drug efficacy, small-molecule toxicity, and accumulation of molecules in biological systems in the environment. Despite the utility of this parameter, methods for measuring phospholipid-water partition coefficients are limited. This is due to the difficulty of making quantitative measurements in vesicle membranes or supported phospholipid bilayers, both of which are small-volume phases that challenge the sensitivity of many analytical techniques. In this work, we employ in situ confocal Raman microscopy to probe the partitioning of a model membrane-active compound, 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid or ibuprofen, into both hybrid- and supported-phospholipid bilayers deposited on the pore walls of individual chromatographic particles. The large surface-area-to-volume ratio of chromatographic silica allows interrogation of a significant lipid bilayer area within a very small volume. The local phospholipid concentration within a confocal probe volume inside the particle can be as high as 0.5 M, which overcomes the sensitivity limitations of making measurements in the limited membrane areas of single vesicles or planar supported bilayers. Quantitative determination of ibuprofen partitioning is achieved by using the phospholipid acyl-chains of the within-particle bilayer as an internal standard. This approach is tested for measurements of pH-dependent partitioning of ibuprofen into both hybrid-lipid and supported-lipid bilayers within silica particles, and the results are compared with octanol-water partitioning and with partitioning into individual optically trapped phospholipid vesicle membranes. Additionally, the impact of ibuprofen partitioning on bilayer structure is evaluated for both within-particle model membranes and compared with the structural impacts of partitioning into vesicle lipid bilayers.

  11. Effects of cholesterol or gramicidin on slow and fast motions of phospholipids in oriented bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Z.Y.; Simplaceanu, V.; Dowd, S.R.; Ho, C.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation both in the rotating frame and in the laboratory frame is used to investigate the slow and fast molecular motions of phospholipids in oriented bilayers in the liquid crystalline phase. The bilayers are prepared from a perdeuterated phospholipid labeled with a pair of 19 F atoms at the 7 position of the 2-sn acyl chain. Phospholipid-cholesterol or phospholipid-gramicidin interactions are characterized by measuring the relaxation rates as a function of the bilayer orientation, the locking field, and the temperature. These studies show that cholesterol or gramicidin can specifically enhance the relaxation due to slow motions in phospholipid bilayers with correlation times τ s longer than 10 -8 sec. The perturbations of the geometry of the slow motions induced by cholesterol are qualitatively different from those induced by gramicidin. In contrast, the presence of cholesterol or gramicidin slightly suppresses the fast motions with correlation times τ f = 10 -9 to 10 -10 sec without significantly affecting their geometry. Weak locking-field and temperature dependences are observed for both pure lipid bilayers and bilayers containing either cholesterol or gramicidin, suggesting that the motions of phospholipid acyl chains may have dispersed correlation times

  12. Photolithographic Polymerization of Diacetylene-Containing Phospholipid Bilayers Studied by Multimode Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morigaki, Kenichi; Schönherr, Holger; Frank, Curtis W.; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Photopolymerization of the diacetylene-containing phospholipid 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (1) in substrate-supported planar lipid bilayers (SPBs) has been studied by using multimode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Monolayers and bilayers of 1 have been transferred onto

  13. Effect of free cholesterol on incorporation of triolein in phospholipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, P.J.R.; Small, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Triacylglycerols are the major substrates for lipolytic enzymes that act at the surface of emulsion-like particles such as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, chylomicrons, and intracellular lipid droplets. This study examines the effect of cholesterol on the solubility of a triacylglycerol, triolein, in phospholipid surfaces. Solubilities of [carbonyl- 13 C] triolein in phospholipid bilayer vesicles containing between 0 and 50 mol % free cholesterol, prepared by cosonication, were measured by 13 C NMR. The carbonyl resonances from bilayer-incorporated triglyceride were shifted downfield in the 13 C NMR spectra from those corresponding to excess, nonincorporated material. This enabled solubilities to be determined directly from carbonyl peak intensities at most cholesterol concentration. The bilayer solubility of triolein was inversely proportional to the cholesterol/phospholipid mole ratio. In pure phospholipid vesicles the triolein solubility was 2.2 mol %. The triglyceride incorporation decreased to 1.1 mol % at a cholesterol/phospholipid mole ratio of 0.5, and at a mole ratio of 1.0 for the bilayer lipids, the triolein solubility was reduced to just 0.15 mol %. The effects of free cholesterol were more pronounced and progressive than observed previously on the bilayer solubility of cholestery oleate. As with cholesteryl oleate, they suggest that cholesterol also displaces solubilized triglyceride to deeper regions of the bilayer

  14. Study of Charged particles transport across model and real phospholipid bilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.; Mareček, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2010), s. 208-219 ISSN 1790-5079 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phospholipid bilayers * voltammetry * environment Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.worldses.org/journals/environment/index.html

  15. Effect of pressure on the fast motions in ordered phase phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H

    2005-07-01

    Application of hydrostatic pressure to phospholipid bilayers increases acyl chain order and raises the main transition temperature. {sup 2}H NMR spectra and quadrupole echo decay times were obtained at ambient pressure and pressures of 85 MPa and 196.1 MPa for ordered phase bilayers of a zwitterionic phospholipid : 16:0-16:0 PC-d{sub 62} (DPPC-d{sub 62}) and an anionic phospholipid : 16:0-16:0 PG-d{sub 62} (DPPG-d{sub 62}). The extent to which deuterium magnetization following an RF pulse is refocused in the echo after a second pulse is limited by the motions that modulate the orientation-dependent quadrupole interaction. The q-CPMG pulse sequence is used to separate the contribution of slow and fast motions to the echo decay rate. This work provides insight into how chain packing affects local motion.

  16. Modulated phases of phospholipid bilayers induced by tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Md Arif; Raghunathan, V A

    2012-11-01

    The influence of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols on the structure and phase behavior of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers has been determined from X-ray diffraction studies on oriented multilayers. In all the three cases the main-transition temperature (T(m)) of DPPC was found to decrease with increasing tocopherol concentration up to around 25 mol%. Beyond this the main transition is suppressed in the case of γ-tocopherol, whereas T(m) becomes insensitive to composition in the other two cases. The pre-transition is found to be suppressed over a narrow tocopherol concentration range between 7.5 and 10 mol% in DPPC-γ-tocopherol and DPPC-δ-tocopherol bilayers, and the ripple phase occurs down to the lowest temperature studied. In all the three cases a modulated phase is observed above a tocopherol concentration of about 10 mol%, which is similar to the P(β) phase reported in DPPC-cholesterol bilayers. This phase is found to occur even in excess water conditions at lower tocopherol concentrations, and consists of bilayers with periodic height modulation. These results indicate the ability of tocopherols to induce local curvature in membranes, which could be important for some of their biological functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi, E-mail: songi@chem.ucsb.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Olijve, Luuk L. C. [Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-12-14

    Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed {sup 1}H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5–10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in

  18. Lamellar-lamellar phase separation of phospholipid bilayers induced by salting-in/-out effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishida, Mafumi [Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Seto, Hideki, E-mail: hideki.seto@kek.jp [KENS and CMRC, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    The multilamellar structure of phospholipid bilayers is stabilized by the interactions between bilayers. Although the lamellar repeat distance is uniquely determined at the balance point of interactions between bilayers, a lamellar-lamellar phase separation, where the two phases with different lamellar repeat distance coexist, has been reported in a case of adding a salt to the aqueous solution of lipids. In order to understand the physical mechanism of the lamellar-lamellar phase separation, the effects of adding monovalent salt on the lamellar structure are studied by visual observation and by small-angle X-ray scattering. Further, a theoretical model based on the mean field theory is introduced and it is concluded that the salting-in and -out effects of lipid bilayers trigger the lamellar-lamellar phase separation.

  19. Bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions in lipid-symmetric erythrocytes assessed by a photoactivable phospholipid analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, D.; Schlegel, R.A.; Williamson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed for maintenance of transbilayer phospholipid asymmetry in the erythrocyte plasma membrane, one involving specific interactions between the aminophospholipids of the inner leaflet of the bilayer and the cytoskeleton, particularly spectrin, and the other involving the aminophospholipid translocase. If the former mechanism is correct, then erythrocytes which have lost their asymmetric distribution of phospholipids should display altered bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions. To test this possibility, normal erythrocytes, erythrocytes from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or sickle disease, and lipid-symmetric and -asymmetric erythrocyte ghosts were labeled with the radioactive photoactivable analogue of phosphatidylethanolamine, 2-(2-azido-4-nitrobenzoyl)-1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho[ 14 C] ethanolamine ([ 14 C]AzPE), previously shown to label cytoskeletal proteins from the bilayer. The labeling pattern of cytoskeletal proteins in pathologic erythrocytes and lipid-asymmetric erythrocyte ghosts was indistinguishable from normal erythrocytes, indicating that the probe detects no differences in bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions in these cells. In contrast, in lipid-symmetric erythrocyte ghosts, labeling of bands 4.1 and 4.2 and actin, and to a lesser extent ankyrin, by [ 14 C]AzPE was considerably reduced. Significantly, however, labeling of spectrin was unaltered in the lipid-symmetric cells. These results do not support a model in which spectrin is involved in the maintenance of an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in erythrocytes

  20. General model of phospholipid bilayers in fluid phase within the single chain mean field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yachong; Baulin, Vladimir A. [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Pogodin, Sergey [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia, ICIQ, Av. Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2014-05-07

    Coarse-grained model for saturated phospholipids: 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC), 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and unsaturated phospholipids: 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1,2- dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) is introduced within the single chain mean field theory. A single set of parameters adjusted for DMPC bilayers gives an adequate description of equilibrium and mechanical properties of a range of saturated lipid molecules that differ only in length of their hydrophobic tails and unsaturated (POPC, DOPC) phospholipids which have double bonds in the tails. A double bond is modeled with a fixed angle of 120°, while the rest of the parameters are kept the same as saturated lipids. The thickness of the bilayer and its hydrophobic core, the compressibility, and the equilibrium area per lipid correspond to experimentally measured values for each lipid, changing linearly with the length of the tail. The model for unsaturated phospholipids also fetches main thermodynamical properties of the bilayers. This model is used for an accurate estimation of the free energies of the compressed or stretched bilayers in stacks or multilayers and gives reasonable estimates for free energies. The proposed model may further be used for studies of mixtures of lipids, small molecule inclusions, interactions of bilayers with embedded proteins.

  1. Electrochemical Measurements on Supported Phospholipid Bilayers: Preparation, Properties and Ion Transport Using Incorporated Ionophores

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Štulík, Karel; Mareček, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, 17-18 (2010), s. 2043-2050 ISSN 1040-0397. [International Conference on Modern Electroanalytical Methods. Prague, 09.12.2009-14.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : voltammetry * phospholipid bilayers * Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  2. Dispersion of fullerenes in phospholipid bilayers and the subsequent phase changes in the host bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeng, U-S. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30077, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: usjeng@nsrrc.org.tw; Hsu, C.-H. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30077, Taiwan (China); Lin, T.-L. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wu, C.-M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.-L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Tai, L.-A. [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Hwang, K.-C. [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2005-02-28

    We have studied the structure and phase transition characteristics of the fullerenes (C{sub 60})-embedded lipid bilayers. With small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we have observed a degradation of bilayer ordering and a suppression effect on the phase transitions of the host vesicle bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), due to the embedment of fullerenes. The fullerene-embedded lipid system with substrate-oriented bilayers is also investigated using X-ray reflectivity and grazing incident small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). In the depth direction, the multilamellar peaks observed in the X-ray reflectivity profile for the oriented DPPC/C{sub 60} bilayers reveal a larger head-to-head distance D{sub HH} of 50.6 A and a bilayer spacing D of 59.8 A, compared to the D{sub HH}=47.7 A and D=59.5 A for a pure DPPC membrane measured at the same conditions. Furthermore, the lipid head layers and water layers in the extracted electron density profile for the complex system are highly smeared, implying a fluctuating or corrugated structure in this zone. Correspondingly, GISAXS for the oriented DPPC/C{sub 60} membrane reveals stronger diffuse scatterings along the membrane plane than that for the pure DPPC system, indicating a higher in-plane correlation associated with the embedded fullerenes.

  3. Visualization and analysis of lipopolysaccharide distribution in binary phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Maria Florencia [Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas La Plata (INIBIOLP), CCT-La Plata, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, UNLP, Calles 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Sanchez, Susana [Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Bakas, Laura, E-mail: lbakas@biol.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas La Plata (INIBIOLP), CCT-La Plata, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, UNLP, Calles 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, Calles 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2009-05-22

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin released from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria during infections. It have been reported that LPS may play a role in the outer membrane of bacteria similar to that of cholesterol in eukaryotic plasma membranes. In this article we compare the effect of introducing LPS or cholesterol in liposomes made of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine on the solubilization process by Triton X-100. The results show that liposomes containing LPS or cholesterol are more resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100 than the binary phospholipid mixtures at 4 {sup o}C. The LPS distribution was analyzed on GUVs of DPPC:DOPC using FITC-LPS. Solid and liquid-crystalline domains were visualized labeling the GUVs with LAURDAN and GP images were acquired using a two-photon microscope. The images show a selective distribution of LPS in gel domains. Our results support the hypothesis that LPS could aggregate and concentrate selectively in biological membranes providing a mechanism to bring together several components of the LPS-sensing machinery.

  4. Interactions of triglycerides with phospholipids: Incorporation into the bilayer structure and formation of emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Interactions of carbonyl 13 C-enriched triacylglycerols (TG) with phospholipid bilayers were studied by 13 C NMR spectroscopy. In spectra of DPPC vesicles with TG at 40-50 degree C, both triolein (TO) and tripalmitin (TP) had narrow carbonyl resonances, indicative of rapid motions, and chemical shifts indicative of H bonding of the TG carbonyls with solvent (H 2 O) at the aqueous interfaces of the vesicle bilayer. Below the phase transition temperature of the DPPC/TG vesicles, most phospholipid peaks broadened markedly. In DPPC vesicles with TP, the TP carbonyl peaks broadened beyond detection below the transition, whereas in vesicles with TO, the TO carbonyl peaks showed little change in line width or chemical shift and no change in the integrated intensity. These properties (extent of solubility in the PC surface, conformation, solvent accessibility, and molecular mobility) may be important for enzymatic hydrolysis and protein-mediated transfer of TG. In gel-phase DPPC, the molecular mobility of the TG depends on the nature of the TG acyl chains. In the DPPC/TG mixtures studied, attempts to incorporate TG in excess of the bilayer solubility resulted in production of emulsion particles. The significance of these results for TG metabolism is discussed

  5. Neutron reflectivity study of substrate surface chemistry effects on supported phospholipid bilayer formation on (1120) sapphire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleson, Timothy A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Sahai, Nita [University of Akron; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Dura, Joseph A [ORNL; Majkrzak, Charles F [ORNL; Giuffre, Anthony J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Oxide-supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) used as biomimetric membranes are significant for a broad range of applications including improvement of biomedical devices and biosensors, and in understanding biomineralization processes and the possible role of mineral surfaces in the evolution of pre-biotic membranes. Continuous-coverage and/or stacjed SPBs retain properties (e.,g. fluidity) more similar to native biological membranes, which is desirable for most applications. Using neutron reflectivity, we examined face coverage and potential stacking of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers on the (1120) face of sapphire (a-Al2O3). Nearly full bilayers were formed at low to neutral pH, when the sapphire surface is positively charged, and at low ionic strength (l=15 mM NaCl). Coverage decreased at higher pH, close to the isoelectric point of sapphire, and also at high I>210mM, or with addition of 2mM Ca2+. The latter two effects are additive, suggesting that Ca2+ mitigates the effect of higher I. These trends agree with previous results for phospholipid adsorption on a-Al2O3 particles determined by adsorption isotherms and on single-crystal (1010) sapphire by atomic force microscopy, suggesting consistency of oxide surface chemistry-dependent effects across experimental techniques.

  6. Neutrons in studies of phospholipid bilayers and bilayer–drug interaction. I. Basic principles and neutron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belička M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our paper, we demonstrate several possibilities of using neutrons in pharmaceutical research with the help of examples of scientific results achieved at our University. In this first part, basic properties of neutrons and elementary principles of elastic scattering of thermal neutrons are described. Results of contrast variation neutron diffraction on oriented phospholipid bilayers with intercalated local anaesthetic or cholesterol demonstrate the potential of this method at determination of their position in bilayers. Diffraction experiments with alkan-1-ols located in the bilayers revealed their influence on bilayer thickness as a function of their alkyl chain length.

  7. 1,2-Dielaidoylphosphocholine/1,2-dimyristoylphosphoglycerol supported phospholipid bilayer formation in calcium and calcium-free buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Kervin O.

    2012-01-01

    Phospholipid membranes are useful in the field of biocatalysis because a supported phospholipid membrane can create a biomimetic platform where biocatalytic processes can readily occur. In this work, supported bilayer formation from sonicated phospholipid vesicles containing 1,2-dielaidoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] was studied using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and an atomic force microscope. The molar percentages of DEPC and DMPG were varied to determine the effect of overall lipid composition on supported bilayer formation. This work also explored the effect that calcium ion concentration had on supported bilayer formation. Results show that vesicles with up to 50 mol% dimyristoylphosphoglycerol can form a supported bilayer without the presence of calcium ions; however, supported bilayer formation in calcium buffer was inhibited as the anionic (negatively charged) lipid concentration increased. Data suggest that supported phospholipid bilayer formation in the absence of Ca 2+ from vesicles containing negatively charged lipids is specific to phosphatidylglycerol. - Highlights: ► SPB formation of DEPC vesicles containing 0 to 50 mol% DMPG monitored using QCM-D. ► Ca 2+ inhibited SPB formation of DEPC vesicles containing 30 to 50 mol% DMPG. ► Vesicles containing DMPG at 0 to 50 mol% formed SPB in buffer free of Ca 2+ .

  8. Composition, structure and properties of POPC–triolein mixtures. Evidence of triglyceride domains in phospholipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Lars; Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian

    2013-01-01

    We have in this study investigated the composition, structure and spectroscopical properties of multilamellar vesicles composed of a phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), and up to 10mol% of triolein (TO), a triglyceride. We found in agreement with previous results...... as vesicular structures containing entrapped water. Bilayer structure of the membranes was supported by small angle X-ray scattering that showed the membranes to form a lamellar phase. Fluorescence spectroscopy with the polarity sensitive dye Nile red revealed, that the LF samples with more than 5mol......% TO contained pure TO domains. These observations are consistent with an earlier MD simulation study by us and our co-workers suggesting triglycerides to be located in lens shaped, blister-like domains between the two lipid bilayer leaflets (Khandelia et al. (2010) [26])....

  9. Phospholipid bilayer affinities and solvation characteristics by electrokinetic chromatography with a nanodisc pseudostationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, William M; Steele, Harmen B; Ross, J B Alexander; Palmer, Christopher P

    2017-03-01

    Phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and synthetic maleic acid-styrene copolymer belts have been introduced as a pseudostationary phase (PSP) in electrokinetic chromatography and demonstrated good performance. The nanodiscs provide a suitable migration range and high theoretical plate counts. Using this nanodisc pseudostationary phase, the affinity of the bilayer structure for probe solutes was determined and characterized. Good correlation is observed between retention factors and octanol water partition coefficients for particular categories of solutes, but the general correlation is weak primarily because the nanodiscs show stronger affinity than octanol for hydrogen bond donors. This suggests that a more appropriate application of this technology is to measure and characterize interactions between solutes and lipid bilayers directly. Linear solvation energy relationship analysis of the nanodisc-solute interactions in this study demonstrates that the nanodiscs provide a solvation environment with low cohesivity and weak hydrogen bond donating ability, and provide relatively strong hydrogen bond acceptor strength. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Solid-state NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement immersion depth studies in phospholipid bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Shidong

    2010-11-01

    A new approach for determining the membrane immersion depth of a spin-labeled probe has been developed using paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) in solid-state NMR spectroscopy. A DOXYL spin label was placed at different sites of 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PSPC) phospholipid bilayers as paramagnetic moieties and the resulting enhancements of the longitudinal relaxation (T1) times of 31P nuclei on the surface of the bilayers were measured by a standard inversion recovery pulse sequence. The 31P NMR spin-lattice relaxation times decrease steadily as the DOXYL spin label moves closer to the surface as well as the concentration of the spin-labeled lipids increase. The enhanced relaxation vs. the position and concentration of spin-labels indicate that PRE induced by the DOXYL spin label are significant to determine longer distances over the whole range of the membrane depths. When these data were combined with estimated correlation times τc, the r-6-weighted, time-averaged distances between the spin-labels and the 31P nuclei on the membrane surface were estimated. The application of using this solid-state NMR PRE approach coupled with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) may be a powerful method for measuring membrane protein immersion depth. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Influence of Cholesterol on Fast Dynamics Inside of Vesicle and Planar Phospholipid Bilayers Measured with 2D IR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kel, Oksana; Tamimi, Amr; Fayer, Michael D

    2015-07-23

    Phospholipid bilayers are frequently used as models for cell membranes. Here the influence of cholesterol on the structural dynamics in the interior of 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (dilauroylphosphatidylcholine, DLPC) vesicles and DLPC planar bilayers are investigated as a function of cholesterol concentration. 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy was performed on the antisymmetric CO stretch of the vibrational probe molecule tungsten hexacarbonyl, which is located in the interior alkyl regions of the bilayers. The 2D IR experiments measure spectral diffusion, which is caused by the structural fluctuations of the bilayers. The 2D IR measurements show that the bilayer interior alkyl region dynamics occur on time scales ranging from a few picoseconds to many tens of picoseconds. These are the time scales of the bilayers' structural dynamics, which act as the dynamic solvent bath for chemical processes of membrane biomolecules. The results suggest that at least a significant fraction of the dynamics arise from density fluctuations. Samples are studied in which the cholesterol concentration is varied from 0% to 40% in both the vesicles (72 nm diameter) and fully hydrated planar bilayers in the form of aligned multibilayers. At all cholesterol concentrations, the structural dynamics are faster in the curved vesicle bilayers than in the planar bilayers. As the cholesterol concentration is increased, at a certain concentration there is a sudden change in the dynamics, that is, the dynamics abruptly slow down. However, this change occurs at a lower concentration in the vesicles (between 10% and 15% cholesterol) than in the planar bilayers (between 25% and 30% cholesterol). The sudden change in the dynamics, in addition to other IR observables, indicates a structural transition. However, the results show that the cholesterol concentration at which the transition occurs is influenced by the curvature of the bilayers.

  12. Green proteorhodopsin reconstituted into nanoscale phospholipid bilayers (nanodiscs) as photoactive monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaghan, Matthew J; Schwall, Christine T; Alder, Nathan N; Birge, Robert R

    2011-11-16

    Over 4000 putative proteorhodopsins (PRs) have been identified throughout the oceans and seas of the Earth. The first of these eubacterial rhodopsins was discovered in 2000 and has expanded the family of microbial proton pumps to all three domains of life. With photophysical properties similar to those of bacteriorhodopsin, an archaeal proton pump, PRs are also generating interest for their potential use in various photonic applications. We perform here the first reconstitution of the minimal photoactive PR structure into nanoscale phospholipid bilayers (nanodiscs) to better understand how protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions influence the photophysical properties of PR. Spectral (steady-state and time-resolved UV-visible spectroscopy) and physical (size-exclusion chromatography and electron microscopy) characterization of these complexes confirms the preparation of a photoactive PR monomer within nanodiscs. Specifically, when embedded within a nanodisc, monomeric PR exhibits a titratable pK(a) (6.5-7.1) and photocycle lifetime (∼100-200 ms) that are comparable to the detergent-solubilized protein. These ndPRs also produce a photoactive blue-shifted absorbance, centered at 377 or 416 nm, that indicates that protein-protein interactions from a PR oligomer are required for a fast photocycle. Moreover, we demonstrate how these model membrane systems allow modulation of the PR photocycle by variation of the discoidal diameter (i.e., 10 or 12 nm), bilayer thickness (i.e., 23 or 26.5 Å), and degree of saturation of the lipid acyl chain. Nanodiscs also offer a highly stable environment of relevance to potential device applications.

  13. β-CD-dextran polymer for efficient sequestration of cholesterol from phospholipid bilayers: Mechanistic and safe-toxicity investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzl, Dominik; Nielsen, Thorbjørn Terndrup; Hansen, Terkel; di Cagno, Massimiliano

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability of β-cyclodextrin-dextran (BCD-dextran) polymer as cholesterol sequestering agent in vitro. For this purpose, BCD-dextran-cholesterol complexation was studied by phase solubility studies as well as with a specifically designed in vitro model based on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) to evaluate the ability of this polymer to sequestrate cholesterol from phospholipid bilayers. Cholesterol-sequestering ability of BCD-dextran was also investigated on different cell lines relevant for the hematopoietic system and results were correlated to cells toxicity. BCD-dextran polymer was capable of extracting significant amount of cholesterol from phospholipid bilayers and to a higher extent in comparison to available β-cyclodextrins (BCDs). The ability of BCD-dextran in sequestering cholesterol resulted also very high on cell lines relevant for the hematopoietic system. Moreover, BCD-dextran resulted less toxic on cell cultures due to higher selectivity in sequestering cholesterol in comparison to MBCD (that sequestrated also significant amounts of cholesteryl esters). In conclusion, BCD-dextran resulted an extremely efficient cholesterol-sequestering agent and BCD-dextran resulted more selective to cholesterol extraction in comparison to other BCDs (therefore of lower cytotoxicity). This phenomenon might play a key role to develop an efficient treatment for hypercholesterolemia based on cholesterol segregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On the application of the MARTINI coarse-grained model to immersion of a protein in a phospholipid bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, Ghulam, E-mail: Ghulam.Mustafa@h-its.org, E-mail: rebecca.wade@h-its.org; Nandekar, Prajwal P.; Yu, Xiaofeng [Molecular and Cellular Modeling Group, Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS), Schloß-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Wade, Rebecca C., E-mail: Ghulam.Mustafa@h-its.org, E-mail: rebecca.wade@h-its.org [Molecular and Cellular Modeling Group, Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS), Schloß-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie der Universität Heidelberg, DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance, INF 282, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR), Heidelberg University, INF 368, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    An important step in the simulation of a membrane protein in a phospholipid bilayer is the correct immersion of the protein in the bilayer. Crystal structures are determined without the bilayer. Particularly for proteins with monotopic domains, it can be unclear how deeply and in which orientation the protein is being inserted in the membrane. We have previously developed a procedure combining coarse-grain (CG) with all-atom (AA) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to insert and simulate a cytochrome P450 (CYP) possessing an N-terminal transmembrane helix connected by a flexible linker region to a globular domain that dips into the membrane. The CG simulations provide a computationally efficient means to explore different orientations and conformations of the CYP in the membrane. Converged configurations obtained in the CG simulations are then refined in AA simulations. Here, we tested different variants of the MARTINI CG model, differing in the water model, the treatment of long-range non-bonded interactions, and the implementation (GROMACS 4.5.5 vs 5.0.4), for this purpose. We examined the behavior of the models for simulating a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer in water and for the immersion of CYP3A4 in a POPC bilayer, and compared the CG-MD results with the previously reported experimental and simulation results. We also tested the methodology on a set of four other CYPs. Finally, we propose an optimized protocol for modeling such protein-membrane systems that provides the most plausible configurations and is computationally efficient; this incorporates the standard non-polar water model and the GROMACS 5.0.4 implementation with a reaction field treatment of long-range interactions.

  15. On the application of the MARTINI coarse-grained model to immersion of a protein in a phospholipid bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Nandekar, Prajwal P.; Yu, Xiaofeng; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    An important step in the simulation of a membrane protein in a phospholipid bilayer is the correct immersion of the protein in the bilayer. Crystal structures are determined without the bilayer. Particularly for proteins with monotopic domains, it can be unclear how deeply and in which orientation the protein is being inserted in the membrane. We have previously developed a procedure combining coarse-grain (CG) with all-atom (AA) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to insert and simulate a cytochrome P450 (CYP) possessing an N-terminal transmembrane helix connected by a flexible linker region to a globular domain that dips into the membrane. The CG simulations provide a computationally efficient means to explore different orientations and conformations of the CYP in the membrane. Converged configurations obtained in the CG simulations are then refined in AA simulations. Here, we tested different variants of the MARTINI CG model, differing in the water model, the treatment of long-range non-bonded interactions, and the implementation (GROMACS 4.5.5 vs 5.0.4), for this purpose. We examined the behavior of the models for simulating a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer in water and for the immersion of CYP3A4 in a POPC bilayer, and compared the CG-MD results with the previously reported experimental and simulation results. We also tested the methodology on a set of four other CYPs. Finally, we propose an optimized protocol for modeling such protein-membrane systems that provides the most plausible configurations and is computationally efficient; this incorporates the standard non-polar water model and the GROMACS 5.0.4 implementation with a reaction field treatment of long-range interactions

  16. The effect of calcium on the properties of charged phospholipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U.R.; Leidy, Chad; Westh, P.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and dynamics of charged bilayers as well as the distribution of counterions at the bilayer interface. For this, we have considered the negatively charged di-myristoyl-phosphatidyl-glycerol (DMPG) and di-myristoyl-phosph...

  17. The N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant lipopeptide SP-C has intrinsic propensity to interact with and perturb phospholipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, Inés; Rivas, Luis; Keough, Kevin M W

    2004-01-01

    aggregation, and leakage of the aqueous content of the vesicles. The lipid-peptide interaction includes a significant hydrophobic component for both zwitterionic and anionic membranes, although the interaction with phosphatidylglycerol bilayers is also electrostatic in nature. The effects of the SP-C N......-terminal peptides on the membrane structure are mediated by significant perturbations of the packing order and mobility of phospholipid acyl chain segments deep in the bilayer, as detected by differential scanning calorimetry and spin-label ESR. These results suggest that the N-terminal region of SP-C, even...

  18. Medium-chain fatty acid binding to albumin and transfer to phospholipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature-dependent (5-42 degree C) 13 C NMR spectra of albumin complexes with 90% isotopically substituted [1- 13 C]octanoic or [1- 13 C]decanoic acids showed a single peak at >30 degree C but three peaks at lower temperatures. The chemical-shift differences result from different ionic and/or hydrogen-bonding interactions between amino acid side chains and the fatty acid carboxyl carbon. Rapid exchange of fatty acid among binding sites obscures these sites at temperatures >30 degree C. Rate constants for exchange at 33 degree C were 350 sec -1 for octanoate and 20 sec -1 for decanoate. Temperature-dependent data for octanoate showed an activation energy of 2 kcal/mol for exchange. Spectra of albumin complexes with the 12-carbon saturated fatty acid, lauric acid, had several narrow laurate carboxyl peaks at 35 degree C, indicating longer lifetimes in the different binding sites. Fatty acid exchange between albumin and model membranes (phosphatidylcholine bilayers) occurred on a time scale comparable to that for exchange among albumin binding sites, following the order octanoate > decanoate > laurate. The equilibrium distribution of fatty acid between lipid bilayers and protein was measured directly from NMR spectra. Decreasing pH increased the relative affinity of fatty acid for the lipid bilayer. The results predict that the relative affinity of octanoic acid for albumin and membranes will be similar to that of long-chain fatty acids, but the rate of equilibration will be ∼ 10 4 faster for octanoic acid

  19. Constitutive dimerization of the G-protein coupled receptor, neurotensin receptor 1, reconstituted into phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Peter J; Attrill, Helen; Boehringer, Jonas; Ross, Simon; Wadhams, George H; Smith, Eleanor; Armitage, Judith P; Watts, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1), a Family A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion with the fluorescent proteins eCFP or eYFP. A fluorophore-tagged receptor was used to study the multimerization of NTS1 in detergent solution and in brain polar lipid bilayers, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). A detergent-solubilized receptor was unable to form FRET-competent complexes at concentrations of up to 200 nM, suggesting that the receptor is monomeric in this environment. When reconstituted into a model membrane system at low receptor density, the observed FRET was independent of agonist binding, suggesting constitutive multimer formation. In competition studies, decreased FRET in the presence of untagged NTS1 excludes the possibility of fluorescent protein-induced interactions. A simulation of the experimental data indicates that NTS1 exists predominantly as a homodimer, rather than as higher-order multimers. These observations suggest that, in common with several other Family A GPCRs, NTS1 forms a constitutive dimer in lipid bilayers, stabilized through receptor-receptor interactions in the absence of other cellular signaling components. Therefore, this work demonstrates that well-characterized model membrane systems are useful tools for the study of GPCR multimerization, allowing fine control over system composition and complexity, provided that rigorous control experiments are performed.

  20. An extended study of the phase separation between phospholipids and grafted polymers on a bilayer biomembrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, M; Joudar, I; Kaidi, H; Elhasnaoui, K; Ridouane, H; Qamar, H, E-mail: benhamou.mabrouk@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique des Polymeres et Phenomenes Critiques, Faculte des Sciences, Ben M' sik, PO Box 7955, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2011-06-01

    We re-examine here the phase separation between phospholipids and adsorbed polymer chains on a fluid membrane with a change in some suitable parameter (temperature). Our purpose is to quantify the significant effects of the solvent quality and of the polydispersity of adsorbed loops formed by grafted polymer chains on the segregation phenomenon. To this end, we elaborate on a theoretical model that allows us to derive the expression for the mixing free energy. From this, we extract the phase diagram shape in the composition-temperature plane. Our main conclusion is that the polymer chain condensation is very sensitive to the solvent quality and to the polydispersity of loops of adsorbed chains.

  1. Flip-Flop of Steroids in Phospholipid Bilayers: Effects of the Chemical Structure on Transbilayer Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisio, Giulia; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Ferrarini, Alberta

    2012-01-01

    is still missing. The scarce knowledge derives from the difficulty of experimental determination. Because of its slow rate on the molecular time scale, flip-flop is challenging also for computational techniques. Here, we report a study of the passive transbilayer diffusion of steroids, based on a kinetic......, dielectric permittivity, acyl chain order parameters, and lateral pressure. The flip-flop rates are determined by solving the Master Equation that governs the time evolution of the system, with transition rates between free energy minima evaluated according to the Kramers theory. Considering various steroids...... (cholesterol, lanosterol, ketosterone, 5-cholestene, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and testosterone), we can discuss how differences in molecular shape and polarity affect the pathway and the rate of flip-flop in a liquid crystalline 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer, at low steroid...

  2. Enhanced biostability and cellular uptake of zinc oxide nanocrystals shielded with a phospholipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumontel, B; Canta, M; Engelke, H; Chiodoni, A; Racca, L; Ancona, A; Limongi, T; Canavese, G; Cauda, V

    2017-11-28

    The widespread use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, including therapeutic drug delivery or stimuli-responsive activation, as well as imaging, imposes a careful control over the colloidal stability and long-term behaviour of ZnO in biological media. Moreover, the effect of ZnO nanostructures on living cells, in particular cancer cells, is still under debate. This paper discusses the role of surface chemistry and charge of zinc oxide nanocrystals, of around 15 nm in size, which influence their behaviour in biological fluids and effect on cancer cells. In particular, we address this problem by modifying the surface of pristine ZnO nanocrystals (NCs), rich of hydroxyl groups, with positively charged amino-propyl chains or, more innovatively, by self-assembling a double-lipidic membrane, shielding the ZnO NCs. Our findings show that the prolonged immersion in simulated human plasma and in the cell culture medium leads to highly colloidally dispersed ZnO NCs only when coated by the lipidic bilayer. In contrast, the pristine and amine-functionalized NCs form huge aggregates after already one hour of immersion. Partial dissolution of these two samples into potentially cytotoxic Zn 2+ cations takes place, together with the precipitation of phosphate and carbonate salts on the NCs' surface. When exposed to living HeLa cancer cells, higher amounts of lipid-shielded ZnO NCs are internalized with respect to the other samples, thus showing a reduced cytotoxicity, based on the same amount of internalized NCs. These results pave the way for the development of novel theranostic platforms based on ZnO NCs. The new formulation of ZnO shielded with a lipid-bilayer will prevent strong aggregation and premature degradation into toxic by-products, and promote a highly efficient cell uptake for further therapeutic or diagnostic functions.

  3. Using crosslinkable diacetylene phospholipids to construct two-dimensional packed beds in supported lipid bilayer separation platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kai Hu, Sheng-Wen Hsiao, Hsun-Yen Mao, Ya-Ming Chen, Yung Chang and Ling Chao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Separating and purifying cell membrane-associated biomolecules has been a challenge owing to their amphiphilic property. Taking these species out of their native lipid membrane environment usually results in biomolecule degradation. One of the new directions is to use supported lipid bilayer (SLB platforms to separate the membrane species while they are protected in their native environment. Here we used a type of crosslinkable diacetylene phospholipids, diynePC (1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, as a packed material to create a 'two-dimensional (2D packed bed' in a SLB platform. After the diynePC SLB is exposed to UV light, some of the diynePC lipids in the SLB can crosslink and the non-crosslinked monomer lipids can be washed away, leaving a 2D porous solid matrix. We incorporated the lipid vesicle deposition method with a microfluidic device to pattern the location of the packed-bed region and the feed region with species to be separated in a SLB platform. Our atomic force microscopy result shows that the nano-scaled structure density of the '2D packed bed' can be tuned by the UV dose applied to the diynePC membrane. When the model membrane biomolecules were forced to transport through the packed-bed region, their concentration front velocities were found to decrease linearly with the UV dose, indicating the successful creation of packed obstacles in these 2D lipid membrane separation platforms.

  4. Position of residues in transmembrane peptides with respect to the lipid bilayer: A combined lipid NOEs and water chemical exchange approach in phospholipid bicelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, Kerney Jebrell; Whiles, Jennifer A.; Vold, Regitze R.; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    The model transmembrane peptide P16 was incorporated into small unaligned phospholipid bicelles, which provide a 'native-like' lipid bilayer compatible with high-resolution solution NMR techniques. Using amide-water chemical exchange and amide-lipid cross-relaxation measurements, the interactions between P16 and bicelles were investigated. Distinctive intermolecular NOE patterns observed in band-selective 2D-NOESY spectra of bicellar solutions with several lipid deuteration schemes indicated that P16 is preferentially interacting with the 'bilayered' region of the bicelle rather than with the rim. Furthermore, when amide-lipid NOEs were combined with amide-water chemical exchange cross-peaks of selectively 15 N-labeled P16 peptides, valuable information was obtained about the position of selected residues relative to the membrane-water interface. Specifically, three main classes were identified. Class I residues lie outside the bilayer and show amide-water exchange cross-peaks but no amide-lipid NOEs. Class II residues reside in the bilayer-water interface and show both amide-water exchange cross-peaks and amide-lipid NOEs. Class III residues are embedded within the hydrophobic core of the membrane and show no amide-water exchange cross-peaks but strong amide-lipid NOEs

  5. DSC and EPR investigations on effects of cholesterol component on molecular interactions between paclitaxel and phospholipid within lipid bilayer membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingyun; Feng, Si-Shen; Kocherginsky, Nikolai; Kostetski, Iouri

    2007-06-29

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) were applied to investigate effects of cholesterol component on molecular interactions between paclitaxel, which is one of the best antineoplastic agents found from nature, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) within lipid bilayer vesicles (liposomes), which could also be used as a model cell membrane. DSC analysis showed that incorporation of paclitaxel into the DPPC bilayer causes a reduction in the cooperativity of bilayer phase transition, leading to a looser and more flexible bilayer structure. Including cholesterol component in the DPPC/paclitaxel mixed bilayer can facilitate the molecular interaction between paclitaxel and lipid and make the tertiary system more stable. EPR analysis demonstrated that both of paclitaxel and cholesterol have fluidization effect on the DPPC bilayer membranes although cholesterol has more significant effect than paclitaxel does. The reduction kinetics of nitroxides by ascorbic acid showed that paclitaxel can inhibit the reaction by blocking the diffusion of either the ascorbic acid or nitroxide molecules since the reaction is tested to be a first order one. Cholesterol can remarkably increase the reduction reaction speed. This research may provide useful information for optimizing liposomal formulation of the drug as well as for understanding the pharmacology of paclitaxel.

  6. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectral components of spin-labeled lipids in saturated phospholipid bilayers: effect of cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Silva Camargos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy was used to study the main structural accommodations of spin labels in bilayers of saturated phosphatidylcholines with acyl chain lengths ranging from 16 to 22 carbon atoms. EPR spectra allowed the identification of two distinct spectral components in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperatures below and above the main phase transition. An accurate analysis of EPR spectra, using two fitting programs, enabled determination of the thermodynamic profile for these major probe accommodations. Focusing the analysis on two-component EPR spectra of a spin-labeled lipid, the influence of 40 mol % cholesterol in DPPC was studied.

  7. Superficial disposition of the N-terminal region of the surfactant protein SP-C and the absence of specific SP-B-SP-C interactions in phospholipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Cruz, A; Casals, C

    2001-01-01

    . The fluorescence emission spectrum of Dns-SP-C in phospholipid bilayers is similar to the spectrum of dansyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, and indicates that the N-terminal end of the protein is located at the surface of the membranes and is exposed to the aqueous environment. In membranes containing...... phosphatidylglycerol (PG), the fluorescence of Dns-SP-C shows a 3-fold increase with respect to the fluorescence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), suggesting that electrostatic lipid-protein interactions induce important effects on the structure and disposition of the N-terminal segment of the protein in these membranes...... of the N-terminal segment of the protein into less polar environments that originate during protein lateral segregation. This suggests that conformation and interactions of the N-terminal segment of SP-C could be important in regulating the lateral distribution of the protein in surfactant bilayers...

  8. Interaction of PLGA and trimethyl chitosan modified PLGA nanoparticles with mixed anionic/zwitterionic phospholipid bilayers studied using molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Brian; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Moldovan, Dorel

    2012-02-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a biodegradable polymer. Nanoparticles of PLGA are commonly used for drug delivery applications. The interaction of the nanoparticles with the cell membrane may influence the rate of their uptake by cells. Both PLGA and cell membranes are negatively charged, so adding positively charged polymers such as trimethyl chitosan (TMC) which adheres to the PLGA particles improves their cellular uptake. The interaction of 3 nm PLGA and TMC-modified-PLGA nanoparticles with lipid bilayers composed of mixtures of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine lipids was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The free energy profiles as function of nanoparticles position along the normal direction to the bilayers were calculated, the distribution of phosphatidylserine lipids as a function of distance of the particle from the bilayer was calculated, and the time scale for particle motion in the directions parallel to the bilayer surface was estimated.

  9. Molecular phospholipid films on solid supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipid membranes are versatile structures for mimicking biological surfaces. Bilayer and monolayer membranes can be formed on solid supports, leading to enhanced stability and accessibility of the biomimetic molecular film. This has facilitated functional studies of membrane proteins and ai...

  10. Screening for the drug-phospholipid interaction: correlation to phospholipidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alakoskela, Juha-Matti; Vitovic, Pavol; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipid bilayers represent a complex, anisotropic environment fundamentally different from bulk oil or octanol, for instance. Even "simple" drug association to phospholipid bilayers can only be fully understood if the slab-of-hydrocarbon approach is abandoned and the complex, anisotropic...

  11. The molecular-scale arrangement and mechanical strength of phospholipid/cholesterol mixed bilayers investigated by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterols play key roles in controlling molecular fluidity in a biological membrane, yet little is known about their molecular-scale arrangements in real space. In this study, we have directly imaged lipid-cholesterol complexes in a model biological membrane consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterols by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) in phosphate buffer solution. FM-AFM images of a DPPC/cholesterol bilayer in the liquid-ordered phase showed higher energy dissipation values compared to those measured on a nanoscale DPPC domain in the gel phase, reflecting the increased molecular fluidity due to the insertion of cholesterols. Molecular-resolution FM-AFM images of a DPPC/cholesterol bilayer revealed the existence of a rhombic molecular arrangement (lattice constants: a = 0.46 nm, b = 0.71 nm) consisting of alternating rows of DPPC and cholesterols as well as the increased defect density and reduced molecular ordering. The mechanical strength of a DPPC/cholesterol bilayer was quantitatively evaluated by measuring a loading force required to penetrate the membrane with an AFM tip. The result revealed the significant decrease of mechanical strength upon insertion of cholesterols. Based on the molecular-scale arrangement found in this study, we propose a model to explain the reduced mechanical strength in relation to the formation of lipid-ion networks.

  12. The molecular-scale arrangement and mechanical strength of phospholipid/cholesterol mixed bilayers investigated by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi [Frontier Science Organization, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, 920-1192 Kanazawa (Japan)], E-mail: hi_asa@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp, E-mail: fukuma@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2009-07-01

    Cholesterols play key roles in controlling molecular fluidity in a biological membrane, yet little is known about their molecular-scale arrangements in real space. In this study, we have directly imaged lipid-cholesterol complexes in a model biological membrane consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterols by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) in phosphate buffer solution. FM-AFM images of a DPPC/cholesterol bilayer in the liquid-ordered phase showed higher energy dissipation values compared to those measured on a nanoscale DPPC domain in the gel phase, reflecting the increased molecular fluidity due to the insertion of cholesterols. Molecular-resolution FM-AFM images of a DPPC/cholesterol bilayer revealed the existence of a rhombic molecular arrangement (lattice constants: a = 0.46 nm, b = 0.71 nm) consisting of alternating rows of DPPC and cholesterols as well as the increased defect density and reduced molecular ordering. The mechanical strength of a DPPC/cholesterol bilayer was quantitatively evaluated by measuring a loading force required to penetrate the membrane with an AFM tip. The result revealed the significant decrease of mechanical strength upon insertion of cholesterols. Based on the molecular-scale arrangement found in this study, we propose a model to explain the reduced mechanical strength in relation to the formation of lipid-ion networks.

  13. Computational Insight Into the Structural Organization of Full-Length Toll-Like Receptor 4 Dimer in a Model Phospholipid Bilayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chandra Patra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a unique category of pattern recognition receptors that recognize distinct pathogenic components, often utilizing the same set of downstream adaptors. Specific molecular features of extracellular, transmembrane (TM, and cytoplasmic domains of TLRs are crucial for coordinating the complex, innate immune signaling pathway. Here, we constructed a full-length structural model of TLR4—a widely studied member of the interleukin-1 receptor/TLR superfamily—using homology modeling, protein–protein docking, and molecular dynamics simulations to understand the differential domain organization of TLR4 in a membrane-aqueous environment. Results showed that each functional domain of the membrane-bound TLR4 displayed several structural transitions that are biophysically essential for plasma membrane integration. Specifically, the extracellular and cytoplasmic domains were partially immersed in the upper and lower leaflets of the membrane bilayer. Meanwhile, TM domains tilted considerably to overcome the hydrophobic mismatch with the bilayer core. Our analysis indicates an alternate dimerization or a potential oligomerization interface of TLR4-TM. Moreover, the helical properties of an isolated TM dimer partly agree with that of the full-length receptor. Furthermore, membrane-absorbed or solvent-exposed surfaces of the toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain are consistent with previous X-ray crystallography and biochemical studies. Collectively, we provided a complete structural model of membrane-bound TLR4 that strengthens our current understanding of the complex mechanism of receptor activation and adaptor recruitment in the innate immune signaling pathway.

  14. Effect of glass-forming biopreservatives on head group rotational dynamics in freeze-dried phospholipid bilayers: A 31P NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P.; Sen, S.; Risbud, S. H.

    2009-07-01

    P31 NMR spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the role of glass-forming sugars in the preservation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers. P31 wideline NMR spectra of freeze-dried pure DPPC, DPPC/trehalose, DPPC/glucose, and DPPC/hydroxyethyl starch (HES) mixtures collected in the temperature range of 25-80 °C have been simulated to obtain quantitative information about rotational dynamics and orientation of the lipid head groups in these media. In the case of pure DPPC, DPPC/glucose, and DPPC/HES, the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of DPPC bilayer is characterized by a sudden increase in the rate of rotational diffusion of the PO4 head groups near 40 °C. The corresponding rotational jump frequency increases from a few kilohertz in the gel phase to at least several megahertz in the liquid crystalline phase. On the other hand, in the case of DPPC/trehalose mixture the temperature of this onset of rapid head group dynamics is increased by ˜10 °C. Trehalose reduces the lipid head group motions most effectively in the temperature range of T ≤50 °C relevant for biopreservation. Additionally, and possibly more importantly, trehalose is found to strongly restrict any change in the orientation of the diffusion axis of the PO4 head groups during the phase transformation. This unique ability of trehalose to maintain the dynamical and orientational rigidity of lipid head groups is likely to be responsible for its superior ability in biopreservation.

  15. Glycosphingolipids: 2H NMR study of the influence of carbohydrate headgroup structure on ceramide acyl chain behavior in glycolipid-phospholipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, D.B.; Jarrell, H.C.; Hamilton, K.; Florio, E.; Barber, K.R.; Grant, C.W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Galactosyl- and glucosylceramide, globoside, and dihydrolactosylceramide, bearing [2,2- 2 H 2 ]stearic acid, have been studied at a concentration of 10 mol % in bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine by 2 H NMR. The quadrupolar splittings Δv Q of the C2 deuterons were measured at several temperatures in the range of 30-60 degree C. Spin-lattice relaxation times T 1 of C2 deuterons were determined in the same temperature range for all lipids but globoside. T 1 values for the GlcCer and GalCer systems increased with temperature, indicating that the motions responsible for relaxation were in the short correlation time regime. T 1 for deuterons at the acyl chain C2-position of LaCer was observed to decrease with increasing temperature, indicating that the motion(s) dominating relaxation are in the long correlation time regime. Thus the mobility of the acyl chain at the 2-position is reduced in the LacCer with respect to GlcCer and GalCer

  16. Glycosphingolipids: sup 2 H NMR study of the influence of carbohydrate headgroup structure on ceramide acyl chain behavior in glycolipid-phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, D.B.; Jarrell, H.C. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Hamilton, K.; Florio, E.; Barber, K.R.; Grant, C.W.M. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1991-05-07

    Galactosyl- and glucosylceramide, globoside, and dihydrolactosylceramide, bearing (2,2-{sup 2}H{sub 2})stearic acid, have been studied at a concentration of 10 mol % in bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine by {sup 2}H NMR. The quadrupolar splittings {Delta}v{sub Q} of the C2 deuterons were measured at several temperatures in the range of 30-60{degree}C. Spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1} of C2 deuterons were determined in the same temperature range for all lipids but globoside. T{sub 1} values for the GlcCer and GalCer systems increased with temperature, indicating that the motions responsible for relaxation were in the short correlation time regime. T{sub 1} for deuterons at the acyl chain C2-position of LaCer was observed to decrease with increasing temperature, indicating that the motion(s) dominating relaxation are in the long correlation time regime. Thus the mobility of the acyl chain at the 2-position is reduced in the LacCer with respect to GlcCer and GalCer.

  17. Bursting Bubbles and Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Wrenn, Stephen M. Dicker, Eleanor F. Small, Nily R. Dan, Michał Mleczko, Georg Schmitz, Peter A. Lewin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol (PEG - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented

  18. Interaction of neurotransmitters with a phospholipid bilayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Werge, Mikkel; Elf-Lind, Maria Northved

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations to study the interactions between the neurotransmitters (NTs) γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), glycine (GLY), acetylcholine (ACH) and glutamate (GLU) as well as the amidated/acetylated γ-aminobutyrate (GABAneu) and the osmolyte molecule glycerol...

  19. Cholesterol Perturbs Lipid Bilayers Nonuniversally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun; Mills, Thalia T.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Cholesterol is well known to modulate the physical properties of biomembranes. Using modern x-ray scattering methods, we have studied the effects of cholesterol on the bending modulus K C , the thickness D HH , and the orientational order parameter S xray of lipid bilayers. We find that the effects are different for at least three classes of phospholipids characterized by different numbers of saturated hydrocarbon chains. Most strikingly, cholesterol strongly increases K C when both chains of the phospholipid are fully saturated but not at all when there are two monounsaturated chains

  20. Thermotropic and Barotropic Phase Behavior of Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutake Tamai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilayers formed by phospholipids are frequently used as model biological membranes in various life science studies. A characteristic feature of phospholipid bilayers is to undergo a structural change called a phase transition in response to environmental changes of their surroundings. In this review, we focus our attention on phase transitions of some major phospholipids contained in biological membranes, phosphatidylcholines (PCs, depending on temperature and pressure. Bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC, which is the most representative lipid in model membrane studies, will first be explained. Then, the bilayer phase behavior of various kinds of PCs with different molecular structures is revealed from the temperature–pressure phase diagrams, and the difference in phase stability among these PC bilayers is discussed in connection with the molecular structure of the PC molecules. Furthermore, the solvent effect on the phase behavior is also described briefly.

  1. Thermodynamics of Indomethacin Adsorption to Phospholipid Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Amanda D; Stokes, Grace Y

    2017-11-22

    Using second-harmonic generation, we directly monitored adsorption of indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to supported lipid bilayers composed of phospholipids of varying phase, cholesterol content, and head group charge without the use of extrinsic labels at therapeutically relevant aqueous concentrations. Indomethacin adsorbed to gel-phase lipids with a high binding affinity, suggesting that like other arylacetic acid-containing drugs, it preferentially interacts with ordered lipid domains. We discovered that adsorption of indomethacin to gel-phase phospholipids was endothermic and entropically driven, whereas adsorption to fluid-phase phospholipids was exothermic and enthalpically driven. As temperature increased from 19 to 34 °C, binding affinities to gel-phase lipids increased by 7-fold but relative surface concentration decreased to one-fifth of the original value. We also compared our results to the entropies reported for indomethacin adsorbed to surfactant micelles, which are used in drug delivery systems, and assert that adsorbed water molecules in the phospholipid bilayer may be buried deeper into the acyl chains and less accessible for disruption. The thermodynamic studies reported here provide mechanistic insight into indomethacin interactions with mammalian plasma membranes in the gastrointestinal tract and inform studies of drug delivery, where indomethacin is commonly used as a prototypical, hydrophobic small-molecule drug.

  2. Influence of molecular packing and phospholipid type on rates of cholesterol exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund-Katz, S.; Laboda, H.M.; McLean, L.R.; Phillips, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The rates of [ 14 C]cholesterol transfer from small unilamellar vesicles containing cholesterol dissolved in bilayers of different phospholipids have been determined to examine the influence of phospholipid-cholesterol interactions on the rate of cholesterol desorption from the lipid-water interface. At 37 0 C, for vesicles containing 10 mol % cholesterol, the half-times for exchange are about 1, 13, and 80 h, respectively, for unsaturated PC, saturated PC, and SM. In order to probe how differences in molecular packing in the bilayers cause the rate constants for cholesterol desorption to be in the order unsaturated PC > saturated PC > SM, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and monolayer methods were used to evaluate the cholesterol physical state and interactions with phospholipid. The NMR relaxation parameters for [4- 13 C] cholesterol reveal no differences in molecular dynamics in the above bilayers. The greater van der Waals interaction in the SM monolayer (or bilayer) compared to PC gives rise to a larger condensation by cholesterol. This is a direct demonstration of the greater interaction of cholesterol with SM compared to PC. An estimate of the van der Waals interactions between cholesterol and these phospholipids has been used to derive a relationship between the ratio of the rate constants for cholesterol desorption and the relative molecular areas (lateral packing density) in two bilayers. This analysis suggests that differences in cholesterol-phospholipid van der Waals interaction energy are an important cause of varying rates of cholesterol exchange from different host phospholipid bilayers

  3. Observation of undulation motion of lipid bilayers by neutron spin echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Norifumi L.; Seto, Hideki; Hishida, Mafumi

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of synthesized phospholipids have been well investigated as model biomembranes. These lipids usually self-assemble into regular stacks of bilayers with a characteristic repeat distance on the order of nm, whereas real biomembrane exist as single bilayers. The key phenomenon in understanding the formation of single isolated bilayers in 'unbinding' of lipid bilayers, in which the inter-bilayer distance of lipid bilayers diverges by the steric interaction due to the membrane undulation. In this paper, we show some results of neutron spin-echo (NSE) experiments to investigate the effect of the steric interaction on unbinding and related phenomena. (author)

  4. Characterization of the transverse relaxation rates in lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watnick, P.I.; Dea, P.; Chan, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    The 2H NMR transverse relaxation rates of a deuterated phospholipid bilayer reflect slow motions in the bilayer membrane. A study of dimyristoyl lecithin specifically deuterated at several positions of the hydrocarbon chains indicates that these motions are cooperative and are confined to the hydrocarbon chains of the lipid bilayer. However, lipid head group interactions do play an important role in modulating the properties of the cooperative fluctuations of the hydrocarbon chains (director fluctuations), as evidenced by the effects of various lipid additives on the 2H NMR transverse relaxation rates of the dimyristoyl lecithin bilayer

  5. Phospholipid liposomes functionalized by protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Savostyanov, G. V.; Grishina, O. A.

