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Sample records for zurich switzerland 2-6

  1. Stories of Change: The University of Zurich, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedt, Eva Seiler

    The University of Zurich (UZH) is the largest university with the broadest range of courses in Switzerland. The number of students in the Autumn Semester 2008 was 24,788, out of which, 56% students were women. They were studying at the Faculty of Theology (246), the Faculty of Law (3,519), the Faculty of Economy (3,055), the Faculty of Medicine (2,397), the Vetsuisse-Faculty (veterinary medicine, 650), the Faculty of Arts (12,015), and the Faculty of Science (2,906). The staff consists of 463 professors, 2,559 assistants and senior scientists, and 1,696 administrative and technical staff. They work in 160 institutes, seminars, and clinics in and around the city of Zurich, most of them concentrated on three main campuses.

  2. Concentrations in ambient air and emissions of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in Zurich, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Andreas M; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bogdal, Christian; MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2013-07-02

    Tens of thousands of tonnes of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) are used each year globally, which leads to high and continuous cVMS emissions to air. However, field measurements of cVMS in air and empirical information about emission rates to air are still limited. Here we present measurements of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in air for Zurich, Switzerland. The measurements were performed in January and February 2011 over a period of eight days and at two sites (city center and background) with a temporal resolution of 6-12 h. Concentrations of D5 and D6 are higher in the center of Zurich and range from 100 to 650 ng m(-3) and from 10 to 79 ng m(-3), respectively. These values are among the highest levels of D5 and D6 reported in the literature. In a second step, we used a multimedia environmental fate model parametrized for the region of Zurich to interpret the levels and time trends in the cVMS concentrations and to back-calculate the emission rates of D5 and D6 from the city of Zurich. The average emission rates obtained for D5 and D6 are 120 kg d(-1) and 14 kg d(-1), respectively, which corresponds to per-capita emissions of 310 mg capita(-1) d(-1) for D5 and 36 mg capita(-1) d(-1) for D6.

  3. Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Zurich, Switzerland--Atmospheric Concentrations and Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbacher, Pascal S; Bogdal, Christian; Gerecke, Andreas C; Glüge, Juliane; Schmid, Peter; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-08-18

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are of concern due to their potential for adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, persistence, and long-range transport. Data on concentrations of SCCPs in urban areas and underlying emissions are still scarce. In this study, we investigated the levels and spatial distribution of SCCPs in air, based on two separate, spatially resolved sampling campaigns in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. SCCP concentrations in air ranged from 1.8 to 17 ng·m(-3) (spring 2011) and 1.1 to 42 ng·m(-3) (spring 2013) with medians of 4.3 and 2.7 ng·m(-3), respectively. Both data sets show that atmospheric SCCP levels in Zurich can vary substantially and may be influenced by a number of localized sources within this urban area. Additionally, continuous measurements of atmospheric concentrations performed at one representative sampling site in the city center from 2011 to 2013 showed strong seasonal variations with high SCCP concentrations in summer and lower levels in winter. A long-term dynamic multimedia environmental fate model was parametrized to simulate the seasonal trends of SCCP concentrations in air and to back-calculate urban emissions. Resulting annual SCCP emissions in the city of Zurich accounted for 218-321 kg, which indicates that large SCCP stocks are present in urban areas of industrialized countries.

  4. Atmospheric fate of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs): II. Emission source strength in summer in Zurich, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyun; Scheringer, Martin; MacLeod, Matthew; Bogdal, Christian; Müller, Claudia E; Gerecke, Andreas C; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2012-10-01

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs) are present in consumer products and are semi-volatile precursors of persistent perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). The high variability of levels of FTOHs and FOSAs in products makes it difficult to derive FTOH- and FOSA-emissions from urban areas based on emission factors. Here we used a multimedia mass balance model that describes the day-night cycle of semi-volatile organic chemicals in air to interpret measurements of 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH, MeFOSA and EtFOSA from a sampling campaign in summer 2010 in Zurich, Switzerland. The estimated emission source strength of the four substances follows the sequence: 8:2 FTOH (2.6 g/h) > 10:2 FTOH (0.75 g/h) > MeFOSA (0.08 g/h) > EtFOSA (0.05 g/h). There is no FTOHs- or FOSAs-related industry in Zurich. Accordingly, our estimates are representative of diffusive emissions during use and disposal of consumer products, and describe noticeable sources of these PFASs to the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of the source strength of polybrominated diphenyl ethers based on their diel variability in air in Zurich, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeckel, Claudia; Gasic, Bojan; MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Jones, Kevin C; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2010-06-01

    Diel (24-h) concentration variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in air were measured in the center of Zurich, Switzerland, and on Uetliberg, a hill about 5 km from the city center. Air samples were collected simultaneously at both sites over 4 h time periods for 3 consecutive days during a stable high pressure system in August 2007. Higher PBDE concentrations in the city compared to the Uetliberg site indicate that Zurich is a likely source of PBDEs to the atmosphere. A multimedia mass balance model was used to (i) explain the diel cycling pattern of PBDE concentrations observed at both sites in terms of dominant processes and (ii) estimate emission rates of PBDEs from the city to the atmosphere. We estimate that Zurich emits 0.4, 6.2, 1.6, and 0.4 kg year(-1) of the PBDE congeners 28, 47, 99, and 100, respectively. On a per-capita basis, these estimates are within the range or somewhat above those obtained in other studies using approaches based on emission factors (EF) and PBDE production, usage, and disposal data, or concentration measurements. The present approach complements emission estimates based on the EF approach and can also be applied to source areas where EFs and PBDE material flows are poorly characterized or unknown, such as electronic waste processing plants.

  6. Atmospheric fate of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs): I. Day–night patterns of air concentrations in summer in Zurich, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Claudia E.; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Bogdal, Christian; Wang, Zhanyun; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are anthropogenic pollutants ubiquitously found in the environment. Volatile PFASs are likely transported atmospherically over long ranges, but identification and quantification of emission sources is a challenging task. In this work, special meteorological conditions were utilized to quantify atmospheric emissions of Zurich City, Switzerland with a dual approach of modeling and field measurements. During high pressure systems in summer, a stable nocturnal boundary layer is formed in which pollutants are enriched. For volatile PFASs, a diel pattern of high concentrations in the night and low concentrations during the day was observed in Zurich, which is likely due to the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics. These results enable to model the emission source strength of Zurich City with a multimedia mass balance model in an accompanying paper. Cluster analyses suggested that perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) are a result of degradation of volatile precursors and direct emissions. - Highlights: ► Atmospheric PFAS concentrations in Zurich increase during the night. ► Diel concentration dynamics are likely due to stable nocturnal boundary layer. ► City is a source of PFASs to the atmosphere. ► 8:2 FTOH concentrations are high: up to 1200 pg/m 3 . ► PFAA concentrations are correlated with ozone, not particulate matter. - Semivolatile PFAS concentrations follow a diel trend in Zurich City in stable summer conditions likely due to atmospheric boundary layer effects and urban emissions.

  7. Market-oriented ecological promotion - The Zurich approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebie, B.; Hug, F.; Vonbank, A.; Wieland, P.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the promotion of sustainable energy use and power-production from renewable resources. In particular, the approach adopted by the City of Zurich in Switzerland is discussed. Changes currently being experienced in the Swiss energy business are looked at. The approach adopted by the City of Zurich, which includes both rewards for increasing energy efficiency as well as the definition of criteria for the evaluation of measures and their effect, is discussed. Instruments and goals are looked at. Other topics discussed include the 'ecologicalisation' of electrical power production and economical incentives for industry. The role played by the labelling of ecologically-produced power is discussed and the economical advantages for the City of Zurich itself are examined

  8. Does the city of Zurich have a solar future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, F.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Zurich's efforts in the area of the supply of 'green' electricity are described. The results of a study made on the potential of photovoltaic power production in Zurich - one of the most comprehensive studies made in Switzerland - are discussed, in particular with respect to the large areas of otherwise unused roofs. The favourable conditions offered by the city's electricity utility are described and future measures necessary for increasing motivation for customers to buy solar-generated electricity are discussed

  9. Energy strategy for ETH Zurich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulouchos, K.; Casciaro, C.; Froehlich, K.; Hellweg, S.; Leibundgut, J.; Spreng, D. (eds.)

    2008-04-15

    This report published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, reports on how the Energy Science Center of the ETH Zurich embarked on the task of adjusting its plans for future energy-related teaching and research to match the magnitude of the challenges in the national and global arena. Strategic considerations for a future sustainable energy system as well as an assessment of the ETH's strengths and its prospects for continuing research in areas highly relevant for the future are dealt with. It is noted that the Energy Science Center has contributed significantly to the integration of specialists and disciplines and has already become indispensable for the co-ordination of energy-relevant activities in research and teaching at the ETH in Zurich. Strategic goals are discussed, as are the challenges placed on the centre. Research done in the areas of energy supply and its use are discussed, as are interactions with society and the environment. Energy education at the ETH is examined and visions for a transformation path are discussed, as are the implications for the ETH itself.

  10. Energy strategy for ETH Zurich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulouchos, K.; Casciaro, C.; Froehlich, K.; Hellweg, S.; Leibundgut, J.; Spreng, D.

    2008-04-01

    This report published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, reports on how the Energy Science Center of the ETH Zurich embarked on the task of adjusting its plans for future energy-related teaching and research to match the magnitude of the challenges in the national and global arena. Strategic considerations for a future sustainable energy system as well as an assessment of the ETH's strengths and its prospects for continuing research in areas highly relevant for the future are dealt with. It is noted that the Energy Science Center has contributed significantly to the integration of specialists and disciplines and has already become indispensable for the co-ordination of energy-relevant activities in research and teaching at the ETH in Zurich. Strategic goals are discussed, as are the challenges placed on the centre. Research done in the areas of energy supply and its use are discussed, as are interactions with society and the environment. Energy education at the ETH is examined and visions for a transformation path are discussed, as are the implications for the ETH itself

  11. Hemichrome formation during hemoglobin Zurich denaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, M.A.; Costa, F.F.; Botura, C.; Baffa, O.

