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Sample records for zuwachs kleinstwasserkraftwerke kraftwerke

  1. Kraftwerk Union A.G. and its service system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Franz

    1986-01-01

    The organizational structure and the main fields of activities of the Kraftwerk Union A.G.,FRG,were presented at the KWU meeting, Budapest, 1984. KWU which has 14.000 employees and an annual turnover of about 3.4 billion DM, was founded as an affiliate company of Siemens AG and AEG in 1969. 70 fossile-fuel and 16 nuclear power plants have been designed, constructed and commissioned by KWU. The well-organized service system and the service centre at Karlstein contribute significantly to the high availability of the nuclear power plants. (V.N.)

  2. Kraft-Wärmekopplung und Blockheiz-Kraftwerke BHKW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Die thermischen Wirkungsgrade von Kraftwerken zur Stromerzeugung sind relativ gering. Beispielsweise erreichen moderne Kohlekraftwerke heute bis etwa 45 %, Gasturbinen maximal 40 % und Diesel-Motoren nicht über 50 %. Kombinations-Kraftwerke, Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Prozesse können an die 60 % thermischer Wirkungsgrad bei der Umwandlung der zugeführten Wärme in mechanische bzw. elektrische Energie erzielen. Ein ähnlich hoher Wert wird in Zukunft von den Brennstoffzellen erwartet. Der nicht in Arbeit umgewandelte Anteil der zugeführten Wärme fällt als Abwärme an und geht ungenutzt in die Umgebung. Ein Teil dieser Abwärme lässt sich durch entsprechende Installationen bei allen Kraftwerksprozessen zur Wassererwärmung oder zur Dampferzeugung für industrielle Zwecke nutzen. Für Heizzwecke genügt eine Temperatur der Abwärme von 60 %C bis 80 %C, während die Erzeugung von Industriedampf deutlich höhere Temperaturen voraussetzt.

  3. Solgreen 'Kraftwerk 1' PV plant in Zurich - Final report; Solgreen Kraftwerk 1 Zuerich - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.; Stettler, S.

    2008-04-15

    The 'Solgreen Kraftwerk 1' PV plant was built in Zurich, in June 2001. The Solgreen system optimizes the integration of photovoltaic modules on green flat roofs by using the ground substrate in a double function for both; as soil substrate for the vegetation and as a foundation for the modules mounting structure. The project's main goal was to test the suitability of the Solgreen system. Furthermore, the interacting influences of the roof vegetation and the photovoltaic system were examined scientifically over a 5 year period by an external expert. 12 sample areas were covered with different substrates and different seeds were used on the roof during the test period. Ecosystem diversity amounted to 140 different breeds of plants as well as insects and animals. The modules led to a higher structural diversity on the roof by creating shaded areas and different water distribution. Saplings mainly growing in low vegetation density areas, caused shading on modules and had to be removed. Mulleins were an additional shading problem on one of the rooftops; leading to a measurable energy reduction. For future installations of this type, a low substrate height in front of the modules and seeds which produce low growing plants can reduce such shading problems. This photovoltaic system's technical performance was higher compared to the average system's performance in Zurich. Visual controls of the system showed almost no soiling of the PV modules, primarily due to the frameless modules, but maybe also due to the plants' air cleaning effect. (author)

  4. Chemistry in power plants 2011; Chemie im Kraftwerk 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the VGB Powertech conference from 25th to 27th October, 2011, in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures and poster contributions were presented: (1) The revised VGB standard for water-steam-cycle Chemistry; (2) Switchover from neutral operation to oxygen treatment at the power station Stuttgart-Muenster of EnBW Kraftwerke AG; (3) Steam contamination with degradation products of organic matters present in the feedwater of the Lanxess-Rubber cogeneration plant; (4) Laboratory scale on-line noble metal deposition experiments simulating BWR plant conditions; (5) Building a new demin installation for the power plant EPZ in Borssele; (6) Replacement of the cooling tower installations in the nuclear power plant Goesgen-Daenien AG; (7) Aging of IEX resins in demin plants - Cost optimisation by adaptation of regenerants; (8) The largest DOW trademark EDI System at a combined cycled plant in Europe; (9) Upgrading river Main water to boiler feed water - Experiences with ultrafiltration; (10) Experiences with treatment of the water-steam-cycle in the RDF power plant Nehlsen Stavenhagen with film-forming amines; (11) Comparative modelling of the bubbles thermal collapse and cavitations for estimation of bubbles collapse influence; (12) Overcoming the steam quality - issues from an HRSG for the production of process steam; (13) Legionella - new requirements for power plant operation; (14) How the right chemistry in the FGD helps to improve the removal in the waste water treatment plant; (15) High efficiency filtration in dry/semi-dry FGD plants; (16) Expanding the variety of renewable fuels in the biomass power plant Timelkam using the chemical input control; (17) Corrosion, operating experiences and process improvements to increase the availability and operating time of the biomass power plant Timelkam; (18) The influence of temperature on the measurement of the conductivity of highly diluted solutions; (19) A multiparameter instrumentation approach

  5. Waste incineration on its way to the power plants; Muellverbrennung auf dem Weg zum Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J. [STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen (Germany); Neukirchen, B. [STEAG AG, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Looking at the year 2005 and the end of disposal of untreated domestic waste the politic hopes that the prognosticated lack of waste treatment capacity is remedied by coal-fired power plants. The classical municipal waste incinerators by contrast want to get recognition as energetic recycler in comparison with power stations. The decision of the European Court of Justice concerning recycling and disposal of domestic waste by incineration has started the discussion and competition on fuel-rich commercial waste. Are municipal waste incineration plants power stations or must power plants be regarded as incinerators? These questions are still open. (orig.) [German] Mit Blick auf das Jahr 2005 und das Ende der Ablagerung von unbehandeltem Siedlungsabfall hofft die Politik, dass der prognostizierte Mangel an Vorbehandlungskapazitaeten von den Kohlekraftwerken behoben wird. Die klassischen Muellverbrennungsanlagen wollen dagegen mit dem Kraftwerksvergleich die Anerkennung als energetische Verwerter erreichen. Das EuGH-Urteil zur Verwertung oder Beseitigung von Siedlungsabfall durch Verbrennen hat in diesem Jahr die Diskussion und den Kampf um den heizwertreichen Gewerbeabfall angeheizt. Die Frage, wie weit in Zukunft die Muellverbrennungsanlagen als Kraftwerke, aber auch die Kraftwerke als Muellverbrennungsanlagen angesehen werden muessen, ist noch offen. (orig.)

  6. Theseus, the 50 MW solar thermal power plant; Das solarthermische 50-MW-Kraftwerk Theseus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakmann, G. [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany). Solarenergieprojekte

    1998-04-01

    The Isle of Crete measures 8331 km{sup 2}, and this island renowned for its historical sites attracts millions of tourists every year. Like any other branch of industry, tourism, which is called a ``white`` industry, has an ever growing demand for electric power. Up to now, electricity generation on the island is based on fossil-fuelled thermal power plants. However, recent developments indicate that this technology might be overtaken soon by the novel Theseus power plant (Thermal Solar European Power Station) currently under construction. It is expected to usher in a new era of power generation on the Isle of Crete. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die 8 331 km{sup 2} grosse Insel Kreta wurde vor ueber 3 500 Jahren besiedelt. Der geschichtstraechtige Ort ist ein hochgeschaetztes Reiseziel von Millionen Griechenlandurlaubern. Wie jede Art von Industrie, so benoetigt auch die als `weisse Industrie` bezeichnete Touristikbranche immer mehr elektrische Energie. Diese wird derzeit auf Kreta ausschliesslich mit thermischen Kraftwerken, welche fossile Brennstoffe verbrennen, erzeugt. Aber die Vorherrschaft dieser Technologie kann schon bald mit dem neuen solarthermischen Kraftwerk Theseus (Thermal Solar European Power Station) gebrochen werden. Es soll in wenigen Jahren eine neue Aera der Energieerzeugung auf Kreta einlaeuten. (orig.)

  7. Operating requirements for power plants in the liberalised electricity market; Einsatzanforderungen an Kraftwerke im liberalisierten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzbach, G. [Vereinigte Energiewerke AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Einzelkraftwerke und kleine Kraftwerksparks muss mit hoeheren dynamischen Anforderungen gerechnet werden, um moeglichst genau und weitgehend ohne Inanspruchnahme teuerer Regelleistung des Netzbetreibers die mit dem Kunden vereinbarten Stundenfahrplaene abzudecken. Darueber hinaus gegebenenfalls verbleibende Leistung wird - auch nach Entstehen physischer Stromboersen - nicht immer ihre Kaeufer finden. Alternative Beschaffungsmoeglichkeiten werden staendig mit den eigenen Erzeugungskosten verglichen, was ebenfalls eine Erhoehung dynamischer Anforderungen an die Kraftwerke zur Folge haben kann. Fuer groessere Kraftwerksparks und insbesondere bei Vorhandensein ausreichender Pumpspeicherleistung ist demgegenueber zu erwarten, dass ein besserer Ausgleich erhoehter Regelanforderungen moeglich ist, soweit deren wirtschaftliche Auswirkungen in Kurzfrist-Einsatzoptimierungsprogrammen Beruecksichtigung finden. (orig.)

  8. Modern control systems in the combined-cycle power plant `Salinenstrasse` of Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall GmbH; Einsatz moderner Kraftwerksleittechnik im GuD-Kraftwerk Salinenstrasse der Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuning, P [Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall GmbH (Germany); Menschel, M [Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall GmbH (Germany); Friedrich, G [IDS Gesellschaft fuer Informations-, Datenuebertragungs- und Steuerungssysteme mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Radtke, W [IDS Gesellschaft fuer Informations-, Datenuebertragungs- und Steuerungssysteme mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1994-11-14

    Run-of-river power plants, CHP systems and heating power stations produce much of the heat and power consumed in the supply area of the Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall. The most recent component is a modern combined-cycle power station based on a reconstructed steam power plant commissioned in 1935. Modern control systems supplied by IDS Karlsruhe ensure optimal grid and power plant operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Laufwasser-Kraftwerke, BHKW und Heizkraftwerke decken einen grossen Teil des Bedarfs an Waerme und Energie im Versorgungsgebiet der Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall. Vor kurzem ist hier als weitere Komponente ein modernes GuD-Kraftwerk in Betrieb genommen worden. Um ein bestehendes, bereits 1935 erbautes Dampfkraftwerk wirtschaftlicher nutzen zu koennen, haben die Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall den Umbau zum GuD-Kraftwerk vorgenommen. Durch den Einsatz der von IDS Karlsruhe gelieferten Kraftwerksleittechnik, verbunden mit einem modernen Netzleitsystem wird eine optimale Netz- und Kraftwerksfuehrung ermoeglicht. (orig.)

  9. Virtual power plants in energy industry law. Possible manifestations and from them resulting legal questions; Virtuelle Kraftwerke im Energiewirtschaftsrecht. Moegliche Erscheinungsformen und daraus resultierende Rechtsfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlbrandt, Lea Katharina [Bucerius Law School, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Although cogeneration plants are operated with fossil fuels are not quite as environmentally friendly as EEG systems they have a much more favorable effect due to their high efficiency climate as conventional power plants. In the future this could can even improve with the aid of fuel cell technology. Therefore, they play for the transition to a safe and secure more efficient power supply conditions for a merger of cogeneration plants overall favorable, in particular because that no influence on the or the emission trading obligation of the plant operators has. However, the complete elimination of avoided network charges could be counterproductive. Just virtual power plants of cogeneration plants have an effect on a feed-in that the grid not charged, so fees for a decentralized feed in these cases can be justified. Also the development of cogeneration development within the framework of the newly introduced calls will have a major impact on the development of virtual power stations. [German] Zwar sind KWK-Anlagen, die mit fossilen Brennstoffen betrieben werden, nicht ganz so umweltfreundlich wie EEG-Anlagen, doch haben sie aufgrund ihres hohen Wirkungsgrades eine viel guenstigere Klimabilanz als konventionelle Kraftwerke. In Zukunft koennte diese sich mithilfe der Brennstoffzellen-Technologie sogar noch verbessern. Daher spielen sie fuer den Uebergang zu einer sicheren und klimafreundlicheren Stromversorgung eine wichtige Rolle. Die Bedingungen fuer einen Zusammenschluss von KWK-Anlagen sind insgesamt guenstig, insbesondere weil jener keinen Einfluss auf die Foerdersaetze oder die Emissionshandelspflicht der Anlagenbetreiber hat. Allerdings koennte die vollstaendige Abschaffung vermiedener Netzentgelte kontraproduktiv sein. Gerade virtuelle Kraftwerke aus KWK-Anlagen wirken auf eine Einspeisung hin, die das Netz nicht ueberfordert, sodass Entgelte fuer eine dezentrale Einspeisung in diesen Faellen durchaus eine Rechtfertigung haben. Auch die Entwicklung des KWK

  10. The trans-unit operation management system of VEAG AG`s power plant in Jaenschwalde; Das werksuebergreifende Betriebsmanagementsystem im Kraftwerk Jaenschwalde der VEAG AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidich, H.; Platzke, R.

    1997-12-31

    Jaenschwalde coal power plant consists of 3 so-called ``modules`` of 2 power blocks each. The new operation management system at Jaenschwalde power plant has greatly improved the temporal availability and quality of process data needed by its various departments. The possibilities of process data analysis and the various optional extensions are capable of integration in various ways and at reasonable cost. At present the operation management system is managed by two employees. As the job does not even fully occupy these two, they are available for other work as well. In earlier times there were instead 6 process computers whose operation and maintenance occupied 30 employees. Beside these tremendous savings in labour the system has also brought about great functional improvements in terms of the supply of process data for the power plant as a whole and also for the entire VEAG network. [Deutsch] Das Braunkohlekraftwerk Jaenschwalde besteht aus insgesamt 6 Kraftwerksbloecken, von denen jeweils 2 Kraftwerksbloecke sogenannte `Module` bilden. Die zeitliche Verfuegbarkeit und die Guete der von den Fachabteilungen benoetigten Prozessdaten ist durch das neue Betriebsmanagementsystem im Kraftwerk Jaenschwalde drastisch erhoeht worden. Die Moeglichkeiten der Prozessdatenanalyse und die individuellen Erweiterungen sind vielseitig und mit einem ueberschaubaren Aufwand integrierbar. Die Pflege des gesamten heutigen Betriebsmanagementsystems wird heute von 2 Personen durchgefuehrt, die nicht einmal 100% ihrer Arbeitszeit dafuer aufzuwenden haben, so dass sie noch Aufgaben aus anderen Bereichen erledigen koennen. Frueher wurden dagegen 30 Personen fuer die Pflege und Wartung der 6 Prozessrechner benoetigt. Neben dem Einsparungspotential wurde eine grosse funktionelle Verbesserung fuer die Bereitstellung der Prozessdaten im gesamten Kraftwerk und darueber hinaus im gesamten VEAG-Netzwerk erreicht. (orig./RHM)

  11. Sewage sludge disposal at the city of Duesseldorf - Conception of co-combustion in a coal power plant; Klaerschlammentsorgung der Stadt Duesseldorf - Konzeption der Mitverbrennung im Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindert, M. [Umweltamt der Landeshauptstadt Duesseldorf (Germany); Hansmann, G. [Stadtwerke Duesseldorf AG (Germany); Mittmann, H. [Kanal- und Wasserbauamt der Landeshauptstadt Duesseldorf (Germany); Goertz, W. [Umweltamt der Landeshauptstadt Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Simultaneously to the enlargement of the biological wastewater treatment plants in Germany the amount of sludges increased. For the reuse or disposal of these sludges different methods - from agricultural use to incineration - are applied. For the city of Duesseldorf it became necessary to outline a new conception for the sludge disposal. A number of methods has been considered, showing that co-incineration in a coal-power-plant appears to be practicable under the circumstances found in Duesseldorf. Hence the effects of such a co-incineration on the emissions and the composition of solid waste materials of the power plant have been investigated in the course of an experimental operation. These experiments show that coincineration of the sludge also has advantages from the ecological point of view. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem Ausbau der biologischen Klaeranlagen in Deutschland stieg in den letzten Jahren auch die Menge des anfallenden Klaerschlamms. Zur Verwertung bzw. Entsorgung dieses Schlammes werden unterschiedliche Verfahren - von der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung bis zur Verbrennung - herangezogen. Fuer die Stadt Duesseldorf ergab sich die Notwendigkeit, die Klaerschlammentsorgung neu zu konzipieren. Verschiedene Varianten wurden geprueft, wobei die Mitverbrennung in der Schmelzkammerfeuerung eines Steinkohlekraftwerkes unter den in Duesseldorf herrschenden Randbedingungen praktikabel erschien. Daher wurden die Auswirkungen einer solchen Mitverbrennung auf das Emissionsverhalten und die Zusammensetzung der festen Reststoffe des Kraftwerks waehrend eines Probebetriebes untersucht. Die Versuche zeigen, dass die Mitverbrennung auch aus oekologischer Sicht Vorteile aufweist. (orig.)

  12. Theseus is shaping up. 50 MW solar thermal power plant projected on Crete; Projekt Theseus nimmt Gestalt an. Solarthermisches 50-MW-Kraftwerk auf Kreta in Planung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, O.; Brakmann, G. [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    On the Greek island of Crete, with 8331 km{sup 2}, electric power is mainly generated by combustion of oil. This will change with Theseus (Thermal Solar European Power Station). Theseus is projected on a site with 2,200 sunshine hours per annum. The power station will cost around 125 Mio. ECU. It will have a capacity of 50 MWe. An auxiliary fossil-fuel boiler will provide steam for the turbines in the evening hours and in times of low insolation. Theseus is being constructed by a consortium under German leadership (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf der 8331 km{sup 2} grossen Insel Kreta wird die elektrische Energie bisher zum ueberwiegenden Teil durch Verbrennen von Oel erzeugt. Dies soll sich mit Theseus (Thermal Solar European Power Station) aendern. Theseus wird an einem Ort, der 2.200 Stunden pro Jahr Solarbetrieb gewaehrleistet, errichtet. Das rund 135 Mio. ECU teure Kraftwerk soll 50 MWe leisten und mit einem zusaetzlichen konventionellen, fossil gefeuerten Kessel ausgeruestet werden, der in den Abendstunden und bei geringer Sonnenstrahlung Dampf fuer die Turbinen erzeugt. Fuer die Realisierung von Theseus hat sich ein unter deutscher Leitung stehendes Konsortium gebildet. (orig./AKF)

  13. Joint implementation as an instrument for the market introduction of solar thermal power plants; Joint Implementation als Instrument zur Markteinfuehrung Solarthermischer Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trieb, F.; Nitsch, J.; Fischedick, M.; Luhmann, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    Investitionen (z.B. fuer eine Verbesserung der Energieeffizienz) in anderen Laendern kostenguenstig erfuellen. Solarkraftwerke erfuellen alle Kriterien eines erfolgreichen JI-Projektansatzes und zeigen zahlreiche positive oekologische und sozio-oekonomische Nebeneffekte, die zu einer umweltvertraeglichen und mittelfristig auch wirtschaftlichen Elektrizitaetsversorgung fuehren koennen. Voraussetzung hierfuer ist, dass der baldigen Markteinfuehrung eine Phase der Massenproduktion mit einer entsprechenden Ausschoepfung des zur Zeit noch vorhandenen Kostensenkungspotentials dieser Technologie von ca. 50% folgt. Das THESEUS Projekt auf Kreta ist ein wichtiger Schritt zur Markteinfuehrung und zur Demonstration der Tragfaehigkeit und der Bedeutung solarthermischer Kraftwerke fuer den Klimaschutz, und vor allem ein entscheidender europaeischer Schritt in die Richtung einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung. (orig./AKF)

  14. Solar thermal power plants for the Mediterranean region: A chance for a new era in the field of electricity supply; Solarthermische Kraftwerke fuer den Mittelmeerraum: Chance fuer eine neue Aera der Elektrizitaetsversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J [DLR, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    One promising option for a really environmentally and climaticly friendly electricity supply is the erection of solar thermal power plants in regions of the earth with a considerably high solar irradiation. In this work the technical and economical chances for this technology are analysed and explanations are given as to which energetic and econmic marginal conditions must be created for a successful market introduction, which could already be initiated with several demonstration power plants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine der vielversprechenden Optionen fuer wirklich umwelt- und klimafreundliche Elektrizitaetsversorgung stellt der Bau solarthermischer Kraftwerke in den einstrahlungsreichen Regionen der Erde dar. Der Beitrag analysiert die technisch-oekonomischen Chancen dieser Technologie und zeigt auf, welche energiewirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen als Voraussetzung fuer eine erfolgreiche Markteinfuehrung geschaffen werden muessen, die schon jetzt mit einer Reihe von Demonstrationskraftwerken beginnen koennte. (orig.)

  15. The text of the agreement of 15 July 1981 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of Safeguards in connection with contracts concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica Argentina and the Kraftwerk Union AG (Federal Republic of Germany) for the supply of the Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 15 July 1981 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with contracts concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomic Argentina and the Kraftwerk Union AG (Federal Republic of Germany) for the supply of the Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant has been suspended

  16. Powerhouse in the foliage; Kraftwerk im Blattwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, Harald

    2010-07-01

    Photosynthesis, a veritable stroke of genius on the part of nature, makes the existence of higher life forms possible. If it can be optimized, it may be able to make an even greater contribution to the resolution of future energy problems. Manajit Hayer-Hartl and Ulrich Hartl are currently working on this possibility at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried. (orig.)

  17. Operating experience with KRAFTWERK UNION cementation line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podmaka, L.; Tomik, L.

    1988-01-01

    A facility is described designed for fixation in a cement matrix of the radioactive concentrate produced by thickening waste water from the Bohunice nuclear power plant. The cementation line output is 0.6 m 3 concentrate/h. The concentrate is put in 200 l drums. The individual operating units, cement management, air conditioning, dosimetric monitoring and the building part are described. The requirements for the operators and the assessment of the quality of raw materials and the product are discussed. (M.D.). 3 figs., 4 refs

  18. Electric power plants and networks. Elektrische Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happoldt, H [Brown, Boveri und Cie A.G., Mannheim (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Centralen; Oeding, D [Brown, Boveri und Cie A.G., Mannheim (Germany, F.R.). Zentralbereich Forschung und Entwicklung

    1978-01-01

    This book is itended for enginers working in the planning, construction and operation of plants to generate and distribute electric power; it is also a valuable aid for students of power engineering. This new edition places more emphasis on the presentation and calculation of three-phase current networks with the aid of symmetric components. The equations used for calculation are adapted to VDE regulations as far as possible.

  19. Power plant generators. Kraftwerks-Generatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    State of the art, design and types of large turbogenerators (up to 1635 MVA) are described, and their network behaviour is presented with regard to safety problems. It is expected that most progress will be made with iron-free rotors (in the sense of magnetic iron) with superconducting field coils and their thermomechanical problems.

  20. Kraftwerk Union (KWU) nuclear fuel service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaab, H.; Knecht, K.; Garzarolli, F.

    1977-01-01

    Activities started with the commissioning of the first German nuclear power stations have led to the present form of the nuclear fuel customer service. In the meantime, based on these tasks numerous test and working methods were developed and applied which are now available to operators of nuclear power station. The paper describes the most important methods and instruments and surveys the nuclear fuel service tasks carriedout to date. Past experience has shown that detailed knowledge of design, fabrication as well as the possibility to compose observations with investigations of engineering and hot cell laboratories are prerequisites for successful service performance. The expected trend towards increasing frequency of service activities in the next few years must be taken into account by a continuous expansion in the number of the qualified personnel. It will become necessary for the coordination of the work at an increasing number of reactor plants to conclude long-term service agreements with the customer. (orig.) [de

  1. Preliminary study on the reactivation of the 'Lochmuehle' water mill in Welschenrohr; Vorstudie Kleinstwasserkraftwerk Lochmuehle, Welschenrohr. Revitalisierung der historischen Muehle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelholz, B.

    2003-07-01

    This preliminary study on the revitalisation of the 'Lochmuehle' water mill in Welschenrohr, Switzerland, describes ideas for the reactivation of an old water mill and its use as a small-scale hydropower plant. Details are given on the history of the mill, the hydrological conditions and on its proposed fitting with an 8 kW generator. The refurbished water wheel, its gears and other mill equipment are described. The costs and amortisation of the small hydropower station, the revenues that can be expected from its operation and other financial factors and prerequisites are discussed. Further, environmental and legal aspects of the project are examined and suggestions are made for the next steps to be taken towards the realisation of this small hydropower plant.

  2. Replacement of the power plant Bruckhaeusl; Neubau des Kraftwerkes Bruckhaeusl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Andreas [TIWAG-Tiroler Wasserkraft AG, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    The power plant Bruckhaeusl replaces the approx. 100 year-old power stations Einoeden and Soell/Leukental at the entrance to the Brixental in Tyrol. The design flow was raised to 12 from 5 m{sup 3}/s. Through the 2.2 km long penstock the water reaches to the Kaplan-S-turbine and is returned via a generously dimensioned underwater reservoir to the river. The residual water is delivered by a speed-regulated turbine at the weir. (orig.)

  3. Franchise project for the Wettingen power plant; Konzessionsprojekt Kraftwerk Wettingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Operto, G. [Elektrizitaetswerk der Stadt Zuerich EWZ, Zurich (Germany); Zimmermann, C. [Creato, Netzwerk fuer kreative Umweltplanung, Ennetbaden (Switzerland)

    1999-02-05

    Even today, after 65 years of operation, the Wettingen hydroelectric power plant of EWZ still retains many of its original components. They are technically obsolete and need to be replaced. Investments to be made by the municipal works of Zurich (EWZ) are of the order of magnitude of 60 to 70 million Swiss francs. These investments will not have paid back by the time the franchise expires in 2013; therefore, the city of Zurich is negotiating with the two franchise givers, the canton governments of Aargau and Zurich, seeking to obtain premature renewal of the franchise under which it is entitled to use the water rights. Thanks to the installation of a new turbine in the retaining weir, it will then be possible to increase residual water flow over the distance of 1300 metres twelve to twenty-fold. (orig.) [Deutsch] Noch heute, nach 65 Betriebsjahren, bestehen viele Anlageteile des EWZ-Flusskraftwerks Wettingen im Originalzustand. Sie sind technisch veraltet und muessen deshalb erneuert werden. Die geplante Erneuerung erfordert vom Elektrizitaetswerk der Stadt Zuerich (EWZ) Investitionen in der Groessenordnung von 60 bis 70 Millionen Franken. Da sich diese Investitionen bis zum Ablauf der Konzession im Jahre 2013 nicht amortisieren lassen, verhandelt die Stadt Zuerich mit den beiden Konzessionsgebern, den Kantonen Aargau und Zuerich, um eine vorzeitige Erneuerung der Konzession zur Nutzung der Wasserrechte zu erhalten. Dank dem Einbau einer neuen Dotierturbine im Stauwehr wird es dann moeglich sein, die Wasserfuehrung in der 1300 m langen Restwasserstrecke auf das Zwoelf- bis Zwanzigfache des heutigen Wertes zu erhoehen. (orig.)

  4. Power plants in Australia and New Zealand; Kraftwerke in Australien und Neuseeland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Joerg [Umweltbundesamt (Germany). Nachhaltige Energieversorgung; Kuhs, Gunter [Umweltbundesamt (Germany). Kraftwerksdaten; Boehringer, Alexander [Umweltbundesamt (Germany). CCS-Technologien

    2009-07-01

    Australia - rich in mineral resources - disposes among other things occurrence at energy commodities, as for example uranium and coal. Last contributes today with about 80% to the electricity production. After ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in March 2008 the Australian government has fixed the obliging reduction aims of carbon after which till 2020 a large part of the electricity demand from renewable energy and low-carbon power plants is to be covered. Although also New Zealand disposes of fossil energy commodities, today are covered quite about 70% of the electricity demand there about renewable energy - particularly water power and geothermics. The contribution provides information about the status quo of the power plant structures in Australia and New Zealand. (orig.)

  5. Paperless activation. Optimization potentials in power plants; Papierlose Freischaltung. Optimierungspotenziale im Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goestenkors, Robert [Gemeinschaftskraftwerk Bergkamen der Evonik Steag GmbH und RWE Power AG, Bergkamen (Germany); Wieder, Ralf [Arbeitssicherheit fuer die Kraftwerke der Evonik Steag GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Activation of plants or components is a very important task in any power plant. Evonik Steag started to use computer-assisted activation procedures many years ago. The operation management system SI {sup registered} was developed by the Evonik Steag subsidiary Evonik Energy Services; it comprises and activation module that manages the planning and execution of activation and connection processes for all aggregates of a power plant. The module was now extended to support also local activation operators. Instead of documents on paper, the activation operator receives a PDA description of the steps to be taken. The correct following of the procedure is ensured by a RFID chip connected at the activation site. Documentation of the activation is still carried out by signing a paper document. Further developments are still required to make the whole activation process at Bergkamen power plant paperless. The contribution describes the current status and the first step that was taken and then proceeds to describe the implemented paperless activation procedure.

  6. New construction of the Kelchbach hydropower installation - Preliminary project; Vorprojekt Neubau Kraftwerk Kelchbach. Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbermatten, J.