    2015-03-01

    Finding new ways to deliver neurotrophic drugs to the brain in newborns is one of the contemporary problems of medicine and pharmaceutical industry. Modern researches in this field indicate the promising prospects of supramolecular transport systems for targeted drug delivery to the brain which can overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, the solution of this problem is actual not only for medicine, but also for society as a whole because it determines the health of future generations. Phospholipid liposomes due to combination of lipo- and hydrophilic properties are considered as the main future objects in medicine for drug delivery through the BBB as well as increasing their bioavailability and toxicity. Liposomes functionalized by various proteins were used as transport systems for ease of liposomes use. Designing of modification oligosaccharide of liposomes surface is promising in the last decade because it enables the delivery of liposomes to specific receptor of human cells by selecting ligand and it is widely used in pharmacology for the treatment of several diseases. The purpose of this work is creation of a coarse-grained model of bilayer of phospholipid liposomes, functionalized by specific to the structural elements of the BBB proteins, as well as prediction of the most favorable orientation and position of the molecules in the generated complex by methods of molecular docking for the formation of the structure. Investigation of activity of the ligand molecule to protein receptor of human cells by the methods of molecular dynamics was carried out.

  6. Electrostatic control of phospholipid polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahovsky, Y S; Arsenault, A L; MacDonald, R C; McIntosh, T J; Epand, R M

    2000-12-01

    A regular progression of polymorphic phase behavior was observed for mixtures of the anionic phospholipid, cardiolipin, and the cationic phospholipid derivative, 1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray diffraction, whereas the two lipids separately assume only lamellar phases, their mixtures exhibit a symmetrical (depending on charge ratio and not polarity) sequence of nonlamellar phases. The inverted hexagonal phase, H(II,) formed from equimolar mixtures of the two lipids, i.e., at net charge neutrality (charge ratio (CR((+/-))) = 1:1). When one type of lipid was in significant excess (CR((+/-)) = 2:1 or CR((+/-)) = 1:2), a bicontinuous cubic structure was observed. These cubic phases were very similar to those sometimes present in cellular organelles that contain cardiolipin. Increasing the excess of cationic or anionic charge to CR((+/-)) = 4:1 or CR((+/-)) = 1:4 led to the appearance of membrane bilayers with numerous interlamellar contacts, i.e., sponge structures. It is evident that interactions between cationic and anionic moieties can influence the packing of polar heads and hence control polymorphic phase transitions. The facile isothermal, polymorphic interconversion of these lipids may have important biological and technical implications.

  7. Composition Dependence of Water Permeation Across Multicomponent Gel-Phase Bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, R.M.; Moore, Timothy C.; Iacovella, Christopher R.; Thompson, Michael A.; Bulsara, Pallav A.; Moore, David J.; McCabe, Clare

    2018-01-01

    The permeability of multicomponent phospholipid bilayers in the gel phase is investigated via molecular dynamics simulation. The physical role of the different molecules is probed by comparing multiple mixed-component bilayers containing distearylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) with varying amounts of

  8. The Integrin Receptor in Biologically Relevant Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalli, Antreas C.; Róg, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    /talin complex was inserted in biologically relevant bilayers that resemble the cell plasma membrane containing zwitterionic and charged phospholipids, cholesterol and sphingolipids to study the dynamics of the integrin receptor and its effect on bilayer structure and dynamics. The results of this study...... demonstrate the dynamic nature of the integrin receptor and suggest that the presence of the integrin receptor alters the lipid organization between the two leaflets of the bilayer. In particular, our results suggest elevated density of cholesterol and of phosphatidylserine lipids around the integrin....../talin complex and a slowing down of lipids in an annulus of ~30 Å around the protein due to interactions between the lipids and the integrin/talin F2–F3 complex. This may in part regulate the interactions of integrins with other related proteins or integrin clustering thus facilitating signal transduction...

  9. Chemistry of phospholipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana; Spickett, Corinne M

    2012-10-01

    The oxidation of lipids has long been a topic of interest in biological and food sciences, and the fundamental principles of non-enzymatic free radical attack on phospholipids are well established, although questions about detail of the mechanisms remain. The number of end products that are formed following the initiation of phospholipid peroxidation is large, and is continually growing as new structures of oxidized phospholipids are elucidated. Common products are phospholipids with esterified isoprostane-like structures and chain-shortened products containing hydroxy, carbonyl or carboxylic acid groups; the carbonyl-containing compounds are reactive and readily form adducts with proteins and other biomolecules. Phospholipids can also be attacked by reactive nitrogen and chlorine species, further expanding the range of products to nitrated and chlorinated phospholipids. Key to understanding the mechanisms of oxidation is the development of advanced and sensitive technologies that enable structural elucidation. Tandem mass spectrometry has proved invaluable in this respect and is generally the method of choice for structural work. A number of studies have investigated whether individual oxidized phospholipid products occur in vivo, and mass spectrometry techniques have been instrumental in detecting a variety of oxidation products in biological samples such as atherosclerotic plaque material, brain tissue, intestinal tissue and plasma, although relatively few have achieved an absolute quantitative analysis. The levels of oxidized phospholipids in vivo is a critical question, as there is now substantial evidence that many of these compounds are bioactive and could contribute to pathology. The challenges for the future will be to adopt lipidomic approaches to map the profile of oxidized phospholipid formation in different biological conditions, and relate this to their effects in vivo. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidized phospholipids

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of a fully hydrated dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayer with different macroscopic boundary conditions and parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, D.P; Berendsen, H.J.C.

    1996-01-01

    We compared molecular dynamics simulations of a bilayer of 128 fully hydrated phospholipid (DPPC) molecules, using different parameters and macroscopic boundary conditions. The same system was studied under constant pressure, constant volume, and constant surface tension boundary conditions, with

  11. Engineering plant membranes using droplet interface bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, N E; Smpokou, E; Friddin, M S; Macey, R; Gould, I R; Turnbull, C; Flemming, A J; Brooks, N J; Ces, O; Barter, L M C

    2017-03-01

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) have become widely recognised as a robust platform for constructing model membranes and are emerging as a key technology for the bottom-up assembly of synthetic cell-like and tissue-like structures. DIBs are formed when lipid-monolayer coated water droplets are brought together inside a well of oil, which is excluded from the interface as the DIB forms. The unique features of the system, compared to traditional approaches (e.g., supported lipid bilayers, black lipid membranes, and liposomes), is the ability to engineer multi-layered bilayer networks by connecting multiple droplets together in 3D, and the capability to impart bilayer asymmetry freely within these droplet architectures by supplying droplets with different lipids. Yet despite these achievements, one potential limitation of the technology is that DIBs formed from biologically relevant components have not been well studied. This could limit the reach of the platform to biological systems where bilayer composition and asymmetry are understood to play a key role. Herein, we address this issue by reporting the assembly of asymmetric DIBs designed to replicate the plasma membrane compositions of three different plant species; Arabidopsis thaliana , tobacco, and oats, by engineering vesicles with different amounts of plant phospholipids, sterols and cerebrosides for the first time. We show that vesicles made from our plant lipid formulations are stable and can be used to assemble asymmetric plant DIBs. We verify this using a bilayer permeation assay, from which we extract values for absolute effective bilayer permeation and bilayer stability. Our results confirm that stable DIBs can be assembled from our plant membrane mimics and could lead to new approaches for assembling model systems to study membrane translocation and to screen new agrochemicals in plants.

  12. Cholesterol Bilayer Domains in the Eye Lens Health: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widomska, Justyna; Subczynski, Witold K; Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija

    2017-12-01

    The most unique biochemical characteristic of the eye lens fiber cell plasma membrane is its extremely high cholesterol content, the need for which is still unclear. It is evident, however, that the disturbance of Chol homeostasis may result in damages associated with cataracts. Electron paramagnetic resonance methods allow discrimination of two types of lipid domains in model membranes overloaded with Chol, namely, phospholipid-cholesterol domains and pure Chol bilayer domains. These domains are also detected in human lens lipid membranes prepared from the total lipids extracted from lens cortices and nuclei of donors from different age groups. Independent of the age-related changes in phospholipid composition, the physical properties of phospholipid-Chol domains remain the same for all age groups and are practically identical for cortical and nuclear membranes. The presence of Chol bilayer domains in these membranes provides a buffering capacity for cholesterol concentration in the surrounding phospholipid-Chol domains, keeping it at a constant saturating level and thus keeping the physical properties of the membrane consistent with and independent of changes in phospholipid composition. It seems that the presence of Chol bilayer domains plays an integral role in the regulation of cholesterol-dependent processes in fiber cell plasm membranes and in the maintenance of fiber cell membrane homeostasis.

  13. Lepromatous leprosy patients produce antibodies that recognise non-bilayer lipid arrangements containing mycolic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Baeza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements are three-dimensional structures that form when anionic phospholipids with an intermediate structure of the tubular hexagonal phase II are present in a bilayer of lipids. Antibodies that recognise these arrangements have been described in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and/or systemic lupus erythematosus and in those with preeclampsia; these antibodies have also been documented in an experimental murine model of lupus, in which they are associated with immunopathology. Here, we demonstrate the presence of antibodies against non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements containing mycolic acids in the sera of lepromatous leprosy (LL patients, but not those of healthy volunteers. The presence of antibodies that recognise these non-bilayer lipid arrangements may contribute to the hypergammaglobulinaemia observed in LL patients. We also found IgM and IgG anti-cardiolipin antibodies in 77% of the patients. This positive correlation between the anti-mycolic-non-bilayer arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies suggests that both types of antibodies are produced by a common mechanism, as was demonstrated in the experimental murine model of lupus, in which there was a correlation between the anti-non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Antibodies to non-bilayer lipid arrangements may represent a previously unrecognised pathogenic mechanism in LL and the detection of these antibodies may be a tool for the early diagnosis of LL patients.

  14. Effect of phospholipid metabolites on model membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shragin, A.S.; Vasilenko, I.A.; Selishcheva, A.A.; Shvets, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    /sup 31/P-NMR spectroscopy and formation of fluorescent complexes between Tb/sup 3 +/ and dipicolinic acid were used to monitor liposome fusion and the effects of phospholipases C and D on the process. Phospholipase C was found highly efficient in initiating liposomal fusion, regardless of the phospholipid composition of the bilayer membranes. However, phospholipase D promoted liposomal fusion only in cases in which the membranes contained high concentrations of phospholipids incapable of forming bilayer membranes, such as phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin. The mechanism of action of both enzymes in promoting liposomal fusion was ascribed to the generation of a metastable state in the membranes as a result of enzymatic formation of lipophilic metabolites 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. The perturbation, or fluidity, of the liposomal membranes favored fusion on contact. 21 references, 4 figures.

  15. Annexin-Phospholipid Interactions. Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Turnay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Annexins constitute an evolutionary conserved multigene protein superfamily characterized by their ability to interact with biological membranes in a calcium dependent manner. They are expressed by all living organisms with the exception of certain unicellular organisms. The vertebrate annexin core is composed of four (eight in annexin A6 homologous domains of around 70 amino acids, with the overall shape of a slightly bent ring surrounding a central hydrophilic pore. Calcium- and phospholipid-binding sites are located on the convex side while the N-terminus links domains I and IV on the concave side. The N-terminus region shows great variability in length and amino acid sequence and it greatly influences protein stability and specific functions of annexins. These proteins interact mainly with acidic phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine, but differences are found regarding their affinity for lipids and calcium requirements for the interaction. Annexins are involved in a wide range of intra- and extracellular biological processes in vitro, most of them directly related with the conserved ability to bind to phospholipid bilayers: membrane trafficking, membrane-cytoskeleton anchorage, ion channel activity and regulation, as well as antiinflammatory and anticoagulant activities. However, the in vivo physiological functions of annexins are just beginning to be established.

  16. Interaction of abscisic acid with phospholipid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillwell, W.; Brengle, B.; Hester, P.; Wassall, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is shown, under certain conditions, to greatly enhance the permeability of phospholipid bilayer membranes to the nonelectrolyte erythritol (followed spectrophotometrically by osmotic swelling) and the anion carboxyfluorescein (followed by fluorescence). The hormone is ineffective with single- and mixed-component phosphatidylcholine membranes in the liquid-crystalline or gel states. In contrast, substantial ABA-induced permeability is measured for two-component membranes containing lipids with different polar head groups or containing phosphatidylcholines with different acyl chains at temperatures where gel and liquid-crystalline phases coexist. Despite the large ABA-induced enhancement in bilayer permeability, no evidence for a substantial change at the molecular level was seen in the membranes by magnetic resonance techniques. 13 C NMR spin-lattice relaxation times, T 1 , in sonicated unilamellar vesicles and ESR of spin-labeled fatty acids intercalated into membranes showed negligible effect on acyl chain order and dynamics within the bilayer, while 31 P NMR of sonicated unilamellar vesicles indicated negligible effect on molecular motion and conformation in the head-group region. The authors propose that, instead of causing a general nonspecific perturbation to the membrane, the hormone acts at membrane defects formed due to mismatch in molecular packing where two different head groups or acyl chain states interface. Increased membrane disruption by ABA at these points of membrane instability could then produce an enhancement in permeability

  17. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...... chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method...

  18. The complex nature of calcium cation interactions with phospholipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcrová, Adéla; Pokorna, Sarka; Pullanchery, Saranya; Kohagen, Miriam; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Hof, Martin; Jungwirth, Pavel; Cremer, Paul S.; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding interactions of calcium with lipid membranes at the molecular level is of great importance in light of their involvement in calcium signaling, association of proteins with cellular membranes, and membrane fusion. We quantify these interactions in detail by employing a combination of spectroscopic methods with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Namely, time-resolved fluorescent spectroscopy of lipid vesicles and vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy of lipid monolayers are used to characterize local binding sites of calcium in zwitterionic and anionic model lipid assemblies, while dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements are employed for macroscopic characterization of lipid vesicles in calcium-containing environments. To gain additional atomic-level information, the experiments are complemented by molecular simulations that utilize an accurate force field for calcium ions with scaled charges effectively accounting for electronic polarization effects. We demonstrate that lipid membranes have substantial calcium-binding capacity, with several types of binding sites present. Significantly, the binding mode depends on calcium concentration with important implications for calcium buffering, synaptic plasticity, and protein-membrane association. PMID:27905555

  19. Molecular electrometer and binding of cations to phospholipid bilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Catte, A.; Girych, M.; Javanainen, M.; Loison, C.; Melcr, Josef; Miettinen, M. S.; Monticelli, L.; Määttä, J.; Oganesyan, V. S.; Ollila, O. H. S.; Tynkkynen, J.; Vilov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 47 (2016), s. 32560-32569 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : atom force field * free energy perturbation * lipis membranes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  20. Transport of heavy metals across the supported phospholipid bilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Mareček, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2011), s. 337-346 ISSN 1109-9577 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : cell membrane * electrochemistry * charged particles Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry http://www.naun.org/journals/energyenvironment/19-897.pdf

  1. Pairing of cholesterol with oxidized phospholipid species in lipid bilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khandelia, H.; Loubet, B.; Olžyńska, Agnieszka; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Hof, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2014), s. 639-647 ISSN 1744-683X R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS * MARTINI FORCE-FIELD * PHASE-SEPARATION Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.029, year: 2014

  2. The complex nature of calcium cation interactions with phospholipid bilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melcrová, Adéla; Pokorná, Šárka; Pullanchery, S.; Kohagen, Miriam; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Hof, Martin; Jungwirth, Pavel; Cremer, P. S.; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, DEC 2016 (2016), č. článku 38035. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01074S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : FLUORESCENCE SOLVENT RELAXATION * MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS * ALKALINE-EARTH CATION S Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  3. Lipid bilayers and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    In biological systems lipid bilayers are subject to many different interactions with other entities. These can range from proteins that are attached to the hydrophilic region of the bilayer or transmembrane proteins that interact with the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer. Interaction between

  4. Control of phospholipid flip-flop by transmembrane peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaihara, Masanori; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Endo, Hitoshi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Handa, Tetsurou; Nakano, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phospholipid flip-flop in transmembrane peptide-containing vesicles was investigated. ► Peptides that contained polar residues in the center of the transmembrane region promoted phospholipid flip-flop. ► A bioinformatics approach revealed the presence of polar residues in the transmembrane region of ER membrane proteins. ► Polar residues in ER membrane proteins possibly provide flippase-like activity. - Abstract: We designed three types of transmembrane model peptides whose sequence originates from a frequently used model peptide KALP23, and we investigated their effects on phospholipid flip-flop. Time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering and a dithionite fluorescent quenching assay demonstrated that TMP-L, which has a fully hydrophobic transmembrane region, did not enhance phospholipid flip-flop, whereas TMP-K and TMP-E, which have Lys and Glu, respectively, in the center of their transmembrane regions, enhanced phospholipid flip-flop. Introduction of polar residues in the membrane-spanning helices is considered to produce a locally polar region and enable the lipid head group to interact with the polar side-chain inside the bilayers, thereby reducing the activation energy for the flip-flop. A bioinformatics approach revealed that acidic and basic residues account for 4.5% of the central region of the transmembrane domain in human ER membrane proteins. Therefore, polar residues in ER membrane proteins are considered to provide flippase-like activity

  5. Morphological and physical analysis of natural phospholipids-based biomembranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Jacquot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liposomes are currently an important part of biological, pharmaceutical, medical and nutritional research, as they are considered to be among the most effective carriers for the introduction of various types of bioactive agents into target cells. SCOPE OF REVIEW: In this work, we study the lipid organization and mechanical properties of biomembranes made of marine and plant phospholipids. Membranes based on phospholipids extracted from rapeseed and salmon are studied in the form of liposome and as supported lipid bilayer. Dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC are used as references to determine the lipid organization of marine and plant phospholipid based membranes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging and force spectroscopy measurements are performed to investigate the membranes' topography at the micrometer scale and to determine their mechanical properties. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: The mechanical properties of the membranes are correlated to the fatty acid composition, the morphology, the electrophoretic mobility and the membrane fluidity. Thus, soft and homogeneous mechanical properties are evidenced for salmon phospholipids membrane containing various polyunsaturated fatty acids. Besides, phase segregation in rapeseed membrane and more important mechanical properties were emphasized for this type of membranes by contrast to the marine phospholipids based membranes. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This paper provides new information on the nanomechanical and morphological properties of membrane in form of liposome by AFM. The originality of this work is to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanoliposome from the natural sources containing various fatty acids and polar head.

  6. Phospholipid composition of Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, A K; Jain, S K; Vinayak, V K; Khuller, G K

    1978-11-15

    The phospholipid composition of Dipylidium caninum has been studied. Chloroform-methanol-soluble fraction amounted to 2.4% and phospholipids to 0.5% of the wet weight of the parasite. Phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine represented the bulk of the phospholipids, whereas phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidyl inositol, lysolecithin and lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine were present in minor amounts. Sulfatides were also identified in this parasite.

  7. Characterization of Phospholipids in Insulin Secretory Granules and Mitochondria in Pancreatic Beta Cells and Their Changes with Glucose Stimulation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Michael J.; Ade, Lacmbouh; Ntambi, James M.; Ansari, Israr-Ul H.; Stoker, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    The lipid composition of insulin secretory granules (ISG) has never previously been thoroughly characterized. We characterized the phospholipid composition of ISG and mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells without and with glucose stimulation. The phospholipid/protein ratios of most phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acids were higher in ISG than in whole cells and in mitochondria. The concentrations of negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol in ISG were 5-fold higher than in the whole cell. In ISG phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, fatty acids 12:0 and 14:0 were high, as were phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol containing 18-carbon unsaturated FA. With glucose stimulation, the concentration of many ISG phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylinositols increased; unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylserine increased; and most phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and lysophosphatidylcholines were unchanged. Unsaturation and shorter fatty acid length in phospholipids facilitate curvature and fluidity of membranes, which favors fusion of membranes. Recent evidence suggests that negatively charged phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine, act as coupling factors enhancing the interaction of positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in synaptic or secretory vesicle membrane lipid bilayers with positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in the plasma membrane lipid bilayer to facilitate docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis. The results indicate that ISG phospholipids are in a dynamic state and are consistent with the idea that changes in ISG phospholipids facilitate fusion of ISG with the plasma membrane-enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin exocytosis. PMID:25762724

  8. Characterization of phospholipids in insulin secretory granules and mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells and their changes with glucose stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Michael J; Ade, Lacmbouh; Ntambi, James M; Ansari, Israr-Ul H; Stoker, Scott W

    2015-04-24

    The lipid composition of insulin secretory granules (ISG) has never previously been thoroughly characterized. We characterized the phospholipid composition of ISG and mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells without and with glucose stimulation. The phospholipid/protein ratios of most phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acids were higher in ISG than in whole cells and in mitochondria. The concentrations of negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol in ISG were 5-fold higher than in the whole cell. In ISG phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, fatty acids 12:0 and 14:0 were high, as were phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol containing 18-carbon unsaturated FA. With glucose stimulation, the concentration of many ISG phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylinositols increased; unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylserine increased; and most phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and lysophosphatidylcholines were unchanged. Unsaturation and shorter fatty acid length in phospholipids facilitate curvature and fluidity of membranes, which favors fusion of membranes. Recent evidence suggests that negatively charged phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine, act as coupling factors enhancing the interaction of positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in synaptic or secretory vesicle membrane lipid bilayers with positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in the plasma membrane lipid bilayer to facilitate docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis. The results indicate that ISG phospholipids are in a dynamic state and are consistent with the idea that changes in ISG phospholipids facilitate fusion of ISG with the plasma membrane-enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin exocytosis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  10. A Molecular Dynamics Study of the Structural and Dynamical Properties of Putative Arsenic Substituted Lipid Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Juwita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell membranes are composed mainly of phospholipids which are in turn, composed of five major chemical elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus. Recent studies have suggested the possibility of sustaining life if the phosphorus is substituted by arsenic. Although this issue is still controversial, it is of interest to investigate the properties of arsenated-lipid bilayers to evaluate this possibility. In this study, we simulated arsenated-lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-arsenocholine (POAC, lipid bilayers using all-atom molecular dynamics to understand basic structural and dynamical properties, in particular, the differences from analogous 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, (POPC lipid bilayers. Our simulations showed that POAC lipid bilayers have distinct structural and dynamical properties from those of native POPC lipid bilayers. Relative to POPC lipid bilayers, POAC lipid bilayers have a more compact structure with smaller lateral areas and greater order. The compact structure of POAC lipid bilayers is due to the fact that more inter-lipid salt bridges are formed with arsenate-choline compared to the phosphate-choline of POPC lipid bilayers. These inter-lipid salt bridges bind POAC lipids together and also slow down the head group rotation and lateral diffusion of POAC lipids. Thus, it would be anticipated that POAC and POPC lipid bilayers would have different biological implications.

  11. Amphotericin B induced interdigitation of apolipoprotein stabilized nanodisk bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T; Weers, P M; Sulchek, T; Hoeprich, P D; Ryan, R O

    2006-12-07

    Amphotericin B nanodisks (AMB-ND) are ternary complexes of AMB, phospholipid (PL) and apolipoprotein organized as discrete nanometer scale disk-shaped bilayers. In gel filtration chromatography experiments, empty ND lacking AMB elute as a single population of particles with a molecular weight in the range of 200 kDa. AMB-ND formulated at a 4:1 PL:AMB weight ratio, separated into two peaks. Peak 1 eluted at the position of control ND lacking AMB while the second peak, containing all of the AMB present in the original sample, eluted in the void volume. When ND prepared with increased AMB (1:1 phospholipid:AMB molar ratio) were subjected to gel filtration chromatography, an increased proportion of phospholipid and apolipoprotein were recovered in the void volume with the AMB. Prior to gel filtration the AMB-ND sample could be passed through a 0.22 {micro}m filter without loss of AMB while the voided material was lost. Native gel electrophoresis studies corroborated the gel permeation chromatography data. Far UV circular dichroism analyses revealed that apoA-I associated with AMB-ND denatures at a lower guanidine HCl concentration than apoA-I associated with ND lacking AMB. Atomic force microscopy revealed that AMB induces compression of the ND bilayer thickness consistent with bilayer interdigitation, a phenomenon that is likely related to the ability of AMB to induce pore formation in susceptible membranes.

  12. Encapsulation of phytosterols and phytosterol esters in liposomes made with soy phospholipids by high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan C; Acevedo, Nuria; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2017-11-15

    Phytosterols and phytosterol esters were encapsulated within large unilamellar liposomes prepared with soy phospholipids using a microfluidizer. The average particle diameter of these liposomal vesicles increased with increasing amounts of encapsulated phytosterols, especially with increasing free sterol content. The phytosterol content, liposomal particle size, and phytosterol encapsulation efficiency started to plateau when liposomes were prepared with MOPS buffer dispersions that contained 50 mg ml -1 soy phospholipid and more than 4% phytosterol blend, suggesting the saturation of phytosterol encapsulation. We proposed an encapsulation mechanism of free sterols and phytosterol esters in liposomes, where free sterols were mainly encapsulated within the lumen of these liposomes as crystals, and sterol esters and some free sterols were incorporated within the phospholipid bilayer of the liposomal membrane. The results from this work could provide the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries a practical method to produce loaded liposomes using inexpensive phospholipid mixtures for the delivery of bioactive ingredients.

  13. The interaction of new piroxicam analogues with lipid bilayers--a calorimetric and fluorescence spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniewska, Jadwiga; Szczęśniak-Sięga, Berenika; Poła, Andrzej; Sroda-Pomianek, Kamila; Malinka, Wiesław; Michalak, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to assess the ability of new piroxicam analogues to interact with the lipid bilayers. The results of calorimetric and fluorescence spectroscopic experiments of two new synthesized analogues of piroxicam, named PR17 and PR18 on the phase behavior of phospholipid bilayers and fluorescence quenching of fluorescent probes (Laurdan and Prodan), which molecular location within membranes is known with certainty, are shown in present work. The presented results revealed that, depending on the details of chemical structure, the studied compounds penetrated the lipid bilayers.

  14. Small-angle neutron scattering from multilamellar lipid bilayers: Theory, model, and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmich, Jesper; Mortensen, Kell; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1996-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering data obtained from fully hydrated, multilamellar phospholipid bilayers with deuterated acyl chains of different length are presented and analyzed within a paracrystalline theory and a geometric model that permit the bilayer structure to be determined under conditions...... of temperature for the lamellar repeat distance, the hydrophobic bilayer thickness, as well as the thickness of the aqueous and polar head group region. In addition to these geometric parameters the analysis permits determination of molecular cross-sectional area, number of interlamellar water molecules, as well...

  15. Forms, Crosstalks, and the Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis in Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process occurring during periods of stress to ensure a cell's survival by recycling cytosolic constituents and making products that can be used in energy generation and other essential processes. Three major forms of autophagy exist according to the specific mechanism through which cytoplasmic material is transported to a lysosome. Chaperone-mediated autophagy is a highly selective form of autophagy that delivers specific proteins for lysosomal degradation. Microautophagy is a less selective form of autophagy that occurs through lysosomal membrane invaginations, forming tubes and directly engulfing cytoplasm. Finally, macroautophagy involves formation of new membrane bilayers (autophagosomes that engulf cytosolic material and deliver it to lysosomes. This review provides new insights on the crosstalks between different forms of autophagy and the significance of bilayer-forming phospholipid synthesis in autophagosomal membrane formation.

  16. Lipid bilayers suspended on microfabricated supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogier, Simon D.; Bushby, Richard J.; Cheng, Yaling; Cox, Tim I.; Evans, Stephen D.; Knowles, Peter F.; Miles, Robert E.; Pattison, Ian

    2001-03-01

    The plasma membrane, that exists as part of many animal and plant cells, is a regulator for the transport of ions and small molecules across cell boundaries. Two main components involved are the phospholipid bilayer and the transport proteins. This paper details the construction of a micromachined support for bilayers (MSB) as a first step towards the development of highly selective and highly sensitive ion-channel based biosensors. The device consists of a ~100 micrometer hole in a polymeric support above a cavity that can hold ~25 nL of electrolyte. Electrodes attached to the structure allow the resistance of the membranes to be measured using d.c. conductivity. The MSB is made in two halves, using SU8 ultra-thick resist, which are subsequently bonded together to make the final structure. A layer of gold, surrounding the aperture, enables self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols to be used to make the polymeric structure biocompatible. Lipid membranes have been formed over these holes with resistances comparable with those of natural membranes >10 MOhmcm^2. The ion-channel gramicidin has successfully been incorporated into the bilayer and its activity monitored. It is proposed that this type of device could be used not only for studying membrane transport phenomena but also as part of an ion-channel based biosensor.

  17. INVESTIGATION ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATE STRUCTURES OF NATURAL PHOSPHOLIPIDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEM USING CRYO-TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Hudiyanti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM was used to investigate the aggregates morphology and properties of candle tree (Aleurites moluccana endosperm, sesame (Sesamum indicum L. syn. seeds, and coconut (Cocos nucifera endosperm phospholipids in dilute aqueous system. The micrographs showed that candle tree phospholipids formed planar bilayer and cluster of vesicles with lipid droplets, while coconut and sesame phospholipids formed well-defined unilamellar vesicles. The vesicles size could be as small as 50 nm in diameter. Coconut phospholipids also showed a good bending ability. Formation of clusters of vesicles was also found in coconut phospholipids dispersion, but this cluster was easily broken by extrusion through a small pore membrane.

  18. Carboxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimer interaction with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphocholine bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycationic polymers and liposomes have a great potential use as individual drug delivery systems and greater potential as a combined drug delivery system. Thus, it is important to better understand the interactions of polymers with phospholipid bilayers. A mechanistic study of carboxyl-terminate...

  19. Depth profiles of pulmonary surfactant protein B in phosphatidylcholine bilayers, studied by fluorescence and electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, A; Casals, C; Plasencia, I

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B (SP-B) has been isolated from porcine lungs and reconstituted in bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC) to characterize the extent of insertion of the protein into phospholipid bilayers. The parameters...... for the interaction of SP-B with DPPC or PC using different reconstitution protocols have been estimated from the changes induced in the fluorescence emission spectrum of the single protein tryptophan. All the different reconstituted SP-B-phospholipid preparations studied had similar Kd values for the binding...... that there are significant differences in the extent of insertion of the protein, depending on the method of reconstitution. SP-B reconstituted from lipid/protein mixtures in organic solvents is inserted more deeply in PC or DPPC bilayers than the protein reconstituted by addition to preformed phospholipid vesicles...

  20. Spontaneous transfer of gangliotetraosylceramide between phospholipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.; Sugar, I.P.; Thompson, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer kinetics of the neutral glycosphingolipid gangliotetraosylceramide (asialo-GM1) were investigated by monitoring tritiated asialo-GM1 movement from donor to acceptor vesicles. Two different methods were employed to separate donor and acceptor vesicles at desired time intervals. In one method, a negative charge was imparted to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine donor vesicles by including 10 mol% dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid. Donors were separated from neutral dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine acceptor vesicles by ion-exchange chromatography. In the other method, small, unilamellar donor vesicles and large, unilamellar acceptor vesicles were coincubated at 45 degrees C and then separated at desired time intervals by molecular sieve chromatography. The majority of asialo-GM1 transfer to acceptor vesicles occurred as a slow first-order process with a half-time of about 24 days assuming that the relative concentration of asialo-GM1 in the phospholipid matrix was identical in each half of the donor bilayer and that no glycolipid flip-flop occurred. Asialo-GM1 net transfer was calculated relative to that of [ 14 C]cholesteryl oleate, which served as a nontransferable marker in the donor vesicles. A nearly identical transfer half-time was obtained when the phospholipid matrix was changed from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine to palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine. Varying the acceptor vesicle concentration did not significantly alter the asialo-GM1 transfer half-time. This result is consistent with a transfer mechanism involving diffusion of glycolipid through the aqueous phase rather than movement of glycolipid following formation of collisional complexes between donor and acceptor vesicles. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Spontaneous transfer of ganglioside GM1 between phospholipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.; Thompson, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    The transfer kinetics of the negatively charged glycosphingolipid II 3 -N-acetylneuraminosyl-gangliotetraosylceramide (GM 1 ) were investigated by monitoring tritiated GM 1 movement between donor and acceptor vesicles. After appropriate incubation times at 45 0 C, donor and acceptor vesicles were separated by molecular sieve chromatography. Donors were small unilamellar vesicles produced by sonication, whereas acceptors were large unilamellar vesicles produced by either fusion or ethanol injection. Initial GM 1 transfer to acceptors followed first-order kinetics with a half-time of about 40 h assuming that GM 1 is present in equal mole fractions in the exterior and interior surfaces of the donor vesicle bilayer and that no glycolipid flip-flop occurs. GM 1 net transfer was calculated relative to that of [ 14 C]cholesteryl oleate, which served as a nontransferable marker in the donor vesicles. Factors affecting the GM 1 interbilayer transfer rate included phospholipid matrix composition, initial GM 1 concentration in donor vesicles, and the GM 1 distribution in donor vesicles with respect to total lipid symmetry. The findings provide evidence that GM 1 is molecularly dispersed at low concentrations within liquid-crystalline phospholipid bilayers

  2. Non-bilayer structures in mitochondrial membranes regulate ATP synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanov, Sardar E; Kim, Aleksandr A; Yaguzhinsky, Lev S; Dagda, Ruben K

    2018-02-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic phospholipid at the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) that facilitates the formation of transient non-bilayer (non-lamellar) structures to maintain mitochondrial integrity. CL modulates mitochondrial functions including ATP synthesis. However, the biophysical mechanisms by which CL generates non-lamellar structures and the extent to which these structures contribute to ATP synthesis remain unknown. We hypothesized that CL and ATP synthase facilitate the formation of non-bilayer structures at the IMM to stimulate ATP synthesis. By using 1 H NMR and 31 P NMR techniques, we observed that increasing the temperature (8°C to 37°C), lowering the pH (3.0), or incubating intact mitochondria with CTII - an IMM-targeted toxin that increases the formation of immobilized non-bilayer structures - elevated the formation of non-bilayer structures to stimulate ATP synthesis. The F 0 sector of the ATP synthase complex can facilitate the formation of non-bilayer structures as incubating model membranes enriched with IMM-specific phospholipids with exogenous DCCD-binding protein of the F 0 sector (DCCD-BPF) elevated the formation of immobilized non-bilayer structures to a similar manner as CTII. Native PAGE assays revealed that CL, but not other anionic phospholipids, specifically binds to DCCD-BPF to promote the formation of stable lipid-protein complexes. Mechanistically, molecular docking studies identified two lipid binding sites for CL in DCCD-BPF. We propose a new model of ATP synthase regulation in which CL mediates the formation of non-bilayer structures that serve to cluster protons and ATP synthase complexes as a mechanism to enhance proton translocation to the F 0 sector, and thereby increase ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure and dynamics of POPC bilayers in water solutions of room temperature ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto, Antonio; Bingham, Richard J.; Ballone, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations in the NPT ensemble have been carried out to investigate the effect of two room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), on stacks of phospholipid bilayers in water. We consider RTIL compounds consisting of chloride ([bmim][Cl]) and hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF 6 ]) salts of the 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium ([bmim] + ) cation, while the phospholipid bilayer is made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). Our investigations focus on structural and dynamical properties of phospholipid and water molecules that could be probed by inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements. The results confirm the fast incorporation of [bmim] + into the lipid phase already observed in previous simulations, driven by the Coulomb attraction of the cation for the most electronegative oxygens in the POPC head group and by sizeable dispersion forces binding the neutral hydrocarbon tails of [bmim] + and of POPC. The [bmim] + absorption into the bilayer favours the penetration of water into POPC, causes a slight but systematic thinning of the bilayer, and further stabilises hydrogen bonds at the lipid/water interface that already in pure samples (no RTIL) display a lifetime much longer than in bulk water. On the other hand, the effect of RTILs on the diffusion constant of POPC (D POPC ) does not reveal a clearly identifiable trend, since D POPC increases upon addition of [bmim][Cl] and decreases in the [bmim][PF 6 ] case. Moreover, because of screening, the electrostatic signature of each bilayer is only moderately affected by the addition of RTIL ions in solution. The analysis of long wavelength fluctuations of the bilayers shows that RTIL sorption causes a general decrease of the lipid/water interfacial tension and bending rigidity, pointing to the destabilizing effect of RTILs on lipid bilayers

  4. Structure and dynamics of POPC bilayers in water solutions of room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetto, Antonio [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Bingham, Richard J. [York Centre for Complex Systems Analysis, University of York, York YO10 5GE (United Kingdom); Ballone, Pietro [Center for Life Nano Science @Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), 00185 Roma (Italy); Department of Physics, Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2015-03-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations in the NPT ensemble have been carried out to investigate the effect of two room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), on stacks of phospholipid bilayers in water. We consider RTIL compounds consisting of chloride ([bmim][Cl]) and hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF{sub 6}]) salts of the 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium ([bmim]{sup +}) cation, while the phospholipid bilayer is made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). Our investigations focus on structural and dynamical properties of phospholipid and water molecules that could be probed by inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements. The results confirm the fast incorporation of [bmim]{sup +} into the lipid phase already observed in previous simulations, driven by the Coulomb attraction of the cation for the most electronegative oxygens in the POPC head group and by sizeable dispersion forces binding the neutral hydrocarbon tails of [bmim]{sup +} and of POPC. The [bmim]{sup +} absorption into the bilayer favours the penetration of water into POPC, causes a slight but systematic thinning of the bilayer, and further stabilises hydrogen bonds at the lipid/water interface that already in pure samples (no RTIL) display a lifetime much longer than in bulk water. On the other hand, the effect of RTILs on the diffusion constant of POPC (D{sub POPC}) does not reveal a clearly identifiable trend, since D{sub POPC} increases upon addition of [bmim][Cl] and decreases in the [bmim][PF{sub 6}] case. Moreover, because of screening, the electrostatic signature of each bilayer is only moderately affected by the addition of RTIL ions in solution. The analysis of long wavelength fluctuations of the bilayers shows that RTIL sorption causes a general decrease of the lipid/water interfacial tension and bending rigidity, pointing to the destabilizing effect of RTILs on lipid bilayers.

  5. Cell signalling and phospholipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    These studies explored whether phosphoinositide (PI) has a role in plants analogous to its role in animal cells. Although no parallel activity of PI in signal transduction was found in plant cells, activity of inositol phospholipid kinase was found to be modulated by light and by cell wall degrading enzymes. These studies indicate a major role for inositol phospholipids in plant growth and development as membrane effectors but not as a source of second messengers.

  6. Controlled release of astaxanthin from nanoporous silicified-phospholipids assembled boron nitride complex for cosmetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Sun; Sung, Dae Kyung; Kim, Sung Hyun; Choi, Won Il; Hwang, Ee Tag; Choi, Doo Jin; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2017-12-01

    Nanoporous silicified-phospholipids assembled boron nitride (nSPLs@BN) powder was prepared and demonstrated for use in controlled release of anti-oxidant astaxanthin (AX) as a cosmetic application. The nanoporous silicified phospholipids (nSPLs) were obtained by the silicification with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) of the hydrophilic region of phospholipid bilayers. This process involved the co-assembly of chemically active phospholipid bilayers within the porous silica matrix. In addition, nSPLs@BN was characterized using several analytical techniques and tested to assess their efficiency as drug delivery systems. We calculated the maximum release amounts as a function of time and various pH. The release rate of AX from the nSPLs@BN for the initial 24 h was 10.7 μmol/(h mg) at pH 7.4. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant activity (KD) for the released AX with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) radical and the result was 34.6%.

  7. Antibiotic interaction with phospholipid monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambinossi, F.; Mecheri, B.; Caminati, G.; Nocentini, M.; Puggelli, M.; Gabrielli, G.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the interactions of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic molecules with phospholipid monolayers with the two-fold aim of elucidating the mechanism of action and providing a first step for the realization of bio-mimetic sensors for such drugs by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. We examined spreading monolayers of three phospholipids in the presence of tetracycline in the subphase by means of surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms as a function of bulk pH. We selected phospholipids with hydrophobic chains of the same length but polar head groups differing either in dimensions and protonation equilibria, i.e. dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) and dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA). The interaction of tetracycline with the three phospholipids was found to be highly dependent on the electric charge of the antibiotic and on the ionization state of the lipid. Significant interactions are established between the negatively charged form of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid and the zwitterionic form of tetracycline. The drug was found to migrate at the interface where it is adsorbed underneath or/and among the head groups, depending on the surface pressure of the film, whereas penetration through the hydrophobic layer was excluded for all the three phospholipids

  8. Antibiotic interaction with phospholipid monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambinossi, F.; Mecheri, B.; Caminati, G.; Nocentini, M.; Puggelli, M.; Gabrielli, G

    2002-12-01

    We studied the interactions of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic molecules with phospholipid monolayers with the two-fold aim of elucidating the mechanism of action and providing a first step for the realization of bio-mimetic sensors for such drugs by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. We examined spreading monolayers of three phospholipids in the presence of tetracycline in the subphase by means of surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms as a function of bulk pH. We selected phospholipids with hydrophobic chains of the same length but polar head groups differing either in dimensions and protonation equilibria, i.e. dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) and dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA). The interaction of tetracycline with the three phospholipids was found to be highly dependent on the electric charge of the antibiotic and on the ionization state of the lipid. Significant interactions are established between the negatively charged form of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid and the zwitterionic form of tetracycline. The drug was found to migrate at the interface where it is adsorbed underneath or/and among the head groups, depending on the surface pressure of the film, whereas penetration through the hydrophobic layer was excluded for all the three phospholipids.

  9. Water distribution function across the curved lipid bilayer: SANS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.A.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Ryabova, N.Y.; Hauss, T.; Dante, S.; Lombardo, D.

    2008-01-01

    The neutron scattering length density across the membrane is simulated on the basis of fluctuated model of lipid bilayer. The use of a separated form factors method has been applied for the identification of the structural features of the polydispersed unilamellar DMPC vesicle system. The hydration of vesicle is described by sigmoid distribution function of the water molecules. The application of the model to the obtained SANS spectra allow the determination of the main parameters of the system, such as the average vesicle radius (and its polydispersity), the membrane thickness, the thickness of hydrocarbon chain region, the number of water molecules located per lipid molecule, and the phospholipid surface area. Moreover the approach allow the calculation of some relevant parameters connected with the water distribution function across the bilayer system. The main features of the obtained results furnish an explanation of why lipid membrane is easily penetrated by the water molecules of the solution

  10. Physisorbed Polymer-Tethered Lipid Bilayer with Lipopolymer Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A. Naumann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Physisorbed polymer-tethered lipid bilayers consisting of phospholipids and lipopolymers represent an attractive planar model membrane platform, in which bilayer fluidity and membrane elastic properties can be regulated through lipopolymer molar concentration. Herein we report a method for the fabrication of such a planar model membrane system with a lateral gradient of lipopolymer density. In addition, a procedure is described, which leads to a sharp boundary between regions of low and high lipopolymer molar concentrations. Resulting gradients and sharp boundaries are visualized on the basis of membrane buckling structures at elevated lipopolymer concentrations using epifluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, results from spot photobleaching experiments are presented, which provide insight into the lipid lateral fluidity in these model membrane architectures. The presented experimental data highlight a planar, solid-supported membrane characterized by fascinating length scale-dependent dynamics and elastic properties with remarkable parallels to those observed in cellular membranes.

  11. Possible role of non-bilayer lipids in the structure of mitochondria. A freeze-fracture electron microscopy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venetie, R. van; Verkleij, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    The possible role of non-bilayer phospholipids on the structure of isolated rat liver mitochondria has been morphologically studied. Freshly isolated freeze-fractured mitochondria show smooth fracture faces with particles, representing the limiting membranes. The frequency and size of the particles

  12. Dicarboxylic phospholipids and irradiated biomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, Nicole.

    1977-01-01

    It was decided to study the effects of ionizing radiations on biomembranes, with special reference to erythrocytes and liver microsomes representing two kinds of membrane very common in nature. Diacid phospholipids were observed at these membranes and the results are reported in part one of this work. It appeared essential to examine as far as possible the metabolism, in vitro and in animals, of these diacids and to find out whether certain harmful effects of radiations on the proteins (membrane permeability changes and enzyme inactivation) could be due to the action of these newly formed compounds. The study of acid compounds formed under irradiation was limited to nonanal-9-oic acid and azelaic acid. Part two deals with the incorporation of acid and diacid compounds into lipids and the effects of diacid phospholipids on the membrane permeability. A chapter is devoted to the changes in certain enzyme activities brought about by diacid phospholipids [fr

  13. Structure refinement and membrane positioning of selectively labeled OmpX in phospholipid nanodiscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagn, Franz, E-mail: franz.hagn@tum.de; Wagner, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard-wagner@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States)

    2015-04-15

    NMR structural studies on membrane proteins are often complicated by their large size, taking into account the contribution of the membrane mimetic. Therefore, classical resonance assignment approaches often fail. The large size of phospholipid nanodiscs, a detergent-free phospholipid bilayer mimetic, prevented their use in high-resolution solution-state NMR spectroscopy so far. We recently introduced smaller nanodiscs that are suitable for NMR structure determination. However, side-chain assignments of a membrane protein in nanodiscs still remain elusive. Here, we utilized a NOE-based approach to assign (stereo-) specifically labeled Ile, Leu, Val and Ala methyl labeled and uniformly {sup 15}N-Phe and {sup 15}N-Tyr labeled OmpX and calculated a refined high-resolution structure. In addition, we were able to obtain residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) of OmpX in nanodiscs using Pf1 phage medium for the induction of weak alignment. Back-calculated NOESY spectra of the obtained NMR structures were compared to experimental NOESYs in order to validate the quality of these structures. We further used NOE information between protonated lipid head groups and side-chain methyls to determine the position of OmpX in the phospholipid bilayer. These data were verified by paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) experiments obtained with Gd{sup 3+}-modified lipids. Taken together, this study emphasizes the need for the (stereo-) specific labeling of membrane proteins in a highly deuterated background for high-resolution structure determination, particularly in large membrane mimicking systems like phospholipid nanodiscs. Structure validation by NOESY back-calculation will be helpful for the structure determination and validation of membrane proteins where NOE assignment is often difficult. The use of protein to lipid NOEs will be beneficial for the positioning of a membrane protein in the lipid bilayer without the need for preparing multiple protein samples.

  14. Ganglioside GM1 spontaneous transfer between phospholipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.; Sugar, I.P.; Thompson, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    The transfer kinetics of the monosiaylated glycosphingolipid, GM 1 , between different size phospholipid vesicles was measured using molecular sieve chromatography. At desired time intervals, small unilamellar donor vesicles were separated from large unilamellar acceptor vesicles by elution from a Sephacryl S-500 column [ 3 H]-GM 1 net transfer was calculated relative to [ 14 C]-cholesteryl oleate, which served as a nontransferable marker in the donor vesicles. The initial GM 1 transfer rate between 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles at 45 0 C deviated slightly from first order kinetics and possessed a half time of 3.6 days. This transfer half time is an order of magnitude shorter than that observed from the desiaylated derivative of GM 1 . The transfer kinetics are consistent with the authors recent electron microscopic results suggesting a molecular distribution of GM 1 in liquid-crystalline phosphatidylcholine bilayers

  15. Nanomechanics of electrospun phospholipid fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Ana C., E-mail: anac@food.dtu.dk, E-mail: ioach@food.dtu.dk; Chronakis, Ioannis S., E-mail: anac@food.dtu.dk, E-mail: ioach@food.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, DTU-Food, Søltofts Plads B227, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Lee, Seunghwan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-06-01

    Electrospun asolectin phospholipid fibers were prepared using isooctane as a solvent and had an average diameter of 6.1 ± 2.7 μm. Their mechanical properties were evaluated by nanoindentation using Atomic Force Microscopy, and their elastic modulus was found to be approximately 17.2 ± 1 MPa. At a cycle of piezo expansion-retraction (loading-unloading) of a silicon tip on a fiber, relatively high adhesion was observed during unloading. It is proposed that this was primarily due to molecular rearrangements at the utmost layers of the fiber caused by the indentation of the hydrophilic tip. The phospholipid fibers were shown to be stable in ambient conditions, preserving the modulus of elasticity up to 24 h.

  16. Nanomechanics of electrospun phospholipid fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Lee, Seunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun asolectin phospholipid fibers were prepared using isooctane as a solvent and had an average diameter of 6.1 +/- 2.7 mu m. Their mechanical properties were evaluated by nanoindentation using Atomic Force Microscopy, and their elastic modulus was found to be approximately 17.2 +/- 1MPa....... At a cycle of piezo expansion-retraction (loading-unloading) of a silicon tip on a fiber, relatively high adhesion was observed during unloading. It is proposed that this was primarily due to molecular rearrangements at the utmost layers of the fiber caused by the indentation of the hydrophilic tip....... The phospholipid fibers were shown to be stable in ambient conditions, preserving the modulus of elasticity up to 24 h. (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC....

  17. Surface functionalization of a polymeric lipid bilayer for coupling a model biological membrane with molecules, cells, and microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morigaki, Kenichi; Mizutani, Kazuyuki; Saito, Makoto; Okazaki, Takashi; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa

    2013-02-26

    We describe a stable and functional model biological membrane based on a polymerized lipid bilayer with a chemically modified surface. A polymerized lipid bilayer was formed from a mixture of two diacetylene-containing phospholipids, 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DiynePC) and 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DiynePE). DiynePC formed a stable bilayer structure, whereas the ethanolamine headgroup of DiynePE enabled functional molecules to be grafted onto the membrane surface. Copolymerization of DiynePC and DiynePE resulted in a robust bilayer. Functionalization of the polymeric bilayer provided a route to a robust and biomimetic surface that can be linked with biomolecules, cells, and three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. Biotin and peptides were grafted onto the polymeric bilayer for attaching streptavidin and cultured mammalian cells by molecular recognition, respectively. Nonspecific adsorption of proteins and cells on polymeric bilayers was minimum. DiynePE was also used to attach a microstructure made of an elastomer (polydimethylsiloxan: PDMS) onto the membrane, forming a confined aqueous solution between the two surfaces. The microcompartment enabled us to assay the activity of a membrane-bound enzyme (cyochrome P450). Natural (fluid) lipid bilayers were incorporated together with membrane-bound proteins by lithographically polymerizing DiynePC/DiynePE bilayers. The hybrid membrane of functionalized polymeric bilayers and fluid bilayers offers a novel platform for a wide range of biomedical applications including biosensor, bioassay, cell culture, and cell-based assay.

  18. NMR study of the interactions of polymyxin B, gramicidin S, and valinomycin with dimyristoyllecithin bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidovetzki, R.; Banerjee, U.; Harrington, D.W.; Chan, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    The interactions of three polypeptide antibiotics (polymyxin B, gramicidin S, and valinomycin) with artificial lecithin membranes were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Combination of 31 P and 2 H NMR allowed observation of perturbations of the bilayer membrane structure induced by each of the antibiotics in the regions of the polar headgroups and acyl side chains of the phospholipids. The comparative study of the effects of these membrane-active antibiotics and the lipid bilayer structure demonstrated distinct types of antibiotic-membrane interactions in each case. Thus, the results showed the absence of interaction of polymyxin B with the dimyristoyllecithin membranes. In contrast, gramicidin S exhibited strong interaction with the lipid above the gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature: disordering of the acyl side chains was evident. Increasing the concentration of gramicidin S led to disintegration of the bilayer membrane structure. At a molar ratio of 1:16 of gramicidin S to lecithin, the results are consistent with coexistence of gel and liquid-crystalline phases of the phospholipids near the phase transition temperature. Valinomycin decreased the phase transition temperature of the lipids and increased the order parameters of the lipid side chains. Such behavior is consistent with penetration of the valinomycin molecule into the interior of the lipid bilayers

  19. Tribology of implantation bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of implantation films must be analysed in terms of bilayer rheology (laws of mechanical behaviour). Tribology takes into account thermodynamical, chemical and metallurgical parameters to interpret the friction properties of a system as a whole. One can distinguish between alloying effects of ion implantation and structural modifications. Alloying affects the basic properties of the crystal: elasticity, cohesion, mobility of planar defects, and its surface electronic structure, which determines the reactivity with the atmosphere or the friction counterpart (adhesion). Radiation damage and phase changes act more particularly on the modes of gliding and climbing of dislocations, and fracture mechanisms. 105 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 table

  20. Interaction of the N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C with interfacial phospholipid films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, Inés; Keough, Kevin M W; Perez-Gil, Jesus

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C is a 35-residue polypeptide composed of a hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helix and a polycationic, palmitoylated-cysteine containing N-terminal segment. This segment is likely the only structural motif the protein projects out of the bilayer in which SP-C is ins......Pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C is a 35-residue polypeptide composed of a hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helix and a polycationic, palmitoylated-cysteine containing N-terminal segment. This segment is likely the only structural motif the protein projects out of the bilayer in which SP...... or anionic phospholipid monolayers. The peptide expands the pi-A compression isotherms of interfacial phospholipid/peptide films, and perturbs the lipid packing of phospholipid films during compression-driven liquid-expanded to liquid-condensed lateral transitions, as observed by epifluorescence microscopy....... These results demonstrate that the sequence of the SP-C N-terminal region has intrinsic ability to interact with, insert into, and perturb the structure of zwitterionic and anionic phospholipid films, even in the absence of the palmitic chains attached to this segment in the native protein. This effect has been...

  1. Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Z; Iwinski, E G; Ni, G X; Zhang, L M; Bao, W; Rodin, A S; Lee, Y; Wagner, M; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Goldflam, M D; Thiemens, M; Keilmann, F; Lau, C N; Castro-Neto, A H; Fogler, M M; Basov, D N

    2015-08-12

    We report experimental signatures of plasmonic effects due to electron tunneling between adjacent graphene layers. At subnanometer separation, such layers can form either a strongly coupled bilayer graphene with a Bernal stacking or a weakly coupled double-layer graphene with a random stacking order. Effects due to interlayer tunneling dominate in the former case but are negligible in the latter. We found through infrared nanoimaging that bilayer graphene supports plasmons with a higher degree of confinement compared to single- and double-layer graphene, a direct consequence of interlayer tunneling. Moreover, we were able to shut off plasmons in bilayer graphene through gating within a wide voltage range. Theoretical modeling indicates that such a plasmon-off region is directly linked to a gapped insulating state of bilayer graphene, yet another implication of interlayer tunneling. Our work uncovers essential plasmonic properties in bilayer graphene and suggests a possibility to achieve novel plasmonic functionalities in graphene few-layers.

  2. Imaging phospholipid conformational disorder and packing in giant multilamellar liposome by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noothalapati, Hemanth; Iwasaki, Keita; Yoshimoto, Chikako; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.; Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki

    2017-12-01

    Liposomes are closed phospholipid bilayer systems that have profound applications in fundamental cell biology, pharmaceutics and medicine. Depending on the composition (pure or mixture of phospholipids, presence of cholesterol) and preparation protocol, intra- and inter-chain molecular interactions vary leading to changes in the quality (order and packing) of liposomes. So far it is not possible to image conformational disorders and packing densities within a liposome in a straightforward manner. In this study, we utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy to visualize structural disorders and packing efficiency within a giant multilamellar liposome model by focusing mainly on three regions in the vibrational spectrum (Csbnd C stretching, Csbnd H deformation and Csbnd H stretching). We estimated properties such as trans/gauche isomers and lateral packing probability. Interestingly, our Raman imaging studies revealed gel phase rich domains and heterogeneous lateral packing within the giant multilamellar liposome.

  3. (CryoTransmission Electron Microscopy of Phospholipid Model Membranes Interacting with Amphiphilic and Polyphilic Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Meister

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid membranes can incorporate amphiphilic or polyphilic molecules leading to specific functionalities and to adaptable properties of the lipid bilayer host. The insertion of guest molecules into membranes frequently induces changes in the shape of the lipid matrix that can be visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. Here, we review the use of stained and vitrified specimens in (cryoTEM to characterize the morphology of amphiphilic and polyphilic molecules upon insertion into phospholipid model membranes. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of novel synthetic amphiphilic and polyphilic bolalipids and polymers on membrane integrity and shape stability.

  4. Computational Design of Multi-component Bio-Inspired Bilayer Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Koufos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our investigation is motivated by the need to design bilayer membranes with tunable interfacial and mechanical properties for use in a range of applications, such as targeted drug delivery, sensing and imaging. We draw inspiration from biological cell membranes and focus on their principal constituents. In this paper, we present our results on the role of molecular architecture on the interfacial, structural and dynamical properties of bio-inspired membranes. We focus on four lipid architectures with variations in the head group shape and the hydrocarbon tail length. Each lipid species is composed of a hydrophilic head group and two hydrophobic tails. In addition, we study a model of the Cholesterol molecule to understand the interfacial properties of a bilayer membrane composed of rigid, single-tail molecular species. We demonstrate the properties of the bilayer membranes to be determined by the molecular architecture and rigidity of the constituent species. Finally, we demonstrate the formation of a stable mixed bilayer membrane composed of Cholesterol and one of the phospholipid species. Our approach can be adopted to design multi-component bilayer membranes with tunable interfacial and mechanical properties. We use a Molecular Dynamics-based mesoscopic simulation technique called Dissipative Particle Dynamics that resolves the molecular details of the components through soft-sphere coarse-grained models and reproduces the hydrodynamic behavior of the system over extended time scales.