    1988-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)spectrum of hemoglobin Zurich, after oxidation, storage and heating, showed several absorption derives in the high field region (g ≅ 2) which are indicative of hemichrome formation. Characteristic visible spectra of hemichromes were observed for oxidized Hb Zurich and for its spontaneous precipitate. The proportional increase of EPR signals at g ≅ 2 and decrease at g = 6.37, the constant ratio of absorbance at 540 nm to 280 nm during heating, and the similarity of this ratio for spontaneously precipitated HbA and for Hb Zurich indicate that heme is not lost during the first steps of Hb Zurich denaturation. (author) [pt

  12. The region makes the difference: disparities in management of acute myocardial infarction within Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insam, Charlène; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In this study, we assessed geographical differences within Switzerland regarding management of AMI. Cross-sectional study. Swiss hospital discharge database for period 2007-2008 (26,204 discharges from AMI). Seven Swiss regions (Leman, Mittelland, Northwest, Zurich, Central, Eastern, and Ticino) were analysed. Almost 53.7% of discharges from AMI were managed in a single hospital, ranging from 62.1% (Leman) to 31.6% (Ticino). The highest intensive care unit admission rate was in Leman (69.4%), the lowest (16.9%) in Ticino (Swiss average: 36.0%). Intracoronary revascularization rates were highest in Leman (51.1%) and lowest (30.9%) in Central Switzerland (average: 41.0%). Bare (non-drug-eluting) stent use was highest in Leman (61.4%) and lowest (16.9%) in Ticino (average: 42.1%), while drug-eluting stent use was highest (83.2%) in Ticino and lowest (38.6%) in Leman (average: 57.9%). Coronary artery bypass graft rates were highest (4.8%) in Ticino and lowest (0.5%) in Eastern Switzerland (average: 2.8%). Mechanical circulatory assistance rates were highest (4.2%) in Zurich and lowest (0.5%) in Ticino (average: 1.8%). The differences remained after adjusting for age, single or multiple hospital management, and gender. In Switzerland, significant geographical differences in management and revascularization procedures for AMI were found.

  13. Practice Study Outpatient Psychotherapy - Switzerland (PAP-S) : Study design and feasibility (Revised edition)

    OpenAIRE

    Wyl, Agnes von; Crameri, Aureliano; Koemeda, Margit; Tschuschke, Volker; Schulthess, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Revised edition of Von Wyl, A., Crameri, A., Koemeda, M., Tschuchke, V. & Schulthess, P. (2013). The PAP-S (Practice of Ambulant Psychotherapy-Study), Switzerland: Study Design and Feasibility. Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Zurich. The original article was published in German: von Wyl, A., Crameri, A., Koemeda, M., Tschuschke, V. & Schulthess, P. (2013). Praxisstudie ambulante Psychotherapie Schweiz (PAP-S): Studiendesign und Machbarkeit. Psychotherapie-Wissenschaft, 1, 6-22; op...

  14. 6 March 2012 - CERN Director-General R. HEUER holding the keynote speech at NIDays 2012, Zurich, Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Balle, Ch

    2012-01-01

    15e congrès des technologies et des experts pour la technique de la mesure et de l’automatisation par ordinateur.Pour la 15ème fois, le congrès des technologies et des experts « NIDays » qui eut lieu le 6 mars 2012 au Swissôtel à Zurich, a enthousiasmé près de 400 visiteurs.Prof. Heuer. lors du discours d'ouveture, a présente le centre de recherche CERN et décrit le potentiel de découverte du LHC pour la physique tout en mentionnant les résultats les plus importants de la première collecte de données. Le LHC fonctionne avec l'aide de plusieurs centaines de systèmes PXI. Ceux-ci font en sorte que les particules qui sortent du cœur de rayonnement soient absorbées. Grâce à LabVIEW Real-Time et LabVIEW FPGA, environ 600 moteurs sont synchronisés à la milliseconde le long des 27 km de l'accélérateur.

  15. An innovation for Switzerland - the CO{sub 2} heat-pump; Eine Innovation fuer die Schweiz - die CO{sub 2}-Waermepumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, H.-P.

    2006-07-01

    This article describes one of the first heat-pump installations in Switzerland that uses carbon dioxide as its working fluid. The installation, operated in contracting-modus by the Zurich electricity utility EWZ, provides the heating energy required to supply the training centre of a Zurich football club. The heat sources used in the system are mentioned, which include ambient air and 23 geothermal probes. The various uses of the heat are discussed, which include the heating of changing rooms, offices and restaurant and hot-water for the showers. The functioning of the CO{sub 2} heat-pump is described and its advantages are discussed. These include the use of a cheap, natural refrigerant, high temperature-lifts and high energy-efficiency. The possible application areas of such CO{sub 2} heat-pumps is discussed.

  16. Simulating the dispersion of NOx and CO2 in the city of Zurich at building resolving scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Dominik; Berchet, Antoine; Emmenegger, Lukas; Henne, Stephan; Müller, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Cities are emission hotspots for both greenhouse gases and air pollutants. They contribute about 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions and are home to a growing number of people potentially suffering from poor air quality in the urban environment. High-resolution atmospheric transport modelling of greenhouse gases and air pollutants at the city scale has, therefore, several important applications such as air pollutant exposure assessment, air quality forecasting, or urban planning and management. When combined with observations, it also has the potential to quantify emissions and monitor their long-term trends, which is the main motivation for the deployment of urban greenhouse gas monitoring networks. We have developed a comprehensive atmospheric modeling model system for the city of Zurich, Switzerland ( 600,000 inhabitants including suburbs), which is composed of the mesoscale model GRAMM simulating the flow in a larger domain around Zurich at 100 m resolution, and the nested high-resolution model GRAL simulating the flow and air pollutant dispersion in the city at building resolving (5-10 m) scale. Based on an extremely detailed emission inventory provided by the municipality of Zurich, we have simulated two years of hourly NOx and CO2 concentration fields across the entire city. Here, we present a detailed evaluation of the simulations against a comprehensive network of continuous monitoring sites and passive samplers for NOx and analyze the sensitivity of the results to the temporal variability of the emissions. Furthermore, we present first simulations of CO2 and investigate the challenges associated with CO2 sources not covered by the inventory such as human respiration and exchange fluxes with urban vegetation.

  17. An operational hydrological ensemble prediction system for the city of Zurich (Switzerland: skill, case studies and scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Addor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sihl River flows through Zurich, Switzerland's most populated city, for which it represents the largest flood threat. To anticipate extreme discharge events and provide decision support in case of flood risk, a hydrometeorological ensemble prediction system (HEPS was launched operationally in 2008. This model chain relies on limited-area atmospheric forecasts provided by the deterministic model COSMO-7 and the probabilistic model COSMO-LEPS. These atmospheric forecasts are used to force a semi-distributed hydrological model (PREVAH, coupled to a hydraulic model (FLORIS. The resulting hydrological forecasts are eventually communicated to the stakeholders involved in the Sihl discharge management. This fully operational setting provides a real framework with which to compare the potential of deterministic and probabilistic discharge forecasts for flood mitigation.

    To study the suitability of HEPS for small-scale basins and to quantify the added-value conveyed by the probability information, a reforecast was made for the period June 2007 to December 2009 for the Sihl catchment (336 km2. Several metrics support the conclusion that the performance gain can be of up to 2 days lead time for the catchment considered. Brier skill scores show that overall COSMO-LEPS-based hydrological forecasts outperforms their COSMO-7-based counterparts for all the lead times and event intensities considered. The small size of the Sihl catchment does not prevent skillful discharge forecasts, but makes them particularly dependent on correct precipitation forecasts, as shown by comparisons with a reference run driven by observed meteorological parameters. Our evaluation stresses that the capacity of the model to provide confident and reliable mid-term probability forecasts for high discharges is limited. The two most intense events of the study period are investigated utilising a novel graphical representation of probability forecasts, and are used

  18. Receptor modeling of C2─C7 hydrocarbon sources at an urban background site in Zurich, Switzerland: changes between 1993─1994 and 2005─2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reimann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Hourly measurements of 13 volatile hydrocarbons (C2–C7 were performed at an urban background site in Zurich (Switzerland in the years 1993–1994 and again in 2005–2006. For the separation of the volatile organic compounds by gas-chromatography (GC, an identical chromatographic column was used in both campaigns. Changes in hydrocarbon profiles and source strengths were recovered by positive matrix factorization (PMF. Eight and six factors could be related to hydrocarbon sources in 1993–1994 and in 2005–2006, respectively. The modeled source profiles were verified by hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The source strengths were validated by independent measurements, such as inorganic trace gases (NOx, CO, SO2, methane (CH4, oxidized hydrocarbons (OVOCs and meteorological data (temperature, wind speed etc.. Our analysis suggests that the contribution of most hydrocarbon sources (i.e. road traffic, solvents use and wood burning decreased by a factor of about two to three between the early 1990s and 2005–2006. On the other hand, hydrocarbon losses from natural gas leakage remained at relatively constant levels (−20%. The estimated emission trends are in line with the results from different receptor-based approaches reported for other European cities. Their differences to national emission inventories are discussed.

  19. On the paleoenvironmental potential of 253 newly discovered pine stumps from Zurich, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinig, Frederick; Nievergelt, Daniel; Esper, Jan; Friedrich, Michael; Helle, Gerhard; Hellmann, Lena; Kromer, Bernd; Morganti, Sandro; Pauly, Maren; Sookdeo, Adam; Tegel, Willy; Treydte, Kerstin; Wacker, Lukas; Büntgen, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    The transition from the last Ice Age to the early Holocene 15'000-10'000 BP represents a close natural analog to the ongoing and predicted rates of anthropogenic climate change. A reduced quality and quantity of high-resolution proxy archives during this period, however, limits our understanding of the magnitude and pace of Late Glacial (LG) environmental variability. Here, we present the world's best preserved, most replicated and oldest forest remains: A total of 253 subfossil pine stumps were recently discovered in Zurich. The combined approach of tree-ring and radiocarbon (14C) measurements results in an absolutely dated Preboreal Swiss tree-ring width chronology and eight floating chronologies. With tree ages ranging between 41 and 506 years, often including pith and bark, and a mean segment length of 163 years, this exceptional find is distributed over nearly 2'000 years between the Allerød and the Preboreal. Together with 200 previously collected LG pines from the greater Zurich region, this study sets a benchmark in terms of sample replication and dating precision for stable more dynamic climatic periods such as the Laacher See eruption, the Older and Younger Dryas. The paleoenvironmental significance would even increase when annually resolved 14C-measurements help fixing a major, Northern Hemispheric gap in the absolutely dated dendro time series during the Younger Dryas. While overcoming this interlude, our results further emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary research on these striking LG climatic shifts to better understand and assess their ecological and environmental impact.