    2009-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the preliminary project for the new construction of a small hydropower installation on the Kelchbach stream in Naters, Switzerland. After a pressure-pipe rupture, the old, over 100 year-old installation was closed down. The replacement installation is planned to increase power production. The works necessary for the realisation of this hydropower project are described and discussed. Several older studies on the replacement of the installation are listed. Three variants are presented and discussed as are hydrological data on the project. Cost estimates are presented and discussed. Estimates of energy production are also presented and discussed, as is the economic viability of the project. Environmental aspects of the project are also examined.

  7. Fuel cell power plants for decentralised CHP applications; Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer dezentrale KWK-Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmer, Martin; Mattner, Katja [FuelCell Energy Solutions GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    Fuel cells are the most efficient technology to convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and thus they could have a major impact on reducing fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} and other emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulate matter). Fired with natural or biogas and operated with an efficiency of up to 49 % a significant reduction of fuel costs can be achieved in decentralised applications. Combined heat and power (CHP) configurations add value for a wide range of industrial applications. The exhaust heat of approximately 400 C can be utilised for heating purposes and the production of steam. Besides, it can be also fed directly to adsorption cooling systems. With more than 110 fuel cell power plants operating worldwide, this technology is a serious alternative to conventional gas turbines or gas engines.

  8. The 'Weri' small hydro project; Kraftwerk Weri - Schlussbericht. Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgener, H.-P. [EWBN Elektrizitaetswerk Brig-Naters AG, Brig-Glis (Switzerland); Bodenmann, M. [BSAP Ingenieure und Berater, Brig-Glis (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on a project which augments an existing hydropower complex in Brig-Naters, Switzerland. A project for an additional hydropower installation below the last stage of the existing complex in the North Simplon Pass region is presented and discussed. Details are presented on the amount of water available, the boundary conditions pertaining and the technical concept proposed. Financial aspects, including support from the Swiss cost-covering remuneration scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources are also examined. The costs and economic viability of the project are discussed, as are environmental aspects to be taken into account during the construction and operation of the proposed power station.

  9. New erection program of the hydroelectric power plant Beznau. Das Neubauprojekt des hydraulischen Kraftwerkes Beznau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, B; Hauenstein, W [NOK Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    1992-02-21

    The projected hydroelectric power plant at Beznau on the Aare river will produce about 43% more electric power than the present hydroelectric power plant. The water level and the buildings in the Aare will remain unchanged, so that the enviromental impact will be relativley slight. The project is in accordance with the building permit so that no adaptations on modifications will be required. (orig.).

  10. Power plants at the bottom of the sea; Kraftwerke auf dem Meeresgrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Klaus

    2011-07-01

    The depths of the ocean are a hostile environment. In a bid to defy these adverse conditions, many organisms have teamed up to form close relationships called symbioses. Nicole Dubilier and her colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen keep discovering new symbioses that provide these deep-sea inhabitants with a guaranteed energy supply. (orig.) [German] Die Tiefen der Ozeane sind ein lebensfeindlicher Ort. Um den widrigen Bedingungen zu trotzen, haben sich viele Organismen zu Lebensgemeinschaften zusammengeschlossen. Nicole Dubilier und ihre Mitarbeiter am Max-Planck-Institut fuer marine Mikrobiologie in Bremen entdecken immer wieder neue Symbiosen, mit denen die Tiefseebewohner ihre Energieversorgung sicherstellen.

  11. Regional virtual power plant. State of the art; Regionales virtuelles Kraftwerk. Eine Ist-Stand-Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, Joachim; Meinzenbach, Andrea [TU Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Gebaeudeenergietechnik und Waermeversorgung; Hartan, Joerg [VNG Gasspeicher GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Fachgruppe fuer Automatisierung und Prozessleittechnik; Schegner, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Energieversorgung und Hochspannungstechnik; Rehkopf, Andreas [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik

    2013-04-15

    The politically and socially desired rearrangement of the energy sector in Germany becomes very challenging for the regional and national utility company. In particular, the integration of renewable energy sources into the power structures is mentioned. The activities mainly focus on the electric power sector. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on two current research projects. These research projects look for solutions in order to operate micro-CHP systems in the network in addition to the isolated operation.

  12. Enhancement of the Haemmerli hydro power installation in Lenzburg, Switzerland; Gemeinde Lenzburg (AG). Ausbau Kraftwerk Haemmerli - Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-08-15

    This preliminary report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a project on the refurbishment of an old industrial small hydro installation on the Aabach stream in Lenzburg, Switzerland. The state of the existing installation is described as is the station's concession. The proposals for the renewal of this installation are described and discussed. The necessary building work and the installations required are examined. Investment costs, operating and maintenance costs and expected profitability are discussed. The report is completed with suggestions for further work.

  13. Micro-size cogeneration plants and virtual power plants. New energy landscapes; Mikro-KWK und virtuelle Kraftwerke. Neue Energielandschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Combined heat and power generation is an established technology. With micro-size cogeneration units, the technology is now available to private single or multiple dwellings and for decentral power supply of residential blocks. With the right political boundary conditions and integrated into virtual power stations, this is an option for enhanced use of renewable energy sources and for decentral, flexible and climate-friendly heat and power generation in buildings. Economic efficiency analyses by experts, high utilisation rates, innovative developments of the manufacturers and a positive public image are all in favour of a great future for micro-size cogeneration units. (orig.)

  14. Operator-centered technical documentation of the power plant control system. Betreibergerechte, betriebstechnische Dokumentation der Kraftwerks-Leittechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welfonder, E

    1986-01-01

    The report - starting with an overview of the general structure of documentation - includes in chapter 3 an assortment of the main expectations to be had by the technical staff towards control system documentation. These are divided into: general basic requirements; testable compulsory requirements; practical recommendations and information for the manufacturer. In chapter 4 these documentation requirements are reflected to the present state of technical documentation. The main emphasis of the report however is laid on the sample documentation for one control system area presented in chapter 5. This sample documentation is based on a hierarchically structured and function related documentary method developed by the University of Stuttgart on the basis of the derived requirements and the present usual control system documentation. This function-related documentary method proves to be useful, not only for the technical staff in his rapid search for control system disturbances, but also offers - due to its clear and homogeneous meshed structure - considerable advantages for control system planning, projecting and initial start ups. As the presented documentation method is furthermore independent of the control system manufacturers, it is important that all participants try to use it uniformly.

  15. Utilization of online-analysis of ashes in the power plant Neurath; Verwendung der Online-Ascheanalyse im Kraftwerk Neurath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Horst [RWE Power, Neurath (Germany); Gocht, Dietmar [Evonik Energy Services GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the use of on-line ash analysis in the power station Neurath (Federal Republic of Germany). On the basis of concrete data from the plant operation it is shown, how the complex closed-loop-monitoring of soot blowing adjusts the effects of changing coal qualities on the contamination reliably. The system preventively reacts to alterations of the coal qualities, since the analyses are accessible online. It has been shown during the continuous operation of the power station that the soot blowing can be accomplished further automatically by these measures also under altered circumstances due to the changing coal qualities. Thus, the personnel of the power station is relieved clearly.

  16. Nature's powerhouse. Innovative technologies for a more sustainable future; Kraftwerk Natur. Innovative Technologien fuer mehr Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-09-01

    Across the globe, our hunger for energy continues to grow. Yet climate change and dwindling fossil fuel supplies are forcing us to rethink our energy policy and turn increasingly to renewable resources. Achieving a sustainable energy mix and eco-friendly mobility options demands innovative technologies. And that is where Linde's gas and plant engineering specialists come in, developing efficient processes and providing crucial momentum for a greener future. (orig.)

  17. Modernisation of hydrogenerators. Upgrading of power plants for more efficiency; Modernisierung von Hydrogeneratoren. Kraftwerks-Upgrade fuer mehr Effizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, John

    2012-07-01

    Ever since the construction of the first alternating current hydroelectric power plant with a performance of 12.5 kW in the year 1882, the number and performance of hydroelectric power plants had increased substantially. For example, the hydroelectric power plant at the Three Gorges Dam in the People's Republic of China has a total performance of 22,500 MW. The isolation systems of the hydrogenerators have a limited lifetime and have to be exchanged after fifty years usually. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration reports on the upgrading of hydrogenerators for more efficiency.

  18. Renewal of the Stanipac hydropower plant in Burgdorf; Febacom AG - Burgdorf. Gesamterneuerung Kraftwerk Stanipac - Burgdorf. Vorprojektstudie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintermann, M.

    2007-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), takes a look at the results of a preliminary study on the renewal of the Stanipac hydropower installation in Burgdorf, Switzerland. This small hydropower plant is the first of a series of nine installations situated along a canal. Proposals for the renewal of the installation are discussed. Topographical and hydrological factors are presented and discussed. Also, data on water quantities is presented. The existing installation dating from 1946 is described. Three variants for the renewal are noted and the appropriate installations, their costs and their production estimates are discussed. A best solution is proposed and the necessary installations are described in more detail, as is the economic viability of the scheme. Photos of the existing installation, figures on the proposed installation and project sketches are presented.

  19. High-temperature stable absorber coatings for linear concentrating solar thermal power plants; Hochtemperaturstabile Absorberschichten fuer linear konzentrierende solarthermische Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Christina

    2009-03-23

    This work describes the development of new absorber coatings for different applications - para-bolic trough and linear Fresnel collectors - and operating conditions - absorber in vacuum or in air. The demand for higher efficiencies of solar thermal power plants using parabolic trough technology results in higher temperatures in the collectors and on the absorber tubes. As heat losses increase strongly with increasing temperatures, the need for a lower emissivity of the absorber coating at constant absorptivity arises. The linear Fresnel application envisions ab-sorber tubes stable in air at high temperatures of about 450 C, which are to date commercially not available. This work comprises the theoretical background, the modeling and the fabrication of absorber tubes including the technology transfer to a production-size inline sputter coater. In annealing tests and accompanying optical measurements, degradation processes have been observed and specified more precisely by material characterization techniques. The simulations provided the capability of different materials used as potential IR-reflector. The highest selectivity can be achieved by applying silver which consequently has been chosen for the application in absorber coatings of the parabolic trough technology. Thin silver films how-ever need to be stabilized when used at high temperatures. Appropriate barrier layers as well as process and layer parameters were identified. A high selectivity was achieved and stability of the absorber coating for 1200 h at 500 C in vacuum has been demonstrated. For the application in air, silver was also analyzed as a potential IR-reflector. Even though the stability could be increased considerably, it nevertheless proved to be insufficient. The main factors influencing stability in a positive way are the use of higher quality polishing, additional barrier layers and adequate process parameters. This knowledge was applied for developing coatings which are stable in air at temperatures of 500 C for more than 1000 h, using alternative IR-reflectors. The minimum emissivity which can be achieved depends on economic aspects. (orig.)

  20. Requirements and operation of decentralised power plants in the changing power market; Anforderungen und Einsatz dezentraler Kraftwerke im veraenderten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenings, Norbert; Hornig, Niels; Steinbach, Sebastian [E.ON Energy Projects GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    E.ON plans and realises distributed industrial power plants on the basis of contracting schemes. Target is to reduce energy costs without investment by the customer himself. Gas turbine CHP plants are very flexible and offer many possibilities for the operator to adjust optimally to a constantly changing energy market. This aspect is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing share of renewables. However, the economic situation for CHP plants has deteriorated significantly, due to the current market situation distorted by the subsidised renewable power generation. (orig.)

  1. Energy: Solar electricity gaining second wind. - The sun as a power plant. Energie: Sonnen-Strom im Aufwind. - Das Kraftwerk Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, F; Kippenhahn, R

    1990-03-01

    The blue cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are becoming more and more efficient: the dream of cheap solar energy may soon become true. The competitors are more expensive than is often thought, for in the case of the conventional energies the costs of 'side effects' are often forgotten - for example, damage to the environment by power plants and cars. The radiation of the 'Sun Power Plant', on the other hand, creates no fumes and is inexhaustible. (orig.).

  2. A good working comfort in the power plant. Activation of the surface of concrete in the administration building; Gutes Arbeitsklima im Kraftwerk. Betonoberflaechenaktivierung im Verwaltungsgebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzel, Michaela [Uponor GmbH, Hassfurt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The target of the establishment of a new administration building was the transformation of a noticeable improvement of the job conditions for 45 co-workers of the power station in the Upper Bavarian Zolling. With an unusual and innovative architecture with an optimized daylight concept and sophisticated facility management, the new building at the east border of the existing power station in Zolling developed.

  3. Component behaviour in the 700 C power plant. Numerical and experimental investigations; Komponentenverhalten im 700 C-Kraftwerk. Numerische und experimentelle Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Kay H.

    2013-07-19

    Currently martensitic steels are used in fossil fired power plants with maximum working temperatures up to 625 C. These steels do not show the required creep rupture strength at the target temperature of 700 C. For these high temperatures, new materials like the nickel base alloys have to be qualified for power plants services. Originating from the weld of turbine materials, nickel base alloys show outstanding creep rupture strength. An alloy with good prospects out of the material class of the nickel base alloys is Alloy 617 mod. However, this material is expensive due to its high nickel content. Furthermore, the complex machinability of this material leads to an additional increase in expenses. A complete fabrication of the boiler area using Alloy 617 mod is not economically feasible, which means that the usage of this material has to be limited to the temperature weld of 625 C to 700 C. For the boiler area with temperatures below 625 C the well proven 9 % to 12 % Cr-steels, like T/P92 and VM12/VM12-SHC may be used. In the weld of low temperatures up to 525 C the usage of the 2.5 % Cr-steel T/P24 offers numerous advantages, in particular in the fabrication of membrane walls. This material shows good creep properties up to temperatures of 525 C and, for thin walled components, T24 can be welded without post weld heat treatment by using suitable techniques. For a successful design and fabrication of a 700 C fossil fired power plant, appropriate materials have to be qualified. Here, a special focus is set on the creep properties of these materials. The presented work is a significant contribution to the qualification of these materials. First, the materials Alloy 617 mod, T/P92, VM12/VM12-SHC and T24 are briefly introduced and characterized. After this, the materials are investigated in a detailed creep testing program. This program includes investigations on base material, extracted from tubes, pipes and inductive bends of pipes. In addition, crossweld specimens and specimens made of weld material are creep tested at high temperatures. To gain important information about the behavior under service conditions and multiaxial loadings, a test rig was developed at MPA Universitaet Stuttgart, which is able to test membrane-wall like components under this point of view. The applied mechanical and thermal loads in these tests are dimensioned to cause a status of high damage within the investigated materials after a test time of 2.000 h to 5.000 h. After the test procedure, the membrane-wall like specimens are metallographically investigated. The objectives of these investigations are the characterization of the actual damage within the material caused by the prior testing, in particular within the tube-fin-welds and furthermore to identify the area of crack formation. Besides the characterization and qualification of the materials for the construction of components of a high temperature fossil fired power plant with a peak temperature of 700 C the results of the uniaxial creep test will be used to develop material models for inelastic finite element simulations. For this a creep equation based on a formulation of Graham and Walles will be modified and furthermore extended with a damage parameter. By simulating the component tests presented in this work, the created material models (including three heat affected zones) could be verified. However, it becomes obvious that irregulations in geometry in a tube-fin-weld of a waterwall may exist and may lead to an additional bending load. By evaluating the damage parameter, which is implemented in the used creep equation, the local creep strains and the multiaxiality of the stress state, the area of maximum creep damage and with this the location of crack formation can be precisely predicted in the heat affected zone on the tube side, close to the surface of the tube-fin-weld. The acquired results show, that modern FE codes in combination with suitable creep equations are a powerful tool to support the design process of power plant components. Finally, the results in this work allow the conclusion that with the help of the introduced modified creep equation of Graham and Walles a numerical simulation of high temperature loaded boiler components is possible. Furthermore the data base for design and dimensioning processes of power plant components in the creep regime was extended with reliable data. In addition to that the qualification of the materials Alloy 617 mod, T/P92, VM12/VM12-SHC and T24 for the usage in fossil fired power plants with temperatures up to 700 C was furthered.

  4. Preliminary study for the reactivation of a low-head hydropower scheme near Gwatt, Switzerland; Vorstudie Kleinwasserkraftwerk Schoeni, Hani bei Gwatt (Thun). Reaktivierung Niederdruck-Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, B.; Meng, H.

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a preliminary study on the reactivation of an old sawmill power station in the hamlet of Hani, near Gwatt in Switzerland. Details are given on the history of the installation, which dates back to 1891. The report describes the original equipment installed and discusses the ideas of the site's present owner concerning the reactivation of the power station. The legal situation as far as operational rights are concerned and the hydrological data of the site are discussed. The results of measurements made on water flow, the available water-head heights and the resulting power generation potential are presented. A project is proposed for a 58 kW turbine and estimates are presented for total yearly energy production. The report also discusses environmental and flood-protection aspects. Finally, the economics of the proposed power station are discussed and recommendations concerning the implementation of the project are made.

  5. SOFC solid oxide fuel cell power plants for the decentralised electric energy supply; SOFC-Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer die dezentrale elektrische Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogang Tchonla, Etienne

    2012-07-01

    To use the fuel cell economically, the efficiency of the system must still be raised so that it can be set up in the market. Within the scope of analysis on this topic, a 120-kW-SOFC-demonstration power plant was to be considered. Since not enough information about the demonstration power plant from the operator was available for the investigation, we had to calculate with the help of the known technical data of similar power plants. After that a model was build and simulated by means of MATLAB/Simulink. Before that the single power plant components were being described. Two of them (the boost converter as well as the inverter) were looked at more thoroughly. As a result of the analysis, it was found that a standard inverter which had been conceived for other applications, for example, Photovoltaic or Wind Power can also be used for fuel cells. Unfortunately, this was not the case for the added boost converter. It had to be precisely conceived for the used fuel cell type. After this discovery information was won for the realization of a 1-MW-Fuel Cell Power Plant. The topology of the 1-MW-power plant was fixed on the basis of the 120-kW-system. A parallel connection of eight 120-kW SOFC-fuel cell aggregates is intended, as well as a connection at the outlet side 120-kW boost converters. A standard inverter with 1 MW electrical power as well as a 1-MVA-transformer could be used for the realization of the 1-MW-power plant. The binding of the power plant in the three-phase current network was examined in view of the norms, laws and connection conditions. Beside the distinction of the operating forms of the power plant (parallel or isolated operation) the security of the plant was emphasized with regard to quick fault recognition, safe supply line isolation in the fault case as well as a compliance of the prescribed regulations. To verify the calculated results as well as the provided models, a 10-kW-labor sample was built and examined in the lab. This experimental investigation was focused on the boost converter because it is the main component of the considered power plant. The measured results agreed well with the previously calculated and simulated values. The experiments demonstrated that it is possible to use a fuel cell SOFC-power plant with high output power (1 MW electrical), with hydrogen as a primary energy source, as a contribution to the fight against the global climate warming. Also, the integration of the fuel cell power plant in the electric energy supply network is feasible. The recent nuclear disaster in Japan (nuclear power plant Fukushima) has shown us that we must rethink not only the reasons for the falling fossil energy source stocks, but also the basis of the security of the used nuclear power plants. The project DESERTEC could be an opportunity for the final setting up of the fuel cell technology. The introduced investigation results are applicable not only for the fuel cell type SOFC but also for all other fuel cell types which are suitable for the electric energy production.

  6. Marketing opportunities for CHP electricity in a virtual power plant. Direct and indirect marketing of flexibility; Vermarktungschancen fuer KWK-Strom im virtuellen Kraftwerk. Direkte und indirekte Flexibilitaetsvermarktung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Achim; Baumgart, Bastian [Trianel GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Abt. Virtuelle Kraftwerke

    2013-07-15

    The increasingly fluctuating feed-in of electricity by means of a rapid expansion of renewable energies results in an increasing demand for flexible performance for the regulation of production and consumption. An important part of the necessary flexibility could be provided by CHP plants. Their potential of flexibility is not always fully exploited.

  7. New EC Directive on the limitation of emissions from large combustion plants. Implications for German power plants; Neue EG-Richtlinie ueber nationale Emissionshoechstmengen. Folgerung fuer deutsche Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, M. [VDEW - e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Bereich Recht und Umwelt

    2002-03-25

    The Directive 2001/80/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants uses a regulatory instrument for limiting emissions at the national levels of EU member states. This approach is completely new and the author of this article therefore expects problems to arise in the context of transfer of this EC Directive into national law. Another aspect discussed is the assessment of implications for the operating power plants in Germany. (orig./CB) [German] Mit der im Herbst 2001 durch das Europaeische Parlament und durch den Umweltministerrat verabschiedeten Richtlinie ueber nationale Emissionshoechstmengen wurde vom europaeischen Vorschriftengeber ein in Deutschland bislang systemfremdes Regelungsinstrument geschaffen, dessen Umsetzung in nationales Recht und dessen anlagenspezifische Konsequenzen - zumindest hierzulande -bislang noch reichlich unklar sind. (orig.)

  8. Modification and optimisation measures on the demineralisation plant of the Boxberg Power Station; Umbau und Optimierung der Vollentsalzungsanlage im Kraftwerk Boxberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidich, F.U. [ALSTOM Power Generation AG, Mannheim (Germany); Markert, A. [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG Co KG, E-KT, Cottbus (Germany); Hajdamowicz, S. [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG Co KG, E-GBB, Boxberg (Germany); Kleespies, W. [RoKa GmbH, Butzbach (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The demineralisation plant at the Boxberg Power Station, Unit AQ (Plant IV), owned by Vattenfall Europe Generation AG and Co KG, officially started its operation in 2000. In the course of the operation, technical shortcomings became apparent that rendered the quality of the deionised water inadequate and did prevent the plant from being operated in a normal, fully-automatic mode. Due to the insolvency of the supplier, it had not been possible to eliminate a series of problems and optimise the processes in such a way that the plant could be operated as planned. Nevertheless, thanks to measures like retrofitting the system with lowering loops, replacing the regenerating stations by frequency-controlled excenter-screw propeller pumps, installing automatic vents, and optimising the control concept of the plant, it finally was possible to solve some of the main problems. Longer intervals between regenerating procedures came as an additional benefit. (orig.)

  9. The building as a power plant. Net plus energy building with e-mobility; Das Gebaeude als Kraftwerk. Netto-Plusenergiegebaeude mit E-Mobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, M. Norbert [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Solartechnik

    2011-07-01

    Energy designers do not consider the building technology isolated from the architecture. Instead, sustainable, functional and innovative solutions are developed in an integrated process with all persons involved. The user comfort, the overall energy efficiency, the selection of ecologically compatible materials as well as the relation between building and sustainable mobility belong to the context of holistic planning.

  10. Compulsory procurement of emission allowances. How will things will continue after the Copenhagen conference?; Emissionszertifikatepflichten fuer Kraftwerke. Wie geht es weiter nach der Kopenhagen-Konferenz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telke, Juergen [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Rechtswissenschaftliche Fakultaet

    2010-03-15

    German power plants are obliged to hold emission allowances for their carbon dioxide emissions. This obligation is largely established by the Kyoto Protocol, which was approved in 1997 and entered into force in 2005 and which specifies binding emission reduction goals for 37 industrial states. Because this agreement is only valid until the end of 2012, negotiations were held for a follow-on agreement in Copenhagen in mid-December 2009. This article explains the current legal situation as laid down in the Kyoto Protocol and the EU Emission Trade Directive that followed from it. It goes on to analyse the impact of the Copenhagen conference on the emission allowance trade and gives appropriate recommendations for action for German power plants.

  11. Investigations on forecast-based operating strategies for solar thermal power plants with integrated storage capacity; Untersuchungen zu vorhersagebasierten Betriebsstrategien fuer solarthermische Kraftwerke mit integrierter Speicherkapazitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmann, Michael Karl

    2012-07-01

    This publication describes a method for scheduling the operation of a power plant storage. The purpose of operation scheduling is to determine the economically optimum yield achievable in the course of daily power plant operation. The optimum operation schedule for the storage is determined based on Dynamic Programming Algorithms. Besides its focus on operation scheduling the publication investigates the effects of imperfect weather and price forecasts on electricity production and thus on the operator's economic results. It assesses the current Spanish legislation as well as other incentive scenarios in terms of their impact on operators' feed-in behaviour.

  12. Kraftwerki hi-tech show esmakordselt Eestis / Christel Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karits, Christel, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Saksa elektroonilise muusika ansambel Kraftwerk esitab kontserdil Eesti Näituste suures saalis paremiku oma 30aastasest loomingust ja lugusid viimaselt albumilt "Tour de France Soundtracks", ansamblist

  13. Power plants in competition 2011. Perspectives of future generation portfolio. Technology-system, stability-market, conditions, with technical exhibition; Kraftwerke im Wettbewerb 2011. Perspektiven des kuenftigen Erzeugungs-Portfolios. Technologie, Systemstabilitaet, Marktbedingungen, mit Fachausstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The proceedings on the VGB conference ''power plants in competition 2011'' includes the following contributions: status of European energy policy; market and climate protection; setting up new conventional capacity in Europe and EU regulation; perspectives of power generation in Germany and Europe; market for power generation - challenges and chances for suppliers; development of a European ''network code'' for integration of power plants; impact of ''EU network code'' for design and operation of power plants; outcome of investigation of grid/generation; impact of intermitting generation on power system stability; consequences of low-load operation for coal fired power plants; pro quality - an approach for project management; Sumitomos R and D activities for advanced USC boilers; V and M innovative contribution to the challenges of present and future conventional power plants; steam side oxidation at austenitic boiler tubes; OL3 project - a multicultural challenge; knowledge management - preservation and maintenance of implicit knowledge within a company; competition about green investments - the European targets for renewables; retrofitting of CEZ power plants (coal and gas); power sector skill - addressing the challenges; requirements on structural maintenance in power plants; usage of corrugated tubes in heat exchangers; technical plant documentation; technologies for off-shore wind turbines; solar thermal plants; renewable energy from biomass and integration into the grid; environmentally friendly future power generation with fossil fuels; storage technologies; large-scale underground energy storage; assessment of risk - an insurance company view; human resources as multiplier for a company's value; post-combustion capture pilot plant experiences; CCS strategy of Vattenfall; optimizing plant process management; Enel activities on carbon capture and sequestration; bachelor studies on power plant technology; functional safety management of thermal power plants; Torrevaldaglia north PP experiences; RWE modern power plants; challenges for E.ON new projects; experiences concerning the hard coal fired power plant Moorburg; EnBW conventional new build projects; evaluation and perspectives of future power plant technologies; prospects for coal-based power generation technologies; greener generation technologies; nuclear generation IV reactors; beneficial effects of dry bottom ash systems; planning for large power plants 2004-2011; use of simulators for virtual commissioning of main DCS on retrofitting projects.

  14. Oxygen transport and degradation properties of high-temperature membranes for CO{sub 2}-free power plants; Sauerstofftransport und Degradationsverhalten von Hochtemperaturmembranen fuer CO{sub 2}-freie Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehuber, Dominic

    2010-07-01

    This thesis deals with membranes for oxygen separation from air for high temperature application in fossil power plants within the scope of the oxyfuel-process. Different perovskite membrane materials (ABO3-ae) were investigated concerning the oxygen transport and their chemical stability under operation condition. The association between oxygen transport properties and both the thermodynamic boundary conditions as well as the material properties (membrane thickness and surface properties) was studied. One possibility to achieve higher oxygen fluxes through the membrane is to reduce the thickness. In this case the influence of surface processes on the overall permeation becomes noteworthy. The effect of different membrane surface modifications on the permeation rate was investigated. For example it could be confirmed, that a porous layer on the membrane surface significantly increases the permeation flux due to the compensation of surface exchange limitations. Beyond that, degradation processes during the operation under power plant condition were investigated. Special attention was attached to the influence of degradation on the permeation flux during long term operation. Thereby kinetic demixing of the membrane material was observed. (orig.)

  15. Evolution of gas turbine SGT5-4000F. Experiences at combined cycle plant Mainz-Wiesbaden; Die Evolution der Gasturbine SGT5-4000F. Erfahrungen im GuD-Kraftwerk Mainz-Wiesbaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taud, R.; Kreyenberg, O. [Siemens Power Generation, Nuernberg (Germany); Thun, O. [Kraftwerke Mainz-Wiesbaden AG, Mainz (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Large combined-cycle plants using natural gas emerged as the outstanding trend in electricity production in the 1990s. Pacemaker for this development has been modern gas turbine technology. High efficiency and reliability, low emissions, high operating and fuel flexibility at low investment, together with short construction times, provide extremely attractive features to the customer. (orig.)

  16. Implementation of a seawater cooling system in Eemshaven power plant (NL). A challenge of constructional and hydrological engineering; Umsetzung einer Meerwasserkuehlung beim Kraftwerk Eemshaven (NL). Eine bautechnische Herausforderung im Bereich Tief- und Wasserbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulke, Bernd [RWE Technology GmbH, Eemshaven (Netherlands). Bauleitung STKW; Boerg, Bernd [Tiefbau GmbH Unterweser (TAGU), Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    RWE Eemshaven Holding B.V. is currently constructing a coal power plant with seawater cooling at Eemshaven (NL). The main coolant line will go under the dam and necessitates construction of a cooling water outlet structure, which is described in the article. The work done until December 2009, including construction of the first underwater concrete floor, was described in an earlier article (Bautechnik 87 (2010), pp. 294-297). (orig.)