  5. Simulations of skin barrier function: free energies of hydrophobic and hydrophilic transmembrane pores in ceramide bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, W J; Noro, Massimo G; den Otter, Wouter K

    2008-11-15

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) weaken the barrier function of the skin. We have used the potential of mean constraint force (PMCF) method to calculate the free energy of pore formation in ceramide bilayers in both the innate gel phase and in the DMSO-induced fluidized state. Our simulations show that the fluid phase bilayers form archetypal water-filled hydrophilic pores similar to those observed in phospholipid bilayers. In contrast, the rigid gel-phase bilayers develop hydrophobic pores. At the relatively small pore diameters studied here, the hydrophobic pores are empty rather than filled with bulk water, suggesting that they do not compromise the barrier function of ceramide membranes. A phenomenological analysis suggests that these vapor pores are stable, below a critical radius, because the penalty of creating water-vapor and tail-vapor interfaces is lower than that of directly exposing the strongly hydrophobic tails to water. The PMCF free energy profile of the vapor pore supports this analysis. The simulations indicate that high DMSO concentrations drastically impair the barrier function of the skin by strongly reducing the free energy required for pore opening.

  6. Membrane-surfactant interactions. The role of surfactant in mitochondrial complex III-phospholipid-Triton X-100 mixed micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valpuesta, J.M.; Arrondo, J.L.; Barbero, M.C.; Pons, M.; Goni, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) was purified from beef heart mitochondria in the form of protein-phospholipid-Triton X-100 mixed micelles (about 1:80:100 molar ratio). Detergent may be totally removed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the resulting lipoprotein complexes retain full enzyme activity. In order to understand the role of surfactant in the mixed micelles, and the interaction of Triton X-100 with integral membrane proteins and phospholipid bilayers, both the protein-lipid-surfactant mixed micelles and the detergent-free lipoprotein system were examined from the point of view of particle size and ultrastructure, enzyme activity, tryptophan fluorescence quenching, 31P NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NMR and IR spectroscopic studies show that surfactant withdrawal induces a profound change in phospholipid architecture, from a micellar to a lamellar-like phase. However, electron microscopic observations fail to reveal the existence of lipid bilayers in the absence of detergent. We suggest that, under these conditions, the lipid:protein molar ratio (80:1) is too low to permit the formation of lipid bilayer planes, but the relative orientation and mobility of phospholipids with respect to proteins is similar to that of the lamellar phase. Protein conformational changes are also detected as a consequence of surfactant removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates an increase of peptide beta-structure in the absence of Triton X-100; changes in the amide II/amide I intensity ratio are also detected, although the precise meaning of these observations is unclear

  7. Oxidative stability of marine phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (MPL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). The objective...... of this study is to investigate the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL. In addition, this study also investigates the effect of chemical composition of MPL and Maillard reaction (interaction between lipids oxidation products with the residue of amino acids) on MPL emulsions’ stability. Firstly, MPL were...... was further investigated through measurement of secondary volatile compounds by Solid Phase Microextraction at several time intervals. On the other hand, the Maillard reaction was investigated through the measurement of color changes and pyrrole content before and after 32 days storage. Preliminary result...

  8. Phospholipid Vesicles in Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granick, Steve [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2016-05-11

    The objective of this research was to develop the science basis needed to deploy phospholipid vesicles as functional materials in energy contexts. Specifically, we sought to: (1) Develop an integrated molecular-level understanding of what determines their dynamical shape, spatial organization, and responsiveness to complex, time-varying environments; and (2) Develop understanding of their active transportation in crowded environments, which our preliminary measurements in cells suggest may hold design principles for targeting improved energy efficiency in new materials systems. The methods to do this largely involved fluorescence imaging and other spectroscopy involving single particles, vesicles, particles, DNA, and endosomes. An unexpected importance outcome was a new method to image light-emitting diodes during actual operation using super-resolution spectroscopy.

  9. Phospholipid monolayer coated microfabricated electrodes to model the interaction of molecules with biomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coldrick, Zachary [Centre for Self-Organising Molecular Systems (SOMS), School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: eenzc@leeds.ac.uk; Steenson, Paul [School of Electronic Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Millner, Paul [Institute of Membrane and Systems Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Davies, Matthew [Health and Safety Laboratories, Buxton, SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Nelson, Andrew [Centre for Self-Organising Molecular Systems (SOMS), School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-01

    The hanging mercury (Hg) drop electrode (HMDE) has a classical application as a tool to study adsorption and desorption processes of surface organic films due to its: (a) atomically smooth surface and, (b) hydrophobicity at its potential of zero charge. In this study we report on a replacement of the HMDE for studying supported organic layers in the form of platinum (Pt) working electrodes fabricated using lithography techniques on which a thin film of Hg is electrodeposited. These wafer-based Pt/Hg electrodes are characterised and compared to the HMDE using rapid cyclic voltammetry (RCV) and show similar capacitance-potential profiles while being far more mechanically stable and consuming considerably less Hg over their lifetime of several months. The electrodes have been used to support self-assembled phospholipid monolayers which are dynamic surface coatings with unique dielectric properties. The issue of surface contamination has been solved by regenerating the electrode surface prior to phospholipid coating by application of extreme cathodic potentials more negative than -2.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The phospholipid coated electrodes presented in this paper mimic one half of a phospholipid bilayer and exhibit interactions with the biomembrane active drug molecules chlorpromazine, and quinidine. The magnitudes of these interactions have been assessed by recording changes in the capacitance-potential profiles in real time using RCV at 40 V s{sup -1} over potential ranges >1 V. A method for electrode coating with phospholipids with the electrodes fitted in a flow cell device has been developed. This has enabled sequential rapid cleaning/coating/interaction cycles for the purposes of drug screening and/or on-line monitoring for molecules of interest.

  10. Phospholipid monolayer coated microfabricated electrodes to model the interaction of molecules with biomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldrick, Zachary; Steenson, Paul; Millner, Paul; Davies, Matthew; Nelson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The hanging mercury (Hg) drop electrode (HMDE) has a classical application as a tool to study adsorption and desorption processes of surface organic films due to its: (a) atomically smooth surface and, (b) hydrophobicity at its potential of zero charge. In this study we report on a replacement of the HMDE for studying supported organic layers in the form of platinum (Pt) working electrodes fabricated using lithography techniques on which a thin film of Hg is electrodeposited. These wafer-based Pt/Hg electrodes are characterised and compared to the HMDE using rapid cyclic voltammetry (RCV) and show similar capacitance-potential profiles while being far more mechanically stable and consuming considerably less Hg over their lifetime of several months. The electrodes have been used to support self-assembled phospholipid monolayers which are dynamic surface coatings with unique dielectric properties. The issue of surface contamination has been solved by regenerating the electrode surface prior to phospholipid coating by application of extreme cathodic potentials more negative than -2.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The phospholipid coated electrodes presented in this paper mimic one half of a phospholipid bilayer and exhibit interactions with the biomembrane active drug molecules chlorpromazine, and quinidine. The magnitudes of these interactions have been assessed by recording changes in the capacitance-potential profiles in real time using RCV at 40 V s -1 over potential ranges >1 V. A method for electrode coating with phospholipids with the electrodes fitted in a flow cell device has been developed. This has enabled sequential rapid cleaning/coating/interaction cycles for the purposes of drug screening and/or on-line monitoring for molecules of interest.

  11. Evaluation of Ultrafiltration Performance for Phospholipid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanti, N.; Wardhani, D. H.; Maulana, Z. S.; Roberto, D.

    2017-11-01

    Ultrafiltration membrane for degumming of crude palm oil has been applied as an alternative method since the membrane process required less procedure than the conventional degumming. This research focused on the examination of ultrafiltration performance for phospholipid separation from model crude palm oil degumming. Specifically, profile flux and rejection, as well as blocking mechanism, were investigated. Feed consisting of Refined Crude Palm Oil - Isopropanol - Lecithin mixtures were represented as crude palm oil degumming. Lecithin was denoted a phospholipid component, and the concentrations of lecithin in feed were varied to 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%. The concentration of phospholipid was determined as phosphor content. At the concentration of lecithin in feed representing phospholipid concentration of 8,45 mg/kg, 8,45 mg/kg, 24,87 mg/kg and 57,58 mg/kg, respectively. Flux profiles confirmed that there was a flux decline during filtration. In addition, the lecithin concentrations do not significantly effect on further flux decline. Rejection characteristic and phospholipid concentration in the permeate showed that the phospholipid rejections by ultrafiltration were in the range of 23-79,5% representing permeate’s phospholipid concentration of 1,73 - 44,25 mg/kg. Evaluation of fouling mechanism by Hermia’s blocking model confirmed that the standard blocking is the dominant mechanism in the ultrafiltration of lecithin mixture.

  12. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy of planar phosphatidylethanolamine hybrid bilayer membranes under water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kett, Peter J N; Casford, Michael T L; Davies, Paul B

    2010-06-15

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has been used to study the structure of phosphatidylethanolamine hybrid bilayer membranes (HBMs) under water at ambient temperatures. The HBMs were formed using a modified Langmuir-Schaefer technique and consisted of a layer of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) physisorbed onto an octadecanethiol (ODT) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) at a series of surface pressures from 1 to 40 mN m(-1). The DPPE and ODT were selectively deuterated so that the contributions to the SFG spectra from the two layers could be determined separately. SFG spectra in both the C-H and C-D stretching regions confirmed that a monolayer of DPPE had been adsorbed to the ODT SAM and that there were gauche defects within the alkyl chains of the phospholipid. On adsorption of a layer of DPPE, methylene modes from the ODT SAM were detected, indicating that the phospholipid had partially disordered the alkanethiol monolayer. SFG spectra recorded in air indicated that removal of water from the surface of the HBM resulted in disruption of the DPPE layer and the formation of phospholipid bilayers.

  13. Flip-flop of phospholipids in proteoliposomes reconstituted from detergent extract of chloroplast membranes: kinetics and phospholipid specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Rajasekharan

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized into distinct sub-cellular organelles by lipid bilayers, which are known to be involved in numerous cellular processes. The wide repertoire of lipids, synthesized in the biogenic membranes like the endoplasmic reticulum and bacterial cytoplasmic membranes are initially localized in the cytosolic leaflet and some of these lipids have to be translocated to the exoplasmic leaflet for membrane biogenesis and uniform growth. It is known that phospholipid (PL translocation in biogenic membranes is mediated by specific membrane proteins which occur in a rapid, bi-directional fashion without metabolic energy requirement and with no specificity to PL head group. A recent study reported the existence of biogenic membrane flippases in plants and that the mechanism of plant membrane biogenesis was similar to that found in animals. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time ATP independent and ATP dependent flippase activity in chloroplast membranes of plants. For this, we generated proteoliposomes from Triton X-100 extract of intact chloroplast, envelope membrane and thylakoid isolated from spinach leaves and assayed for flippase activity using fluorescent labeled phospholipids. Half-life time of flipping was found to be 6 ± 1 min. We also show that: (a intact chloroplast and envelope membrane reconstituted proteoliposomes can flip fluorescent labeled analogs of phosphatidylcholine in ATP independent manner, (b envelope membrane and thylakoid reconstituted proteoliposomes can flip phosphatidylglycerol in ATP dependent manner, (c Biogenic membrane ATP independent PC flipping activity is protein mediated and (d the kinetics of PC translocation gets affected differently upon treatment with protease and protein modifying reagents.

  14. Interaction of melittin with mixed phospholipid membranes composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine studied by deuterium NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, C.; Bitbol, M.; Watts, A. (Oxford Univ. (England))

    1989-08-08

    The interaction of bee venom melittin with mixed phospholipid bilayers composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine deuterated in the {alpha}- and {beta}-methylenes of the choline head group (DMPC-d{sub 4}) and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine deuterated in the {alpha}-methylene and {beta}-CH positions of the serine head group (DMPS-d{sub 3}) was studied in ternary mixtures by using deuterium NMR spectroscopy. The changes in the deuterium quadrupole splittings of the head-group deuteriomethylenes of DMPC-d{sub 4} induced by DMPS in binary mixtures were systematically reversed by increasing concentrations of melittin, so that at a melittin concentration of 4 mol % relative to total lipid the deuterium NMR spectrum from DMPC-d{sub 4} in the ternary mixture was similar to the spectrum from pure DMPC-d{sub 4} bilayers. The absence of deuterium NMR signals arising from melittin-bound DMPS in ternary mixtures containing DMPS-d{sub 3} indicates that the reversal by melittin of the effects of DMPS on the quadrupole splittings of DMPC-d{sub 4} results from the response of the choline head group to the net surface charge rather than from phase separation of melittin-DMPS complexes. The similarity in the effects of the two cationic but otherwise dissimilar peptides indicates that the DMPS head group responds to the surface charge resulting from the presence in the bilayer of charged amphiphiles, in a manner analogous to the response of the choline head group of phosphatidylcholine to the bilayer surface charge. The presence of DMPS greatly stabilized DMPC bilayers with respect to melittin-induced micellization, indicating that the latter effect of melittin may not be important for the hemolytic activity of the peptide.

  15. Interaction of melittin with mixed phospholipid membranes composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine studied by deuterium NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.; Bitbol, M.; Watts, A.

    1989-01-01

    The interaction of bee venom melittin with mixed phospholipid bilayers composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine deuterated in the α- and β-methylenes of the choline head group (DMPC-d 4 ) and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine deuterated in the α-methylene and β-CH positions of the serine head group (DMPS-d 3 ) was studied in ternary mixtures by using deuterium NMR spectroscopy. The changes in the deuterium quadrupole splittings of the head-group deuteriomethylenes of DMPC-d 4 induced by DMPS in binary mixtures were systematically reversed by increasing concentrations of melittin, so that at a melittin concentration of 4 mol % relative to total lipid the deuterium NMR spectrum from DMPC-d 4 in the ternary mixture was similar to the spectrum from pure DMPC-d 4 bilayers. The absence of deuterium NMR signals arising from melittin-bound DMPS in ternary mixtures containing DMPS-d 3 indicates that the reversal by melittin of the effects of DMPS on the quadrupole splittings of DMPC-d 4 results from the response of the choline head group to the net surface charge rather than from phase separation of melittin-DMPS complexes. The similarity in the effects of the two cationic but otherwise dissimilar peptides indicates that the DMPS head group responds to the surface charge resulting from the presence in the bilayer of charged amphiphiles, in a manner analogous to the response of the choline head group of phosphatidylcholine to the bilayer surface charge. The presence of DMPS greatly stabilized DMPC bilayers with respect to melittin-induced micellization, indicating that the latter effect of melittin may not be important for the hemolytic activity of the peptide

  16. Packing of ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majewski, J.; Kuhl, T.L.; Kjær, K.

    2001-01-01

    Using synchrotron grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) and reflectivity, the in-plane and out-of-plane structure of mixed ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers was investigated at the air-water interface. Mixed monolayers of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 100 mol% ganglioside GM, and the phospholipid...... monolayers did not affect hydrocarbon tail packing (fluidization or condensation of the hydrocarbon region). This is in contrast to previous investigations of lipopolymer-lipid mixtures, where the packing structure of phospholipid monolayers was greatly altered by the inclusion of lipids bearing hydrophilic...

  17. Local mobility in lipid domains of supported bilayers characterized by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, Daniel J.; Buranda, T. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Burns, Alan Richard

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is used to examine mobility of labeled probes at specific sites in supported bilayers consisting of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid domains in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). Those sites are mapped beforehand with simultaneous atomic force microscopy and submicron confocal fluorescence imaging, allowing characterization of probe partitioning between gel DPPC and disordered liquid DOPC domains with corresponding topography of domain structure. We thus examine the relative partitioning and mobility in gel and disordered liquid phases for headgroup- and tailgroup-labeled GM1 ganglioside probes and for headgroup- and tailgroup-labeled phospholipid probes. For the GM1 probes, large differences in mobility between fluid and gel domains are observed; whereas unexpected mobility is observed in submicron gel domains for the phospholipid probes. We attribute the latter to domain heterogeneities that could be induced by the probe. Furthermore, fits to the FCS data for the phospholipid probes in the DOPC fluid phase require two components (fast and slow). Although proximity to the glass substrate may be a factor, local distortion of the probe by the fluorophore could also be important. Overall, we observe nonideal aspects of phospholipid probe mobility and partitioning that may not be restricted to supported bilayers.

  18. Molecular engineering of lanthanide ion chelating phospholipids generating assemblies with a switched magnetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Massabni, Sarah; Hodzic, Arnel; Durovic, Dzana; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Ishikawa, Takashi; Fischer, Peter; Windhab, Erich J; Walde, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2017-08-09

    Lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ ) chelating amphiphiles are powerful molecules for tailoring the magnetic response of polymolecular assemblies. Mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA) complexed to Ln 3+ deliver highly magnetically responsive bicelles. Their magnetic properties are readily tuned by changing the bicellar size or the magnetic susceptibility Δχ of the bilayer lipids. The former technique is intrinsically bound to the region of the phase diagram guarantying the formation of bicelles. Methods aiming towards manipulating the Δχ of the bilayer are comparatively more robust, flexible and lacking. Herein, we synthesized a new Ln 3+ chelating phospholipid using glutamic acid as a backbone: DMPE-Glu-DTPA. The chelate polyhedron was specifically engineered to alter the Δχ, whilst remaining geometrically similar to DMPE-DTPA. Planar asymmetric assemblies hundreds of nanometers in size were achieved presenting unprecedented magnetic alignments. The DMPE-Glu-DTPA/Ln 3+ complex switched the Δχ, achieving perpendicular alignment of assemblies containing Dy 3+ and parallel alignment of those containing Tm 3+ . Moreover, samples with chelated Yb 3+ were more alignable than the Tm 3+ chelating counterparts. Such a possibility has never been demonstrated for planar Ln 3+ chelating polymolecular assemblies. The physico-chemical properties of these novel assemblies were further studied by monitoring the alignment behavior at different temperatures and by including 16 mol% of cholesterol (Chol-OH) in the phospholipid bilayer. The DMPE-Glu-DTPA/Ln 3+ complex and the resulting assemblies are promising candidates for applications in numerous fields including pharmaceutical technologies, structural characterization of membrane biomolecules by NMR spectroscopy, as contrasting agents for magnetic resonance imaging, and for the development of smart optical gels.

  19. Fabrication Procedures and Birefringence Measurements for Designing Magnetically Responsive Lanthanide Ion Chelating Phospholipid Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Baumgartner, Mirjam E; Fischer, Peter; Windhab, Erich J; Liebi, Marianne; Kuster, Simon

    2018-01-03

    Bicelles are tunable disk-like polymolecular assemblies formed from a large variety of lipid mixtures. Applications range from membrane protein structural studies by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to nanotechnological developments including the formation of optically active and magnetically switchable gels. Such technologies require high control of the assembly size, magnetic response and thermal resistance. Mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and its lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ ) chelating phospholipid conjugate, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA), assemble into highly magnetically responsive assemblies such as DMPC/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 4:1:1) bicelles. Introduction of cholesterol (Chol-OH) and steroid derivatives in the bilayer results in another set of assemblies offering unique physico-chemical properties. For a given lipid composition, the magnetic alignability is proportional to the bicelle size. The complexation of Ln 3+ results in unprecedented magnetic responses in terms of both magnitude and alignment direction. The thermo-reversible collapse of the disk-like structures into vesicles upon heating allows tailoring of the assemblies' dimensions by extrusion through membrane filters with defined pore sizes. The magnetically alignable bicelles are regenerated by cooling to 5 °C, resulting in assembly dimensions defined by the vesicle precursors. Herein, this fabrication procedure is explained and the magnetic alignability of the assemblies is quantified by birefringence measurements under a 5.5 T magnetic field. The birefringence signal, originating from the phospholipid bilayer, further enables monitoring of polymolecular changes occurring in the bilayer. This simple technique is complementary to NMR experiments that are commonly employed to characterize bicelles.

  20. Cell signalling and phospholipid metabolism. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, W.F.

    1990-12-31

    These studies explored whether phosphoinositide (PI) has a role in plants analogous to its role in animal cells. Although no parallel activity of PI in signal transduction was found in plant cells, activity of inositol phospholipid kinase was found to be modulated by light and by cell wall degrading enzymes. These studies indicate a major role for inositol phospholipids in plant growth and development as membrane effectors but not as a source of second messengers.

  1. Raman Investigation of Temperature Profiles of Phospholipid Dispersions in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C.

    2015-06-01

    The temperature dependence of self-assembled, cell-like dispersions of phospholipids is investigated with Raman spectroscopy in the biochemistry laboratory. Vibrational modes in the hydrocarbon interiors of phospholipid bilayers are strongly Raman active, whereas the vibrations of the polar head groups and the water matrix have little Raman activity. From Raman spectra increases in fluidity of the hydrocarbon chains can be monitored with intensity changes as a function of temperature in the CH-stretching region. The experiment uses detection of scattered 1064-nm laser light (Nicolet NXR module) by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Nicolet 6700). A thermoelectric heater-cooler device (Melcor) gives convenient temperature control from 5 to 95°C for samples in melting point capillaries. Use of deuterium oxide instead of water as the matrix avoids some absorption of the exciting laser light and interference with intensity observations in the CH-stretching region. Phospholipids studied range from dimyristoylphosphotidyl choline (C14, transition T = 24°C) to dibehenoylphosphotidyl choline (C22, transition T = 74°C).

  2. Structure and motion of phospholipids in human plasma lipoproteins. A 31P NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, D.B.; Chana, R.S.; Parmar, Y.I.; Treleaven, W.D.; Cushley, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The structure and motion of phospholipids in human plasma lipoproteins have been studied by using 31 P NMR. Lateral diffusion coefficients, D T , obtained from the viscosity dependence of the 31 P NMR line widths, were obtained for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL 2 , HDL 3 ), and egg PC/TO microemulsions at 25 degree C, for VLDL at 40 degree C, and for LDL at 45 degree C. In order to prove the orientation and/or order of the phospholipid head-group, estimates of the residual chemical shift anistropy, Δσ, have been obtained for all the lipoproteins and the microemulsions from the viscosity and field dependence for the 31 P NMR line widths. These results suggest differences in the orientation and/or ordering of the head-group in the HDLs. The dynamic behavior of the phosphate moiety in LDL and HDL 3 has been obtained from the temperature dependence of the 31 P spin-lattice relaxation rates. Values of the correlation time for phosphate group reorientation and the activation energy for the motion are nearly identical in LDL and HDL 3 and are similar to values obtained for phospholipid bilayers. This argues against long-lived protein-lipid interactions being the source of either the slow diffusion in LDL or the altered head-group orientation in the HDLs

  3. The interaction of insulin with phospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M. C.; Tampion, W.; Lucy, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    1. A simple two-phase chloroform–aqueous buffer system was used to investigate the interaction of insulin with phospholipids and other amphipathic substances. 2. The distribution of 125I-labelled insulin in this system was determined after incubation at 37°C. Phosphatidic acid, dicetylphosphoric acid and, to a lesser extent, phosphatidylcholine and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solubilized 125I-labelled insulin in the chloroform phase, indicating the formation of chloroform-soluble insulin–phospholipid or insulin–amphipath complexes. Phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin, cholesterol, stearylamine and Triton X-100 were without effect. 3. Formation of insulin–phospholipid complex was confirmed by paper chromatography. 4. The two-phase system was adapted to act as a simple functional system with which to investigate possible effects of insulin on the structural and functional properties of phospholipid micelles in chloroform, by using the distribution of [14C]glucose between the two phases as a monitor of phospholipid–insulin interactions. The ability of phospholipids to solubilize [14C]glucose in chloroform increased in the order phosphatidylcholineInsulin decreased the [14C]glucose solubilized by phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid, but not by sphingomyelin. 5. The significance of these results and the molecular requirements for the formation of insulin–phospholipid complexes in chloroform are discussed. PMID:5158903

  4. How well does cholesteryl hemisuccinate mimic cholesterol in saturated phospholipid bilayers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, W.; Tynkkynen, J.; Javanainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesteryl hemisuccinate is a detergent that is often used to replace cholesterol in crystallization of membrane proteins. Here we employ atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to characterize how well the properties of cholesteryl hemisuccinate actually match those of cholesterol in saturated...... protein-free lipid membranes. We show that the protonated form of cholesteryl hemisuccinate mimics many of the membrane properties of cholesterol quite well, while the deprotonated form of cholesteryl hemisuccinate is less convincing in this respect. Based on the results, we suggest that cholesteryl...... hemisuccinate in its protonated form is a quite faithful mimic of cholesterol for membrane protein crystallization, if specific cholesterol-protein interactions (not investigated here) are not playing a crucial role....

  5. Study of the interaction of lactoferricin B with phospholipid monolayers and bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneault, Marjolaine; Bédard, Sarah; Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Pézolet, Michel

    2010-03-02

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is an antimicrobial peptide obtained from the pepsin cleavage of lactoferrin. The activity of LfcinB has been extensively studied on diverse pathogens, but its mechanism of action still has to be elucidated. Because of its nonspecificity, its mode of action is assumed to be related to interactions with membranes. In this study, the interaction of LfcinB with a negatively charged monolayer of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol has been investigated as a function of the surface pressure of the lipid film using in situ Brewster angle and polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy and on transferred monolayers by atomic force microscopy and polarized attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. The data show clearly that LfcinB forms stable films at the air-water interface. They also reveal that the interaction of LfcinB with the lipid monolayer is modulated by the surface pressure. At low surface pressure, LfcinB inserts within the lipid film with its long molecular axis oriented mainly parallel to the acyl chains, while at high surface pressure, LfcinB is adsorbed under the lipid film, the hairpin being preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the interface. The threshold for which the behavior changes is 20 mN/m. At this critical surface pressure, LfcinB interacts with the monolayer to form discoidal lipid-peptide assemblies. This structure may actually represent the mechanism of action of this peptide. The results obtained on monolayers are correlated by fluorescent probe release measurements of dye-containing vesicles made of lipids in different phases and support the important role of the lipid fluidity and packing on the activity of LfcinB.

  6. Antioxidant effect of 4-nerolidylcatechol and α-tocopherol in erythrocyte ghost membranes and phospholipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K.S.; Silva, A.H.M.; Mendanha, S.A.; Rezende, K.R.; Alonso, A.

    2013-01-01

    4-Nerolidylcatechol (4-NC) is found in Pothomorphe umbellata root extracts and is reported to have a topical protective effect against UVB radiation-induced skin damage, toxicity in melanoma cell lines, and antimalarial activity. We report a comparative study of the antioxidant activity of 4-NC and α-tocopherol against lipid peroxidation initiated by two free radical-generating systems: 2,2′-azobis(2-aminopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) and FeSO4/H2O2, in red blood cell ghost membranes and in egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles. Lipid peroxidation was monitored by membrane fluidity changes assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of a spin-labeled lipid and by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. When lipoperoxidation was initiated by the hydroxyl radical in erythrocyte ghost membranes, both 4-NC and α-tocopherol acted in a very efficient manner. However, lower activities were observed when lipoperoxidation was initiated by the peroxyl radical; and, in this case, the protective effect of α-tocopherol was lower than that of 4-NC. In egg PC vesicles, malondialdehyde formation indicated that 4-NC was effective against lipoperoxidation initiated by both AAPH and FeSO4/H2O2, whereas α-tocopherol was less efficient in protecting against lipoperoxidation by AAPH, and behaved as a pro-oxidant for FeSO4/H2O2. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical assay indicated that two free radicals were scavenged per 4-NC molecule, and one free radical was scavenged per α-tocopherol molecule. These data provide new insights into the antioxidant capacity of 4-NC, which may have therapeutic applications for formulations designed to protect the skin from sunlight irradiation. PMID:24068194

  7. Antioxidation behavior of milkweed oil 4-hydroxy-3-methyoxycinnamate esters in phospholipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkweed (Asclepia syriaca) has seed oil that is rich in polyunsaturated triacylglycerides that contain olefinic groups. The olefinic groups can be chemically oxidized to form either epoxy or polyhydroxy triacylglycerides that can be esterified with trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxoycinnamic acid, commonly...

  8. How well does cholesteryl hemisuccinate mimic cholesterol in saturated phospholipid bilayers?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulig, W.; Tynkkynen, J.; Javanainen, M.; Manna, M.; Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2014), 2121/1-2121/9 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cholesterol * detergent * molecular dynamics simulations * membrane elasticity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.736, year: 2014

  9. Undulating tubular liposomes through incorporation of a synthetic skin ceramide into phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Tan, Grace; Zhou, Jia; He, Jibao; Lawson, Louise B; McPherson, Gary L; John, Vijay T

    2009-09-15

    Nonspherical liposomes were prepared by doping L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (PC) with ceramide VI (a skin lipid). Cryo-transmission electron microscopy shows the liposome shape changing from spherical to an undulating tubular morphology, when the amount of ceramide VI is increased. The formation of tubular liposomes is energetically favorable and is attributed to the association of ceramide VI with PC creating regions of lower curvature. Since ceramides are the major component of skin lipids in the stratum corneum, tubular liposomes containing ceramide may potentially serve as self-enhanced nanocarriers for transdermal delivery.

  10. Antioxidant effect of 4-nerolidylcatechol and α-tocopherol in erythrocyte ghost membranes and phospholipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.S.; Silva, A.H.M.; Mendanha, S.A.; Rezende, K.R.; Alonso, A.

    2013-01-01

    4-Nerolidylcatechol (4-NC) is found in Pothomorphe umbellata root extracts and is reported to have a topical protective effect against UVB radiation-induced skin damage, toxicity in melanoma cell lines, and antimalarial activity. We report a comparative study of the antioxidant activity of 4-NC and α-tocopherol against lipid peroxidation initiated by two free radical-generating systems: 2,2′-azobis(2-aminopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) and FeSO 4 /H 2 O 2 , in red blood cell ghost membranes and in egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles. Lipid peroxidation was monitored by membrane fluidity changes assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of a spin-labeled lipid and by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. When lipoperoxidation was initiated by the hydroxyl radical in erythrocyte ghost membranes, both 4-NC and α-tocopherol acted in a very efficient manner. However, lower activities were observed when lipoperoxidation was initiated by the peroxyl radical; and, in this case, the protective effect of α-tocopherol was lower than that of 4-NC. In egg PC vesicles, malondialdehyde formation indicated that 4-NC was effective against lipoperoxidation initiated by both AAPH and FeSO 4 /H 2 O 2 , whereas α-tocopherol was less efficient in protecting against lipoperoxidation by AAPH, and behaved as a pro-oxidant for FeSO 4 /H 2 O 2 . The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical assay indicated that two free radicals were scavenged per 4-NC molecule, and one free radical was scavenged per α-tocopherol molecule. These data provide new insights into the antioxidant capacity of 4-NC, which may have therapeutic applications for formulations designed to protect the skin from sunlight irradiation

  11. Antioxidant effect of 4-nerolidylcatechol and α-tocopherol in erythrocyte ghost membranes and phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K. S.; Silva, A. H.M.; Mendanha, S. A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Rezende, K. R. [Laboratório de Biofarmácia e Farmacocinética de Substâncias Bioativas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Alonso, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2013-09-06

    4-Nerolidylcatechol (4-NC) is found in Pothomorphe umbellata root extracts and is reported to have a topical protective effect against UVB radiation-induced skin damage, toxicity in melanoma cell lines, and antimalarial activity. We report a comparative study of the antioxidant activity of 4-NC and α-tocopherol against lipid peroxidation initiated by two free radical-generating systems: 2,2′-azobis(2-aminopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) and FeSO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, in red blood cell ghost membranes and in egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles. Lipid peroxidation was monitored by membrane fluidity changes assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of a spin-labeled lipid and by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. When lipoperoxidation was initiated by the hydroxyl radical in erythrocyte ghost membranes, both 4-NC and α-tocopherol acted in a very efficient manner. However, lower activities were observed when lipoperoxidation was initiated by the peroxyl radical; and, in this case, the protective effect of α-tocopherol was lower than that of 4-NC. In egg PC vesicles, malondialdehyde formation indicated that 4-NC was effective against lipoperoxidation initiated by both AAPH and FeSO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, whereas α-tocopherol was less efficient in protecting against lipoperoxidation by AAPH, and behaved as a pro-oxidant for FeSO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical assay indicated that two free radicals were scavenged per 4-NC molecule, and one free radical was scavenged per α-tocopherol molecule. These data provide new insights into the antioxidant capacity of 4-NC, which may have therapeutic applications for formulations designed to protect the skin from sunlight irradiation.

  12. Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy combined with lifetime tuning: New perspectives in supported phospholipid bilayer research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, Aleš; Fagulová, Veronika; Deyneka, Alexander; Enderlain, J.; Hof, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 23 (2006), s. 9580-9585 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2308; GA MŠk LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : spectroscopy * fluorescence * FLCS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.902, year: 2006

  13. Solid-state NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement immersion depth studies in phospholipid bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Shidong; Maltsev, Sergey B.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Lorigan, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    A new approach for determining the membrane immersion depth of a spin-labeled probe has been developed using paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) in solid-state NMR spectroscopy. A DOXYL spin label was placed at different sites of 1-palmitoyl-2

  14. Autistic disorder and phospholipids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christine M; Austin, David W

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulated phospholipid metabolism has been proposed as an underlying biological component of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autistic disorder (AD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review provides an overview of fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism and evidence for phospholipid dysregulation with reference to the membrane hypothesis of schizophrenia. While there is evidence that phospholipid metabolism is at least impaired in individuals with AD, it has not been established whether phospholipid metabolism is implicated in causal, mechanistic or epiphenomenological models. More research is needed to ascertain whether breastfeeding, and specifically, the administration of colostrum or an adequate substitute can play a preventative role by supplying the neonate with essential fatty acids (EFAs) at a critical juncture in their development. Regarding treatment, further clinical trials of EFA supplementation are essential to determine the efficacy of EFAs in reducing AD symptomatology and whether supplementation can serve as a cost-effective and readily available intervention. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Granules Have no Phospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresan, Stephanie; Sznajder, Anna; Hauf, Waldemar; Forchhammer, Karl; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules, also designated as carbonosomes, are supra-molecular complexes in prokaryotes consisting of a PHB polymer core and a surface layer of structural and functional proteins. The presence of suspected phospholipids in the surface layer is based on in vitro data of isolated PHB granules and is often shown in cartoons of the PHB granule structure in reviews on PHB metabolism. However, the in vivo presence of a phospholipid layer has never been demonstrated. We addressed this topic by the expression of fusion proteins of DsRed2EC and other fluorescent proteins with the phospholipid-binding domain (LactC2) of lactadherin in three model organisms. The fusion proteins specifically localized at the cell membrane of Ralstonia eutropha but did not co-localize with PHB granules. The same result was obtained for Pseudomonas putida, a species that accumulates another type of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules related to PHB. Notably, DsRed2EC-LactC2 expressed in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense was detected at the position of membrane-enclosed magnetosome chains and at the cytoplasmic membrane but not at PHB granules. In conclusion, the carbonosomes of representatives of α-proteobacteria, β-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria have no phospholipids in vivo and we postulate that the PHB/PHA granule surface layers in natural producers generally are free of phospholipids and consist of proteins only. PMID:27222167

  16. Dynamics, Surface Electrostatics and Phase Properties of Nanoscale Curved Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolivand, Amir

    Surface electrostatic potential of a lipid bilayer governs many vital functions of living cells. Several classes of proteins are known of exhibiting strong binding preferences to curved lipid bilayer surfaces. In this project we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of a recently introduced phospholipid (IMTSL-PTE) bearing a pH-sensitive nitroxide covalently attached to the lipid head group to measure the surface electrostatics of the lipid membrane and nanopore-confined lipid bilayers as a function of the bilayer curvature. The pKa of the ionizable group of this lipid-based spin probe is reporting on the bilayer surface electrostatics potential by changes in the EPR spectra. Specifically, both rotational dynamics and magnetic parameters of the nitroxide are affected by the probe protonation. Effect of curvature on the surface electrostatic potential and dynamics of lipid bilayer was studied for POPG and DMPG unilamellar vesicles (ULVs). It was found that the magnitude of the negative surface electrostatic potential increased upon decrease in the vesicle diameter for the bilayers in the fluid phase; however, no significant changes were observed for DMPG ULVs in a gel phase. We speculate that biologically relevant fluid bilayer phase allows for a larger variability in the lipid packing density in the lipid polar head group region than a more ordered gel phase and it is likely that the lipid flip-flop is responsible for pH equilibration of IMTSL-PTE. The kinetic EPR study of nitroxide reduction showed that the rate of flip-flop is in the order of 10-5 s-1. The flip-flop rate constant increases when vesicle size deceases. Oxygen permeability measured by X-ban EPR decreases in higher curved vesicles---an observation that is consistent with a tighter packing in smaller vesicles. Partitioning of a small nitroxide molecule TEMPO into ULVs was measured by X-band (9 GHz) and W-band (95 GHz) EPR spectroscopy. The partitioning coefficient of this probe in the lipid

  17. Influence of (phospho)lipases on properties of mica supported phospholipid layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurak, Malgorzata, E-mail: mjurak@interia.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry-Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Sq. 2, 20031 Lublin (Poland); Chibowski, Emil [Department of Physical Chemistry-Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Sq. 2, 20031 Lublin (Poland)

    2010-08-15

    The effect of enzymes: lipase from Candida cylindracea (L{sub Cc}), phospholipase A{sub 2} from hog pancreas (PLA{sub 2}) and phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus (PLC) to modulate wetting properties of solid supported phospholipid bilayers was studied via advancing and receding contact angle measurements of water, formamide and diiodomethane, and calculation of the surface free energy and its components from van Oss et al. (LWAB) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) approaches. Simultaneously, topography of the studied layers was determined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The investigated lipid bilayers were transferred on mica plates from subphase of pure water by means of Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer techniques. The investigated phospolipid layers were: saturated DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), unsaturated DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), and their mixture DPPC/DOPC. The obtained results revealed that the lipid membrane degradation by the enzymes caused increase in its surface free energy due to the amphiphilic hydrolysis products, which may accumulate in the lipid bilayer. In result activity of the enzymes may increase and then break down the bilayer structure takes place. It is likely that after dissolution of the hydrolysis reaction products in the bulk phase, patches of bare mica surface are accessible, which contribute to the apparent surface free energy changes. Comparison of AFM images and the free energy changes of the layers gives better insight into changes of their properties. The observed gradual increase in the layer surface free energy allows controlling of the hydrolysis process to obtain the surfaces of defined properties.

  18. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  19. Storage stability of marine phospholipids emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    Marine phospholipids (MPL) are believed to provide more advantages than fish oil from the same source. They are considered to have a better bioavailability, a better resistance towards oxidation and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic...... acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of using marine phospholipids emulsions as delivery system through investigation of the physical, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL emulsions with or without addition of fish oil....... The effect of initial Peroxide Value, total lipids, phospholipids and antioxidants content on stability of MPL emulsions were studied. The physical stability was investigated through measurement of particle size distribution and creaming stability, which involve measurement of changes (%) in emulsion volume...

  20. Electronic transport in bilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshino, Mikito

    2009-01-01

    We present theoretical studies on the transport properties and localization effects of bilayer graphene. We calculate the conductivity by using the effective mass model with the self-consistent Born approximation, in the presence and absence of an energy gap opened by the interlayer asymmetry. We find that, in the absence of the gap, the minimum conductivity approaches the universal value by increasing the disorder potential, and the value is robust in the strong disorder regime where mixing with high-energy states is considerable. The gap-opening suppresses the conductivity over a wide energy range, even in the region away from the gap.We also study the localization effects in the vicinity of zero energy in bilayer graphene. We find that the states are all localized in the absence of the gap, while the gap-opening causes a phase transition analogous to the quantum Hall transition, which is accompanied by electron delocalization.

  1. Cyclotron resonance in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, E A; Jiang, Z; Tung, L-C; Schwartz, M E; Takita, M; Wang, Y-J; Kim, P; Stormer, H L

    2008-02-29

    We present the first measurements of cyclotron resonance of electrons and holes in bilayer graphene. In magnetic fields up to B=18 T, we observe four distinct intraband transitions in both the conduction and valence bands. The transition energies are roughly linear in B between the lowest Landau levels, whereas they follow square root[B] for the higher transitions. This highly unusual behavior represents a change from a parabolic to a linear energy dispersion. The density of states derived from our data generally agrees with the existing lowest order tight binding calculation for bilayer graphene. However, in comparing data to theory, a single set of fitting parameters fails to describe the experimental results.

  2. Proton permeation of lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamer, D W

    1987-10-01

    Proton permeation of the lipid bilayer barrier has two unique features. First, permeability coefficients measured at neutral pH ranges are six to seven orders of magnitude greater than expected from knowledge of other monovalent cations. Second, proton conductance across planar lipid bilayers varies at most by a factor of 10 when pH is varied from near 1 to near 11. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this anomalous behavior: proton conductance related to contaminants of lipid bilayers, and proton translocation along transient hydrogen-bonded chains (tHBC) of associated water molecules in the membrane. The weight of evidence suggests that trace contaminants may contribute to proton conductance across planar lipid membranes at certain pH ranges, but cannot account for the anomalous proton flux in liposome systems. Two new results will be reported here which were designed to test the tHBC model. These include measurements of relative proton/potassium permeability in the gramicidin channel, and plots of proton flux against the magnitude of pH gradients. (1) The relative permeabilities of protons and potassium through the gramicidin channel, which contains a single strand of hydrogen-bonded water molecules, were found to differ by at least four orders of magnitude when measured at neutral pH ranges. This result demonstrates that a hydrogen-bonded chain of water molecules can provide substantial discrimination between protons and other cations. It was also possible to calculate that if approximately 7% of bilayer water was present in a transient configuration similar to that of the gramicidin channel, it could account for the measured proton flux. (2) The plot of proton conductance against pH gradient across liposome membranes was superlinear, a result that is consistent with one of three alternative tHBC models for proton conductance described by Nagle elsewhere in this volume.

  3. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Baj, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant...... capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). ¹H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin...

  4. Softening of phospholipid membranes by the adhesion of silica nanoparticles - as seen by neutron spin-echo (NSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Ingo; Michel, Raphael; Sharp, Melissa; Holderer, Olaf; Appavou, Marie-Sousai; Polzer, Frank; Farago, Bela; Gradzielski, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The interactions between nanoparticles and vesicles are of significant interest both from a fundamental as well as from a practical point of view, as vesicles can serve as a model system for cell membranes. Accordingly the effect of nanoparticles that bind to the vesicle bilayer is very important with respect to understanding their biological impact and also may shed some light on the mechanisms behind the effect of nanotoxicity. In this study we have investigated the influence of small adsorbed silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) on the structure of zwitterionic DOPC vesicles. By a combination of SANS, cryo-TEM, and DLS, we observed that the SiNPs are bound to the outer vesicle surface without significantly affecting the vesicle structure. Most interestingly, by means of neutron spin-echo (NSE) local bilayer fluctuations were studied and one finds a small but marked decrease of the membrane rigidity upon binding of the nanoparticles. This surprising finding may be a relevant aspect for the further understanding of the effects that nanoparticles have on phospholipid bilayers.The interactions between nanoparticles and vesicles are of significant interest both from a fundamental as well as from a practical point of view, as vesicles can serve as a model system for cell membranes. Accordingly the effect of nanoparticles that bind to the vesicle bilayer is very important with respect to understanding their biological impact and also may shed some light on the mechanisms behind the effect of nanotoxicity. In this study we have investigated the influence of small adsorbed silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) on the structure of zwitterionic DOPC vesicles. By a combination of SANS, cryo-TEM, and DLS, we observed that the SiNPs are bound to the outer vesicle surface without significantly affecting the vesicle structure. Most interestingly, by means of neutron spin-echo (NSE) local bilayer fluctuations were studied and one finds a small but marked decrease of the membrane rigidity upon

  5. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of a phospholipid membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberts, Egbert; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Berendsen, Herman J.C.

    We present the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a phospholipid membrane in water, including full atomic detail. The goal of the simulations was twofold: first we wanted to set up a simulation system which is able to reproduce experimental results and can serve as a model membrane in

  7. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    NUMBER Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...suspected of alcohol abuse. Toxicol Lett, 151(1), 235-241. Graham, D. P., Cardon , A. L., & Uhl, G. R. (2008). An update on substance use and treatment

  8. Enzymatic modification of phospholipids forfunctional applications and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Vikbjerg, Anders / Falk; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    analogs based on the latest understanding of pivotal role of phospholipids in manifold biological processes, exploration of remarkable application potentials of phospholipids in meliorating human health, as well as development of new chemical and biotechnological approaches applied to the modification...... design. This will of course provide fundamental bases also for the development of enzymatic technology to produce structured or modified phospholipids....

  9. Synthesis of magnetic Fe sub 3 O sub 4 particles covered with a modifiable phospholipid coat

    CERN Document Server

    Cuyper, M D; Lueken, H; Hodenius, M

    2003-01-01

    This work reports the synthesis of iron oxide cores by coprecipitation of Fe sup 2 sup + and Fe sup 3 sup + ions with NaHCO sub 3 or NH sub 3. Depending on the experimental conditions, particles of two different sizes (13 or 130 nm diameter) were produced. X-ray diffractometry revealed Fe sub 3 O sub 4 (magnetite) to be the main constituent. The smaller particles, which, in contrast to the larger ones, are superparamagnetic, were stabilized with a phospholipid bilayer consisting of a 9:1 molar ratio of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol, thereby creating so-called magnetoliposomes. In a subsequent step, poly(ethylene glycol)-(PEG-) derivatized dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine was introduced into the lipid envelope by incubating the magnetoliposomes with pre-formed sonicated vesicles containing the PEGylated lipid. The mechanism by which lipid transfer occurred was determined from the kinetic profiles. The relevance of these observations to a wide range of biomedical applicat...

  10. Growth and instability of a phospholipid vesicle in a bath of fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, J.; Noireaux, V.; Libchaber, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Using a microfluidic trap, we study the behavior of individual phospholipid vesicles in contact with fatty acids. We show that spontaneous fatty acids insertion inside the bilayer is controlled by the vesicle size, osmotic pressure difference across the membrane and fatty acids concentration in the external bath. Depending on these parameters, vesicles can grow spherically or become unstable and fragment into several daughter vesicles. We establish the phase diagram for vesicle growth and we derive a simple thermodynamic model that reproduces the time evolution of the vesicle volume. Finally, we show that stable growth can be achieved on an artificial cell expressing a simple set of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, paving the way toward artificial cell reproduction.

  11. Understanding the Enhanced Magnetic Response of Aminocholesterol Doped Lanthanide-Ion-Chelating Phospholipid Bicelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Massabni, Sarah; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Schuler, Lukas D; Walde, Peter; Sturm, Marina; Windhab, Erich J; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2017-08-29

    Cholesterol (Chol-OH) and its conjugates are powerful molecules for engineering the physicochemical and magnetic properties of phospholipid bilayers in bicelles. Introduction of aminocholesterol (3β-amino-5-cholestene, Chol-NH 2 ) in bicelles composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and the thulium-ion-chelating phospholipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA/Tm 3+ ) results in unprecedented high magnetic alignments by selectively tuning the magnetic susceptibility Δχ of the bilayer. However, little is known on the underlying mechanisms behind the magnetic response and, more generally, on the physicochemical forces governing a Chol-NH 2 doped DMPC bilayer. We tackled this shortcoming with a multiscale bottom-up comparative investigation of Chol-OH and Chol-NH 2 mixed with DMPC. First, simplified monolayer models on a Langmuir trough were employed to compare the two steroid molecules at various contents in DMPC. In a second step, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation allowed for a more representative model of the bicelle bilayer while monitoring the amphiphiles and their interactions on the molecular level. In a final step, we moved away from the models and investigated the effect of temperature on the structure and magnetic alignment of Chol-NH 2 doped bicelles by SANS. The DMPC/steroid monolayer studies showed that Chol-OH induces a larger condensation effect than Chol-NH 2 at steroid contents of 16 and 20 mol %. However, this tendency was inversed at steroid contents of 10, 30, and 40 mol %. Although the MD simulation with 16 mol % steroid revealed that both compounds induce a liquid-ordered state in DMPC, the bilayer containing Chol-NH 2 was much less ordered than the analogous system containing Chol-OH. Chol-NH 2 underwent significantly more hydrogen bonding interactions with neighboring DMPC lipids than Chol-OH. It seems that, by altering the dynamics of the hydrophilic

  12. Methods for Generating Highly Magnetically Responsive Lanthanide-Chelating Phospholipid Polymolecular Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Baumgartner, Mirjam E; Reckey, Pernille Q; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Ishikawa, Takashi; Fischer, Peter; Windhab, Erich J; Kuster, Simon

    2017-06-27

    Mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and its lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ ) chelating phospholipid conjugate, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA), assemble into highly magnetically responsive polymolecular assemblies such as DMPC/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 4:1:1) bicelles. Their geometry and magnetic alignability is enhanced by introducing cholesterol into the bilayer in DMPC/Cholesterol/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 16:4:5:5). However, the reported fabrication procedures remain tedious and limit the generation of highly magnetically alignable species. Herein, a simplified procedure where freeze thawing cycles and extrusion are replaced by gentle heating and cooling cycles for the hydration of the dry lipid film was developed. Heating above the phase transition temperature T m of the lipids composing the bilayer before cooling back below the T m was essential to guarantee successful formation of the polymolecular assemblies composed of DMPC/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 4:1:1). Planar polymolecular assemblies in the size range of hundreds of nanometers are achieved and deliver unprecedented gains in magnetic response. The proposed heating and cooling procedure further allowed to regenerate the highly magnetically alignable DMPC/Cholesterol/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 16:4:5:5) species after storage for one month frozen at -18 °C. The simplicity and viability of the proposed fabrication procedure offers a new set of highly magnetically responsive lanthanide ion chelating phospholipid polymolecular assemblies as building blocks for the smart soft materials of tomorrow.

  13. Saturated fatty acid in the phospholipid monolayer contributes to the formation of large lipid droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, Kotoko; Mitsudome, Haruka; Yoshida, Konomi; Sugimoto, Shizuka; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Fujiwara, Yoko; Ichi, Ikuyo

    2016-01-01

    The degree of saturation of fatty acid chains in the bilayer membrane structure is known to control membrane fluidity and packing density. However, the significance of fatty acid composition in the monolayers of lipid droplets (LDs) has not been elucidated. In this study, we noted a relationship between the size of LDs and the fatty acid composition of the monolayer. To obtain large LDs, we generated NIH3T3 cells overexpressing fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27). This induced the fusion of LDs, resulting in larger LDs in FSP27-overexpressing cells compared with LDs in control cells. Moreover, the lipid extracts of LDs from FSP27-overexpressing cells reconstituted large-droplet emulsions in vitro, implying that the lipid properties of LDs might affect the size of LDs. FSP27-overexpressing cells had more saturated fatty acids in the phospholipid monolayer of the LDs compared with control cells. To further investigate the effects of the degree of phospholipid unsaturation on the size of LDs, we synthesized artificial emulsions of a lipid mixed with distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC, diC18:0-PC) and with dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC, diC18:1n-9-PC) and compared the sizes of the resulting LDs. The emulsions prepared from saturated PC had larger droplets than those prepared from unsaturated PC. Our results suggest that saturated fatty acid chains in phospholipid monolayers might establish the form and/or stability of large LDs. - Highlights: • The lipid extracts of larger LDs from FSP27 cells reconstructed large-droplet emulsions. • Isolated LDs from FSP27 cells had more saturated fatty acids in the phospholipid monolayer compared with the control. • Saturated fatty acids in the phospholipid monolayer are a factor in the formation of large emulsions.

  14. Nanoparticle self-assembly in mixtures of phospholipids with styrene/maleic acid copolymers or fluorinated surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carolyn; Arenas, Rodrigo Cuevas; Frotscher, Erik; Keller, Sandro

    2015-12-01

    Self-assembling nanostructures in aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming surfactants are relevant to in vitro studies on biological and synthetic membranes and membrane proteins. Considerable efforts are currently underway to replace conventional detergents by milder alternatives such as styrene/maleic acid (SMA) copolymers and fluorinated surfactants. However, these compounds and their nanosized assemblies remain poorly understood as regards their interactions with lipid membranes, particularly, the thermodynamics of membrane partitioning and solubilisation. Using 19F and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, static and dynamic light scattering, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have systematically investigated the aggregational state of a zwitterionic bilayer-forming phospholipid upon exposure to an SMA polymer with a styrene/maleic acid ratio of 3 : 1 or to a fluorinated octyl phosphocholine derivative called F6OPC. The lipid interactions of SMA(3 : 1) and F6OPC can be thermodynamically conceptualised within the framework of a three-stage model that treats bilayer vesicles, discoidal or micellar nanostructures, and the aqueous solution as distinct pseudophases. The exceptional solubilising power of SMA(3 : 1) is reflected in very low membrane-saturating and solubilising polymer/lipid molar ratios of 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. Although F6OPC saturates bilayers at an even lower molar ratio of 0.031, this nondetergent does not solubilise lipids even at >1000-fold molar excess, thus highlighting fundamental differences between these two types of mild membrane-mimetic systems. We rationalise these findings in terms of a new classification of surfactants based on bilayer-to-micelle transfer free energies and discuss practical implications for membrane-protein research.Self-assembling nanostructures in aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming surfactants are relevant to in vitro studies on biological and

  15. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana C; Baj, Vanessa; Beeren, Sophie R; Chronakis, Ioannis S

    2017-10-17

    Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). ¹H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin within phospholipid fibers. Release studies in aqueous media revealed that the phenolic bioactives were released mainly due to swelling of the phospholipid fiber matrix over time. The above studies confirm the efficacy of electrospun phospholipid microfibers as encapsulation and antioxidant systems.

  16. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhamalsadat Shekarforoush

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC and the total phenolic content (TPC of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient and pressures (vacuum, ambient. 1H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin within phospholipid fibers. Release studies in aqueous media revealed that the phenolic bioactives were released mainly due to swelling of the phospholipid fiber matrix over time. The above studies confirm the efficacy of electrospun phospholipid microfibers as encapsulation and antioxidant systems.

  17. Influence of membrane phospholipid composition and structural organization on spontaneous lipid transfer between membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, R; Markovska, T; Antonov, P; Ivanova, L; Momchilova, A

    2006-09-01

    Investigations were carried out on the influence of phospholipid composition of model membranes on the processes of spontaneous lipid transfer between membranes. Acceptor vesicles were prepared from phospholipids extracted from plasma membranes of control and ras-transformed fibroblasts. Acceptor model membranes with manipulated levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin and phosphatidic acid were also used in the studies. Donor vesicles were prepared of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and contained two fluorescent lipid analogues, NBD-PC and N-Rh-PE, at a self-quenching concentration. Lipid transfer rate was assessed by measuring the increase of fluorescence in acceptor membranes due to transfer of fluorescent lipid analogues from quenched donor to unquenched acceptor vesicles. The results showed that spontaneous NBD-PC transfer increased upon fluidization of acceptor vesicles. In addition, elevation of PE concentration in model membranes was also accompanied by an increase of lipid transfer to all series of acceptor vesicles. The results are discussed with respect to the role of lipid composition and structural order of cellular plasma membranes in the processes of spontaneous lipid exchange between membrane bilayers.

  18. The herpes simplex virus 1 U{sub S}3 regulates phospholipid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Peter, E-mail: pewild@access.uzh.ch [Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Oliveira, Anna Paula de [Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Sonda, Sabrina [Institute for Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Schraner, Elisabeth M. [Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Ackermann, Mathias; Tobler, Kurt [Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear and Golgi membranes for envelopment by phospholipid bilayers. In the absence of U{sub S}3, nuclear membranes form multiple folds harboring virions that suggests disturbance in membrane turnover. Therefore, we investigated phospholipid metabolism in cells infected with the U{sub S}3 deletion mutant R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), and quantified membranes involved in viral envelopment. We report that (i) [{sup 3}H]-choline incorporation into nuclear membranes and cytoplasmic membranes was enhanced peaking at 12 or 20 h post inoculation with wild type HSV-1 and R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), respectively, (ii) the surface area of nuclear membranes increased until 24 h of R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection forming folds that equaled {approx}45% of the nuclear surface, (iii) the surface area of viral envelopes between nuclear membranes equaled {approx}2400 R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) virions per cell, and (iv) during R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection, the Golgi complex expanded dramatically. The data indicate that U{sub S}3 plays a significant role in regulation of membrane biosynthesis.