  20. Evidence as Source of Power in School Reforms: The Quest for the Extension of Compulsory Education in Zurich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlig, Flavian; Ruoss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of evidence in educational policy and politics, and how this use has changed over time. Using an analytical framework that combines research approaches from both political and educational science, evidence-related arguments in two major school reforms in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland are described. In…

  1. Heterogeneity in testing practices for infections during pregnancy: national survey across Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi-Popp, Karoline; Kahlert, Christian; Rauch, Andri; Mosimann, Beatrice; Baud, David; Low, Nicola; Surbek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Detection and treatment of infections during pregnancy are important for both maternal and child health. The objective of this study was to describe testing practices and adherence to current national guidelines in Switzerland. We invited all registered practicing obstetricians and gynaecologists in Switzerland to complete an anonymous web-based questionnaire about strategies for testing for 14 infections during pregnancy. We conducted a descriptive analysis according to demographic characteristics. Of 1138 invited clinicians, 537 (47.2%) responded and 520 (45.6%) were eligible as they are currently caring for pregnant women. Nearly all eligible respondents tested all pregnant women for group B streptococcus (98.0%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) (96.5%) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (94.7%), in accordance with national guidelines. Although testing for toxoplasmosis is not recommended, 24.1% of respondents tested all women and 32.9% tested at the request of the patient. Hospital doctors were more likely not to test for toxoplasmosis than doctors working in private practice (odds ratio [OR] 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-6.13, p = 0.04). Only 80.4% of respondents tested all women for syphilis. There were regional differences in testing for some infections. The proportion of clinicians testing all women for HIV, HBV and syphilis was lower in Eastern Switzerland and the Zurich region (69.4% and 61.2%, respectively) than in other regions (range 77.1-88.1%, p Switzerland. More extensive national guidelines could improve consistency of testing practices.

  2. The ETH Zurich AMS facilities: Performance parameters and reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christl, M., E-mail: mchristl@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Vockenhuber, C.; Kubik, P.W.; Wacker, L.; Lachner, J.; Alfimov, V.; Synal, H.-A. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    The current performance of all three AMS systems in operation at ETH Zurich, the 6 MV HVEC EN-Tandem facility 'TANDEM', the 0.5 MV NEC Pelletron 'TANDY', and the 0.2 MV system 'MICADAS' is summarized. Radionuclides routinely measured with these AMS systems include {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 129}I and the actinides. The reference materials used for the normalization of the AMS measurements at the ETH Zurich AMS facilities are presented. This paper therefore is a comprehensive status report of all three AMS systems currently operated by the Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics (LIP) at ETH Zurich and documents their performance and operation parameters.

  3. Conrad Gessner-Kongress, Zürich, 6.-9. Juni 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Leu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To mark the 500th birthday of Conrad Gessner, the Leonardo da Vinci of Switzerland, an international congress was organized by the University and the Zentralbibliothek Zurich, which attracted many researchers to Zurich. Nearly 50 presentations illuminated work, life and contemporaries of the famous Zurich polymath and naturalist.

  4. Systems Thinking as a Major Skill of Business Students – A New Teaching Concept at the University of Zurich, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Adam

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In our world of growing complexity, linear thinking and the belief that the whole is only the sum of its parts are evidently obsolete. Systems thinking, which promotes a holistic view of reality, is a situation-adequate handling of complex systems, and is therefore one of the most important skills of future executives in the business world. A new teaching concept was introduced one year ago by the Faculty of Business Administration at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. This concept was designed to help the students to develop abilities in thinking in models, operating complex systems and handling dynamic, non-linear situations. By use of a computer-simulated game the business students should gain knowledge about systemic realities and improve their complex-problem-solving skills. In the semester when the newly designed lecture started, the highly motivated class became aware of the problems in dealing with complexity. Documenting any significant improvements in our students' performance in playing the game was not possible, but we observed a change in their behaviour and ways of thinking in situations of complex problem-solving. Some necessary changes and adjustments in the teaching concept were made and the next class will be investigated in autumn 2003.

  5. Emission scenarios 1985-2010: Their influence on ozone in Switzerland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Tinguely, M.; Prevot, A

    2005-07-15

    Ozone levels often exceed the ambient air quality standards during summer time. Since 1985, numerous regulations have been enforced or proposed to improve air quality in Europe. In this study we investigated the effect of these measures on ozone. Seven anthropogenic emission scenarios have been selected: scenario 0: emissions as reported for 2000 (base case); scenario 1: emissions as reported for 1985; scenario 2: emissions in 2000, if economy (and emissions) grows without control; scenario 3: emissions in 2010, if the Gothenburg Protocol is in force; scenario 4: emissions in 2010 according to the current legislation; scenario 5: emissions in 2010: 100% and 50% of the Gothenburg target emissions in Europe and in Switzerland, respectively; scenario 6: emissions in 2010: 50% and 50% of the Gothenburg target emissions in Europe and in Switzerland, respectively; scenario 7: zero anthropogenic emissions in Switzerland, base case emissions elsewhere. The 4-day period from 4 to 7 August 2003 was studied by means of the 3-dimensional photochemical model CAMx with 2 nested domains. The coarse domain covered a large part of Europe with a horizontal resolution of 27 km x 27 km. Switzerland and parts of the surrounding countries including the Greater Milan area were covered by the fine domain with resolution of 9 km x 9 km. Gridded meteorological data were obtained from MM5 meteorological model. The emission inventory was prepared by compiling European and Swiss anthropogenic emissions from various sources. Reference year was 2000. Biogenic emissions were calculated with temperature and irradiance dependent algorithms using land use and meteorological data. Initial and boundary conditions were adjusted from the output of the global model MOZART. The model could reproduce peak ozone concentrations around large urban areas. Model results were strongly affected by meteorological parameterization and emissions. Compared to 2000, ozone concentrations in 1985 were about 5% higher in

  6. Emission scenarios 1985-2010: Their influence on ozone in Switzerland - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.; Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Tinguely, M.; Prevot, A.

    2005-07-01

    Ozone levels often exceed the ambient air quality standards during summer time. Since 1985, numerous regulations have been enforced or proposed to improve air quality in Europe. In this study we investigated the effect of these measures on ozone. Seven anthropogenic emission scenarios have been selected: scenario 0: emissions as reported for 2000 (base case); scenario 1: emissions as reported for 1985; scenario 2: emissions in 2000, if economy (and emissions) grows without control; scenario 3: emissions in 2010, if the Gothenburg Protocol is in force; scenario 4: emissions in 2010 according to the current legislation; scenario 5: emissions in 2010: 100% and 50% of the Gothenburg target emissions in Europe and in Switzerland, respectively; scenario 6: emissions in 2010: 50% and 50% of the Gothenburg target emissions in Europe and in Switzerland, respectively; scenario 7: zero anthropogenic emissions in Switzerland, base case emissions elsewhere. The 4-day period from 4 to 7 August 2003 was studied by means of the 3-dimensional photochemical model CAMx with 2 nested domains. The coarse domain covered a large part of Europe with a horizontal resolution of 27 km x 27 km. Switzerland and parts of the surrounding countries including the Greater Milan area were covered by the fine domain with resolution of 9 km x 9 km. Gridded meteorological data were obtained from MM5 meteorological model. The emission inventory was prepared by compiling European and Swiss anthropogenic emissions from various sources. Reference year was 2000. Biogenic emissions were calculated with temperature and irradiance dependent algorithms using land use and meteorological data. Initial and boundary conditions were adjusted from the output of the global model MOZART. The model could reproduce peak ozone concentrations around large urban areas. Model results were strongly affected by meteorological parameterization and emissions. Compared to 2000, ozone concentrations in 1985 were about 5% higher in

  7. Implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention for children with autism in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Nadja; Gundelfinger, Ronnie; Schenker, Tanja; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2017-01-21

    There is a major gap between the US and most European countries regarding the implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for children with autism. The present paper reports on the current status of EIBI in Switzerland and on the effectiveness of EIBI under clinical conditions in a Swiss pilot project. The paper combines a narrative report of the care system for children with autism in Switzerland and an initial evaluation of EIBI as implemented in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich. The current situation of the implementation of EIBI for children with autism in Switzerland is characterized by marked deficits in its acceptance. Major reasons include insufficient governmental approval and lacking legal and financial support. In addition, ignorance among health care providers and educational professionals has contributed to this situation precluding that children with autism receive the most beneficial assistance. The authors have initiated and been working in an intervention centre offering EIBI for a decade and report on their experience with the implementation of EIBI. Based on their clinical practice, they document that EIBI also works efficiently under ordinary mental health service conditions. EIBI needs to be implemented more intensively in Switzerland. Although the effects of EIBI as implemented in Zurich are promising, the results are not as pronounced as under controlled research conditions.

  8. Scientific basis to assess the potential for geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, L. W.; Chevalier, G. [Institut fuer Geologie, Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Leu, W. [Geoform AG, Geologische Beratungen und Studien, Villeneuve (former Minusio) (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Possibilities to sequester anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in deep geological formations are being investigated worldwide, but the potential within Switzerland has not yet been evaluated. This study presents a first-order appraisal based solely on geological criteria collated from the literature. The Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB) and the adjacent Folded Jura are the only realms of the country where CO{sub 2} could conceivably be stored in saline aquifers. Evaluation of geological criteria at the basin-wide scale shows that the SMB-Jura has moderate potential (score of 0.6 on a scale from 0 to 1) when compared to basins elsewhere. At the intrabasinal scale, inspection of the stratigraphy reveals four regional candidate aquifers that are sealed by suitable caprocks: top Basement plus basal Mesozoic sandstones, all sealed by the Anhydrite Group; Upper Muschelkalk sealed by the Gipskeuper; Hauptrogenstein sealed by the Effinger Member, and Upper Malm plus Lower Cretaceous sealed by the Lower Freshwater Molasse. Nine geological criteria are defined to evaluate the storage potential of these and other smaller-scale candidates. A numerical scoring and weighting scheme allows the criteria to be assessed simultaneously, permitting the storage potential to be depicted using the 0-1 scale in contoured maps. Approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of the central SMB exhibits potentials between 0.6 and 0.96. The Fribourg-Olten-Lucerne area is the most favoured owing to the presence of several sealed aquifers within the preferred 800-2500 m depth interval, and to its low seismicity, low geothermal gradient, low fault density, and long groundwater residence times. Smaller areas with good potential lie between Zurich and St. Gall. In contrast, western Switzerland, the Jura and the southern SMB have markedly poorer potential. Considering only the portions of the aquifers with potential above 0.6, the theoretical, effective storage capacity of the basin is estimated to be 2680 million tonnes of CO{sub 2

  9. CO{sub 2} emissions of newly homologated private cars in Switzerland: EU orientation; CO{sub 2}-Emissionen der PW-Neuzulassungen der Schweiz: Orientierung an der EU - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, P. de

    2009-05-15

    In this final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Institute for Environmental Decisions at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich reports on the carbon dioxide emissions of newly homologated vehicles in Switzerland. The report examines if, how, until when and with which pricing-signals Switzerland can adopt the EU's strategy for attaining an average CO{sub 2} emission rate of 130 g/km for newly homologated vehicles. It is noted that the Swiss car market is completely integrated into the EU market. The models used are looked at and demand-side tools such as models on the basis of sanctions and certificates are considered. Further points examined include measures for attaining a further 10 g/km saving, as well as rebound effects and economic feasibility aspects. Finally, monitoring using annual data for result-checking and Swiss joint CO{sub 2} monitoring reporting are discussed.