  17. Process optimisation of lime milk leaching and control of cold lime softening at the power plant STEAG Fenne; Optimierung des Kalkansatzes und Regelung der Kalkmilchdosierung in der KZA des STEAG-Kraftwerks Fenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Christian [Steag Kraftwerk Fenne, Voelklingen (Germany). Anlagentechnik; Arenz, Helmut [Steag Kraftwerk Fenne, Voelklingen (Germany). Technischer Service; Wysk, Ralf [NALCO Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). National Account Managing Kraftwerke

    2013-06-01

    An increase in turbidity in the cleaned water of the cold lime softener higher than the raw water input of the river Saar was observed at the Fenne site at some days in 2009. Also the post-installed sand filter could not restrain the fine particles. Under these circumstances the demineralisation water production had serious problems because of heavily fouled membranes in the reverse osmosis system. Only the immense personal actions of the operating staff could enable the reliability of the water preparation system on site. Together with Nalco the power plant service department implemented a plant audit on site. The purpose of the plant audit was to find the reason for the bottleneck in water preparation and to optimise and automate the water treatment system under the aspects of economical reliability and control efficiency. (orig.)

  18. 'Power Plants' 2012 VGB congress. European mix of electricity. High demands on flexibility and storage; VGB-Kongress 'Kraftwerke 2012'. Europaeischer Erzeugungsmix. Hohe Anforderungen an Flexibilitaet und Speicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Gerd [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We live in times both interesting and challenging. The present fear of another financial and economic crisis is causing uncertainty worldwide. Of course, these developments are highly relevant also to the power industry. Meeting climate protection goals depends decisively also on the way in which Europe will master the crisis as, in the long run, only economically stable economies are able to achieve ambitious goals sustainably. This demands a lot of the power industry in Europe, even in the absence of current developments, causing it to undergo a revolutionary change. European and national demands in energy policy require increasingly more, preferably also faster, measures for carbon reduction and for the expansion of renewable energies. In view of the multitude of unsolved problems, it is absolutely necessary to proceed on the basis of facts because, otherwise, most of the reporting, discussions and, consequently, also decisionmaking will take place on the often irrational level of emotions. This is particularly true of nuclear power in Germany, although the safety review of German nuclear power plants performed at short notice had shown no need for any shutdown. The plants were attested a high level of safety and extensive safety margins in the area beyond the design basis. Nevertheless, plant life of the facilities continuing operation were reduced markedly in addition to the plants decommissioned. In this way, facts were created on the level of national energy economy the impact of which affects all of Europe. (orig.)

  19. 75 years of a overflowable power plant Rostin at the Persante. First steps in the use of bulb turbines; 75 Jahre ueberstroembares Kraftwerk Rostin an der Persante. Erste Schritte zum Einsatz der Rohrturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Tobias

    2011-07-01

    The technical development of bulb turbines is not separable from difficult from socio-political conditions of their times of origin. Without knowing the associated emotions and personal problems, 70 to 75 years later an assessment of the facts is difficult. Therefore, the contribution under consideration is limited to the message of different sources.

  20. Perspectives of new fossil-fuelled power plants with CO{sub 2} capture in the liberalised European electricity market; Energiewirtschaftliche Anforderungen an neue fossil befeuerte Kraftwerke mit CO{sub 2}-Abscheidung im liberalisierten europaeischen Elektrizitaetsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, Tom

    2014-03-15

    Against the background of an increasing importance of climate change mitigation and the liberalization of the European energy supply this study assesses the perspectives of power plants with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS power plants represent one option to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions of fossil energy based electricity production significantly. In this study the deployment of CCS power plants is investigated for the European electricity market until 2050 taking different energy and climate policy framework conditions into consideration. By applying an integrated model-based approach, structural changes of the whole energy system are incorporated, including their implications on costs and emissions. The study addresses uncertainties concerning future CCS power plant invest costs and efficiencies explicitly, and analyses the effects of changes of these parameters with respect to the perspectives of CCS power plants in Europe. Thereby, interdependencies on horizontal level related to competition of different technologies within the electricity sector are examined, but also vertical interdependencies resulting from effects between the upstream and energy demand sectors. In order to reflect the heterogeneity among the national energy systems in Europe, country specific particularities on technical aspects and energy policy are taken into account, such as potentials and costs of CO{sub 2} storage, and national regulations on the use of nuclear power and renewable energy. The results of the analysis reveal a strong influence of the stringency of the EU greenhouse gas reduction target and the policy on the use of nuclear energy on the perspectives of CCS power plants in the European electricity market. Comparing the influence of different policy frameworks analysed in this study with the influences of the variation of the technical and economic CCS power plant parameters shows, that uncertainties concerning energy policy measures can have a stronger influence on the perspectives of CCS in Europe than uncertainties regarding invest costs and efficiencies. For certain market conditions this also means, that reduced market perspectives of CCS technologies, which might happen due to changes of the energy policy framework, cannot entirely be offset by increasing the efficiencies and reducing the invest costs of CCS power plants. Changes of CCS power plant parameters impact both an increase of the electricity demand and the substitution of alternative generation technologies. In the mid-term, mainly fossil-based electricity generation without CCS is substituted as result of reductions of invest costs and increases of efficiencies of CCS power plants, and in the long-run mainly the electricity generation from renewable energy.

  1. Trend of CO{sub 2} emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany; Trendentwicklung der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen der 30 groessten Kraftwerke in Deutschland. Kurzanalyse basierend auf aktuellen Emissionshandelsdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke

    2014-04-02

    The brochure on the trend of CO{sub 2} emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany includes tables of the emissions of these power plants. The CO{sub 2} emissions of these power plants in 2013 (25% of the total German greenhouse gas emissions) have increased by 5% compared to 2012. The total CO{sub 2} emission sin Germany increased by 1.5%. The differences between brown coal and black coal fired power plants are discussed.

  2. Preliminary study on the 'Haegler-Muehle' small hydropower station in Lausen - Revitalisation of a historic power station; Vorstudie Kleinwasserkraftwerk Haegler-Muehle, Lausen. Revitalisierung des historischen Kraftwerkes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfender, M.; Bretscher, A.; Gutzwiller, S.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the revitalisation of a 62 kW power station on the river Ergolz in Lausen in north-western Switzerland. The waters of this river have been used here for driving turbines since 1898. The report describes the proposed reactivation of the existing turbine, built in 1948, that has now been out of service for several years. Various enhancements including measures to cope with flooding and to reduce noise are described. The particular problems of reactivating this hydropower plant, whose turbine house is a listed building, and of operation next to the adjacent old mill - also listed and now converted to apartments - are examined. Also, the possible construction of a fish pass as a prerequisite for green-power certification of the plant is discussed.

  3. Preliminary study for the revitalisation of the 'Duersteller' small hydropower installation in Wetzikon, Switzerland; Vorstudie Kleinwasserkraftwerk J. Duersteler and Co AG Wetzikon ZH. Revitalisierungsvorhaben des Kraftwerkes mit seinen 80-jaehrigen Francis-Doppelturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the possibility of revitalising an 80-year-old, small industrial hydropower plant fitted with twin Francis turbines. The present situation and the condition of the turbines and their associated water channels are described and the hydrological data of the Aabach stream is presented. Details are given on the presently installed technical apparatus and the legal and ownership situation. Environmental and historical aspects are discussed. The economics of the proposed revitalisation project are discussed and possible restrictions that could be enforced by the authorities are looked at. The report is concluded with recommendations for further action.

  4. Service in power stations. Improving workflow through adoption of WLAN, RFID, and e-Procurement technologies; Service im Kraftwerk. Verbesserung der Ablaeufe durch den Einsatz von WLAN, RFID, e-Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberg, N [Siemens Power Generation L, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    WLAN, RFID and e-Procurement have revolutionized workflows in different industry branches and are here for the mainstay. The following report shows some of the current applications of these technologies today and illustrates a vision for potential application in power plant maintenance. (orig.)

  5. Solar and tank. Down under, a power plant is producing electric power from diesel fuel and from solar energy; Sonne und Tank. Am Ende der Welt produziert ein Kraftwerk Strom aus Diesel - und aus Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podewils, Christoph

    2011-12-15

    Most Australians live in the big city, but some live in remote areas without infrastructure but with an existing power supply grid. One of these places is the former prospector town of Marble Bar, eight hours from Sydney by plane and by car. The town has an interesting power plant that could be exemplary for many regions of the world.

  6. Integration of renewable energy plants based on generic data models in the energy management of a virtual power plant; Integration von erneuerbaren Energieanlagen auf Basis generischer Datenmodelle in das Energiemanagement eines virtuellen Kraftwerks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickert, Manuel; Slaby, Wolfgang; Hochloff, Patrick [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany); Winter, Martin [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2012-07-01

    The integration of different types of energy resources manufactured by different vendors is one of the main challenges for virtual power plants. One of the important problems is a highly heterogeneous standardization environment for decentralized renewable energy resources. On the one hand proprietary solutions are implemented for some types of energy resources. In a future smart grid it is getting more and more important to handle decentralized energy generation. The project RegModHarz researched the dynamic integration of energy resources in virtual power plants based on generic data models. This paper introduces a concept for the integration of heterogeneous energy resources into the energy management of a virtual power plant using a uniform data model. On the assumption of a market-oriented virtual power plant the main attributes of this data model are generally identified and afterwards explained by examples. The capability of this data model is shown in a comprehensive field test with different renewable energy resources. (orig.)

  7. Automation of hydro power on the upper Rhine and modernization of a power station at the confluence of the Rhine and Aare rivers; Automatisierung der Wasserwirtschaft am Hochrhein und Modernisierung eines Kraftwerkes am Zusammenfluss von Aare und Rhein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltzig, C.; Schlageter, G.

    1996-12-31

    For the first barrage weir after the confluence of the Rhine and Aare rivers, a maximum storage level is determined and set that constitutes an operating optimum and takes the different inflow and outfall volumes as well as existing retention capacities into account. Moreover, the process control system ensures automatic operation of the three engine units of the power station including process control of the barrage weir and the external systems belonging to the Albbruck-Doggern hydroelectric power station on the Rhine (RADAG). (orig./RHM)

  8. Trends during operation and maintenance in power plants. Alarm management and 3D-simulation; Trends bei Bedienung und Wartung im Kraftwerk. Alam-Management und 3D-Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlotz, Kati; Brandt, Gerhard [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Div. Energietechnik

    2009-11-16

    Two manifestations of overburdening can be observed in staff of modern, highly complex power plants with numerous components that need to be monitored from the control station and maintenanced by the service department: The operators of the control station often have to deal with too much information at the same time, while the service staff often have too little information. The operating staff are often swamped with messages and information, while the repair staff has a hard time identifying the relevant components in the vast arsenal of equipment. New ergonomic concepts are needed in order to ensure an efficient and cost-effective operation of power plants.

  9. Amended EC Directive on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants. Implications for German power plants; Neue EG-Richtlinie fuer Grossfeuerungsanlagen. Folgerungen fuer deutsche Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, M. [Verband der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft - VDEW - e.V., Frankfurt (Germany). Bereich Recht und Umwelt

    2002-03-11

    The article highlights the major improvements in terms of reducing emissions from large combustion plants, comparing the new limiting values and specifications with those of the former Directive. As Germany is obliged to transform the new EC Directive into national law within twelve months from its entry into force, an amendment of the respective German regulation can be expected soon. (orig./CB) [German] Mit der im Herbst 2001 durch das Europaeische Parlament und den Umweltministerrat verabschiedeten Novelle der Grossfeuerungsanlagen-Richtlinie hat die Europaeische Union einen markanten, laengst ueberfaelligen Schritt zur EU-weiten Angleichung der emissionsseitigen Anforderungen an grosse Feuerungsanlagen unternommen. Mit dem Inkrafttreten der novellierten Grossfeuerungsanlagen-Richtlinie wurde aber auch der formale Anstoss fuer eine Aktualisierung der deutschen Grossfeuerungsanlagen-Verordnung (13.BImSchV) gegeben. (orig./CB)

  10. Determination of a CO sub 2 rating formula for fossil-fired, electricity-generating power plants. Zur Festlegung einer CO sub 2 -Steuerformel fuer fossil-befeuerte, stromerzeugende Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifritz, W [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung

    1991-12-01

    Dr. Martin Proske was right in Ref (1) to point to the fact that a CO{sub 2}-tax has to take into account the quality of the secondary energy carrier, too. In the opinion of the author, however, the tax-formula of M. Proske has still to be modified if CO{sub 2}-free fossil power stations were introduced. Failing this, the development of CO{sub 2}-free power stations with the necessary removal and disposal of CO{sub 2} would be not attractive although this future type of a power station could substantially contribute to the climate-neutrality of fossil fuels. A corresponding modification of the tax-formula is proposed. (orig.).

  11. Replacement of the old hydropower plant Ruppoldingen by new construction: More power in harmony with nature. Ersatz des alten Kraftwerkes Ruppoldingen durch Neubau: Mehr Strom im Einklang mit der Natur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aemmer, F; Zimmermann, C; Inderbitzin, R [Atel, Aare-Tessin AG fuer Elektrizitaet, Olten (Switzerland)

    1992-02-21

    The Aare-Tessin AG fuer Elektrizitaet (Atel) at Olten intend to construct a new run-of-river power plant at Ruppoldingen above the Aareblick restaurant. The new plant will replace the present hydroelectric power plant, which is new nearly 100 years old and whose operating permit will run out in 1994. The article gives an outline of the power plant project. The new plant will have three times the power of the old plant; protection of nature will be ensured by a number of measures.(orig.).

  12. Experiences with a new technology of the water treatment at the reverse osmosis plant in the power station Schkopau; Betriebserfahrungen mit einer neuen Art der Wasserbehandlung an der Umkehrosmose-Anlage im Kraftwerk Schkopau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissler, K.P. [E.ON Kraftwerke, Schkopau (Germany); Nebauer, G.; Schallert, B. [E.ON Engineering, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Koerner, J.; Koppe, J. [MOL Katalysatorentechnik GmbH, Schkopau (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Similar to any river, the water of the river Saale shows strong fluctuations in the composition as a result of the local rain events and the climatic conditions. In the year 1992, when the planning started for the power station building the fluctuations of filtered substances, the acid capacity, the organic load of the water and the colony forming unities as a summary recording of bacteria etc. were not striking in comparison with former years. With the complete processing technique upstream of the reverse osmosis plant it became almost quantitatively to remove and to tie bacteria and higher microbiology and to eliminate diluted organic components (DOC), feast substances, and to reduce the carbonate hardness. The company MOL Katalysatortechnik GmbH offered power station operators already in 1999 a method with which biological growth can be limited in cooling circuits. (orig.) [German] Der Ueberschuss von Desinfektionsmitteln wie Chlor, Chlorbleichlauge oder Chlordioxid muss zwingend vor der UO-Anlage durch Zugabe von Reduktionsmitteln beseitigt sein, weil die UO-Membranen auf Polyamidbasis durch Oxidationsvorgaenge selbst nach kurzer Einwirkung Leistungsabnahmen aufweisen. Als Nachteil dieser Vorgehensweise bestehen bereits hinter der Dosierstelle des Reduktionsmittels, d.h. am Kerzenfilter und auch an der UO-Anlage, Bedingungen, die biologisches Wachstum kaum einschraenken und deshalb in hohem Masse zeitaufwaendige Reinigungsvorgaenge erfordern. (orig.)

  13. Combined-cycle power plant. 500 MW on a single shaft. Active stability improvement of the compressor - methods of analysis. Final report; GuD-Kraftwerk, 500 MW auf einer Welle. Aktive Stabilitaetsverbesserung am Verdichter - Analyseverfahren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoff, H.; Methling, F.O.

    2002-07-01

    Various analysis techniques are tested as possible stall and surge avoidance monitoring systems on high-speed axial compressors. Measurements were taken in a 4-stage transonic compressor with igv in the region of stable operation as well as approaching and crossing the surge line with fully developed rotating stall. The measurements contain the static wall pressure in front of each blade row. Artificial neural networks, Fourier techniques and cepstral analysis are investigated. The different methods are checked on a single sensor signal to reduce the instrumentational effort. Using the cepstral analysis a characteristic parameter is calculated which is valid in all investigated regions of operation of the compressor. This characteristic parameter is based on the blade passing frequency, i.e. in the terms of cepstral analysis it is the intensity of the fundamental component as well as the intensities of all its higher harmonics which are covered by the sensor signal. (orig.)

  14. Planning games for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, K.

    1977-01-01

    The author shows the main differences between the electricity supply planning game for the Bernische Kraftwerke AG (PEW-1) and that for the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke AG (PEW-2). (orig.) [de

  15. Special features of the safety concept and design requirements applied for Angra-2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The special features and requirements which have been applied by NUCLEN (Nuclebras Engenharia S/A) for Angra 2 and Angra 3 and which depart somewhat from the KWU (Kraftwerk Union) standard plant, are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Fuel gas production from renewable biomass in a circulating fluidized bed as a bases for zero-CO{sub 2} power generation in a combined-cycle power plant; Brenngaserzeugung aus nachwachsenden Biomassen in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht als Grundlage fuer eine CO{sub 2}-neutrale Stromerzeugung in einem GUD Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, J.; Loeffler, J.; Hirschfelder, H. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    A pilot circulating fluidized bed plant in the range of 1.7 MW{sub th} has been operated successfully with fossil fuels, residues, wood bark and wood chips, reet grass and sorghum pellets. Depending on the specifications for product gas and fuel quality, air, oxygen-enriched air or oxygen/steam mixtures are used as gasification agents in the gas generator. (orig) [Deutsch] In einer ZWS-Pilotanlage mit ca. 1.7 MW thermischer Leistung wurden bisher ausser fossilen und Abfallbrennstoffen auch Rindenabfaelle, Holzschnitzel, Schilfgras und Sorghumpellets erfolgreich zur Brenngaserzeugung eingesetzt. Entsprechend den Anforderungen an das Produktgas und der Brennstoffqualitaet wird Luft, sauerstoffangereicherte Luft oder Sauerstoff/Dampfgemische als Vergasungsmittel im ZWS-Gaserzeuger eingesetzt. (orig)

  17. Potassium carbonate scrubber for removing carbon dioxide from flue and product gases of power plant and industrial processes as a robust alternative to amine treatment; Alkalicarbonatwaesche zur Entfernung von Kohlendioxid aus Rauch- und Produktgasen von Kraftwerks- und Industrieprozessen als robuste Alternative zu Aminwaeschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Andrew; Erich, Egon; Bathen, Dieter [Institut fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA), Duisburg (Germany); Telge, Stephan; Fahlenkamp, Hans [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Umwelttechnik; Domels, Hans-Peter; Kesseler, Klaus; Igelbuescher, Andreas [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Duisburg (Germany); Schluseman, Ernst [Stadtwerke Duisburg AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    When new conventional power plants are constructed and built, it is necessary to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to meet the climate protection targets. The development of possible technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} is the subject of intensive current research efforts. Usually the principle of amine scrubbing, which is a well-known process in petrochemistry, serves as a procedural basis for the separation of CO{sub 2}. However, difficulties occur when transferring this method to power plant conditions. The paper describes the process of potash scrubbing as a possible alternative to CO{sub 2} cleaning of flue gases as well as of process gases. The results of a research project are introduced. Laboratory studies and pilot-scale experiments also embraced the separation of carbon dioxide with a mobile absorption system. (orig.)

  18. Fuel gas production from renewable biomass in a circulating fluidized bed as a bases for zero-CO{sub 2} power generation in a combined-cycle power plant; Brenngaserzeugung aus nachwachsenden Biomassen in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht als Grundlage fuer eine CO{sub 2}-neutrale Stromerzeugung in einem GUD Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, J; Loeffler, J; Hirschfelder, H [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A pilot circulating fluidized bed plant in the range of 1.7 MW{sub th} has been operated successfully with fossil fuels, residues, wood bark and wood chips, reet grass and sorghum pellets. Depending on the specifications for product gas and fuel quality, air, oxygen-enriched air or oxygen/steam mixtures are used as gasification agents in the gas generator. (orig) [Deutsch] In einer ZWS-Pilotanlage mit ca. 1.7 MW thermischer Leistung wurden bisher ausser fossilen und Abfallbrennstoffen auch Rindenabfaelle, Holzschnitzel, Schilfgras und Sorghumpellets erfolgreich zur Brenngaserzeugung eingesetzt. Entsprechend den Anforderungen an das Produktgas und der Brennstoffqualitaet wird Luft, sauerstoffangereicherte Luft oder Sauerstoff/Dampfgemische als Vergasungsmittel im ZWS-Gaserzeuger eingesetzt. (orig)

  19. Rural district of Harz tests electricity supply of the future. Exploiting potential of renewable energies with virtual power plants, load management and electronic market platforms; Landkreis Harz erprobt Stromversorgung der Zukunft. Mit virtuellem Kraftwerk, Lastmanagement und elektronischer Marktplattform erneuerbare Potenziale ausschoepfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Uwe

    2012-07-01

    Regions with a large proportion of renewable energies offer particularly good prerequisites for testing out future decentralised supply systems. In the rural district of Harz, one of six model regions in the German government's E-Energy programme, more than 20 partners from various sectors of the electricity industry have developed technologies and business models for smart grids. Four municipal utility companies and two distribution network operators were involved in their implementation. The four-year RegModHarz research project, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, will be completed at the beginning of 2013. (orig.)

  20. Silent and thrifty. Higher efficiency and lower pollution - a new technology for aircraft traffic; Fluesternde Asketen. Mehr Leistung bei geringerer Umweltbelastung - neue Technik fuer den Flugverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewe, T

    1997-05-01

    Within the next 15 to 20 years, the capacity of aircraft traffic must be doubled to meet the demand. Researchers and developers are now working on passenger jets with reduced pollution levels: Lower noise, lower emissions, and very low fuel consumption will be necessary to meet the demands of the future. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den naechsten 15 bis 20 Jahren muss die Lufttransport-Leistung sich gegenueber heute glatt verdoppeln. Forscher und Entwickler tuefteln an drastisch umweltvertraeglicheren Passagier-Jets: Leiser, schadstoffaermer im Abgas, geradezu spartanisch im Spritverbrauch. Ein Muss - sonst erstickt der Flugverkehr bald an seinem Zuwachs. (orig.)

  1. Weiblichkeitsentwürfe viktorianischer Literatur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rönz

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Die viktorianische Epoche verzeichnet einen überproportionalen Zuwachs an Schriftstellerinnen besonders im Bereich des Romans, aber auch innerhalb der übrigen literarischen Gattungen. Autorinnen wie Charlotte und Emily Brontë, Mary Elizabeth Braddon, Christina Rossetti oder Harriet Martineau reflektieren in ihren Schriften eine Gesellschaft, in deren Ideologie die Rolle der Frau als „Angel of the House“ definiert wurde. Silvia Mergenthal untersucht anhand ausführlicher Beispiele die Darstellung der konkreten Perspektiven britischer Frauen in Texten des 19. Jahrhunderts.

  2. ifo Konjunkturprognose 2016–2018: Robuste deutsche Konjunktur vor einem Jahr ungewisser internationaler Wirtschaftspolitik

    OpenAIRE

    Wollmershäuser, Timo; Nierhaus, Wolfgang; Hristov, Nikolay; Boumans, Dorine; Garnitz, Johanna; Göttert, Marcell; Grimme, Christian; Lauterbacher, Stefan; Lehmann, Robert; Meister, Wolfgang; Reif, Magnus; Schröter, Felix; Steiner, Andreas; Stöckli, Marc; Klaus, Wohlrabe

    2016-01-01

    Am 16. Dezember 2016 stellte das ifo Institut seine Prognose für die Jahre 2016, 2017 und 2018 vor. Der robuste Aufschwung, in dem sich die deutsche Wirtschaft seit dem Jahr 2013 befindet, wird sich fortsetzen. In diesem Jahr ist mit einem Zuwachs des realen BIP von 1,9% zu rechnen. 2017 dürfte der Anstieg auf 1,5% zurückgehen, was jedoch nur auf eine im Vergleich zum Vorjahr geringere Anzahl von Arbeitstagen zurückzuführen ist. Im Jahr 2018 wird das reale BIP vor­aussichtlich um 1,7% expandi...

  3. ifo Konjunkturprognose 2016/2017: Aufschwung in Deutschland geht in die zweite Halbzeit

    OpenAIRE

    Wollmershäuser, Timo; Nierhaus, Wolfgang; Hristov, Nikolay; Berg, Tim Oliver; Breuer, Christian; Garnitz, Johanna; Grimme, Christian; Hristov, Atanas; Lehmann, Robert; Meister, Wolfgang; Reif, Magnus; Schröter, Felix; Steiner, Andreas; Wohlrabe, Klaus; Wolf, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Der robuste Aufschwung, in dem sich die deutsche Wirtschaft seit dem Jahr 2014 befindet, wird sich fortsetzen. Das ifo Institut rechnet mit einem Zuwachs des realen Bruttoinlandsprodukts von 1,8% im laufenden Jahr. Im Jahr 2017 beläuft sich der Anstieg voraussichtlich auf 1,6%. Damit wird sich die Produktionslücke weiter verringern und im nächsten Jahr wohl nahezu geschlossen sein. Da diese Gangart der Konjunktur insgesamt eher verhalten ist, zeichnen sich keine Überhitzungserscheinungen auf ...

  4. Emotionalitätsmarker in Kommentaren auf der PEGIDA-Facebook-Seite

    OpenAIRE

    Hintze, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Das Thema Zuwanderung löst in der Bevölkerung eine Reihe von unterschiedlichen Emotionen aus. Eine politische Bewegung, die unter anderem aufgrund ihrer ablehnenden Haltung gegenüber Zuwanderung in den Medien sehr präsent ist, ist PEGIDA (Patriotischen Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes). PEGIDA ist wie aus dem Nichts im Oktober 2014 in Dresden auf der politischen Bildfläche erschienen und gewann schnell an Zuwachs. Nach einem kurzen Einbruch der Anhängerzahlen nimmt die Zahl de...

  5. Short-rotation coppices. State of the realizability, organisation and a model for the evaluation of the production and supply of rapidly growing wood from short-rotation coppices als a biofuel for biomass-fuelled heating power stations in Bavaria; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Stand der Umsetzbarkeit, Organisation und ein Modell zur oekonomischen Bewertung von Produktion und Bereitstellung schnell wachsenden Holzes aus Kurzumtriebsplantagen als biogener Festbrennstoff fuer Biomasse(heiz)kraftwerke in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschlau, Helmut F

    2011-04-07

    The study examines most aspects of Short-rotation Coppice Crops (SRC), mainly from willows (Salix sp.) and poplars (Populus sp.), for energetic use in big biomass powerstations in Bavaria (southern Germany). In addition to the compilation of framework conditions concerning environmental and agrarian politics as well as legal issues, every link in the process chain of SRC will be considered - from planting to harvesting, treatment of the wood chips and Just-in-time delivery to the powerplant - followed by an evaluation of SRC in ecological terms. The basic aim of this study is to evaluate every single link with regard to organisational und economic issues, analysis of relevant markets and to develop a comprehensive calculation model for the amount of annuities of the whole process chain.

  6. Radioactive waste management practices with KWU-boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.

    1976-01-01

    A Kraftwerk Union boiling water reactor is used to demonstrate the reactor auxiliary systems which are applied to minimize the radioactive discharge. Based on the most important design criteria the philosophy and function of the various systems for handling the off-gas, ventilation air, waste water and concentrated waste are described. (orig.) [de

  7. Diagnostic and monitoring systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehling, H.J.; Jax, P.; Streicher, V.

    1987-01-01

    Monitoring systems are important for the availability of nuclear power plants. A survey is given about such systems designed and constructed by the Kraftwerk Union AG Erlangen (Federal Republic of Germany) in order to assure the mechanical integrity of reactor cooling systems. Three monitoring systems based on microprocessors are presented: KUES (acoustic detection of loose parts), SUES (vibration), and FAMOS (fatigue)

  8. Sound-tracking Germany: 70 years of imagining the nation from Schlager to Techno

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiller, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the mid-seventies, Kraftwerk asked, "What is the sound of the German Bundesrepublik?" and answered with their international über-hit "Autobahn". In the eighties, Deutsch Amerikanische Freundschaft [DAF] ordered the dance-obsessed New German Wave youth to "shake your ass and do the Adolf Hitler!"

  9. Holger Loodus / Holger Loodus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loodus, Holger

    2000-01-01

    Ansambli "Dallas" kitarrist Holger Loodus kirjutab oma olulisematest plaatidest:Blondie "The Best Of Blondie", Peter Sarstedt "Peter Sarstedt", Collage "Kadriko", Kraftwerk "Man Machine", Nansy Sinatra ja Lee Hazlewood "The Hits Of Nancy & Lee", The Modern Jazz Quarte "Third Stream Music"

  10. Pop / Marek Kallin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallin, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Kano "Home Sweet Home", Static-X "Start A War", Kraftwerk "Minimum Maximum", The Juan Maclean "Less Than Human", Andrian Belew "Side Two", Saint Etienne "Tales From Turnpike House", Jamie Cullum "Pointless Nostalgic", James Blunt "Back To Bedlam", Architecture In Helsinki "In Case We Die"

  11. Muusika DVD-d / Juhan Ulfsak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulfsak, Juhan, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Uute DVD-de Eppu Normaali "Video jää pystyyn", Taraf de Haidouks "The Continuing Adventures Of Taraf de Haidouks, "Kraftwerk "Minimum/Maximum", Judas Priest "Rising In The East", R. Kelly "Trapped In The Closet", Deep Purple "Perihelion", Ray Charles "50 Years In Music"

  12. 12 billion DM for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The German atomic industry has achieved the break-through to the world market: Brazil orders eight nuclear electricity generating plants from Siemens-AEG daughter Kraftwerk-Union. US concerns attacked the twelve billion DM deal, the biggest export order in the history of German industry. Without avail - the contract is to be signed in Bonn this week. (orig./LH) [de

  13. General introduction CSP Technologies and grid management

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffschmidt, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Der Vortrag gibt einen Überblick über alle relevanten CSP Technologien und beschreibt die besondere Charakteristik der Stromproduktion sowie die aktuelle und mittelfristige Markt- und Kostensituation. Für eine weitere Kostenreduktion wird der Vorteil eines PV-CSP Hybrid Kraftwerks beschrieben.