  19. Temperature-induced changes in lecithin model membranes detected by novel covalent spin-labelled phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhne-Sekalec, L; Stanacev, N Z

    1977-02-01

    Several spin-labelled phospholipids carrying covalently bound 5-doxylstearic acid (2-(3-carboxydecyl)-2-hexyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinoxyl) were intercalated in liposomes of saturated and unsaturated lecithins. Temperature-induced changes of these liposomes, detected by the spin-labelled phospholipids, were found to be in agreement with the previously described transitions of hydrocarbon chains of host lecithins detected by different probes and different techniques, establishing that spin-labelled phosopholipids are sensitive probes for the detection of temperature-induced changes in lecithin model membranes. In addition to the detection of already-known transitions in lecithin liposomes, the coexistence of two distinctly different enviroments was observed above the characteristic transition temperature. This phenomenon was tentatively attributed to the influence of the lecithin polar group on the fluidity of fatty acyl chains near the polar group. Combined with other results from the literature, the coexistence of two environments could be associated with the coexistence of two conformational isomers of lecithin, differing in the orientation of the polar head group with respect to the plane of bilayer. These findings have been discussed in view of the present state of knowledge regarding temperature-induced changes in model membranes.

  20. Radiation-induced polymerization of unsaturated phospholipid mixtures for the synthesis of artificial red cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, F.; Omichi, H.; Akama, K.; Awai, K.; Endo, S.; Nakano, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Radiation induced polymerization of phospholipid containing unsaturated acyl chains was applied to the synthesis of artificial red cells. Vesicles of 1,2-bis-(2,4-octadecadienoyl)-phosphatidylcholine (DODPC) and 1-stearoyl-2-(2,4-octadecadienoyl)-phosphatidylcholine (AODPC) were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays to obtain polymerized bilayer structure of these monomers. It was found that the polymerization of unsaturated groups located at 2-acyl chain of DODPC polymerized faster than those of AODPC. The difference was explained by the packed state of these monomers in the bilayer vesicles. The artificial red cell was obtained by irradiating the mixture of DODPC or AODPC with hemoglobin, cholesterol and palmitic acid sodium salt. The integrity of the irradiated hemoglobin in the vesicle was maintained by keeping the suspended solution at low temperature. On the other hand, oxidation of heme part became remarkable when the vesicle was kept at 37°C. The presence of extra hemoglobin outside the vesicle was found useful to prevent this oxidation.

  1. Fragmented state of lipid bilayers in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helfrich, W.; Thimmel, J.; Klösgen, Beate Maria

    1999-01-01

    The bilayers of some typical biological membrane lipids such as PC and DGDG disintegrate in a large excess of water to form an optically invisible dispersive bilayer phase. `Dark bodies' can be reversibly precipitated from it by raising the temperature. The dispersive phase probably consists...

  2. Alcohol's Effects on Lipid Bilayer Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohols are known modulators of lipid bilayer properties. Their biological effects have long been attributed to their bilayer-modifying effects, but alcohols can also alter protein function through direct protein interactions. This raises the question: Do alcohol's biological actions result predominantly from direct protein-alcohol interactions or from general changes in the membrane properties? The efficacy of alcohols of various chain lengths tends to exhibit a so-called cutoff effect (i.e., increasing potency with increased chain length, which that eventually levels off). The cutoff varies depending on the assay, and numerous mechanisms have been proposed such as: limited size of the alcohol-protein interaction site, limited alcohol solubility, and a chain-length-dependent lipid bilayer-alcohol interaction. To address these issues, we determined the bilayer-modifying potency of 27 aliphatic alcohols using a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay. All of the alcohols tested (with chain lengths of 1–16 carbons) alter the bilayer properties, as sensed by a bilayer-spanning channel. The bilayer-modifying potency of the short-chain alcohols scales linearly with their bilayer partitioning; the potency tapers off at higher chain lengths, and eventually changes sign for the longest-chain alcohols, demonstrating an alcohol cutoff effect in a system that has no alcohol-binding pocket. PMID:21843475

  3. DNA nanotechnology: Bringing lipid bilayers into shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howorka, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Lipid bilayers form the thin and floppy membranes that define the boundary of compartments such as cells. Now, a method to control the shape and size of bilayers using DNA nanoscaffolds has been developed. Such designer materials advance synthetic biology and could find use in membrane research.

  4. Formation of supported lipid bilayers containing phase-segregated domains and their interaction with gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melby, Eric S.; Mensch, Arielle C.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Murphy, Catherine J.; Hamers, Robert J.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    The cell membrane represents an important biological interface that nanoparticles may encounter after being released into the environment. Interaction of nanoparticles with cellular membranes may alter membrane structure and function, lead to their uptake into cells, and elicit adverse biological responses. Supported lipid bilayers have proven to be valuable ex vivo models for biological membranes, allowing investigation of their mechanisms of interaction with nanoparticles with a degree of control impossible in living cells. To date, the majority of research on nanoparticle interaction with supported lipid bilayers has employed membranes composed of single or binary mixtures of phospholipids. Cellular membranes contain a wide variety of lipids and exhibit lateral organization. Ordered membrane domains enriched in specific membrane components are referred to as lipid rafts and have not been explored with respect to their interaction with nanoparticles. Here we develop model lipid raft-containing membranes amenable to investigation by a variety of surface-sensitive analytical techniques and demonstrate that lipid rafts influence the extent of nanoparticle attachment to model membranes. We determined conditions that allow reliable formation of bilayers containing rafts enriched in sphingomyelin and cholesterol and confirmed their morphology by structured illumination and atomic force microscopies. We demonstrate that lipid rafts increase attachment of cationic gold nanoparticles to model membranes under near physiological ionic strength conditions (0.1 M NaCl) at pH 7.4. We anticipate that these results will serve as the foundation for and motivate further study of nanoparticle interaction with compositionally varied lipid rafts.

  5. Bacillus subtilis alters the proportion of major membrane phospholipids in response to surfactin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttlová, Petra; Pinkas, Dominik; Bechyňková, Olga; Fišer, Radovan; Svobodová, Jaroslava; Seydlová, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Surfactin, an anionic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, is an antimicrobial that targets the cytoplasmic membrane. Nowadays it appears increasingly apparent that the mechanism of resistance against these types of antibiotics consists of target site modification. This prompted us to investigate whether the surfactin non-producing strain B. subtilis 168 changes its membrane composition in response to a sublethal surfactin concentration. Here we show that the exposure of B. subtilis to surfactin at concentrations of 350 and 650 μg/ml (designated as SF350 and SF650, respectively) leads to a concentration-dependent growth arrest followed by regrowth with an altered growth rate. Analysis of the membrane lipid composition revealed modifications both in the polar head group and the fatty acid region. The presence of either surfactin concentration resulted in a reduction in the content of the major membrane phospholipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and increase in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which was accompanied by elevated levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) in SF350 cultures. The fatty acid analysis of SF350 cells showed a marked increase in non-branched high-melting fatty acids, which lowered the fluidity of the membrane interior measured as the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of DPH. The liposome leakage of carboxyfluorescein-loaded vesicles resembling the phospholipid composition of surfactin-adapted cells showed that the susceptibility to surfactin-induced leakage is strongly reduced when the PG/PE ratio decreases and/or PA is included in the target bilayer. We concluded that the modifications of the phospholipid content of B. subtilis cells might provide a self-tolerance of the membrane active surfactin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic shaping of cellular membranes by phospholipids and membrane-deforming proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Shiro; Kurisu, Shusaku; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2014-10-01

    All cellular compartments are separated from the external environment by a membrane, which consists of a lipid bilayer. Subcellular structures, including clathrin-coated pits, caveolae, filopodia, lamellipodia, podosomes, and other intracellular membrane systems, are molded into their specific submicron-scale shapes through various mechanisms. Cells construct their micro-structures on plasma membrane and execute vital functions for life, such as cell migration, cell division, endocytosis, exocytosis, and cytoskeletal regulation. The plasma membrane, rich in anionic phospholipids, utilizes the electrostatic nature of the lipids, specifically the phosphoinositides, to form interactions with cytosolic proteins. These cytosolic proteins have three modes of interaction: 1) electrostatic interaction through unstructured polycationic regions, 2) through structured phosphoinositide-specific binding domains, and 3) through structured domains that bind the membrane without specificity for particular phospholipid. Among the structured domains, there are several that have membrane-deforming activity, which is essential for the formation of concave or convex membrane curvature. These domains include the amphipathic helix, which deforms the membrane by hemi-insertion of the helix with both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, and/or the BAR domain superfamily, known to use their positively charged, curved structural surface to deform membranes. Below the membrane, actin filaments support the micro-structures through interactions with several BAR proteins as well as other scaffold proteins, resulting in outward and inward membrane micro-structure formation. Here, we describe the characteristics of phospholipids, and the mechanisms utilized by phosphoinositides to regulate cellular events. We then summarize the precise mechanisms underlying the construction of membrane micro-structures and their involvements in physiological and pathological processes. Copyright © 2014 the

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of short-chain lecithin/long-chain phospholipid unilamellar vesicles: sensitivity of phospholipases to matrix phase state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, N E; Agman, N V; Roberts, M F

    1987-11-17

    Short-chain lecithin/long-chain phospholipid unilamellar vesicles (SLUVs), unlike pure long-chain lecithin vesicles, are excellent substrates for water-soluble phospholipases. Hemolysis assays show that greater than 99.5% of the short-chain lecithin is partitioned in the bilayer. In these binary component vesicles, the short-chain species is the preferred substrate, while the long-chain phospholipid can be treated as an inhibitor (phospholipase C) or poor substrate (phospholipase A2). For phospholipase C Bacillus cereus, apparent Km and Vmax values show that bilayer-solubilized diheptanoylphosphatidylcholine (diheptanoyl-PC) is nearly as good a substrate as pure micellar diheptanoyl-PC, although the extent of short-chain lecithin hydrolysis depends on the phase state of the long-chain lipid. For phospholipase A2 Naja naja naja, both Km and Vmax values show a greater range: in a gel-state matrix, diheptanoyl-PC is hydrolyzed with micellelike kinetic parameters; in a liquid-crystalline matrix, the short-chain lecithin becomes comparable to the long-chain component. Both enzymes also show an anomalous increase in specific activity toward diheptanoyl-PC around the phase transition temperature of the long-chain phospholipid. Since the short-chain lecithin does not exhibit a phase transition, this must reflect fluctuations in head-group area or vertical motions of the short-chain lecithin caused by surrounding long-chain lecithin molecules. These results are discussed in terms of a specific model for SLUV hydrolysis and a general explanation for the "interfacial activation" observed with water-soluble phospholipases.

  8. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    is designed to evaluate the utility of levels of two phospholipids in serum as a marker of past drinking behavior across month- level time horizons...in an attempt to improve ability to measure alcohol quantity consumed and associated damage better than can be done with ethyl alcohol level measures...and other existing tests that only measure very recent exposure and poorly reflect quantity consumed . This will be achieved by correlating detailed

  9. Amphotericin B channels in phospholipid membrane-coated nanoporous silicon surfaces: implications for photovoltaic driving of ions across membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilma, Solomon; Liu, Nangou; Samoylov, Alexander; Lo, Ting; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2007-03-15

    The antimycotic agent amphotericin B (AmB) functions by forming complexes with sterols to form ion channels that cause membrane leakage. When AmB and cholesterol mixed at 2:1 ratio were incorporated into phospholipid bilayer membranes formed on the tip of patch pipettes, ion channel current fluctuations with characteristic open and closed states were observed. These channels were also functional in phospholipid membranes formed on nanoporous silicon surfaces. Electrophysiological studies of AmB-cholesterol mixtures that were incorporated into phospholipid membranes formed on the surface of nanoporous (6.5 nm pore diameter) silicon plates revealed large conductance ion channels ( approximately 300 pS) with distinct open and closed states. Currents through the AmB-cholesterol channels on nanoporous silicon surfaces can be driven by voltage applied via conventional electrical circuits or by photovoltaic electrical potential entirely generated when the nanoporous silicon surface is illuminated with a narrow laser beam. Electrical recordings made during laser illumination of AmB-cholesterol containing membrane-coated nanoporous silicon surfaces revealed very large conductance ion channels with distinct open and closed states. Our findings indicate that nanoporous silicon surfaces can serve as mediums for ion-channel-based biosensors. The photovoltaic properties of nanoporous silicon surfaces show great promise for making such biosensors addressable via optical technologies.

  10. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; E.Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Samorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong

    2011-01-24

    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO2-Pt and Pt-SiO2, can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO2-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H2, which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO2 interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts

  11. Neutron diffraction on polymorphic phases of phospholipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tomohiro; Furusaka, Michihiro; Otomo, Toshiya; Hatta, Ichiro

    2001-01-01

    Small angle neutron diffraction experiments were performed in DPPC and DPPC/cholesterol systems. We investigated the DPPC-d62 bilayers without cholesterol and the DPPC-d75 bilayers with 5 and 15 mol% cholesterol. For DPPC-d62 systems, in the gel and fluid phase, the reflections up to third order from lamellar structure were observed. Scattering length density profiles of these systems were generated. They show that the packing density of hydrocarbon chain in gel phase is higher than in fluid phase. We show that the neutron diffraction experiment is effective on observing the packing and the scattering length density of the hydrocarbon chain. On the other hand, for DPPC-d75/cholesterol systems, only the reflection from the ripple structure was observed. It shows that cholesterol is periodically localized in accordance with ripple structure forming a periodic bandlike structure parallel to a ridge of the ripple structure. (author)

  12. Microfluidic passive permeability assay using nanoliter droplet interface lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisisako, Takasi; Portonovo, Shiva A; Schmidt, Jacob J

    2013-11-21

    Membrane permeability assays play an important role in assessing drug transport activities across biological membranes. However, in conventional parallel artificial membrane permeability assays (PAMPA), the membrane model used is dissimilar to biological membranes physically and chemically. Here, we describe a microfluidic passive permeability assay using droplet interface bilayers (DIBs). In a microfluidic network, nanoliter-sized donor and acceptor aqueous droplets are alternately formed in cross-flowing oil containing phospholipids. Subsequently, selective removal of oil through hydrophobic pseudo-porous sidewalls induces the contact of the lipid monolayers, creating arrayed planar DIBs between the donor and acceptor droplets. Permeation of fluorescein from the donor to the acceptor droplets was fluorometrically measured. From the measured data and a simple diffusion model we calculated the effective permeabilities of 5.1 × 10(-6) cm s(-1), 60.0 × 10(-6) cm s(-1), and 87.6 × 10(-6) cm s(-1) with donor droplets at pH values of 7.5, 6.4 and 5.4, respectively. The intrinsic permeabilities of specific monoanionic and neutral fluorescein species were obtained similarly. We also measured the permeation of caffeine in 10 min using UV microspectroscopy, obtaining a permeability of 20.8 × 10(-6) cm s(-1). With the small solution volumes, short measurement time, and ability to measure a wide range of compounds, this device has considerable potential as a platform for high-throughput drug permeability assays.

  13. Steady-state oxidation of cholesterol catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase in lipid bilayer membranes on platinum electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokoch, Michael P.; Devadoss, Anando; Palencsar, Mariela S.; Burgess, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase is immobilized in electrode-supported lipid bilayer membranes. Platinum electrodes are initially modified with a self-assembled monolayer of thiolipid. A vesicle fusion method is used to deposit an outer leaflet of phospholipids onto the thiolipid monolayer forming a thiolipid/lipid bilayer membrane on the electrode surface. Cholesterol oxidase spontaneously inserts into the electrode-supported lipid bilayer membrane from solution and is consequently immobilized to the electrode surface. Cholesterol partitions into the membrane from buffer solutions containing cyclodextrin. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol by molecular oxygen, forming hydrogen peroxide as a product. Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide for continuous solution flow experiments are presented, where flow was alternated between cholesterol solution and buffer containing no cholesterol. Steady-state anodic currents were observed during exposures of cholesterol solutions ranging in concentration from 10 to 1000 μM. These data are consistent with the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model for oxidation of cholesterol as catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase immobilized in the lipid bilayer membrane. The cholesterol detection limit is below 1 μM for cholesterol solution prepared in buffered cyclodextrin. The response of the electrodes to low density lipoprotein solutions is increased upon addition of cyclodextrin. Evidence for adsorption of low density lipoprotein to the electrode surface is presented

  14. Porphyrin-phospholipid interaction and ring metallation depending on the phospholipid polar head type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana P; Pavani, Christiane; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Zaniquelli, Maria E D

    2010-10-01

    The interaction between a hydrophobically modified 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-tetradecyl-pyridyl) porphyrin and three phospholipids: two negatively charged, DMPA (the sodium salt of dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidyl acid) and DMPG (the sodium salt of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)]) and a zwitterionic DMPC (dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine), were studied by means of surface pressure isotherms and spectroscopic methods. The interaction results in partial or total metallation of the porphyrin with zinc ions in the presence of negatively charged phospholipids, as attested by UV-vis and luminescence spectroscopy of the transferred films. In the presence of the zwitterionic phospholipid no insertion of zinc ion in the porphyrin ring is detected. These results are relevant for the understanding of photosensitizer-lipid-carrier binding for use in photodynamic therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antidiabetic phospholipid-nuclear receptor complex reveals the mechanism for phospholipid-driven gene regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musille, Paul M; Pathak, Manish C; Lauer, Janelle L; Hudson, William H; Griffin, Patrick R; Ortlund, Eric A [Emory-MED; (Scripps)

    2013-01-31

    The human nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) has an important role in controlling lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and is a potential target for the treatment of diabetes and hepatic diseases. LRH-1 is known to bind phospholipids, but the role of phospholipids in controlling LRH-1 activation remains highly debated. Here we describe the structure of both apo LRH-1 and LRH-1 in complex with the antidiabetic phospholipid dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC). Together with hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS and functional data, our studies show that DLPC binding is a dynamic process that alters co-regulator selectivity. We show that the lipid-free receptor undergoes previously unrecognized structural fluctuations, allowing it to interact with widely expressed co-repressors. These observations enhance our understanding of LRH-1 regulation and highlight its importance as a new therapeutic target for controlling diabetes.

  16. Recording ion channels across soy-extracted lecithin bilayer generated by water-soluble quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2014-02-01

    We report on the quantum dot (QD)-induced ion channels across a soya-derived lecithin bilayer supported on a laser drilled of ~100 μm aperture of cellulose acetate substrate that separates two electrolytic chambers. Adequate current bursts were observed when the bilayer was subjected to a gating voltage. The voltage-dependent current fluctuation, across the bilayer, was attributed to the insertion of ~20 nm sized water-soluble CdSe QDs, forming nanopores due to their spontaneous aggregation. Apart from a closed state, the first observable conductance levels were found as 6.3 and 11 nS, as for the respective biasing voltages of -10 and -20 mV. The highest observable conductance states, at corresponding voltages were ~14.3 and 21.1 nS. Considering two simplified models, we predict that the non-spherical pores (dnspore) can be a better approximation over spherical nanopores (dspore) for exhibiting a definite conductance level. At times, even dnspore ≤ 4dspore and that the non-spherical nanopores were associated with a smaller No. of QDs than the case for spherical nanopores, for a definite conductance state. It seems like the current events are partly stochastic, possibly due to thermal effects on the aggregated QDs that would form nanopores. The dwell time of the states was predicted in the range of 384-411 μs. The ion channel mechanism in natural phospholipid bilayers over artificial ones will provide a closer account to understand ion transport mechanism in live cells and signaling activity including labelling with fluorescent QDs.

  17. Alamethicin in lipid bilayers: combined use of X-ray scattering and MD simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianjun; Tieleman, D Peter; Nagle, John F; Kucerka, Norbert; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2009-06-01

    We study fully hydrated bilayers of two di-monounsaturated phospholipids diC18:1PC (DOPC) and diC22:1PC with varying amounts of alamethicin (Alm). We combine the use of X-ray diffuse scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to determine the orientation of alamethicin in model lipids. Comparison of the experimental and simulated form factors shows that Alm helices are inserted transmembrane at high humidity and high concentrations, in agreement with earlier results. The X-ray scattering data and the MD simulations agree that membrane thickness changes very little up to 1/10 Alm/DOPC. In contrast, the X-ray data indicate that the thicker diC22:1PC membrane thins with added Alm, a total decrease in thickness of 4 A at 1/10 Alm/diC22:1PC. The different effect of Alm on the thickness changes of the two bilayers is consistent with Alm having a hydrophobic thickness close to the hydrophobic thickness of 27 A for DOPC; Alm is then mismatched with the 7 A thicker diC22:1PC bilayer. The X-ray data indicate that Alm decreases the bending modulus (K(C)) by a factor of approximately 2 in DOPC and a factor of approximately 10 in diC22:1PC membranes (P/L approximately 1/10). The van der Waals and fluctuational interactions between bilayers are also evaluated through determination of the anisotropic B compressibility modulus.

  18. Hydrophobic silver nanoparticles trapped in lipid bilayers: Size distribution, bilayer phase behavior, and optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bothun Geoffrey D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid-based dispersion of nanoparticles provides a biologically inspired route to designing therapeutic agents and a means of reducing nanoparticle toxicity. Little is currently known on how the presence of nanoparticles influences lipid vesicle stability and bilayer phase behavior. In this work, the formation of aqueous lipid/nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs consisting of hydrophobic silver-decanethiol particles (5.7 ± 1.8 nm embedded within 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC bilayers is demonstrated as a function of the DPPC/Ag nanoparticle (AgNP ratio. The effect of nanoparticle loading on the size distribution, bilayer phase behavior, and bilayer fluidity is determined. Concomitantly, the effect of bilayer incorporation on the optical properties of the AgNPs is also examined. Results The dispersions were stable at 50°C where the bilayers existed in a liquid crystalline state, but phase separated at 25°C where the bilayers were in a gel state, consistent with vesicle aggregation below the lipid melting temperature. Formation of bilayer-embedded nanoparticles was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence anisotropy, where increasing nanoparticle concentration suppressed the lipid pretransition temperature, reduced the melting temperature, and disrupted gel phase bilayers. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR wavelength of the embedded nanoparticles was independent of the bilayer phase; however, the SPR absorbance was dependent on vesicle aggregation. Conclusion These results suggest that lipid bilayers can distort to accommodate large hydrophobic nanoparticles, relative to the thickness of the bilayer, and may provide insight into nanoparticle/biomembrane interactions and the design of multifunctional liposomal carriers.

  19. Platelet activating factor activity in the phospholipids of bovine spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, J.E.; Hough, S.; Elrod, C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been detected in sperm from several mammalian species and can affect sperm motility and fertilization. Because bovine sperm contain a high percentage of ether-linked phospholipid precursors required for PAF synthesis, a study was undertaken to determine the PAF activity of bovine sperm phospholipids. Total lipids of washed, ejaculated bull sperm were extracted, and phospholipids were fractionated by thin-layer chromatography. Individual phospholipid fractions were assayed for PAF activity on the basis of (3H)serotonin release from equine platelets. PAF activity was detected in the PAF fraction (1.84 pmol/mumol total phospholipid) and in serine/inositol (PS/PI), choline (CP), and ethanolamine phosphoglyceride (EP) and cardiolipin (CA) fractions. Activity was highest in the CP fraction (8.05 pmol/mumol total phospholipid). Incomplete resolution of PAF and neutral lipids may have contributed to the activity in the PS/PI and CA fractions, respectively. Phospholipids from nonsperm sources did not stimulate serotonin release. Platelet activation by purified PAF and by sperm phospholipid fractions was inhibited by the receptor antagonist SRI 63-675. These results indicate that bovine sperm contain PAF and that other sperm phospholipids, especially CP and EP, which are high in glycerylether components, are capable of receptor-mediated platelet activation.

  20. Computer simulations of phospholipid - membrane thermodynamic fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U.R.; Peters, Günther H.j.; Schröder, T.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports all-atom computer simulations of five phospholipid membranes, DMPC, DPPC, DMPG, DMPS, and DMPSH, with a focus on the thermal equilibrium fluctuations of volume, energy, area, thickness, and order parameter. For the slow fluctuations at constant temperature and pressure (defined...... membranes, showing a similar picture. The cause of the observed strong correlations is identified by splitting volume and energy into contributions from tails, heads, and water, showing that the slow volume-energy fluctuations derive from the tail region’s van der Waals interactions and are thus analogous...

  1. Lipid Bilayer Formation on Organic Electronic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi; Wustoni, Shofarul; Savva, Achilleas; Giovannitti, Alexander; McCulloch, Iain; Inal, Sahika

    2018-01-01

    The lipid bilayer is the elemental structure of cell membrane, forming a stable barrier between the interior and exterior of the cell while hosting membrane proteins that enable selective transport of biologically important compounds and cellular

  2. Computer Simulations of Lipid Bilayers and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The importance of computer simulations in lipid bilayer research has become more prominent for the last couple of decades and as computers get even faster, simulations will play an increasingly important part of understanding the processes that take place in and across cell membranes. This thesis...... entitled Computer simulations of lipid bilayers and proteins describes two molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of pure lipid bilayers as well as a study of a transmembrane protein embedded in a lipid bilayer matrix. Below follows a brief overview of the thesis. Chapter 1. This chapter is a short...... in the succeeding chapters is presented. Details on system setups, simulation parameters and other technicalities can be found in the relevant chapters. Chapter 3, DPPC lipid parameters: The quality of MD simulations is intimately dependent on the empirical potential energy function and its parameters, i...

  3. Interaction of elaiophylin with model bilayer membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, J.; Dencheva-Zarkova, M.

    2017-01-01

    Elaiophylin is a new macrodiolide antibiotic, which is produced by the Streptomyces strains [1]. It displays biological activities against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The mode of action of this antibiotic has been attributed to an alteration of the membrane permeability. When this antibiotic is inserted into the bilayer membranes destabilization of the membrane and formation of ion-penetrable channels is observed. The macrodiolide antibiotic forms stable cation selective ion channels in synthetic lipid bilayer membranes. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Elaiophylin with model bilayer membranes and to get information on the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers in presence of this antibiotic. Patch-clamp technique [2] were used in the study

  4. Supramolecular protein immobilization on lipid bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, R.P.G.; Hendriksen, W.E.; Verheijden, Mark Lloyd; Eelkema, R.; Jonkheijm, Pascal; van Esch, J.H.; Brunsveld, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Protein immobilization on surfaces, and on lipid bilayers specifically, has great potential in biomolecular and biotechnological research. Of current special interest is the immobilization of proteins using supramolecular noncovalent interactions. This allows for a reversible immobilization and

  5. Chiral Tunnelling in Twisted Graphene Bilayer

    OpenAIRE

    He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The perfect transmission in graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in twisted graphene bilayer shows adjustable probability of chiral tunnelling for normal incidence: they can be changed fr...

  6. Reactions of radicals with lecithin bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.J.W.; Thomas, J.K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of reaction of .OH and e/sub aq/ - with lecithin bilayers have been measured. The rate for .OH + lecithin is 5.1 +- 0.9 x 10 8 M -1 sec -1 while the e/sub aq/ - + lecithin rate is very slow. When a solute such as pyrene is solubilized in the bilayer, .OH and e/sub aq/ - may react with the solute; rates of 1.65 +- 0.12 x 10 9 M -1 sec -1 and 7 x 10 7 M -1 sec -1 have been measured for reaction of .OH and e/sub aq/ - , respectively, with pyrene in lecithin. These rates are lower than those observed for similar reactions in homogeneous systems. This is explained in terms of (a) the protective effect of the bilayer, this being especially true for e/sub aq/ - which does not readily leave the aqueous phase, and (b) in terms of the restricted diffusion imposed on the reactive species by the bilayer. The kinetics in these model systems are relevant to reactions of radicals with membranes. Long-term alteration in the model membrane following .OH attack is manifested in terms of damage to the head group, increasing water penetration of the bilayer, and of cross-linking with the membrane, thereby restricting motion in the interior of the bilayer. Increased rigidity and leakiness of membranes is an expected consequence of radiation damage

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of fluid lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Marshall C; Cambrea, Lee R; Hovis, Jennifer S

    2005-09-15

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique for examining lipid bilayers; however, it says little about the fluidity of the bilayer-a key physical aspect. It is shown here that it is possible to both acquire spectroscopic data of supported lipid bilayer samples and make measurements of the membrane fluidity. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) is used to obtain the spectroscopic information and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is used to determine the fluidity of the samples. In the infrared spectra of lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, the following major peaks were observed; nu(as)(CH3) 2954 cm(-1), nu(s)(CH3) 2870 cm(-1), nu(as)(CH2) 2924 cm(-1), nu(s)(CH2) 2852 cm(-1), nu(C=O) 1734 cm(-1), delta(CH2) 1463-1473 cm(-1), nu(as)(PO2-) 1226 cm(-1), nu(s)(PO2-) 1084 cm(-1), and nu(as)(N+(CH3)3) 973 cm(-1). The diffusion coefficient of the same lipid bilayer was measured to be 3.5 +/- 0.5 micom(2)/s with visual recovery also noted through use of epifluorescence microscopy. FRAP and visual data confirm the formation of a uniform, mobile supported lipid bilayer. The combination of ATR-FT-IR and FRAP provides complementary data giving a more complete picture of fully hydrated model membrane systems.

  8. Angiotensin and bradykinin interactions with phospholipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.E.; Goodfriend, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    Reversible interactions were demonstrated between some phospholipids and some polypeptides related to angiotensin and bradykinin. The extent of the interaction was dependent on the structures of the lipid and peptide. The naturally occurring compounds that interacted most avidly were cardiolipin and (des-Asp 1 )-angiotensins. The apparent dissociation constant of this complex in chloroform was 10 -5 M. The complex contained more than one cardiolipin molecule/molecule of peptide. Kinins interacted most strongly with lecithin. The phospholipids altered the chromatographic behaviour of radioiodinated derivatives of the polypeptides, and solubilized radioactive and unlabeled polypeptides in chloroform. In aqueous media, cardiolipin suspensions preferentially bound (des-Asp 1 )-angiotensin II, and inhibited its binding by antibody. The interactions were sensitive to pH and cations in the aqueous phase, and were reversed by some reagents added to the organic phase. These interactions have direct implications for binding reactions of peptides in vitro, and may bear upon the actions of the hormones in vivo. (Auth.)

  9. Probing topology and dynamics of the second transmembrane domain (M2δ) of the acetyl choline receptor using magnetically aligned lipid bilayers (bicelles) and EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Indra D; Mayo, Daniel J; Subbaraman, Nidhi; Inbaraj, Johnson J; McCarrick, Robert M; Lorigan, Gary A

    2017-08-01

    Characterizing membrane protein structure and dynamics in the lipid bilayer membrane is very important but experimentally challenging. EPR spectroscopy offers a unique set of techniques to investigate a membrane protein structure, dynamics, topology, and distance constraints in lipid bilayers. Previously our lab demonstrated the use of magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers (bicelles) for probing topology and dynamics of the membrane peptide M2δ of the acetyl choline receptor (AchR) as a proof of concept. In this study, magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers and rigid spin labels were further utilized to provide improved dynamic information and topology of M2δ peptide. Seven TOAC-labeled AchR M2δ peptides were synthesized to demonstrate the utility of a multi-labeling amino acid substitution alignment strategy. Our data revealed the helical tilts to be 11°, 17°, 9°, 17°, 16°, 11°, 9°±4° for residues I7TOAC, Q13TOAC, A14TOAC, V15TOAC, C16TOAC, L17TOAC, and L18TOAC, respectively. The average helical tilt of the M2δ peptide was determined to be ∼13°. This study also revealed that the TOAC labels were attached to the M2δ peptide with different dynamics suggesting that the sites towards the C-terminal end are more rigid when compared to the sites towards the N-terminus. The dynamics of the TOAC labeled sites were more resolved in the aligned samples when compared to the randomly disordered samples. This study highlights the use of magnetically aligned lipid bilayer EPR technique to determine a more accurate helical tilt and more resolved local dynamics of AchR M2δ peptide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optical stretching as a tool to investigate the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Mehmet E; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Mejia, Camilo A; Povinelli, Michelle L; Malmstadt, Noah

    2013-10-07

    Measurements of lipid bilayer bending modulus by various techniques produce widely divergent results. We attempt to resolve some of this ambiguity by measuring bending modulus in a system that can rapidly process large numbers of samples, yielding population statistics. This system is based on optical stretching of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) in a microfluidic dual-beam optical trap (DBOT). The microfluidic DBOT system is used here to measure three populations of GUVs with distinct lipid compositions. We find that gel-phase membranes are significantly stiffer than liquid-phase membranes, consistent with previous reports. We also find that the addition of cholesterol does not alter the bending modulus of membranes composed of a monounsaturated phospholipid.

  11. Lipid bilayer membranes: Missing link in the comprehension of synovial lubrication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Ross; Cowley, Leonie; Dubief, Yves

    2010-03-01

    The human body hosts an extremely efficient tribological system in its synovial joints that operate under very low friction and virtually no wear. It has long been assumed that the higher molecular weight molecules present in the synovial fluid (hyaluronic acid, lubricin) are solely responsible for the mechanical properties of joint. Smaller components, unsaturated phospholipids, have a virtually an undefined role, most probably because of the cancellation of their amphiphilic properties ex vivo caused by oxidation. Using experimental observations of multilamellar arrangements in synovial joints, we formulate the assumption that self-assembling structures provide the anisotropy necessary to synovial fluid to resist drainage under normal compression. Our molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate the tremendous mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and also highlight their weakening consistent with modifications resulting from injuries or joint prosthesis.

  12. Lab on a Biomembrane: Rapid prototyping and manipulation of 2D fluidic lipid bilayers circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainla, Alar; Gözen, Irep; Hakonen, Bodil; Jesorka, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Lipid bilayer membranes are among the most ubiquitous structures in the living world, with intricate structural features and a multitude of biological functions. It is attractive to recreate these structures in the laboratory, as this allows mimicking and studying the properties of biomembranes and their constituents, and to specifically exploit the intrinsic two-dimensional fluidity. Even though diverse strategies for membrane fabrication have been reported, the development of related applications and technologies has been hindered by the unavailability of both versatile and simple methods. Here we report a rapid prototyping technology for two-dimensional fluidic devices, based on in-situ generated circuits of phospholipid films. In this “lab on a molecularly thin membrane”, various chemical and physical operations, such as writing, erasing, functionalization, and molecular transport, can be applied to user-defined regions of a membrane circuit. This concept is an enabling technology for research on molecular membranes and their technological use. PMID:24067786

  13. Co-assembly of chitosan and phospholipids into hybrid hydrogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Engwer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid hydrogels were formed by adding chitosan (Ch) to phospholipids (P) self-assembled particles in lactic acid. The effect of the phospholipid concentration on the hydrogel properties was investigated and was observed to affect the rate of hydrogel formation and viscoelastic properties...

  14. Phospholipid fatty acid and phospholipid etherlipid fingerprints approach to describe complex soil microbial community under impact of cattle husbandry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Němcová, Anna; Gattinger, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2007), s. 73 ISSN 0009-0646. [Kongres Československé společnosti mikrobiologické /24./. 02.10.2007-05.10.2007, Liberec] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : phospholipid fatty acid * phospholipid etherlipid fingerprints * cattle husbandry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Centerband-only-detection-of-exchange (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance and phospholipid lateral diffusion: theory, simulation and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Angel; Saleem, Qasim; Macdonald, Peter M

    2015-10-14

    Centerband-only-detection-of-exchange (CODEX) (31)P NMR lateral diffusion measurements were performed on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) assembled into large unilamellar spherical vesicles. Optimization of sample and NMR acquisition conditions provided significant sensitivity enhancements relative to an earlier first report (Q. Saleem, A. Lai, H. Morales, and P. M. Macdonald, Chem. Phys. Lipids, 2012, 165, 721). An analytical description was developed that permitted the extraction of lateral diffusion coefficients from CODEX data, based on a Gaussian-diffusion-on-a-sphere model (A. Ghosh, J. Samuel, and S. Sinha, Europhys. Lett., 2012, 98, 30003-p1) as relevant to CODEX (31)P NMR measurements on a population of spherical unilamellar phospholipid bilayer vesicles displaying a distribution of vesicle radii.

  16. Food enrichment with marine phospholipid emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    marine PL emulsions with and without addition of fish oil. The oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions was significantly influenced by the chemical composition of marine PL used for emulsions preparation. For instance, emulsions with good oxidative stability could be obtained when using raw materials...... with high purity, low fish oil content and high PL, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content. In addition, non-enzymatic browning reactions may also affect the oxidative stability of the marine PL emulsion. These reactions included Strecker degradation and pyrrolization, and their occurrence were due......Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (PL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They seem to have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids than fish oil, which essentially contains triglycerides...

  17. Effects of gramicidin-A on the adsorption of phospholipids to the air–water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Samares C.; Rananavare, Shankar B.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that the hydrophobic surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, promote adsorption of the lipids in pulmonary surfactant to an air–water interface by stabilizing a negatively curved rate-limiting structure that is intermediate between bilayer vesicles and the surface film. This model predicts that other peptides capable of stabilizing negative curvature should also promote lipid adsorption. Previous reports have shown that under appropriate conditions, gramicidin-A (GrA) induces dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC), but not dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), to form the negatively curved hexagonal-II (HII) phase. The studies reported here determined if GrA would produce the same effects on adsorption of DMPC and DOPC that the hydrophobic surfactant proteins have on the surfactant lipids. Small angle X-ray scattering and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed that at the particular conditions used to study adsorption, GrA induced DOPC to form the HII phase, but DMPC remained lamellar. Measurements of surface tension showed that GrA in vesicles produced a general increase in the rate of adsorption for both phospholipids. When restricted to the interface, however, in preexisting films, GrA with DOPC, but not with DMPC, replicated the ability of the surfactant proteins to promote adsorption of vesicles containing only the lipids. The correlation between the structural and functional effects of GrA with the two phospholipids, and the similar effects on adsorption of GrA with DOPC and the hydrophobic surfactant proteins with the surfactant lipids fit with the model in which SP-B and SP-C facilitate adsorption by stabilizing a rate-limiting intermediate with negative curvature. PMID:16242116

  18. Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic. PMID:26268612

  19. Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-07

    Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic.

  20. Lipid Bilayer Formation on Organic Electronic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi

    2018-04-23

    The lipid bilayer is the elemental structure of cell membrane, forming a stable barrier between the interior and exterior of the cell while hosting membrane proteins that enable selective transport of biologically important compounds and cellular recognition. Monitoring the quality and function of lipid bilayers is thus essential and can be performed using electrically active substrates that allow for transduction of signals. Such a promising electronic transducer material is the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) which has provided a plethora of novel bio transducing architectures. The challenge is however in assembling a bilayer on the conducting polymer surface, which is defect-free and has high mobility. Herein, we investigate the fusion of zwitterionic vesicles on a variety of PEDOT:PSS films, but also on an electron transporting, negatively charged organic semiconductor, in order to understand the surface properties that trigger vesicle fusion. The PEDOT:PSS films are prepared from dispersions containing different concentrations of ethylene glycol included as a formulation additive, which gives a handle to modulate surface physicochemical properties without a compromise on the chemical composition. The strong correlation between the polarity of the surface, the fusion of vesicles and the mobility of the resulting bilayer aides extracting design principles for the development of future conducting polymers that will enable the formation of lipid bilayers.

  1. Bilayer graphene: gap tunability and edge properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Eduardo V; Santos, J M B Lopes dos; Peres, N M R; Guinea, F; Castro Neto, A H

    2008-01-01

    Bilayer graphene - two coupled single graphene layers stacked as in graphite - provides the only known semiconductor with a gap that can be tuned externally through electric field effect. Here we use a tight binding approach to study how the gap changes with the applied electric field. Within a parallel plate capacitor model and taking into account screening of the external field, we describe real back gated and/or chemically doped bilayer devices. We show that a gap between zero and midinfrared energies can be induced and externally tuned in these devices, making bilayer graphene very appealing from the point of view of applications. However, applications to nanotechnology require careful treatment of the effect of sample boundaries. This being particularly true in graphene, where the presence of edge states at zero energy - the Fermi level of the undoped system - has been extensively reported. Here we show that also bilayer graphene supports surface states localized at zigzag edges. The presence of two layers, however, allows for a new type of edge state which shows an enhanced penetration into the bulk and gives rise to band crossing phenomenon inside the gap of the biased bilayer system.

  2. Interaction of blood coagulation factor Va with phospholipid vesicles examined by using lipophilic photoreagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, U.C.; Isaacs, B.S.; Yemul, S.S.; Esmon, C.T.; Bayley, H.; Johnson, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two different lipophilic photoreagents, [ 3 H]adamantane diazirine and 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[ 125 I]iodophenyl)diazirine (TID), have been utilized to examine the interactions of blood coagulation factor Va with calcium, prothrombin, factor Xa, and, in particular, phospholipid vesicles. With each of these structurally dissimilar reagents, the extent of photolabeling of factor Va was greater when the protein was bound to a membrane surface than when it was free in solution. Specifically, the covalent photoreaction with Vl, the smaller subunit of factor Va, was 2-fold higher in the presence of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS, 3:1) vesicles, to which factor Va binds, than in the presence of 100% PC vesicles, to which the protein does not bind. However, the magnitude of the PC/PS-dependent photolabeling was much less than has been observed previously with integral membrane proteins. It therefore appears that the binding of factor Va to the membrane surface exposes Vl to the lipid core of the bilayer, but that only a small portion of the Vl polypeptide is exposed to, or embedded in, the bilayer core. Addition of either prothrombin or active-site-blocked factor Xa to PC/PS-bound factor Va had little effect on the photolabeling of Vl with TID, but reduced substantially the covalent labeling of Vh, the larger subunit of factor Va. This indicates that prothrombin and factor Xa each cover nonpolar surfaces on Vh when the macromolecules associate on the PC/PS surface. It therefore seems likely that the formation of the prothrombinase complex involves a direct interaction between Vh and factor Xa and between Vh and prothrombin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Molecular Simulations of Sequence-Specific Association of Transmembrane Proteins in Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxastakis, Manolis; Prakash, Anupam; Janosi, Lorant

    2011-03-01

    Association of membrane proteins is central in material and information flow across the cellular membranes. Amino-acid sequence and the membrane environment are two critical factors controlling association, however, quantitative knowledge on such contributions is limited. In this work, we study the dimerization of helices in lipid bilayers using extensive parallel Monte Carlo simulations with recently developed algorithms. The dimerization of Glycophorin A is examined employing a coarse-grain model that retains a level of amino-acid specificity, in three different phospholipid bilayers. Association is driven by a balance of protein-protein and lipid-induced interactions with the latter playing a major role at short separations. Following a different approach, the effect of amino-acid sequence is studied using the four transmembrane domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor family in identical lipid environments. Detailed characterization of dimer formation and estimates of the free energy of association reveal that these helices present significant affinity to self-associate with certain dimers forming non-specific interfaces.

  4. Hydrogel Micro-/Nanosphere Coated by a Lipid Bilayer: Preparation and Microscopic Probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rahni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The result of polymeric nanogels and lipid vesicles interaction—lipobeads—can be considered as multipurpose containers for future therapeutic applications, such as targeted anticancer chemotherapy with superior tumor response and minimum side effects. In this work, micrometer sized lipobeads were synthesized by two methods: (i mixing separately prepared microgels made of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPA and phospholipid vesicles of micrometer or nanometer size and (ii polymerization within the lipid vesicles. For the first time, a high vacuum scanning electron microscopy was shown to be suitable for a quick validation of the structural organization of wet lipobeads and their constituents without special sample preparation. In particular, the structural difference of microgels prepared by thermal and UV-polymerization in different solvents was revealed and three types of giant liposomes were recognized under high vacuum in conjunction with their size, composition, and method of preparation. Importantly, the substructure of the hydrogel core and multi- and unilamellar constructions of the peripheral lipid part were explicitly distinguished on the SEM images of lipobeads, justifying the spontaneous formation of a lipid bilayer on the surface of microgels and evidencing an energetically favorable structural organization of the hydrogel/lipid bilayer assembly. This key property can facilitate lipobeads’ preparation and decrease technological expenses on their scaled production. The comparison of the SEM imaging with the scanning confocal and atomic force microscopies data are also presented in the discussion.

  5. Ionic motion in PEDOT and PPy conducting polymer bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainudeen, Umer L.; Careem, M.A.; Skaarup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Conducting polymer bilayers with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and polypyrrole (PPy), each containing dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) as immobile dopant species, were synthesized galvanostatically. The electrochemical behaviour of the bilayers was investigated using cyclic voltammetry...

  6. Chiral tunneling in a twisted graphene bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin

    2013-08-09

    The perfect transmission in a graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in a Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in a twisted graphene bilayer show an adjustable probability of chiral tunneling for normal incidence: they can be changed from perfect tunneling to partial or perfect reflection, or vice versa, by controlling either the height of the barrier or the incident energy. As well as addressing basic physics about how the chiral fermions with different chiralities tunnel through a barrier, our results provide a facile route to tune the electronic properties of the twisted graphene bilayer.

  7. Fabrication of Li-intercalated bilayer graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sugawara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We have succeeded in fabricating Li-intercalated bilayer graphene on silicon carbide. The low-energy electron diffraction from Li-deposited bilayer graphene shows a sharp 3×3R30° pattern in contrast to Li-deposited monolayer graphene. This indicates that Li atoms are intercalated between two adjacent graphene layers and take the same well-ordered superstructure as in bulk C6Li. The angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has revealed that Li atoms are fully ionized and the π bands of graphene are systematically folded by the superstructure of intercalated Li atoms, producing a snowflake-like Fermi surface centered at the Γ point. The present result suggests a high potential of Li-intercalated bilayer graphene for application to a nano-scale Li-ion battery.

  8. Effects of Oriented Surface Dipole on Photoconversion Efficiency in an Alkane/Lipid-Hybrid-Bilayer-Based Photovoltaic Model System

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lixia

    2013-06-21

    When a phospholipid monolayer containing a zinc-coordinated porphyrin species formed atop a self-assembled monolayer of heptadecafluoro-1-decanethiol (CF3(CF2)7(CH2)2SH) is subjected to photoelectrochemical current generation, a significant modulation effect is observed. Compared with devices that contain similar photoactive lipid monolayers but formed on 1-dodecanethiol SAMs, these fluorinated hybrid bilayers produce a >60 % increase in cathodic currents and a similar decrease in anodic currents. Photovoltages recorded from these hybrid bilayers are found to vary in the same fashion. The modulation of photovoltaic responses in these hybrid-bilayer-based devices is explained by the opposite surface dipoles associated with the thiols employed in this study, which in one case (fluorothiol) increase and in another (alkanethiol) decrease the work function of the underlying gold substrates. A similar trend of photovoltage/photocurrent modulation is also observed if fullerene is used as the photoagent in these devices. Our results reveal the intricacy of orientated surface dipole in influencing the photovoltaic processes, and its subtle interplay with other factors related to the photoagents, such as their location and orientation within the organic matrix. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Influence of the state of phase of lipid bilayer on the exposure of glucose residues on the surface of liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalva, Denise Gradella; Giansanti, Luisa; Mauceri, Alessandro; Ceccacci, Francesca; Mancini, Giovanna

    2017-11-01

    The presence of carbohydrate-binding proteins (i.e. lectins) on the surface of various bacterial strains and their overexpression in some tumor tissues makes the use of glycosylated liposomes a promising approach for the specific drug delivery in antibacterial and anti-cancer therapies. However, the functionalization of liposome surface with sugar moieties by glycosylated amphiphiles does not ensure the binding of sugar-coated vesicles with lectins. In fact, the composition and properties of lipid bilayer play a pivotal role in the exposure of sugar residues and in the interaction with lectins. The influence of the length of the hydrophilic spacer that links the sugar to liposome surface and of the presence of saturated or unsaturated phospholipids in the lipid bilayer on the ability of glucosylated liposomes to interact with a model lectin, Concanavalin A, was investigated. Our results demonstrate that both the chain length and the prensece of unsaturation, parameters that strongly affect the fluidity of the lipid bilayer, affect agglutination. In particular, agglutination is favored when liposomes are in the gel phase within a defined range of temperature. Moreover, the obtained results confirm that the length of the PEG spacer, that influences both lipid organization and the exposure of sugar moieties to the bulk, plays a crucial role in liposome/lectin interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Oriented Surface Dipole on Photoconversion Efficiency in an Alkane/Lipid-Hybrid-Bilayer-Based Photovoltaic Model System

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lixia; Xie, Hong; Bostic, Heidi E.; Jin, Limei; Best, Michael D.; Zhang, X. Peter; Zhan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    When a phospholipid monolayer containing a zinc-coordinated porphyrin species formed atop a self-assembled monolayer of heptadecafluoro-1-decanethiol (CF3(CF2)7(CH2)2SH) is subjected to photoelectrochemical current generation, a significant modulation effect is observed. Compared with devices that contain similar photoactive lipid monolayers but formed on 1-dodecanethiol SAMs, these fluorinated hybrid bilayers produce a >60 % increase in cathodic currents and a similar decrease in anodic currents. Photovoltages recorded from these hybrid bilayers are found to vary in the same fashion. The modulation of photovoltaic responses in these hybrid-bilayer-based devices is explained by the opposite surface dipoles associated with the thiols employed in this study, which in one case (fluorothiol) increase and in another (alkanethiol) decrease the work function of the underlying gold substrates. A similar trend of photovoltage/photocurrent modulation is also observed if fullerene is used as the photoagent in these devices. Our results reveal the intricacy of orientated surface dipole in influencing the photovoltaic processes, and its subtle interplay with other factors related to the photoagents, such as their location and orientation within the organic matrix. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Probing Lipid Bilayers under Ionic Imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaqi; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2016-12-06

    Biological membranes are normally under a resting transmembrane potential (TMP), which originates from the ionic imbalance between extracellular fluids and cytosols, and serves as electric power storage for cells. In cell electroporation, the ionic imbalance builds up a high TMP, resulting in the poration of cell membranes. However, the relationship between ionic imbalance and TMP is not clearly understood, and little is known about the effect of ionic imbalance on the structure and dynamics of biological membranes. In this study, we used coarse-grained molecular dynamics to characterize a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer system under ionic imbalances ranging from 0 to ∼0.06 e charges per lipid (e/Lip). We found that the TMP displayed three distinct regimes: 1) a linear regime between 0 and 0.045 e/Lip, where the TMP increased linearly with ionic imbalance; 2) a yielding regime between ∼0.045 and 0.060 e/Lip, where the TMP displayed a plateau; and 3) a poration regime above ∼0.060 e/Lip, where we observed pore formation within the sampling time (80 ns). We found no structural changes in the linear regime, apart from a nonlinear increase in the area per lipid, whereas in the yielding regime the bilayer exhibited substantial thinning, leading to an excess of water and Na + within the bilayer, as well as significant misalignment of the lipid tails. In the poration regime, lipid molecules diffused slightly faster. We also found that the fluid-to-gel phase transition temperature of the bilayer dropped below the normal value with increased ionic imbalances. Our results show that a high ionic imbalance can substantially alter the essential properties of the bilayer, making the bilayer more fluid like, or conversely, depolarization of a cell could in principle lead to membrane stiffening. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction of Melittin with Negatively Charged Lipid Bilayers Supported on Gold Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhaniewicz, Joanna; Sek, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The interactions of melittin, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, with model lipid membranes consisting of negatively charged phospholipids: 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) or 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (DMPS) were investigated using electrochemical techniques and atomic force microscopy. Lipid bilayers were deposited on gold electrodes using a combination of Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer methods and the resulting membranes established a barrier for electron transfer between the electrode and the redox probe in the solution. After exposure to melittin, the blocking properties of the membranes were monitored using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was observed that after treatment with peptide, the charge transfer through lipid bilayer is initially strongly inhibited. However, after longer exposure to melittin, the structure of the lipid film becomes less compact and the electrode reactions are facilitated due to the presence of numerous defect sites exposing bare substrate. We have assumed that such behavior reflects initial adsorption of melittin on top of the membrane and its further insertion which leads to formation of the pores or partial micellization of the lipid film. AFM imaging revealed that the exposure to 10 μM melittin solution induces significant structural changes in DMPG and DMPS membranes. However, melittin seems to affect their organization in a different manner. DMPG film appears to be more susceptible to peptide action compared with DMPS bilayer. In the latter case, long-time exposure to melittin does not result in the rupture of the membrane but rather leads to formation of pore-like defects. This observation is explained in terms of different nanomechanical properties of DMPG and DMPS films and different barrier for the reorientation and insertion of the peptide molecules into the membranes.

  13. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W., E-mail: hans.w.schumacher@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  14. In situ atomic force microscope imaging of supported lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    2001-01-01

    In situ AFM images of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) hydrolysis of mica-supported one- and two-component lipid bilayers are presented. For one-component DPPC bilayers an enhanced enzymatic activity is observed towards preexisting defects in the bilayer. Phase separation is observed in two-co...

  15. Simulated microgravity impacts the plant plasmalemma lipid bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, Olena; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Vorobyeva, Tamara; Grakhov, Volodimir; Klimenko, Elena; Zhupanov, Ivan; Jadko, Sergiy

    unsaturated fatty acids, that maintains the plasmalemma fluidity in the normal limits, and it may be considered as an adaptive pattern. This assumption was directly confirmed by the data on plasmalemma fluidity in control and under clinorotation defined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer Bruker Elexsys E 580 (Germany). It was in the first established a significant increase in the sterol content under clinorotation. It is of much interest because sterols along with glyco- and phospholipids and mainly saturated fatty acids form “rafts” that are membrane certain domains, where a lipid bilayer is in the dense, highly ordered state. As rafts include the protein complexes, which are necessary for perception and transduction of exogenous signals, stress protection, pathogenesis, vesicular transport also, a significant increase of sterols under clinorotation may indicate the changes in both membrane permeability and protein activity. On the basis of obtained data, the future researches of components of signaling pathways and regulation of certain plasmalemma membranous proteins activity are grounded and planned.

  16. Interaction of Local Anesthetics with Biomembranes Consisting of Phospholipids and Cholesterol: Mechanistic and Clinical Implications for Anesthetic and Cardiotoxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Tsuchiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a long history in medical and dental application, the molecular mechanism and precise site of action are still arguable for local anesthetics. Their effects are considered to be induced by acting on functional proteins, on membrane lipids, or on both. Local anesthetics primarily interact with sodium channels embedded in cell membranes to reduce the excitability of nerve cells and cardiomyocytes or produce a malfunction of the cardiovascular system. However, the membrane protein-interacting theory cannot explain all of the pharmacological and toxicological features of local anesthetics. The administered drug molecules must diffuse through the lipid barriers of nerve sheaths and penetrate into or across the lipid bilayers of cell membranes to reach the acting site on transmembrane proteins. Amphiphilic local anesthetics interact hydrophobically and electrostatically with lipid bilayers and modify their physicochemical property, with the direct inhibition of membrane functions, and with the resultant alteration of the membrane lipid environments surrounding transmembrane proteins and the subsequent protein conformational change, leading to the inhibition of channel functions. We review recent studies on the interaction of local anesthetics with biomembranes consisting of phospholipids and cholesterol. Understanding the membrane interactivity of local anesthetics would provide novel insights into their anesthetic and cardiotoxic effects.