  10. [Who is rehospitalized in a psychiatric hospital? Psychiatric hospitalization rates and social indicators in the Zurich canton (Switzerland)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüesch, P; Meyer, P C; Hell, D

    2000-03-01

    There are two approaches in the research on the relation between social conditions and mental disorder: The ecological approach is concerned with characteristics of the social composition of a certain geographical area and their relation to the frequency of disorders, whereas for the individualistic view variables of the psychosocial background of the individual are of interest. This study is on the risk for psychiatric admission (first and re-admission). While considering variables of the social context of the community as well as of the background of the individual, it tries to take into account both the ecological and the individualistic view of the relationship between social conditions and (treated) mental disorder. The sample of the study includes data of 4021 psychiatric inpatients treated in 1997 in one of the seven psychiatric hospitals of the Swiss canton of Zurich as well as data of social context of the 171 communities of the canton of Zurich. The psychiatric first and re-admission rates of the community can be predicted by the following variables of its social context: 1. pro portion of foreigners, 2. urban character of the living area, 3. population density. Two other variables are of relevance only for the prediction of first admissions: 4. proportion of one-person households and 5. local tax rate. However, further results of the study show that correlations between variables of the social context and psychiatric admission rate of the community cannot be interpreted as risks for the individual.

  11. Performance and age of African and non-African runners in half- and full marathons held in Switzerland, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschmann A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available André Aschmann,1 Beat Knechtle,2 Marco Cribari,1 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Vincent Onywera,3 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers4 1Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3Department of Recreation Management and Exercise Science, Kenyatta University, Kenya; 4Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France Background: Endurance running performance of African (AF and non-African (NAF athletes is investigated, with better performances seen for Africans. To date, no study has compared the age of peak performance between AF and NAF runners. The present research is an analysis of the age and running performance of top AF and NAF athletes, using the hypothesis that AF athletes were younger and faster than NAF athletes. Methods: Age and performance of male and female AF and NAF athletes in half-marathons and marathons held in Switzerland in 2000–2010 were investigated using single and multilevel hierarchical regression analyses. Results: For half-marathons, male NAF runners were older than male AF runners (P = 0.02; NAF, 31.1 years ± 6.4 years versus AF, 26.2 years ± 4.9 years, and their running time was longer (P = 0.02; NAF, 65.3 minutes ± 1.7 minutes versus AF, 64.1 minutes ± 0.9 minutes. In marathons, differences between NAF and AF male runners in age (NAF, 33.0 years ± 4.8 years versus AF, 28.6 years ± 3.8 years; P 0.05 or running time (NAF, 75.0 minutes ± 3.7 minutes versus AF, 75.6 minutes ± 5.3 minutes; P > 0.05 between NAF and AF female half-marathoners. For marathoners, NAF women were older than AF female runners (P = 0.03; NAF, 31.6 years ± 4.8 years versus AF, 27.8 years ± 5.3 years, but their running times were similar (NAF, 162.4 minutes ± 7.2 minutes versus AF, 163.0 minutes ± 7.0 minutes; P > 0.05. Conclusion: In Switzerland

  12. Implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention for children with autism in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Nadja; Gundelfinger, Ronnie; Schenker, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a major gap between the US and most European countries regarding the implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for children with autism. The present paper reports on the current status of EIBI in Switzerland and on the effectiveness of EIBI under...... clinical conditions in a Swiss pilot project. METHODS: The paper combines a narrative report of the care system for children with autism in Switzerland and an initial evaluation of EIBI as implemented in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich. RESULTS: The current situation...... of the implementation of EIBI for children with autism in Switzerland is characterized by marked deficits in its acceptance. Major reasons include insufficient governmental approval and lacking legal and financial support. In addition, ignorance among health care providers and educational professionals has contributed...

  13. Hydrops Fetalis Associated with Compound Heterozygosity for Hb Zurich-Albisrieden (HBA2: C.178G > C) and the Southeast Asian (- -SEA/) Deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Yan, Jin-Mei; Li, Jian; Xie, Xing-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Li, Yan; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    Hb Zurich-Albisrieden [HBA2: c.178G > C; α59(E8)Gly→Arg (α2)] is a rare nondeletional α-thalassemia (α-thal) that results from a nucleotide substitution at codon 59 of the α2-globin gene. In this report, we present a fetus with cardiomegaly, enlarged placenta and increased middle cerebral artery-peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) at 25 weeks' gestation. Fetal blood sampling revealed the severe anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) level being 5.5 g/dL] and Hb H (β4) disease-like hematological findings with Hb Bart's (γ4) level of 30.7%. Molecular analysis of the family found that the father was an Hb Zurich-Albisrieden carrier, the mother heterozygous for the - - SEA α 0 -thal deletion, and the fetus was a compound heterozygote for Hb Zurich-Albisrieden and the - - SEA α 0 -thal deletion. Therefore, this was a rare case of Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis associated with Hb Zurich Albisrieden.

  14. Budget impact model for oncopharmacogenetics from the perspective of mandatory basic health insurance in Switzerland using the example of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szucs TD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thomas D Szucs,1 Kevin P Szillat,2 Eva Blozik3 1University of Basel, Institute of Pharmaceutical Medicine (ECPM, Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Health Sciences, ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland; 3Department of Health Sciences, Helsana Group, Zürich, Switzerland Abstract: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs can severely impact individual drug response and health outcomes in cancer patients. Genetic tests to screen for marker SNPs are available to adjust the drug dose of oncologicals to the patient’s needs. However, it is unclear whether the positive effects outbalance the increased costs or even lead to an overall cost reduction. This very pragmatic analysis used three frequently used oncologicals for the treatment of breast cancer to evaluate whether preemptive pharmacogenetic testing may have a cost-reducing impact on health care spending in the Swiss health care system. Our results indicate that oncopharmacogenetics might help to reduce health care costs (ie, by avoiding adverse drug effects and to increase efficiency of drugs in oncologic patients. Keywords: pharmacogenetics, oncology, budget impact model, Switzerland, health insurance

  15. FameLab International Final: a triumph for Switzerland and CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Oskari Vinko, from ETH Zurich, who won the Swiss finals organised at CERN last May, is the winner of the 2015 FameLab competition. The CERN winner Lillian Smestad, member of the AEgIS collaboration from the Norwegian Research Council, shared second place with François-Xavier Joly from France, who also was among the trainees at the FameLab Master Classes organised by CERN in April.     CERN's Lillian Smestad (left) and Oskari Vinko from ETH Zurich, during the Swiss and CERN joint final, organised at CERN in May 2015. The 2015 FameLab International Final, which took place on 4 June in Cheltenham, UK, was a triumph for Switzerland and CERN! The competition was very hard this year, with 27 countries participating in the international semifinals and only nine making it through to the finals. This was also the first year that CERN took part as a “country”.  Congratulations to all the winners! To experience the international Famelab ...

  16. The 2015 Annual Meeting of SETAC German Language Branch in Zurich (7-10 September, 2015): ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry-from research to application

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Inge; Aldrich, Annette; Becker, Benjamin; Becker, Dennis; Brinkmann, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael; Caspers, Norbert; Campiche, Sophie; Chèvre, Nathalie; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Escher, Beate I.; Fischer, Fabian; Giebner, Sabrina; Heye, Katharina; Hollert, Henner

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of the 20th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 7th to 10th 2015 at ETH (Swiss Technical University) in Zurich, Switzerland. The event was chaired by Inge Werner, Director of the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) Eawag-EPFL, and organized by a team from Ecotox Centre, Eawag, Federal Office of the Environment, Federal Office of Agriculture, ...

  17. From "uncertifiable" medical practice to Berlin Clinic of Women Doctors: the medical career of Franziska Tiburtius (M.D. Zurich, 1876).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P

    1999-01-01

    Problems in gender expectations and relationships complicated increasing professionalization of medical arts at an important point of transformation toward the modern industrial European state. Subordination of women's work in these processes altered possible outcomes for German society in general and for female medical careers in particular. Franziska Tiburtius was one of twenty German women who graduated from the coeducational medical school in Zurich, Switzerland, in the nineteenth century. She was a founder of the Clinic of Women Doctors despite prohibitions against certifying women as physicians. Imperial Germany was the last Western nation to admit women to full medical practice in 1899.

  18. Solar heating system with seasonal storage for the 'Heumatt' housing development in Zurich; Solare Waermeversorgung mit saisonalem Speicher fuer die Wohnsiedlung Heumatt, Zuerich Seebach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, P.; Juzi, H.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes a project proposal for the seasonal storage of heat produced by solar collectors to provide a fifty-percent coverage of the space heating and hot water demands of a housing scheme with 140 dwellings in Zurich, Switzerland. The report describes the project, including the collection of solar energy and the storage of heat in an underground storage area. Figures are given on the estimates of energy requirements and energy production. The investments needed for the realisation of the project are quoted. The report also includes a detailed report on the concept and reviews of the project made by the University of Applied Technology in Winterthur and that of Southern Switzerland.