  14. Flexibility instead of regulation. Is the Energy Transition bogged down?; Flexibilitaet statt Regulierung. Ist die Energiewende festgefahren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gochermann, Josef [Hochschule Osnabrueck, Lingen (Germany). Professur Marketing und Technologiemanagement

    2017-07-15

    The growth in renewable energy systems is stagnating. Is the energy transition bogged down? Is the transition to the new energy world over-regulated? In addition to the regulation of the large systems at the national level, the energy users need more scope and flexibility at regional and on individual level. The present article deals with the most important criticisms regarding the energy transition and provides references on their solution. [German] Der Zuwachs an erneuerbaren Energieanlagen stagniert. Ist die Energiewende festgefahren? Wird der Uebergang in die neue Energiewelt ueberreguliert? Neben der Regulation der grossen Systeme auf nationaler Ebene braucht die Energiewende mehr Freiraum und Flexibilitaet auf regionaler und auf individualer Ebene. Der vorliegende Artikel greift die wichtigsten Kritikpunkte in Bezug auf die Energiewende auf und gibt Hinweise zu deren Loesung.

  15. Entgrenzung durch Medien: Internationalisierungsprozesse als Rahmenbedingung der Mediendidaktik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Klebl

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Mediendidaktik ist eine Teildisziplin der Medienpädagogik und hat in den vergangenen Jahren einen enormen Zuwachs an Nachfrage und Bedeutung erfahren. Dieser Bedeutungszuwachs ist bedingt durch den verstärkten Einsatz digitaler Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken in Bildungsprozessen (Stichwort «E- Learning». Der vorliegende Beitrag entwickelt die These, dass die Mediendidaktik ausgehend von medientechnischen Entwicklungen im Kontext von Globalisierung einer Entgrenzung unterworfen ist. Diese Entgrenzung ist Chance und Risiko zugleich. Der vorliegende Beitrag klärt zunächst den Begriff der Entgrenzung. Anhand dreier Phänomene werden Prozesse der Entgrenzung für die Mediendidaktik beschrieben. Ausgehend von der Problematisierung der Prozesse von Entgrenzung werden abschliessend einige Folgerungen für die Mediendidaktik als Teildisziplin der Medienpädagogik zur Diskussion gestellt.

  16. Information afternoons for BKW personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichle, A.

    1983-01-01

    The management of Bernische Kraftwerke AG organise afternoon meetings for the staff each limited to 70/80 people. Brief details of the information afternoons are given, the main aims of which include updating knowledge on energy policy matters and the need for nuclear power, explaining company policy, improving staff motivation, considering the results of the poll on the standing of BKW with its customers, screening a company film and discussing matters raised by employees. (P.G.R.)

  17. New renewable energy sources and efficient power consumption at NOK: Promoting - testing - informing. Neue erneuerbare Energien und rationelle Stromanwendung bei den NOK: Foerdern - Pruefen - Informieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueffer, K; Baumberger, H [Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK), Baden (Switzerland)

    1991-09-18

    In accordance with the operating principles, the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke (NOK) has decided on a comprehensive programme dedicated to opening up new sources of renewable energy and also to reducing demand by means of efficient power consumption. Intensive promotion, testing and information should ensure that, on the one hand, a premature condemnation of both possibilities and, on the other hand, exaggerated hopes can be avoided. (orig.).

  18. The 'electric power' experience: Between nostalgia and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moergeli, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    The ''Muehleberg'' is a concept which is mostly used in connection with the nuclear power station. But there is more to the ''Muehleberg'' than at first sight. A hydroelectric station, a waste dump gas plant and the brandnew works management centre of the Bernische Kraftwerke AG (BKW) constitute the framework for a host of other attractions in the field of electric power; among others, examples of technological culture in the BKW museum, which are worth seeing. (orig.) [de

  19. Strands of the future: France and the birth of electronica

    OpenAIRE

    Albiez, Sean

    2005-01-01

    The early history of 1970s electronic rock music, or electronica, often centres on the innovations of Brian Eno, Tangerine Dream and Kraftwerk, whose creative roots are identified as in avant-garde modernist and contemporary music (e.g. Luigi Russolo, Edgard Varese, John Cage, Karlheinz Stockhausen and Pierre Schaeffer). German, British and American artists have gained wide recognition for their roles in this history, but French artists who made important contributions to developments in earl...

  20. Bern Power Station Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Bernische Kraftwerke electricity generation/supply company supplies about one eighth of the Swiss electrical energy demand with about one sixth of the Swiss generating capacity. Directly or indirectly one million inhabitants are supplied, a substantial contribution to the Swiss economy. Data given on BKW includes: historical background, structure, organisation, operations, generating plant, transmission/distribution equipment, electricity generated, supplied, exported and imported, financial aspects, accounting practice and cooperation arrangements with other utilities. (P.G.R.)

  1. Can we dispense with nuclear power. [Federal Republic of Germany]. Koennen wir auf Kernenergie verzichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frewer, H; Braun, W; Freiberger, S; Martin, J

    1986-01-01

    The aims of energy policy, which consist in safeguarding energy supply while using nuclear power as one source of energy, are discussed in an interview (H. Frewer, Managing Director of Kraftwerk Union 'KWU'). The safety of German nuclear power plants is illustratively compared with the safety of nuclear power plants in the USSR, especially the reactor at Chernobyl (Braun and Freiberger, KWU). A further contribution deals with the propagation of the radioactive plume after the accident at Chernobyl (Martin, KWU).

  2. Report on the 77th year of business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report on the 77th businesss year of the Norddeutsche Kraftwerke AG (NWK) contains information on the company organs, a short directors' reprot, papers on electricity sales and the electricity available, the extension of supply facilities (power plant, nuclear fuel cycle, network extension), and short informative articles on the earning base and financing, on the employees and on social matters, as well as explanations on the annual balance. (HK) [de

  3. The 'electric power' experience: Between nostalgia and the future. Erlebnis 'Strom' zwischen Nostalgie und Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moergeli, H.P. (Moergeli und Partner, Muri bei Bern (Switzerland))

    1994-03-04

    The ''Muehleberg'' is a concept which is mostly used in connection with the nuclear power station. But there is more to the ''Muehleberg'' than at first sight. A hydroelectric station, a waste dump gas plant and the brandnew works management centre of the Bernische Kraftwerke AG (BKW) constitute the framework for a host of other attractions in the field of electric power; among others, examples of technological culture in the BKW museum, which are worth seeing. (orig.)

  4. The pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear plants with boiling water reactors have a safety containment with a pressure suppression system (PSS). Proceeding on significant self-developments, today the three PSS-lines of General Electric Co. (GE), Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and ASEA-ATOM are predominant, which are currently represented by the MARK III type, the KWU type 72 and the BWR 75 containment. In addition, there are special developments for the nuclear ship propulsion and for the pressurized water reactors in the Soviet Union. Key design values of the PSS allow a first valuation of its loads during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. (orig.) [de

  5. 150 years of electrical engineering. A review and future prospects for power plant construction; 150 Jahre Elektrotechnik. Rueckblick und Vision im Kraftwerksbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Energieerzeugung

    1997-12-01

    The development of power plant construction both in the last 150 years and also relative to the deduced major trends for the future is illustrated by the important milestones. In this respect, the important role of modern power stations is very prominent in ensuring enduring economic development. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand von wichtigen Meilensteinen wird die Entwicklung im Kraftwerksbau sowohl in den letzten 150 Jahren als auch entsprechend den sich abzeichnenden grossen Trends fuer die Zukunft beleuchtet. Dabei steht die wichtige Rolle moderner Kraftwerke fuer eine nachhaltige Entwicklung im Vordergrund. (orig.)

  6. Brokdorf nuclear power station: Construction scheduling and deadline control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembcke, U.D.F.

    1986-01-01

    Scheduling, especially deadline control, for all installations of the Brokdorf nuclear power station was carried out centrally by the Project Management of Kraftwerk Union AG. 130 timetables encompassing some 13,000 activities were handled, which were interconnected and linked to 189 timetables (approx. 18,000 activities) from various specialized sections by means of data processing systems. Much space in time scheduling was taken by controls of software processing, especially of the preliminary inspection documents in the piping sector and of working documents for construction management in the control systems area. (orig.) [de

  7. The nuclear training centre of the nation. Three years after Chernobyl the question is: how safe are German nuclear power reactors The reactor operators come from the training centre in Essen where everything is alright in the world of simulators: all emergencies can be managed, and MCA is not in the program. Die Atomschule der Nation. Drei Jahre nach Tschernobyl stellt sich die Frage: Wie sicher sind deutsche Atomkraftwerke In Essen wird deren Personal geschult. Am Simulator ist die Welt noch in Ordnung: Stoerfaelle sind allesamt beherrschbar - ein Super-GAU ist nicht im Programm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleich, M.

    1989-05-01

    This on-the-spot report gives an account of one day at the reactor operator's training centre of Kraftwerks-Simulator Gesellschaft in Essen, West-Germany. Heavy criticism is raised by the reporter who found out that none of the four simulators' computer programs includes the scenarios of accidents that may lead to severe reactor core damage. The conclusion drawn from this fact is that the West-German reactor operating personnel is just as incapable of managing a severe accident as their colleagues in Chernobyl. (DG).

  8. Final report on 3-D experiment project air-water upper plenum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.K.; Mohr, C.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are presented from upper plenum air-water reflood behavior testing performed as part of the program to investigate three-dimensional aspects of PWR LOCA research. Tests described were performed at near ambient temperature and pressure in a plexiglass vessel which included the important features of the upper core and upper plenum regions corresponding to a single fuel bundle in both Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Trojan) and Kraftwerk Union (KKU) PWR designs. The data included observed two-phase flow characteristics, particularly with regard to countercurrent flow, and cinematography of the characteristic upper plenum flow patterns

  9. TOC in water/steam cycles. Zittau Colloquium on Power Plant Chemistry; TOC in Wasser/Dampf-Kreislaeufen. Zittauer Kraftwerkschemisches Kolloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Many power plants use treated surface water as boiler feedwater and have difficulties in keeping within the limits for organic substances in feedwater (TOC < 200 ppb) or acid conductivity in steam condensate (< 0.2 {mu}S/cm). The characteristics of surface water and the role of organic substances in boiler feedwater are explained and discussed. [German] Viele Kraftwerke bereiten fuer die Erzeugung von Kesselspeisewasser Oberflaechenwasser auf und haben Probleme, die Richtlinien fuer organische Stoffe im Speisewasser (TOC < 200 ppb) oder Saeure-Leitfaehigkeit in Dampfkondensaten (< 0,2 {mu}S/cm) einzuhalten. Die besonderen Eigenschaften von Oberflaechenwaessern und die Bedeutung organischer Stoffe in Kesselspeisewasser werden erlaeutert und diskutiert. (orig.)

  10. Experimental prediction of tube support interaction characteristics in steam generators: Volume 2, Westinghouse Model 51 flow entrance region: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslinger, K.H.

    1988-06-01

    Tube-to-tube support interaction characterisitics were determined experimentally on a single tube, multi-span geometry, representative of the Westinghouse Model 51 steam generator economizer design. Results, in part, became input for an autoclave type wear test program on steam generator tubes, performed by Kraftwerk Union (KWU). More importantly, the test data reported here have been used to validate two analytical wear prediction codes; the WECAN code, which was developed by Westinghouse, and the ABAQUS code which has been enhanced for EPRI by Foster Wheeler to enable simulation of gap conditions (including fluid film effects) for various support geometries

  11. KWU puts the emphasis on planning and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehring, W.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of setting up an authoritative centralised department to plan, direct, and control standardisation policy for PWR type reactors and to ensure a proper flow of information was recognised by Kraftwerk Union at an early stage. The benefits and requirements of standardisation are discussed and the role of the KWU standardisation department in project bidding and implementation is illustrated. The Technical Proposal for a Standard turnkey PWR, which comprises eleven volumes, and the development of a Standard Operation Manual are both discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Experience gained in the training of nuclear power plant operating personnel with nuclear power plant simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, J.; Fueg, J.; Schlegel, G.

    1980-01-01

    The simulator of a PWR-type reactor with 1.200 MW was accomplished in September 1977. In January 1978, the simulator of a BWR-type reactor with 800 MW started operation. The American company Singer/Link supplied computer hardware and software; Kraftwerk Union AG supplied control room equipment, power plant data and acted as consulting engineers for the construction and acceptance of the simulators. This way it is ensured that the simulated process reflects the state of German nuclear engineering. (orig./DG) [de

  13. Modern engines need friction bearing from modern materials; Moderne Motoren benoetigen Gleitlager aus modernen Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M. [KS Gleitlager GmbH, St. Leon-Rot (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    The encreasing performance of Otto and Diesel engines leads to an increase of the cylinder pressures and, therefore, to higher loading of the engine bearings. It is necessary to recognise the future requirements especially for main and con rod bearings of the engines in order to be able to accurately develop and to launch the appropriate bearing materials respectively material combinations into series. Thereby, the functional security of the bearings meeting a complex requirement profile has priority. It is, however, just as important to offer the customer an optimal cost and advantage ratio. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei Otto- und Dieselmotoren nahmen in den letzten Jahren die Zylinderdruecke immer mehr zu. Von 1986 bis zum Jahr 2000 wird die Gaskraft bei Pkw-Dieselmotoren um 30% von 120 auf 160 bar steigen, bei Ottomotoren betraegt der Zuwachs ebenfalls 30% von 60 auf 80 bar. Die spezifische Lagerbelastung wird sich im gleichen Zeitraum aehnlich entwickeln. Das hat direkten Einfluss auf die Belastung der Haupt- und Pleuellager und somit auch auf die Werkstoff-Entwicklung. Dieser Beitrag zeigt die wichtigsten Entwicklungen der KS Gleitlager GmbH auf. (orig.)

  14. Weiblichkeitsentwürfe viktorianischer Literatur Concepts of Femininity in Victorian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rönz

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Die viktorianische Epoche verzeichnet einen überproportionalen Zuwachs an Schriftstellerinnen besonders im Bereich des Romans, aber auch innerhalb der übrigen literarischen Gattungen. Autorinnen wie Charlotte und Emily Brontë, Mary Elizabeth Braddon, Christina Rossetti oder Harriet Martineau reflektieren in ihren Schriften eine Gesellschaft, in deren Ideologie die Rolle der Frau als „Angel of the House“ definiert wurde. Silvia Mergenthal untersucht anhand ausführlicher Beispiele die Darstellung der konkreten Perspektiven britischer Frauen in Texten des 19. Jahrhunderts.The Victorian era marks a disproportionate increase of female authors, particularly of novels but also of other literary genres. Authors such as Charlotte and Emily Brontë, Mary Elizabeth Braddon, Christina Rossetti or Harriet Martineau reflect a society in which the role of the woman is ideologically defined as the „angel of the house“ in their writings. Silvia Mergenthal examines the actual perspectives of British women from Nineteenth Century texts, using extensive examples.

  15. Global CO{sub 2} emissions 2015. Trend reversion is still waiting, despite hopeful approaches; Weltweite CO{sub 2}-Emissionen 2015. Trendwende laesst trotz hoffnungsvoller Ansaetze nach wie vor auf sich warten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziesing, Hans-Joachim

    2016-10-15

    By 2015, global CO{sub 2} emissions were virtually unchanged from 2014 according to provisional calculations. On the whole, a slight increase may have resulted, which has slowed the growth of the past few years. In the previous year alone, the weakest growth since the beginning of the century had been recorded, with only 0.7% of the upturn (with the exception of the crises in 2008/2009). As a result, CO{sub 2} emissions in 2015 were only slightly higher than in the previous year, at 33.1 billion tonnes. A global trend reversal is still likely, but the CO{sub 2} emissions have declined in many countries, particularly in some industrialized countries. [German] Im Jahr 2015 haben sich die weltweiten CO{sub 2}-Emissionen nach vorlaeufigen Berechnungen gegenueber 2014 praktisch nicht veraendert. Insgesamt duerfte sich allenfalls ein leichtes Plus ergeben haben, womit der Zuwachs der vergangenen Jahre erneut gebremst wurde. Schon im Vorjahr war mit einem Plus von nur 0,7 % der bis dahin (mit Ausnahme der Krisenjahre 2008/2009) schwaechste Anstieg seit Beginn des Jahrhunderts zu verzeichnen gewesen. Im Ergebnis blieben die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen 2015 mit reichlich 33,1 Mrd. t nur geringfuegig ueber dem Niveau des Vorjahres. Eine weltweite Trendwende steht wohl noch nach wie vor aus, doch sind immerhin die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen in zahlreichen Laendern, insbesondere in etlichen Industrielaendern, gesunken.

  16. Product marketing for eco-power; Produktemarketing fuer Oekostrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, D. [Verband Schweizerischer Elektrizitaetswerke, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-10-30

    The company NaturEnergie (natural energy), a subsidiary of the Energieversorger Kraftwerk Laufenburg AG (KWL) is located in Grenzach-Whylen (Germany) near Basel (Switzerland) has been selling power generated from sun and water since the 1st of October 1998. The company employes a cleverly designed, emotional marketing strategy in order to position the brand ``NaturEnergie`` as a label for ``green power`` on the market. Bulletin VSE talked to Dr. Kai-Hendrik Schlusche (40), co-founder and member of the board of NaturEnergie AG about marketing and pricing of ``green`` power and about relations with Switzerland.(orig.) [Deutsch] Im grenznahen Grenzach-Whylen bei Basel verkauft die Firma NaturEnergie, eine Tochtergesellschaft der Energieversorger Kraftwerk Laufenburg AG (KWL) und Kraftuebertragungswerke Rheinfelden AG (KWR), seit 1. Oktober 1998 Oekostrom aus Sonne und Wasser. Mit Hilfe einer ausgekluegelten emotionellen Marketingstrategie will das junge Unternehmen die Marke `NaturEnergie` als Label fuer `gruenen Strom` im Markt positionieren. Bulletin VSE sprach mit Dr. Kai-Hendrik Schlusche (40), seit Mai 1998 Gruendungsvorstand der NaturEnergie AG, ueber Marketing, Preisgestaltung von `gruenem Strom` und die Beziehungen zur Schweiz. (orig.)

  17. Retrofitting of power plants. Chances and partnerships; Kraftwerksmodernisierung. Moeglichkeiten und Partnerschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bald, A. [Siemens AG, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany); Schwegmann, P. [Siemens AG, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-01-01

    Thousands of power plant managers in the former Soviet Union and the COMECON countries were compelled in the last few years to make a virtue of necessity, adopting the slogan that says ``necessity is the mother of invention`` in their efforts to keep their power plants operating, although there was no way of getting spare sparts or assistance from the general planning boards in Moscow; due to their improvisatory skills they accomplished a great achievement and managed to maintain electricity supply to date. However, the resulting situation today is that the great majority of power plants in the former COMECON member states, i. e in the CIS and in Central and East Europe, badly need repair and backfitting. The article discusses chances and potentials of power plant retrofitting activities, cooperative activities on the part of western countries, and financial support programmes. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Tausende von Kraftwerksdirektoren in der ehemaligen Sowjetunion und in den RGW-Staaten haben aus der Not eine Tugend machen muessen: Mit Improvisation und Flexibilitaet hielten sie ihre Kraftwerke am Laufen - Hilfe und Ersatzteile waren von den zentralen Planungsstellen in Moskau kaum zu erwarten; es war eine ungeheure Leistung, dass die Stromversorgung ueberhaupt noch aufrechterhalten wurde. Als Ergebnis dieser Zwangslage sind die meisten Kraftwerke im ehemaligen RGW-Raum, dem heutigen Mittel-Osteuropa und der GUS, dringend ueberholungsbeduerftig. Moeglichkeiten der Kraftwerksmodernisierung, Kooperationen bei der Rekonstruktion und Fragen der Finanzierung werden im folgenden erlaeutert. (orig./RHM)

  18. Combination of a pyrolysis plant with a hard coal power station firing system; Kombination einer Pyrolyseanlage mit einer Steinkohlekraftwerksfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.; Hauk, R. [Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG (VEW), Dortmund (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    VEW ENERGIE AG plans and operates power plants and thermal plants for the disposal of residual materials (e.g. household waste, sewage sludge, used wood, residues from paper manufacture). In order to make itself familiar with the market for secondary fuels the company undertook a study to find out what cost-effective techniques are available on the market and how power plants can be used for optimal energy use and with a minimum of disposal costs. Its choice finally fell on pyrolysis because this technology is the most flexible for the thermal and physical utilisation of substitute fuels. Moreover, pyrolysis combines very well with power plants. [Deutsch] VEW ENERGIE AG plant und betreibt Kraftwerke und thermische Anlagen zur Entsorgung von Reststoffen (z.B. Hausmuell, Klaerschlamm, Altholz, Reststoff aus der Papierherstellung). Um sich auf dem Markt der Ersatzbrennstoffe einzustellen, wurde untersucht, welche kostenguenstigen Techniken auf dem Markt verfuegbar sind und wie Kraftwerke zur optimalen Energienutzung und zur Minimierung der Entsorgungskosten eingesetzt werden koennen. Die Pyrolysetechnik wurde ausgewaehlt, weil sie am flexibelsten fuer die thermische und stoffliche Verwertung der Ersatzbrennstoffe ist. Sie laesst sich auch sehr gut mit Kraftwerken kombinieren. (orig.)

  19. Modern plant management in the competitive market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, B.; Franke, U.; Freitag, J.U. [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Forced by the deregulation of the energy market and the big drop of electricity prices E.ON Kraftwerke was completely reorganised. Small, flexible units that are focussed on their key tasks were formed. Costs for electricity generation in our plants were reduced. Power plants that are currently not economically efficient are temporarily shut down. Power plants that are permanently not economically efficient are totally shut down. We have now reached a point at which energy prices slowly start to rise again. With our new plant management organization we have a lasting effect on further successfully operating power plants and a positive development of our company. Looking into the future does not create fear about what to do but positive believe that we will soon start new projects. This is the fundament for a stable, successful power plant company. (orig.) [German] Unter dem erheblichen Kostendruck, dem alle Energieversorger derzeit ausgesetzt sind, wurde die Aufbauorganisation von E.ON Energie grundlegend veraendert. Bei E.ON Kraftwerke wurden durch die Schaffung kleiner, flexibler Einheiten und eine klare Konzentration auf das Kerngeschaeft die Kosten fuer die Stromerzeugung in den eigenen Anlagen deutlich gesenkt. Die Auslastung vorhandener wirtschaftlicher Bloecke ist durch die Konservierung von derzeit nicht wirtschaftlichen bzw. durch die Stillegung langfristig nicht wirtschaftlicher Anlagen erheblich verbessert worden. Nachhaltig wurde damit eine Betriebsfuehrungsstrategie entwickelt, die den Bestand und eine positive Entwicklung der Kraftwerksgesellschaft sichert. (orig.)

  20. Knee and ankle injuries from playing football; Knie- und Sprunggelenkverletzungen beim Fussballspiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.) [German] Fussball ist die weltweit am meisten verbreitete Sportart. Der Zuwachs an Fussballspieler(innen) in den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten wird jedoch hauptsaechlich auf das verstaerkte Interesse an weiblichen Spielern zurueckgefuehrt. Das Fussballspiel gilt grundsaetzlich, insbesondere wenn man geringfuegige Verletzungen, die keine therapeutischen Massnahmen notwendig machen, sondern lediglich eine kurzfristige Trainings- oder Spielpause bedingen, als eine relativ sichere Sportart. Auf Grund der Vielzahl an SpielerInnen kommt es allerdings doch zu einer betraechtlichen Anzahl durchaus sehr schwerer Verletzungen. Diese Tatsache stellt ein Problem fuer Spieler und Team dar und mag moeglicherweise auch fuer das soziooekonomische System problematisch werden. Von Verletzungen sind v. a. auf Grund der Natur des Spieles die unteren Extremitaeten betroffen. Zur Durchfuehrung einer suffizienten radiologischen Diagnostik sind Kenntnisse der moeglichen Verletzungsmechanismen und eine Anamneseerhebung von nicht zu unterschaetzendem Wert. Um jedoch derartige Laesionen zu vermeiden bzw. gering zu halten, wurde ueber die Jahre

  1. Music and astronomy. II. Unitedsoundofcosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.; Arias, A.; Machuca, J. J.; Morente, S.

    2017-03-01

    We have been congratulated on the stage by a Nobel laureate (he was our curtain raiser), shocked audiences in rock concerts, written monthly on Musica Universalis , made the second concert in 3D in Spain after Kraftwerk and broadcasted it live in Radio 3, mixed our music with poetry read aloud by scientists, composed the soundtracks of CARMENES, QUIJOTE, ESTRACK and the Gaia first data release, made a videoclip on how computer simulates the formation of stars, played our music in planetariums, museums, observatories throughout Spain and at the end of the meeting of the ESO telescopes time allocation committee... All those moments will not be lost in time like tears in rain, but put together in Bilbao during the 2016 meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society.

  2. Technical dictionary power plant engineering. Vol. 1. 4. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is a compilation of German and English technical terms of power plant engineering as far as power plants, turbine-generators and assembly engineering are concerned. It is the result of a joint effort by the Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and Utility Power Corp. (UPC). The entire content has been revised and approx. 6000 new terms have been added. The dictionary is meant to form a basis for uniform terminology on technical documents as well as correspondence between KWU, UPC and licensees. This computer aided dictionary is printed in capital/low case letters. Only nouns, terms with an article and proper names are capitalized in German. Some terms are written differently in American and British English and are marked with (US) or (GB). (orig./HP) [de

  3. Technical dictionary power plant engineering. Vol. 1. German - English. - Pt. 1: Dictionary. Pt. 2: Abbreviations. 4. rev. and enlarged ed. Technisches Woerterbuch Kraftwerkstechnik. Bd. 1. Deutsch - Englisch. - T. 1: Woerterbuch. T. 2: Abkuerzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is a compilation of German and English technical terms of power plant engineering as far as power plants, turbine-generators and assembly engineering are concerned. It is the result of a joint effort by the Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and Utility Power Corp. (UPC). The entire content has been revised and approx. 6000 new terms have been added. The dictionary is meant to form a basis for uniform terminology on technical documents as well as correspondence between KWU, UPC and licensees. This computer aided dictionary is printed in capital/low case letters. Only nouns, terms with an article and proper names are capitalized in German. Some terms are written differently in American and British English and are marked with (US) or (GB).

  4. An undertaking planning game for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troescher, H.

    1977-01-01

    Planning games have been found satisfactory in many field in political and economic life. In particular the more convenient access to electronic calculators has made a contrinution to their wider use. It is therefore surprising that the first planning game which has become known for the electricity supply industry was first published in the year 1975. This is the planning game for the Bernischen Kraftwerke AG, which is based on a simplified model of a small electricity supply undertaking (EVU). This planning game was adapted in the RWE to the conditions in larger EVU and a few additional model components were added. Besides the general points of view on planning games for EVU the author deals with the extended planning game which is termed in the article PEW. (orig.) [de

  5. Detection of beta radiation emitted from painted tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1988-06-01

    At the Kraftwerk Union (KWU), Erlangen, Federal Republic of Germany, it was confirmed that some types of painted tiles of italian origin were radioactive. In this work, performed at Institut fur Strahlenschutz, GSF, Munich, Germany, ultra-thin (60μm) thermoluminescent samples of CaSO 4 :Tm were used for the determination of absorved dose rates in air (at the tile surface and at the distance of 5 cm from it) and of transmission factors for different tissue equivalent material thicknesses. For comparison the absorved dose rates in air from cement walls without tile revestment and with simple tile revestment (tiles without painted ornaments) were also determined. In these cases the results were the same as those obtained normally from building materials. (author) [pt

  6. Training of power plant operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftwerksschule, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    In Germany, professional training of power plant operating personnel became an important issue in the fifties, when power plant parameters as well as complexity of instrumentation and control increased considerably. Working Groups of VGB Technische Vereiningung der Grosskraftwerketreiber e.v. (Association of Large Power Plant Operators) developed a professional career for power plant operating personnel and defined pre-requisites, scope and objectives of training. In 1957 the German utilities founded KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V. (kws) as a school for theoretical training and for guidance of practical training in the power plants. KWS is a non-profit organisation and independent of authorities. Today KWS has 127 members in Germany and in 6 other countries. The objectives of KWS include the training of: -Kraftwerker (control room operators; - Kraftwerksmesiter (shift supervisors); and - shift engineers; according the guidelines of the VGB

  7. Development of alternative fuel for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, P.E.; Ferreira, R.A.N.; Ferraz, W.B.; Lameiras, F.S.; Santos, A.; Assis, G. de; Doerr, W.O.; Wehner, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of alternative fuel cycles in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) such as Th/U and Th/Pu cycles can permit a better utilization of uranium reserves without the necessity of developing new power reactor concepts. The development of the technology of alternative fuels for PWR is one of the objectives of the 'Program on Thorium Utilization in Pressurized Water Reactors' carried out jointly by Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (NUCLEBRAS), through its Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) and by German institutions, the Julich Nuclear Research Center (KFA), the Kraftwerk Union A.G. (KWU) and NUKEM GmbH. This paper summarizes the results so far obtained in the fuel technology. The development of a fabrication process for PWR fuel pellets from gel-microspheres is reported as well as the design, the specification, and the fabrication of prototype fuel rods for irradiation tests. (Author) [pt

  8. Component codification and identification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannenbaecker, K.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture covers the codification in power stations during the erection phase and commercial operation phase. A diagram gives a survey. There are three basic-codifications for application; 1) Kraftwerk-Kennzeichen-System (KKS) for marking each component in orientated systems, for marking electrical orientated positions in cubicals, switch gears etc. and for marking rooms in buildings; 2) Ordnungssystem (OS) for cost calculation and ordering; 3) Unterlagenarten-Schluessel (UAS) for letters, reports etc. and for documentation. The OS is developed on the principle of cost account number and is therefore close to the organization of each supplier and his special form of design and constrution. KKS has only to mark hardware. Therefore all German owners, consultants, authorities and suppliers develop KKS together and conform to it in DIN 407119. (ORU) [de

  9. Safety by simulation; Sicherheit durch Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Eberhard [KSG Kraftwerks-Simulator-Gesellschaft mbH, Essen (Germany); GfS Gesellschaft fuer Simulatorschulung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Simulator training is a key component in achieving and preserving on the long term the necessary expertise of plant personnel also required by the authorities. In this way, it makes an important contribution to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Simulators are a component in the training of operating personnel of nuclear power plants which allows nuclear power plant operators to be prepared in a focused and practice-oriented way for their activity in everyday plant operation and for possible accident simulation. The simulator center is supported by 5 nuclear power plant operators: the German E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, RWE Power AG, EnBW Kraftwerke AG, and Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Energy GmbH companies as well as the Netherlands N.V. Electriciteits-Produktiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland. They established a joint enterprise in Essen which performs in one central place the duty of simulator training incumbent upon all nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  10. An advanced configuration management system for full scope power plant simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, J.; Goemann, A.