  17. Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids of muscular tissue and brain of rats under the impact of vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Kostyshyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are important structural components of biological membranes, energy substrate of cells involved in fixing phospholipid bilayer proteins, and acting as regulators and modulators of enzymatic activity. Under the impact of vibration oscillations there can occur shifts in the ratio of different groups of fatty acids, and degrees of their saturation may change. The imbalance between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which occurs later in the cell wall, disrupts fluidity and viscosity of lipid phase and causes abnormal cellular metabolism. Aim. In order to study the impact of vibration on the level of fatty acids of total lipids in muscular tissue and fatty acid composition of phospholipids in muscles and brain, experimental animals have been exposed to vertical vibration oscillations with different frequency for 28 days. Methods and results. Tissues fragments of hip quadriceps and brain of rats were used for obtaining methyl esters of fatty acids studied by the method of gas-liquid chromatography. It was found that the lipid content, ratio of its separate factions and fatty acid composition in muscular tissue and brain of animals with the action of vibration considerably varies. With the increase of vibration acceleration tendency to increase in absolute quantity of total lipids fatty acids can be observed at the account of increased level of saturated and monounsaturated ones. These processes are caused by activation of self-defense mechanisms of the body under the conditions of deviations from stabilized physiological norm, since adaptation requires certain structural and energy costs. Increase in the relative quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids of muscles and brain and simultaneous reduction in concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids are observed. Conclusion. These changes indicate worsening of structural and functional organization of muscles and brain cell membranes of

  18. Membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to a target lipid bilayer: an EPR site-directed spin-labeling and relaxation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available The second messenger lipid PIP(3 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate is generated by the lipid kinase PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, where it regulates a broad array of cell processes by recruiting multiple signaling proteins containing PIP(3-specific pleckstrin homology (PH domains to the membrane surface. Despite the broad importance of PIP(3-specific PH domains, the membrane docking geometry of a PH domain bound to its target PIP(3 lipid on a bilayer surface has not yet been experimentally determined. The present study employs EPR site-directed spin labeling and relaxation methods to elucidate the membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to bilayer-embedded PIP(3. The model target bilayer contains the neutral background lipid PC and both essential targeting lipids: (i PIP(3 target lipid that provides specificity and affinity, and (ii PS facilitator lipid that enhances the PIP(3 on-rate via an electrostatic search mechanism. The EPR approach measures membrane depth parameters for 18 function-retaining spin labels coupled to the PH domain, and for calibration spin labels coupled to phospholipids. The resulting depth parameters, together with the known high resolution structure of the co-complex between GRP1 PH domain and the PIP(3 headgroup, provide sufficient constraints to define an optimized, self-consistent membrane docking geometry. In this optimized geometry the PH domain engulfs the PIP(3 headgroup with minimal bilayer penetration, yielding the shallowest membrane position yet described for a lipid binding domain. This binding interaction displaces the PIP(3 headgroup from its lowest energy position and orientation in the bilayer, but the headgroup remains within its energetically accessible depth and angular ranges. Finally, the optimized docking geometry explains previous biophysical findings including mutations observed to disrupt membrane binding, and the rapid lateral

  19. Phospholipid transfer protein activity and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The plasma activity of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which has multifaceted functions in lipoprotein metabolism and in inflammatory responses, is elevated in insulin resistant conditions. We determined the association of plasma PLTP activity with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

  20. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Esther [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Schraner, Elisabeth M. [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Sonda, Sabrina [Institute of Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Kaech, Andres [Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Lucas, Miriam S. [Electron Microscopy ETH Zuerich (EMEZ), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Ackermann, Mathias [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Wild, Peter, E-mail: pewild@access.uzh.ch [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  1. Structure and mechanism of ATP-dependent phospholipid transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; Bailly, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and P4-ATPases are two large and seemingly unrelated families of primary active pumps involved in moving phospholipids from one leaflet of a biological membrane to the other. Scope of review This review aims to identify common mechanistic features...... in the way phospholipid flipping is carried out by two evolutionarily unrelated families of transporters. Major conclusions Both protein families hydrolyze ATP, although they employ different mechanisms to use it, and have a comparable size with twelve transmembrane segments in the functional unit. Further......, despite differences in overall architecture, both appear to operate by an alternating access mechanism and during transport they might allow access of phospholipids to the internal part of the transmembrane domain. The latter feature is obvious for ABC transporters, but phospholipids and other hydrophobic...

  2. Regional distribution of phospholipids in porcine vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Abigail; Yappert, Marta Cecilia; Borchman, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued. Due to the overall low levels of phospholipids in vitreous humor, it was necessary to optimize the experimental approaches for ex-situ and in-vitro studies. The sensitivity observed in the spectra of methanol extracts from the lens and retina was higher than that for methanol:chloroform extracts, but the compositional trends were the same. A fourfold improvement in sensitivity was observed in the analysis of vitreous humor extracts obtained with the Bligh and Dyer protocol relative to the other two extraction methods. For ex-situ studies, the 'stamp method' with para-nitroaniline as the matrix was chosen. Throughout the vitreous humor, phosphatidylcholines were the most abundant phospholipids. In-vitro results showed higher relative levels of phospholipids compared to the 'stamp' method. However, more details in the regional phospholipid distribution were provided by the ex-situ approach. Both in-vitro and ex-situ results indicated higher levels of phospholipids in the posterior vitreous region, followed by the anterior and central regions. The posterior region contained more unsaturated species whereas more saturated phospholipids were detected in the anterior region. The observed trends suggest that the phospholipids detected in the posterior vitreous humor migrate from the retina and associated vasculature while those present in

  3. Deformation of phospholipid vesicles in an optical stretcher

    OpenAIRE

    Delabre , Ulysse; Feld , Kasper; Crespo , Eleonore; Whyte , Graeme; Sykes , Cecile; Seifert , Udo; Guck , Jochen

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Phospholipid vesicles are common model systems for cell membranes. Important aspects of the membrane function relate to its mechanical properties. Here we have investigated the deformation behaviour of phospholipid vesicles in a dual-beam laser trap, also called an optical stretcher. This study explicitly makes use of the inherent heating present in such traps to investigate the dependence of vesicle deformation on temperature. By using lasers with different wavelength...

  4. Morphological and Physical Analysis of Natural Phospholipids-Based Biomembranes

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquot, Adrien; Francius, Grégory; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Dehghani, Fariba; Tamayol, Ali; Linder, Michel; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Background: Liposomes are currently an important part of biological, pharmaceutical, medical and nutritional research, as they are considered to be among the most effective carriers for the introduction of various types of bioactive agents into target cells.Scope of Review: In this work, we study the lipid organization and mechanical properties of biomembranes made of marine and plant phospholipids. Membranes based on phospholipids extracted from rapeseed and salmon ar...

  5. Exit-strategies - smart ways to release phospholipid vesicle cargo

    OpenAIRE

    Mellal Denia; Zumbuehl Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This highlight describes recent trends in fundamental phospholipid research towards possible future drug delivery technology. In particular it focuses on synthetic phospholipids and their vesicular constructs and describes selected “smart” ways to release cargo from liposomes. Various chemical and physical release triggers are discussed such as temperature changes, application of ultrasound, enzyme degradation, changes in pH, redox reactions, photochemical reactions, as well as the effects of...

  6. Biomimetic mineralization of CaCO3 on a phospholipid monolayer: from an amorphous calcium carbonate precursor to calcite via vaterite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junwu; Wang, Zhining; Tang, Yecang; Yang, Shihe

    2010-04-06

    A phospholipid monolayer, approximately half the bilayer structure of a biological membrane, can be regarded as an ideal model for investigating biomineralization on biological membranes. In this work on the biomimetic mineralization of CaCO(3) under a phospholipid monolayer, we show the initial heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous calcium carbonate precursor (ACC) nanoparticles at the air-water interface, their subsequent transformation into the metastable vaterite phase instead of the most thermodynamically stable calcite phase, and the ultimate phase transformation to calcite. Furthermore, the spontaneity of the transformation from vaterite to calcite was found to be closely related to the surface tension; high surface pressure could inhibit the process, highlighting the determinant of surface energy. To understand better the mechanisms for ACC formation and the transformation from ACC to vaterite and to calcite, in situ Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), ex situ scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed. This work has clarified the crystallization process of calcium carbonate under phospholipid monolayers and therefore may further our understanding of the biomineralization processes induced by cellular membranes.

  7. Mixed Mechanism of Lubrication by Lipid Bilayer Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boţan, Alexandru; Joly, Laurent; Fillot, Nicolas; Loison, Claire

    2015-11-10

    Although the key role of lipid bilayer stacks in biological lubrication is generally accepted, the mechanisms underlying their extreme efficiency remain elusive. In this article, we report molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayer stacks undergoing load and shear. When the hydration level is reduced, the velocity accommodation mechanism changes from viscous shear in hydration water to interlayer sliding in the bilayers. This enables stacks of hydrated lipid bilayers to act as efficient boundary lubricants for various hydration conditions, structures, and mechanical loads. We also propose an estimation for the friction coefficient; thanks to the strong hydration forces between lipid bilayers, the high local viscosity is not in contradiction with low friction coefficients.

  8. Electronic properties of graphene-based bilayer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkov, A.V., E-mail: arozhkov@gmail.com [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Sboychakov, A.O. [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rakhmanov, A.L. [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, Moscow, 127055 (Russian Federation); Nori, Franco, E-mail: fnori@riken.jp [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2016-08-23

    This article reviews the theoretical and experimental work related to the electronic properties of bilayer graphene systems. Three types of bilayer stackings are discussed: the AA, AB, and twisted bilayer graphene. This review covers single-electron properties, effects of static electric and magnetic fields, bilayer-based mesoscopic systems, spin–orbit coupling, dc transport and optical response, as well as spontaneous symmetry violation and other interaction effects. The selection of the material aims to introduce the reader to the most commonly studied topics of theoretical and experimental research in bilayer graphene.

  9. Tissue phospholipids (TPL) in avian tuberculosis (AT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandedkar, A.K.N.; Malhotra, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    AT constitutes one of the major problems in animal husbandry. Chickens (white, leg horn, male, 400-600 g) were infected with Mycobacterium avium maintained on I.U.T. medium to induce clinical AT which was confirmed by histopathological examinations of the affected tissues. Fatty infiltration and tissue enlargement was visible in infected birds. After 4 wks, incorporation of i.v. 32 P (50 uCi/100 g body wt.) in affected tissues was followed for 3,7,9,12 hr intervals. Lipids were extracted and fractionated by silicic acid (SA) column and SA impregnated paper chromatography. When compared with pair-fed controls, in AT slower turnover of TPL in liver, slightly higher in heart and significantly increased turnover of TPL in serum were observed. No appreciable change in total TPL content was noticed in brain, spleen and kidney. Further fractionation of TPL provided better understanding of the metabolism. Increase in lysophosphatidyl-choline (LPC) and -ethanolamine (LPE) content, powerful hemolytic agents, in liver may explain frequent occurrence of anemia in tuberculosis. Also, a concomitant marked increase in the ratio of total saturated/unsaturated fatty acids is observed in serum phosphatidyl choline fraction. This confirms the observation that the membrane phospholipid metabolism is significantly affected in tuberculosis infection

  10. Condensation energy of the superconducting bilayer cuprates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cuprates also depends on the number of CuO2 layers per unit cell and the extent of doping. In a bilayer or ... unit cell is smaller than the adjacent layers in a single layer system; therefore it is natural to include interlayer .... energy conservation principle, the change in the kinetic energy of the electrons in the out- of-plane ...

  11. Localized plasmons in bilayer graphene nanodisks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Weihua; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-01-01

    We study localized plasmonic excitations in bilayer graphene (BLG) nanodisks, comparing AA-stacked and AB-stacked BLG and contrasting the results to the case of two monolayers without electronic hybridization. The electrodynamic response of the BLG electron gas is described in terms of a spatially...

  12. Topological transformation of a surfactant bilayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, T.D.; Olsson, U.; Mortensen, K.

    2000-01-01

    Surfactant lamellar phases are often complicated by the formation of multilamellar (onions) under shear, which can originate simply by shaking the sample. A systematic study has been performed on the C10E3-D2O system in which different bilayer structures under a steady shear flow were investigated...

  13. Electronic properties of a biased graphene bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Eduardo V; Lopes dos Santos, J M B; Novoselov, K S; Morozov, S V; Geim, A K; Peres, N M R; Nilsson, Johan; Castro Neto, A H; Guinea, F

    2010-01-01

    We study, within the tight-binding approximation, the electronic properties of a graphene bilayer in the presence of an external electric field applied perpendicular to the system-a biased bilayer. The effect of the perpendicular electric field is included through a parallel plate capacitor model, with screening correction at the Hartree level. The full tight-binding description is compared with its four-band and two-band continuum approximations, and the four-band model is shown to always be a suitable approximation for the conditions realized in experiments. The model is applied to real biased bilayer devices, made out of either SiC or exfoliated graphene, and good agreement with experimental results is found, indicating that the model is capturing the key ingredients, and that a finite gap is effectively being controlled externally. Analysis of experimental results regarding the electrical noise and cyclotron resonance further suggests that the model can be seen as a good starting point for understanding the electronic properties of graphene bilayer. Also, we study the effect of electron-hole asymmetry terms, such as the second-nearest-neighbour hopping energies t' (in-plane) and γ 4 (inter-layer), and the on-site energy Δ.

  14. Nonmonotonic critical temperature in superconductor ferromagnet bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fominov, Ya. V.; Fominov, I.V.; Chtchelkatchev, N.M.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    2002-01-01

    The critical temperature Tc of a superconductor/ferromagnet (SF) bilayer can exhibit nonmonotonic dependence on the thickness df of the F layer. SF systems have been studied for a long time; according to the experimental situation, a ¿dirty¿ limit is often considered which implies that the mean free

  15. INTERLAYER OPTICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF A SUPERCONDUCTING BILAYER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GARTSTEIN, YN; RICE, MJ; VANDERMAREL, D

    1994-01-01

    We employ the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to calculate the frequency-dependent interlayer conductivity of a superconducting bilayer, the two layers of which are coupled by weak single-particle tunneling. The effect of the superconducting transition on the normal-state absorption band is to

  16. Effects of carotenoids on lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Quentin R; Mostofian, Barmak; Fuente Gomez, Gabriel; Smith, Jeremy C; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2018-01-31

    Carotenoids have been found to be important in improving the integrity of biomembranes in eukaryotes. However, the molecular details of how carotenoids modulate the physical properties of biomembranes are unknown. To this end, we have conducted a series of molecular dynamics simulations of different biologically-relevant membranes in the presence of carotenoids. The carotenoid effect on the membrane was found to be specific to the identity of the carotenoid and the composition of the membrane itself. Therefore, different classes of carotenoids produce a different effect on the membrane, and different membrane phases are affected differently by carotenoids. It is apparent from our data that carotenoids do trigger the bilayer to become thinner. The mechanism by which this occurs depends on two competing factors, the ability of the lipid tails of opposing monolayers to either (1) compress or (2) interdigitate as the bilayer condenses. Indeed, carotenoids directly influence the physical properties via these two mechanisms, thus compacting the bilayer. However, the degree to which these competing mechanisms are utilized depends on the bilayer phase and the carotenoid identity.

  17. Bifurcation of self-folded polygonal bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Arif M.; Braun, Paul V.; Hsia, K. Jimmy

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the self-assembly of natural systems, researchers have investigated the stimulus-responsive curving of thin-shell structures, which is also known as self-folding. Self-folding strategies not only offer possibilities to realize complicated shapes but also promise actuation at small length scales. Biaxial mismatch strain driven self-folding bilayers demonstrate bifurcation of equilibrium shapes (from quasi-axisymmetric doubly curved to approximately singly curved) during their stimulus-responsive morphing behavior. Being a structurally instable, bifurcation could be used to tune the self-folding behavior, and hence, a detailed understanding of this phenomenon is appealing from both fundamental and practical perspectives. In this work, we investigated the bifurcation behavior of self-folding bilayer polygons. For the mechanistic understanding, we developed finite element models of planar bilayers (consisting of a stimulus-responsive and a passive layer of material) that transform into 3D curved configurations. Our experiments with cross-linked Polydimethylsiloxane samples that change shapes in organic solvents confirmed our model predictions. Finally, we explored a design scheme to generate gripper-like architectures by avoiding the bifurcation of stimulus-responsive bilayers. Our research contributes to the broad field of self-assembly as the findings could motivate functional devices across multiple disciplines such as robotics, artificial muscles, therapeutic cargos, and reconfigurable biomedical devices.

  18. Protein Crowding in Lipid Bilayers Gives Rise to Non-Gaussian Anomalous Lateral Diffusion of Phospholipids and Proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeon, J. H.; Javanainen, M.; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Metzler, R.; Vattulainen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 021006. ISSN 2160-3308 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : protein crowding * membranes * simulations * diffusion * non-Gaussian anomalous diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.789, year: 2016 http://journals.aps.org/prx/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevX.6.021006

  19. Absorption and Fluorescence of PRODAN in Phospholipid Bilayers: A Combined Quantum Mechanics and Classical Molecular Dynamics Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cwiklik, Lukasz; Aquino, A. J. A.; Vazdar, Mario; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Pittner, Jiří; Hof, Martin; Lischka, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 41 (2011), s. 11428-11437 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : fluorescence * density functional theory * charge transfer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.946, year: 2011

  20. Structure and dynamics of water and lipid molecules in charged anionic DMPG lipid bilayer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rønnest, A. K.; Peters, G. H.; Hansen, F. Y.; Taub, H.; Miskowiec, A.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the influence of the valency of counter-ions on the structure of freestanding bilayer membranes of the anionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) lipid at 310 K and 1 atm. At this temperature, the membrane is in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The diffusion constant of water as a function of its depth in the membrane has been determined from mean-square-displacement calculations. Also, calculated incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering functions have been compared to experimental results and used to determine an average diffusion constant for all water molecules in the system. On extrapolating the diffusion constants inferred experimentally to a temperature of 310 K, reasonable agreement with the simulations is obtained. However, the experiments do not have the sensitivity to confirm the diffusion of a small component of water bound to the lipids as found in the simulations. In addition, the orientation of the dipole moment of the water molecules has been determined as a function of their depth in the membrane. Previous indirect estimates of the electrostatic potential within phospholipid membranes imply an enormous electric field of 10 8 –10 9 V m −1 , which is likely to have great significance in controlling the conformation of translocating membrane proteins and in the transfer of ions and molecules across the membrane. We have calculated the membrane potential for DMPG bilayers and found ∼1 V (∼2 ⋅ 10 8 V m −1 ) when in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and ∼1.4 V (∼2.8 ⋅ 10 8 V m −1 ) when in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The number of water molecules for a fully hydrated DMPG membrane has been estimated to be 9.7 molecules per lipid in the gel phase and 17.5 molecules in the fluid phase, considerably smaller than inferred experimentally for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3

  1. Structure and dynamics of water and lipid molecules in charged anionic DMPG lipid bilayer membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rønnest, A. K.; Peters, G. H.; Hansen, F. Y., E-mail: flemming@kemi.dtu.dk [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, IK 207 DTU, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Taub, H.; Miskowiec, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the University of Missouri Research Reactor,University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the influence of the valency of counter-ions on the structure of freestanding bilayer membranes of the anionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) lipid at 310 K and 1 atm. At this temperature, the membrane is in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The diffusion constant of water as a function of its depth in the membrane has been determined from mean-square-displacement calculations. Also, calculated incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering functions have been compared to experimental results and used to determine an average diffusion constant for all water molecules in the system. On extrapolating the diffusion constants inferred experimentally to a temperature of 310 K, reasonable agreement with the simulations is obtained. However, the experiments do not have the sensitivity to confirm the diffusion of a small component of water bound to the lipids as found in the simulations. In addition, the orientation of the dipole moment of the water molecules has been determined as a function of their depth in the membrane. Previous indirect estimates of the electrostatic potential within phospholipid membranes imply an enormous electric field of 10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} V m{sup −1}, which is likely to have great significance in controlling the conformation of translocating membrane proteins and in the transfer of ions and molecules across the membrane. We have calculated the membrane potential for DMPG bilayers and found ∼1 V (∼2 ⋅ 10{sup 8} V m{sup −1}) when in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and ∼1.4 V (∼2.8 ⋅ 10{sup 8} V m{sup −1}) when in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The number of water molecules for a fully hydrated DMPG membrane has been estimated to be 9.7 molecules per lipid in the gel phase and 17.5 molecules in the fluid phase, considerably smaller than inferred experimentally for 1

  2. Electron density analysis of the effects of sugars on the structure of lipid bilayers at low hydration - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenné, T.; Kent, B.; Koster, K.L.; Garvey, C.J.; Bryant, G. (ANSTO); (USD); (ANU); (RMIT)

    2012-02-06

    Small angle X-ray scattering is used to study the effects of sugars on membranes during dehydration. Previous work has shown that the bilayer and chain-chain repeat spacings of DPPC bilayers are relatively unaffected by the presence of sugars. In this work we present a preliminary analysis of the electron density profiles of DPPC in the presence of sugars at low hydration. The difficulties of determining the correct phasing are discussed. Sugars and other small solutes have been shown to have an important role in improving the tolerance of a range of species to desiccation and freezing. In particular it has been shown that sugars can stabilize membranes in the fluid membrane phase during dehydration, and in the fully dehydrated state. Equivalently, at a particular hydration, the presence of sugars lowers the transition temperature between the fluid and gel phases. There are two competing models for explaining the effects of sugars on membrane phase transition temperatures. One, designated the water replacement hypothesis (WRH) states that sugars hydrogen bond to phospholipid headgroups, thus hindering the fluid-gel phase transition. One version of this model suggests that certain sugars (such as trehalose) achieve the measured effects by inserting between the phospholipid head groups. An alternative model explains the observed effects of sugars in terms of the sugars effect on the hydration repulsion that develops between opposing membranes during dehydration. The hydration repulsion leads to a lateral compressive stress in the bilayer which squeezes adjacent lipids more closely together, resulting in a transition to the gel phase. When sugars are present, their osmotic and volumetric effects reduce the hydration repulsion, reduce the compressive stress in the membranes, and therefore tend to maintain the average lateral separation between lipids. This model is called the hydration forces explanation (HFE). We recently showed that neither mono- nor di

  3. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Simone; Vetter, Walter

    2009-03-23

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was approximately 90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were camembert, cheese. Differences in the fatty acid pattern of neutral and polar lipids were detected. The quantity of the fatty acids determined in the phospholipid fraction was divided by the factor 0.7 in order to convert the fatty acid content into the phospholipid content of the cheese samples. This factor is based on the contribution of 16:0 to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The resulting DPPC equivalents (DPPC(eq)) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese was 0.60%, 1.42% and 0.79%, respectively.

  4. Bilayer expurgated LDPC codes with uncoded relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Noor-A-Rahim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bilayer low-density parity-check (LDPC codes are an effective coding technique for decode-and-forward relaying, where the relay forwards extra parity bits to help the destination to decode the source bits correctly. In the existing bilayer coding scheme, these parity bits are protected by an error correcting code and assumed reliably available at the receiver. We propose an uncoded relaying scheme, where the extra parity bits are forwarded to the destination without any protection. Through density evolution analysis and simulation results, we show that our proposed scheme achieves better performance in terms of bit erasure probability than the existing relaying scheme. In addition, our proposed scheme results in lower complexity at the relay.

  5. Electrostatically confined quantum rings in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarenia, M; Pereira, J M; Peeters, F M; Farias, G A

    2009-12-01

    We propose a new system where electron and hole states are electrostatically confined into a quantum ring in bilayer graphene. These structures can be created by tuning the gap of the graphene bilayer using nanostructured gates or by position-dependent doping. The energy levels have a magnetic field (B(0)) dependence that is strikingly distinct from that of usual semiconductor quantum rings. In particular, the eigenvalues are not invariant under a B(0) --> -B(0) transformation and, for a fixed total angular momentum index m, their field dependence is not parabolic, but displays two minima separated by a saddle point. The spectra also display several anticrossings, which arise due to the overlap of gate-confined and magnetically confined states.

  6. The impact of resveratrol in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; de Ghellinck, Alexis; Fragneto, Giovanna

    The natural antioxidant resveratrol, contained in the skin of red grape and accordingly in their wines, is hold liable for health impacts such as cardiovascular protection and anti-oxidative effect. Clinical trials of resveratrol as prophylactic or even therapeutic drug are ongoing. However, basic...... knowledge on its probable working mechanism is rare. In this biophysical study, neutron reflectometry was used to investigate the direct impact of resveratrol on lipid membranes with solid supported bilayers. When interacting with di- palmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline (DPPC) bilayers, resveratrol accumulates...... in between the headgroups but is absent in the hydrophobic core. Without a biogenic removal mechanism, the headgroup region may host up to ~25 mol% of resveratrol. The average thickness and the interfacial roughness of the headgroup layer are increased. From the structural results, the average tilting...

  7. Electrically Controllable Magnetism in Twisted Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Arraga, Luis A; Lado, J L; Guinea, Francisco; San-Jose, Pablo

    2017-09-08

    Twisted graphene bilayers develop highly localized states around AA-stacked regions for small twist angles. We show that interaction effects may induce either an antiferromagnetic or a ferromagnetic (FM) polarization of said regions, depending on the electrical bias between layers. Remarkably, FM-polarized AA regions under bias develop spiral magnetic ordering, with a relative 120° misalignment between neighboring regions due to a frustrated antiferromagnetic exchange. This remarkable spiral magnetism emerges naturally without the need of spin-orbit coupling, and competes with the more conventional lattice-antiferromagnetic instability, which interestingly develops at smaller bias under weaker interactions than in monolayer graphene, due to Fermi velocity suppression. This rich and electrically controllable magnetism could turn twisted bilayer graphene into an ideal system to study frustrated magnetism in two dimensions.

  8. Ultrafast lithium diffusion in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Matthias; Paolucci, Federico; Popovic, Jelena; Ostrovsky, Pavel M.; Maier, Joachim; Smet, Jurgen H.

    2017-09-01

    Solids that simultaneously conduct electrons and ions are key elements for the mass transfer and storage required in battery electrodes. Single-phase materials with a high electronic and high ionic conductivity at room temperature are hard to come by, and therefore multiphase systems with separate ion and electron channels have been put forward instead. Here we report on bilayer graphene as a single-phase mixed conductor that demonstrates Li diffusion faster than in graphite and even surpassing the diffusion of sodium chloride in liquid water. To measure Li diffusion, we have developed an on-chip electrochemical cell architecture in which the redox reaction that forces Li intercalation is localized only at a protrusion of the device so that the graphene bilayer remains unperturbed from the electrolyte during operation. We performed time-dependent Hall measurements across spatially displaced Hall probes to monitor the in-plane Li diffusion kinetics within the graphene bilayer and measured a diffusion coefficient as high as 7 × 10-5 cm2 s-1.

  9. Self-folding graphene-polymer bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Tao [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Yoon, ChangKyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Jin, Qianru [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Li, Mingen [Department of Physics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Liu, Zewen [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gracias, David H., E-mail: dgracias@jhu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    In order to incorporate the extraordinary intrinsic thermal, electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of graphene with three dimensional (3D) flexible substrates, we introduce a solvent-driven self-folding approach using graphene-polymer bilayers. A polymer (SU-8) film was spin coated atop chemically vapor deposited graphene films on wafer substrates and graphene-polymer bilayers were patterned with or without metal electrodes using photolithography, thin film deposition, and etching. After patterning, the bilayers were released from the substrates and they self-folded to form fully integrated, curved, and folded structures. In contrast to planar graphene sensors on rigid substrates, we assembled curved and folded sensors that are flexible and they feature smaller form factors due to their 3D geometry and large surface areas due to their multiple rolled architectures. We believe that this approach could be used to assemble a range of high performance 3D electronic and optical devices of relevance to sensing, diagnostics, wearables, and energy harvesting.

  10. Ion beam mixing isotopic metal bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, C J [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Kenny, M J [CSIRO, Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1994-12-31

    In order to obtain an insight into the mechanisms of ion-solid interactions, bilayer targets can be prepared from two different isotopes. A mixing study SIMS is to be carried out using specially grown monocrystalline bilayers of {sup 58}Ni / {sup 60}Ni. An important aspect of the work is the preparation of high quality single-crystal thin films. The Ni layers will be grown on the (110) surface of pure Ni and verified for crystallinity using Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction and Rutherford Backscattering channelling analysis. The Pd bilayers will be grown on a Pd (100) surface. RHEED will be used to confirm the two-dimensional crystallinity of the surface before and after deposition of each layer, and channelling used to confirm bulk film crystallinity. Single crystal substrates are currently being prepared. Analysis of the Ni (110) surface using RHEED at 9 kV shows a streak spacing which corresponds to a lattice spacing of 2.47 {+-} 0.09 Angstroms. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Ion beam mixing isotopic metal bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, C.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Kenny, M.J. [CSIRO, Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1993-12-31

    In order to obtain an insight into the mechanisms of ion-solid interactions, bilayer targets can be prepared from two different isotopes. A mixing study SIMS is to be carried out using specially grown monocrystalline bilayers of {sup 58}Ni / {sup 60}Ni. An important aspect of the work is the preparation of high quality single-crystal thin films. The Ni layers will be grown on the (110) surface of pure Ni and verified for crystallinity using Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction and Rutherford Backscattering channelling analysis. The Pd bilayers will be grown on a Pd (100) surface. RHEED will be used to confirm the two-dimensional crystallinity of the surface before and after deposition of each layer, and channelling used to confirm bulk film crystallinity. Single crystal substrates are currently being prepared. Analysis of the Ni (110) surface using RHEED at 9 kV shows a streak spacing which corresponds to a lattice spacing of 2.47 {+-} 0.09 Angstroms. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Molecular dynamics modelling of EGCG clusters on ceramide bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Jingjie; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yong-Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, 138632 (Singapore)

    2015-12-31

    A novel method of atomistic modelling and characterization of both pure ceramide and mixed lipid bilayers is being developed, using only the General Amber ForceField. Lipid bilayers modelled as pure ceramides adopt hexagonal packing after equilibration, and the area per lipid and bilayer thickness are consistent with previously reported theoretical results. Mixed lipid bilayers are modelled as a combination of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. This model is shown to be stable after equilibration. Green tea extract, also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is introduced as a spherical cluster on the surface of the mixed lipid bilayer. It is demonstrated that the cluster is able to bind to the bilayers as a cluster without diffusing into the surrounding water.

  13. Cholesterol Protects the Oxidized Lipid Bilayer from Water Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owen, Michael C; Kulig, Waldemar; Rog, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    In an effort to delineate how cholesterol protects membrane structure under oxidative stress conditions, we monitored the changes to the structure of lipid bilayers comprising 30 mol% cholesterol and an increasing concentration of Class B oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC...... in a characteristic reduction in bilayer thickness and increase in area per lipid, thereby increasing the exposure of the membrane hydrophobic region to water. However, cholesterol was observed to help reduce water injury by moving into the bilayer core and forming more hydrogen bonds with the oxPLs. Cholesterol also...... resists altering its tilt angle, helping to maintain membrane integrity. Water that enters the 1-nm-thick core region remains part of the bulk water on either side of the bilayer, with relatively few water molecules able to traverse through the bilayer. In cholesterol-rich membranes, the bilayer does...

  14. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396–10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure–activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales

  15. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M., E-mail: fmarassi@sbmri.org [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396–10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure–activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales.

  16. Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of lipid molecules embedded in a bilayer membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühler, Paul; Weber, Max; Lohmüller, Theobald

    2014-06-25

    We demonstrate a strategy for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of supported lipid membranes with arrays of plasmonic nanoantennas. Colloidal lithography refined with plasma etching is used to synthesize arrays of triangular shaped gold nanoparticles. Reducing the separation distance between the triangle tips leads to plasmonic coupling and to a strong enhancement of the electromagnetic field in the nanotriangle gap. As a result, the Raman scattering intensity of molecules that are located at this plasmonic "hot-spot" can be increased by several orders of magnitude. The nanoantenna array is then embedded with a supported phospholipid membrane which is fluid at room temperature and spans the antenna gap. This configuration offers the advantage that molecules that are mobile within the bilayer membrane can enter the "hot-spot" region via diffusion and can therefore be measured by SERS without static entrapment or adsorption of the molecules to the antenna itself.

  17. Edge states in gated bilayer-monolayer graphene ribbons and bilayer domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakhani, M.; Zarenia, M.; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Using the effective continuum model, the electron energy spectrum of gated bilayer graphene with a step-like region of decoupled graphene layers at the edge of the sample is studied. Different types of coupled-decoupled interfaces are considered, i.e., zigzag (ZZ) and armchair junctions, which result in significant different propagating states. Two non-valley-polarized conducting edge states are observed for ZZ type, which are mainly located around the ZZ-ended graphene layers. Additionally, we investigated both BA-BA and BA-AB domain walls in the gated bilayer graphene within the continuum approximation. Unlike the BA-BA domain wall, which exhibits gapped insulating behaviour, the domain walls surrounded by different stackings of bilayer regions feature valley-polarized edge states. Our findings are consistent with other theoretical calculations, such as from the tight-binding model and first-principles calculations, and agree with experimental observations.

  18. Hybrid electrospun chitosan-phospholipids nanofibers for transdermal drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Gorzelanny, Christian; Halter, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (Ch) polysaccharide was mixed with phospholipids (P) to generate electrospun hybrid nanofibers intended to be used as platforms for transdermal drug delivery. Ch/P nanofibers exibithed average diameters ranging from 248 +/- 94 nm to 600 +/- 201 nm, depending on the amount of phospholipids...... used. Fourier Transformed Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) data suggested the occurrence of electrostatic interactions between amine groups of chitosan with the phospholipid counterparts. The nanofibers were shown to be stable for at least 7 days in Phosphate Buffer...... culture plate (control). The release of curcumin, diclofenac and vitamin B12, as model drugs, from Ch/P hybrid nanofibers was investigated, demonstrating their potential utilization as a transdermal drug delivery system....

  19. Stability of sonicated aqueous suspensions of phospholipids under air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, R; Forward, R; Samsonoff, C

    1991-12-01

    The stability of phospholipids in liposomal aqueous suspension against oxidative degradation in air was investigated using spectrophotometric indices, glutathione peroxidase reactivity and thin layer chromatography. Zwitterionic phospholipid was found to be susceptible to degradation via oxidation of polyunsaturated hydrocarbon chains and ester hydrolysis, producing oxidized lysophosphatide and free fatty acid derivatives. These products were characterized as hydroperoxides based on their reactivity with the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase isolated from human erythrocytes. Lecithin in Tris buffer was more resistant to hydrolysis than in water. The sonication of 8.0 mM of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SB-PC) suspension in 0.1 M Tris (pH 7.5) in the presence of air produced relatively high concentration of conjugated diene hydroperoxide, but a small amount of hydrolyzed products. Anionic phospholipids, such as egg-phosphatidylglycerol (egg-PG), demonstrated higher resistance to air oxidation than the zwitterionic lecithin, but its oxidation was promoted by sonication.

  20. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauff, Simone; Vetter, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was ∼90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were eq ) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese was 0.60%, 1.42% and 0.79%, respectively

  1. The cytosolic domain of T-cell receptor ζ associates with membranes in a dynamic equilibrium and deeply penetrates the bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kerstin; Eells, Rebecca; Heinrich, Frank; Rintoul, Stefanie; Josey, Brian; Shekhar, Prabhanshu; Lösche, Mathias; Stern, Lawrence J

    2017-10-27

    Interactions between lipid bilayers and the membrane-proximal regions of membrane-associated proteins play important roles in regulating membrane protein structure and function. The T-cell antigen receptor is an assembly of eight single-pass membrane-spanning subunits on the surface of T lymphocytes that initiates cytosolic signaling cascades upon binding antigens presented by MHC-family proteins on antigen-presenting cells. Its ζ-subunit contains multiple cytosolic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs involved in signal transduction, and this subunit by itself is sufficient to couple extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling events. Interactions of the cytosolic domain of ζ (ζ cyt ) with acidic lipids have been implicated in the initiation and regulation of transmembrane signaling. ζ cyt is unstructured in solution. Interaction with acidic phospholipids induces structure, but its disposition when bound to lipid bilayers is controversial. Here, using surface plasmon resonance and neutron reflection, we characterized the interaction of ζ cyt with planar lipid bilayers containing mixtures of acidic and neutral lipids. We observed two binding modes of ζ cyt to the bilayers in dynamic equilibrium: one in which ζ cyt is peripherally associated with lipid headgroups and one in which it penetrates deeply into the bilayer. Such an equilibrium between the peripherally bound and embedded forms of ζ cyt apparently controls accessibility of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation signal transduction pathway. Our results reconcile conflicting findings of the ζ structure reported in previous studies and provide a framework for understanding how lipid interactions regulate motifs to tyrosine kinases and may regulate the T-cell antigen receptor biological activities for this cell-surface receptor system.

  2. Effects of Lateral and Terminal Chains of X-Shaped Bolapolyphiles with Oligo(phenylene ethynylene Cores on Self-Assembly Behavior. Part 2: Domain Formation by Self-Assembly in Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Werner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecular self-assembly of membrane constituents within a phospholipid bilayer creates complex functional platforms in biological cells that operate in intracellular signaling, trafficking and membrane remodeling. Synthetic polyphilic compounds of macromolecular or small size can be incorporated into artificial phospholipid bilayers. Featuring three or four moieties of different philicities, they reach beyond ordinary amphiphilicity and open up avenues to new functions and interaction concepts. Here, we have incorporated a series of X-shaped bolapolyphiles into DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayers of giant unilamellar vesicles. The bolapolyphiles consist of a rod-like oligo(phenylene ethynylene (OPE core, hydrophilic glycerol-based headgroups with or without oligo(ethylene oxide expansions at both ends and two lateral alkyl chains attached near the center of the OPE core. In the absence of DPPC and water, the compounds showed thermotropic liquid-crystalline behavior with a transition between polyphilic and amphiphilic assembly (see part 1 in this issue. In DPPC membranes, various trends in the domain morphologies were observed upon structure variations, which entailed branched alkyl chains of various sizes, alkyl chain semiperfluorination and size expansion of the headgroups. Observed effects on domain morphology are interpreted in the context of the bulk behavior (part 1 and of a model that was previously developed based on spectroscopic and physicochemical data.

  3. Intercalation of small hydrophobic molecules in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worcester, D.L.; Hamacher, K.; Kaiser, H.; Kulasekere, R.; Torbet, J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Partitioning of small hydrophobic molecules into lipid bilayers containing cholesterol has been studied using the 2XC diffractometer at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Locations of the compounds were determined by Fourier difference methods with data from both deuterated and undeuterated compounds introduced into the bilayers from the vapor phase. Data fitting procedures were developed for determining how well the compounds were localized. The compounds were found to be localized in a narrow region at the center of the hydrophobic layer, between the two halves of the bilayer. The structures are therefore intercalated structures with the long axis of the molecules in the plane of the bilayer.

  4. Electronic transport of bilayer graphene with asymmetry line defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiao-Ming; Chen Chan; Liang Ying; Kou Su-Peng; Wu Ya-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the quantum properties of a bilayer graphene with (asymmetry) line defects. The localized states are found around the line defects. Thus, the line defects on one certain layer of the bilayer graphene can lead to an electric transport channel. By adding a bias potential along the direction of the line defects, we calculate the electric conductivity of bilayer graphene with line defects using the Landauer–Büttiker theory, and show that the channel affects the electric conductivity remarkably by comparing the results with those in a perfect bilayer graphene. This one-dimensional line electric channel has the potential to be applied in nanotechnology engineering. (paper)

  5. Intercalation of small hydrophobic molecules in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worcester, D.L.; Hamacher, K.; Kaiser, H.; Kulasekere, R.; Torbet, J.

    1994-01-01

    Partitioning of small hydrophobic molecules into lipid bilayers containing cholesterol has been studied using the 2XC diffractometer at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Locations of the compounds were determined by Fourier difference methods with data from both deuterated and undeuterated compounds introduced into the bilayers from the vapor phase. Data fitting procedures were developed for determining how well the compounds were localized. The compounds were found to be localized in a narrow region at the center of the hydrophobic layer, between the two halves of the bilayer. The structures are therefore intercalated structures with the long axis of the molecules in the plane of the bilayer

  6. Spontaneous adsorption of coiled-coil model peptides K and E to a mixed lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhackova, Kristyna; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; Kirsch, Sonja; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2015-03-26

    A molecular description of the lipid-protein interactions underlying the adsorption of proteins to membranes is crucial for understanding, for example, the specificity of adsorption or the binding strength of a protein to a bilayer, or for characterizing protein-induced changes of membrane properties. In this paper, we extend an automated in silico assay (DAFT) for binding studies and apply it to characterize the adsorption of the model fusion peptides E and K to a mixed phospholipid/cholesterol membrane using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. In addition, we couple the coarse-grained protocol to reverse transformation to atomistic resolution, thereby allowing to study molecular interactions with high detail. The experimentally observed differential binding of the peptides E and K to membranes, as well as the increased binding affinity of helical over unstructered peptides, could be well reproduced using the polarizable Martini coarse-grained (CG) force field. Binding to neutral membranes is shown to be dominated by initial binding of the positively charged N-terminus to the phospholipid headgroup region, followed by membrane surface-aligned insertion of the peptide at the interface between the hydrophobic core of the membrane and its polar headgroup region. Both coarse-grained and atomistic simulations confirm a before hypothesized snorkeling of lysine side chains for the membrane-bound state of the peptide K. Cholesterol was found to be enriched in peptide vicinity, which is probably of importance for the mechanism of membrane fusion. The applied sequential multiscale method, using coarse-grained simulations for the slow adsorption process of peptides to membranes followed by backward transformation to atomistic detail and subsequent atomistic simulations of the preformed peptide-lipid complexes, is shown to be a versatile approach to study the interactions of peptides or proteins with biomembranes.

  7. Bilayer lipid composition modulates the activity of dermaseptins, polycationic antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclohier, Hervé

    2006-05-01

    The primary targets of defense peptides are plasma membranes, and the induced irreversible depolarization is sufficient to exert antimicrobial activity although secondary modes of action might be at work. Channels or pores underlying membrane permeabilization are usually quite large with single-channel conductances two orders of magnitude higher than those exhibited by physiological channels involved, e.g., in excitability. Accordingly, the ion specificity and selectivity are quite low. Whereas, e.g., peptaibols favor cation transport, polycationic or basic peptides tend to form anion-specific pores. With dermaseptin B2, a 33 residue long and mostly alpha-helical peptide isolated from the skin of the South American frog Phyllomedusa bicolor, we found that the ion specificity of its pores induced in bilayers is modulated by phospholipid-charged headgroups. This suggests mixed lipid-peptide pore lining instead of the more classical barrel-stave model. Macroscopic conductance is nearly voltage independent, and concentration dependence suggests that the pores are mainly formed by dermaseptin tetramers. The two most probable single-channel events are well resolved at 200 and 500 pS (in 150 mM NaCl) with occasional other equally spaced higher or lower levels. In contrast to previous molecular dynamics previsions, this study demonstrates that dermaseptins are able to form pores, although a related analog (B6) failed to induce any significant conductance. Finally, the model of the pore we present accounts for phospholipid headgroups intercalated between peptide helices lining the pore and for one of the most probable single-channel conductance.

  8. Stabilization of functional recombinant cannabinoid receptor CB(2 in detergent micelles and lipid bilayers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vukoti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs is among the most challenging tasks for modern membrane biology. For studies by high resolution analytical methods, these integral membrane receptors have to be expressed in large quantities, solubilized from cell membranes and purified in detergent micelles, which may result in a severe destabilization and a loss of function. Here, we report insights into differential effects of detergents, lipids and cannabinoid ligands on stability of the recombinant cannabinoid receptor CB(2, and provide guidelines for preparation and handling of the fully functional receptor suitable for a wide array of downstream applications. While we previously described the expression in Escherichia coli, purification and liposome-reconstitution of multi-milligram quantities of CB(2, here we report an efficient stabilization of the recombinant receptor in micelles - crucial for functional and structural characterization. The effects of detergents, lipids and specific ligands on structural stability of CB(2 were assessed by studying activation of G proteins by the purified receptor reconstituted into liposomes. Functional structure of the ligand binding pocket of the receptor was confirmed by binding of (2H-labeled ligand measured by solid-state NMR. We demonstrate that a concerted action of an anionic cholesterol derivative, cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS and high affinity cannabinoid ligands CP-55,940 or SR-144,528 are required for efficient stabilization of the functional fold of CB(2 in dodecyl maltoside (DDM/CHAPS detergent solutions. Similar to CHS, the negatively charged phospholipids with the serine headgroup (PS exerted significant stabilizing effects in micelles while uncharged phospholipids were not effective. The purified CB(2 reconstituted into lipid bilayers retained functionality for up to several weeks enabling high resolution structural studies of this GPCR at

  9. Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein increases the antiatherogenic potential of high density lipoproteins in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van Haperen (Rien); A. van Tol (Arie); P. Vermeulen; M. Jauhiainen; T. van Gent (Teus); P.M. van den Berg (Paul); S. Ehnholm (Sonja); A.W.M. van der Kamp (Arthur); M.P.G. de Crom (Rini); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPlasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) transfers phospholipids between lipoprotein particles and alters high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction patterns in vitro, but its physiological function is poorly understood. Transgenic mice that overexpress

  10. Soft contact lens biomaterials from bioinspired phospholipid polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tatsuro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2006-03-01

    Soft contact lens (SCL) biomaterials originated from the discovery of a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly[HEMA])-based hydrogel in 1960. Incorporation of hydrophilic polymers into poly(HEMA) hydrogels was performed in the 1970-1980s, which brought an increase in the equilibrium water content, leading to an enhancement of the oxygen permeability. Nowadays, the poly(HEMA)-based hydrogels have been applied in disposable SCL. At the same time, high oxygen-permeable silicone hydrogels were produced, which made it possible to continually wear SCL. Recently, numerous trials for improving the water wettability of silicone hydrogels have been performed. However, little attention has been paid to improving their anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility. Since biomimetic phospholipid polymers possess excellent anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility they have the potential to play a valuable role in the surface modification of the silicone hydrogel. The representative phospholipid polymers containing a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) unit suppressed nonspecific protein adsorption, increased cell compatibility and contributed to blood compatible biomaterials. The MPC polymer coating on the silicone hydrogel improved its water wettability and biocompatibility, while maintaining high oxygen permeability compared with the original silicone hydrogel. Furthermore, the newly prepared phospholipid-type intermolecular crosslinker made it possible to synthesize a 100% phospholipid polymer hydrogel that can enhance the anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility. In this review, the authors discuss how polymer hydrogels should be designed in order to obtain a biocompatible SCL and future perspectives.

  11. Phospholipid transfer protein activity and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The plasma activity of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which has multifaceted functions in lipoprotein metabolism and in inflammatory responses, is elevated in insulin resistant conditions. We determined the association of plasma PLTP activity with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

  12. PHOSPHOLIPIDS OF FIVE PSEUDOMONAD ARCHETYPES FOR DIFFERENT TOLUENE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) was used to determine phospholipid profiles for five reference pseudomonad strains harboring distinct toluene catabolic pathways: Pseudomonas putida mt-2, Pseudomonas putida F1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, B...

  13. Effects of phospholipids in the diet on biochemical factors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the influence of dietary phospholipids biochemical factors parameters of beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles. Juveniles were fed formulated diet with four varying dietary levels of PL, that is, 0 (D1), 2 (D2), 4 (D3) and 6% (D4). At the end of the experimental period (56 days), there were ...

  14. Phospholipid Complex Technique for Superior Bioavailability of Phytoconstituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattamanchi Gnananath

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoconstituents have been utilized as medicines for thousands of years, yet their application is limited owing to major hurdles like deficit lipid solubility, large molecular size and degradation in the gastric environment of gut. Recently, phospholipid-complex technique has unveiled in addressing these stumbling blocks either by enhancing the solubilizing capacity or its potentiating ability to pass through the biological membranes and it also protects the active herbal components from degradation. Hence, this phospholipid-complex-technique can enable researchers to deliver the phytoconstituents into systemic circulation by using certain conventional dosage forms like tablets and capsules. This review highlights the unique property of phospholipids in drug delivery, their role as adjuvant in health benefits, and their application in the herbal medicine systems to improve the bioavailability of active herbal components. Also we summarize the prerequisites for phytosomes preparation like the selection of type of phytoconstituents, solvents used, various methods employed in phytosomal preparation and its characterization. Further we discuss the key findings of recent research work conducted on phospholipid-based delivery systems which can enable new directions and advancements to the development of herbal dosage forms.

  15. Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome In Nigeria: Report Of Five Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five cases of secondary anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) are presented and literature reviewed. Pregnancy loss was the most common presentation but neurologic manifestations are also seen. IgG ACA was more commonly seen than IgM ACA. Although APS has been infrequently reported in black Africans, ...

  16. An averaged polarizable potential for multiscale modeling in phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Sarah; List, Nanna Holmgaard; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2017-01-01

    A set of average atom-centered charges and polarizabilities has been developed for three types of phospholipids for use in polarizable embedding calculations. The lipids investigated are 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 1-palmitoyl...

  17. Enzyme catalysed production of phospholipids with modified fatty acid profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk

    2006-01-01

    Phospholipider har stor anvendelse i levnedsmiddel-, kosmetik-, og farmaceutiske produkter for blandt andet deres emulgerende egenskaber samt evne til at danne liposomer. Interessen for at ændre på phospholipidernes struktur er stigende. Strukturændringer resulterer i ændret funktionalitet. Ved u...

  18. Asymmetric incorporation of Na+, K+-ATPase into phospholipid vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, R.L.; Verkleij, A.J.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Lane, L.K.; Schwartz, A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    Purified lamb kidney Na+, K+-ATPase, consisting solely of the Mτ = 95,000 catalytic subunit and the Mτ- 44,000 glycoprotein, was solubilized with Triton X-100 and incorporated into unilamellar phospholipid vesicles. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy of the vesicles showed intramembranous particles

  19. Role of phospholipids in the pathophysiology of the gut-liver axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petruzzelli, M.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipids represent essential components of bile. Together with bile acids and cholesterol, phospholipids form “mixed micelles”. If sufficient amounts of phospholipids are available, no simple bile acid micelles are present, with prevention of bile acid toxicity and cholesterol crystallization.

  20. Orientation and Order of the Amide Group of Sphingomyelin in Bilayers Determined by Solid-State NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumori, Nobuaki; Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Maeta, Yoshiko; Murata, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) are considered essential for the formation of lipid rafts; however, the types of molecular interactions involved in this process, such as intermolecular hydrogen bonding, are not well understood. Since, unlike other phospholipids, SM is characterized by the presence of an amide group, it is essential to determine the orientation of the amide and its order in the lipid bilayers to understand the nature of the hydrogen bonds in lipid rafts. For this study, 1′-13C-2-15N-labeled and 2′-13C-2-15N-labeled SMs were prepared, and the rotational-axis direction and order parameters of the SM amide in bilayers were determined based on 13C and 15N chemical-shift anisotropies and intramolecular 13C-15N dipole coupling constants. Results revealed that the amide orientation was minimally affected by Chol, whereas the order was enhanced significantly in its presence. Thus, Chol likely promotes the formation of an intermolecular hydrogen-bond network involving the SM amide without significantly changing its orientation, providing a higher order to the SM amide. To our knowledge, this study offers new insight into the significance of the SM amide orientation with regard to molecular recognition in lipid rafts, and therefore provides a deeper understanding of the mechanism of their formation. PMID:26083921

  1. Aqueous magnesium as an environmental selection pressure in the evolution of phospholipid membranes on early earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalai, Punam; Ustriyana, Putu; Sahai, Nita

    2018-02-01

    Early compartmentalization of simple biomolecules by membrane bilayers was, presumably, a critical step in the emergence of the first cell-like entities, protocells. Their membranes were likely composed of single chain amphiphiles (SCAs), but pure SCA membranes especially those with short-chains are highly unstable towards divalent cations, which are ubiquitous in aqueous environments. The prebiotic synthesis of phospholipids (PLs), even in only trace amounts, may also have been possible. PL membranes are much more stable towards divalent cations. Here, we show the transition of fatty acid membranes to mixed fatty acid-PL and, finally, to PL membranes in the presence of Mg2+, which acts as an environmental selection pressure, and we propose different mechanisms for the observed increased Mg2+-immunity. The "fatal" concentration ([Mg2+]fatal) at which vesicles are disrupted increased dramatically by an order of magnitude from OA to mixed to POPC vesicles. Two mechanisms for the increasing immunity were determined. The negative charge density of the vesicles decreased with increasing POPC content, so more Mg2+ was required for disruption. More interestingly, Mg2+ preferentially bound to and abstracted OA from mixed lipid membranes, resulting in relatively POPC-enriched vesicles compared to the initial ratio. The effect was the most dramatic for the largest initial OA-POPC ratio representing the most primitive protocells. Thus, Mg2+ acted to evolve the mixed membrane composition towards PL enrichment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of selective lipid abstraction from mixed SCA-PL vesicles. These results may hold implications for accommodating prebiotic Mg2+-promoted processes such as non-enzymatic RNA polymerization on early Earth.

  2. Dynamics and energetics of the mammalian phosphatidylinositol transfer protein phospholipid exchange cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabon, Aby; Orłowski, Adam; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Vuorio, Joni; Javanainen, Matti; Róg, Tomasz; Lönnfors, Max; McDermott, Mark I; Siebert, Garland; Somerharju, Pentti; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Bankaitis, Vytas A

    2017-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-transfer proteins (PITPs) regulate phosphoinositide signaling in eukaryotic cells. The defining feature of PITPs is their ability to exchange phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) molecules between membranes, and this property is central to PITP-mediated regulation of lipid signaling. However, the details of the PITP-mediated lipid exchange cycle remain entirely obscure. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the mammalian StART-like PtdIns/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer protein PITPα, both on membrane bilayers and in solvated systems, informed downstream biochemical analyses that tested key aspects of the hypotheses generated by the molecular dynamics simulations. These studies provided five key insights into the PITPα lipid exchange cycle: (i) interaction of PITPα with the membrane is spontaneous and mediated by four specific protein substructures; (ii) the ability of PITPα to initiate closure around the PtdCho ligand is accompanied by loss of flexibility of two helix/loop regions, as well as of the C-terminal helix; (iii) the energy barrier of phospholipid extraction from the membrane is lowered by a network of hydrogen bonds between the lipid molecule and PITPα; (iv) the trajectory of PtdIns or PtdCho into and through the lipid-binding pocket is chaperoned by sets of PITPα residues conserved throughout the StART-like PITP family; and (v) conformational transitions in the C-terminal helix have specific functional involvements in PtdIns transfer activity. Taken together, these findings provide the first mechanistic description of key aspects of the PITPα PtdIns/PtdCho exchange cycle and offer a rationale for the high conservation of particular sets of residues across evolutionarily distant members of the metazoan StART-like PITP family. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Supercritical CO2 induces marked changes in membrane phospholipids composition in Escherichia coli K12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Sabrina; Anesi, Andrea; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Spilimbergo, Sara; Guella, Graziano; Jousson, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) treatment is one of the most promising alternative techniques for pasteurization of both liquid and solid food products. The inhibitory effect of SC-CO2 on bacterial growth has been investigated in different species, but the precise mechanism of action remains unknown. Membrane permeabilization has been proposed to be the first event in SC-CO2-mediated inactivation. Flow cytometry, high performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry and NMR analyses were performed to investigate the effect of SC-CO2 treatment on membrane lipid profile and membrane permeability in Escherichia coli K12. After 15 min of SC-CO2 treatment at 120 bar and 35 °C, the majority of bacterial cells dissipated their membrane potential (95 %) and lost membrane integrity, as 81 % become partially permeabilized and 18 % fully permeabilized. Membrane permeabilization was associated with a 20 % decrease in bacterial biovolume and to a strong (>50 %) reduction in phosphatidylglycerol (PG) membrane lipids, without altering the fatty acid composition and the degree of unsaturation of acyl chains. PGs are thought to play an important role in membrane stability, by reducing motion of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) along the membrane bilayer, therefore promoting the formation of inter-lipid hydrogen bonds. In addition, the decrease in intracellular pH induced by SC-CO2 likely alters the chemical properties of phospholipids and the PE/PG ratio. Biophysical effects of SC-CO2 thus cause a strong perturbation of membrane architecture in E. coli, and such alterations are likely associated with its strong inactivation effect.

  4. Aharonov-Bohm effect in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Soo

    2017-06-01

    We investigate Aharonov-Bohm effect in bilayer graphene. We consider a setup of n- p (n‧)-n junction with Aharonov-Bohm loop connected in the transmission region. In the presence of trigonal warping we show that, due to the anisotropic dispersion of eigenspectrum, the Aharonov-Bohm interference depends on the geometry of junction: it exists for armchair interface but vanishes for zigzag interface. For the armchair interface, it is demonstrated that the period of Aharonov-Bohm oscillation is Φ0 = h / e and the amplitude of oscillation can be varied with incident energy and the barrier height of the junction.

  5. Fano resonances in bilayer phosphorene nanoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Wu, Zhenhua; Li, X. J.; Li, L. L.; Chen, Qiao; Li, Yun-Mei; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Tunable transport properties and Fano resonances are predicted in a circular bilayer phosphorene nanoring. The conductance exhibits Fano resonances with varying incident energy and applied perpendicular magnetic field. These Fano resonance peaks can be accurately fitted with the well known Fano curves. When a magnetic field is applied to the nanoring, the conductance oscillates periodically with magnetic field which is reminiscent of the Aharonov–Bohm effect. Fano resonances are tightly related to the discrete states in the central nanoring, some of which are tunable by the magnetic field.