  19. Sustainable development in the Gruenau-Werdwies quarter, Zurich; Nachhaltige Quartierentwicklung Gruenau-Werdwies Zuerich; Auswirkungen der Ersatzneubauten Bernerstrasse Werdwies - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenny, A.; Ott, W.

    2009-12-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the effects of new, replacement residential buildings in the Bernerstrasse in Zurich, Switzerland. The authors state that this replacement development project is exemplary for sustainable residential development, incorporating ecological solutions for building and mobility, addressing financial and social aspects and allowing resident participation. The report includes the results of surveys made among the residents of the area and compares the Werdwies quarter with the whole area's social structures and mobility aspects. The quarter's energy consumption is discussed on the basis of a result checking survey. Finally, the findings of the project are discussed.

  20. ETH Zurich tour at CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Right to left: Thomas Wobmann and Markus Zemp visit the LHC tunnel at CERN with G nther Dissertori and Marcel Wyler of ETH Zurich. Their visit was part of the top prize for a competition organised by the ETH department of physics to coincide with its open day in June. Residents of Zurich and surrounding Swiss cantons were invited to answer five physics questions broadcast on local radio and the Internet the week before the open day. The two winners' reward for knowing who did not believe that God plays dice, among other things, was a flight offered by Swiss International Air Lines to Geneva and a VIP tour of CERN. One highlight was a trip to the underground site of the future CMS experiment, where the scale of the enormous cavern makes construction machines look like children's toys.

  1. Marathon performance in relation to body fat percentage and training indices in recreational male runners

    OpenAIRE

    Tanda G; Knechtle B

    2013-01-01

    Giovanni Tanda,1 Beat Knechtle2,31DIME, Università degli Studi di Genova, Genova, Italy; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anthropometric characteristics and training indices on marathon race times in recreational male marathoners.Methods: Training and anthropometric characteristics were col...

  2. Personal best times in an Olympic distance triathlon and in a marathon predict Ironman race time in recreational male triathletes

    OpenAIRE

    R?st, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    Christoph Alexander Rüst1, Beat Knechtle1,2, Patrizia Knechtle2, Thomas Rosemann1, Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U887, University of Burgundy, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Dijon, FranceBackground: The purpose of this study was to define predictor variables for recreational male Ironman triathletes, using age and basic measurements of an...

  3. Predictor variables for a half marathon race time in recreational male runners

    OpenAIRE

    Rüst, C A; Knechtle, B; Knechtle, P; Barandun, U; Lepers, R; Rosemann, T

    2011-01-01

    Christoph Alexander Rüst1, Beat Knechtle1,2, Patrizia Knechtle2, Ursula Barandun1, Romuald Lepers3, Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U887, University of Burgundy, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Dijon, FranceAbstract: The aim of this study was to investigate predictor variables of anthropometry, training, and previous experience in order to ...

  4. Age of peak performance in 50-km ultramarathoners – is it older than in marathoners?

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaidis PT; Knechtle B

    2018-01-01

    Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis,1,2 Beat Knechtle3,4 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Nikaia, Greece; 2Laboratory of Exercise Testing, Hellenic Air Force Academy, Dekelia, Greece; 3Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, St. Gallen, Switzerland; 4Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Purpose: Despite the increasing popularity of 50-km ultramarathons during the last few years, only limited information is available regarding the trends in its performance and participatio...

  5. [Demographic Analysis of Patients with Osteosarcoma, Chonddrosarcoma, Ewing's Sarcoma from one Sarcoma Center in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, Sandro; Seeli, Franziska; Fuchs, Bruno

    2015-06-17

    Retrospective analysis of presentation, diagnosis and outcome of patients with osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma was performed for a single Sarcoma Center in Zurich at the University Hospital Balgrist. 201 patients were included. Overall survival at five and ten years were 74 ± 6%, 69 ± 7% for osteosarcoma (n = 85, since 2000), 85 ± 7%, 80 ± 9% for Ewing's sarcoma (n = 43, since 1990) and 86 ± 5%, 78 ± 9% for chondrosarcoma (n = 73, since 2000). The here presented overall survival rates from a single Sarcoma Center in Switzerland appear to be equivalent to other large international monocenter studies. The presentation and epidemiology of these patients are in accordance with large multicenter epidemiological studies. A nationwide sarcoma database (SwissSARCOS; www.sarcoma.ch) seems indispensable for more detailed analysis and quality management in such rare diseases.

  6. Assessment and evaluation of geothermal potential in Switzerland; Atlas des ressources geothermiques suisses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andenmatten-Berthoud, N. [Geowatt AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kohl, T. [Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Institut de Geophysique, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the first part of a project that aims at assessing the geothermal energy potential of Switzerland's underground. Due to the presence of the Alps the Swiss underground is highly heterogeneous with numerous geologic faults. Geothermal energy assessment has to be carried out region after region. The first steps consisted in collecting existing geological and hydrogeological data and finding out the best appropriate methodology. Analysis was restricted to the Northwest of Switzerland (Basle-Zurich area), which has a dense population - an important factor for future applications - and is better known than others, thanks to previous studies performed in conjunction with site pre-selection for future radioactive waste disposal facilities. In this area, sandstones and limestones are found on the crystalline bottom rock. Mathematical models and computer codes were developed for interpolation and extrapolation of local and regional data. Three dimensional finite-element techniques were used. The results are presented in diagrams and maps.

  7. The 2015 Annual Meeting of SETAC German Language Branch in Zurich (7-10 September, 2015): Ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry-from research to application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Inge; Aldrich, Annette; Becker, Benjamin; Becker, Dennis; Brinkmann, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael; Caspers, Norbert; Campiche, Sophie; Chèvre, Nathalie; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Escher, Beate I; Fischer, Fabian; Giebner, Sabrina; Heye, Katharina; Hollert, Henner; Junghans, Marion; Kienle, Cornelia; Knauer, Katja; Korkaric, Muris; Märkl, Veronika; Muncke, Jane; Oehlmann, Jörg; Reifferscheid, Georg; Rensch, Daniel; Schäffer, Andreas; Schiwy, Sabrina; Schwarz, Simon; Segner, Helmut; Simon, Eszter; Triebskorn, Rita; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Wintgens, Thomas; Zennegg, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of the 20th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 7th to 10th 2015 at ETH (Swiss Technical University) in Zurich, Switzerland. The event was chaired by Inge Werner, Director of the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) Eawag-EPFL, and organized by a team from Ecotox Centre, Eawag, Federal Office of the Environment, Federal Office of Agriculture, and Mesocosm GmbH (Germany). Over 200 delegates from academia, public agencies and private industry of Germany, Switzerland and Austria attended and discussed the current state of science and its application presented in 75 talks and 83 posters. In addition, three invited keynote speakers provided new insights into scientific knowledge 'brokering', and-as it was the International Year of Soil-the important role of healthy soil ecosystems. Awards were presented to young scientists for best oral and poster presentations, and for best 2014 master and doctoral theses. Program and abstracts of the meeting (mostly in German) are provided as Additional file 1.

  8. Stop measles in Switzerland - The importance of travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Silja; Lang, Phung; Bally, Bettina; Hatz, Christoph; Jaeger, Veronika K

    2017-06-27

    In line with the worldwide strive to combat measles, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Heath (FOPH) launched a National Strategy for measles elimination 2011-2015. In this study, we highlight the importance of travel medicine consultations to complement measles vaccination programmes based on data from the Travel Clinic of the University of Zurich. We analysed measles vaccination data from the Zurich Travel Clinic between July 2010 and February 2016 and focused on three groups: (i) all clients who received the measles vaccination, (ii) all clients aged>two years who received the measles vaccination ("catch-up vaccination"), and (iii) all clients aged>two years and born after 1963 ("FOPH recommended catch-up vaccination"). 107,669 consultations were performed from 2010 to 2016. In 12,470 (11.6%) of these, a measles vaccination was administered; 90.9% measles vaccinations were given during a pre-travel consultation, and 99.4% were administered to individuals aged>two years ("catch-up vaccinations"). An "FOPH recommended catch-up vaccination" was received by 13.6% of all Zurich Travel Clinic clients aged >2years and born after 1963. In this study, we highlight the importance of travel medicine consultations to enhance the measles vaccination coverage in the adult Swiss population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bike2Work: and the winners are...

    CERN Multimedia

    Jens Vigen, "Bike2Work" coordinator for CERN

    2015-01-01

    Bike2Work is a popular initiative to promote cycling that was launched in Switzerland in 2004. Every summer, it mobilises some 50,000 employees from more than 1100 companies and organisations across Switzerland. This year, CERN established itself as the main player in French-speaking Switzerland.   The main motivation for Bike2Work is the joy of the cycle commute. Biking contributes to your fitness and reduces pollution and congestion on the roads and in car parks. During this year’s Bike2Work, over 9 million kilometres were recorded across Switzerland! Out of these, 97,462 kilometres were pedaled by the 126 CERN teams participating in the initiative. In this friendly competition, CERN established itself as the main player in French-speaking Switzerland, although EPFL was not far behind with 124 teams. However, CERN beat EPFL by a large margin with regard to the number of kilometres cycled, as our colleagues in the canton of Vaud reached only 63,000 kilometres. Even ETH in Zurich w...