    1996-01-01

    In August 1993 KSG Kraftwerks-Simulator-Gesellschaft, Germany, awarded a contract to STN ATLAS Elektronik for the delivery of two full scope replica training simulators for the German BWR plants Isar 1 and Philipsburg 1, known as the double simulator project S30 (S31/S32). For both projects a computer based Configuration Management System (CMS) was required to overcome deficiencies of older simulator systems in terms of limited upgrade and maintenance capabilities and incomplete documentation. The CMS allows complete control over the entire simulator system covering all software- and hardware-items and therewith exceed quality assurance requirements as defined in ISO 9000-3 which gives recommendations for software configuration management only. The system is realized under the project using the UNIX based relational database system EMPRESS and is in use as a development- and maintenance-tool to improve simulator quality and ensure simulator configuration integrity

  11. Behaviour of steam turbine power control of large power plant units in case of network short-circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindermann, W.; Fork, K.

    1978-01-01

    In order to investigate the behaviour of the turbine control system during strong pendulum motions, an analysis is carried out using a digital computer program by which the reactor, the turbine, the generator and, in a simplified way, the network can be simulated to the necessary degree. Plotter pictures can show the main physical quantities. In all cases, the turbine control system should be able to distinguish between strong pendulum amplitude with acceleration of the rotational angles and sudden release criteria. This demand can be satisfied by a simple adjustment in the Kraftwerk Union turbine control system. Only a few seconds after shut-off of a severe network failure, the turbines are back to their rated power, thus contributing to reliability of supply in this critical network situation. (orig.) [de

  12. Ceramica sphere production by a gel casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.; Assis, G. de; Ferreira, R.A.N.; Ferraz, W.B.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Prado, M.A.S.; Miranda, O.; Drumond, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The technology of (Th,U)O 2 microspheres production by gel casting and subsequente thermal treatment has been transferred from NUKEM GmbH assisted by Kraftwerk Union A.G., both West Germany, to NUCLEBRAS, where it was jointly adapted to produce microspheres suitable for pressing. As a result, there are now available various possibilities to produce ceramic spheres with different characteristics that can be used in different applications. Examples of these characteristics are the range of gel sphere diameters (200 to 5000 μmm) and the value of the specific surface (about 50m 2 /g for calcined (Th, U)O 2 and potentially higher than m 2 /g for other ceramic materials) (Author) [pt

  13. The design, development and operation of a compact nuclear power plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the philosophy and technological considerations necessary for constructing and utilizing a plant specific compact nuclear power plant simulator, how it compares to full scope replica simulators, engineering simulators, part task simulators and basic principles training simulators. Included in this discussion are the design process, scope of simulation, the manufacturing process, test programs and experiences with operator training. Items addressed include the applicability and use of a compact simulator, how well it reproduces the actual reference plant, how well the transferral of knowledge is accomplished and what financial considerations need to be evaluated. This paper tries to provide the details on just how this type of machine was designed and developed by Westinghouse for the Swiss Utility, Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke (NOK) AG

  14. Pilotprojekt "Patientensicherheit" in der medizinischen Lehre [Pilot project "Patient-Safety" in Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosentreter, Michael

    2011-02-01

    bisher in der klinischen Medizin, aber auch in der medizinischen Ausbildung wenig etabliert ist. Dazu wurde ein thematisch breit angelegtes Lehrangebot erarbeitet, das die Studierenden auf der Grundlage des problemorientierten Lernens befähigt, sog. Unerwünschte Ereignisse (UE zu analysieren und – auf der Basis der so gewonnenen Erkenntnisse – geeignete Präventionsmaßnahmen zu entwickeln. Theoretische Lerneinheiten werden ergänzt durch Besprechungen prototypischer klinischer Fälle, die von erfahrenen Klinikern moderiert werden. Bei den selbsteingeschätzten Kompetenzen „Wissen zu Patientensicherheit“ und „Wahrnehmung von Risikosituationen“ wiesen die Studierenden nach Abschluss des Seminars einen signifikanten Zuwachs (Mittelwertvergleich auf. Insgesamt bewerteten die Studierenden ihren Lernerfolg mit gut (1,5.

  15. Environmental research - development of the material balance of oak tree ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank substrates of coal mines; Umweltforschung - Entwicklung des Stoffhaushaltes von Eichenoekosystemen auf quartaeren Kippsubstraten des Braunkohlenbergbaues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzur, J.; Knoche, D.

    2000-07-01

    Investigations have shown that even the very first forest generation on spoil banks already have high vitality. However, it is well known that pioneering terrestrial ecosystems have a high water and material turnover dynamics which will quickly influence the soil at that site but is not an indication of the development of a stable ecosystem. Long-term measurements were therefore made in oak forest ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank sands in order to achieve a quantification (Boxberg: Q. rubra L., 2 years; Kleinleipisch: Q. rubra L., 21 years; Annahuetter: Q. rubra L., 63 years). The results were compared with a virgin soil reference site (Neusorgefeld: Q. rubra L., 41 years). [German] Seit Jahrzehnten praegen Braunkohlentagebaue das Landschaftsbild und den Wasserhaushalt der Niederlausitz. Bislang wurden ca. 770 km{sup 2} ueberwiegend forstlich genutzter Flaechen devastiert und auf 2.100 km{sup 2} rund 9,5 Mrd. m{sup 3} statischer Grundwasservorraete entnommen. Im Zuge der seit 1990 drastisch verringerten Kohlefoerderung und forcierten Bergbausanierung erreicht die Rekultivierungsflaeche zwischenzeitlich rund 450 km{sup 2}, wobei die forstliche Folgenutzung mit 60% der Flaeche dominiert. Zahlreiche wachstumskundliche Untersuchungen belegen, dass sich bereits in der ersten Waldgeneration auf Kippe wuechsige und vitale Bestaende etablieren. Vegetations- und ertragskundliche Parameter wie z.B. Artenzusammensetzung, Naehrstoffversorgung, laufender Zuwachs oder Vorratshaltung sind jedoch per se noch keine hinreichenden Kriterien zur Einschaetzung der Entwicklungsdynamik und damit des angestrebten Rekultivierungserfolgs. Bekannterweise zeichnen sich im Aufbau befindliche terrestrische Oekosysteme generell durch eine ausgepraegte Wasser- und Stoffdynamik aus, welche im Zuge bodengenetischer Prozesse meist eine rasche Standortveraenderung bewirkt. Da das Standortpotential zum Rekultivierungszeitpunkt nicht prognostiziert werden kann, ist offen, ob sich bereits in der

  16. 1. expert congress on geothermal power: On the way to a new energy future. Proceedings; 1. Fachkongress Geothermischer Strom: Start in eine neue Energiezukunft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Tagungsband befasst sich mit den folgenden Themen: 1. Allgemeiner Teil: a) Die Rolle der Geothermie im Rahmen einer zukunftsfaehigen Energieversorgung; b) Effiziente Foerderinstrumente fuer Erneuerbare Energien; c) Geothermische Ressourcen fuer die Stromerzeugung (TAB-Studie); d) Vom Potenzial zur Nutzung - Konzepte fuer die geothermische Stromerzeugung in Deutschland; e) Eine energiewirtschaftliche Einordnung der Geothermie in das Energiesystem der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Vergleich der unterschiedlichen Techniken, des Entwicklungsstandes, Marktpotenzials geothermischer Stromerzeugung und der bisher gemachten Erfahrungen in den laufenden Projekten. 2. Lokalbezug und Poster: a) Erkundung, Aufschluss, Bau und Betrieb der geothermischen Anlage in Neustadt-Glewe; b) Technisches Konzept des geothermischen Kraftwerks Neustadt-Glewe. 3. Exploration, Bohrtechnik: a) Abschaetzung der Erfolgswahrscheinlichkeit bei geothermischen Bohrungen; b) Seismische Exploration, Reservoirmodellierung und Reservoirsimulation zum Geothermieprojekt; c) Bohrtechnik und Bohrkosten fuer Sedimentgesteine. Bohren im Kristallin. 3. Komplettierung, Frac-Technik: a) Frac-Technik im Kristallin; b) Frac-Technik in Sedimenten; c) New-Technology MWD and LWD Systems Designed for Ultra-Deepwater and Geothermal Drilling; d) Weiterentwicklung geothermischer Stromerzeugung im sueddeutschen Kristallin. 4. Verstromung Geothermischer Energie: a) Effizienz der geothermischen Stromerzeugung; b) Duales Heizwerk gespeist mit einem geothermalen Wasser einer mittleren Enthalpie; c) Das Geothermiefeld der Insel Milos in Griechenland: Aktuelle geothermische Exploration und Entwicklung. 5. Poster der Tagung: a) Der UGGW - das innovative Konzept zur Standort unabhaengigen Stromerzeugung; b) Geothermische Ressourcen Russlands und Nutzungsprognose bis 2020; c) Auf der Lernkurve zum Geothermischen Strom: Das In situ Geothermielabor Gross Schoenebeck; d) Waermebegleitende Tiefbohrzemente: Zusammensetzungen, Untersuchungsmethode

  17. 2 obras de G. Burmester – Hamburgo - Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available The enlargements of the Management Annexes of the firm «Nordwestdeutsche Kraftwerke, AK», were different in design due to their different locations and specific urban and architectural conditions. In the first case, the already existing building, known as the «hanging house» had an entity of its own which made it impossible to add an annex to it. It was then decided to build a new separate pavilion, about 20 m away, which would be joined to the first one by means of a corridor. The structure is of reinforced concrete, with two storeys and a basement, surrounded by gardens. In Oldenburg, the Management Building was situated in the centre of the city, right next to a park and it proved to be relatively easy to enlarge it, whereby the existing square got enclosed. The result came to represent a distinguished new approach, very much in accordance with the functions of the firm. The architectural configuration is sober, with classical lines.Las ampliaciones de los pabellones de Dirección de la Empresa «Nordwestdeutsche Kraftwerke, AG», en Stade y en Oldenburg, tuvieron unas características diferentes de concepción, debido a su emplazamiento distinto y a sus específicas condiciones urbanísticas y arquitectónicas. En el primer caso el edificio ya existente, conocido como «la casa suspendida», tenía una entidad propia, lo que hacía de todo punto imposible adicionarle un anexo. Se optó entonces por construir el nuevo pabellón aislado, a unos 20 m de distancia, uniéndolo al anterior por un paso cubierto. Es de hormigón armado, con dos plantas más sótano, y consigue mejorar el conjunto con la ampliación de zonas ajardinadas. En Oldenburg, el edificio de Dirección se encontraba en el centro de la ciudad, al borde de una amplia zona verde, y resultaba fácil realizar una ampliación, lo que permitió obtener un volumen único que cerraba la plaza allí existente, resultando un nuevo planeamiento de alta categoría, muy

  18. Training simulators in nuclear power plants: Experience, programme design and assessment methodology. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    Simulators became an indispensable part of training world-wide. Therefore, international exchange of information is important to share the experience gained in different countries in order to assure high international standards. A second aspects is the tremendous evolution in the computing capacities of the simulator hardware and the increasing functionality of the simulator software. This background has let the IAEA to invite the simulator experts for an experience exchange. The German Simulator Centre in Essen, which is operated by the companies KSG and GfS, was asked to host this Specialists' Meeting. The Specialists' Meeting on ''Training Simulators in Nuclear Power Plants: Experience, Programme Design and Assessment Methodology'' was organized by IAEA in-cooperation with the German Simulator Centre operated by KSG Kraftwerks-Simulator-Gesellschaft mbH and GfS Gesellschaft fuer Simulatorschulung mbH and was held from 17 - 19 November 1997 in Essen, Germany. The meeting focused on developments in simulation technology, experiences with simulator upgrades, utilization of computerized tools as support and complement of simulator training, use of simulators for other purposes. The meeting was attended by 50 participants from 16 countries. In the course of four sessions 21 technical presentations were made. The present volume contains the papers by national delegates at the Specialists' Meeting

  19. Training simulators in nuclear power plants: Experience, programme design and assessment methodology. Proceedings of a specialists` meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Simulators became an indispensable part of training world-wide. Therefore, international exchange of information is important to share the experience gained in different countries in order to assure high international standards. A second aspects is the tremendous evolution in the computing capacities of the simulator hardware and the increasing functionality of the simulator software. This background has let the IAEA to invite the simulator experts for an experience exchange. The German Simulator Centre in Essen, which is operated by the companies KSG and GfS, was asked to host this Specialists` Meeting. The Specialists` Meeting on ``Training Simulators in Nuclear Power Plants: Experience, Programme Design and Assessment Methodology`` was organized by IAEA in-cooperation with the German Simulator Centre operated by KSG Kraftwerks-Simulator-Gesellschaft mbH and GfS Gesellschaft fuer Simulatorschulung mbH and was held from 17 - 19 November 1997 in Essen, Germany. The meeting focused on developments in simulation technology, experiences with simulator upgrades, utilization of computerized tools as support and complement of simulator training, use of simulators for other purposes. The meeting was attended by 50 participants from 16 countries. In the course of four sessions 21 technical presentations were made. The present volume contains the papers by national delegates at the Specialists` Meeting Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Technically-oriented operation management systems in conjunction with commercial DB systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lex, M.; Heselmann, B. [GiS mbH, Erlangen (Germany); Eschbach, P. [BASF Consult GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Due to the liberalization of the electricity market, the efficiency and competitiveness of a power plant is increasingly measured at the cost per amount of energy generated. Thus, aspects of market-orientation and clearly cheaper electricity generation are in the foreground. Technically-oriented DP systems are necessary to save operating cost. These systems have structures differing from the mere business-oriented systems, because of the different frame conditions and operators' desire to stand out against rivalling competitors by technical and organizational measures. (orig.) [German] Die Effektivitaet und damit Konkurrenzfaehigkeit eines Kraftwerkes wird mit der Liberalisierung des Strommarktes verstaerkt an den Kosten je erzeugter Energieeinheit gemessen. Fuer den Betrieb ruecken damit Aspekte einer marktgerechten und somit deutlich kostenguenstigeren Stromerzeugung verstaerkt in den Vordergrund. Wer Betriebskosten sparen will, braucht technisch orientierte DV-Systeme, die aufgrund der unterschiedlichen Rahmenbedingungen und des Wunsches aller Anlagenbetreiber, sich durch technisch-organisatorische Massnahmen vom Wettbewerb vorteilhaft abzuheben, voellig andere Strukturen aufweisen als die betriebswirtschaftlich orientierten Systeme. (orig.)

  1. Operation management systems in the energy economy in `97; Betriebsmanagement-Systeme in der Energiewirtschaft `97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    VDI Report 1310 contains the lectures held at the congress on ``Operation management systems in the energy economy `97`` in Wuerzburg on 12 and 13 March 1997. Operation management systems, beside fulfilling several other functions, work with the input they receive from plant management systems. They analyse and condense characteristic values, facilitate optimal utilisation of all resources, and supply in-depth information for the preparation of the management`s strategic decisions. This information concerns the analysis of plant characteristics, monitoring of the service life of heavily loaded plant components, preparation of balances, planning of maintenance and repair measures, purchase, and materials management. The purpose of the congress was to point out developments and present and discuss practical examples from the following areas: power plant, energy network, energy supply for municipalities and industry. [Deutsch] Der VDI-Bericht 1310 enthaelt die Vortraege der gleichnamigen Tagung, die am 12. und 13. Maerz 1997 in Wuerzburg stattfand. Betriebsfuehrungssysteme basieren auf dem Input von Anlagenfuehrungssystemen und uebernehmen weitergehende Aufgaben. Sie analysieren und verdichten Kennwerte, ermoeglichen den optimalen Einsatz aller Betriebsmittel und stellen vertiefte Informationen zur Vorbereitung strategischer Entscheidungen fuer das Management zur Verfuegung. Dabei handelt es sich um die Analyse von Anlagenkennwerten, die Lebensdauerueberwachung hochbelasteter Anlagenteile, das Erstellen von Bilanzen, die Planung von Wartungs- und Instandhaltungsmassnahmen bis hin zum Einkauf und der Materialwirtschaft. Aufgabe der Tagung war es, Entwicklungen aufzuzeigen und praktische Beispiele aus den Sektoren Kraftwerk, Energienetze, kommunale Versorgung und Industrie darzustellen und zu diskutieren. (orig./RHM)

  2. Radioactive waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany: Industrial practices and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabener, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the production and use of nuclear-generated electricity expanded steadily despite the fact that opposition from the environmentalists led to the impression of an upcoming moratorium for nuclear energy. With this increase in capacity--by the year 1990, nearly 25 000 MW will be on the line--there will be an increase in the volume of low-level (non-heat-generating) radwaste originating from nuclear power plants. Radwaste management has been influenced to a considerable extent by the requirements of the final repository. Following a period of trial storage in the Asse repository, preparations are now being made for storage in the Konrad ore mine. It is intended to begin storage in 1991. Requirements for the packages specify containers with a volume from 3.9 to 10.9 m/sup 3/ or cast iron safety drums. These drums are suitable for radioactive materials in powder form (resins, dried concentrates) without the need for embedding materials. Storage in standard 55-gal drums is no longer permitted. The costs for final storage will be very high so that volume reduction is of prime importance. Kraftwerk Union (KWU) as a supplier of nuclear power plants (NPPs) examined the radwaste market and decided to combine delivery of radwaste treatment systems to NPPs with service jobs including radwaste handling and conditioning in its own service and maintenance plant at Karlstein

  3. CBAS - efficient coal management for optimised operation and minimised cost; CBAS - Betriebsoptimierung und Kostenminimierung durch effizientes Kohlenmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechtl, P.; Petek, J.; Shea, S.

    2000-07-01

    The 'Coal Bland Automation System' CBAS developed by Praxis Engineers, Inc. is a software application which simulates the path of coal from the dispatching station to the burners. The combustion characteristics of coal mixtures are predicted, and the fuel quality can be controlled hours before the coal arrives at the burners. Detailed modelling of the flow patterns in the mixing bunkers and grinding bunkers, time variations of the coal mixture properties at the bunker outlet can be predicted, and the coal mixture can be varied accordingly to account for load peaks. [German] Das von Praxis Engineers, Inc. entwickelte 'Coal Bland Automation System' CBAS ist eine online Softwareapplikation, die den Weg aller in einem Kraftwerk eingesetzten Kohlensorten vom Verladeplatz bis hin zu den Brennern mathematisch simuliert. Die Eigenschaften beliebiger Mischungen zwischen den Kohlen werden vorausgesagt und die Qualitaet des Brennstoffs an den Brennern kann geregelt werden, auch Stunden bevor die Kohlenmischung tatsaechlich an den Brennern ankommt. Aufgrund der detaillierten Modellierung des Fliessverhaltens in den Mischbunkern und den Bunkern der Kohlemuehlen ist es moeglich, die zeitliche Veraenderung der Eigenschaften der Kohlenmischung am Austritt aus den Bunkern vorherzusagen. Dadurch kann das Mischungsverhaeltnis der Kohlen rascher an die Lastanforderungen angepasst werden, was z.B. zum 'Einfangen' von lukrativen Lastspitzen genutzt werden kann. (orig.)

  4. Steam generator replacement at the Obrigheim nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickel, E.; Schenk, H.; Huemmler, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Obrigheim Nuclear Power Station (KWO) is equipped with a dual-loop pressurized water reactor of 345 MW electric power; it was built by Siemens in the period 1965 to 1968. By the end of 1983, KWO had produced some 35 billion kWh in 109,000 hours of operation. Repeated leaks in the heater tubes of the two steam generators had occurred since 1971. Both steam generators were replaced in the course of the 1983 annual revision. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) was commissioned to plant and carry out the replacement work. Despite the leakages the steam generators had been run safely and reliably over a period of 14 years until their replacement. Replacing the steam generators was completed within twelve weeks. In addition to the KWO staff and the supervising crew of KWU, some 400 external fitters were employed on the job at peak work-load periods. For the revision of the whole plant, work on the emergency systems and replacement of the steam generators a maximum number of approx. 900 external fitters were employed in the plant in addition to some 250 members of the plant crew. The exposure dose of the personnel sustained in the course of the steam generator replacement was 690 man-rem, which was clearly below previous estimates. (orig.) [de

  5. Testing of corrosion resistant materials for evaporation plants for waste water from wet scrubbing of flue gas from power plants; Erprobung korrosionsbestaendiger Werkstoffe fuer Eindampfanlagen fuer Abwasser aus der Rauchgasreinigung von Grossfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, G. [Institut fuer Korrosionsschutz GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Stenner, F.; Brill, U. [Krupp-VDM GmbH, Werdohl (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    High alloyed superaustenitic steels and NiCrMo alloys are recommended in consequence of the results of extensive laboratory corrosion experiments under the strong corrosive conditions with up to 360 g chloride content at temperatures up to 85 C. Because results of laboratory corrosion tests are only of limited relevance to the behaviour in practice, field tests were carried out with immersion of welded materials and of heat exchanger tubes under operating conditions of an evaporation plant for waste water from flue gas desulphurization of a coal-fired power plant. Different kinds of high alloy superaustenitic steels and NiCrMo alloys were studied as TIG-welded specimens in immersion tests. (orig.) [German] Hochlegierte Sonderedelstaehle und NiCrMo-Legierungen empfehlen sich aufgrund der Ergebnisse umfassender Laboruntersuchungen unter den stark korrosiven Bedingungen fuer Eindampfanlagen fuer Abwasser aus der Nassreinigung von Rauchgasen von Grossfeuerungsanlagen mit bis zu 360 g/l Chloridgehalt und Temperaturen bis zu 85 C. Weil aber Ergebnisse von Laborpruefungen nur begrenzte Aussagefaehigkeit fuer das Verhalten unter Praxisbedingungen haben, wurden Feldversuche mit der Auslagerung geschweisster Werkstoffe und von Waermetauscherrohren unter Betriebsbedingungen einer Eindampfanlage fuer Abwasser aus der Rauchgasentschwefelung eines kohlebefeuerten Kraftwerks durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  6. Behavior of shut-down dose rate of recirculation piping of BWR under noble metal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Motomasa; Nagase, Makoto; Aizawa, Motohiro; Wada, Yoichi; Ishida, Kazushige; Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Hettiarachchi, Samson; Weber, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The cause of shut-down dose rate change of the recirculation piping observed in KKM (Kern Kraftwerk Mühleberg) after application of noble metal injection method is analyzed. The plant experienced the sharp decrease of piping dose rate in the cycle just after the application of noble metal(classic NobleChem TM ) and re-buildup of radioactivity in the subsequent several cycles. After the application of online noble metal injection (online NobleChem TM ), gradual decrease of dose rate has been observed. The presence of a certain amount of noble metal on the iron rich oxide film promotes the dissolution of the oxide under hydrogen addition, resulting in a decrease of deposited noble metal on the oxide film surface as well as of radioactive species in the film. Under the condition of lower amount of noble metal on the surface oxides, the oxidant species, especially hydrogen peroxide, slightly increases facilitating the re-growth of iron rich oxides along with re-buildup of radioactivity. After the application of online noble metal injection during each cycle, gradual dissolution of iron rich oxides and gradual decrease of radioactivity in the oxides proceed to decrease the piping dose rate. In the radioactivity decreasing phase, the presence of zinc is considered to assist the suppression of radioactivity buildup in the oxide film. From the analysis, treating piping surface with platinum after chemical decontamination process is expected to work well for suppression of the piping dose rate. (author)

  7. The Iran-1 and Iran-2 nuclear power station on the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altvater, W.

    1977-01-01

    Iran is a country with large oil reserves which, however, are exploited only very carefully because of ther importance for exports. In the light of this policy it was decided to make increasing use of nuclear energy for the country's electricity supply. Under the 8th Iranian five year plan, a total installed generating capacity of 56,000 MW is foreseen by 1993, of which 24,400 MW will be in nuclear power plants. This large construction program of nuclear power stations is implemented by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, which started negotiations with potent nuclear industries of various industrialized countries in early 1974. In November 1974, these discussions led to a letter of intent with the German Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) for the turnkey erection of the first Iranian nuclear power plant, Iran-1 and Iran-2, with two units of 1,300 MW on a site on the Persian Gulf. The siting decision was taken in favor of the Halileh area located some 18 km from the seaport of Bushehr. Construction work on the site began in July 1975. The delivery dates are December 1, 1980 for Iran-1 and November 1, 1981 for Iran-2. (orig.) [de

  8. Design issues concerning Iran's Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iran achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was ∼80% complete and unit 2 was ∼50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction

  9. Firewall systems for protection of data communication in power stations; Firewall-Systeme zum Schutz der Datenkommunikation in Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfeld, P. [Siemens AG KWU (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Networking of power plant computer systems is becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, instrumentation and control systems are being connected with general power plant networks to make process information available to administrative personnel. This increases the risk of accidental or intentional access from outside the system (e.g. by hackers). Firewall systems are used to prevent such outside access. A firewall is the sole gateway between two networks which are to be kept separate, and is used to filter and control access to the protected network. Cryptography and personal chip cards are also used to provide additional protection. (orig.) [Deutsch] Rechnersysteme im Kraftwerk werden heute mehr und mehr vernetzt. Auch werden Rechnersysteme zum Messen, Steuern und Regeln (sogenannte Instrumentation and Control Systems) mit allgemeinen Kraftwerksnetzen verbunden, um Prozessinformationen auch in der Verwaltung zugaenglich zu machen. Damit waechst die Gefahr von zufaelligen oder beabsichtigten Eingriffen von aussen (z.B. Hacker). Zum Schutz vor solchen Eingriffen von aussen werden sogenannte Firewall-Systeme eingesetzt. Ein Firewall ist der alleinige Uebergang zwischen zwei zu trennenden Netzen und dient zur Filterung und Kontrolle der Zugriffe auf ein zu schuetzendes Netz. Ergaenzende Schutzmassnahmen sind der Einsatz kryptographischer Verfahren, sowie persoenlicher Chipkarten. (orig.)

  10. D1+ Simulator: A cost and risk optimized approach to nuclear power plant simulator modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wischert, W.