  6. Vortex dynamics in ferromagnetic/superconducting bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplak, M.Z.; Adamus, Z. [Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys, PL-02668 Warsaw, (Poland); Konczykowski, M. [CEA, DSM, DRECAM, Lab Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS-UMR 7642, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Zhu, L.Y.; Chien, C.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys and Astron, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The dependence of vortex dynamics on the geometry of magnetic domain pattern is studied in the superconducting/ferromagnetic bilayers, in which niobium is a superconductor, and Co/Pt multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy serves as a ferromagnetic layer. Magnetic domain patterns with different density of domains per surface area and different domain size, w, are obtained for Co/Pt with different thickness of Pt. The dense patterns of domains with the size comparable to the magnetic penetration depth (w {>=} {lambda}) produce large vortex pinning and smooth vortex penetration, while less dense patterns with larger domains (w {>=}{>=} {lambda}) enhance pinning less effectively and result in flux jumps during flux motion. (authors)

  7. Phospholipid transfer from vesicles to high density lipoproteins, catalyzed by human plasma phospholipid transfer protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeny, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) catalyzes the mass transfer of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Partial purification of PLTP yielded proteins with apparent M/sub r/ = 59,000 and 40,000 by SDS-PAGE. PLTP activity was measured by transfer of [ 14 C]L-α-dipalmitoyl PC from egg-PC vesicles to HDL. Activity was enhanced at low pH (4.5) upon addition of β-mercaptoethanol while Ca +2 and Na + had no effect. E/sub act/ for facilitated PC transfer was 18.2 +/- 2 kcal/mol. The donor specificity of PLTP was examined using vesicles containing egg-PC plus cholesterol or sphingomyelin. The fluidity of the donor membrane (measured by fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene) correlated strongly with a decrease in PLTP activity. Phosphatidic acid did not affect activity. Increase in vesicle size reduced activity. The acceptor specificity of PLTP was examined using chemically modified HDL. PLTP activity increased up to 1.7-fold with an initial increase in negative charge and then decreased upon extensive modification. A mechanism is proposed where PLTP binds to vesicls and enhances the diffusion of PC into the medium where it is adsorbed by HDL

  8. Magnetically assisted bilayer composites for soft bending actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, S.H.; Na, Seon Hong; Park, Yong Lae

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically

  9. Molecular packing and area compressibility of lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.H.; King, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular packing of lipids and water in lipid bilayers is important for understanding bilayer mechanics and thermodynamics. Information on packing is most often obtained from x-ray or neutron diffraction measurements. Given the d spacing, composition, and partial specific volumes of the lipid and water, it is a simple matter to calculate the area per lipid molecule, bilayer thickness, and bilayer mass density. The partial specific volumes are commonly assumed to be those of bulk water and of lipid in excess water regardless of the degree of bilayer hydration. The authors present evidence here that these assumptions should be seriously questioned. At low hydrations, they find the head groups of egg and dioleoyl lecithin to be much less tightly packed than previously thought and the partial specific volume of water to be considerably smaller than 1 ml/g. Because the molecular packing affects the mechanical properties of bilayers, they use the results to reevaluate published experiments concerning the elastic area compressibility modulus of egg lecithin bilayers and the repulsive hydration force between bilayers

  10. Alpha-tocopherol inhibits pore formation in oxidized bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonnoy, P.; Karttunen, M.; Wong-Ekkabut, J.

    2017-01-01

    In biological membranes, alpha-tocopherols (α-toc; vitamin E) protect polyunsaturated lipids from free radicals. Although the interactions of α-toc with non-oxidized lipid bilayers have been studied, their effects on oxidized bilayers remain unknown. In this study, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD)

  11. Binding of Diphtheria Toxin to Phospholipids in Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alving, Carl R.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Urban, Katharine A.; Moss, Joel; Richards, Roberta L.; Sadoff, Jerald C.

    1980-04-01

    Diphtheria toxin bound to the phosphate portion of some, but not all, phospholipids in liposomes. Liposomes consisting of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol did not bind toxin. Addition of 20 mol% (compared to dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine) of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid, dicetyl phosphate, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, cardiolipin, or phosphatidylserine in the liposomes resulted in substantial binding of toxin. Inclusion of phosphatidylinositol in dimyristol phosphatidylcholine / cholesterol liposomes did not result in toxin binding. The calcium salt of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid was more effective than the sodium salt, and the highest level of binding occurred with liposomes consisting only of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (calcium salt) and cholesterol. Binding of toxin to liposomes was dependent on pH, and the pattern of pH dependence varied with liposomes having different compositions. Incubation of diphtheria toxin with liposomes containing dicetyl phosphate resulted in maximal binding at pH 3.6, whereas binding to liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol phosphate was maximal above pH 7. Toxin did not bind to liposomes containing 20 mol% of a free fatty acid (palmitic acid) or a sulfated lipid (3-sulfogalactosylceramide). Toxin binding to dicetyl phosphate or phosphatidylinositol phosphate was inhibited by UTP, ATP, phosphocholine, or p-nitrophenyl phosphate, but not by uracil. We conclude that (a) diphtheria toxin binds specifically to the phosphate portion of certain phospholipids, (b) binding to phospholipids in liposomes is dependent on pH, but is not due only to electrostatic interaction, and (c) binding may be strongly influenced by the composition of adjacent phospholipids that do not bind toxin. We propose that a minor membrane phospholipid (such as phosphatidylinositol phosphate or phosphatidic acid), or that some other phosphorylated membrane molecule (such as a phosphoprotein) may be important in the initial binding of

  12. Structure of the ripple phase of phospholipid multibilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Kheya; Raghunathan, V.A.; Katsaras, John

    2003-01-01

    We present electron density maps (EDMs) of the ripple phase formed by phosphorylcholine lipids such as dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), dihexadecyl phosphatidylcholine, and dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC). With the exception of DLPC, the rippled bilayers have a sawtooth shape in all the systems, with one arm being almost twice as long as the other. For DMPC and POPC bilayers, EDMs have been obtained at different temperatures at a fixed relative humidity, and the overall shape of the ripples and the ratio of the lengths of the two arms are found to be insensitive to temperature. EDMs of all the systems with saturated hydrocarbon chains suggest the existence of a mean chain tilt along the ripple wave vector. In the literature it is generally assumed that the asymmetry of the rippled bilayers (absence of a mirror plane normal to the ripple wave vector) arises from a sawtoothlike height profile. However, in the case of DLPC, the height profile is found to be almost symmetric and the asymmetry results mainly from different bilayer thicknesses in the two arms of the ripple. We also present EDMs of the metastable ripple phase of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, formed on cooling from the L α phase

  13. Penetration and fusion of phospholipid vesicles by lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H.

    1989-01-01

    The lysozyme-induced fusion of phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylethanolamine vesicles as studied at a wide range of pH is found to correlate well with the binding of this protein to the vesicles. An identical 6000 molecular weight segment of lysozyme at the N-terminal region is found to be protected from tryptic digestion when initially incubated with vesicles at several pH values. Only this segment is labeled by dansyl chloride, which is partitioned into the bilayer. These results suggest the penetration of one segment of lysozyme into the bilayer. Photoactivated labeling of the membrane-penetrating segment of lysozyme with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-([ 125 I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([ 125 I]TID) and subsequent identification of the labeled residues by Edman degradation and gamma-ray counting indicate that four amino acids from the N-terminal are located outside the hydrophobic core of the bilayer. Although treatment of the membrane-embedded segment with aminopeptidase failed to cleave any amino acids from the N-terminal, it appears that a loop of lysozyme segment near the N-terminal penetrates into the bilayer at acidic pH. A helical wheel diagram shows that the labeling is done mainly on one surface of the alpha-helix. The penetration kinetics as studied by time-dependent [ 125 I]TID labeling coincide with the fusion kinetics, strongly suggesting that the penetration of the lysozyme segment into the vesicles is the cause of the fusion

  14. Penetration and fusion of phospholipid vesicles by lysozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul)

    1989-10-01

    The lysozyme-induced fusion of phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylethanolamine vesicles as studied at a wide range of pH is found to correlate well with the binding of this protein to the vesicles. An identical 6000 molecular weight segment of lysozyme at the N-terminal region is found to be protected from tryptic digestion when initially incubated with vesicles at several pH values. Only this segment is labeled by dansyl chloride, which is partitioned into the bilayer. These results suggest the penetration of one segment of lysozyme into the bilayer. Photoactivated labeling of the membrane-penetrating segment of lysozyme with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)diazirine (({sup 125}I)TID) and subsequent identification of the labeled residues by Edman degradation and gamma-ray counting indicate that four amino acids from the N-terminal are located outside the hydrophobic core of the bilayer. Although treatment of the membrane-embedded segment with aminopeptidase failed to cleave any amino acids from the N-terminal, it appears that a loop of lysozyme segment near the N-terminal penetrates into the bilayer at acidic pH. A helical wheel diagram shows that the labeling is done mainly on one surface of the alpha-helix. The penetration kinetics as studied by time-dependent ({sup 125}I)TID labeling coincide with the fusion kinetics, strongly suggesting that the penetration of the lysozyme segment into the vesicles is the cause of the fusion.

  15. Peierls instability and optical properties of bilayer polyacene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Longlong, E-mail: zhanglonglong@tyut.edu.cn [The College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Xie, Shijie [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2017-05-03

    Highlights: • The Peierls instability of bilayer polyacene is discussed. • The external electric field effect on bilayer polyacene is discussed. • The pressure effect on bilayer polyacene is discussed. • The optical properties of bilayer polyacene are discussed. - Abstract: We reveal that bilayer polyacene can be the gapped state due to the intralayer Peierls instability. There are six topologically inequivalent Peierls-distorted structures and they are degenerate in energy. The external electric field can tune the Peierls gap and induce the semiconductor-to-metallic phase transitions. The optical conductivity spectra are calculated in an attempt to categorize the Peierls-distorted structures. The strength of the interlayer coupling essentially affects the electronic properties and the optical selection rules.

  16. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauff, Simone [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Vetter, Walter [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: w-vetter@uni-hohenheim.de

    2009-03-23

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was {approx}90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were <0.002-0.29% of total lipids from camembert, <0.002-0.12% of total lipids from mozzarella, and <0.002-0.18% of total lipids in a goat cream cheese. Differences in the fatty acid pattern of neutral and polar lipids were detected. The quantity of the fatty acids determined in the phospholipid fraction was divided by the factor 0.7 in order to convert the fatty acid content into the phospholipid content of the cheese samples. This factor is based on the contribution of 16:0 to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The resulting DPPC equivalents (DPPC{sub eq}) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese

  17. Asymmetric intermixing in Co/Ti bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suele, P.; Kotis, L.; Toth, L.; Menyhard, M.; Egelhoff, W.F.

    2008-01-01

    Recently we have studied the ion mixing of mass-anisotropic bilayer and found strong asymmetry depending on the succession of the layers [P. Suele, M. Menyhard, L. Kotis, J. Labar, W.F. Egelhoff Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 101 (2007) 043502]. The finding was explained by the mass difference of the constituents. To check the validity of explanation we studied the interface broadening of Co/Ti and Ti/Co bilayers due to low-energy ion bombardment. We have applied Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling and molecular dynamics simulation to determine the intermixing. Since the Co/Ti system is nearly mass isotropic the ballistic intermixing mechanism can be ruled out and no asymmetry is expected. In contrary to the expectation both methods showed asymmetry of intermixing at bombardment of 2 keV ion energy. The asymmetry vanishes progressively with decreasing ion energy. We suggest that atomic size-anisotropy could play some role in the enhancement of interdiffusion of Co in Ti

  18. Spontaneous bending of pre-stretched bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We discuss spontaneously bent configurations of pre-stretched bilayer sheets that can be obtained by tuning the pre-stretches in the two layers. The two-dimensional nonlinear plate model we use for this purpose is an adaptation of the one recently obtained for thin sheets of nematic elastomers, by means of a rigorous dimensional reduction argument based on the theory of Gamma-convergence (Agostiniani and DeSimone in Meccanica. doi:10.1007/s11012-017-0630-4, 2017, Math Mech Solids. doi:10.1177/1081286517699991, arXiv:1509.07003, 2017). We argue that pre-stretched bilayer sheets provide us with an interesting model system to study shape programming and morphing of surfaces in other, more complex systems, where spontaneous deformations are induced by swelling due to the absorption of a liquid, phase transformations, thermal or electro-magnetic stimuli. These include bio-mimetic structures inspired by biological systems from both the plant and the animal kingdoms.

  19. Transport measurements in superconductor/Heusler bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imort, Inga-Mareen; Fabretti, Savio; Thomas, Patrick; Reiss, Guenter; Thomas, Andy [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are two contrary phenomena due to their electronic properties. The investigation of superconductor (S)/ferromagnet (F) heterostructures has attracted a lot of scientific interest since they allow studying the interplay between superconductivity and ferromagnetism. Additionally, applications seem possible such as F/S/F spin valves and S/F/S π-junctions. Using transport- and magnetotransport-measurements, we investigate the behavior of the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} in NbTi/Co{sub 2}FeSi bilayers as a function of different layer thicknesses and for varying magnetic moments of the Co{sub 2}FeSi layers. Using rf-magnetron sputtering, NbTi/Co{sub 2}FeSi bilayers were grown on single-crystalline MgO(001) substrates and in-situ annealed at different temperatures. The layered character of our samples has been tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD) scans. The electronic and magnetic transport measurements have been performed between 3 and 300 K with the magnetic field up to 4 T oriented in the film plane. The dependence of T{sub c} on the NbTi- and Co{sub 2}FeSi-layer thickness enables an estimation of the interface transparency of the NbTi/Co{sub 2}FeSi barrier in the framework of recent theoretical models.

  20. Josephson tunneling in bilayer quantum Hall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Z.F.; Tsitsishvili, G.; Sawada, A.

    2012-01-01

    A Bose–Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (−e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ν=1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless. Our results explain recent experiments due to [L. Tiemann, Y. Yoon, W. Dietsche, K. von Klitzing, W. Wegscheider, Phys. Rev. B 80 (2009) 165120] and due to [Y. Yoon, L. Tiemann, S. Schmult, W. Dietsche, K. von Klitzing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 116802]. We predict also how the critical current changes as the sample is tilted in the magnetic field. -- Highlights: ► Composite bosons undergo Bose–Einstein condensation to form the bilayer quantum Hall state. ► A composite boson is a single electron bound to a flux quantum and carries one unit charge. ► Quantum coherence develops due to the condensation. ► Quantum coherence drives the supercurrent in each layer and the tunneling current. ► There exists the critical input current so that the tunneling current is coherent and dissipationless.

  1. Incorporation of Amphipathic Diblock Copolymer in Lipid Bilayer for Improving pH Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diblock copolymers (mPEG-b-PDPA, which were designed to possess pH-sensitivity as well as amphipathy, were used as an intelligent lock in the liposomal membrane. The so-called pH-sensitive liposomes were prepared by simple mixing of the synthesized mPEG-b-PDPA with phospholipids and cholesterol. Fluorescence polarization at pH 7.4 showed that the membrane stability of the hybrid liposome was significantly increased compared with the pure liposome. Therefore, in the neutral environment, the leakage of doxorubicin (DOX was inhibited. However, when pH decreased to 6.0, DOX release rate increased by 60% due to the escape of copolymer. The effects of the membrane composition and the PDPA segment length on bilayer membrane functions were investigated. These results revealed that the synthesized copolymers increased the difference in DOX cumulative release between pH 7.4 and 6.0, that is, improved the pH-controllability of the drug release from hybrid liposomes.

  2. Potassium-doped n-type bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takatoshi; Okigawa, Yuki; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2018-01-01

    Potassium-doped n-type bilayer graphene was obtained. Chemical vapor deposited bilayer and single layer graphene on copper (Cu) foils were used. After etching of Cu foils, graphene was dipped in potassium hydroxide aqueous solutions to dope potassium. Graphene on silicon oxide was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Raman spectroscopy. Both XPS and EDX spectra indicated potassium incorporation into the bilayer graphene via intercalation between the graphene sheets. The downward shift of the 2D peak position of bilayer graphene after the potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment was confirmed in Raman spectra, indicating that the KOH-treated bilayer graphene was doped with electrons. Electrical properties were measured using Hall bar structures. The Dirac points of bilayer graphene were shifted from positive to negative by the KOH treatment, indicating that the KOH-treated bilayer graphene was n-type conduction. For single layer graphene after the KOH treatment, although electron doping was confirmed from Raman spectra, the peak of potassium in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrum was not detected. The Dirac points of single layer graphene with and without the KOH treatment showed positive.

  3. Reliable Piezoelectricity in Bilayer WSe2 for Piezoelectric Nanogenerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Park, Jae Young; Cho, Eun Bi; Kim, Tae Yun; Han, Sang A; Kim, Tae-Ho; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Sung Kyun; Roh, Chang Jae; Yoon, Hong-Joon; Ryu, Hanjun; Seung, Wanchul; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Jaichan; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-08-01

    Recently, piezoelectricity has been observed in 2D atomically thin materials, such as hexagonal-boron nitride, graphene, and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Specifically, exfoliated monolayer MoS 2 exhibits a high piezoelectricity that is comparable to that of traditional piezoelectric materials. However, monolayer TMD materials are not regarded as suitable for actual piezoelectric devices due to their insufficient mechanical durability for sustained operation while Bernal-stacked bilayer TMD materials lose noncentrosymmetry and consequently piezoelectricity. Here, it is shown that WSe 2 bilayers fabricated via turbostratic stacking have reliable piezoelectric properties that cannot be obtained from a mechanically exfoliated WSe 2 bilayer with Bernal stacking. Turbostratic stacking refers to the transfer of each chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown WSe 2 monolayer to allow for an increase in degrees of freedom in the bilayer symmetry, leading to noncentrosymmetry in the bilayers. In contrast, CVD-grown WSe 2 bilayers exhibit very weak piezoelectricity because of the energetics and crystallographic orientation. The flexible piezoelectric WSe 2 bilayers exhibit a prominent mechanical durability of up to 0.95% of strain as well as reliable energy harvesting performance, which is adequate to drive a small liquid crystal display without external energy sources, in contrast to monolayer WSe 2 for which the device performance becomes degraded above a strain of 0.63%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cluster Formation of Polyphilic Molecules Solvated in a DPPC Bilayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the initial stages of cluster formation of polyphilic additive molecules which are solvated in a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC lipid bilayer. Our polyphilic molecules comprise an aromatic (trans-bilayer core domain with (out-of-bilayer glycerol terminations, complemented with a fluorophilic and an alkyl side chain, both of which are confined within the aliphatic segment of the bilayer. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations (1 μ s total duration of a set of six of such polyphilic additives reveal the initial steps towards supramolecular aggregation induced by the specific philicity properties of the molecules. For our intermediate system size of six polyphiles, the transient but recurrent formation of a trimer is observed on a characteristic timescale of about 100 ns. The alkane/perfluoroalkane side chains show a very distinct conformational distribution inside the bilayer thanks to their different philicity, despite their identical anchoring in the trans-bilayer segment of the polyphile. The diffusive mobility of the polyphilic additives is about the same as that of the surrounding lipids, although it crosses both bilayer leaflets and tends to self-associate.

  5. Phospholipid Homeostasis Regulates Dendrite Morphogenesis in Drosophila Sensory Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Meltzer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions in lipid homeostasis have been observed in many neurodevelopmental disorders that are associated with dendrite morphogenesis defects. However, the molecular mechanisms of how lipid homeostasis affects dendrite morphogenesis are unclear. We find that easily shocked (eas, which encodes a kinase with a critical role in phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE synthesis, and two other enzymes in this synthesis pathway are required cell autonomously in sensory neurons for dendrite growth and stability. Furthermore, we show that the level of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP activity is important for dendrite development. SREBP activity increases in eas mutants, and decreasing the level of SREBP and its transcriptional targets in eas mutants largely suppresses the dendrite growth defects. Furthermore, reducing Ca2+ influx in neurons of eas mutants ameliorates the dendrite morphogenesis defects. Our study uncovers a role for EAS kinase and reveals the in vivo function of phospholipid homeostasis in dendrite morphogenesis.

  6. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P fatty acids...... was significantly lower in the trained (11.1 +/- 0.9) than the untrained leg (13.1 +/- 1.2, P fatty acid composition. Citrate synthase activity was increased by 17% in the trained compared with the untrained leg (P

  7. Phospholipids Polysaccharide and Its Application as Inhibitive Drilling Fluid Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xue-Fan; Hu, Wei-Min; Zhang, Fan; Du, Wei-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yong-Ming; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-01

    For the improvement of solubility and the performance of the sample that derived plant polysaccharide(SJ) in drilling fluid based on water, which was improved by phosphoric esterification with phospholipids reagent. The conditions of the reaction were discussed by orthogonal ways in four factors and three levels, and the optimization of handling approaches were found out: With pH=12 at the temperature of 80°C, the mass ratio between phospholipids agent and SJ is 0.1g/1g. The viscosity about the system added by sulfonated SJ (SJP) was extremely increased and below 120°, rheological properties had a slight change. The inhibitive ability of SJP is assessed by the mud ball immersing tests and clay-swelling experiments, that is apparently better than SJ and even 4wt% KCl in free water.

  8. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers on lipid bilayers II: Effects of bilayer phase and dendrimer termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christopher V; Leroueil, Pascale R; Orr, Bradford G; Banaszak Holl, Mark M; Andricioaei, Ioan

    2008-08-07

    The molecular structures and enthalpy release of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers binding to 1,2-dimyristoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayers were explored through atomistic molecular dynamics. Three PAMAM dendrimer terminations were examined: protonated primary amine, neutral acetamide, and deprotonated carboxylic acid. Fluid and gel lipid phases were examined to extract the effects of lipid tail mobility on the binding of generation-3 dendrimers, which are directly relevant to the nanoparticle interactions involving lipid rafts, endocytosis, lipid removal, and/or membrane pores. Upon binding to gel phase lipids, dendrimers remained spherical, had a constant radius of gyration, and approximately one-quarter of the terminal groups were in close proximity to the lipids. In contrast, upon binding to fluid phase bilayers, dendrimers flattened out with a large increase in their asphericity and radii of gyration. Although over twice as many dendrimer-lipid contacts were formed on fluid versus gel phase lipids, the dendrimer-lipid interaction energy was only 20% stronger. The greatest enthalpy release upon binding was between the charged dendrimers and the lipid bilayer. However, the stronger binding to fluid versus gel phase lipids was driven by the hydrophobic interactions between the inner dendrimer and lipid tails.

  9. Differential intrahepatic phospholipid zonation in simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wattacheril

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD occurs frequently in a setting of obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, but the etiology of the disease, particularly the events favoring progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH as opposed to simple steatosis (SS, are not fully understood. Based on known zonation patterns in protein, glucose and lipid metabolism, coupled with evidence that phosphatidylcholine may play a role in NASH pathogenesis, we hypothesized that phospholipid zonation exists in liver and that specific phospholipid abundance and distribution may be associated with histologic disease. A survey of normal hepatic protein expression profiles in the Human Protein Atlas revealed pronounced zonation of enzymes involved in lipid utilization and storage, particularly those facilitating phosphatidylcholine (PC metabolism. Immunohistochemistry of obese normal, SS and NASH liver specimens with anti-phosphatidylethanomine N-methyltransferase (PEMT antibodies showed a progressive decrease in the zonal distribution of this PC biosynthetic enzyme. Phospholipid quantitation by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS in hepatic extracts of Class III obese patients with increasing NAFLD severity revealed that most PC species with 32, 34 and 36 carbons as well as total PC abundance was decreased with SS and NASH. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS imaging revealed strong zonal distributions for 32, 34 and 36 carbon PCs in controls (minimal histologic findings and SS that was lost in NASH specimens. Specific lipid species such as PC 34:1 and PC 36:2 best illustrated this phenomenon. These findings suggest that phospholipid zonation may be associated with the presence of an intrahepatic proinflammatory phenotype and thus have broad implications in the etiopathogenesis of NASH.

  10. Cholesterol affects the interaction between an ionic liquid and phospholipid vesicles. A study by differential scanning calorimetry and nanoplasmonic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giacomo; Witos, Joanna; Rantamäki, Antti H; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2017-12-01

    The present work aims at studying the interactions between cholesterol-rich phosphatidylcholine-based lipid vesicles and trioctylmethylphosphonium acetate ([P 8881 ][OAc]), a biomass dissolving ionic liquid (IL). The effect of cholesterol was assayed by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nanoplasmonic sensing (NPS) measurement techniques. Cholesterol-enriched dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine vesicles were exposed to different concentrations of the IL, and the derived membrane perturbation was monitored by DSC. The calorimetric data could suggest that the binding and infiltration of the IL are delayed in the vesicles containing cholesterol. To clarify our findings, NPS was applied to quantitatively follow the resistance of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine incorporating 0, 10, and 50mol% of cholesterol toward the IL exposure over time. The membrane perturbation induced by different concentrations of IL was found to be a concentration dependent process on cholesterol-free lipid vesicles. Moreover, our results showed that lipid depletion in cholesterol-enriched lipid vesicles is inversely proportional to the increasing amount of cholesterol in the vesicles. These findings support that cholesterol-rich lipid bilayers are less susceptible toward membrane disrupting agents as compared to membranes that do not incorporate any sterols. This probably occurs because cholesterol tightens the phospholipid acyl chain packing of the plasma membranes, increasing their resistance and reducing their permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alternative methods of determining phase transition temperatures of phospholipids that constitute liposomes on the example of DPPC and DMPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentak, Danuta, E-mail: danuta.pentak@us.edu.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • New phase transition for DMPC was found. • FT-IR method is an important addition to the DSC studies. • The proposed method for determining the T{sub C} give very consistent results. - Abstract: In this work, alternatives to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as a method of determining the main phospholipid phase transition temperature are presented. The bilayer phase transitions from the ripple gel phase (P{sub β{sup ′}}) to the liquid-crystal phase (L{sub α}) of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods. In this work, two correlations between the DSC and FT-IR methods, and NMR and EPR methods are shown. The proposed methods allow for determining the T{sub C} temperature with a high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, a comparison of results obtained using the DSC and FT-IR methods allowed for an observation of a new DMPC phase transition. The liposomes analyzed in this work were obtained by the modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV)

  12. High-resolution orientation and depth of insertion of the voltage-sensing S4 helix of a potassium channel in lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tim; Su, Yongchao; Hong, Mei

    2010-08-27

    The opening and closing of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are controlled by several conserved Arg residues in the S4 helix of the voltage-sensing domain. The interaction of these positively charged Arg residues with the lipid membrane has been of intense interest for understanding how membrane proteins fold to allow charged residues to insert into lipid bilayers against free-energy barriers. Using solid-state NMR, we have now determined the orientation and insertion depth of the S4 peptide of the KvAP channel in lipid bilayers. Two-dimensional (15)N correlation experiments of macroscopically oriented S4 peptide in phospholipid bilayers revealed a tilt angle of 40 degrees and two possible rotation angles differing by 180 degrees around the helix axis. Remarkably, the tilt angle and one of the two rotation angles are identical to those of the S4 helix in the intact voltage-sensing domain, suggesting that interactions between the S4 segment and other helices of the voltage-sensing domain are not essential for the membrane topology of the S4 helix. (13)C-(31)P distances between the S4 backbone and the lipid (31)P indicate a approximately 9 A local thinning and 2 A average thinning of the DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphochloline)/DMPG (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol) bilayer, consistent with neutron diffraction data. Moreover, a short distance of 4.6 A from the guanidinium C(zeta) of the second Arg to (31)P indicates the existence of guanidinium phosphate hydrogen bonding and salt bridges. These data suggest that the structure of the Kv gating helix is mainly determined by protein-lipid interactions instead of interhelical protein-protein interactions, and the S4 amino acid sequence encodes sufficient information for the membrane topology of this crucial gating helix. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Unconventional fractional quantum Hall effect in monolayer and bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Janusz; Jacak, Lucjan

    2016-01-01

    The commensurability condition is applied to determine the hierarchy of fractional fillings of Landau levels in monolayer and in bilayer graphene. The filling rates for fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in graphene are found in the first three Landau levels in one-to-one agreement with the experimental data. The presence of even denominator filling fractions in the hierarchy for FQHE in bilayer graphene is explained. Experimentally observed hierarchy of FQHE in the first and second Landau levels in monolayer graphene and in the zeroth Landau level in bilayer graphene is beyond the conventional composite fermion interpretation but fits to the presented nonlocal topology commensurability condition. PMID:27877866

  14. Lipid peroxidation and water penetration in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elena; Megli, Francesco Maria; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    to the hydroperoxide groups to interact with the nitroxide at the methyl-terminal, confirming that the H-bonds experimentally observed are due to increased water penetration in the bilayer. The EPR and MD data on model membranes demonstrate that cell membrane damage by oxidative stress cause alteration of water......(zz) parameters revealed that OHPLPC, but mostly HpPLPC, induced a measurable increase in polarity and H-bonding propensity in the central region of the bilayer. Molecular dynamics simulation performed on 16-DSA in the PLPC-HpPLPC bilayer revealed that water molecules are statistically favored with respect...

  15. Electrostatic double-layer interaction between stacked charged bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishida, Mafumi; Nomura, Yoko; Akiyama, Ryo; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya

    2017-10-01

    The inapplicability of the DLVO theory to multilayered anionic bilayers is found in terms of the co-ion-valence dependence of the lamellar repeat distance. Most of the added salt is expelled from the interlamellar space to the bulk due to the Gibbs-Donnan effect on multiple bilayers with the bulk. The electrostatic double-layer interaction is well expressed by the formula recently proposed by Trefalt. The osmotic pressure due to the expelled ions, rather than the van der Waals interaction, is the main origin of the attractive force between the bilayers.

  16. Spin Hall magnetoresistance in antiferromagnet/normal metal bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the emergence of spin Hall magnetoresistance in a magnetic bilayer composed of a normal metal adjacent to an antiferromagnet. Based on a recently derived drift diffusion equation, we show that the resistance of the bilayer depends on the relative angle between the direction transverse to the current flow and the Néel order parameter. While this effect presents striking similarities with the spin Hall magnetoresistance recently reported in ferromagnetic bilayers, its physical origin is attributed to the anisotropic spin relaxation of itinerant spins in the antiferromagnet.

  17. Lipids, lipid bilayers and vesicles as seen by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Lipid molecules self-assemble into bilayers in water with their hydrocarbon chains facing inward due to their amphiphilic nature. The structural and dynamical properties of lipids and lipid bilayers have been studied by neutron scattering intensively. In this article, 3 topics are shown as typical examples. 1) a time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering on uni-lamellar vesicles composed of deuterated and protonated lipids to determine lipid kinetics, 2) small-angle neutron scattering to investigate spontaneous formation of nanopores on uni-lamellar vesicles, and 3) neutron spin echo study to determine bending modulus of lipid bilayers. (author)

  18. Ions irradiation on bi-layer coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarolo, Enrico; Corso, Alain Jody; Böttger, Roman; Martucci, Alessandro; Pelizzo, Maria G.

    2017-09-01

    Future space missions will operate in very harsh and extreme environments. Optical and electronics components need to be optimized and qualified in view of such operational challenges. This work focuses on the effect of low alpha particles irradiation on coatings. Low energy He+ (4 keV and 16 keV) ions have been considered in order to simulate in laboratory the irradiation of solar wind (slow and fast components) alpha particles. Mono- and proper bi-layers coatings have been investigated. The experimental tests have been carried out changing doses as well as fluxes during the irradiation sessions. Optical characterization in the UV-VIS spectral range and superficial morphological analysis have performed prior and after irradiation.

  19. Phase diagram of classical electronic bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S; Johnson, R E

    2006-01-01

    Extensive molecular dynamics calculations have been performed on classical, symmetric electronic bilayers at various values of the coupling strength Γ and interlayer separation d to delineate its phase diagram in the Γ-d plane. We studied the diffusion, the amplitude of the main peak of the intralayer static structure factor and the peak positions of the intralayer pair correlation function with the aim of defining equivalent signatures of freezing and constructing the resulting phase diagram. It is found that for Γ greater than 75, crystalline structures exist for a certain range of interlayer separations, while liquid phases are favoured at smaller and larger d. It is seen that there is good agreement between our phase diagram and previously published ones

  20. Phase diagram of classical electronic bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada); Johnson, R E [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2006-04-28

    Extensive molecular dynamics calculations have been performed on classical, symmetric electronic bilayers at various values of the coupling strength {gamma} and interlayer separation d to delineate its phase diagram in the {gamma}-d plane. We studied the diffusion, the amplitude of the main peak of the intralayer static structure factor and the peak positions of the intralayer pair correlation function with the aim of defining equivalent signatures of freezing and constructing the resulting phase diagram. It is found that for {gamma} greater than 75, crystalline structures exist for a certain range of interlayer separations, while liquid phases are favoured at smaller and larger d. It is seen that there is good agreement between our phase diagram and previously published ones.

  1. Electrostatic and magnetic fields in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellal, Ahmed; Redouani, Ilham; Bahlouli, Hocine

    2015-08-01

    We compute the transmission probability through rectangular potential barriers and p-n junctions in the presence of a magnetic and electric fields in bilayer graphene taking into account contributions from the full four bands of the energy spectrum. For energy E higher than the interlayer coupling γ1 (E >γ1) two propagation modes are available for transport giving rise to four possible ways for transmission and reflection coefficients. However, when the energy is less than the height of the barrier the Dirac fermions exhibit transmission resonances and only one mode of propagation is available for transport. We study the effect of the interlayer electrostatic potential denoted by δ and variations of different barrier geometry parameters on the transmission probability.

  2. The impact of resveratrol in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; Ghellinck, Alexis de; Fragneto, Giovanna

    The natural antioxidant resveratrol, contained in the skin of grape and accordingly in red wine, has significant health effects such as cardiovascular protection and anti-oxidation. Clinical trials of resveratrol as prophylactic or even therapeutic drug are ongoing. Most probably, the working...... mechanism is unspecific. However, there are only few biophysical studies regarding the impact of resveratrol on lipid membranes. Here, results from a neutron reflectometry investigation on solid supported di-palmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline (DPPC) bilayers with incorporated resveratrol are presented. The data...... show an accumulation of resveratrol in between the headgroups and evidence its absence in the hydrophobic core. Without a removal mechanism, the headgroup region hosts up to ~25 mol% of resveratrol. The presence of resveratrol induces a change of the tilt angle of the PC headgroups to a more upright...

  3. The radiation effects on lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikigai, Hajime; Matsuura, Tomio; Narita, Noboru; Ozawa, Atsushi.

    1980-01-01

    The Radiation effects on lipid bilayers are studied by the electron spin resonance. Egg lecithin liposomes and human erythrocytes are labeled with spin probes (5 SAL, 12 SAL). Effects of membrane fluidity by X-Ray (or ultraviolet) irradiation are measured by change of the order parameter S. The results obtained are as follows: 1) A similar tendency is observed on the order parameter S between X-Ray irradiated egg lecithin liposomes and human erythrocytes. 2) The rapid changes of the membrane fluidity are observed below 1 krad. The fluctuation of membrane fluidity decreases above 1 krad, consequently the membrane has a tendency changing to a rigid state at low dose area. 3) It is suggested that the more effective radicals are hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals. 4) The effects of ultraviolet irradiation with hydrogen peroxide show that hydroxyl radicals lead to changes of membrane fluidity. (author)

  4. Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.

  5. Energy gap of ferromagnet-superconductor bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halterman, Klaus; Valls, Oriol T

    2003-10-15

    The excitation spectrum of clean ferromagnet-superconductor bilayers is calculated within the framework of the self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. Because of the proximity effect, the superconductor induces a gap in the ferromagnet spectrum, for thin ferromagnetic layers. The effect depends strongly on the exchange field in the ferromagnet. We find that as the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer increases, the gap disappears, and that its destruction arises from those quasiparticle excitations with wave vectors mainly along the interface. We discuss the influence that the interface quality and Fermi energy mismatch between the ferromagnet and superconductor have on the calculated energy gap. We also evaluate the density of states in the ferromagnet, and we find it in all cases consistent with the gap results.

  6. Band engineering in twisted molybdenum disulfide bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yipeng; Liao, Chengwei; Ouyang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    In order to explore the theoretical relationship between interlayer spacing, interaction and band offset at the atomic level in vertically stacked two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) structures, we propose an analytical model to address the evolution of interlayer vdW coupling with random stacking configurations in MoS2 bilayers based on the atomic-bond-relaxation correlation mechanism. We found that interlayer spacing changes substantially with respect to the orientations, and the bandgap increases from 1.53 eV (AB stacking) to 1.68 eV (AA stacking). Our results reveal that the evolution of interlayer vdW coupling originates from the interlayer interaction, leading to interlayer separations and electronic properties changing with stacking configurations. Our predictions constitute a demonstration of twist engineering the band shift in the emergent class of 2D crystals, transition-metal dichalcogenides.

  7. Reversible Polarization Rotation in Epitaxial Ferroelectric Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guangqing; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Hsin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Polarization rotation engineering is a promising path to giant dielectric and electromechanical responses in ferroelectric materials and devices. This work demonstrates robust and reversible in- to out-of-plane polarization rotation in ultrathin (nanoscale) epitaxial (001) tetragonal PbZr0.3Ti0.7O3...... large-scale polarization rotation switching (≈60 μC cm−2) and an effective d 33 response 500% (≈250 pm V−1) larger than the PZT-R layer alone. Furthermore, this enhancement is stable for more than 107 electrical switching cycles. These bilayers present a simple and highly controllable means to design...... and optimize rotational polar systems as an alternate to traditional composition-based approaches. The precise control of the subtle interface-driven interactions between the lattice and the external factors that control polarization opens a new door to enhanced—or completely new—functional properties....

  8. Hybrid electrospun chitosan-phospholipids nanofibers for transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana C; Gorzelanny, Christian; Halter, Natalia; Schneider, Stefan W; Chronakis, Ioannis S

    2016-08-20

    Chitosan (Ch) polysaccharide was mixed with phospholipids (P) to generate electrospun hybrid nanofibers intended to be used as platforms for transdermal drug delivery. Ch/P nanofibers exibithed average diameters ranging from 248±94nm to 600±201nm, depending on the amount of phospholipids used. Fourier Transformed Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) data suggested the occurrence of electrostatic interactions between amine groups of chitosan with the phospholipid counterparts. The nanofibers were shown to be stable for at least 7days in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) solution. Cytotoxicity studies (WST-1 and LDH assays) demonstrated that the hybrid nanofibers have suitable biocompatibility. Fluorescence microscopy, also suggested that L929 cells seeded on top of the CH/P hybrid have similar metabolic activity comparatively to the cells seeded on tissue culture plate (control). The release of curcumin, diclofenac and vitamin B12, as model drugs, from Ch/P hybrid nanofibers was investigated, demonstrating their potential utilization as a transdermal drug delivery system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milo Careaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by impairments in communication, social interactions, and repetitive behaviors. While the etiology of ASD is complex and likely involves the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, growing evidence suggests that immune dysfunction and the presence of autoimmune responses including autoantibodies may play a role in ASD. Anti-phospholipid antibodies are believed to occur from both genetic and environmental factors and have been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric symptoms such as cognitive impairments, anxiety, and repetitive behaviors. In the current study, we investigated whether there were elevated levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies in a cross-sectional analysis of plasma of young children with ASD compared to age-matched typically developing (TD controls and children with developmental delays (DD other than ASD. We found that levels of anti-cardiolipin, β2-glycoprotein 1, and anti-phosphoserine antibodies were elevated in children with ASD compared with age-matched TD and DD controls. Further, the increase in antibody levels was associated with more impaired behaviors reported by parents. This study provides the first evidence for elevated production of anti-phospholipid antibodies in young children with ASD and provides a unique avenue for future research into determining possible pathogenic mechanisms that may underlie some cases of ASD.

  10. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinol, A.; Salomon, R.A.; Bloj, B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing 14 C-labeled phospholipids and 3 H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth

  11. Phospholipid analogue distributions of Iranian isolates of candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, A.; Brucker, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse polar lipids of candida species isolated from Ahwas (Iran) by fast Atom bombardment mass spectrometry . Nine isolates of Candida Sp. were identified by growth at 45 d ig c , production of chlamydoconidia on cornmeal agar, colonial colour on CHROMagar Candida, germ tube production and ID 32 C kits. Then polar lipids were extracted from freeze-dried cultures and analysed using Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry. The most intense carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species anions were of m/z 281 (C 1 8 : 1 ) and m/z 515 (PA 23:2). However, the most intense carboxylate and phospholipid analogues in Candida Parapsilosis were 292 (Un) and 555 (PA 26:3), which differed from other yeasts. Isolates were grouped by single linkage clustering based on correlation coefficient for strain pairs calculated with carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species distributions. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry can differentiate the C. albicans based on analysis of polar lipid distributions.These findings support that differentiation between C. albicans and other species is possible based on polar lipids

  12. The interaction of MRI contrast agents with phospholipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrasiak, Gordon L.; Smith, Ralph L.; Ribeiro, Anthony A.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular interactions of three clinically used MRI contrast agents with lipid vesicles, consisting of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC), have been studied using high-field NMR techniques. At a molar ratio of one contrast agent molecule to five phospholipid molecules, a significant increase in the proton resonance line width occurred for certain lipid head group moieties. A large decrease in the T 1 relaxation times for the head group moieties was also observed. These two effects occurred regardless of the ionic status and the chelate structure of the three contrast agents. The structure of the contrast agents did, however, affect the magnitude of the two NMR parameter changes. These NMR effects also differed in magnitude amongst the various head group entities. The NMR effects were greatest for the head group moieties at or near the vesicle-water interface. The results are discussed in terms of the structure of the phospholipid-water interface. Since the use of contrast agents has become routine in clinical MRI, our results are of importance in terms of the interaction of the agents with physiological surfaces, many of which contain phospholipids. The understanding of such interactions should be of value not only for improved diagnostics, but also in the development of new contrast agents. (author)

  13. Supported lipid bilayers as templates to design manganese oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aChemical Laboratory, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600 020, India. bInorganic ... bromide (DOMA)] and mixed systems with neutral phospholipids dipalmitoyl ... posed a novel method of synthesizing nanoparticles.

  14. Effect of phospholipid deposits on adhesion of bacteria to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei Omali, Negar; Proschogo, Nicholas; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Zhenjun; Diec, Jennie; Borazjani, Roya; Willcox, Mark D P

    2012-01-01

    Protein and lipid deposits on contact lenses may contribute to clinical complications. This study examined the effect of phospholipids on the adhesion of bacteria to contact lenses. Worn balafilcon A (n = 11) and senofilcon A (n = 11) were collected after daily wear and phospholipids were extracted in chloroform:methanol. The amount of phospholipid was measured by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unworn lenses soaked in phospholipids were exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. After 18 h incubation, the numbers of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus that adhered to the lenses were measured. Phospholipid was tested for possible effects on bacterial growth. A broad range of sphingomyelins (SM) and phosphatidylcholines (PC) were detected from both types of worn lenses. SM (16:0) (m/z 703) and PC (34:2) (m/z 758) were the major phospholipids detected in the lens extracts. Phospholipids did not alter the adhesion of any strain of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus (p > 0.05). Phospholipids (0.1 mg/mL) showed no effect on the growth of P. aeruginosa 6294 or S. aureus 031. Phospholipids adsorb/absorb to contact lenses during wear, however, the major types of phospholipids adsorbed to lenses do not alter bacterial adhesion or growth.

  15. Magnetic flux distributions in chiral helimagnet/superconductor bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Masaru, E-mail: kato@ms.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Fukui, Saoto [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Osaka Prefecture University College of Technology, 26-12, Saiwaicho, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8572 (Japan); Togawa, Yoshihiko [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Vortex states in a chiral helimagnet/superconductor bilayer are investigated. • Vortex and anti-vortex appears depending on strength of helimagnet. • Vortex is elongated under a gradient field. • Vortices form a undulated triangular lattice. - Abstarct: Vortex states in a chiral helimagnet/superconductor bilayer are investigated numerically, using the Ginzburg–Landau equations with the finite element method. In this bilayer, effect of the chiral helimagnet on the superconductor is taken as an external field. Magnetic field distribution can be controlled by an applied field to the bilayer. It is shown that a single vortex in a gradient field is elongated along the field gradient. In zero applied field, there are up- and down vortices which are parallel or antiparallel to the z-axis, respectively. But increasing the applied field, down-vortices disappear and up-vortices form undulated triangular lattices.

  16. Pair interaction of bilayer-coated nanoscopic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi-Yi, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The pair interaction between bilayer membrane-coated nanosized particles has been explored by using the self-consistent field (SCF) theory. The bilayer membranes are composed of amphiphilic polymers. For different system parameters, the pair-interaction free energies are obtained. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of a sequence of structural transformations of bilayers on spherical particles, which occur during their approaching processes. For different head fractions of amphiphiles, the asymmetrical morphologies between bilayers on two particles and the inverted micellar intermediates have been found in the membrane fusion pathway. These results can benefit the fabrication of vesicles as encapsulation vectors for drug and gene delivery. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  17. Fluorination of Isotopically Labeled Turbostratic and Bernal Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ek Weis, Johan; da Costa, Sara; Frank, Otakar; Bastl, Zdeněk; Kalbáč, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2015), s. 1081-1087 ISSN 1521-3765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LL1301 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : fluorination * graphene * bilayers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  18. Interfacial exciplex formation in bilayers of conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuyasu, R. S.; Araujo, K. A. S.; Cury, L. A.; Jarrosson, T.; Serein-Spirau, F.; Lère-Porte, J.-P.; Dias, F. B.; Monkman, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The donor-acceptor interactions in sequential bilayer and blend films are investigated. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) were measured to characterize the samples at different geometries of photoluminescence collection. At standard excitation, with the laser incidence at 45° of the normal direction of the sample surface, a band related to the aggregate states of donor molecules appears for both blend and bilayer at around 540 nm. For the PL spectra acquired from the edge of the bilayer, with the laser incidence made at normal direction of the sample surface (90° geometry), a new featureless band emission, red-shifted from donor and acceptor emission regions was observed and assigned as the emission from interfacial exciplex states. The conformational complexity coming from donor/acceptor interactions at the heterojunction interface of the bilayer is at the origin of this interfacial exciplex emission.

  19. Tethered and Polymer Supported Bilayer Lipid Membranes: Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Andersson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid supported bilayer lipid membranes are model systems to mimic natural cell membranes in order to understand structural and functional properties of such systems. The use of a model system allows for the use of a wide variety of analytical tools including atomic force microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, neutron reflectometry, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Among the large number of different types of model membranes polymer-supported and tethered lipid bilayers have been shown to be versatile and useful systems. Both systems consist of a lipid bilayer, which is de-coupled from an underlying support by a spacer cushion. Both systems will be reviewed, with an emphasis on the effect that the spacer moiety has on the bilayer properties.

  20. Atomic Force Microscope Image Contrast Mechanisms on Supported Lipid Bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, James; Dufrêne, Yves F.; Barger Jr., William R.; Lee, Gil U.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents a methodology to measure and quantitatively interpret force curves on supported lipid bilayers in water. We then use this method to correlate topographic imaging contrast in atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of phase-separated Langmuir-Blodgett bilayers with imaging load. Force curves collected on pure monolayers of both distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) and monogalactosylethanolamine (MGDG) and dioleoylethanolamine (DOPE) deposited at similar surface pressures o...

  1. Modeling constrained sintering of bi-layered tubular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Ni, De Wei

    2015-01-01

    Constrained sintering of tubular bi-layered structures is being used in the development of various technologies. Densification mismatch between the layers making the tubular bi-layer can generate stresses, which may create processing defects. An analytical model is presented to describe the densi...... and thermo-mechanical analysis. Results from the analytical model are found to agree well with finite element simulations as well as measurements from sintering experiment....

  2. Magnetically Assisted Bilayer Composites for Soft Bending Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Sung-Hwan; Na, Seon-Hong; Park, Yong-Lae

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward o...

  3. Wavepacket revivals in monolayer and bilayer graphene rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Trinidad; Rodríguez-Bolívar, Salvador; Cordero, Nicolás A; Romera, Elvira

    2013-06-12

    We have studied the existence of quantum revivals in graphene quantum rings within a simplified model. The time evolution of a Gaussian-populated wavepacket shows revivals in monolayer and bilayer graphene rings. We have also studied this behavior for quantum rings in a perpendicular magnetic field. We have found that revival time is an observable that shows different values for monolayer and bilayer graphene quantum rings. In addition, the revival time shows valley degeneracy breaking.

  4. Wavepacket revivals in monolayer and bilayer graphene rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Trinidad; Rodríguez-Bolívar, Salvador; Cordero, Nicolás A; Romera, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the existence of quantum revivals in graphene quantum rings within a simplified model. The time evolution of a Gaussian-populated wavepacket shows revivals in monolayer and bilayer graphene rings. We have also studied this behavior for quantum rings in a perpendicular magnetic field. We have found that revival time is an observable that shows different values for monolayer and bilayer graphene quantum rings. In addition, the revival time shows valley degeneracy breaking. (paper)

  5. Ion dynamics in cationic lipid bilayer systems in saline solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miettinen, Markus S; Gurtovenko, Andrey A; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Positively charged lipid bilayer systems are a promising class of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene and drug delivery. Detailed understanding of these systems is therefore not only of fundamental but also of practical biomedical interest. Here, we study bilayers comprising a binary...... are concluded to be interesting for the physics of the whole membrane, especially considering its interaction dynamics with charged macromolecular surfaces....

  6. Predicting proton titration in cationic micelle and bilayer environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Brian H.; Eike, David M.; Murch, Bruce P.; Koenig, Peter H.; Shen, Jana K.

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of the protonation behavior of pH-sensitive molecules in micelles and bilayers has significant implications in consumer product development and biomedical applications. However, the calculation of pKa's in such environments proves challenging using traditional structure-based calculations. Here we apply all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics with explicit ions and titratable water to calculate the pKa of a fatty acid molecule in a micelle of dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride and liquid as well as gel-phase bilayers of diethyl ester dimethylammonium chloride. Interestingly, the pKa of the fatty acid in the gel bilayer is 5.4, 0.4 units lower than that in the analogous liquid bilayer or micelle, despite the fact that the protonated carboxylic group is significantly more desolvated in the gel bilayer. This work illustrates the capability of all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics in capturing the delicate balance in the free energies of desolvation and Coulombic interactions. It also shows the importance of the explicit treatment of ions in sampling the protonation states. The ability to model dynamics of pH-responsive substrates in a bilayer environment is useful for improving fabric care products as well as our understanding of the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  7. Interface-mediation of lipid bilayer organization and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Hannah E; Blanchard, G J

    2016-06-22

    We report on the morphology and dynamics of planar supported lipid bilayer structures as a function of pH and ionic strength of the aqueous overlayer. Supported lipid bilayers composed of three components (phosphocholine, sphingomyelin and cholesterol) are known to exhibit phase segregation, with the characteristic domain sizes dependent on the amount and identity of each constituent, and the composition of the aqueous overlayer in contact with the bilayer. We report on fluorescence anisotropy decay imaging measurements of a rhodamine chromophore tethered to the headgroup of a phosphoethanolamine, where anisotropy decay images were acquired as a function of solution overlayer pH and ionic strength. The data reveal a two-component anisotropy decay under all conditions, with the faster time constant being largely independent of pH and ionic strength and the slower component depending on pH and ionic strength in different manners. For liposomes of the same composition, a single exponential anisotropy decay was seen. We interpret this difference in terms of bilayer curvature and support surface-bilayer interactions, and the pH and ionic strength dependencies in terms of ionic screening and protonation in the bilayer headgroup region.

  8. Predicting proton titration in cationic micelle and bilayer environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Brian H.; Shen, Jana K. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States); Eike, David M.; Murch, Bruce P.; Koenig, Peter H. [Computational Chemistry, Modeling and Simulation GCO, Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio 45201 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    Knowledge of the protonation behavior of pH-sensitive molecules in micelles and bilayers has significant implications in consumer product development and biomedical applications. However, the calculation of pK{sub a}’s in such environments proves challenging using traditional structure-based calculations. Here we apply all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics with explicit ions and titratable water to calculate the pK{sub a} of a fatty acid molecule in a micelle of dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride and liquid as well as gel-phase bilayers of diethyl ester dimethylammonium chloride. Interestingly, the pK{sub a} of the fatty acid in the gel bilayer is 5.4, 0.4 units lower than that in the analogous liquid bilayer or micelle, despite the fact that the protonated carboxylic group is significantly more desolvated in the gel bilayer. This work illustrates the capability of all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics in capturing the delicate balance in the free energies of desolvation and Coulombic interactions. It also shows the importance of the explicit treatment of ions in sampling the protonation states. The ability to model dynamics of pH-responsive substrates in a bilayer environment is useful for improving fabric care products as well as our understanding of the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  9. Robustly Engineering Thermal Conductivity of Bilayer Graphene by Interlayer Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Yufei; Chen, Yuli; Hu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Graphene and its bilayer structure are the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. Their realistic applications in emerging nanoelectronics usually call for thermal transport manipulation in a controllable and precise manner. In this paper we systematically studied the effect of interlayer covalent bonding, in particular different interlay bonding arrangement, on the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is revealed that, the thermal conductivity of randomly bonded bilayer graphene decreases monotonically with the increase of interlayer bonding density, however, for the regularly bonded bilayer graphene structure the thermal conductivity possesses unexpectedly non-monotonic dependence on the interlayer bonding density. The results suggest that the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene depends not only on the interlayer bonding density, but also on the detailed topological configuration of the interlayer bonding. The underlying mechanism for this abnormal phenomenon is identified by means of phonon spectral energy density, participation ratio and mode weight factor analysis. The large tunability of thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene through rational interlayer bonding arrangement paves the way to achieve other desired properties for potential nanoelectronics applications involving graphene layers. PMID:26911859

  10. Efficient discrimination and removal of phospholipids during electromembrane extraction from human plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vårdal, Linda; Gjelstad, Astrid; Huang, Chuixiu

    2017-01-01

    to be highly efficient for providing phospholipid-free extracts. CONCLUSION: Ultra-HPLC-MS/MS analysis of the donor solutions revealed that the phospholipids principally remained in the plasma samples. This proved that the phospholipids did not migrate in the electrical field and they were prevented from......AIM: For the first time, extracts obtained from human plasma samples by electromembrane extraction (EME) were investigated comprehensively with particular respect to phospholipids using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Thhe purpose...

  11. A retrospective: Use of Escherichia coli as a vehicle to study phospholipid synthesis and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhan, William

    2012-01-01

    Although the study of individual phospholipids and their synthesis began in the 1920’s first in plants and then mammals, it was not until the early 1960’s that Eugene Kennedy using Escherichia coli initiated studies of bacterial phospholipid metabolism. With the base of information already available from studies of mammalian tissue, the basic blueprint of phospholipid biosynthesis in E. coli was worked out by the late 1960’s. In 1970’s and 1980’s most of the enzymes responsible for phospholipid biosynthesis were purified and many of the genes encoding these enzymes were identified. By the late 1990’s conditional and null mutants were available along with clones of the genes for every step of phospholipid biosynthesis. Most of these genes had been sequenced before the complete E. coli genome sequence was available. Strains of E. coli were developed in which phospholipid composition could be changed in a systematic manner while maintaining cell viability. Null mutants, strains in which phospholipid metabolism was artificially regulated, and strains synthesizing foreign lipids not found in E. coli have been used to this day to define specific roles for individual phospholipid. This review will trace the findings that have led to the development of E. coli as an excellent model system to study mechanisms underlying the synthesis and function of phospholipids that are widely applicable to other prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. PMID:22925633

  12. Measurement of total phospholipids in urine of patients treated with gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D A; Begg, E J; Kirkpatrick, C M; Yeo, J; Graham, G G; Bailey, R R

    1997-04-01

    The excretion of phospholipids in urine may be a marker of the early renal toxicity of the aminoglycoside antibiotics. Urinary phospholipids are formed in myeloid bodies which develop in the lysosomes of proximal tubules during treatment with the aminoglycosides, and overflow into the urine. Published assays were modified in order to measure the total phospholipid concentrations in human urine. Phospholipids were extracted from freeze-dried urine samples, digested in concentrated sulphuric acid, and the inorganic phosphorus content determined by complexing with ammonium molybdate and measuring the absorbance at 820 nm. Ten septicaemic patients treated with gentamicin for 5-7 days had significantly higher urine phospholipid concentrations than 10 healthy untreated control subjects (P < 0.0001). There was a negative linear relationship between phospholipid excretion and creatinine clearance (r2 = 0.71). In 34 patients with acute pyelonephritis, increased phospholipid concentrations were observed prior to treatment compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001) and did not alter during treatment with gentamicin. However, the phospholipid concentrations decreased significantly after treatment was completed (P < 0.03). These studies suggest that urinary phospholipids may indicate early aminoglycoside toxicity but with poor specificity, as many of the infections being treated may themselves be associated with phospholipiduria.