  10. Utopia Switzerland (2) - A Country Without CO2 Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Global warming and climate change are major themes in the today's energy policy discussion. Awarding Al Gore and the IPCC with the Nobel price in 2007 shows the importance of the climate change for the whole world. That we are running into climatic problems is already known since several decades and possibilities to solve the CO 2 emissions were proposed and discussed since years, but a reduction in the CO 2 emissions is not detectable. This might be due to the fact, that the major part of CO 2 production (traffic and heating) is not consequently touched. It seems to be easier to discuss about renewable energies in the electricity market than in other areas. And the consequences of discussing stepping out of nuclear all over the world, has enforced the problem. Although the renaissance of nuclear has started and the known positive impact to the climate from this energy source, it is not forced to be the solution for the biggest problem of the near future. There are only a few countries worldwide which produce electricity without or with only small amounts of CO 2 emissions like Norway or Switzerland. Those countries could be demonstration countries to show the possibilities for reducing and avoiding CO 2 emissions. Would it be possible to replace all fossil energy sources during a reasonable period of time by using nuclear energy and hydrogen as an energy storage system? Is this scenario technical feasible and of economic interest for a small, developed country like Switzerland? If yes, Switzerland might be a good candidate to establish the first CO 2 -free industrial developed state in the world. Looking much more ahead this study will discuss a simple but might be effective scenario for Switzerland. The study is based on a paper presented at IYNC 2006 and will update the used data as well as going in more details. (authors)

  11. Does multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training boost cognitive performance in older adults? A 6-month rando­mized controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggenberger P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Eggenberger,1 Vera Schumacher,2,3 Marius Angst,1 Nathan Theill,4,5 Eling D de Bruin1,6,7 1Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, 2Department of Gerontopsychology and Gerontology, 3University Research Priority Program “Dynamics of Healthy Aging”, University of Zurich, Zurich, 4Division of Psychiatry Research, University of Zurich, Schlieren, 5Center for Gerontology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 6CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, Department of Epidemiology, 7Centre for Evidence Based Physiotherapy, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: Cognitive impairment is a health problem that concerns almost every second elderly person. Physical and cognitive training have differential positive effects on cognition, but have been rarely applied in combination. This study evaluates synergistic effects of multicomponent physical exercise complemented with novel simultaneous cognitive training on cognition in older adults. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical components would add training specific cognitive benefits compared to exclusively physical training.Methods: Seniors, older than 70 years, without cognitive impairment, were randomly assigned to either: 1 virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE, 2 treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY, or 3 treadmill walking (PHYS. Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Cognitive performance was assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were calculated.Results: Eighty-nine participants were randomized to the three groups initially, 71 completed the training, while 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. Advantages of the simultaneous cognitive–physical programs were

  12. Health problems among detainees in Switzerland: a study using the ICPC-2 classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Dominique

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the health status of prisoners in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by detainees in Switzerland's largest remand prison. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study we reviewed the health records of all detainees leaving Switzerland's largest remand prison in 2007. The health problems were coded using the International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC-2. Analyses were descriptive, stratified by gender. Results A total of 2195 health records were reviewed. Mean age was 29.5 years (SD 9.5; 95% were male; 87.8% were migrants. Mean length of stay was 80 days (SD 160. Illicit drug use (40.2% and mental health problems (32.6% were frequent, but most of these detainees (57.6% had more generic primary care problems, such as skin (27.0%, infectious diseases (23.5%, musculoskeletal (19.2%, injury related (18.3%, digestive (15.0% or respiratory problems (14.0%. Furthermore, 7.9% reported exposure to violence during arrest by the police. Conclusion Morbidity is high in this young, predominantly male population of detainees, in particular in relation to substance abuse. Other health problems more commonly seen in general practice are also frequent. These findings support the further development of coordinated primary care and mental health services within detention centers.

  13. The crystal structure of (001) twinned xilingolite, Pb3Bi2S6, from Mittal-Hohtenn, Valais, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlepsch, Peter; Armbruster, Thomas; Makovicky, Emil

    2002-01-01

    geology, xilingolite, crystal structure, twinning, lillianite homologue, electron-microprobe analyses, cannizzarite, Bi-containing galena, Mittal-Hohtenn, Valais, Switzerland......geology, xilingolite, crystal structure, twinning, lillianite homologue, electron-microprobe analyses, cannizzarite, Bi-containing galena, Mittal-Hohtenn, Valais, Switzerland...

  14. Out-of-hours demand in primary care: frequency, mode of contact and reasons for encounter in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Carola A; Rosemann, Thomas; Zoller, Marco; Eichler, Klaus; Senn, Oliver

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the demand for traditional out-of-hours general practitioner (GP) emergency care in Switzerland including GPs' satisfaction and reasons for encounter (RFE). During a 2-month period (2009), a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was performed in GPs participating in the mandatory out-of-hours service in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. The number and mode of patient contacts were assessed to investigate the demand for GP care in traditional out-of-hours services. GPs and patient characteristics, including RFE according to the International Classification of Primary Care, were noted. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were conducted. Out of the 295 out-of-hours episodes during the study period, 148 (50%) duty periods were documented by a total of 93 GPs (75% men) with a mean (SD) age of 48.0 (6.2) years. The median (interquartile range) number of out-of-hours contacts was 5 (3-8) and the demand for home visits was significantly more common compared with practice and telephone consultations. A total of 112 different RFEs were responsible for the 382 documented patient contacts with fever accounting for the most common complaint (13.9%). Although 80% of GPs agreed to be satisfied overall with their profession as primary care provider, 57.6% among them were dissatisfied with the current out-of-hours service. Inappropriate payment and interference with their daily work in practice were most frequently reported. Our findings indicate that there is still strong patient demand for out-of-hours care with special need for home visits, suggesting that new organizational models such as integrating GPs into emergency care may not be an appropriate approach for all patients. Therefore, the ongoing reorganization of the out-of-hours-service in many health care systems has to be evaluated carefully in order not to miss important patient needs. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Utopia Switzerland (2) - A Country Without CO{sub 2} Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, Marco [Aare-Tessin Ltd for Electricity, Bahnhofquai 12, 4601 Olten (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Global warming and climate change are major themes in the today's energy policy discussion. Awarding Al Gore and the IPCC with the Nobel price in 2007 shows the importance of the climate change for the whole world. That we are running into climatic problems is already known since several decades and possibilities to solve the CO{sub 2} emissions were proposed and discussed since years, but a reduction in the CO{sub 2} emissions is not detectable. This might be due to the fact, that the major part of CO{sub 2} production (traffic and heating) is not consequently touched. It seems to be easier to discuss about renewable energies in the electricity market than in other areas. And the consequences of discussing stepping out of nuclear all over the world, has enforced the problem. Although the renaissance of nuclear has started and the known positive impact to the climate from this energy source, it is not forced to be the solution for the biggest problem of the near future. There are only a few countries worldwide which produce electricity without or with only small amounts of CO{sub 2} emissions like Norway or Switzerland. Those countries could be demonstration countries to show the possibilities for reducing and avoiding CO{sub 2} emissions. Would it be possible to replace all fossil energy sources during a reasonable period of time by using nuclear energy and hydrogen as an energy storage system? Is this scenario technical feasible and of economic interest for a small, developed country like Switzerland? If yes, Switzerland might be a good candidate to establish the first CO{sub 2}-free industrial developed state in the world. Looking much more ahead this study will discuss a simple but might be effective scenario for Switzerland. The study is based on a paper presented at IYNC 2006 and will update the used data as well as going in more details. (authors)

  16. Sinnerite, Cu6As4S9, from the Lengenbach Quarry, Binn Valley, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindi, Luca; Makovicky, Emil; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    We have characterized the crystal structure of sinnerite, Cu6As4S9, a rare sulfosalt mineral from the ores of the Lengenbach quarry, Binn Valley, Canton Valais, Switzerland, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. We found sinnerite to be structurally identical to synthetic Cu6As...

  17. Regional differences in self-reported screening, prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Methods Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879). Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman), West-Central (Mittelland), Zurich, South (Ticino), North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. Results After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman) and Italian (Ticino) speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]). Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. Conclusions In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved. PMID:22452881

  18. Motivation in medical education and patient communication. The EGPRN meeting in Zurich, Switzerland, October 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethans, Jan-Joost; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2011-06-01

    The European General Practice Research Network held an international research meeting on 'Motivation in medical education and patient communication' in Zürich, Switzerland, in October 2010. The two authors were keynote speakers, who introduced the theme from different angles and summarized and reflected on individual papers presented at the conference. The theme of the conference underlined the importance of communication in general practice and of motivation in medical education in particular. There were a variety of papers each addressing in its own way the topic of this meeting. We conclude that it is still uncommon to use psychological theories on motivation in research on motivation and patient communication in general practice/family medicine. Motivation and readiness to change are essential concepts in experimental health services research. Research designs increasingly follow the Framework for the Evaluation of Complex Interventions in Health Care as suggested by the British Medical Research Council. However, there are also difficulties related to classical experimental designs that have to be critically discussed.

  19. Tinnitus functional index: validation of the German version for Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Nicole; Kleinjung, Tobias; Jeker, Raphael; Meyer, Martin; Klaghofer, Richard; Weidt, Steffi

    2017-05-05

    Different standardized questionnaires are used to assess tinnitus severity, making comparisons across studies difficult. These questionnaires are also used to measure treatment-related changes in tinnitus although they were not designed for this purpose. To solve these problems, a new questionnaire - the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) - has been established. The TFI is highly responsive to treatment-related change and promises to be the new gold standard in tinnitus evaluation. The aim of the current study was to validate a German version of the TFI for a German-speaking population in Switzerland. At the ENT department of the University Hospital Zurich, 264 subjects completed an online survey including the German version for Switzerland of TFI, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and sociodemographic variables. Internal consistency of the TFI was calculated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Pearson correlation coefficients were used for the test-retest reliability of the TFI and to investigate convergent and discriminant validity between the THI and the BDI and BAI, respectively. Factor analysis was assessed using a principal component analysis with oblique rotation. The different factors extracted were then compared with the original questionnaire. The German version of the TFI for Switzerland showed an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.97) and an excellent test-retest reliability of 0.91. The convergent validity with THI was high (r = 0.86). The discriminant validity with BAI and BDI showed moderate results (BAI: r = 0.60 and BDI: r = 0.65). In the factor analysis only five factors with one main factor could be extracted instead of eight factors as described in the original version. Nevertheless, relations to the original eight subscales could be demonstrated. The German version of the TFI for Switzerland is a suitable instrument for measuring the impact of tinnitus

  20. Efficacy of iron-biofortified crops

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boy, Erick (HarvestPlus)

    1International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC. 2Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 3GroundWork, Fläsch, Switzerland. 4Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Institute of Food, Nutrition, and Health, ETH Zurich,. Switzerland. 5College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of ...

  1. Implicit CO_2 prices of fossil fuel use in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleiniger, Reto

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the efficiency of the fossil fuel taxation scheme currently in effect in Switzerland. To this end, the concept of implicit CO_2 prices is introduced, based on which prices for different fossil fuel uses are derived. Implicit CO_2 prices are defined as the difference between actual prices paid by consumers and efficient domestic fuel prices. Efficient domestic fuel prices, in turn, consist of private production costs, a uniform value added tax and only local external costs, not including external costs due to CO_2 emissions and global climate change. The resulting prices differ substantially, which suggests that there is considerable cost-saving potential in reducing CO_2 emissions in Switzerland. For passenger cars and air traffic, the implicit prices are negative. For these uses, higher fuel charges would therefore be beneficial from a purely domestic perspective, i.e., without considering the negative repercussions of global warming. - Highlights: •Efficient fossil fuel policy must take into account local and global externalities. •Implicit CO_2 prices are applied as efficiency indicator of fossil energy policy. •Implicit CO_2 prices vary strongly for different fossil fuel uses in Switzerland. •There is a large cost-saving potential in terms of reducing CO_2 emissions.