    2006-01-01

    D1-Simulator is operated by Kraftwerks-Simulator-Gesellschaft (KSG) and Gesellschaft f?r Simulatorschulung (GfS) at the Simulator Centre in Essen since 1977. The full-scope control room training simulator, used for Kernkraftwerk Biblis (KWB) is based on a PDP-11 hardware platform and is mainly programmed in ASSEMBLER language. The Simulator has reached a continuous high availability of operation throughout the years due to specialized hardware and software support from KSG maintenance team. Nevertheless, D1-Simulator largely reveals limitations with respect to computer capacity and spares and suffers progressively from the non-availability of hardware replacement materials. In order to ensure long term maintainability within the framework of the consensus on nuclear energy, a 2-years refurbishing program has been launched by KWB focusing on quality and budgetary aspects. The so-called D1+ Simulator project is based on the re-use of validated data from existing simulators. Allowing for flexible project management methods, the project outlines a cost and risk optimized approach to Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Simulator modernization. D1+ Simulator is being built by KSG/GfS in close collaboration with KWB and the simulator vendor THALES by re-using a modern hardware and software development environment from D56-Simulator, used by Kernkraftwerk Obrigheim (KWO) before its decommissioning in 2005. The Simulator project, launched in 2004, is expected to be completed by end of 2006. (author)

  11. Nuclear fuel in water reactors: Manufacturing technology, operational experience and development objectives in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, R.; Knoedler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel industry in the Federal Republic of Germany comprises the full range of manufacturing capabilities for pressurized-, boiling- and heavy-water reactor technology. The existing manufacturing companies are Reaktor-Brennelement Union (RBU) and Alkem. RBU makes natural and enriched UO 2 -fuel assemblies, starting with powder preparation. Facilities to produce UO 2 -gadolinia and UO 2 -ThO 2 fuel are also available. Alkem manufactures mixed-oxide UO 2 /PuO 2 fuel and fuel rods. Zircaloy cladding tubes are produced by Nuklearrohr-Gesellschaft (NRG) and Mannesmannroehren-Werke (MRW). Construction of a new fuel manufacturing plant has been announced by Exxon. Supplementary to quality control, an integrated quality assurance system has been established between the reactor vendor's fuel design and engineering division and the existing manufacturing companies for fuel and tubing. Operating experience with LWR and HWR fuel dates back to 1964/65 and has shown good performance. Possible reasons for a small fraction of defective rods could be identified quickly by a fast feedback system incorporating close co-operation between Kraftwerk Union (KWU) and the utilities. KWU combines fuel development, hot-cell and pool-side service facilities as well as fuel technology linked to manufacturing. The responsibility of KWU for core and fuel design, which enabled an integral optimization, was also an important reason for the successful operation and design flexibility. (author)

  12. START-3 calculations of SUPER-RAMP (FUMEX-III) cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulkin, D.; Kuznetsov, V.; Krupkin, A.; Bogatyr, S.; Novikov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Studsvik SUPER-RAMP Project, an internationally sponsored research project, investigated the failure propensity of typical LWR fuel in the form of test rods when subjected to power ramps, after base irradiation. The Project power ramped 28 individual PWR rods and 16 BWR rods. The PWR rods were all tested using high ramp rates. Due to different objectives for the BWR subprogram, one set of the BWR rods was tested using a high ramp rate, and another set were tested with a very slow ramp rate. The rods were base irradiated in a power reactor environment KK Obrigheim or BR-3 at time averaged heat ratings mainly in the range 14-26 kW/m to peak bum-ups in the range 33-45 MWd/kgU and were subsequently ramp tested in the research reactor R2 at Studsvik, Sweden. In this presentation some calculations are made on the PK2 group fuel rods. The rods were standard rods manufactured by Kraftwerk Union AG/Combustion Engineering (KWU/CE). Calculations have shown reasonable coincidence of calculated and experimental FGR and reasonable prediction of dimensional behavior of fuel rod. Following the lead taken in the original FUMEX CRP, a number of simplified cases were constructed in order to investigate mathematical stability and more easily compare model and code predictions without the vagaries of real power histories. In this presentation, each case is outlined together with the reason for its inclusion before presenting the results and comparing the predictions

  13. Risks and opportunities of the liberalized electricity market. Partial project: BoFiT, an integrated decision support system for retaining the competitiveness of the cogeneration technology. Final report; Risiken und Chancen des liberalisierten Strommarktes. Teilprojekt: Integrierte Entscheidungsunterstuetzung durch BoFiT zur Erhaltung der Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, G.; Scheidt, M.

    2002-06-04

    The energy management system called BoFiT and specific new applications are explained which have been developed as one project task of the coordinated research project sponsored by the German ministry of economics,(BMWi), entitled ''Risks and opportunities of the liberalized electricity market''. The major objective of the project is: Finding efficient strategies to ensure the competitiveness of the cogeneration technology in the deregulated power and gas markets, in particular for the purpose of enhancing the penetration of the ecologically beneficial, cogenerated district heating supply in those markets. The focus of this report is on a specific application of the integrated BoFiT decision support system, for which the ''model for microsimulation of spot transactions at the Power Exchange based on a multi-agent system'' has been developed and is explained in great detail. (orig./CB) [German] Mit dem Energiemanagementsystem BoFiT soll den Unternehmen eine effektive und operativ nutzbare Entscheidungsunterstuetzung angeboten werden. Wesentliche Ziele des Verbundprojektes des BMWi sind: Unterstuetzung der KWK und speziell der darauf basierenden oekologisch sinnvollen Fernwaermeversorgung durch Anpassung von Arbeitsablaeufen und Werkzeugen zur Findung betriebswirtschaftlich optimaler Einsatz- und Betriebsstrategien; Kostenoptimierung der Kraftwerke, Vertraege und Stromhandelsaktivitaeten unter den Randbedingungen der deregulierten Strom- und Gasmaerkte. Als Beispiel einer solchen integrierten Entscheidungsunterstuetzung wird das ''Modell zur Mikrosimulation des Spothandels von Strom auf der Basis eines Multi-Agenten-Systems'' ausfuehrlich beschrieben. (orig./CB)

  14. Fifty years of Erlangen radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morell, W.

    2007-01-01

    On June 29, 2006, the Radiochemical Laboratory of AREVA NP GmbH (formerly Siemens AG) in Erlangen celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. The occasion was marked by an event attended by more than 1,000 guests, among them Werner Gebauhr, the 85-year-old founder and first head of the Laboratory; the Managing Directors of AREVA NP GmbH, Ralf Gueldner and Ruediger Steuerlein; representatives of universities, research institutions, power utilities, and public authorities. The present head of the Radiochemical Laboratory, Wilfred Morell, sketched the highlights of the work performed over the past fifty years, which ranged from solid-state and very-high-purity materials technologies to development and service activities for nuclear technology. Manfred Erve, head of the Technical Center of AREVA NP GmbH, of which the Radiochemical Laboratory is a part, emphasized the changes in priorities over the past fifty years, which had always been met successfully by Radiochemistry. In the scientific part of the event, Wolfgang Schwarz (E.ON Kernkraftwerk GmbH, KKW Isar), Ulf Ilg (EnBW Kraftwerk AG, KKW Philippsburg), and Hans-Josef Allelein (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH) explained 3 major subject areas in which Erlangen Radio-chemistry over many years has contributed basic findings (see other articles in this atw issue). On the occasion of the anniversary, a comprehensive booklet was published under the title of '50 Jahre Radiochemie Erlangen - 1956-2006'. (orig.)

  15. Implementation of strength pareto evolutionary algorithm II in the multiobjective burnable poison placement optimization of KWU pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharari, Rahman; Poursalehi, Navid; Abbasi, Mohmmadreza; Aghale, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    In this research, for the first time, a new optimization method, i.e., strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm II (SPEA-II), is developed for the burnable poison placement (BPP) optimization of a nuclear reactor core. In the BPP problem, an optimized placement map of fuel assemblies with burnable poison is searched for a given core loading pattern according to defined objectives. In this work, SPEA-II coupled with a nodal expansion code is used for solving the BPP problem of Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) pressurized water reactor. Our optimization goal for the BPP is to achieve a greater multiplication factor (K-e-f-f) for gaining possible longer operation cycles along with more flattening of fuel assembly relative power distribution, considering a safety constraint on the radial power peaking factor. For appraising the proposed methodology, the basic approach, i.e., SPEA, is also developed in order to compare obtained results. In general, results reveal the acceptance performance and high strength of SPEA, particularly its new version, i.e., SPEA-II, in achieving a semioptimized loading pattern for the BPP optimization of KWU pressurized water reactor

  16. OECD/NEA Aagesta decontamination project. Phase 1, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The objective of the project is to utilize the four primary loops of the Aagesta reactor to demonstrate decontamination methods for PWR primary systems. The first phase of the project consisted of laboratory scale tests. The methods tested were developed at a) Studsvik Energiteknik AB, Sweden (a soft chemistry). b) Kraftwerk Union AG, Federal Republic of Germany, (two chemistries, one soft and one hard). c) Swiss Federal Institute of Reactor Research (two chemistries, one soft and one hard). d) Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories, United Kingdom, (a soft chemistry). The test programme consisted of decontamination tests on steam generator tubing and other active material from Aagesta and a number of operating reactors as well as material compatibility tests on standardized samples of a representative selection of modern PWR primary system materials. Six countries have participated in Phase I of the project - the four countries named above as well as the United States of America and Italy. Studsvik Energiteknik AB was appointed Project leader. The results show that all six processes in general met the acceptance criteria both regarding decontamination and corrosion. The decontamination results with the hard chemistries were rather uneven. (Author)

  17. Firewall systems for protection of data communication in power stations; Firewall-Systeme zum Schutz der Datenkommunikation in Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfeld, P [Siemens AG KWU (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    Networking of power plant computer systems is becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, instrumentation and control systems are being connected with general power plant networks to make process information available to administrative personnel. This increases the risk of accidental or intentional access from outside the system (e.g. by hackers). Firewall systems are used to prevent such outside access. A firewall is the sole gateway between two networks which are to be kept separate, and is used to filter and control access to the protected network. Cryptography and personal chip cards are also used to provide additional protection. (orig.) [Deutsch] Rechnersysteme im Kraftwerk werden heute mehr und mehr vernetzt. Auch werden Rechnersysteme zum Messen, Steuern und Regeln (sogenannte Instrumentation and Control Systems) mit allgemeinen Kraftwerksnetzen verbunden, um Prozessinformationen auch in der Verwaltung zugaenglich zu machen. Damit waechst die Gefahr von zufaelligen oder beabsichtigten Eingriffen von aussen (z.B. Hacker). Zum Schutz vor solchen Eingriffen von aussen werden sogenannte Firewall-Systeme eingesetzt. Ein Firewall ist der alleinige Uebergang zwischen zwei zu trennenden Netzen und dient zur Filterung und Kontrolle der Zugriffe auf ein zu schuetzendes Netz. Ergaenzende Schutzmassnahmen sind der Einsatz kryptographischer Verfahren, sowie persoenlicher Chipkarten. (orig.)

  18. Lay up of a 750 t/h combined unit under the aspect of the liberalized power market; Konservierung eines 750-t/h-Kombi-Blockes unter dem Aspekt des liberalisierten Strommarktes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimschuessel, R.; Bellroth, A.; Borgwardt, P.; Krohn, K. [Kraftwerke Mainz-Wiesbaden AG, Mainz (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    We have been forced by the rough competition on the liberalised power market, especially in the last 15 months, to shut down our unit II, a 345 MW el. combined unit with gas turbine with following 750 t once-through boiler (Benson-type) and an efficiency of 44%, for a shorter or longer period of time. At the same time, availability must be ensured to cope with the price situation/development on the power market. Out of this difficult situation we developed a lay-up concept which allows shutdowns from one week up to six months and the restart within 75 hours. (orig.) [German] Durch die harten Wettbewerbsbedingungen des liberalisierten Strommarktes in Deutschland wurden wir gerade in den letzten beiden Jahren gezwungen, unser Kraftwerk II ueber kuerzere oder laengere Zeitraeume stillzulegen. Gleichzeitig sollte eine schnelle Verfuegbarkeit der Anlage gewaehrleistet sein, um der durch die Stromboerse gehandelten Preissituation gerecht werden zu koennen. Aus dieser schwierigen Situation heraus ist ein Konservierungskonzept entwickelt worden, das Stillstaende von einer Woche bis zu sechs Monaten und eine Wiederverfuegbarkeit innerhalb von 75 h erlaubt. (orig.)

  19. The turbine oil fire in the nuclear power plant, Muehleberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.R.

    1972-01-01

    At 21.15 hours on the evening of the 28th July 1971, a turbine oil fire broke out in the Nuclear Power Plant Muehleberg of the Bernische Kraftwerke AG, resulting in damage amounting to around 20 million Swiss Francs and a delay of some ten months in putting the plant into operation. The plant is equipped with a General Electric boiling water reactor and two BBC saturated steam turbines. Up to the time of the fire, both turbo-sets had already been run singly up to their full capacity of 160 MWe and the initial trials with both sets working parallel were shortly due to be carried out. Following the outbreak of fire, the causes of which are described in the contributions of the authors Hagn, L. and H. Huppmann and Christian, H. and H. Grupp, fire fighting action was immediately taken, in line with the emergency measures laid down in the operating regulations. With the assistance of the Berne City Fire Brigade, the blaze in the roof of the turbine hall was first extinguished and the spreading cable conflagration then fought, using foam and water. (orig.) [de

  20. Power plant retrofitting in the Ukraine. Step-by-step policy; Kraftwerksrehabilitierung in der Ukraine. Politik der kleinen Schritte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, S. [Kraftwerks- und Anlagenbau AG (KAB), Berlin (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Power consumption has been declining since 1990 by 50%, from 268 TWh to about 130 TWh, so that the Ukraine currently has an excess generation capacity of about 12 GW. But on the other hand, power supply bottlenecks have been very common across the country during the last few years, recurrently leading to blackouts of homes and business. The electricity generation industry does not have the financial means to pay for required maintenance, repair or retrofitting of their power plants. The article addresses current international financing schemes and planned support projects and reports details of a cooperation project under the project leadership of KAB, a German power plant manufacturing company, for retrofitting of a coal-fired power plant at a site in the western Ukraine. (orig./CB) [German] Die Halbierung des Verbrauchs seit 1990 von 268 TWh auf ca. 130 TWh hat zu Ueberkapazitaeten von derzeit rund 12 GW gefuehrt. Paradoxerweise gibt es gleichzeitig in den letzten Jahren immer wieder Versorgungsengpaesse, die zu Abschaltungen fuehren. Die permanent unter Geldmangel leidenden Stromerzeuger sind nicht mehr in der Lage, ihre Kraftwerke zu reparieren bzw. zu rehabilitieren. Angesichts der schwierigen Situation koennte, wie das Beispiel der deutsch-ukrainischen Zusammenarbeit unter Fuehrung der KAB im Projekt am Standort Burschtyn zeigt, eine Politik der kleinen Schritte einen moeglichen Weg aus der Krise weisen. Es wird auf laufende internationale Finanzierungsprogramme und weitere Projekte verwiesen. (orig./CB)

  1. Aspects of remote maintenance in an FRG reprocessing plant from the manufacturer's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitzchel, G.; Tennie, M.; Saal, G.

    1986-01-01

    In April 1986 a consortium led by Kraftwerk Union AG was commissioned by the German society for nuclear fuel reprocessing (DWK) to build the first West German commercial reprocessing plant for spent fuel assemblies. The main result of the planning efforts regarding remote maintenance operations inside the main process building was the introduction of FEMO technology (FEMO is an acronym based on German for remote handling modular technique). According to this technology the two cells in which the actual reprocessing (which is based on the PUREX technique) takes place are provided with frames to accommodate the process components (tanks, pumps, agitators, etc.), each frame together with the components which it supports forming one module. The two cells are inaccessible and windowless. For handling operations each cell is equipped with an overhead crane and a crane-like manipulator carrier system (MTS) with power manipulator. Viewing of the operations from outside the cells is made possible by television (TV) cameras installed at the crane, the MTS, and the manipulator. This paper addresses some examples of problems that still need to be solved in connection with FEMO handling. In particular, the need for close cooperation between the equipment operator, the component designer, the process engineer, the planning engineer, and the licensing authorities will be demonstrated

  2. Spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity. Annual report, FY 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bailey, W.J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Kustas, F.M.

    1980-05-01

    International meetings under the BEFAST program and under INFCE Working Group No. 6 during 1978 and 1979 continue to indicate that no cases of fuel cladding degradation have developed on pool-stored fuel from water reactors. A section from a spent fuel rack stand, exposed for 1.5 y in the Yankee Rowe (PWR) pool had 0.001- to 0.003-in.-deep (25- to 75-μm) intergranular corrosion in weld heat-affected zones but no evidence of stress corrosion cracking. A section of a 304 stainless steel spent fuel storage rack exposed 6.67 y in the Point Beach reactor (PWR) spent fuel pool showed no significant corrosion. A section of 304 stainless steel 8-in.-dia pipe from the Three Mile Island No. 1 (PWR) spent fuel pool heat exchanger plumbing developed a through-wall crack. The crack was intergranular, initiating from the inside surface in a weld heat-affected zone. The zone where the crack occurred was severely sensitized during field welding. The Kraftwerk Union (Erlangen, GFR) disassembled a stainless-steel fuel-handling machine that operated for 12 y in a PWR (boric acid) spent fuel pool. There was no evidence of deterioration, and the fuel-handling machine was reassembled for further use. A spent fuel pool at a Swedish PWR was decontaminated. The procedure is outlined in this report

  3. Nuclear power: Hour of fog producers; Atomkraft: Stunde der Nebelwerfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauner, M.; Schuh, H.

    2004-03-04

    Seven advanced nuclear power plants in Germany can withstand a frontal crash by a full-tanked Jumbo-Jet. But for five older plants even smaller planes can cause an hazard impossible to control. A fog generation around the power plants, favorized by operators and politicians, to camouflage this plants against terroristic flights is absurd because of the possibility of flight automation. However terrorists may attack reactors also from the ground, but how they can do is top secret. (GL) [German] Einem frontalen Aufprall eines voll getankten Jumbo-Jets mit hoher Geschwindigkeit koennen in Deutschland sieben moderne Kernkraftwerke standhalten. Bei fuenf aelteren Modellen kann dagegen selbst ein kleineres Flugzeug ein schwer beherrschbares Unglueck ausloesen. Obwohl Experten eine vorzeitige Schliessung solch alter Meiler fuer realistisch halten, ist die Verhandlungslage aufgrund ideologischer Einfluesse verfahren. Die von Betreibern und Politikern gern gepriesenen Nebelwerfer zur Tarnung der Kraftwerke sind wegen der Moeglichkeit des Instrumentenfluges sinnlos. Die beste Abwehr bieten vorgelagerte Schutzbauten aus Beton. Jedoch koennen Terroristen Reaktoren auch vom Boden aus gefaehrden, wie, ist natuerlich geheim.

  4. Implementation of strength pareto evolutionary algorithm II in the multiobjective burnable poison placement optimization of KWU pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharari, Rahman [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursalehi, Navid; Abbasi, Mohmmadreza; Aghale, Mahdi [Nuclear Engineering Dept, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this research, for the first time, a new optimization method, i.e., strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm II (SPEA-II), is developed for the burnable poison placement (BPP) optimization of a nuclear reactor core. In the BPP problem, an optimized placement map of fuel assemblies with burnable poison is searched for a given core loading pattern according to defined objectives. In this work, SPEA-II coupled with a nodal expansion code is used for solving the BPP problem of Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) pressurized water reactor. Our optimization goal for the BPP is to achieve a greater multiplication factor (K-e-f-f) for gaining possible longer operation cycles along with more flattening of fuel assembly relative power distribution, considering a safety constraint on the radial power peaking factor. For appraising the proposed methodology, the basic approach, i.e., SPEA, is also developed in order to compare obtained results. In general, results reveal the acceptance performance and high strength of SPEA, particularly its new version, i.e., SPEA-II, in achieving a semioptimized loading pattern for the BPP optimization of KWU pressurized water reactor.

  5. 33. MPA seminar 2007. Proceedings; 33. MPA Seminar 2007. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In a single PDF file, the CD-ROM contains all papers presented at the 33. MPA Seminar in Stuttgart. Subjects: Life management of nuclear facilities: Materials, integrity analysis, fracture mechanics; Behaviour of welds; Material development and qualification for power plants with enhanced steam parameters; monitoring concepts (e.g. state monitoring of components, test concepts); Design of pipelines with flanged joints; Assembly and joining technology for flanged joints; Non-destructive testing in plant engineering; Materials for new nuclear reactors. Many of the papers are available as separate items in this database. [German] In einer einzigen PDF-Datei sind auf der CD-ROM alle Vortraege enthalten, die auf dem 33. MPA-Seminar in Stuttgart gehalten wurden. Die Themenschwerpunkte sind: Lebensdauermanagement kerntechnischer Anlagen - Werkstoffverhalten, Integritaetsanalyse, Bruchmechanik; Verhalten von Schweissverbindungen; Werkstoffentwicklung und -qualifizierung fuer Kraftwerke mit erhoehten Dampfparametern; Ueberwachungskonzepte (z.B. Zustandsueberwachung von Komponenten, Pruefkonzepte); Auslegung von Rohrleitungen mit Flanschverbindungen; Montage- und Dichtungstechnik fuer Flanschverbindungen; Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung in der Anlagentechnik; Werkstoffe fuer neue Kernreaktoren. Ein grosser Teil der Vortraege wurde separat aufgenommen.

  6. Loose parts, vibration and leakage monitoring methods and systems to increase availability, transparency and lifetime of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streicher, V.; Jax, P.; Ruthrof, K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with three stand-alone-systems as an aid to check the mechanical integrity of the primary circuit of nuclear power plants. The main goals of these systems are early detection of faults and malfunctions, the facilitation of fault clearance, the avoidance of sequential damage and reduction of inspection time and cost. Obviously the proper application of the systems as well as the measures they induce and make possible increase the availability of the plant and contribute to lifetime extension. In order to detect, identify and pinpoint the changes in component structure such as loosened connections, broken parts or components, loose or loosened particles, fatigued materials, cracks and leaks, specialized monitoring systems were developed by KWU (Kraftwerk Union AG) during the last ten years. Requirements concerning vibration, loose parts and leakage monitoring are part of German guidelines and safety standards. Therefore systems for these applications are implemented in most of the nuclear power plants in Western Germany. This paper presents newly developed, microprocessor-based systems for loose parts monitoring, vibration monitoring and leakage monitoring and also includes specific case histories for the different topics

  7. Possibilities under the `Kreislaufwirtschaft- und Abfallgesetz` for the recycling or for energy generation from waste with a high calorific value having undergone mechanical-biological conditioning; Moeglichkeiten der energetischen und stofflichen Verwertung von heizwertreichen Reststoffen aus der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung im Rahmen des Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, J.; Fricke, K. [Ingenieurgemeinschaft Witzenhausen Fricke und Turk GmbH, Witzenhausen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    This (partial) project has the following aims: to describe comprehensively the possibilities for the recycling, or generation of energy from, waste with a high calorific value having undergone mechanical-biological conditioning; further, to formulate demands regarding the quality of the separated partial fractions. This basic study takes all relevant, commercial thermal processes into account (power plants, cement works, blast furnaces, etc.). Furthermore, the question is investigated of whether the thermal waste processing plants in the area of the Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfall (SAGA) are suitable for waste utilization. An environmental compatibility statement is made, and the economic and legal boundary conditions are studied. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel des (Teil-)Forschungsvorhabens soll es sein, die Moeglichkeiten der energetischen und stofflichen Verwertung heizwertreicher Abfaelle aus der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung umfassend darzustellen und die Anforderungen an die Qualitaet der abgretrennten Teilfraktionen zu formulieren. Bei der Grundlagenermittlung sollen alle relevanten auf dem Markt angebotenen thermischen Verfahren (Kraftwerke, Zementwerke, Hochoefen usw.) mit einbezogen werden. Weiterhin sollen die im SAGA-Gebiet (Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfall) vorhandenen thermsichen Anlagen auf ihre Eignung zur energetischen bzw. stofflichen Verwertung hin ueberprueft werden. Neben der Bewertung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit werden die oekonomischen und rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen untersucht. (orig.)

  8. Worldwide CO{sub 2} emissions 2014. Shimmer of hope to turnaround reinforce - but no all-clear signal; Weltweite CO{sub 2}-Emissionen 2014. Hoffnungsschimmer auf Trendwende verstaerken sich - aber noch keine Entwarnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziesing, Hans-Joachim

    2015-09-15

    nahezu ausnahmslos alle Mitgliedstaaten eine Emissionsminderung verzeichnen konnten. Von den grossen Laendern trifft dies auch auf die Ukraine, Japan, Russland und Australien zu. Demgegenueber kam es in den USA zu einem Zuwachs, wenngleich dieser mit einem Plus von knapp 1 % sehr moderat ausfiel. Wenn die weltweiten CO{sub 2}-Emissionen trotz der ruecklaeufigen Entwicklung in der Gruppe der Annex I-Laender abermals zugenommen haben, so ist dies primaer eine Folge des Anstiegs in den Schwellen- und Entwicklungslaendern. Hier waren die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen im Jahr 2014 um rd. 415 Mio. t oder um 2,4 % hoeher als 2013. Die seit 2008 von China eingenommene Spitzenposition vor den USA wurde 2014 jedoch nicht weiter ausgebaut, weil hier die Zunahme erstmalig seit vielen Jahren unter 1 % lag. Dagegen legten die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen in Indien um rd. 8 % und in Brasilien wie im Mittleren Osten jeweils um etwa 4 % deutlich zu.

  9. Global CO{sub 2} emissions 2017. Still no breakthrough can be seen, but the signs of a trend reversal are increasing; Weltweite CO{sub 2}-Emissionen 2017. Noch kein Durchbruch erkennbar, doch mehren sich die Zeichen einer Trendumkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziesing, Hans-Joachim

    2017-09-15

    In 2016 global CO{sub 2} emissions according to provisional calculations rose only slightly compared to 2015 with 0.4%. As a result, the average long-term growth of 1.7% (from 1990 to 2015) was once again clearly slowed down as in the previous year. As a result, CO{sub 2} emissions in 2016 reached a new peak of 33.3 billion tonnes. Although this still does not signal a trend reversal, but CO{sub 2} emissions have declined in many countries, particularly in some industrialized countries. For example. CO{sub 2} emissions in the Annex I countries were reduced by a total of 0.7% or around 94 million tonnes. This is mainly attributed to developments in the USA (-1.7% or 90.0 million tonnes), Russia (-2.0% or 32.6 million tonnes), Great Britain (-5.5% or 23.0 million tonnes) and Japan (-1.5% or 18.0 million tonnes). Encouraging is also the fact that CO{sub 2} emissions in China, the country with by far the highest emissions, have declined in 2016 as in the previous year - albeit with 0.2% quite weakly. It is less positive that CO{sub 2} emissions in the EU-28 have increased again, with the exception of Great Britain, Portugal, Spain and Bulgaria, contrary to EU-wide targets. [German] Im Jahr 2016 sind die weltweiten CO{sub 2}-Emissionen nach vorlaeufigen Berechnungen gegenueber 2015 mit 0,4 % nur schwach gestiegen. Damit wurde der langfristige Zuwachs von jahresdurchschnittlich 1,7 % (von 1990 bis 2015) wie schon im Vorjahr erneut deutlich gebremst. Im Ergebnis erreichten die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen 2016 mit reichlich 33,3 Mrd. t einen neuen Spitzenwert. Das signalisiert zwar noch keine Trendwende, doch sind die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen in zahlreichen Laendern, insbesondere in etlichen Industrielaendern, gesunken. Bspw. wurden die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen in den Annex-I-Laendern gesamthaft um 0,7 % oder rund 94 Mio. t reduziert. Dies ist vor allem auf die Entwicklung in den USA (-1,7 % oder 90,0 Mio. t), Russland (-2,0 % oder 32,6 Mio. t), Grossbritannien (-5,5 % oder 23,0 Mio. t

  10. The AREVA integrated and sustainable concept of fatigue design, monitoring and re-assessment; AREVA FATIGUE CONCEPT - ein geschlossenes Konzept zur Verfolgung und Optimierung der auf Ermuedung basierenden Schaedigungseffekte von thermisch und mechanisch beanspruchten Kraftwerksbauteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begholz, Steffen; Rudolph, Juergen [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Prevention of fatigue damage of components is an important topic with respect to safety and availability of a nuclear power plant. The issue of fatigue monitoring should be of primary interest throughout service life. Based on the changing general framework, i.e. planning of new plants with a projected lifetime of 60 years and the lifetime extension of existing plants AREVA is focussing R and D activities on improved detection methods. Primary objective is the realistic determination of the actual usage level of reactor components. The fatigue monitoring is supposed to enhance cost optimization and minimize inspection frequency. Fatigue monitoring should be implemented at the beginning of start-up period since the high loads during this phase introduce a significant contribution to the usage level. AREVA recommends the use of the FAMOS (fatigue monitoring system) for the assessment of the realistic transient loads and the data processing with respect to fatigue evaluation. Every 10 years the actual usage levels should be evaluated in detail according to the standards, based on measured load data. The fatigue evaluation is usually performed using finite element analyses taking into account the transient temperature loads at the component, dependent on the component demands based on elastic or elasto-plastic material behaviour. Potential problematic areas can be identified reliably. Direct measurement of fatigue damage, refined analysis concepts (short crack fracture mechanics, and ratcheting simulation) are supposed to support the concept. [German] Die Vermeidung von Ermuedungsschaeden an Komponenten der nuklearen Kraftwerkstechnik ist ein wichtiges Thema in Hinblick auf die Aufrechterhaltung der Anlagensicherheit sowie auf die Erhoehung der Verfuegbarkeit. Das Thema Ermuedungsueberwachung sollte somit waehrend der gesamten Laufzeit eines Kraftwerkes mit hoher Aufmerksamkeit verfolgt werden. Vor diesem Hintergrund und den sich aendernden Rahmenbedingungen, wie z

  11. The use of ozone as microbiocide in cooling water treatment - experiences with an ''All-Organic'' program; Ozon als Mikrobizid bei der Kuehlwasserbehandlung - Praxiserfahrungen mit einem ''All-Organic'' Programm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noks, E.; Olkis, A. [Deutsche Nalco Chemie GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kleinstueck, R. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany); Johnson, D.A. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Since 1995, at the plant EZH Rotterdam, the practice of using ozone as microbiocide in the cooling circuit that uses a poor quality makeup water has proven to be successful. The strict limits for aqueous and emission protection from the plant can be maintained. Careful monitoring of the system is a key to the success of the cooling water treatment. The determining factor in judging the microbiological activity and effectiveness of the ozone addition was the regular determination of ATP values and total bacterial count in the system. Limiting ozone concentrations to the amount needed by the system helps to keep the degradation rate of the organic inhibitors under control and, by minimizing the treatment level, the treatment functions in an environmentally friendly and effective manner. Recovery rates of approximately 80% were measured for the phosphonate PBTC, the stabilizers and dispersants. The corrosion rates for steel and copper are low considering the makeup water quality. The combination of inhibitors controlled the tendency for deposits to form. Previous research in the laboratory and industry have shown that the basic components of the cooling water formulations, phosphonates, react very differently when placed in contact with ozone. In order of decreasing ozone stability they are: PBTC>HEDP>ATMP. A six-month trial was performed in a cooling circuit at Bayer AG in Dormagen using a PBTC-containing, stabilized phosphate treatment program. In spite of the high half-life of the cooling water in the system, it was found that the PBTC was stable with a recovery rate of 50-80%. (orig.) [German] Der seit 1995 praktizerte Einsatz von Ozon als Mikrobizid im Kuehlkreislauf des Kraftwerks EZH Rotterdam mit relativ stark vorbelastetem Zusatzwasser ist eine erfolgreiche Problemloesung. Die strengen Auflagen zum Gewaesser- und Immissionsschutz koennen vom Kraftwerk eingehalten werden. Sorgfaeltige Ueberwachung des Systems ist ein Kernstueck des Erfolgs der

  12. A universal concept for IV-supported operation management; Ein universelles Konzept fuer die IV-gestuetzte Betriebsfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, A.