  13. Characterization of phospholipid composition and its control in the plasma membrane of developing soybean root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The phospholipid composition of plasma membrane enriched fractions from developing soybean root and several mechanisms which may regulate it have been examined. Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from meristematic and mature sections of four-day-old dark grown soybean roots (Glycine max [L.] Merr. Cult. Wells II). Analysis of lipid extracts revealed two major phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Minor phospholipid classes were phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylgylcerol and diphosphatidylgylcerol. Phospholipid composition was similar at each developmental stage. Fatty acids of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were 16:0, 18:0, 18:2, and 18:3. Fatty acid composition varied with both phospholipid class and the developmental stage of the root. The degradation of phosphatidylcholine by endogenous phospholipase D during membrane isolation indicated that this enzyme might be involved in phospholipid turnover within the membrane. Phospholipase D activity was heat labile and increasing the pH of the enzyme assay from 5.3 to 7.8 resulted in 90% inhibition of activity. The turnover of fatty acids within the phospholipids of the plasma membrane was studied. Mature root sections were incubated with [1- 14 C] acetate, 1 mM Na acetate and 50 μg/ml chloramphenicol. Membrane lipid extracts analyzed for phospholipid class and acyl chain composition revealed that the long incubation times did not alter the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane enriched fraction

  14. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cistola, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13 C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1- 13 C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles, the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with ≥80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was ≥90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13 C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data

  15. Phase behavior and nanoscale structure of phospholipid membranes incorporated with acylated C-14-peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.B.; Kaasgaard, Thomas; Jensen, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    The thermotropic phase behavior and lateral structure of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers containing an acylated peptide has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on vesicles and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on mica-supported bilayers. The acylated...... peptide, which is a synthetic decapeptide N-terminally linked to a C-14 acyl chain (C-14-peptide), is incorporated into DPPC bilayers in amounts ranging from 0-20 mol %. The calorimetric scans of the two-component system demonstrate a distinct influence of the C-14-peptide on the lipid bilayer...... gel phase DPPC bilayers, inserts preferentially into preexisting defect regions and has a noticeable influence on the organization of the surrounding lipids. The presence of the C-14-peptide gives rise to a laterally heterogeneous bilayer structure with coexisting lipid domains characterized by a 10...

  16. Mechanics and dynamics of triglyceride-phospholipid model membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkanen, Kirsi I.; Duelund, Lars; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate here that triolein alters the mechanical properties of phospholipid membranes and induces extraordinary conformational dynamics. Triolein containing membranes exhibit fluctuations up to size range of 100µm and with the help of these are e.g. able to squeeze through narrow passages...... with larger lamellar distances observed in the TOPOPC membranes. These findings suggest repulsion between adjacent membranes. We provide a comprehensive discussion on the possible explanations for the observed mechanics and dynamics in the TOPOPC system and on their potential cellular implications....

  17. Increased Binding of Calcium Ions at Positively Curved Phospholipid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Magarkar, Aniket; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Allolio, Christoph; Hof, Martin; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2017), s. 518-523 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01074S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/0919 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1102 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : molecular dynamics * fluorescence spectroscopy * calcium * phospholipids Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 9.353, year: 2016

  18. Equation of State for Phospholipid Self-Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid self-assembly is the basis of biomembrane stability. The entropy of transfer from water to self-assembled micelles of lysophosphatidylcholines and diacyl phosphatidylcholines with different chain lengths converges to a common value at a temperature of 44°C. The corresponding enthalpies...... of transfer converge at ∼-18°C. An equation of state for the free energy of self-assembly formulated from this thermodynamic data depends on the heat capacity of transfer as the sole parameter needed to specify a particular lipid. For lipids lacking calorimetric data, measurement of the critical micelle...

  19. Exceptional Optoelectronic Properties of Hydrogenated Bilayer Silicene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Huang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is arguably the best electronic material, but it is not a good optoelectronic material. By employing first-principles calculations and the cluster-expansion approach, we discover that hydrogenated bilayer silicene (BS shows promising potential as a new kind of optoelectronic material. Most significantly, hydrogenation converts the intrinsic BS, a strongly indirect semiconductor, into a direct-gap semiconductor with a widely tunable band gap. At low hydrogen concentrations, four ground states of single- and double-sided hydrogenated BS are characterized by dipole-allowed direct (or quasidirect band gaps in the desirable range from 1 to 1.5 eV, suitable for solar applications. At high hydrogen concentrations, three well-ordered double-sided hydrogenated BS structures exhibit direct (or quasidirect band gaps in the color range of red, green, and blue, affording white light-emitting diodes. Our findings open opportunities to search for new silicon-based light-absorption and light-emitting materials for earth-abundant, high-efficiency, optoelectronic applications.

  20. Structural refinement of vitreous silica bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Wilson, Mark; Thorpe, M. F.

    The importance of glasses resides not only in their applications but in fundamental questions that they put forth. The continuous random network model can successfully describe the glass structure, but determining details, like ring statistics, has always been difficult using only diffraction data. But recent atomic images of 2D vitreous silica bilayers can offer valuable new insights which are hard to be observed directly in 3D silica models/experiments (for references see). However, the experimental results are prone to uncertainty in atomic positions, systematic errors, and being finite. We employ special boundary conditions developed for such networks to refine the experimental structures. We show the best structure can be found by using various potentials to maximize information gained from the experimental samples. We find a range of densities, the so-called flexibility window, in which tetrahedra are perfect. We compare results from simulations using harmonic potentials, MD with atomic polarizabilities included and DFT. We should thank David Drabold and Bishal Bhattarai for useful discussions. Support through NSF Grant # DMS 1564468 is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Giant proximity effect in ferromagnetic bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Silvia; Charlton, Tim; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Prokscha, Thomas; Salman, Zaher; Forgan, Ted

    2013-03-01

    The proximity effect is a phenomenon where an ordered state leaks from a material into an adjacent one over some finite distance, ξ. For superconductors, this distance is ~ the coherence length. Nevertheless much longer-range, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate junctions. This surprising effect can be understood as a consequence of critical opalescence. Since this occurs near all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects should be very general and, in particular, they should be present in magnetic systems. The ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that its order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We investigate the above phenomenon in Co/EuS bilayer films, where both materials undergo ferromagnetic transitions but at rather different temperatures (bulk TC of 1400K for Co and 16.6K for EuS). A dramatic increase in the range of the proximity effect is expected near the TC of EuS. We present the results of our measurements of the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature, carried out using the complementary techniques of low energy muon rotation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Work supported by EPSRC, STFC and ONR grant N00014-09-1-0177 and NSF grant DMR 0504158.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of phospholipid-bound Sfh1p, a member of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec14p-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, Gabriel; Betts, Laurie; Garrett, Teresa A.; Raetz, Christian R. H.; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2006-01-01

    Yeast Sfh1p, a close homolog of the Sec14p phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, was crystallized in the absence of detergent. X-ray data have been collected to 2.5 Å. Sec14p is the major phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer protein in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is the founding member of a large eukaryotic protein superfamily. This protein catalyzes the exchange of either PtdIns or PtdCho between membrane bilayers in vitro and this exchange reaction requires no external input of energy or of other protein cofactors. Despite the previous elucidation of the crystal structure of a detergent-bound form of Sec14p, the conformational changes that accompany the phospholipid-exchange reaction remain undefined. Moreover, a structural appreciation of how Sec14p or its homologs bind their various phospholipid substrates remains elusive. Here, the purification and crystallization of yeast Sfh1p, the protein most closely related to Sec14p, are reported. A combination of electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry and collision-induced decomposition mass-spectrometry methods indicate that recombinant Sfh1p loads predominantly with phosphatidylethanolamine. Unlike phospholipid-bound forms of Sec14p, this form of Sfh1p crystallizes readily in the absence of detergent. Sfh1p crystals diffract to 2.5 Å and belong to the orthorhombic primitive space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 49.40, b = 71.55, c = 98.21 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. One Sfh1p molecule is present in the asymmetric unit (V M = 2.5 Å 3 Da −1 ; V s = 50%). Crystallization of a phospholipid-bound Sec14p-like protein is a critical first step in obtaining the first high-resolution picture of how proteins of the Sec14p superfamily bind their phospholipid ligands. This information will significantly extend our current understanding of how Sec14p-like proteins catalyze phospholipid exchange

  3. Field-effect detection using phospholipid membranes -Topical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiho Kataoka-Hamai and Yuji Miyahara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of field-effect devices to biosensors has become an area of intense research interest. An attractive feature of field-effect sensing is that the binding or reaction of biomolecules can be directly detected from a change in electrical signals. The integration of such field-effect devices into cell membrane mimics may lead to the development of biosensors useful in clinical and biotechnological applications. This review summarizes recent studies on the fabrication and characterization of field-effect devices incorporating model membranes. The incorporation of black lipid membranes and supported lipid monolayers and bilayers into semiconductor devices is described.

  4. Structure and organization of phospholipid/polysaccharide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerelli, Y; Bari, M T Di; Deriu, A; Cantu, L; Colombo, P; Como, C; Motta, S; Sonvico, F; May, R

    2008-01-01

    In recent years nanoparticles and microparticles composed of polymeric or lipid material have been proposed as drug carriers for improving the efficacy of encapsulated drugs. For the production of these systems different materials have been proposed, among them phospholipids and polysaccharides due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cost and safety. We report here a morphological and structural investigation, performed using cryo-TEM, static light scattering and small angle neutron and x-ray scattering, on phospholipid/saccharide nanoparticles loaded with a lipophilic positively charged drug (tamoxifen citrate) used in breast cancer therapy. The lipid component was soybean lecithin; the saccharide one was chitosan that usually acts as an outer coating increasing vesicle stability. The microscopy and scattering data indicate the presence of two distinct nanoparticle families: uni-lamellar vesicles with average radius 90 A and multi-lamellar vesicles with average radius 440 A. In both families the inner core is occupied by the solvent. The presence of tamoxifen gives rise to a multi-lamellar structure of the lipid outer shell. It also induces a positive surface charge into the vesicles, repelling the positively charged chitosan molecules which therefore do not take part in nanoparticle formation

  5. Structure and organization of phospholipid/polysaccharide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerelli, Y; Bari, M T Di; Deriu, A [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita degli Studi di Parma and CRS SOFT, INFM-CNR (Italy); Cantu, L [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biochimica e Biotecnologie per la Medicina-LITA, Universita di Milano (Italy); Colombo, P; Como, C; Motta, S; Sonvico, F [Dipartimento Farmaceutico, Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy); May, R [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: Antonio.Deriu@fis.unipr.it

    2008-03-12

    In recent years nanoparticles and microparticles composed of polymeric or lipid material have been proposed as drug carriers for improving the efficacy of encapsulated drugs. For the production of these systems different materials have been proposed, among them phospholipids and polysaccharides due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cost and safety. We report here a morphological and structural investigation, performed using cryo-TEM, static light scattering and small angle neutron and x-ray scattering, on phospholipid/saccharide nanoparticles loaded with a lipophilic positively charged drug (tamoxifen citrate) used in breast cancer therapy. The lipid component was soybean lecithin; the saccharide one was chitosan that usually acts as an outer coating increasing vesicle stability. The microscopy and scattering data indicate the presence of two distinct nanoparticle families: uni-lamellar vesicles with average radius 90 A and multi-lamellar vesicles with average radius 440 A. In both families the inner core is occupied by the solvent. The presence of tamoxifen gives rise to a multi-lamellar structure of the lipid outer shell. It also induces a positive surface charge into the vesicles, repelling the positively charged chitosan molecules which therefore do not take part in nanoparticle formation.

  6. Structure and organization of phospholipid/polysaccharide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerelli, Y.; Di Bari, M. T.; Deriu, A.; Cantù, L.; Colombo, P.; Como, C.; Motta, S.; Sonvico, F.; May, R.

    2008-03-01

    In recent years nanoparticles and microparticles composed of polymeric or lipid material have been proposed as drug carriers for improving the efficacy of encapsulated drugs. For the production of these systems different materials have been proposed, among them phospholipids and polysaccharides due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cost and safety. We report here a morphological and structural investigation, performed using cryo-TEM, static light scattering and small angle neutron and x-ray scattering, on phospholipid/saccharide nanoparticles loaded with a lipophilic positively charged drug (tamoxifen citrate) used in breast cancer therapy. The lipid component was soybean lecithin; the saccharide one was chitosan that usually acts as an outer coating increasing vesicle stability. The microscopy and scattering data indicate the presence of two distinct nanoparticle families: uni-lamellar vesicles with average radius 90 Å and multi-lamellar vesicles with average radius 440 Å. In both families the inner core is occupied by the solvent. The presence of tamoxifen gives rise to a multi-lamellar structure of the lipid outer shell. It also induces a positive surface charge into the vesicles, repelling the positively charged chitosan molecules which therefore do not take part in nanoparticle formation.

  7. Adhesion signals of phospholipid vesicles at an electrified interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNardis, Nadica Ivošević; Žutić, Vera; Svetličić, Vesna; Frkanec, Ruža

    2012-09-01

    General adhesion behavior of phospholipid vesicles was examined in a wide range of potentials at the mercury electrode by recording time-resolved adhesion signals. It was demonstrated that adhesion-based detection is sensitive to polar headgroups in phospholipid vesicles. We identified a narrow potential window around the point of zero charge of the electrode where the interaction of polar headgroups of phosphatidylcholine vesicles with the substrate is manifested in the form of bidirectional signals. The bidirectional signal is composed of the charge flow due to the nonspecific interaction of vesicle adhesion and spreading and of the charge flow due to a specific interaction of the negatively charged electrode and the most exposed positively charged choline headgroups. These signals are expected to appear only when the electrode surface charge density is less than the surface charge density of the choline groups at the contact interface. In comparison, for the negatively charged phosphatidylserine vesicles, we identified the potential window at the mercury electrode where charge compensation takes place, and bidirectional signals were not detected.

  8. ER phospholipid composition modulates lipogenesis during feeding and in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xin; Wang, Bo; Palladino, Elisa Nd; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q; Ford, David A; Tontonoz, Peter

    2017-10-02

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) is a central regulator of lipogenesis whose activity is controlled by proteolytic cleavage. The metabolic factors that affect its processing are incompletely understood. Here, we show that dynamic changes in the acyl chain composition of ER phospholipids affect SREBP-1c maturation in physiology and disease. The abundance of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in liver ER is selectively increased in response to feeding and in the setting of obesity-linked insulin resistance. Exogenous delivery of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine to ER accelerated SREBP-1c processing through a mechanism that required an intact SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) pathway. Furthermore, induction of the phospholipid-remodeling enzyme LPCAT3 in response to liver X receptor (LXR) activation promoted SREBP-1c processing by driving the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into ER. Conversely, LPCAT3 deficiency increased membrane saturation, reduced nuclear SREBP-1c abundance, and blunted the lipogenic response to feeding, LXR agonist treatment, or obesity-linked insulin resistance. Desaturation of the ER membrane may serve as an auxiliary signal of the fed state that promotes lipid synthesis in response to nutrient availability.

  9. [Plasma lipoproteins as drug carriers. Effect of phospholipid formulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkhovskaia, T I; Ipatova, O M; Medvedeva, N V; Ivanov, V S; Ivanova, L I

    2010-01-01

    The extensive development of nanotechnologies in the last two decades has brought about new understanding of plasma lipoproteins (LP) as natural drug nanocarriers that escape interaction with immune and reticuloendothelial systems. Drugs bound to LP (especially LDL) can more actively penetrate into cells of many cancer and inflammation tissues with enhanced expression or/and dysregulation of B,E receptors or possibly scavenger SR-BI receptors. Relevant studies are focused on the development of new dosage forms by conjugating lipophilic drugs either with isolated plasma LP or with their model formulations, such as nanoemulsions, mimetics, lipid nanospheres, etc. Some authors include in these particles serum or recombinant apoproteins, peptides, and modified polymer products. As shown recently, protein-free lipid nanoemulsions in plasma take up free apoA and apoE. Complexes with various LP also form after direct administration of lypophilic drugs into blood especially those enclosed in phospholipid formulations, e.g. liposomes. Results of evaluation of some lipophilic dugs (mainly cytostatics, amphotericin B, cyclosporine A, etc.) are discussed. Original data are presented on the influence of phospholipid formulations on the distribution of doxorubicin and indomethacin between LP classes after in vitro incubation in plasma. On the whole, the review illustrates the importance of research on LP and phospholi pid forms as drug nanocarriers to be used to enhance effect of therapy.

  10. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust soot dispersed in phospholipid surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.; Keane, M.; Xing, S.; Harrison, J.; Gautam, M.; Ong, T.

    1994-06-01

    Organics extractable from respirable diesel exhaust soot particles by organic solvents have been known for some time to be direct acting frameshift mutagens in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium histidine reversion assay. Upon deposition in a pulmonary alveolus or respiratory bronchiole, respirable diesel soot particles will contact first the hypophase which is coated by and laden with surfactants. To model interactions of soot and pulmonary surfactant, the authors dispersed soots in vitro in the primary phospholipid pulmonary surfactant dipalmitoyl glycerophosphorylcholine (lecithin) (DPL) in physiological saline. They have shown that diesel soots dispersed in lecithin surfactant can express mutagenic activity, in the Ames assay system using S. typhimurium TA98, comparable to that expressed by equal amounts of soot extracted by dichloromethane/dimethylsulfoxide (DCM/DMSO). Here the authors report additional data on the same system using additional exhaust soots and also using two other phospholipids, dipalmitoyl glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine (DPPE), and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA), with different ionic character hydrophilic moieties. A preliminary study of the surfactant dispersed soot in an eucaryotic cell test system also is reported.

  11. Metformin Decouples Phospholipid Metabolism in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A D Smith

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic drug metformin, currently undergoing trials for cancer treatment, modulates lipid and glucose metabolism both crucial in phospholipid synthesis. Here the effect of treatment of breast tumour cells with metformin on phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho metabolism which plays a key role in membrane synthesis and intracellular signalling has been examined.MDA-MB-468, BT474 and SKBr3 breast cancer cell lines were treated with metformin and [3H-methyl]choline and [14C(U]glucose incorporation and lipid accumulation determined in the presence and absence of lipase inhibitors. Activities of choline kinase (CK, CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyl transferase (CCT and PtdCho-phospholipase C (PLC were also measured. [3H] Radiolabelled metabolites were determined using thin layer chromatography.Metformin-treated cells exhibited decreased formation of [3H]phosphocholine but increased accumulation of [3H]choline by PtdCho. CK and PLC activities were decreased and CCT activity increased by metformin-treatment. [14C] incorporation into fatty acids was decreased and into glycerol was increased in breast cancer cells treated with metformin incubated with [14C(U]glucose.This is the first study to show that treatment of breast cancer cells with metformin induces profound changes in phospholipid metabolism.

  12. Characterization of Phospholipid Mixed Micelles by Translational Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, James J.; Baber, James L.; Bax, Ad

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of the translational self diffusion rate, D s , has been measured for a range of micelle and mixed micelle systems. Use of bipolar gradient pulse pairs in the longitudinal eddy current delay experiment minimizes NOE attenuation and is found critical for optimizing sensitivity of the translational diffusion measurement of macromolecules and aggregates. For low volume fractions Φ (Φ ≤ 15% v/v) of the micelles, experimental measurement of the concentration dependence, combined with use of the D s =D o (1-3.2λΦ) relationship, yields the hydrodynamic volume. For proteins, the hydrodynamic volume, derived from D s at infinitely dilute concentration, is found to be about 2.6 times the unhydrated molecular volume. Using the data collected for hen egg white lysozyme as a reference, diffusion data for dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) micelles indicate approximately 27 molecules per micelle, and a critical micelle concentration of 14 mM. Differences in translational diffusion rates for detergent and long chain phospholipids in mixed micelles are attributed to rapid exchange between free and micelle-bound detergent. This difference permits determination of the free detergent concentration, which, for a high detergent to long chain phospholipid molar ratio, is found to depend strongly on this ratio. The hydrodynamic volume of DHPC/POPC bicelles, loaded with an M2 channel peptide homolog, derived from translational diffusion, predicts a rotational correlation time that slightly exceeds the value obtained from peptide 15 N relaxation data

  13. Communication: Orientational self-ordering of spin-labeled cholesterol analogs in lipid bilayers in diluted conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardash, Maria E.; Dzuba, Sergei A., E-mail: dzuba@kinetics.nsc.ru [Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia, and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-07

    Lipid-cholesterol interactions are responsible for different properties of biological membranes including those determining formation in the membrane of spatial inhomogeneities (lipid rafts). To get new information on these interactions, electron spin echo (ESE) spectroscopy, which is a pulsed version of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), was applied to study 3β-doxyl-5α-cholestane (DCh), a spin-labeled analog of cholesterol, in phospholipid bilayer consisted of equimolecular mixture of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. DCh concentration in the bilayer was between 0.1 mol.% and 4 mol.%. For comparison, a reference system containing a spin-labeled 5-doxyl-stearic acid (5-DSA) instead of DCh was studied as well. The effects of “instantaneous diffusion” in ESE decay and in echo-detected (ED) EPR spectra were explored for both systems. The reference system showed good agreement with the theoretical prediction for the model of spin labels of randomly distributed orientations, but the DCh system demonstrated remarkably smaller effects. The results were explained by assuming that neighboring DCh molecules are oriented in a correlative way. However, this correlation does not imply the formation of clusters of cholesterol molecules, because conventional continuous wave EPR spectra did not show the typical broadening due to aggregation of spin labels and the observed ESE decay was not faster than in the reference system. So the obtained data evidence that cholesterol molecules at low concentrations in biological membranes can interact via large distances of several nanometers which results in their orientational self-ordering.

  14. Effect of incorporating cholesterol into DDA:TDB liposomal adjuvants on bilayer properties, biodistribution, and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Randip; Henriksen-Lacey, Malou; Wilkhu, Jitinder; Devitt, Andrew; Christensen, Dennis; Perrie, Yvonne

    2014-01-06

    Cholesterol is an abundant component of mammalian cell membranes and has been extensively studied as an artificial membrane stabilizer in a wide range of phospholipid liposome systems. In this study, the aim was to investigate the role of cholesterol in cationic liposomal adjuvant system based on dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) and trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) which has been shown as a strong adjuvant system for vaccines against a wide range of diseases. Packaging of cholesterol within DDA:TDB liposomes was investigated using differential scanning calorimetery and surface pressure-area isotherms of lipid monolayers; incorporation of cholesterol into liposomal membranes promoted the formation of a liquid-condensed monolayer and removed the main phase transition temperature of the system, resulting in an increased bilayer fluidity and reduced antigen retention in vitro. In vivo biodistribution studies found that this increase in membrane fluidity did not alter deposition of liposomes and antigen at the site of injection. In terms of immune responses, early (12 days after immunization) IgG responses were reduced by inclusion of cholesterol; thereafter there were no differences in antibody (IgG, IgG1, IgG2b) responses promoted by DDA:TDB liposomes with and without cholesterol. However, significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were induced by DDA:TDB liposomes, and liposome uptake by macrophages in vitro was also shown to be higher for DDA:TDB liposomes compared to their cholesterol-containing counterparts, suggesting that small changes in bilayer mechanics can impact both cellular interactions and immune responses.

  15. Gas Separation through Bilayer Silica, the Thinnest Possible Silica Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bowen; Mandrà, Salvatore; Curry, John O; Shaikhutdinov, Shamil; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Schrier, Joshua

    2017-12-13

    Membrane-based gas separation processes can address key challenges in energy and environment, but for many applications the permeance and selectivity of bulk membranes is insufficient for economical use. Theory and experiment indicate that permeance and selectivity can be increased by using two-dimensional materials with subnanometer pores as membranes. Motivated by experiments showing selective permeation of H 2 /CO mixtures through amorphous silica bilayers, here we perform a theoretical study of gas separation through silica bilayers. Using density functional theory calculations, we obtain geometries of crystalline free-standing silica bilayers (comprised of six-membered rings), as well as the seven-, eight-, and nine-membered rings that are observed in glassy silica bilayers, which arise due to Stone-Wales defects and vacancies. We then compute the potential energy barriers for gas passage through these various pore types for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, H 2 , N 2 , CO, and CO 2 gases, and use the data to assess their capability for selective gas separation. Our calculations indicate that crystalline bilayer silica, which is less than a nanometer thick, can be a high-selectivity and high-permeance membrane material for 3 He/ 4 He, He/natural gas, and H 2 /CO separations.

  16. Strain, stabilities and electronic properties of hexagonal BN bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yoshitaka; Saito, Susumu

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) atomic layers have been regarded as fascinating materials both scientifically and technologically due to the sizable band gap. This sizable band-gap nature of the h-BN atomic layers would provide not only new physical properties but also novel nano- and/or opto-electronics applications. Here, we study the first-principles density-functional study that clarifies the biaxial strain effects on the energetics and the electronic properties of h-BN bilayers. We show that the band gaps of the h-BN bilayers are tunable by applying strains. Furthermore, we show that the biaxial strains can produce a transition from indirect to direct band gaps of the h-BN bilayer. We also discuss that both AA and AB stacking patterns of h-BN bilayer become feasible structures because h-BN bilayers possess two different directions in the stacking patterns. Supported by MEXT Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Research Center through Tokodai Institute for Element Strategy, JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP26390062 and JP25107005.

  17. Anomalous conductivity noise in gapped bilayer graphene heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Karnatak, Paritosh; Sai, T. Phanindra; Ghosh, Arindam

    Bilayer graphene has unique electronic properties - it has a tunable band gap and also, valley symmetry and pseudospin degree of freedom like its single layer counterpart. In this work, we present a study of conductance fluctuations in dual gated bilayer graphene heterostructures by varying the Fermi energy and the band gap independently. At a fixed band gap, we find that the conductance fluctuations obtained by Fermi energy ensemble sampling increase rapidly as the Fermi energy is tuned to charge neutrality point (CNP) whereas the time-dependent conductance fluctuations diminish rapidly. This discrepancy is completely absent at higher number densities, where the transport is expected to be through the 2D bulk of the bilayer system. This observation indicates that near the CNP, electrical transport is highly sensitive to Fermi energy, but becomes progressively immune to time-varying disorder. A possible explanation may involve transport via edge states which becomes the dominant conduction mechanism when the bilayer graphene is gapped and Fermi energy is situated close to the CNP, thereby causing a dimensional crossover from 2D to 1D transport. Our experiment outlines a possible experimental protocol to probe intrinsic topological states in gapped bilayer graphene.

  18. Transport properties in monolayer-bilayer-monolayer graphene planar junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Long Chu; Zi-Bo Wang; Jiao-Jiao Zhou; Hua Jiang

    2017-01-01

    The transport study of graphene based junctions has become one of the focuses in graphene research.There are two stacking configurations for monolayer-bilayer-monolayer graphene planar junctions.One is the two monolayer graphene contacting the same side of the bilayer graphene,and the other is the two-monolayer graphene contacting the different layers of the bilayer graphene.In this paper,according to the Landauer-Büttiker formula,we study the transport properties of these two configurations.The influences of the local gate potential in each part,the bias potential in bilayer graphene,the disorder and external magnetic field on conductance are obtained.We find the conductances of the two configurations can be manipulated by all of these effects.Especially,one can distinguish the two stacking configurations by introducing the bias potential into the bilayer graphene.The strong disorder and the external magnetic field will make the two stacking configurations indistinguishable in the transport experiment.

  19. Influence of ester-modified lipids on bilayer structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Diana Y; Lim, Joseph B; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2013-11-19

    Lipid membranes function as barriers for cells to prevent unwanted chemicals from entering the cell and wanted chemicals from leaving. Because of their hydrophobic interior, membranes do not allow water to penetrate beyond the headgroup region. We performed molecular simulations to examine the effects of ester-modified lipids, which contain ester groups along their hydrocarbon chains, on bilayer structure. We chose two lipids from those presented in Menger et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 14034] with ester groups in (1) the upper half of the lipid chain (MEPC) and (2) the middle and end of the lipid chain (MGPC). MGPC (30%)/POPC bilayers formed stable water pores of diameter 5-7 Å, but MGPC (22%)/POPC and MEPC (30%)/POPC bilayers did not form these defects. These pores were similar to those formed during electroporation; i.e., the head groups lined the pore and allowed water and ions to transport across the bilayer. However, we found that lateral organization of the MGPC lipids into clusters, instead of an electric field or charge disparity as in electroporation, was essential for pore formation. On the basis of this, we propose an overall mechanism for pore formation. The similarities between the ester-modified lipids and byproducts of lipid peroxidation with multiple hydrophilic groups in the middle of the chain suggest that free radical reactions with unsaturated lipids and sterols result in fundamental changes that may be similar to what is seen in bilayers with ester-modified lipids.

  20. Tensile and shear methods for measuring strength of bilayer tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Yu; Li, Jian-Xin; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-15

    Both shear and tensile measurement methods have been used to quantify interfacial bonding strength of bilayer tablets. The shear method is more convenient to perform, but reproducible strength data requires careful control of the placement of tablet and contact point for shear force application. Moreover, data obtained from the shear method depend on the orientation of the bilayer tablet. Although more time-consuming to perform, the tensile method yields data that are straightforward to interpret. Thus, the tensile method is preferred in fundamental bilayer tableting research to minimize ambiguity in data interpretation. Using both shear and tensile methods, we measured the mechanical strength of bilayer tablets made of several different layer combinations of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose. We observed a good correlation between strength obtained by the tensile method and carefully conducted shear method. This suggests that the shear method may be used for routine quality test of bilayer tablets during manufacturing because of its speed and convenience, provided a protocol for careful control of the placement of the tablet interface, tablet orientation, and blade is implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Perforin rapidly induces plasma membrane phospholipid flip-flop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil S Metkar

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic cell granule secretory pathway is essential for host defense. This pathway is fundamentally a form of intracellular protein delivery where granule proteases (granzymes from cytotoxic lymphocytes are thought to diffuse through barrel stave pores generated in the plasma membrane of the target cell by the pore forming protein perforin (PFN and mediate apoptotic as well as additional biological effects. While recent electron microscopy and structural analyses indicate that recombinant PFN oligomerizes to form pores containing 20 monomers (20 nm when applied to liposomal membranes, these pores are not observed by propidium iodide uptake in target cells. Instead, concentrations of human PFN that encourage granzyme-mediated apoptosis are associated with pore structures that unexpectedly favor phosphatidylserine flip-flop measured by Annexin-V and Lactadherin. Efforts that reduce PFN mediated Ca influx in targets did not reduce Annexin-V reactivity. Antigen specific mouse CD8 cells initiate a similar rapid flip-flop in target cells. A lipid that augments plasma membrane curvature as well as cholesterol depletion in target cells enhance flip-flop. Annexin-V staining highly correlated with apoptosis after Granzyme B (GzmB treatment. We propose the structures that PFN oligomers form in the membrane bilayer may include arcs previously observed by electron microscopy and that these unusual structures represent an incomplete mixture of plasma membrane lipid and PFN oligomers that may act as a flexible gateway for GzmB to translocate across the bilayer to the cytosolic leaflet of target cells.

  2. Prestresses in bilayered all-ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Feilzer, Albert J; de Jager, Niek; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J

    2008-10-01

    A general trend in all ceramic systems is to use veneering ceramics of slightly lower thermal expansion coefficients compared with that of the framework resulting in a positive mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient (+DeltaTEC). The concept behind this TEC mismatch is to generate compressive stresses in the weaker veneering ceramic and thus enhance the overall strength of the restoration. This technique had excellent results with porcelain fused to metal restorations (PFM). However, there are concerns to apply this concept to all-ceramic restorations. The aim of this research was to determine the stresses in bilayered all-ceramic restorations due to the mismatch in TEC. Two commercial veneering ceramics with a TEC lower than that of zirconia (+DeltaTEC); NobelRondo zirconiatrade mark and Lava Ceramtrade mark, plus one experimental veneering ceramic with an identical TEC that matches that of zirconia (DeltaTEC = 0) were used to veneer zirconia discs. The specimens were loaded in biaxial flexure test setup with the veneer ceramic in tension. The stresses due to load application and TEC mismatch were calculated using fractography, engineering mathematics, and finite element analysis (FEA). In this study, the highest load at failure (64 N) was obtained with the experimental veneer where the thermal mismatch between zirconia and veneering ceramic was minimal. For the two commercial veneer ceramics the magnitude of the thermal mismatch localized at the zirconia veneer interface (42 MPa) exceeded the bond strength between the two materials and resulted in delamination failure during testing (ca. 50 MPa). For all-ceramic zirconia veneered restorations it is recommended to minimize the thermal mismatch as much as possible. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Schottky Barriers in Bilayer Phosphorene Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanyuan; Dan, Yang; Wang, Yangyang; Ye, Meng; Zhang, Han; Quhe, Ruge; Zhang, Xiuying; Li, Jingzhen; Guo, Wanlin; Yang, Li; Lu, Jing

    2017-04-12

    It is unreliable to evaluate the Schottky barrier height (SBH) in monolayer (ML) 2D material field effect transistors (FETs) with strongly interacted electrode from the work function approximation (WFA) because of existence of the Fermi-level pinning. Here, we report the first systematical study of bilayer (BL) phosphorene FETs in contact with a series of metals with a wide work function range (Al, Ag, Cu, Au, Cr, Ti, Ni, and Pd) by using both ab initio electronic band calculations and quantum transport simulation (QTS). Different from only one type of Schottky barrier (SB) identified in the ML phosphorene FETs, two types of SBs are identified in BL phosphorene FETs: the vertical SB between the metallized and the intact phosphorene layer, whose height is determined from the energy band analysis (EBA); the lateral SB between the metallized and the channel BL phosphorene, whose height is determined from the QTS. The vertical SBHs show a better consistency with the lateral SBHs of the ML phosphorene FETs from the QTS compared than that of the popular WFA. Therefore, we develop a better and more general method than the WFA to estimate the lateral SBHs of ML semiconductor transistors with strongly interacted electrodes based on the EBA for its BL counterpart. In terms of the QTS, n-type lateral Schottky contacts are formed between BL phosphorene and Cr, Al, and Cu electrodes with electron SBH of 0.27, 0.31, and 0.32 eV, respectively, while p-type lateral Schottky contacts are formed between BL phosphorene and Pd, Ti, Ni, Ag, and Au electrodes with hole SBH of 0.11, 0.18, 0.19, 0.20, and 0.21 eV, respectively. The theoretical polarity and SBHs are in good agreement with available experiments. Our study provides an insight into the BL phosphorene-metal interfaces that are crucial for designing the BL phosphorene device.

  4. An efficient hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation of 7 phospholipid classes based on a diol column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, C.; Dane, A.; Spijksma, G.; Wang, M.; Greef, J. van der; Luo, G.; Hankemeier, T.; Vreeken, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) - ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for separation of a wide range of phospholipids. A diol column which is often used with normal phase chromatography was adapted to separate different phospholipid classes in HILIC mode using a

  5. Small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering study on the bilayer structure of synthetic and bovine heart cardiolipins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi [Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8510 (Japan); Hayakawa, Tomohiro [Life Science Laboratory, Advanced Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan); Ito, Kazuki; Takata, Masaki [Structural Materials Science Laboratory, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kobayashi, Toshihide, E-mail: htakahas@chem-bio.gunma-u.ac.j [Lipid Biology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a membrane phospholipid containing four fatty acid chains. CL plays an important role in energy transformation in mitochondria. The disorder of CL biosynthesis is involved in a genetic disease, Barth syndrome. Alteration of fatty acid composition of CLs has been found in Barth syndrome patients, i.e., the decrease of unsaturated fatty acid chains. In this study, we investigated how the degree of saturation alters the structure of CL bilayers by using X-ray scattering. Bovine heart CL and two synthetic CLs were compared. Fatty acid compositions of these three CLs have different saturation. Small-angle X-ray scattering data showed that the decrease of the number of double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acid chains causes to thicken the CL bilayers. In addition, wide-angle X-ray scattering data suggested that the decrease reduces the degree of disorder of the hydrophobic region in a liquid crystalline phase. These results may be related to the dysfunction of mitochondria in Barth syndrome.

  6. Small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering study on the bilayer structure of synthetic and bovine heart cardiolipins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Kazuki; Takata, Masaki; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2010-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a membrane phospholipid containing four fatty acid chains. CL plays an important role in energy transformation in mitochondria. The disorder of CL biosynthesis is involved in a genetic disease, Barth syndrome. Alteration of fatty acid composition of CLs has been found in Barth syndrome patients, i.e., the decrease of unsaturated fatty acid chains. In this study, we investigated how the degree of saturation alters the structure of CL bilayers by using X-ray scattering. Bovine heart CL and two synthetic CLs were compared. Fatty acid compositions of these three CLs have different saturation. Small-angle X-ray scattering data showed that the decrease of the number of double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acid chains causes to thicken the CL bilayers. In addition, wide-angle X-ray scattering data suggested that the decrease reduces the degree of disorder of the hydrophobic region in a liquid crystalline phase. These results may be related to the dysfunction of mitochondria in Barth syndrome.

  7. The medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in mild Alzheimer's disease: results from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.; Graaf, M. van der; Lansbergen, M.M.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Cetinyurek-Yavuz, A.; Sijben, J.W.; Heerschap, A.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Synaptic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease and may be countered by increased intake of nutrients that target brain phospholipid metabolism. In this study, we explored whether the medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in patients

  8. Phospholipid composition of cell-derived microparticles determined by one-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheim, A. M.; Kolb, A. M.; Sturk, A.; Nieuwland, R.

    2002-01-01

    Microparticles in the circulation activate the coagulation system and may activate the complement system via C-reactive protein upon conversion of membrane phospholipids by phospholipases. We developed a sensitive and reproducible method to determine the phospholipid composition of microparticles.

  9. Recent Advances in Phospholipids from Colostrum, Milk and Dairy By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Verardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several bioactive components in the lipid fraction. The lipid fraction of milk and dairy products contains several components of nutritional significance, such as ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA, short chain fatty acids, gangliosides and phospholipids. Prospective cohort evidence has shown that phospholipids play an important role in the human diet and reinforce the possible relationship between their consumption and prevention of several chronic diseases. Because of these potential benefits of phospholipids in the human diet, this review is focused on the recent advances in phospholipids from colostrum, milk and dairy by-products. Phospholipid composition, its main determination methods and the health activities of these compounds will be addressed.

  10. Assessment of pseudo-bilayer structures in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, J. L.; Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M.; Medina-Bailón, C.; Gámiz, F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of pseudo-bilayer configurations at low operating voltages (≤0.5 V) in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor (HG-EHBTFET) compared to the traditional bilayer structures of EHBTFETs arising from semiclassical simulations where the inversion layers for electrons and holes featured very symmetric profiles with similar concentration levels at the ON-state. Pseudo-bilayer layouts are attained by inducing a certain asymmetry between the top and the bottom gates so that even though the hole inversion layer is formed at the bottom of the channel, the top gate voltage remains below the required value to trigger the formation of the inversion layer for electrons. Resulting benefits from this setup are improved electrostatic control on the channel, enhanced gate-to-gate efficiency, and higher I ON levels. Furthermore, pseudo-bilayer configurations alleviate the difficulties derived from confining very high opposite carrier concentrations in very thin structures

  11. Assessment of pseudo-bilayer structures in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, J. L., E-mail: jose.padilladelatorre@epfl.ch; Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M. [Nanoelectronic Devices Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Medina-Bailón, C.; Gámiz, F. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de los Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2015-06-29

    We investigate the effect of pseudo-bilayer configurations at low operating voltages (≤0.5 V) in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor (HG-EHBTFET) compared to the traditional bilayer structures of EHBTFETs arising from semiclassical simulations where the inversion layers for electrons and holes featured very symmetric profiles with similar concentration levels at the ON-state. Pseudo-bilayer layouts are attained by inducing a certain asymmetry between the top and the bottom gates so that even though the hole inversion layer is formed at the bottom of the channel, the top gate voltage remains below the required value to trigger the formation of the inversion layer for electrons. Resulting benefits from this setup are improved electrostatic control on the channel, enhanced gate-to-gate efficiency, and higher I{sub ON} levels. Furthermore, pseudo-bilayer configurations alleviate the difficulties derived from confining very high opposite carrier concentrations in very thin structures.

  12. Magnetically Assisted Bilayer Composites for Soft Bending Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hwan Jang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward one side of the structure. The nonhomogeneous distribution of the particles induces bending of the structure when inflated, as a result of asymmetric stiffness of the composite. The bilayer composites were then characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The bending performance and the axial expansion of the actuator were discussed for manipulation applications in soft robotics and bioengineering. The magnetically assisted manufacturing process for the soft bending actuator is a promising technique for various applications in soft robotics.

  13. Magnetically Assisted Bilayer Composites for Soft Bending Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-Hwan; Na, Seon-Hong; Park, Yong-Lae

    2017-06-12

    This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward one side of the structure. The nonhomogeneous distribution of the particles induces bending of the structure when inflated, as a result of asymmetric stiffness of the composite. The bilayer composites were then characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The bending performance and the axial expansion of the actuator were discussed for manipulation applications in soft robotics and bioengineering. The magnetically assisted manufacturing process for the soft bending actuator is a promising technique for various applications in soft robotics.

  14. Tunneling Spectroscopy of Quantum Hall States in Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Harzheim, Achim; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kim, Philip

    In the quantum Hall (QH) regime, ballistic conducting paths along the physical edges of a sample appear, leading to quantized Hall conductance and vanishing longitudinal magnetoconductance. These QH edge states are often described as ballistic compressible strips separated by insulating incompressible strips, the spatial profiles of which can be crucial in understanding the stability and emergence of interaction driven QH states. In this work, we present tunneling transport between two QH edge states in bilayer graphene. Employing locally gated device structure, we guide and control the separation between the QH edge states in bilayer graphene. Using resonant Landau level tunneling as a spectroscopy tool, we measure the energy gap in bilayer graphene as a function of displacement field and probe the emergence and evolution of incompressible strips.

  15. Fabrication of oriented wrinkles on polydopamine/polystyrene bilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Long, Yuhua; Zhu, Tang; Guo, Jing; Cai, Chao; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2017-07-15

    Wrinkles exist widely in nature and our life. In this paper, wrinkles on polydopamine (PDA)/polystyrene (PS) bilayer films were formed by thermal annealing due to the different thermal coefficients of expansion of each layer. The factors that influenced the dimensions of wrinkles were studied. We found that oriented wrinkles could be formed if the bilayer films were patterned with micro-grooves, and the degree of the orientation depended on the thickness of the PDA and the dimensions of the grooves. Combined with the strong adhesion, biocompatibility and reactivity of PDA, the oriented wrinkles on PDA/PS patterned bilayers may find potential application in diffraction gratings, optical sensors and microfluidic devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neutron scattering investigations of the lipid bilayer structure pressure dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Soloviov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipid bilayer structure investigation results obtained with small angle neutron scattering method at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research IBR-2M nuclear reactor (Dubna, Russia are presented. Experiment has been per-formed with small angle neutron scattering spectrometer YuMO, upgraded with the apparatus for performing P-V-T measurements on the substance under investigation. D2O-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC liquid system, presenting the model of natural live membrane, has been taken as the sample for investiga-tions. The lipid bilayer spatial period was measured in experiment along with isothermal compressibility simulta-neously at different pressures. It has been shown, that the bilayer structural transition from ripple (wavelike gel-phase phase to liquid-crystal phase is accompanied with anomalous rise of isothermal compressibility, indicat-ing occurrence of the phase transition.

  17. Model for the structure of the lipid bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, R.W.; Venable, R.M.; Karplus, M.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed model for the structure and dynamics of the interior of the lipid bilayer in the liquid crystal phase is presented. The model includes two classes of motion: (i) the internal dynamics of the chains, determined from Brownian dynamics simulations with a continuous version of the Marcelja mean-field potential, and (ii) noncollective reorientation (axial rotation and wobble) of the entire molecule, introduced by a cone model. The basic unit of the model is a single lipid chain with field parameters adjusted to fit the 2H order parameters and the frequency-dependent 13C NMR T1 relaxation times of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers. The chain configurations obtained from the trajectory are used to construct a representation of the bilayer. The resulting lipid assembly is consistent with NMR, neutron diffraction, surface area, and density data. It indicates that a high degree of chain disorder and entanglement exists in biological membranes

  18. Neutron scattering investigations of the lipid bilayer structure pressure dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovjov, D.V.; Gordelyij, V.Yi.; Gorshkova, Yu.Je.; Yivan'kov, O.Yi.; Koval'ov, Yu.S.; Kuklyin, A.Yi.; Solovjov, D.V.; Bulavyin, L.A.; Yivan'kov, O.Yi.; Nyikolajenko, T.Yu.; Kuklyin, A.Yi.; Gordelyij, V.Yi.; Gordelyij, V.Yi.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid bilayer structure investigation results obtained with small angle neutron scattering method at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research IBR-2M nuclear reactor (Dubna, Russia) are presented. Experiment has been performed with small angle neutron scattering spectrometer YuMO, upgraded with the apparatus for performing PV-T measurements on the substance under investigation. D 2 O-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) liquid system, presenting the model of natural live membrane, has been taken as the sample for investigations. The lipid bilayer spatial period was measured in experiment along with isothermal compressibility simultaneously at different pressures. It has been shown, that the bilayer structural transition from ripple (wavelike gel-phase) phase to liquid-crystal phase is accompanied with anomalous rise of isothermal compressibility, indicating occurrence of the phase transition.

  19. Flexural phonon limited phonon drag thermopower in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Meenhaz; Ashraf, SSZ

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the phonon drag thermopower from flexural phonons as a function of electron temperature and carrier concentration in the Bloch-Gruneisen regime in non-strained bilayer graphene using Boltzmann transport equation approach. The flexural phonons are expected to be the major source of intrinsic scattering mechanism in unstrained bilayer graphene due to their large density. The flexural phonon modes dispersion relation is quadratic so these low energy flexural phonons abound at room temperature and as a result deform the bilayer graphene sheet in the out of plane direction and affects the transport properties. We also produce analytical result for phonon-drag thermopower from flexural phonons and find that phonon-drag thermopower depicts T2 dependence on temperature and n-1 on carrier concentration.

  20. 15N and 31P solid-state NMR study of transmembrane domain alignment of M2 protein of influenza A virus in hydrated cylindrical lipid bilayers confined to anodic aluminum oxide nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmenev, Eduard Y; Hu, Jun; Gor'kov, Peter L; Brey, William W; Cross, Timothy A; Ruuge, Andres; Smirnov, Alex I

    2005-04-01

    This communication reports the first example of a high resolution solid-state 15N 2D PISEMA NMR spectrum of a transmembrane peptide aligned using hydrated cylindrical lipid bilayers formed inside nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates. The transmembrane domain SSDPLVVA(A-15N)SIIGILHLILWILDRL of M2 protein from influenza A virus was reconstituted in hydrated 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine bilayers that were macroscopically aligned by a conventional micro slide glass support or by the AAO nanoporous substrate. 15N and 31P NMR spectra demonstrate that both the phospholipids and the protein transmembrane domain are uniformly aligned in the nanopores. Importantly, nanoporous AAO substrates may offer several advantages for membrane protein alignment in solid-state NMR studies compared to conventional methods. Specifically, higher thermal conductivity of aluminum oxide is expected to suppress thermal gradients associated with inhomogeneous radio frequency heating. Another important advantage of the nanoporous AAO substrate is its excellent accessibility to the bilayer surface for exposure to solute molecules. Such high accessibility achieved through the substrate nanochannel network could facilitate a wide range of structure-function studies of membrane proteins by solid-state NMR.

  1. Evolution of phospholipid contents during the production of quark cheese from buttermilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Martínez, S; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2016-06-01

    We report the evolution of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and sphingomyelin (SM) contents during the production of quark cheese from buttermilk by successive ultrafiltration concentration, enrichment with cream, concurrent homogenization and pasteurization, fermentative coagulation, and separation of quark from whey by further ultrafiltration. Buttermilk is richer than milk itself in phospholipids that afford desirable functional and technological properties, and is widely used in dairy products. To investigate how phospholipid content is affected by end-product production processes such as ultrafiltration, homogenization, pasteurization or coagulation, we measured the phospholipids at several stages of each of 5 industrial-scale quark cheese production runs. In each run, 10,000L of buttermilk was concentrated to half volume by ultrafiltration, enriched with cream, homogenized, pasteurized, inoculated with lactic acid bacteria, incubated to coagulation, and once more concentrated to half volume by ultrafiltration. Phospholipid contents were determined by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection in the starting buttermilk, concentrated buttermilk, ultrafiltrate, cream-enriched concentrated buttermilk (both before and after concurrent homogenization and pasteurization), coagulate, and quark, and also in the rinsings obtained when the ultrafiltration equipment was washed following initial concentration. The average phospholipid content of buttermilk was approximately 5 times that of milk, and the phospholipid content of buttermilk fat 26 to 29 times that of milk fat. Although phospholipids did not cross ultrafiltration membranes, significant losses occurred during ultrafiltration (due to retention on the membranes) and during the homogenization and pasteurization process. During coagulation, however, phospholipid content rose, presumably as a consequence of the proliferation of the

  2. Bias induced modulation of electrical and thermal conductivity and heat capacity of BN and BN/graphene bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegel, Raad, E-mail: Raad.chegel@gmail.com

    2017-04-15

    By using the tight binding approximation and Green function method, the electronic structure, density of state, electrical conductivity, heat capacity of BN and BN/graphene bilayers are investigated. The AA-, AB{sub 1}- and AB{sub 2}- BN/graphene bilayers have small gap unlike to BN bilayers which are wide band gap semiconductors. Unlike to BN bilayer, the energy gap of graphene/BN bilayers increases with external field. The magnitude of the change in the band gap of BN bilayers is much higher than the graphene/BN bilayers. Near absolute zero, the σ(T) is zero for BN bilayers and it increases with temperature until reaches maximum value then decreases. The BN/graphene bilayers have larger electrical conductivity larger than BN bilayers. For both bilayers, the specific heat capacity has a Schottky anomaly.

  3. Magnetic properties of a doped graphene-like bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, An-Bang [School of Science, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: weijiang.sut.edu@gmail.com [School of Science, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Zhang, Na [Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2017-05-15

    A doped graphene-like bilayer is described using a four-sublattice Heisenberg model both ferromagnetic and antiferrimagnetic couplings. The magnetic properties of the bilayer system are studied using the Heisenberg model, retarded Green's function and the linear spin-wave approximation. The spin-wave spectra, energy gap, and the magnetization and quantum fluctuation of the system at the ground state are calculated with various intra- and interlayer couplings. The results indicate that the effect of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling on the magnetic properties of the system is significant. Magnetizations at low temperature show intersection points due to the quantum effects.

  4. Electronic band structure of magnetic bilayer graphene superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, C. Huy; Nguyen, T. Thuong; Nguyen, V. Lien

    2014-01-01

    Electronic band structure of the bilayer graphene superlattices with δ-function magnetic barriers and zero average magnetic flux is studied within the four-band continuum model, using the transfer matrix method. The periodic magnetic potential effects on the zero-energy touching point between the lowest conduction and the highest valence minibands of pristine bilayer graphene are exactly analyzed. Magnetic potential is shown also to generate the finite-energy touching points between higher minibands at the edges of Brillouin zone. The positions of these points and the related dispersions are determined in the case of symmetric potentials.

  5. Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Gd bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, W. J.; Zhang, Bei; Liu, Z. X.; Wang, Z.; Li, W.; Wu, Z. B.; Yu, R. H.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2010-01-01

    Non-monotonic dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on temperature and magnetization, including a sign change, was observed in Fe/Gd bilayers. To understand the intriguing observations, we fabricated the Fe/Gd bilayers and single layers of Fe and Gd simultaneously. The temperature and field dependences of longitudinal resistivity, Hall resistivity and magnetization in these films have also been carefully measured. The analysis of these data reveals that these intriguing features are due to the opposite signs of Hall resistivity/or spin polarization and different Curie temperatures of Fe and Gd single-layer films. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2010

  6. Prediction of superconductivity in Li-intercalated bilayer phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, G. Q.; Xing, Z. W.; Xing, D. Y.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that bilayer phosphorene can be transformed from a direct-gap semiconductor to a BCS superconductor by intercalating Li atoms. For the Li-intercalated bilayer phosphorene, we find that the electron occupation of Li-derived band is small and superconductivity is intrinsic. With increasing the intercalation of Li atoms, both increased metallicity and strong electron-phonon coupling are favorable for the enhancement of superconductivity. The obtained electron-phonon coupling λ can be larger than 1 and the superconducting temperature T c can be increased up to 16.5 K, suggesting that phosphorene may be a good candidate for a nanoscale superconductor

  7. Prediction of superconductivity in Li-intercalated bilayer phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, G. Q. [Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xing, Z. W., E-mail: zwxing@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xing, D. Y. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-03-16

    It is shown that bilayer phosphorene can be transformed from a direct-gap semiconductor to a BCS superconductor by intercalating Li atoms. For the Li-intercalated bilayer phosphorene, we find that the electron occupation of Li-derived band is small and superconductivity is intrinsic. With increasing the intercalation of Li atoms, both increased metallicity and strong electron-phonon coupling are favorable for the enhancement of superconductivity. The obtained electron-phonon coupling λ can be larger than 1 and the superconducting temperature T{sub c} can be increased up to 16.5 K, suggesting that phosphorene may be a good candidate for a nanoscale superconductor.

  8. Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Gd bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, W. J.

    2010-04-01

    Non-monotonic dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on temperature and magnetization, including a sign change, was observed in Fe/Gd bilayers. To understand the intriguing observations, we fabricated the Fe/Gd bilayers and single layers of Fe and Gd simultaneously. The temperature and field dependences of longitudinal resistivity, Hall resistivity and magnetization in these films have also been carefully measured. The analysis of these data reveals that these intriguing features are due to the opposite signs of Hall resistivity/or spin polarization and different Curie temperatures of Fe and Gd single-layer films. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2010

  9. Theory of passive proton conductance in lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, J F

    1987-10-01

    The large permeability of lipid bilayers to protons compared to other small ions calls for a special proton transport mechanism. At the present time, only mechanisms involving transient hydrogen-bonded chains of water can account for the experimental result that the conductance is nearly independent of pH. Three models involving transient hydrogen-bonded chains are discussed, including an outline of the kinetic calculations that lead to predictions of current versus voltage drop and current versus pH differences. These calculations can be compared to experiment to determine which, if any, of these models pertains to lipid bilayers.

  10. Biosynthesis of ether-phospholipids including plasmalogens, peroxisomes and human disease: new insights into an old problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Brites, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Ether-phospholipids represent an important subclass of phospholipids in animal cell membranes characterized by the presence of an ether bond at the sn-I position and the enrichment of PUFAs at the sn-2 position. Of the different ether-phospholipids, plasmalogens are the most abundant form and their

  11. Anti-phospholipid antibodies in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Morris-Jones, S D; Hviid, L

    1993-01-01

    Plasma levels of antibodies against phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cardiolipin (CL) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients from malaria endemic area of Sudan and The Gambia. Some Sudanese adults produced IgM antibodies against all three types...... of phospholipids (PL) during an acute Plasmodium falciparum infection. The anti-PL antibody titre returned to preinfection levels in most of the donors 30 days after the disease episode. IgG titres against PI, PC and CL were low. In Gambian children with malaria, IgM antibody titres against PI and PC were...... significantly higher in those with severe malaria than in those with mild malaria. These results show that a proportion of malaria patients produce anti-PL antibodies during infection and that titres of these antibodies are associated with the severity of disease....

  12. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma protein and suppression of denaturation of adsorbed proteins, that is the MPC polymers interact with blood components very mildly. As the molecular structure of the MPC polymer was easily designed by changing the monomer units and their composition, it could be applied to surface modification of artificial organs and biomedical devices for improving blood and tissue compatibility. Thus, the MPC polymers are useful polymer biomaterials for manufacturing high performance artificial organs and biomedical devices to provide safe medical treatments.

  13. Microscopic methods in analysis of submicron phospholipid dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płaczek Marcin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy belongs to the group of tests, used in pharmaceutical technology, that despite the lapse of time and the development of new analytical methods, still remain irreplaceable for the characterization of dispersed drug dosage forms (e.g., suspensions and emulsions. To obtain complete description of a specific drug formulation, such as parenteral colloidal products, a combination of different microscopic techniques is sometimes required. Electron microscopy methods are the most useful ones; however, even such basic methods as optical microscopy may be helpful for determination of some properties of a sample. The publication explicates the most popular microscopical techniques used nowadays for characterization of the morphology of nanoparticles suspended in pharmaceutical formulations; ad vantages and disadvantages of these methods are also discussed. Parenteral submicron formulations containing lecithin or a particular phospholipid were chosen as examples.