  2. Measurements of particulate matter and 3,4-benzopyrene in Zurich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waibel, M; Wanner, H U

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of particulate matter and 3,4 benzoyrene were carried out at six measuring points in and around Zurich in 1971/72. The measuring points differed according to their immediate surroundings; they were subdivided into industrial zone, heavy traffic spots, residential area, and recreation ground. The correlations were calculated to clarify the connections between emissions and meteorological influences including temperature, inversions, humidity, air pressure, wind strength, visibility, and sunlight. The annual average values for the aerosol concentration were highest (160-181 microgram/cu m) where traffic is very heavy. An industrial center and a residential area of the old part of the city assumed a middle position. The modern residential section of Triemli measured the lowest concentration, 100 micrograms/cu m. The annual average concentrations for BaP were 5.3 ng/cu m for the industrial center, 5.5 and 7/7 ng/cu m for Paradeplatz and Albisriederplatz and 4.1 ng/cu m for Triemli. A high BaP concentration of 6.4 ng/cu m was measured in the old residential section. A correlation between the aerosol concentration of the air and the mortality from stomach cancer was found. Particularly pronounced was the influence of air pollution on mortality due to respiratory diseases. It tripled from the zone with lowest aerosol concentration (less than 80 micrograms/cu m) to the zone with highest air pollution (more than 135 micrograms/cu m). Compared to West German and U.S. cities the aerosol and BaP concentrations measured in Zurich were rather high.

  3. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.

    1991-01-01

    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  4. Diffusion of green power products in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Markard, Jochen; Truffer, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    As in many other European countries, green electricity is an emerging product in Switzerland as well. Although the market is yet to be liberalised, more than 100 of the 1200 Swiss electric utilities offer some sort of green electricity product to their customers. Successful companies like the municipal utilities of the cities of Zurich and Berne have reached customer response rates of up to 4%, while still maintaining cost-based pricing, i.e. charging their customers price premiums of 400-700% per kWh. While most of the products still rely on mainly photovoltaics, some utilities have started to introduce mixed green electricity products also including wind power. With a share of 60% in the Swiss generation mix, hydropower's role in the green electricity mix was also an issue to emerge causing controversial debate. While being renewable, hydropower is not considered environmentally benign by all the stakeholders, and unlike new renewables (solar, wind, biomass), there is little room for new hydropower generation facilities in Switzerland. The green electricity labelling scheme 'Naturemade' tackles that issue. The labelling organisation has evolved from a process with broad stakeholder involvement, which included environmental NGOs, scientific institutions, green electricity providers, renewable energy advocates, government bodies and consumer organisations. The analysis in this paper is based on a diffusion theory framework. It identifies and characterises different phases of (past and future) market development, and stresses the importance of eco-labelling as a tool to facilitate the transition from niche to mass market. Finally, we also discuss conclusions that can be drawn from the Swiss case towards market development and labelling on a European level

  5. Orphan drugs in development for urea cycle disorders: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Häberle, Johannes; McCandless,Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Johannes Häberle,1 Shawn E McCandless2 1Division of Metabolism and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Center for Human Genetics, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, and Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: The urea cycle disorders are caused by deficiency of one of the six hepatic enzymes or two transporters involved in detoxification of am...

  6. Correlation between MRI results and intraoperative findings in patients with silicone breast implants

    OpenAIRE

    Lindenblatt, Nicole; El-Rabadi, Karem; Helbich, Thomas H; Czembirek, Heinrich; Deutinger, Maria; Benditte-Klepetko, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Nicole Lindenblatt,1 Karem El-Rabadi,2 Thomas H Helbich,2 Heinrich Czembirek,3 Maria Deutinger,4 Heike Benditte-Klepetko5 1Division of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Medical University of Vienna - General Hospital Vienna, 3Department of Radiology, Hospital Wiener Privatklinik, 4Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery,...

  7. Excess mortality during the warm summer of 2015 in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Ragettli, Martina S; Schindler, Christian; Röösli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland, summer 2015 was the second warmest summer for 150 years (after summer 2003). For summer 2003, a 6.9% excess mortality was estimated for Switzerland, which corresponded to 975 extra deaths. The impact of the heat in summer 2015 in Switzerland has not so far been evaluated. Daily age group-, gender- and region-specific all-cause excess mortality during summer (June-August) 2015 was estimated, based on predictions derived from quasi-Poisson regression models fitted to the daily mortality data for the 10 previous years. Estimates of excess mortality were derived for 1 June to 31 August, at national and regional level, as well as by month and for specific heat episodes identified in summer 2015 by use of seven different definitions. 804 excess deaths (5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0‒7.9%) were estimated for summer 2015 compared with previous summers, with the highest percentage obtained for July (11.6%, 95% CI 3.7‒19.4%). Seventy-seven percent of deaths occurred in people aged 75 years and older. Ticino (10.3%, 95% CI -1.8‒22.4%), Northwestern Switzerland (9.5%, 95% CI 2.7‒16.3%) and Espace Mittelland (8.9%, 95% CI 3.7‒14.1%) showed highest excess mortality during this three-month period, whereas fewer deaths than expected (-3.3%, 95% CI -9.22.6%) were observed in Eastern Switzerland, the coldest region. The largest excess estimate of 23.7% was obtained during days when both maximum apparent and minimum night-time temperature reached extreme values (+32 and +20 °C, respectively), with 31.0% extra deaths for periods of three days or more. Heat during summer 2015 was associated with an increase in mortality in the warmer regions of Switzerland and it mainly affected older people. Estimates for 2015 were only a little lower compared to those of summer 2003, indicating that mitigation measures to prevent heat-related mortality in Switzerland have not become noticeably effective in the last 10 years.

  8. Valproic Acid and Sleep Duration in Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep duration and behavior were assessed in 46 children (age range 1.7-17.4 years before and after tapering valproic acid (VPA administered for more than 6 months for epilepsy, in a study at University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Mobile measurements of particle composition in the Rhine Valley and Zurich. Winter 2007/2008; Mobile Messungen der Partikelzusammensetzung im Rheintal und in der Stadt Zuerich. Winter 2007/2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, C.; Weimer, S.; Good, C.; Richter, R.; Prevot, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2009-07-15

    This report issued by the General Energy Research Department and its Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results obtained from the measurement of fine-dust quantities and composition in the cantons of eastern Switzerland and the upper Rhine valley during the winter. The PSI analysed the samples on behalf of the Swiss cantons, Vorarlberg (Austria) and the Principality of Liechtenstein. The mobile equipment used and the measurements made in the Rhine Valley between Lake Constance and Chur as well as in the City of Zurich are presented and discussed. The results of the measurements are presented in graphical form and the chemical composition of the pollutants at the different locations are discussed. Details of the instruments used and the routes taken are noted in an appendix.

  10. 27 kWp photovoltaic plant at the Stadelhofen High School in Zurich; 27 kWp Photovoltaik Anlage Kantonschule Zuerich-Stadelhofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavadetscher, L.; Nordmann, T.

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the results obtained from the monitoring of a photovoltaic (PV) installation that was installed on the roof and facade of a gym at the Stadelhofen High School in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. This prize-winning installation features multi-functional PV modules, whose solar cells are mounted on double-glazed roof windows as well as further laminated facade modules that provide both power and shading. The report gives details of the results obtained from measurements made on the PV installations and includes the results of laboratory measurements made on selected modules. The performance of the installation, which started operation in 1999, was monitored until 2001. The report presents the results of the monitoring campaign, that not only monitored power output and energy production but also cell temperatures. These can rise up to 85 {sup o}C in summer and lead to power losses of around 7%. The self-cleaning properties of roof, which is only lightly sloped, are also commented on by the report.

  11. GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, O.; Frei, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO 2 emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO 2 emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO 2 emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve the reduction target, and use the tax

  12. 77 FR 44618 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ..., New York, New York 10045-0001: 1. Muhammad Habib, Kusnacht, Switzerland; Hamza Habib, and Khadijah... Maham Beteiligungsgessellschaft AG, Zurich, Switzerland, and thereby indirectly retain control of Habib...

  13. Negative or positive? The iron lung and poliomyelitis-Zurich, 1951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, T; Dreux, M L

    2017-03-01

    During the poliomyelitis epidemics of the last century hospitals were inundated with patients in acute respiratory failure. Between 1946 and 1949, Nandor (Ferdinand) Eichel documented the use of the iron lung in children with acute poliomyelitis at the University Children's Hospital, Zurich. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of the Iron lung and negative pressure respiratory support for this indication and to establish its role in the context of other existing therapies at the time. Eichel produced his review and data as the Inaugural Dissertation towards his medical degree from the the University of Zurich, published in 1951. The dissertation was written in German and first translated into English in 2014. The current paper explores the findings of the dissertation and explains why there has been the transition to techniques of respiratory support today. It includes a biography of Dr F. N. Eichel and an update on the current status of poliomyelitis. The original dissertation was found in the home of Nandor's son and was of great interest to the current authors, Nandor's granddaughter and her colleague.

  14. The zurich axioms: the rules of risk and reward used by generations of swiss bankers

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Ivo Dias de

    2015-01-01

    Recensão crítica à obra de Max Gunther, "The Zurich Axioms”, 2015 The Zurich Axioms” is a slim book that should be on the library of every investor and, perhaps, entrepreneur and manager. It is a book about risk management. The book delivers a collection of principles about how to deal with risk (12 major and 16 minor axioms). The axioms are a sort of rule of thumb for dealing with risk. Curiously, in a way, the axioms are more about dealing with the limitations of the human psyche than wi...