    1997-12-31

    The continuing rise in cost pressure calls for measures for enhancing the efficiency of operation management and maintenance. At the same time it is necessary to maintain the requisite reliability of production and keep abreast of the ever more stringent requirements of working safety and environment protection. This paper presents an integral operation management system for production plants which does justice to both the productive and the and the conserving function of operation management. The development and introduction of this system to conventional power plants has meanwhile begun. The system consistently gives consideration to the fact that operation management depends on processing data and information of different properties. Whereas process data can show strong fluctuations, there are many kinds of information on the plant concerning, for example, plant installations, processes, damage, and maintenance which hardly fluctuate at all or only change over long time periods. These latter include plant and installation addresses, technical data on the system or on maintenance. In operation management systems designed for production plants it can therefore be useful to organise the handling of process data (dynamic data) and plant data (static data) separately. [Deutsch] Der immer staerkere Kostendruck erfordert Massnahmen zur Effizienzsteigerung der Betriebsfuehrung und der Instandhaltung bei Erhaltung der erforderlichen Zuverlaessigkeit der Produktion, steigenden Anforderungen an Arbeitssicherheit und Umweltschutz. Ein Gesamtbetriebsfuehrungssystem, das sowohl die Produktionsfunktion, als auch die Erhaltungsfunktion abdeckt, wurde fuer Produktionsanlagen konzipiert. Fuer konventionelle Kraftwerke wurde die Entwicklung und Einfuehrung begonnen. Dieses System beruecksichtigt konsequent, dass bei der Betriebsfuehrung Daten und Informationen mit unterschiedlichen Eigenschaften zu verarbeiten sind. Waehrend die Prozessdaten hoch fluktuierende Daten sein koennen

  13. Training to NDT construction experts (ZFPBau). Developments in recent years; Ausbildung zum ZfPBau-Experten. Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, Alexander [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Berlin (Germany); Feistkorn, Sascha [SVTI Schweizerischer Verein fuer technische Inspektionen, Wallisellen (Switzerland). Nuklearinspektorat; Dauberschmidt, Christoph [Hochschule Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Classical destructive test methods are fixed part of industrial sectors for decades such as aerospace, automotive, railway and power plants. A high degree of standardization of procedures, and training in form of an ISO standard are present, but not in non-destructive testing of civil engineering (ZfPBau). Except for the rebound hammer NDT methods in civil engineering are not standardized. Also of personnel qualifications can be found in regulations very few requirements, although it is obvious that this is an indispensable prerequisite for the proper application of the procedures and reliable inspection results. In this contribution experiences with a presented training concept in which the construction inspector will trained to DIN 1076 in a two-day course. Here are the necessary conditions worked out, such as the creation of suitable test bodies or the definition of necessary course content for establishing training courses. [German] Klassische zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren sind seit Jahrzehnten fester Bestandteil industrieller Bereiche wie Luftfahrt, Automotive, Eisenbahn und Kraftwerke. Ein hoher Normungsgrad der Verfahren und Ausbildungsstandards in Form einer ISO-Norm liegen vor. Bei der zerstoerungsfreien Pruefung im Bauwesen (ZfPBau) ist das anders. Bis auf den Rueckprallhammer sind ZfPBau-Verfahren nicht genormt. Auch zur Personalqualifikation finden sich in Regelwerken nur sehr wenige Anforderungen, obwohl es offensichtlich ist, dass dies eine unverzichtbare Voraussetzung fuer die richtige Anwendung der Verfahren und zuverlaessige Pruefaussagen ist. In diesem Beitrag werden Erfahrungen mit einem Ausbildungskonzept vorgestellt, bei dem Bauwerkspruefer nach DIN 1076 in einem zweitaegigen Lehrgang ausgebildet werden. Dabei werden die notwendigen Voraussetzungen heraus gearbeitet, wie z.B. die Erstellung von geeigneten Testkoerpern oder die Festlegung notwendiger Kursinhalte, die zum Etablieren von Ausbildungskursen erforderlich sind.

  14. Structure dynamics with regard to non-linear support behavior; Dynamische Strukturberechnung unter Beruecksichtigung nichtlinearen Lagerverhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, W. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Nord e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    hier anhand eines Vergleiches mit einer der im Rahmen der In-Betrieb-Setzung des Kraftwerks gemessenen Verschiebungen aufgezeigt. (orig.)

  15. Transparency and efficiency through plant operations management systems; Transparenz und Effizienz durch Betriebsfuehrungssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladage, L. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany). Informationsmanagement

    2001-04-01

    . Diese werden mit ca. 4 Minuten bzw. 10 DM pro Arbeitsschritt angegeben, entsprechend einigen Dutzend Mannjahren bzw. mehreren Mio. DM pro Jahr bei der betrachteten Anlage KKE, wobei das Ergebnis auf andere Kraftwerke uebertragbar ist. (orig.)

  16. Construction and cost experience regarding the 2nd pool house for spent fuel storage facility in the Atucha Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Atucha I second pool house storage for spent fuel is designed as an extension of the Atucha I power station. The two are linked by civil structure, controlling circuits, electrical and compressed air and water supplies, low level wastes disposal, ventilation under pressure maintenance, and, most important, the ability to transfer spent and new fuel in both directions. Because the second pool house is, by location and design, an extension of the existing installation, and since there is no design departure, regarding storage and transfer of fuel from that of the original installation, the rules and regulations applied for its construction were the same as those valid for the Atucha I construction. The requirement not to exceed a four-year period for construction and commissioning was determined by the need to have storage room for the Atucha I fuel. Argentina will meet the 1982 target by having the installation available during the second half of 1981. The second pool house is a wet storage location with a capacity of 1000 tons metallic uranium. It was designed by the Kraftwerk Union of West Germany along the same lines as the 440-ton storage location originally built with the station. The Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina has managed the construction and participated in project and design stages. As in the original pool, the 6 m long assemblies are stacked in double tiers. The cost figures which are mentioned differ from previously released figures and are not the final ones. With civil construction almost finished and mechanical erection started, the present estimates should not differ by more than 10% from the final figures. The installation has an investment cost of 61 million dollars, (1980), and, depending on the amortization time span considered, a total yearly cost per kg of capacity of metallic uranium, ranging between 5.5 and 9.3 dollars per kg

  17. Fuel cell technology; Brennstoffzellen-Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimming, U; Friedrich, K A; Cappadonia, M; Vogel, R

    1999-12-31

    Hydrogen from fossil or renewable sources is an important fuel for low-emission power generation in fuel cells. Methanol and maybe also ethanol can also be produced by direct electrochemical processes in low-temperature fuel cells (PEMFC, PAFC). Fuel cell systems with high operating temperatures are highly flexible with regard to fuel but tend to have material problems. On the other hand, rapid developments in materials development and the possibility of production technology transfer from the electronics industry lead one to expect a breakthrough in the near future. But in spite of this, niche market applications will prevail. Since power stations have a longer life than motor vehicles and fuel cells in mobile applications, emission reductions from fuel cell applications in road vehicles are more probable on a medium-term basis than from applications in power stations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wasserstoff, der sowohl aus fossilen wie auch aus regenerativen Quellen erschlossen werden kann, ist ein wesentlicher Brennstoff fuer die emissionsarme Elektrizitaetsproduktion in Brennstoffzellen. Methanol und eventuell Ethanol koennen auch direkt elektrochemisch in Niedertemperaturbrennstoffzellen (PEMFC, PAFC) umgesetzt werden. Brennstoffzellensysteme mit hohen Betriebstemperaturen erlauben eine hohe Flexibilitaet bezueglich der verwendeten Brennstoffe, sind aber nach wie vor durch starke Materialprobleme belastet. Die enormen Fortschritte in der Materialentwicklung einerseits sowie ein moeglicher Transfer von Fertigungstechnologien aus der Elektronikindustrie andererseits lassen eine zukuenftige grosstechnische Nutzung von Brennstoffzellen erwarten. Die technische Einfuehrung wird dennoch nur ueber Nischenmaerkte moeglich sein. Da die mittlere Lebensdauer eines Kraftwerks deutlich hoeher ist als die eines Strassenfahrzeugs, ausserdem Brennstoffzellen auch in staerkerem Masse in Fahrzeugen eingesetzt werden koennen, sind mittelfristig Emissionen eher durch

  18. Hot gas filtration: Investigations to remove gaseous pollutant components out of flue gas during hot gas filtration. Final report; HGR: Untersuchung zur Minimierung von gasfoermigen Schadstoffen aus Rauchgasen bei der Heissgasfiltration. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, A; Gross, R; Renz, U

    1998-07-01

    Power plants with gas and steam turbines in pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized gasification processes enable power generation of coal with high efficiency and little emissions. To run these plants the cleaning of the flue gas is necessary before entering the turbines under the conditions of high temperature and pressure. Ceramic filter elements are the most probable method for hot gas cleaning. A simultaneous reduction of gaseous pollutant components under these conditions could help to make the whole process more efficient. The aim of the project is to integrate the catalytic reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitric oxides into the hot gas filtration with ceramic filter elements as a one step mecanism. The project is focused on: - the catalytic behaviour of ferruginous ashes of brown coal, - the effectiveness of calcinated aluminates as a catalyst to remove uncombusted hydrocarbons in a hot gas filtration unit, - numerical simulation of the combined removal of particles and gaseous pollutant components out of the flue gas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Kraftwerke mit Druckwirbelschicht- oder mit Druckvergasungsverfahren ermoeglichen die Verstromung von Kohle mit hohem Wirkungsgrad und niedrigen Emissionen. Eine Voraussetzung fuer den Betrieb dieser Anlagen ist die Entstaubung der Rauchgase bei hohen Temperaturen und Druecken. Abreinigungsfilter mit keramischen Elementen werden dazu eingesetzt. Eine Reduzierung gasfoermiger Schadstoffe unter den gleichen Bedingungen koennte die Rauchgaswaesche ersetzen. Ziel des Gesamtvorhabens ist es, die Integration von Heissgasfiltration und katalytischem Abbau der Schadstoffe Kohlenmonoxid, Kohlenwasserstoffe und Stickoxide in einem Verfahrensschritt zu untersuchen. Die Arbeitsschwerpunkte dieses Teilvorhabens betreffen - die katalytische Wirkung eisenhaltiger Braunkohlenaschen, - die Wirksamkeit des Calciumaluminats als Katalysator des Abbaus unverbrannter Kohlenwasserstoffe im Heissgasfilter

  19. Power engineering. Systems for energy conversion. Compact knowledge for study and profession. 4. upd. and enl. ed.; Energietechnik. Systeme zur Energieumwandlung. Kompaktwissen fuer Studium und Beruf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoransky, Richard A.

    2009-07-01

    This textbook imparts to the reader a fundamental understanding for relations of energy conversion processes. It comprises the total spectra of energy engineering, starting with fundamentals of energy process engineering via description of operating power plants (all types) to energy distribution and - storage. Main topics are sustainable energy systems from renewable energy sources. combined systems (e.g. Gas/steam turbine power plants) and plants with cogeneration (e.g. modular cogeneration plants). A new chapter Kyoto-Protocol was created as a concept of emissions-free coal-fired power plants. A new wording for deregulation of energy markets was received. Numerous texts and graphs were been revised. Chapter 18 ''Deregulation of Energy Markets'' is newly revised. Due to its didactic concepts the book directs not only to students but also everybody, who is inerested into actual questions of energy engineering. (org./GL) [German] Dieses Lehrbuch vermittelt dem Leser ein grundlegendes Verstaendnis fuer die Zusammenhaenge der Energieumwandlungsprozesse. Es umfasst die gesamte Bandbreite der Energietechnik. Die Schwerpunkte reichen von nachhaltigen, erneuerbaren Energietechniken, Kombianlagen (z.B. Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Kraftwerke) ueber Anlagen mit Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung bis hin zum Kyoto-Protokoll. Die 4. Auflage beinhaltet erstmals Uebungsaufgaben mit ausfuehrlichen Loesungen zu den einzelnen Kapiteln. Mehrere Kapitel sind aktualisiert. Das Kapitel 18 ''Liberalisierung der Energiemaerkte'' ist neu gefasst. Aus dem Inhalt Energietechnische Grundlagen - Dampfkraftwerke - Kernkraftwerke - Gasturbinen - Kombinationskraftwerke - Stationaere Kolbenmotoren - Brennstoffzellen - Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung - Wasserkraft - Solartechnik - Windenergie - Biomasse - Geothermie - Energetische Muellverwertung - Energieverteilung und -speicherung - Liberalisierung der Energiemaerkte - Kyoto-Protokoll. (orig.)

  20. Lessons learned from full-scale vibration tests on nuclear power plant auxiliary structure in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.; Tinic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Beznau Nuclear Power Plant is located in northern Switzerland. The plant is owned and operated by the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK) in Baden, Switzerland. It is a twin unit plant (2 x 350 MWe) which was designed in the early 1960's and placed into commercial operation between 1969 and 1971. In connection with a major backfit project, which will improve the safety of the plant against external events, the free-standing boric water tanks had to be relocated and were replaced by two boric water tanks in a new building (the so called BOTA-building). It enabled to plan and perform full scale vibration tests.The scope of experimental investigation was to determine the eigenfrequencies and damping values for fundamental soil-structure interaction. The vibration tests allowed identification of the important modes of the soil-structure system in the range 3 to 15 Hz. The excitation was strung enough to generate accelerations in the structure comparable to those of a small earthquake. From the comparisons of computed and measured results it is concluded that the rocking frequency can be reasonably well predicted by either Finite Element or Lumped Parameter models with springs simulating the soil-foundation stiffness, provided in the case of the latter the embedment is taken into account. The prediction of the amplitude of structural response appears to be more difficult, as shown by the differences in the mode shapes. In the frequency range 8 to 10 Hz the agreement between computed and test results was less satisfactory. The actual structural behaviour turned out to be more complex than expected and needs further investigation with the aid of more refined models for the soil-structure system

  1. Thermodynamics. An introduction into its bases and technical applications. 14. ed.; Thermodynamik. Grundlagen und technische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehr, Hans Dieter [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik; Kabelac, Stephan [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik

    2009-07-01

    The actualized 14th edition covers now a further chapter on energy conversion: the structure of energy demand in Germany is discussed and patterns of energy conversion highlighted. Furtheron practical application on combustion processes, thermal power plants, carbon dioxide and power generation, heating systems and refrigerating machinery are completed. The concepts of exergy and energy are introduced by postulates instead of being constructed on the basis of certain theorems; this is to give the students easier access to the fundamental balance equations which are the basic elements in the quantitative statements of the two basic laws of thermodynamics and are indispensable for their application. The balance equations are expressed in as general a form as possible taking account also of transient processes of open systems and of the special case of steady flow processes. (orig./GL) [German] die aktualisierte 14. Auflage des bewaehrten Lehrbuchs der Technischen Thermodynamik wurde das Kapitel ueber Waermekraftanlagen gruendlich bearbeitet und durch einen Abschnitt zur Energiewandlung ergaenzt: Die Energiebedarfsstruktur von Deutschland wird erlaeutert, und die moeglichen Energiewandlungspfade werden diskutiert. Schwerpunkt des Buches ist die ausfuehrliche und auch dem Anfaenger verstaendliche Darstellung der Grundlagen der Thermodynamik mit der sorgfaeltigen Einfuehrung der thermodynamischen Begriffe und den fundamentalen Bilanzgleichungen fuer Energie, Entropie und Exergie. Die thermodynamischen Eigenschaften reiner Fluide und fluider Gemische werden eingehend erlaeutert. Darauf aufbauend wird die Thermodynamik der Gemische und der chemischen Reaktionen entwickelt. Auch die thermodynamischen Aspekte wichtiger energie- und verfahrenstechnischer Anwendungen werden praxisnah behandelt: - Stroemungs- und Arbeitsprozesse, - thermische Stofftrennverfahren, - Verbrennungsprozesse und Verbrennungskraftanlagen, - thermische Kraftwerke, - CO2-Emissionen der Stromerzeugung

  2. 7. Kassel symposium on energy systems technology: Renewable energy sources and efficient utilization of energy; 7. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik: Erneuerbare Energien und rationelle Energieverwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselitz, P. (comp.)

    2002-07-01

    This proceedings volume comprises 17 papers on the following subjects: Methane hydrates, compounds of gas and water; Compressed air stroage gas turbine power plants / Scheduled application for load levelling between varying wind power production and power demand; Modern pumped storage power stations in the GW range - the PSW Goldisthal example; Lead batteries - new developments and future applications; Alkaline battery systems for hybrid electric road vehicles; Lighium systems and their applications; Zinc/air cells; Hydrogen storage - metal hydride storage, compressed gas storage, LNG storage; Carbon nanofibres for hydrogen storage; Double-layer condensers - technology, cost, perslpectives; Supercondensers in motor vehicles; Superconducting magnetic energy stores; Flywheel storage - status report; Decentralized energy storage in the European integrated supply grid - the EU project DISPOWER; Intercontinental integration of power supply - perspectives of full-scale power supply on the basis of renewable energy sources in Europe; High-volgate direct-current transmission in the European power suppply grid; Superconductivity and energy transport - status and perspectives. [German] Dieser Tagungsband enthaelt 17 Vortraege mit folgenden Themen: Methanhydrate: Verbindung aus Gas und Wasser (Erwin Suess); Druckluftspeicher-Gasturbinen-Kraftwerke / Geplanter Einsatz beim Ausgleich flukturierender Windenergie-Produktion und aktuellem Strombedarf (Fritz Crotogino); Moderne Pumpspeicherwerke im Gigawattbereich - PSW Goldisthal (Wolfgang Bogenrieder); Bleibatterien - neue Entwicklungen und zukuenftige Einsatzbereiche (Reiner Wagner); Alkalische Batteriesysteme fuer Hybrid-Elektrostrassenfahrzeuge (Detlef Ohms, Gunter Schaedlich); Lithiumsysteme - Einsatzbereiche (Dietmar Rahner); Zink/Luft-Zellen (Michael Bruesewitz); Wasserstoffspeicher - Metallhydridspeicher, Druckgasspeicher, Fluessiggasspeicher (Andreas Otto); Kohlenstoff-Nanofasern zur Wasserstoffspeicherung (Juergen Garche

  3. Wind energy. From the garage workshop to a global market. 25 years scientific accompaniment; Windenergie - von der Garagen-Werkstatt zum Weltmarkt. 25 Jahre wissenschaftliche Begleitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Berthold; Stuebig, Cornelia [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany); Ponick, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany); Hannover Univ. (Germany); Keller, Sarina [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany); Felder, Martin; Jachmann, Henning [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The plant technology for the use of wind energy on land is so sophisticated that the WEA can be operated as ''normal'' power plants to the grid. Of course, there are still potential for development, for example, in terms of improved reliability, or concerning the fledgling offshore use, always with an emphasis on the simultaneous reduction in costs. Although from the former garages workshops is little remaining, the production techniques are another major issue in terms of quality and costs. The cost of electricity from wind energy is taking account of external costs are already competitive with conventional power generation. To limit the costs of the energy transition one to expect from the wind energy as of the other technologies cost reduction. Various studies show that the wind energy supply in the balance is sufficient several times to provide the expected contribution to supply. [German] Die Anlagentechnologie fuer die Windenergienutzung an Land ist so ausgereift, dass die WEA als ''normale'' Kraftwerke am Netz betrieben werden koennen. Selbstverstaendlich bestehen weiterhin Entwicklungspotenziale, z. B. hinsichtlich verbesserter Zuverlaessigkeit oder bezueglich der noch jungen Offshore Nutzung, immer mit einem Augenmerk auf die gleichzeitige Kostenreduktion. Auch wenn von den ehemaligen Garagen Werkstaetten wenig uebrig geblieben ist, sind die Produktionstechniken ein weiteres wesentliches Thema bezueglich Qualitaet und Kosten. Die Kosteneffizienz der Stromerzeugung aus Windenergie ist unter Beruecksichtigung externer Kosten heute schon konkurrenzfaehig zur konventionellen Stromerzeugung. Zur Begrenzung der Kosten der Energiewende wird aber von der Windenergie wie von den anderen Technologien weiterhin eine Kostenreduktion erwartet. Diverse Studien zeigen, dass das Windenergieangebot in der Bilanz mehrfach ausreicht, um den erwarteten Beitrag zur Versorgung leisten zu koennen.

  4. Efficiency enhancement of a gas turbine cycle using an optimized tubular recuperative heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Mehrabipour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    A simple gas turbine cycle namely as the Kraftwerk Union AG unit including a Siemens gas turbine model V93.1 with 60 MW nominal power and 26.0% thermal efficiency utilized in the Fars power plant located is considered for the efficiency enhancement. A typical tubular vertical recuperative heat exchanger is designed in order to integrate into the cycle as an air pre-heater for thermal efficiency improvement. Thermal and geometric specifications of the recuperative heat exchanger are obtained in a multi-objective optimization process. The exergetic efficiency of the gas cycle is maximized while the payback time for the capital investment of the recuperator is minimized. Combination of these objectives and decision variables with suitable engineering and physical constraints makes a set of the MINLP optimization problem. Optimization programming is performed using the NSGA-II algorithm and Pareto optimal frontiers are obtained in three cases including the minimum, average and maximum ambient air temperatures. In each case, the final optimal solution has been selected using three decision-making approaches including the fuzzy Bellman-Zadeh, LINMAP and TOPSIS methods. It has been shown that the TOPSIS and LINMAP decision-makers when applied on the Pareto frontier which is obtained at average ambient air temperature yields best results in comparison to other cases. -- Highlights: ► A simple Brayton gas cycle is considered for the efficiency improvement by integrating of a recuperator. ► Objective functions based on thermodynamic and economic analysis are obtained. ► The payback time for the capital investment is minimized and the exergetic efficiency of the system is maximized. ► Pareto optimal frontiers at various site conditions are obtained. ► A final optimal configuration is found using various decision-making approaches.

  5. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis; Wettbewerbseffekte und Instrumente von Stromsektorreformen. Internationale Reformkonzepte, Blockadestrukturen, Risikoverteilung. Eine politoekonomische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebchen, Armin [Liebchen Consulting, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts. [German] Stromsektoren mit schwachen oder unzulaenglichen Wettbewerbsstrukturen sind trotz zahlreicher Reformversuche die Regel. Aber koennen sich moderne Volkswirtschaften diesen Mangel dauerhaft leisten? Warum kann die Einfuehrung von Wettbewerb so wirksam blockiert werden? Der Autor untersucht internationale Reformerfahrungen und eroeffnet interessante Einsichten, die sich auch auf Problemlagen der deutschen Energiewende spiegeln lassen: Die Schwierigkeit des richtigen Timings und der Abstimmung der Reformteile, dem Aufbau von Widerstandslinien einzelner Interessensgruppen, Vertragsbruch als rationaler Alternative, Ursachen unerwuenschter Preiseffekte, sich verschiebenden Interessenslagen wichtiger Akteure, Veraenderungsdynamik drohender Regulierungsrisiken, schwebenden Finanzierungsrisiken, stranded-cost-Konfliktlagen fuer vom Netz genommene Kraftwerke und Moeglichkeiten und Instrumenten eines politisch-regulatorischen Risikomanagements

  6. Lessons learned from full-scale vibration tests on nuclear power plant auxiliary structure in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E [Basler and Hofmann AG, Consulting Engineers, Zurich (Switzerland); Tinic, S [Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    1988-07-01

    The Beznau Nuclear Power Plant is located in northern Switzerland. The plant is owned and operated by the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK) in Baden, Switzerland. It is a twin unit plant (2 x 350 MWe) which was designed in the early 1960's and placed into commercial operation between 1969 and 1971. In connection with a major backfit project, which will improve the safety of the plant against external events, the free-standing boric water tanks had to be relocated and were replaced by two boric water tanks in a new building (the so called BOTA-building). It enabled to plan and perform full scale vibration tests.The scope of experimental investigation was to determine the eigenfrequencies and damping values for fundamental soil-structure interaction. The vibration tests allowed identification of the important modes of the soil-structure system in the range 3 to 15 Hz. The excitation was strung enough to generate accelerations in the structure comparable to those of a small earthquake. From the comparisons of computed and measured results it is concluded that the rocking frequency can be reasonably well predicted by either Finite Element or Lumped Parameter models with springs simulating the soil-foundation stiffness, provided in the case of the latter the embedment is taken into account. The prediction of the amplitude of structural response appears to be more difficult, as shown by the differences in the mode shapes. In the frequency range 8 to 10 Hz the agreement between computed and test results was less satisfactory. The actual structural behaviour turned out to be more complex than expected and needs further investigation with the aid of more refined models for the soil-structure system.

  7. Design, analysis and construction of the prestressed concrete containment of the nuclear power station Gundremmingen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.F.; Ick, U.

    1977-01-01

    Kraftwerk Union AG is presently constructing at Gundremmingen (Bavaria) on the River Danube a BWR twin-plant (KRB Units B and C) with a capacity of 2x1300 MWe. Owing to the wall thickness/diameter ratio the containment can be calculated as a thin-walled shell. Areas of discontinuity are subjected to three-dimensional investigations. For the design of the concrete structure different fracture safety margins are defined for the load conditions occurring in operation in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident and as a result of an aircraft or an earthquake. From this results that in the cross sectional areas without discontinuities of the prestressed outer cylinder no resultant tensions occur. For the steel liner different limits of strain are permitted for the various load conditions, bearing in mind that the integrity of the liner must remain ensured at any time. In order to keep the stresses resulting from the constraint of the containment outer cylinder in the foundation slab low, the cylindrical wall is placed on bearings. The suppression pool top slab is constrained at the containment outer cylinder and at the containment inner cylindrical wall. The inlets of the vent pipes are integrated in the slab in a way resulting in a double slab. The liner consists of 8 mm thick steel plate and is anchored in the concrete via steel sections. Mechanical equipment anchoring in the concrete is provided by welding anchor plates into the liner after the section concerned has been completed. The carcass work on the reactor building is scheduled to be completed within

  8. Ecologically justified regulatory provisions for riverine hydroelectric power plants and minimum instream flow requirements in diverted streams; Oekologisch begruendete, dynamische Mindestwasserregelungen bei Ausleitungskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorde, K.