  14. Phospholipid-assisted synthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Peng; Zhu Xinyuan

    2007-01-01

    Morphology and size control of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by phospholipids (PLs) has been reported. It was found that gold entities could form nanostructures with different sizes controlled by PLs in an aqueous solution. During the preparation of 1.5 nm gold seeds, AuNPs were obtained from the reduction of gold complex by sodium borohydride and capped by citrate for stabilization. With the different ratios between seed solution and growth solution, which was composed by gold complex and PLs, gold seeds grew into larger nanoparticles step by step until enough large size up to 30 nm. The main discovery of this work is that common biomolecules, such as PLs can be used to control nanoparticle size. This conclusion has been confirmed by transmission electron micrographs, particle size analysis, and UV-vis spectra

  15. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids on [3H]-vitamin E incorporation into pulmonary artery endothelial cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharam, K.M.; Patel, J.M.; Block, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vitamin E, a dietary antioxidant, is presumed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer of biological membranes to an extent proportional to the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids or phospholipids in the membrane. In the present study we evaluated the distribution of incorporated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in various membranes of pulmonary artery endothelial cells. We also studied whether incorporation of PUFA or PE is responsible for increased incorporation of [3H]-vitamin E into the membranes of these cells. Following a 24-hr incubation with linoleic acid (18:2), 18:2 was increased by 6.9-, 9.2-, and 13.2-fold in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. Incorporation of 18:2 caused significant increases in the unsaturation indexes of mitochondrial and microsomal polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Incubation with arachidonic acid (20:4) for 24 hr resulted in 1.5-, 2.3-, and 2.4-fold increases in 20:4 in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. The unsaturation indexes of polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains of mitochondrial and microsomal membranes also increased (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Although incubations with 18:2 or 20:4 resulted in several-fold increases in membrane 18:2 or 20:4 fatty acids, incorporation of [3H]-vitamin E into these membranes was similar to that in controls. Following a 24-hr incubation with PE, membrane PE content was significantly increased, and [3H]-vitamin E incorporation was also increased to a comparable degree, i.e., plasma membrane greater than mitochondria greater than microsomes. Endogenous vitamin E content of the cells was not altered because of increased incorporation of PE and [3H]-vitamin E

  16. Optimization of transversal relaxation of nitroxides for pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy in phospholipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastvan, Reza; Bode, Bela E; Karuppiah, Muruga Poopathi Raja; Marko, Andriy; Lyubenova, Sevdalina; Schwalbe, Harald; Prisner, Thomas F

    2010-10-28

    Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectroscopy is increasingly applied to spin-labeled membrane proteins. However, after reconstitution into liposomes, spin labels often exhibit a much faster transversal relaxation (T(m)) than in detergent micelles, thus limiting application of the method in lipid bilayers. In this study, the main reasons for enhanced transversal relaxation in phospholipid membranes were investigated systematically by use of spin-labeled derivatives of stearic acid and phosphatidylcholine as well as spin-labeled derivatives of the channel-forming peptide gramicidin A under the conditions typically employed for PELDOR distance measurements. Our results clearly show that dephasing due to instantaneous diffusion that depends on dipolar interaction among electron spins is an important contributor to the fast echo decay in cases of high local concentrations of spin labels in membranes. The main difference between spin labels in detergent micelles and membranes is their local concentration. Consequently, avoiding spin clustering and suppressing instantaneous diffusion is the key step for maximizing PELDOR sensitivity in lipid membranes. Even though proton spin diffusion is an important relaxation mechanism, only in samples of low local concentrations does deuteration of acyl chains and buffer significantly prolong T(m). In these cases, values of up to 7 μs have been achieved. Furthermore, our study revealed that membrane composition and labeling position in the membrane can also affect T(m), either by promoting the segregation of spin-labeled species or by altering their exposure to matrix protons. Effects of other experimental parameters including temperature (<50 K), presence of oxygen, and cryoprotectant type are negligible under our experimental conditions.

  17. Adsorption of lysozyme to phospholipid and meibomian lipid monolayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Torres, Margaux; Millar, Thomas J

    2006-03-15

    It is believed that a lipid layer forms the outer layer of the pre-ocular tear film and this layer helps maintain tear film stability by lowering its surface tension. Proteins of the aqueous layer of the tear film (beneath the lipid layer) may also contribute to reducing surface tension by adsorbing to, or penetrating the lipid layer. The purpose of this study was to compare the penetration of lysozyme, a tear protein, into films of meibomian lipids and phospholipids held at different surface pressures to determine if lysozyme were part of the surface layer of the tear film. Films of meibomian lipids or phospholipids were spread onto the surface of a buffered aqueous subphase. Films were compressed to particular pressures and lysozyme was injected into the subphase. Changes in surface pressure were monitored to determine adsorption or penetration of lysozyme into the surface film. Lysozyme penetrated a meibomian lipid film at all pressures tested (max=20 mN/m). It also penetrated phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylethanolamine lipid films up to a pressure of 20 mN/m. It was not able to penetrate a phosphatidylcholine film at pressures >or=10 mN/m irrespective of the temperature being at 20 or 37 degrees C. However, it was able to penetrate it at very low pressures (<10 mN/m). Epifluorescence microscopy showed that the protein either adsorbs to or penetrates the lipid layer and the pattern of mixing depended upon the lipid at the surface. These results indicate that lysozyme is present at the surface of the tear film where it contributes to decreasing the surface tension by adsorbing and penetrating the meibomian lipids. Thus it helps to stabilize the tear film.

  18. Identification of unusual phospholipid fatty acyl compositions of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Palusinska-Szysz

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba are opportunistic protozoan pathogens that may lead to sight-threatening keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis. The successful prognosis requires early diagnosis and differentiation of pathogenic Acanthamoeba followed by aggressive treatment regimen. The plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba consists of 25% phospholipids (PL. The presence of C20 and, recently reported, 28- and 30-carbon fatty acyl residues is characteristic of amoeba PL. A detailed knowledge about this unusual PL composition could help to differentiate Acanthamoeba from other parasites, e.g. bacteria and develop more efficient treatment strategies. Therefore, the detailed PL composition of Acanthamoeba castellanii was investigated by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Normal and reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection was used for detailed characterization of the fatty acyl composition of each detected PL. The most abundant fatty acyl residues in each PL class were octadecanoyl (18∶0, octadecenoyl (18∶1 Δ9 and hexadecanoyl (16∶0. However, some selected PLs contained also very long fatty acyl chains: the presence of 28- and 30-carbon fatty acyl residues was confirmed in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid and cardiolipin. The majority of these fatty acyl residues were also identified in PE that resulted in the following composition: 28∶1/20∶2, 30∶2/18∶1, 28∶0/20∶2, 30∶2/20∶4 and 30∶3/20∶3. The PL of amoebae are significantly different in comparison to other cells: we describe here for the first time unusual, very long chain fatty acids with Δ5-unsaturation (30∶35,21,24 and 30∶221,24 localized exclusively in specific phospholipid classes of A. castellanii protozoa that could serve as specific biomarkers for the presence of

  19. Phospholipid composition and longevity: lessons from Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencak, Teresa G; Ruf, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Membrane fatty acid (FA) composition is correlated with longevity in mammals. The "membrane pacemaker hypothesis of ageing" proposes that animals which cellular membranes contain high amounts of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) have shorter life spans because their membranes are more susceptible to peroxidation and further oxidative damage. It remains to be shown, however, that long-lived phenotypes such as the Ames dwarf mouse have membranes containing fewer PUFAs and thus being less prone to peroxidation, as would be predicted from the membrane pacemaker hypothesis of ageing. Here, we show that across four different tissues, i.e., muscle, heart, liver and brain as well as in liver mitochondria, Ames dwarf mice possess membrane phospholipids containing between 30 and 60 % PUFAs (depending on the tissue), which is similar to PUFA contents of their normal-sized, short-lived siblings. However, we found that that Ames dwarf mice membrane phospholipids were significantly poorer in n-3 PUFAs. While lack of a difference in PUFA contents is contradicting the membrane pacemaker hypothesis, the lower n-3 PUFAs content in the long-lived mice provides some support for the membrane pacemaker hypothesis of ageing, as n-3 PUFAs comprise those FAs being blamed most for causing oxidative damage. By comparing tissue composition between 1-, 2- and 6-month-old mice in both phenotypes, we found that membranes differed both in quantity of PUFAs and in the prevalence of certain PUFAs. In sum, membrane composition in the Ames dwarf mouse supports the concept that tissue FA composition is related to longevity.

  20. ITO/Poly(Aniline/Sol-Gel Glass: An Optically Transparent, pH-Responsive Substrate for Supported Lipid Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Obeidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Described here is fabrication of a pH-sensitive, optically transparent transducer composed of a planar indium-tin oxide (ITO electrode overcoated with a poly(aniline (PANI thin film and a porous sol-gel layer. Adsorption of the PANI film renders the ITO electrode sensitive to pH, whereas the sol-gel spin-coated layer makes the upper surface compatible with fusion of phospholipid vesicles to form a planar supported lipid bilayer (PSLB. The response to changes in the pH of the buffer contacting the sol-gel/PANI/ITO electrode is pseudo-Nernstian with a slope of 52 mV/pH over a pH range of 4–9. Vesicle fusion forms a laterally continuous PSLB on the upper sol-gel surface that is fluid with a lateral lipid diffusion coefficient of 2.2 μm2/s measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Due to its lateral continuity and lack of defects, the PSLB blocks the pH response of the underlying electrode to changes in the pH of the overlying buffer. This architecture is simpler to fabricate than previously reported ITO electrodes derivatized for PSLB formation and should be useful for optical monitoring of proton transport across supported membranes derivatized with ionophores and ion channels.

  1. Insertion of Neurotransmitters into a Lipid Bilayer Membrane and Its Implication on Membrane Stability: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun; Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

    2017-03-17

    The signaling molecules in neurons, called neurotransmitters, play an essential role in the transportation of neural signals, during which the neurotransmitters interact with not only specific receptors, but also cytomembranes, such as synaptic vesicle membranes and postsynaptic membranes. Through extensive molecular dynamics simulations, the atomic-scale insertion dynamics of typical neurotransmitters, including methionine enkephalin (ME), leucine enkephalin (LE), dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh), and aspartic acid (ASP), into lipid bilayers is investigated. The results show that the first three neurotransmitters (ME, LE, and DA) are able to diffuse freely into both 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) membranes, and are guided by the aromatic residues Tyr and Phe. Only a limited number of these neurotransmitters are allowed to penetrate into the membrane, which suggests an intrinsic mechanism by which the membrane is protected from being destroyed by excessive inserted neurotransmitters. After spontaneous insertion, the neurotransmitters disturb the surrounding phospholipids in the membrane, as indicated by the altered distribution of components in lipid leaflets and the disordered lipid tails. In contrast, the last two neurotransmitters (ACh and ASP) cannot enter the membrane, but instead always diffuse freely in solution. These findings provide an understanding at the atomic level of how neurotransmitters interact with the surrounding cytomembrane, as well as their impact on membrane behavior. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Characterization of methanotrophic bacteria on the basis of intact phospholipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J; Barcelona, M J; Semrau, J D

    2000-08-01

    The intact phospholipid profiles (IPPs) of seven species of methanotrophs from all three physiological groups, type I, II and X, were determined using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. In these methanotrophs, two major classes of phospholipids were found, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) as well as its derivatives phosphatidylmethylethanolamine (PME) and phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine (PDME). Specifically, the type I methanotrophs, Methylomonas methanica, Methylomonas rubra and Methylomicrobium album BG8 were characterized by PE and PG phospholipids with predominantly C16:1 fatty acids. The type II methanotrophs, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and CSC1 were characterized by phospholipids of PG, PME and PDME with predominantly C18:1 fatty acids. Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, a representative of type X methanotrophs, contained mostly PE (89% of the total phospholipids). Finally, the IPPs of a recently isolated acidophilic methanotroph, Methylocella palustris, showed it had a preponderance of PME phospholipids with 18:1 fatty acids (94% of total). Principal component analysis showed these methanotrophs could be clearly distinguished based on phospholipid profiles. Results from this study suggest that IPP can be very useful in bacterial chemotaxonomy.

  3. Controlled release from bilayer-decorated magnetoliposomes via electromagnetic heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanjing; Bose, Arijit; Bothun, Geoffrey D

    2010-06-22

    Nanoscale assemblies that can be activated and controlled through external stimuli represent a next stage in multifunctional therapeutics. We report the formation, characterization, and release properties of bilayer-decorated magnetoliposomes (dMLs) that were prepared by embedding small hydrophobic SPIO nanoparticles at different lipid molecule to nanoparticle ratios within dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers. The dML structure was examined by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, and release was examined by carboxyfluorescein leakage. Nanoparticle heating using alternating current electromagnetic fields (EMFs) operating at radio frequencies provided selective release of the encapsulated molecule at low nanoparticle concentrations and under physiologically acceptable EMF conditions. Without radio frequency heating, spontaneous leakage from the dMLs decreased with increasing nanoparticle loading, consistent with greater bilayer stability and a decrease in the effective dML surface area due to aggregation. With radio frequency heating, the initial rate and extent of leakage increased significantly as a function of nanoparticle loading and electromagnetic field strength. The mechanism of release is attributed to a combination of bilayer permeabilization and partial dML rupture.

  4. Coherent nonlinear electromagnetic response in twisted bilayer and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The phenomenon of Rabi oscillations far from resonance is described in bilayer and few-layer graphene. These oscillations in the population and polarization at the Dirac point in -layer graphene are seen in the nth harmonic termin the external driving frequency. The underlying reason behind these oscillations is ...

  5. Super-Sensitive and Robust Biosensors from Supported Polymer Bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Walter F. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Biological organisms are potentially the most sensitive and selective biological detection systems known, yet we are currently severely limited in our ability to exploit biological interactions in sensory devices, due in part to the limited stability of biological systems and derived materials. This proposal addresses an important aspect of integrating biological sensory materials in a solid state device. If successful, such technology could enable entirely new classes of robust biosensors that could be miniaturized and deployed in the field. The critical aims of the proposed work were 1) the calibration of a more versatile approach to measuring pH, 2) the use of this method to monitor pH changes caused by the light-induced pumping of protons across vesicles with bacteriorhodopsin integrated into the membranes (either polymer or lipid); 3) the preparation of bilayer assemblies on platinum surfaces; 4) the enhanced detection of lightinduced pH changes driven by bR-loaded supported bilayers. I have developed a methodology that may enable that at interfaces and developed a methodology to characterize the functionality of bilayer membranes with reconstituted membrane proteins. The integrity of the supported bilayer films however must be optimized prior to the full realization of the work originally envisioned in the original proposal. Nevertheless, the work performed on this project and the encouraging results it has produced has demonstrated that these goals are challenging yet within reach.

  6. Plasmons in metallic monolayer and bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirsten; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2013-01-01

    We study the collective electronic excitations in metallic single-layer and bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) using time dependent density functional theory in the random phase approximation. For very small momentum transfers (below q≈0.02 Å−1), the plasmon dispersion follows the √q...

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Hydrophilic Pores in Lipid Bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontiadou, Hari; Mark, Alan E.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    Hydrophilic pores are formed in peptide free lipid bilayers under mechanical stress. It has been proposed that the transport of ionic species across such membranes is largely determined by the existence of such meta-stable hydrophilic pores. To study the properties of these structures and understand

  8. Inducing morphological changes in lipid bilayer membranes with microfabricated substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangjie; Collins, Liam F.; Ashkar, Rana; Heberle, Frederick A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Collier, C. Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Lateral organization of lipids and proteins into distinct domains and anchoring to a cytoskeleton are two important strategies employed by biological membranes to carry out many cellular functions. However, these interactions are difficult to emulate with model systems. Here we use the physical architecture of substrates consisting of arrays of micropillars to systematically control the behavior of supported lipid bilayers - an important step in engineering model lipid membrane systems with well-defined functionalities. Competition between attractive interactions of supported lipid bilayers with the underlying substrate versus the energy cost associated with membrane bending at pillar edges can be systematically investigated as functions of pillar height and pitch, chemical functionalization of the microstructured substrate, and the type of unilamellar vesicles used for assembling the supported bilayer. Confocal fluorescent imaging and AFM measurements highlight correlations that exist between topological and mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and lateral lipid mobility in these confined environments. This study provides a baseline for future investigations into lipid domain reorganization on structured solid surfaces and scaffolds for cell growth.

  9. Determinants of sodium and calcium adsorption onto neutral lipid bilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javanainen, M.; Melcrová, Adéla; Magarkar, Aniket; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Hof, Martin; Jungwirth, Pavel; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 46, Suppl 1 (2017), S121 ISSN 0175-7571. [IUPAB congress /19./ and EBSA congress /11./. 16.07.2017-20.07.2017, Edinburgh] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : sodium * calcium * lipid bilayer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  10. Twisted Bilayer Graphene. Interlayer configuration and magnetotransport signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Belke, Christopher; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hannover (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Twisted Bilayer Graphene may be viewed as very first representative of the now booming class of artificially layered 2D materials. Consisting of two sheets from the same structure and atomic composition, its decisive degree of freedom lies in the rotation between crystallographic axes in the individual graphene monolayers. Geometrical consideration finds angle-dependent Moire patterns as well as commensurate superlattices of opposite sublattice exchange symmetry. Beyond the approach of rigidly interposed lattices, this review takes focus on the evolving topic of lattice corrugation and distortion in response to spatially varying lattice registry. The experimental approach to twisted bilayers requires a basic control over preparation techniques; important methods are summarized and extended on in the case of bilayers folded from monolayer graphene via AFM nanomachining. Central morphological parameters to the twisted bilayer, rotational mismatch and interlayer separation are studied in a broader base of samples. Finally, experimental evidence for a number of theoretically predicted, controversial electronic scenarios are reviewed; magnetotransport signatures are discussed in terms of Fermi velocity, van Hove singularities and Berry phase and assessed with respect to the underlying experimental conditions, thereby referring back to the initially considered variations in relaxed lattice structure. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Power losses in bilayer inverted small molecule organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Cong; Bakke, Jonathan R.; Brennan, Thomas P.; Bent, Stacey F.; Navarro, Francisco; Bartynski, Andrew; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Inverted bilayer organic solar cells using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as a donor and C60 as an acceptor with the structure: glass/indium tin oxide (ITO)/ZnO/C60/CuPc/MoO3/Al, in which the zinc oxide (ZnO) was deposited by atomic layer deposition

  12. Pedot and PPy Conducting Polymer Bilayer and Trilayer Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainudeen, Umer Lebbe; Careem, Mohamed Abdul; Skaarup, Steen

    2008-01-01

    attempts have been made to improve the actuator performance. We report electromechanical measurements on actuators of bilayer and trilayer free standing films prepared with polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conducting polymers. Both types of conducting polymer are pre...

  13. Molecular dynamics study on the relaxation properties of bilayered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... Abstract. The influence of defects on the relaxation properties of bilayered graphene (BLG) has been studied by molecular dynamics simulation in nanometre sizes. Type and position of defects were taken into account in the calculated model. The results show that great changes begin to occur in the ...

  14. Semiconductor particle mediated photoelectron transfers in bilayer lipid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendler, J.H.; Baral, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses semiconductor particles in situ generated on the cis surface of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs), that have been used to mediate photoelectric effects. The presence of semiconductors on the BLM surface is addressed. The observed photoelectric effects are rationalized and presented

  15. Energy spectrums of bilayer triangular phosphorene quantum dots and antidots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate the confined states of the bilayer triangular phosphorene dots and antidots by means of the tight-binding approach. The dependence of the energy levels on the size, the type of the boundary edges, and the orientation of the dots and antidots, and the influences of the electric and magnetic fields on the energy levels, are all completely analyzed. It is found that the energy level numbers of the bilayer dots and antidots are determined by the energy levels in two layers. The external electric field can effectively tune the energy levels of the edge states in both layers to move in opposite directions. With the increase of the magnetic field, the magnetic energy levels can approach the Landau levels of the phosphorene monolayer, the phosphorene bilayer, or both, depending on the specific geometry of the monolayer-bilayer hybrid phosphorene quantum dots. This research should be helpful for the overall understanding of the electronic properties of the multilayer hybrid phosphorene nanostructures and designing the corresponding phosphorene devices.

  16. Supported lipid bilayers with controlled curvature via colloidal lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Maria; Manandhar, Michal; Svedhem, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) at surfaces provide a route to quantitatively study molecular interactions with and at lipid membranes via different surface-based analytical techniques. Here, a method to fabricate SLBs with controlled curvatures, in the nanometer regime over large areas, is prese...

  17. Device model investigation of bilayer organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, B. K.; Davids, P. S.; Campbell, I. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Organic materials that have desirable luminescence properties, such as a favorable emission spectrum and high luminescence efficiency, are not necessarily suitable for single layer organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) because the material may have unequal carrier mobilities or contact limited injection properties. As a result, single layer LEDs made from such organic materials are inefficient. In this article, we present device model calculations of single layer and bilayer organic LED characteristics that demonstrate the improvements in device performance that can occur in bilayer devices. We first consider an organic material where the mobilities of the electrons and holes are significantly different. The role of the bilayer structure in this case is to move the recombination away from the electrode that injects the low mobility carrier. We then consider an organic material with equal electron and hole mobilities but where it is not possible to make a good contact for one carrier type, say electrons. The role of a bilayer structure in this case is to prevent the holes from traversing the device without recombining. In both cases, single layer device limitations can be overcome by employing a two organic layer structure. The results are discussed using the calculated spatial variation of the carrier densities, electric field, and recombination rate density in the structures. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Electronic transport of bilayer graphene with asymmetry line defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Ya-Jie; Chen, Chan; Liang, Ying; Kou, Su-Peng

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study the quantum properties of a bilayer graphene with (asymmetry) line defects. The localized states are found around the line defects. Thus, the line defects on one certain layer of the bilayer graphene can lead to an electric transport channel. By adding a bias potential along the direction of the line defects, we calculate the electric conductivity of bilayer graphene with line defects using the Landauer-Büttiker theory, and show that the channel affects the electric conductivity remarkably by comparing the results with those in a perfect bilayer graphene. This one-dimensional line electric channel has the potential to be applied in nanotechnology engineering. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921803 and 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174035, 11474025, 11504285, and 11404090), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, the Scientific Research Program Fund of the Shaanxi Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 15JK1363), and the Young Talent Fund of University Association for Science and Technology in Shaanxi Province, China.

  19. Electronic and Optical Properties of Twisted Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengqiang

    The ability to isolate single atomic layers of van der Waals materials has led to renewed interest in the electronic and optical properties of these materials as they can be fundamentally different at the monolayer limit. Moreover, these 2D crystals can be assembled together layer by layer, with controllable sequence and orientation, to form artificial materials that exhibit new features that are not found in monolayers nor bulk. Twisted bilayer graphene is one such prototype system formed by two monolayer graphene layers placed on top of each other with a twist angle between their lattices, whose electronic band structure depends on the twist angle. This thesis presents the efforts to explore the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene by Raman spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. We first synthesize twisted bilayer graphene with various twist angles via chemical vapor deposition. Using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the twist angles are determined. The strength of the Raman G peak is sensitive to the electronic band structure of twisted bilayer graphene and therefore we use this peak to monitor changes upon doping. Our results demonstrate the ability to modify the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene with doping. We also fabricate twisted bilayer graphene by controllable stacking of two graphene monolayers with a dry transfer technique. For twist angles smaller than one degree, many body interactions play an important role. It requires eight electrons per moire unit cell to fill up each band instead of four electrons in the case of a larger twist angle. For twist angles smaller than 0.4 degree, a network of domain walls separating AB and BA stacking regions forms, which are predicted to host topologically protected helical states. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, these states are confirmed to appear on the domain walls when inversion

  20. Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thu Dang Kim; Hai Nguyen Thanh; Duong Nguyen Thuy; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Vu Thi; Hung Vu Manh; Patcharee Boonsiri; Tung Bui Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of saponins extract and saponin–phospholipid complex against human lung cancer NCI-H460 and breast cancer cell lines BT474 was examined using MTS assay. For in vivo evaluation of antitumor potential, saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex were administered orally in rats induced mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)a...

  1. Effect of low-dose gamma radiation on individual phospholipids in aqueous suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, P.W.; Maerker, G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of individual phospholipids (phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylglycerols) containing either saturated or unsaturated fatty acid chains was irradiated at 9.66 kgy and 0.4 degree C in aqueous suspension. The phospholipids were analyzed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a silica column with an evporative light scattering detector. Phospholipid disppearance and production of two radiolytic products, phosphatidic acid and the lysophospholipid, after irradiation were quantitated from calibration curves of synthetic standards. Dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid and monopalmitoylphosphatidylcholine from irradiated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine were identified by liquid secondary-ion mass spectrometry

  2. Investigating the protective properties of milk phospholipids against ultraviolet light exposure in a skin equivalent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ashley; Laubscher, Andrea; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Laiho, Lily H.

    2010-02-01

    Current research on bioactive molecules in milk has documented health advantages of bovine milk and its components. Milk Phospholipids, selected for this study, represent molecules with great potential benefit in human health and nutrition. In this study we used confocal reflectance and multiphoton microscopy to monitor changes in skin morphology upon skin exposure to ultraviolet light and evaluate the potential of milk phospholipids in preventing photodamage to skin equivalent models. The results suggest that milk phospholipids act upon skin cells in a protective manner against the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Similar results were obtained from MTT tissue viability assay and histology.

  3. Biophysical studies of cholesterol in unsaturated phospholipid model membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Justin Adam

    Cellular membranes contain a staggering diversity of lipids. The lipids are heterogeneously distributed to create regions, or domains, whose physical properties differ from the bulk membrane and play an essential role in modulating the function of resident proteins. Many basic questions pertaining to the formation of these lateral assemblies remain. This research employs model membranes of well-defined composition to focus on the potential role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their interaction with cholesterol (chol) in restructuring the membrane environment. Omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs are the main bioactive components of fish oil, whose consumption alleviates a variety of health problems by a molecular mechanism that is unclear. We hypothesize that the incorporation of PUFAs into membrane lipids and the effect they have on molecular organization may be, in part, responsible. Chol is a major constituent in the plasma membrane of mammals. It determines the arrangement and collective properties of neighboring lipids, driving the formation of domains via differential affinity for different lipids. The molecular organization of 1-[2H31]palmitoyl-2-eicosapentaenoylphosphatidylcholine (PEPC-d31) and 1-[2H31]palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoylphosphatidylcholine (PDPC-d31) in membranes with sphingomyelin (SM) and chol (1:1:1 mol) was compared by solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the two major n-3 PUFAs found in fish oil, while PEPC-d31 and PDPC-d31 are phospholipids containing the respective PUFAs at the sn-2 position and a perdeuterated palmitic acid at the sn-1 position. Analysis of spectra recorded as a function of temperature indicates that in both cases, formation of PUFA-rich (less ordered) and SM-rich (more ordered) domains occurred. A surprisingly substantial proportion of PUFA was found to infiltrate the more ordered domain. There was almost twice as much DHA (65%) as EPA (30%). The implication is that n-3

  4. Adsorption of egg phosphatidylcholine to an air/water and triolein/water bubble interface: use of the 2-dimensional phase rule to estimate the surface composition of a phospholipid/triolein/water surface as a function of surface pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsche, Matthew A; Wang, Libo; Small, Donald M

    2010-03-11

    Phospholipid monolayers play a critical role in the structure and stabilization of biological interfaces, including all membranes, the alveoli of the lungs, fat droplets in adipose tissue, and lipoproteins. The behavior of phospholipids in bilayers and at an air-water interface is well understood. However, the study of phospholipids at oil-water interfaces is limited due to technical challenges. In this study, egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) was deposited from small unilamellar vesicles onto a bubble of either air or triolein (TO) formed in a low-salt buffer. The surface tension (gamma) was measured using a drop tensiometer. We observed that EPC binds irreversibly to both interfaces and at equilibrium exerts approximately 12 and 15 mN/m of pressure (Pi) at an air and TO interface, respectively. After EPC was bound to the interface, the unbound EPC was washed out of the cuvette, and the surface was compressed to study the Pi/area relationship. To determine the surface concentration (Gamma), which cannot be measured directly, compression isotherms from a Langmuir trough and drop tensiometer were compared. The air-water interfaces had identical characteristics using both techniques; thus, Gamma on the bubble can be determined by overlaying the two isotherms. Both TO and EPC are surface-active, so in a mixed TO/EPC monolayer, both molecules will be exposed to water. Since TO is less surface-active than EPC, as Pi increases, the TO is progressively ejected. To understand the Pi/area isotherm of EPC on a TO bubble, a variety of TO-EPC mixtures were spread at the air-water interface. The isotherms show an abrupt break in the curve caused by the ejection of TO from the monolayer into a new bulk phase. By overlaying the compression isotherm above the ejection point with a TO bubble compression isotherm, Gamma can be estimated. This allows determination of Gamma of EPC on a TO bubble as a function of Pi.

  5. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of bilayer tablets: Part II. Impact of environmental conditions on the strength of bilayer tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottala, Niranjan; Abebe, Admassu; Sprockel, Omar; Bergum, James; Nikfar, Faranak; Cuitiño, Alberto M

    2012-12-01

    Ambient air humidity and temperature are known to influence the mechanical strength of tablets. The objective of this work is to understand the influence of processing parameters and environmental conditions (humidity and temperature) on the strength of bilayer tablets. As part of this study, bilayer tablets were compressed with different layer ratios, dwell times, layer sequences, material properties (plastic and brittle), first and second layer forces, and lubricant concentrations. Compressed tablets were stored in stability chambers controlled at predetermined conditions (40C/45%RH, 40C/75%RH) for 1, 3, and 5 days. The axial strength of the stored tablets was measured and a statistical model was developed to determine the effects of the aforementioned factors on the strength of bilayer tablets. As part of this endeavor, a full 3 × 2(4) factorial design was executed. Responses of the experiments were analyzed using PROC GLM of SAS (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA). A model was fit using all the responses to determine the significant interactions (p < 0.05). Results of this study indicated that storage conditions and storage time have significant impact on the strength of bilayer tablets. For Avicel-lactose and lactose-Avicel tablets, tablet strength decreased with the increasing humidity and storage time. But for lactose-lactose tablets, due to the formation of solid bridges upon storage, an increase in tablet strength was observed. Significant interactions were observed between processing parameters and storage conditions on the strength of bilayer tablets.

  6. Direct investigation of the vectorization properties of amphiphilic cyclodextrins in phospholipid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javierre, Isabelle; Nedyalkov, Mickael; Petkova, Vera; Benattar, Jean Jacques; Weisse, Sandrine; Auzély-Velty, Rachel; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence; Perly, Bruno

    2002-10-01

    Recently, new cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesized and shown to exhibit strong amphiphilic properties. In this paper, we study the action of these new amphiphilic cyclodextrins on phospholipids. Mixed phospholipid/cyclodextrin derivative films were prepared and studied using X-ray reflectivity for various phospholipid/cyclodextrin ratios. A molar ratio of 3 provides a highly stable film the molecular structure of which has been investigated in detail. The cholesterol tail of the cyclodextrin molecule was found to be anchored into the phospholipid film. The cyclodextrin moieties exposed to the aqueous medium are prone to the addition of the guest molecule Dosulepin, making them of high interest for drug delivery. For this purpose and as an example of a potential application, this cyclodextrin molecular carrier property is also addressed to this complex film architecture.

  7. Postprandial changes in the phospholipid composition of circulating microparticles are not associated with coagulation activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tushuizen, Maarten E.; Diamant, Michaela; Peypers, Erik G.; Hoek, Frans J.; Heine, Robert J.; Sturk, Augueste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence is present that the phospholipid composition of circulating cell-derived microparticles (MP) affects coagulation in vivo, and that postprandial metabolic alterations may be associated with hypercoagulable state. Our objective was to investigate whether postprandial metabolic

  8. Cardiolipin, a major phospholipid of gram-positive bacteria that is not readily extractable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filgueiras, M.H.; Kamp, J.A.F. op den

    1980-01-01

    Extraction of phospholipids from stationary phase grown cells of the Gram+ bacteria, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus lysodeikticus was found to be incomplete with various commonly used extraction procedures. Phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine

  9. Employment of Voltammetry in Studies of Transport Processes across Artificial Phospholipid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šestáková, Ivana; Navrátil, Tomáš; Josypčuk, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 11 (2016), s. 2754-2759 ISSN 1040-0397 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : phospholipid membrane * cadmium * calcium ionophore (calcimycin) Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.851, year: 2016

  10. Biophysical properties of membrane lipids of anammox bacteria : I. Ladderane phospholipids form highly organized fluid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumann, Henry A.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Stroeve, Pieter; Poolman, Bert; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Damste, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Schouten, Stefan

    Anammox bacteria that are capable of anaerobically oxidizing ammonium (anammox) with nitrite to nitrogen gas produce unique membrane phospholipids that comprise hydrocarbon chains with three or five linearly condensed cyclobutane rings. To gain insight into the biophysical properties of these

  11. Phospholipid metabolism and nuclear function: roles of the lipin family of phosphatidic acid phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniossoglou, Symeon

    2013-03-01

    Phospholipids play important roles in nuclear function as dynamic building blocks for the biogenesis of the nuclear membrane, as well as signals by which the nucleus communicates with other organelles, and regulate a variety of nuclear events. The mechanisms underlying the nuclear roles of phospholipids remain poorly understood. Lipins represent a family of phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatases that are conserved from yeasts to humans and perform essential functions in lipid metabolism. Several studies have identified key roles for lipins and their regulators in nuclear envelope organization, gene expression and the maintenance of lipid homeostasis in yeast and metazoans. This review discusses recent advances in understanding the roles of lipins in nuclear structure and function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Composition and physical state of phospholipids in calanoid copepods from India and Norway

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Farkas, T.; Storebakken, T.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The fatty acid composition and physical state of isolated phospholipids obtained from marine copepods collected on the Southwest coast of India (Calanus spp.) and the west coast of Norway (Calanus finmarchicus) were investigated to compare...

  13. Response of melanoma tumor phospholipid metabolism to chloroethyle nitrosourea: a high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Daniel; Demidem, Aïcha; Madelmont, Jean-Claude

    2003-07-01

    Phospholipid metabolism is tightly involved in tumor growth regulation and tumor cell survival. The response of phospholipid metabolism to chloroethyle nitrosourea treatment is investigated in a murine B16 melanoma model. Measurements of phospholipid derivatives are performed on intact tumor tissue samples using one- and two-dimensional proton NMR spectroscopy. During the tumor growth inhibition phase under treatment, tumors overexpress phosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine, glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine, whereas phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine levels are maintained to control levels. During re-growth, which remained quantitatively much below control growth, chloroethyle nitrosourea-treated melanoma tumors overexpress phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine only. In treated melanoma, phosphatidylcholine levels show an inverse relationship with tumor growth rates. In conclusion, chloroethyle nitrosourea-treated melanoma tumors maintain their phosphatidylcholine levels and exhibit transformed phospholipid metabolism phenotype, by mechanisms that could participate in tumor cell survival.

  14. The ancient link between G-protein-coupled receptors and C-terminal phospholipid kinase domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogen, van den D.J.; Meijer, Harold J.G.; Seidl, Michael F.; Govers, Francine

    2018-01-01

    Sensing external signals and transducing these into intracellular responses requires a molecular signaling system that is crucial for every living organism. Two important eukaryotic signal transduction pathways that are often interlinked are G-protein signaling and phospholipid signaling.

  15. Formulation optimization and in vivo proof-of-concept study of thermosensitive liposomes balanced by phospholipid, elastin-like polypeptide, and cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Min Park

    Full Text Available One application of nanotechnology in medicine that is presently being developed involves a drug delivery system (DDS employing nanoparticles to deliver drugs to diseased sites in the body avoiding damage of healthy tissue. Recently, the mild hyperthermia-triggered drug delivery combined with anticancer agent-loaded thermosensitive liposomes was widely investigated. In this study, thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs, composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethyleneglycol-2000] (DSPE-PEG, cholesterol, and a fatty acid conjugated elastin-like polypeptide (ELP, were developed and optimized for triggered drug release, controlled by external heat stimuli. We introduced modified ELP, tunable for various biomedical purposes, to our thermosensitive liposome (e-TSL to convey a high thermoresponsive property. We modulated thermosensitivity and stability by varying the ratios of e-TSL components, such as phospholipid, ELP, and cholesterol. Experimental data obtained in this study corresponded to results from a simulation study that demonstrated, through the calculation of the lateral diffusion coefficient, increased permeation of the lipid bilayer with higher ELP concentrations, and decreased permeation in the presence of cholesterol. Finally, we identified effective drug accumulation in tumor tissues and antitumor efficacy with our optimized e-TSL, while adjusting lag-times for systemic accumulation.

  16. Phospholipid-Coated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Acting as Lubricating Drug Nanocarriers

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Sun; Yulong Sun; Hongyu Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a severe disease caused by wear and inflammation of joints. In this study, phospholipid-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs@lip) were prepared in order to treat OA at an early stage. The phospholipid layer has excellent lubrication capability in aqueous media due to the hydration lubrication mechanism, while mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) act as effective drug nanocarriers. The MSNs@lip were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission el...

  17. Covalent modification of serum transferrin with phospholipid and incorporation into liposomal membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Demant, E J; Hansen, Gert Helge

    1989-01-01

    A method is described for incorporation of water-soluble proteins into liposomal membranes using covalent protein-phospholipid conjugates in detergent solution. A disulfide derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine containing a reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide ester group is synthesized, and the deriva......A method is described for incorporation of water-soluble proteins into liposomal membranes using covalent protein-phospholipid conjugates in detergent solution. A disulfide derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine containing a reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide ester group is synthesized...

  18. Isolation and Analysis of Phospholipids in Dairy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Pimentel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid fraction of milk is one of the most complex matrixes in foodstuffs due to the presence of a high number of moieties with different physical and chemical properties. Glycerolipids include glycerol and two fatty acids esterified in positions sn-1 and sn-2 with higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids than in the triglyceride fraction of milk. Sphingolipids consist of a sphingoid base linked to a fatty acid across an amide bond. Their amphiphilic nature makes them suitable to be added into a variety of foods and recent investigations show that phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin, can exert antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer activities as well as positive effects in Alzheimer’s disease, stress, and memory decline. Polar lipids can be found as natural constituents in the membranes of all living organisms with soybean and eggs as the principal industrial sources, yet they have low contents in phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin. Animal products are rich sources of these compounds but since there are legal restrictions to avoid transmission of prions, milk and dairy products are gaining interest as alternative sources. This review summarizes the analysis of polar lipids in dairy products including sample preparation (extraction and fractionation/isolation and analysis by GC or HPLC and the latest research works using ELSD, CAD, and MS detectors.

  19. Determination of phospholipid transfer proteins in rat tissues by immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teerlink, T.

    1983-01-01

    Several quantitative immunoassays have been developed for two phospholipid transfer proteins from rat liver, i.e. the phosphatidylcholine transfer protein and the non-specific lipid transfer protein. The development of a double-antibody radioimmunoassay for the phosphatidylcholine transfer protein is described. The transfer protein was labelled with iodine-125 by the mild glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method. Although less than one tyrosine residue per molecule of transfer protein was labelled, only 20% of the labelled transfer protein was immunoprecipitable. This value could be increased to 80% by purifying the labelled protein by affinity chromatography on a column of anti-phosphatidylcholine transfer protein-IgG coupled to Sepharose 4B. The radioimmunoassay was used to determine the levels of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein in homogenates and 105 000 xg supernatants from various rat tissues as well as several Morris hepatomas. An enzyme immunoassay for the non-specific lipid transfer protein is also described. The antiserum that was raised especially by the author was cross-reactive with the non-specific lipid transfer protein present in 105 000 xg supernatants from human, mouse and bovine liver. The non-specific lipid transfer protein lost its immunoreactivity upon labelling with iodine-125 using different labelling techniques. Therefore, a regular radioimmunoassay could not be developed. The results of these different assays were compared. (Auth.)

  20. Intracellular Drug Bioavailability: Effect of Neutral Lipids and Phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyer, Andrea; Mateus, André; Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Boriss, Hinnerk; Matsson, Pär; Artursson, Per

    2018-06-04

    Intracellular unbound drug concentrations are the pharmacologically relevant concentrations for targets inside cells. Intracellular drug concentrations are determined by multiple processes, including the extent of drug binding to intracellular structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of neutral lipid (NL) and phospholipid (PL) levels on intracellular drug disposition. The NL and/or PL content of 3T3-L1 cells were enhanced, resulting in phenotypes (in terms of morphology and proteome) reminiscent of adipocytes (high NL and PL) or mild phospholipidosis (only high PL). Intracellular bioavailability ( F ic ) was then determined for 23 drugs in these cellular models and in untreated wild-type cells. A higher PL content led to higher intracellular drug binding and a lower F ic . The induction of NL did not further increase drug binding but led to altered F ic due to increased lysosomal pH. Further, there was a good correlation between binding to beads coated with pure PL and intracellular drug binding. In conclusion, our results suggest that PL content is a major determinant of drug binding in cells and that PL beads may constitute a simple alternative to estimating this parameter. Further, the presence of massive amounts of intracellular NLs did not influence drug binding significantly.

  1. Time-dependent stokes shifts of fluorescent dyes in the hydrophobic backbone region of a phospholipid bilayer: Combination of fluorescence spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkora, Jan; Slavíček, Petr; Jungwirth, Pavel; Barucha-Kraszewska, Justyna; Hof, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 21 (2007), s. 5869-5877 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400503; GA MŠk LC512; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Grant - others:GA ČR GP203/07/P449 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : solvation dynamics * solvent relaxation * 9-anthroid acid * preferential solvation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.086, year: 2007

  2. Double-chain phospholipid end-capped polyurethanes: Synthesis, characterization and platelet adhesion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Dongsheng; Zhang Xiaoqing; Li Jiehua; Tan Hong; Fu Qiang

    2012-01-01

    A novel phospholipid containing double chains and phosphotidylcholine polar head groups, 2-(10-(2-aminoethylamino)-10-oxodecanamido)-3-(decyloxy)-3-oxopropyl phosphorylcholine (ADDPC), was synthesized and characterized. Two kinds of double-chain phospholipid end-capped polyurethanes with different soft segments were prepared. The structure of prepared polyurethanes was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry and atomic force microscope (AFM), which indicated that the double-chain phospholipids enriched onto the top surface of the prepared polyurethane films. The preliminary evaluation of blood compatibility showed that these novel phospholipid end-capped polyurethanes could suppress platelet adhesion and activation effectively. This property did not depend on the chemical structure of polyurethanes. In addition, according to tensile test results, the phospholipid polyurethanes kept good mechanical properties in comparison with original polyurethanes. It is suggested that double-chain phospholipid end-caption has good potential for achieving both hemocompatibility and good mechanical properties simultaneously for polyurethanes.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative changes in phospholipids and proteins investigated by spectroscopic techniques in animal depression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, J.; Sowa-Kucma, M.; Nowak, G.; Papp, M.; Gruca, P.; Misztak, P.; Parlinska-Wojtan, M.

    2017-04-01

    Depression becomes nowadays a high mortality civilization disease with one of the major causes being chronic stress. Raman, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies were used to determine the changes in the quantity and structure of phospholipids and proteins in the blood serum of rats subjected to chronic mild stress, which is a common animal depression model. Moreover, the efficiency of the imipramine treatment was evaluated. It was found that chronic mild stress not only damages the structure of the phospholipids and proteins, but also decreases their level in the blood serum. A 5 weeks imipramine treatment did increase slightly the quantity of proteins, leaving the damaged phospholipids unchanged. Structural information from phospholipids and proteins was obtained by UV-vis spectroscopy combined with the second derivative of the FTIR spectra. Indeed, the structure of proteins in blood serum of stressed rats was normalized after imipramine therapy, while the impaired structure of phospholipids remained unaffected. These findings strongly suggest that the depression factor, which is chronic mild stress, may induce permanent (irreversible) damages into the phospholipid structure identified as shortened carbon chains. This study shows a possible new application of spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of depression.

  4. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  5. Phospholipid-sepiolite biomimetic interfaces for the immobilization of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Bernd; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    Biomimetic interfaces based on phosphatidylcholine (PC) assembled to the natural silicate sepiolite were prepared for the stable immobilization of the urease and cholesterol oxidase enzymes. This is an important issue in practical advanced applications such as biocatalysis or biosensing. The supported lipid bilayer (BL-PC), prepared from PC adsorption, was used for immobilization of enzymes and the resulting biomimetic systems were compared to several other supported layers including a lipid monolayer (ML-PC), a mixed phosphatidylcholine/octyl-galactoside layer (PC-OGal), a cetyltrimethylammonium monolayer (CTA), and also to the bare sepiolite surface. Interfacial characteristics of these layers were investigated with a focus on layer packing density, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, and surface charge, which are being considered as key points for enzyme immobilization and stabilization of their biological activity. Cytoplasmic urease and membrane-bound cholesterol oxidase, which served as model enzymes, were immobilized on the different PC-based hybrid materials to probe their biomimetic character. Enzymatic activity was assessed by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The resulting enzyme/bio-organoclay hybrids were applied as active phase of a voltammetric urea biosensor and cholesterol bioreactor, respectively. Urease supported on sepiolite/BL-PC proved to maintain its enzymatic activity over several months while immobilized cholesterol oxidase demonstrated high reusability as biocatalyst. The results emphasize the good preservation of bioactivity due to the accommodation of the enzymatic system within the biomimetic lipid interface on sepiolite.

  6. Simulation studies of protein-induced bilayer deformations, and lipid-induced protein tilting, on a mesoscopic model for lipid bilayers with embedded proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venturoli, M.; Smit, B.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena

    2005-01-01

    membranes. Here we present a mesoscopic model for lipid bilayers with embedded proteins, which we have studied with the help of the dissipative particle dynamics simulation technique. Because hydrophobic matching is believed to be one of the main physical mechanisms regulating lipid-protein interactions......-induced protein tilt, with the hydrophobic mismatch ( positive and negative) between the protein hydrophobic length and the pure lipid bilayer hydrophobic thickness. The protein-induced bilayer perturbation was quantified in terms of a coherence length, xi(P), of the lipid bilayer hydrophobic thickness pro. le...... for positive values of mismatch; a dependence on the protein size appears as well. In the case of large model proteins experiencing extreme mismatch conditions, in the region next to the so-called lipid annulus, there appears an undershooting ( or overshooting) region where the bilayer hydrophobic thickness...

  7. Double Barriers and Magnetic Field in Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redouani, Ilham; Jellal, Ahmed; Bahlouli, Hocine

    2015-12-01

    We study the transmission probability in an AB-stacked bilayer graphene of Dirac fermions scattered by a double-barrier structure in the presence of a magnetic field. We take into account the full four bands structure of the energy spectrum and use the suitable boundary conditions to determine the transmission probability. Our numerical results show that for energies higher than the interlayer coupling, four ways for transmission are possible while for energies less than the height of the barrier, Dirac fermions exhibit transmission resonances and only one transmission channel is available. We show that, for AB-stacked bilayer graphene, there is no Klein tunneling at normal incidence. We find that the transmission displays sharp peaks inside the transmission gap around the Dirac point within the barrier regions while they are absent around the Dirac point in the well region. The effect of the magnetic field, interlayer electrostatic potential, and various barrier geometry parameters on the transmission probabilities is also discussed.

  8. Unconventional superfluids of fermionic polar molecules in a bilayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudjemâa, Abdelâali, E-mail: a.boudjemaa@univhb-chlef.dz

    2017-05-25

    We study unconventional superfluids of fermionic polar molecules in a two-dimensional bilayer system with dipoles are head-to-tail across the layers. We analyze the critical temperature of several unconventional pairings as a function of different system parameters. The peculiar competition between the d- and the s-wave pairings is discussed. We show that the experimental observation of such unconventional superfluids requires ultralow temperatures, which opens up new possibilities to realize several topological phases. - Highlights: • Investigation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules in a bilayer geometry. • Solving the gap equation and the l-wave interlayer scattering problem. • Calculation of the critical temperature of several competing pairings using the BCS approach.

  9. Bilayer graphene: physics and application outlook in photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hugen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Layered materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichacogenides and black phosphorus have attracted lots of attention recently. They are emerging novel materials in electronics and photonics, with tremendous potential in revolutionizing the traditional electronics and photonics industry. Marrying layered material to the nanophotonics is being proved fruitful. With the recent emphasis and development of metasurfaces in nanophotonics, atomically thin materials can find their unique position and strength in this field. In this article, I will focus on one specific two dimensional material: bilayer graphene. Basic physics will be reviewed, such as band-gap opening, electron-phonon interaction, phonon-plasmon interaction and Fano resonances in the optical response. Moreover, I will review the application of bilayer graphene as a sensitive and fast photodetector. An outlook will be given in the final part of the paper.

  10. Protein-induced bilayer Perturbations: Lipid ordering and hydrophobic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Laursen, Ib; Bohr, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The host lipid bilayer is increasingly being recognized as an important non-specific regulator of membrane protein function. Despite considerable progress the interplay between hydrophobic coupling and lipid ordering is still elusive. We use electron spin resonance (ESR) to study the interaction...... between the model protein gramicidin and lipid bilayers of varying thickness. The free energy of the interaction is up to −6 kJ/mol; thus not strongly favored over lipid–lipid interactions. Incorporation of gramicidin results in increased order parameters with increased protein concentration...... and hydrophobic mismatch. Our findings also show that at high protein:lipid ratios the lipids are motionally restricted but not completely immobilized. Both exchange on and off rate values for the lipid ↔ gramicidin interaction are lowest at optimal hydrophobic matching. Hydrophobic mismatch of few Å results...

  11. Bilayer formation in thin films of a binary solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govor, L.V.; Reiter, G.; Bauer, G.H.; Parisi, J.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the formation of a pattern of micrometer-size droplets formed by phase separation in a binary solution composed of a nitrocellulose (NC) solution in amyl acetate and a hexadecylamine (HDA) solution in hexane. Spreading of this solution on a water surface leads to the formation of a bilayer with a top HDA and a lower NC solution layer. The formation of the bilayer was confirmed via spin-coating a similar binary solution on a Si substrate and an HDA solution in hexane on a NC/Si substrate. The subsequent evaporation of the solvents from both layers gives rise to a fast thickness decrease of the top HDA solution layer that decomposes into droplets. The discretely developing increase of the thickness of the HDA droplets can be explained only with the formation of HDA micelles in solution during solvent evaporation

  12. Bilayer formation in thin films of a binary solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govor, L.V. [Institute of Physics, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)]. E-mail: leonid.govor@uni-oldenburg.de; Reiter, G. [Institut de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CNRS-UHA, F-8057 Mulhouse cedex (France); Bauer, G.H. [Institute of Physics, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Parisi, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2006-04-24

    We consider the formation of a pattern of micrometer-size droplets formed by phase separation in a binary solution composed of a nitrocellulose (NC) solution in amyl acetate and a hexadecylamine (HDA) solution in hexane. Spreading of this solution on a water surface leads to the formation of a bilayer with a top HDA and a lower NC solution layer. The formation of the bilayer was confirmed via spin-coating a similar binary solution on a Si substrate and an HDA solution in hexane on a NC/Si substrate. The subsequent evaporation of the solvents from both layers gives rise to a fast thickness decrease of the top HDA solution layer that decomposes into droplets. The discretely developing increase of the thickness of the HDA droplets can be explained only with the formation of HDA micelles in solution during solvent evaporation.

  13. Mobility gap and quantum transport in a functionalized graphene bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaoui, Ahmed; Jemaa Khabthani, Jouda; Jaidane, Nejm-Eddine; Mayou, Didier; Trambly de Laissardière, Guy

    2018-05-01

    In a Bernal graphene bilayer, carbon atoms belong to two inequivalent sublattices A and B, with atoms that are coupled to the other layer by bonds belonging to sublattice A and the other atoms belonging to sublattice B. We analyze the density of states and the conductivity of Bernal graphene bilayers when atoms of sublattice A or B only are randomly functionalized. We find that for a selective functionalization on sublattice B only, a mobility gap of the order of 0.5 eV is formed close to the Dirac energy at concentration of adatoms . In addition, at some other energies conductivity presents anomalous behaviors. We show that these properties are related to the bipartite structure of the graphene layer.

  14. Plasmon modes of bilayer molybdenum disulfide: a density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbatian, Z.; Asgari, R.

    2017-11-01

    We explore the collective electronic excitations of bilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) using density functional theory together with random phase approximation. The many-body dielectric function and electron energy-loss spectra are calculated using an ab initio based model involving material-realistic physical properties. The electron energy-loss function of the bilayer MoS2 system is found to be sensitive to either electron or hole doping and this is due to the fact that the Kohn-Sham band dispersions are not symmetric for energies above and below the zero Fermi level. Three plasmon modes are predicted, a damped high-energy mode, one optical mode (in-phase mode) for which the plasmon dispersion exhibits \\sqrt q in the long wavelength limit originating from low-energy electron scattering and finally a highly damped acoustic mode (out-of-phase mode).

  15. Exchange bias in diluted-antiferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Zhongquan; Zhan, Xiaozhi; Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The hysteresis-loop properties of a diluted-antiferromagnetic (DAF) layer exchange coupling to an antiferromagnetic (AF) layer are investigated by means of numerical simulations. Remarkable loop shift and coercivity enhancement are observed in such DAF/AF bilayers, while they are absent in the uncoupled DAF single layer. The influences of pinned domains, dilution, cooling field and DAF layer thickness on the loop shift are investigated systematically. The result unambiguously confirms an exchange bias (EB) effect in the DAF/AF bilayers. It also reveals that the EB effect originates from the pinned AF domains within the DAF layer. In contrast to conventional EB systems, frozen uncompensated spins are not found at the interface of the AF pinning layer. (paper)

  16. Interaction of saponin 1688 with phase separated lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maohui; Balhara, Vinod; Jaimes Castillo, Ana Maria; Balsevich, John; Johnston, Linda J

    2017-07-01

    Saponins are a diverse family of naturally occurring plant triterpene or steroid glycosides that have a wide range of biological activities. They have been shown to permeabilize membranes and in some cases membrane disruption has been hypothesized to involve saponin/cholesterol complexes. We have examined the interaction of steroidal saponin 1688-1 with lipid membranes that contain cholesterol and have a mixture of liquid-ordered (L o ) and liquid-disordered (L d ) phases as a model for lipid rafts in cellular membranes. A combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence was used to probe the effect of saponin on the bilayer. The results demonstrate that saponin forms defects in the membrane and also leads to formation of small aggregates on the membrane surface. Although most of the membrane damage occurs in the liquid-disordered phase, fluorescence results demonstrate that saponin localizes in both ordered and disordered membrane phases, with a modest preference for the disordered regions. Similar effects are observed for both direct incorporation of saponin in the lipid mixture used to make vesicles/bilayers and for incubation of saponin with preformed bilayers. The results suggest that the initial sites of interaction are at the interface between the domains and surrounding disordered phase. The preference for saponin localization in the disordered phase may reflect the ease of penetration of saponin into a less ordered membrane, rather than the actual cholesterol concentration in the membrane. Dye leakage assays indicate that a high concentration of saponin is required for membrane permeabilization consistent with the supported lipid bilayer experiments. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Discrete particle modeling and micromechanical characterization of bilayer tablet compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, B; Gonzalez, M; Abebe, A; Sprockel, O; Nikfar, F; Kiang, S; Cuitiño, A M

    2017-08-30

    A mechanistic particle scale model is proposed for bilayer tablet compaction. Making bilayer tablets involves the application of first layer compaction pressure on the first layer powder and a second layer compaction pressure on entire powder bed. The bonding formed between the first layer and the second layer particles is crucial for the mechanical strength of the bilayer tablet. The bonding and the contact forces between particles of the first layer and second layer are affected by the deformation and rearrangement of particles due to the compaction pressures. Our model takes into consideration the elastic and plastic deformations of the first layer particles due to the first layer compaction pressure, in addition to the mechanical and physical properties of the particles. Using this model, bilayer tablets with layers of the same material and different materials, which are commonly used pharmaceutical powders, are tested. The simulations show that the strength of the layer interface becomes weaker than the strength of the two layers as the first layer compaction pressure is increased. The reduction of strength at the layer interface is related to reduction of the first layer surface roughness. The reduced roughness decreases the available bonding area and hence reduces the mechanical strength at the interface. In addition, the simulations show that at higher first layer compaction pressure the bonding area is significantly less than the total contact area at the layer interface. At the interface itself, there is a non-monotonic relationship between the bonding area and first layer force. The bonding area at the interface first increases and then decreases as the first layer pressure is increased. These results are in agreement with findings of previous experimental studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Twisted bilayer blue phosphorene: A direct band gap semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, D. A.; Duque, C. A.; Correa, J. D.; Suárez Morell, Eric

    2016-09-01

    We report that two rotated layers of blue phosphorene behave as a direct band gap semiconductor. The optical spectrum shows absorption peaks in the visible region of the spectrum and in addition the energy of these peaks can be tuned with the rotational angle. These findings makes twisted bilayer blue phosphorene a strong candidate as a solar cell or photodetection device. Our results are based on ab initio calculations of several rotated blue phosphorene layers.

  19. Modeling and simulation of thermally actuated bilayer plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Sören; Bonito, Andrea; Muliana, Anastasia H.; Nochetto, Ricardo H.

    2018-02-01

    We present a mathematical model of polymer bilayers that undergo large bending deformations when actuated by non-mechanical stimuli such as thermal effects. The simple model captures a large class of nonlinear bending effects and can be discretized with standard plate elements. We devise a fully practical iterative scheme and apply it to the simulation of folding of several practically useful compliant structures comprising of thin elastic layers.

  20. Bilayers Polypyrrole Coatings for Corrosion Protection of SAE 4140 Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Lehr, I.L.; Saidman, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study polypyrrole (PPy) bilayers films were electrodeposited onto SAE 4140 steel. The inner layer was electropolymerized in the presence of molibdate and nitrate and the outer layer in a solution containing sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT). The electrosynthesis was done under potentiostatic conditions. The corrosion protection properties of the films were examined in sodium chloride solution by open circuit measurements, linear polarization and electrochemical impedance ...