    1997-12-31

    Fliessgewaesserbiozoenosen elementare Bedeutung hat, wurde dabei angestrebt. Unter fiktiven Mindestwasservorgaben sollte durch die modellhafte Gegenueberstellung oekologischer Folgeeffekte mit den entsprechenden wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen fuer die Kraftwerke ein Instrumentarium geschaffen werden, das als sinnvolle, sowohl oekologisch als auch oekonomisch zielgerichtete Entscheidungshilfe bei der Bemessung und Optimierung zukuenftiger Mindestwasserauflagen dienen kann. In der Arbeit wurde erstmals die zeitliche und raeumliche Variabilitaet des sohlnahen Stroemungsmusters in einem Flussabschnitt untersucht und daraus, ergaenzt durch Habitatsimulationen, ein Verfahren zur Ermittlung oekologisch begruendeter, dynamischer Mindestwasserregelungen fuer Ausleitungsstrecken abgeleitet. FST-Halbkugel-Messungen erwiesen sich dabei als gut geeignet. Mit FST-Halbkugeln lassen sich die Sohlschubspannungen in natuerlichen Gewaessern weitaus zuverlaessiger und effektiver erfassen, als beispielsweise mit Fluegelmessungen. Mit Hilfe von CASIMIR wurden FST-Halbkugel-Untersuchungen dreier morphologisch unterschiedlicher Versuchsstrecken ausgewertet. An den daraus abgeleiteten ASS-Modellen wurden verschiedene Mindestwasserregelungen einschliesslich des derzeit bestehenden Zustandes verglichen. Drei unterschiedliche Jahre wurden dabei zugrunde gelegt. (orig./SR)

  9. The role of nuclear power in external and internal communications at Siemens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breyer, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    'Der Spiegel', quotes Siemens CEO as saying that the nuclear business accounts for 2 percent of the business but for 95 percent of his troubles. The communications organization at Siemens is rather complex. As a consequence of the political relevance of energy technology, KWU has a public relations department addressing a broad spectrum of stake holders, runs a quarterly magazine on energy and environmental policy called Standpunkt, (Viewpoint) and has, the largest press office of all Siemens Groups. These entities also contribute to the corporate media for internal and external communications. When the nuclear controversy in Germany reached its first culmination in the mid-1970s, Kraftwerk Union, the forerunner of what is now the Siemens Power Generation Group (KWU), automatically became a leading voice on the pro-nuclear side because, as turnkey contractor for most of Germany's NPPs, it had the deepest knowledge of the technology whereas the owner/operator side was and is organized in several utilities. From the German experience with anti-nuke campaign one could draw the following conclusions: (1) A political,, technology like nuclear necessarily leads to a high profile in the public. As the No. nuclear supplier in Germany Siemens doesn't have the option of a low profile; (2) As a consequence, the nuclear business gets unproportional attention in the public. Siemens has to take this into account in order to assure its other business areas enough visibility; (3) For public relations on nuclear power, the internal audience is as important as the external one. Because of the large work-force of Siemens, internal communications have a significant multiplication effect for the external audience; (4) A broad spectrum of non-nuclear activities doesn't make a company like Siemens more vulnerable to public pressure than a mono-structured company. On the contrary: The high prestige gained in its other business fields makes it easier to defend the nuclear business as

  10. Ecologically justified regulatory provisions for riverine hydroelectric power plants and minimum instream flow requirements in diverted streams; Oekologisch begruendete, dynamische Mindestwasserregelungen bei Ausleitungskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorde, K

    1998-12-31

    Fliessgewaesserbiozoenosen elementare Bedeutung hat, wurde dabei angestrebt. Unter fiktiven Mindestwasservorgaben sollte durch die modellhafte Gegenueberstellung oekologischer Folgeeffekte mit den entsprechenden wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen fuer die Kraftwerke ein Instrumentarium geschaffen werden, das als sinnvolle, sowohl oekologisch als auch oekonomisch zielgerichtete Entscheidungshilfe bei der Bemessung und Optimierung zukuenftiger Mindestwasserauflagen dienen kann. In der Arbeit wurde erstmals die zeitliche und raeumliche Variabilitaet des sohlnahen Stroemungsmusters in einem Flussabschnitt untersucht und daraus, ergaenzt durch Habitatsimulationen, ein Verfahren zur Ermittlung oekologisch begruendeter, dynamischer Mindestwasserregelungen fuer Ausleitungsstrecken abgeleitet. FST-Halbkugel-Messungen erwiesen sich dabei als gut geeignet. Mit FST-Halbkugeln lassen sich die Sohlschubspannungen in natuerlichen Gewaessern weitaus zuverlaessiger und effektiver erfassen, als beispielsweise mit Fluegelmessungen. Mit Hilfe von CASIMIR wurden FST-Halbkugel-Untersuchungen dreier morphologisch unterschiedlicher Versuchsstrecken ausgewertet. An den daraus abgeleiteten ASS-Modellen wurden verschiedene Mindestwasserregelungen einschliesslich des derzeit bestehenden Zustandes verglichen. Drei unterschiedliche Jahre wurden dabei zugrunde gelegt. (orig./SR)

  11. Verification of CTF/PARCSv3.2 coupled code in a Turbine Trip scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abarca, A.; Hidalga, P.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Sekhri, A.

    2017-01-01

    Multiphysics codes had revealed as a best-estimate approach to simulate core behavior in LWR. Coupled neutronics and thermal-hydraulics codes are being used and improved to achieve reliable results for reactor safety transient analysis. The implementation of the feedback procedure between the coupled codes at each time step allows a more accurate simulation and a better prediction of the safety limits of analyzed scenarios. With the objective of testing the recently developed CTF/PARCSv3.2 coupled code, a code-to-code verification against TRACE has been developed in a BWR Turbine Trip scenario. CTF is a thermal-hydraulic subchannel code that features two-fluid, three-field representation of the two-phase flow, while PARCS code solves the neutronic diffusion equation in a 3D nodal distribution. PARCS features allow as well the use of extended sets of cross section libraries for a more precise neutronic performance in different formats like PMAX or NEMTAB. Using this option the neutronic core composition of KKL will be made taking advantage of the core follow database. The results of the simulation will be verified against TRACE results. TRACE will be used as a reference code for the validation process since it has been a recommended code by the USNRC. The model used for TRACE includes a full core plus relevant components such as the steam lines and the valves affecting and controlling the turbine trip evolution. The coupled code performance has been evaluated using the Turbine Trip event that took place in Kern Kraftwerk Leibstadt (KKL), at the fuel cycle 18. KKL is a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) located in Leibstadt, Switzerland. This NPP operates with a BWR developing 3600 MWt in fuel cycles of one year. The Turbine Trip is a fast transient developing a pressure peak in the reactor followed by a power decreasing due to the selected control rod insertion. This kind of transient is very useful to check the feedback performance between both coupled codes due to the fast

  12. Photovoltaic Programme Edition 2007. Summary Report, Project List, Annual Project Reports 2006 (Abstracts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    renewable energy promotion in international co-operation REPIC are reported on, as is standardisation work and the networking and integration of national and regional programs. Further, mounting system for thin-film modules in facades, roof-integration of amorphous thin-film cells, a zero-energy schoolhouse, the installation of thin-film modules on the flat roof at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, a further flat roof integration project and the Solgreen 'Kraftwerk 1' installation in Zurich are reported on. Further reports deal with an autonomous power supply using photovoltaics and fuel cells, a measurement campaign in Wittigkofen, the Swiss Photovoltaic Internet Portal, the Swiss Solar ElectriCity Guide and Swiss photovoltaic energy statistics for 2006. The report is also available in German and French.

  13. Piercing of corporate veil of nuclear companies; Durchgriffshaftung der Atomkonzerne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Berg-, Umwelt- und Europarecht

    2015-11-15

    The Federal Ministry of Economics plans that the nuclear companies with all their assets to cover disposal costs can be used where a power plant operator is governed by its parent company, hence the latter Capital or voting majority of the operators holding or these passes; To date, the parent company is liable only limited and not more than five years after the end of the domination of one Subsidiary, oparating a power plant. In this way, prevents ultimately the public sector and thus the Taxpayers have to pay for the long-term consequences of the use of nuclear energy. Until now ensured paragraph 303 AktG a group law Secondary liability the parent companies of the operating company in the case of of termination of the control and profit transfer agreements is very limited for the nuclear liabilities, namely in two ways: The claim is only focused on the backup performance and not at the expense of acquisition and Moreover, according to the case law limited of five years after its foundation; for the area of transformation law comparable rules are valid. thereby the dismantling of a nuclear power station takes just already for 20 years and a final repository is expected before 2050 not be available. [German] Das Bundeswirtschaftsministerium plant, dass die Atomkonzerne mit ihrem ganzen Vermoegen zur Deckung der Entsorgungskosten herangezogen werden koennen, soweit ein Kraftwerksbetreiber von seinem Mutterkonzern beherrscht wird, mithin Letzterer die Kapital- oder Stimmrechtsmehrheit an dem Betreiber haelt bzw. diesen leitet; bislang haftet der Mutterkonzern nur eingeschraenkt und hoechstens fuenf Jahre nach Beendigung der Beherrschung einer Tochtergesellschaft, die ein Kraftwerk betreibt. Auf diese Weise wird verhindert, dass letztlich die oeffentliche Hand und damit der Steuerzahler fuer die Spaetfolgen der Kernenergienutzung zahlen muss. Bislang gewaehrleistet paragraph 303 AktG eine konzernrechtliche Nachhaftung der Muttergesellschaften der

  14. Development and implementation of an on-line monitoring system for the detection of the surge limit of multi stage axial compressors. Final report; Ueberwachungssystem zur Pumpgrenzdetektion in vielstufigen Axialverdichtern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenen, H.; Niehuis, R.

    2003-07-01

    Annaeherung an die Stabilitaetsgrenze vorausbestimmen. Messdaten unterschiedlicher Versuchslaeufe mit verschiedenen Gasturbinenverdichtern haben den Nachweis der Funktionstuechtigkeit des Systems erbracht. Wesentliches Merkmal des erstellten Ueberwachungssystems ist die Online-Faehigkeit und damit die Einsetzbarkeit in industrieller Umgebung. Um die Langzeitstabilitaet und -Sicherheit zu gewaehrleisten, wurde die Software so aufgebaut, dass eine staendige Selbstueberwachung und Kontrolle durch einen angeschlossenen Hausrechner moeglich ist. Hierbei werden sowohl die Funktionen der eingesetzten Messsensoren und der Datenaufnahme als auch die Datenverarbeitung und Uebergabe an den Hausrechner permanent ueberwacht. Hierdurch wird eine hohe Betriebssicherheit und damit eine Einbindung in ein Gasturbinenleitsystem ermoeglicht. Als Programmierumgebung wurde Dasylab gewaehlt, um so eine moeglichst grosse Anwenderfreundlichkeit sicherzustellen. Die bisherigen Test mit dem System auf dem Gasturbinenprueffeld der Firma Siemens sind erfolgreich verlaufen. eine Langzeiterprobung im Kraftwerk steht noch aus. (orig.)

  15. SUPER-RAMP PK2 cases by START-3. Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Chulkin, Dmitriy

    2013-01-01

    The Studsvik SUPER-RAMP Project, an internationally sponsored research project, investigated the failure propensity of typical LWR fuel in the form of test rods when subjected to power ramps, after base irradiation to high burn-up. The following information summarizing the project is abstracted from the Final Report of the SUPER-RAMP project (STSR-32). The Project power ramped 28 individual PWR rods and 16 BWR rods. The PWR rods were all tested using high ramp rates. Due to different objectives for the BWR subprogramme, one set of the BWR rods was tested using a high ramp rate, and another set were tested with a very slow ramp rate. All rods underwent a thorough examination programme, comprising characterisation prior to base irradiation, examination between base and ramp irradiation and examination after ramp irradiation. This consisted of 6 groups of rods with variations in design and material parameters. The rods were base irradiated in a power reactor environment KK Obrigheim or BR-3 at time averaged heat ratings mainly in the range 14-26 kW/m to peak burn-ups in the range 33-45 MWd/kgU and were subsequently ramp tested in the research reactor R2 at Studsvik, Sweden. The result can be summarized as follows: In this document some calculations are made on the PK2 group fuel rods. The rods were standard rods manufactured by Kraftwerk Union AG/Combustion Engineering (KWU/CE). All these rods sustained ramping to power levels in the range 41 to 49 kW/m and power changes 16-24 kW/m without failure, in spite of large deformations, fuel restructuring and fission gas release particularly for the PK2 rods. Though the results of this paper seem to be based on the incomplete dataset (ambiguity in power raise rates, undefined fuel pellet and cladding surface roughness), we think that START-3 Zircalloy-4 model requires further improvements. In order to do them, we kindly ask IAEA to provide us with more detailed irradiation histories (more than 3 axial zones, power increase

  16. Agora Energiewende (2016). What do Germany's climate protection goals mean for the brown coal regions? An analysis based on the eleven key points for a coal consensus; Agora Energiewende (2016). Was bedeuten Deutschlands Klimaschutzziele fuer die Braunkohleregionen? Eine Analyse auf Basis der elf Eckpunkte fuer einen Kohlekonsens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graichen, Patrick; Praetorius, Barbara; Rosenkranz, Gerd; Litz, Philipp

    2016-04-15

    gleichzeitig einen sozial ausgewogenen und fair gestalteten Uebergang in das neue Energiesystem ebnet. Besonders relevant sind die Auswirkungen fuer die betroffenen Braunkohleregionen. Um den schrittweisen Ausstieg aus der Kohleverstromung gesellschaftlich und wirtschaftlich vertraeglich zu gestalten, ist ein besonderes Augenmerk auf Braunkohletagebaue und -kraftwerke sowie auf den regionalen Strukturwandel notwendig. Die vorliegende Publikation wirft deshalb einen vertiefenden Blick auf genau diese Aspekte.

  17. Wie nutzen deutsche Tiermedizinerinnen und Tiermediziner soziale Netzwerke? Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel des tiermedizinischen Netzwerks „NOVICE“ [How do German veterinarians use social networks? A study, using the example of the 'NOVICE' veterinary medicine network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaper, Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    2.0-Werkzeuge sind das Versenden von Chat- und Email-Nachrichten sowie das Schreiben von Wiki- und Diskussionsbeiträgen. Aus den Fokusgruppenbefragungen ging hervor, dass von den Befragten in der Regel auch andere online-communities in Anspruch genommen werden, die aktiven Mitglieder mehr Web 2.0-Werkzeuge nutzen als in anderen Netzwerken, während die passiven Mitglieder in allen Netzwerken eher zurückhaltend sind. Über ein eigenes berufsständisches Netzwerk zu verfügen, begrüßten alle Teilnehmer der Befragung und sahen darin ein großes Potential für die Veterinärmedizin.Schlussfolgerung: Die Entwicklung des Netzwerkes sowie die Zahl der Mitglieder sind in diesem Zeitraum durchaus positiv zu bewerten. Bisher liegt der inhaltliche Fokus der Beiträge dem Namen des Netzwerkes (Network Of Veterinary ICt in Education entsprechend auf der durch E-Learning unterstützten veterinärmedizinischen Lehre. Für die Weiterentwicklung des Netzwerkes wäre ein Zuwachs der Mitgliederzahl jedoch wünschenswert, damit in anderen veterinärmedizinischen Fachgebieten ebenfalls hochwertiger Informationsaustausch und informelles Lernen stattfinden können.

  18. Photovoltaic Programme Edition 2007. Summary Report, Project List, Annual Project Reports 2006 (Abstracts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    interdepartmental platform for renewable energy promotion in international co-operation REPIC are reported on, as is standardisation work and the networking and integration of national and regional programs. Further, mounting system for thin-film modules in facades, roof-integration of amorphous thin-film cells, a zero-energy schoolhouse, the installation of thin-film modules on the flat roof at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, a further flat roof integration project and the Solgreen 'Kraftwerk 1' installation in Zurich are reported on. Further reports deal with an autonomous power supply using photovoltaics and fuel cells, a measurement campaign in Wittigkofen, the Swiss Photovoltaic Internet Portal, the Swiss Solar ElectriCity Guide and Swiss photovoltaic energy statistics for 2006. The report is also available in German and French.

  19. PKL/K9, Refill and Reflood Experiment in a Simulated PWR Primary System (PKL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: PKL-facility simulates the essential primary system components of a typical West German 1300 PWR with regard to their thermohydraulic behaviour. The facility essentially consists of the pressure vessel with the heated bundle, the downcomer simulator, the primary loops with the components steam generator and pump simulator, the injection devices, the break geometry simulator, as well as the separators connected thereto, and the test containment to maintain a back-pressure at the location of break which is expected to be typical for emergency conditions. The number of heater rods and the cross-sections of the testing plant are on a reduced scale 1:134 in comparison with a typical German PWR. The elevations and locations are essentially full scale. Pressure vessel: The space between the pressure vessel and the inner core casing is sealed from the core region and the upper and lower plenum and connected with the upper plenum only by a pressure equalization line. The rod bundle surrounded by the inner core casing consists of 340 rods, 337 of which are indirect electrically heated. The test bundle cross-section as well as a heater element with the measuring elevations, the original-KWU-spacers and the axial power profile (7 power steps) are described. Downcomer: The downcomer is simulated by the downcomer nozzle region and the downcomer U-tube. The cold leg injection takes place both directly in the downcomer nozzle region and in the lines of t he intact single and double loop near to the downcomer nozzle region. A cylindrical insertion and repulsing metal sheets are installed in the downcomer nozzle region in order to avoid the emergency injection points into the broken loop. 2 - Description of test: Test K 9 out of a series PKL-IB was conducted on May 30, 1979 by Kraftwerk Union (KWU) at Erlangen (Germany). The objective of the integral cold leg injection test K 9 (double-ended 200%-break) was to investigate after a LOCA the refill and

  20. Chemistry in power plants 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Within the VGB Powertech conference from 25th to 27th October, 2011, in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures and poster contributions were presented: (1) The revised VGB standard for water-steam-cycle Chemistry; (2) Switchover from neutral operation to oxygen treatment at the power station Stuttgart-Muenster of EnBW Kraftwerke AG; (3) Steam contamination with degradation products of organic matters present in the feedwater of the Lanxess-Rubber cogeneration plant; (4) Laboratory scale on-line noble metal deposition experiments simulating BWR plant conditions; (5) Building a new demin installation for the power plant EPZ in Borssele; (6) Replacement of the cooling tower installations in the nuclear power plant Goesgen-Daenien AG; (7) Aging of IEX resins in demin plants - Cost optimisation by adaptation of regenerants; (8) The largest DOW trademark EDI System at a combined cycled plant in Europe; (9) Upgrading river Main water to boiler feed water - Experiences with ultrafiltration; (10) Experiences with treatment of the water-steam-cycle in the RDF power plant Nehlsen Stavenhagen with film-forming amines; (11) Comparative modelling of the bubbles thermal collapse and cavitations for estimation of bubbles collapse influence; (12) Overcoming the steam quality - issues from an HRSG for the production of process steam; (13) Legionella - new requirements for power plant operation; (14) How the right chemistry in the FGD helps to improve the removal in the waste water treatment plant; (15) High efficiency filtration in dry/semi-dry FGD plants; (16) Expanding the variety of renewable fuels in the biomass power plant Timelkam using the chemical input control; (17) Corrosion, operating experiences and process improvements to increase the availability and operating time of the biomass power plant Timelkam; (18) The influence of temperature on the measurement of the conductivity of highly diluted solutions; (19) A multiparameter instrumentation approach

  1. Corrosion of ceramics for slag removal in IGCC-power plants; Korrosion von Keramiken fuer die Fluessigascheabscheidung in IGCC-Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerst, Denny

    2012-06-12

    einem Gas- und Dampfturbinen Kraftwerk (IGCC - Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) sind bei derzeit bestehenden Kraftwerken Wirkungsgrade von bis zu 43% erreichbar, wobei kurzfristig bis zu 50% moeglich sind. Um Wirkungsgrade jenseits 50% erreichen zu koennen, sind Konzepte und Technologien noetig, die noch einen gewissen Forschungs- und Entwicklungsaufwand erfordern. Eine solche Methode zur Wirkungsgradsteigerung ist eine verbesserte Heissgasreinigung des bei der Vergasung hergestellten Synthesegases. Fuer eine effiziente Nutzung der Waerme des Synthesegases ist es notwendig, dieses bei hohen Temperaturen von mitgerissener Schlacke zu befreien. Das Konzept einer solchen Heissgasreinigung, die an einer Keramikschuettung erfolgt, an der sich die Schlacke abscheidet, konnte schon fuer die Druckkohlestaubfeuerung erfolgreich demonstriert werden und sollte nun auf Vergaserbedingungen uebertragen werden. Hierfuer war es notwendig, verschiedene keramische Systeme auf ihre Schlackebestaendigkeit bei hohen Temperaturen (> 1500 C) zu untersuchen. Dazu wurden im Labor hergestellte Keramiken und industriell verfuegbare Feuerfestmaterialien bei 1600 C mit Schlacken ausgelagert. Zum besseren Verstaendnis der Korrosionmechanismen wurden die Versuche zunaechst mit drei Modellschlacken unterschiedlicher Basizitaet und in verschiedenen reduzierenden Atmosphaeren durchgefuehrt. Anschliessend wurden ausgewaehlte Proben mit einer realen Vergaserschlacke bei kontinuierlichem Schlackefluss untersucht. Es hat sich gezeigt, dass die Schlacken und die zu ihrer Abscheidung eingesetzten keramischen Materialien aufeinander abgestimmt werden muessen, um eine ausreichende Bestaendigkeit der Schuettung zu gewaehrleisten. Ausserdem zeigte sich der Einfluss der Porositaet der verwendeten Keramiken auf die Schlackebestaendigkeit. Die Atmosphaere, in der die Auslagerungsversuche durchgefuehrt wurden, hatte ueber den Sauerstoffpartialdruck vor allem einen Einfluss auf redoxempfindliche

  2. Assessment of the human factor in the quantification of technical system reliability taking into consideration cognitive-causal aspects. Partial project 2. Modeling of the human behavior for reliability considerations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennerich, Marco; Imbsweiler, Jonas; Straeter, Oliver; Arenius, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    cognitive load profiles can be used to assess the reliability of human behavior. The created cross-domain data base also allows the evaluation of failure mechanisms and the weighting of the effective factors. For the validation of this methodology a cognitive load profile for a nuclear specific reference scenario was defined. Here a steam generator tube rupture during the start-up procedure (reactor power <20%) without detection of the N16-Signal and, as additional disorder, a damaged valve seat in the feed water supply of an intact steam generator was defined. In this scenario, the identification of the defective steam generator is difficult for the control room personnel. It may lead to isolate a wrong, so functioning steam generator with sustained loss of coolant from the primary into the secondary circuit and possibly later in the scenario to a not sufficient core cooling. Based on the defined scenarios were reviewed and the validity of the results have been discussed and validated, in cooperation with instructors KSG (Kraftwerks-Simulator-Gesellschaft mbH). The findings were quantified and provided to the project partners, the Institute of Process Engineering, Process Automation and Instrumentation, University of Applied Science Zittau / Goerlitz to implement them in their fuzzy set approach. Overall, an approach has been developed to support probabilistic safety analysis with event data. Due to the cross-domain data in the event database, the methodology developed can be used for other safety-critical industries. It can make a huge contribution to safety in these high reliability industries.

  3. First status seminar `Druckflamm`. Development of a coal-fuelled combined cycle process with liquid ash separation. Conference report; Erstes Statusseminar `Druckflamm`. Entwicklung eines kohlegefeuerten Gas- und Dampfturbinenprozesses mit Fluessigascheabscheidung. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannes, K. [ed.

    1999-09-01

    werden kann. Dabei muss das Rauchgas soweit von Partikeln und materialschaedlichen Daempfen gereinigt werden, dass es gasturbinenvertraeglich wird. Nach Angaben der Turbinenhersteller bedeutet dies einen Partikelgehalt <3mg/m{sup 3} i.N. bei einem Partikeldurchmesser < 3 {mu}m und einem Alkaligehalt < 1 ppm. Zur praktischen Erprobung dieser Entwicklung wird in Dorsten auf dem Gelaende eines frueheren STEAG-Kraftwerkes eine Versuchsanlage gefahren. Mit ihr wollen die Betreiber den Gas-Dampfturbinenprozess, der mit Heizoel oder Gas Wirkungsgrade von z.Z. 57 % erreicht, auch fuer Kohle nutzbar machen. Die in Dorsten errichtete Versuchsanlage besitzt eine thermische Leistung von 1 MW und kann bis zu einem Druck von 20 bar betrieben werden. Ein Ueberblick ueber die bisher erzielten Ergebnisse und gewonnenen Erkenntnisse zu Einsatzkohle, Verbrennung und Rauchgasreinigung wird der schematischen Darstellung der Anlage folgend gegeben. Ueber Materialverhalten und Messtechnik wird gesondert berichtet. Als Brennstoff wurden Kohlen unterschiedlicher Zusammensetzung mit Schlackefliesspunkten zwischen ca. 1200 bis 1400 C eingesetzt. (orig.AKF)

  4. The semidry acid-anhydrite process (the use of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum by development of a new process for the production of FGD anhydrite); Das quasitrockene Saeure-Anhydrit-Verfahren (Erweiterung der Verwendungsmoeglichkeiten von REA-Gips durch Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Herstellung von REA-Anhydrit aus REA-Gips)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirsching, F. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany); Hueller, R. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany); Limmer, B. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    -Anhydrit untersucht. Die Reaktion erfolgt mit feuchtem, feinteiligem REA-Gips unter der katalytischen Wirkung kleiner Mengen Schwefelsaeure bei Temperaturen um 100 bis 200 C. Es wird wasserfreier REA-Anhydrit mit orthorhombischer Kristallstruktur erhalten. Die Umwandlung des Kristallgitters von Calciumsulfat-Dihydrat in Calciumsulfat-Anhydrit II vollzieht sich dabei direkt durch Mineralneubildung. Diese Umwandlung wird zu einem Verfahren entwickelt und als `Quasitrockenes Saeure-Anydrit-Verfahren` bezeichnet. Die Reaktion und ihr Mechanismus wurde zuerst in Laborversuchen untersucht. Als Ausgangsstoff ist jedes feinteilige Calciumsulfat-Dihydrat geeignet. Der bereits im Kraftwerk feinteilig-kristallin erzeugte REA-Gips mit 10% Restfeuchte ist besonders vorteilhaft, da er fuer diese Verwendung vorher nicht getrocknet und nicht gemahlen werden muss. Die Verfahrensentwicklung wurde bis in den halbtechnischen Massstab durchgefuehrt und Auslegungsgrundlagen fuer Grossanlagen an Kraftwerksstandorten erarbeitet. Als Reaktionsaggregat zeigte sich der direkt beheizte Drehrohrofen geeignet. Der REA-Anhydrit wird in diesem Verfahren als trockenes feinteiliges Produkt mit reproduzierbaren Teilchengroessen um 2 Mikron erhalten und besitzt neuartige technologische Eigenschaften. Seine Verwendungsmoeglichkeit wurde fuer die Zementindustrie sowie als Rohstoff zur Herstellung von Fuellstoffen untersucht. Fuer die Zementindustrie ist er grundsaetzlich geeignet. Der Einsatz als Fuellstoff ermoeglicht eine erweiterte Verwendung des REA-Gipses ausserhalb der traditionellen Bereiche der Gipsindustrie. Erste Versuche erlauben die Schlussfolgerung, dass der REA-Anhydrit nach einer Aufbereitung, die ebenfalls labormaessig neu entwickelt wurde, die fuer einen hochwertigen Fuellstoff notwendigen guten Eigenschaftsmerkmale hat. (orig.)

  5. Solar-ships, solar passenger vessels in public passenger traffic; Solarschiffe, Solarfahrgastschiffe im oeffentlichen Personenverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T. [Ingenieurbuero Schiffbau und Meerestechnik, Inst. fuer Solarschiffbau, Berlin und Hameln (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    It should first be said that solar boats are nothing other than electrically powered boats with their own independent, silent and clean power generator with which to recharge the storage batteries with free solar energy. There are only very few connection points to the public electricity grid on the open sea, on inland waterways and along their shores and banks. This fact has resulted in the many battery- and photo-voltaic-powered beacons and buoys that are so common today. But people who live aboard inland vessels, yachts, space stations and house boats are equally dependent on energy provided by electric storage batteries. Solar electricity generators are reliable, robust and perform their given task without requiring major maintenance work. This has resulted in ever more areas of application for solar electricity, also favoured by constantly falling prices and ever improving technology. Some of the currently available photo-voltaic modules are already pliable enough to form a single unit with the roof of a boat (see photo of the Aquabus 1050). Electric motors are older and more reliable than combustion engines. The motor can always be started just as long as the storage batteries have been recharged, i.e. the tank is full, and an electrical current is applied. In actual fact, such electric motors are in widespread use as nearly every cruise liner, submarine and even torpedo is equipped with electric drives. There are various reasons for this, such as a low degree of oscillation, silent operation and reliability. Large passenger-carrying vessels, however, do not use storage batteries but rather generate their electricity directly using numerous smaller diesel engines. (orig.) [German] Solarboote sind eigentlich nur Elektroboote, die ueber ihr eigenes unabhaengiges sauberes Kraftwerk verfuegen, das mit kostenloser Energie von der Sonne die Akkus auflaedt, ohne Kraftstoffe zu benoetigen. Auf den Meeren und Binnengewaessern sowie entlang ihrer Ufer gibt es nur

  6. New gas turbine technology 2012-2014 - Gas Turbine Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genrup, Magnus; Thern, Marcus [LTH, Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    The last three years have certainly been a game changer with respect to combined cycle efficiency and operational flexibility. All major manufacturers are able to offer plants with efficiencies around 61 percent. Siemens has a TUV-certified performance of 60.75 percent at the Kraftwerke Ulrich Hartmann (formerly Irsching 4) site outside Berlin. The old paradigm that high performance meant advanced steam-cooled gas turbines and slow started bottoming cycles has definitely proven false. Both Siemens and General Electric are able to do a hot restart within 30 minutes to, more or less, full load. This is, by far, faster than possible with steam cooling and the only technology that is capable of meeting the future flexibility requirements due to high volatile renewable penetration. All major manufacturers have developed air-cooled engines for combined cycles with 61 percent efficiency. Steam cooling will most likely only be used for 1600 deg firing level since there will be an air shortage for both dry low emission combustion and turbine cooling. The increased combined cycle efficiency is a combination of better (or higher) performing gas turbines and improved bottoming cycles. The higher gas turbine performance has been achieved whilst maintaining a 60 deg high pressure admission temperature - hence the gain in combined cycle performance. The mentioned requirements of both high gas turbine performance and sufficient exhaust temperature, should impose both an increase in pressure ratio and increased firing level. The price level (2012) was on average 30-35 percent higher than the minimum level in 2004. The cost of ownership (or per produced unit of power) is strongly governed by the difference between the electricity and the fuel price. The importance of evaluating all factors (like degradation and de-icing operation) in the economic model cannot be stressed too much since it may have a profound impact on the analysis. The test code guarantee verification test is indeed