  15. Dental tourism from Switzerland to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Raluca; Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    In recent years the topic of dental tourism has increasingly come into focus of dentists and patients. In the present study an attempt was made to find out, why patients from a restricted region travel to Germany for dental care. In five German dental clinics located in the border area between Switzerland and Germany, 272 women and 236 men ranging in age from 5 to 94 years, who had undergone at least one dental treatment in Germany, were questioned concerning the reasons for their visits. The interviews took place within a period of 6 months and relied on a questionnaire to collect data regarding sociodemographic features and patient behavior. In comparison to residents of Germany, patients residing in Switzerland took on considerably longer travel distances for the dental visit, in some cases more than 50km (9.7%). For patients residing in Switzerland the technical equipment of the practice was more important (pSwitzerland (95.6%) confirmed that dental treatments in Germany were cheaper and that additional family members also came to Germany for dental care (65.0%).

  16. Superconductor come on the market. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, E.

    1995-01-01

    Switzerland has the leading position in the field of high-temperature superconductors (HTS). The research group of Professor Ott at the ETH Zurich holds the international high-temperature record with 140 C. The company ABB with its powerful current limiter is one of the world's leading enterprises in this field. The ceramic bands developed by professor Fluekiger of the University of Geneve conduct electric current free of loss with such an efficiency that can only by reached by Japan and the USA. In order to use the applications of the HTS-technology for series production, special types of ceramic are required as they are being developed by professor Ludwig J. Gaukler and his team at the ETH Zurich. (orig.) [de

  17. Time trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring European countries 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Anita; Mark, Michael Thomas; Steiner, Annik; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2015-01-01

    What are the trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring countries? Mortality data and population estimates 1996-2010 were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office for Switzerland and the World Health Organization Mortality Database (http://www.who.int/healthinfo/mortality_data/en/) for Austria, Germany, France and Italy. Age standardised mortality rates (ASMRs, European standard) per 100 000 person-years were calculated for the population Switzerland and neighbouring countries cancer mortality in persons Switzerland from 16.2 to 20.3 per 100 000 person years, EAPC 2.0 [95% CI 1.4 to 2.6]). Compared with its neighbouring countries, Switzerland showed the lowest rates for all groups of avoidable cancer mortality in males 2008-2010. Overall avoidable cancer mortality decreased, indicating achievements in cancer care and related health policies. However, increasing trends in avoidable cancer mortality through primary prevention for females suggest there is a need in Switzerland and its European neighbouring countries to improve primary prevention.

  18. Switzerland country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aegerter, Irene [Cogito Foundation, Saeumerstrasse 26, 08832 Wollerau (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    - Nuclear in Switzerland: Percent of Electricity from Nuclear: 40%. Nuclear facilities: 2 Nuclear Research reactors at the University of Basle (Swimming pool Type) and EPF Lausanne; 5 Nuclear Power Plants: KKB I / II: Westinghouse; PWR; each 365 MWe (1969,1971), KKM: General Electric; BWR 355 MWe (1972), KKG: Siemens / KWU; PWR; 970 MWe (1979), KKL: General Electric; BWR; 1165 MWe (1984). Interim Storage for nuclear waste: ZWILAG. - Public acceptance: Acceptance of existing NPP: 70.3%; Acceptance of replacing old NPP by new NPP: 52%; Therefore: Only talk about replacing the 3 old ones by one or more new NPP at an existing site. Women: Only 45% accept replacing NPP. New and additional NPP do not get a majority (43,5%). - Energy policy: Referendum for the project of a new NPP (about 2011); DOE study about the security of supply shows Nuclear is needed; Reorganization of Nuclear Inspectorate Nuclear waste management policy; Positive decision of Federal Council on deep geological repository for spent fuel / high and low level waste 2007. - Nuclear research: Paul Scherrer Institute, Wuerenlingen, New Master study in Nuclear Engineering Fall 2008, Generation IV and ITER research. - Nuclear competences challenge in Switzerland: Nuclear Revival is coming in Switzerland only if we win the referendum. Therefore we need: Personal information and dialogue with the public, especially women about the necessity to replace the older NPP by new ones at the existing sites, because we need CO{sub 2}-free base load capacity; Sun and wind cannot replace nuclear because it is not base load. The sun sets every night. Nuclear plants cannot be replaced by fossil plants because of CO{sub 2}- emissions. Switzerland could not meet the Kyoto-targets if the now CO{sub 2}- free electricity production (40% Nuclear, 60% Hydro) would be given up with the construction of a gas fired power plant. - WIN - Switzerland Main achievements: Activities of 2007 WIN Switzerland: Visit of the special waste

  19. Annual meeting of the nuclear forum Switzerland 2013. The 2050 energy strategy in the context of economic reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    At this year's annual meeting of the Nuclear Forum Switzerland (Nuklearforums Schweiz) once again the 2050 Energy Strategy of the Swiss Federal Council (Schweizer Bundesrat) was the main topic. President Corina Eichenberger warned against political arbitrariness and reckless endangerment of the Swiss electricity supply. Instead she called for a more logical, a more rational and more a pragmatic discussion. Accordingly, Eichenberger dismissed clearly politically motivated operation restrictions for Swiss nuclear power plants. The guest speakers Prof. Peter Egger of the Economic Institute of the ETH Zurich and Christoph Mader, President of scienceindustries, discussed consequences of the 2050 energy strategy for economy and industry. About 130 guests from the nuclear industry, politicians and industry took part in the Annual Meeting of the Nuclear Forum to the Hotel Bellevue in Bern Switzerland. Again, the event 'The 2050 energy strategy in the context of economic reality' was of main interest due to the recent energy policy discussions. Corinna Eichenberger, President of the association, stated, that the audience received an deep view into the economic consequences of the 2050 energy strategy from the perspective of science and industry. (orig.)

  20. Iron supplementation in Switzerland - A bi-national, descriptive and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biétry, Fabienne A; Hug, Balthasar; Reich, Oliver; Susan, Jick S; Meier, Christoph Rudolf

    2017-07-11

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world, and it is the only common nutrient deficiency in industrialised nations. It is thought to be the most common cause of anaemia. Use of iron supplementation in Switzerland has not been previously quantified in detail. We quantified use of iron supplementation from Swiss data and compared it with data from the UK. We assessed the frequency of serum ferritin and haemoglobin tests prior to newly started iron therapy to see whether use was based on documented low iron levels or blood parameters, especially in the case of parenteral iron supplementation. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of prescription iron supplementation use, and compared use of oral or parenteral iron drugs between Switzerland (CH) and the UK. We retrieved Swiss data from the Swiss Health Insurance Helsana Group, and UK data were from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The study period was 2012 to 2014. The 3-year prevalence of iron supplementation was 9.4% in Switzerland and 4.4% in the UK. Iron use increased slightly between 2012 and 2014 in both countries (CH +0.3%, UK +0.2%). Recorded parenteral iron administration was roughly a thousand times higher in Switzerland (1.9%) than in the UK in 2014. In Switzerland, iron supplements were mostly given to patients aged 20 to 49 years or older than of 80 years. In the UK, iron supplementation was less frequent in younger people, but more prevalent in the elderly. Prior to a first iron prescription, ferritin tests were done more frequently in Switzerland (oral 67.2%, parenteral 86.6%) than in the UK (oral 43.3%, parenteral 65.5%). Haemoglobin was measured before a new parenteral iron therapy rarely in Switzerland (oral 14.9%, parenteral 11.7%), but frequently in the UK (oral 77.4%, parenteral 85.6%). Iron supplementation is more common in Switzerland than in the UK, particularly parenteral iron supplementation. Haemoglobin measurements prior to a new parenteral

  1. Four New Acylated Iridoid Glycosides from the Aerial Part of Veronicastrum sibiricum and Their Antioxidant Response Element-Inducing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Il; Kim, Chul Young

    2018-01-01

    Four new (1 - 4) and one known (5) acylated iridoid glycosides were isolated from the aerial parts of Veronicastrum sibiricum (L.) Pennell. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be 3″,4″-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosyl-10-O-bergaptol-5,7-bisdeoxycynanchoside (1), 3″,4″-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosylpaulownioside (2), 2″,4″-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (3), 3″,4″-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosylaucubin (4), and 3″,4″-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (5) using spectroscopic techniques. Among these compounds, compound 5 increased antioxidant response element (ARE) luciferase activity. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. A proposal for ethical research conduct in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest Management and Development, Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. III ... Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Sorbonne Universités, Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), UMR7205-CNRS, MNHN, UPMC, EPHE,. CP 53 ...

  3. GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frei, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Paul Scherrer Inst. (Switzerland)

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO{sub 2} emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve

  4. Interpretation of reflection seismics in the area North of Laegeren - Zurich Weinland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naef, H.; Birkhaeuser, P.; Roth, P.

    1995-05-01

    The investigations of potential siting areas for a repository for high-level radioactive waste which are concentrated in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland have been expanded since the late 1980s to include suitable sedimentary units. After extensive desk study evaluation, the approximately 100 m thick Opalinus Clay of the Tabular Jura east of the Aare river was chosen as the most promising sedimentary option. In this area not only the Opalinus Clay but also the over- and underlying units are clay-rich, in contrast to the tabular Jura west of the Aare river. In the area North of Laegeren - Zurich Weinland, where the Opalinus Clay is situated in the optimum depth range of 400 to 1000 m below surface, approximately 220 km of new high-resolution seismic profiles were recorded and interpreted together with existing seismic lines. Due to thorough field work and data processing, a very good quality of seismic lines was obtained. This allowed precise mapping of the marker horizons in general and the Opalinus Clay in detail. The goal of this study was to determine and delineate the most important tectonic units as well as to describe the potential host rocks in these units. By way of interactive interpretation of all available seismic lines, borehole data and surface data from the investigation area, depth maps of the most prominent marker horizons have been calculated and geological cross-sections constructed along the new seismic lines. The regional seismic character of the Middle Mesozoic units was modelled using borehole data from Weiach and Herdern. From this model the thickness of the Opalinus Clay along the new seismic lines was determined. The results indicate a relatively constant thickness of 95 to 120 m in the investigation area. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  5. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Anurag Srivastava1 H S Tewari2 C S Praveen3. Atal Bihari Vajpayee-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior 474 010, India; Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur 495 009, India; ETH, Zurich, Switzerland ...

  6. Einstein's `Z\\"urich Notebook' and his Journey to General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Straumann, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of his `Z\\"urich Notebook' I shall describe a particularly fruitful phase in Einstein's struggle on the way to general relativity. These research notes are an extremely illuminating source for understanding Einstein's main physical arguments and conceptual difficulties that delayed his discovery of general relativity by about three years. Together with the `Ent\\-wurf' theory in collaboration with Marcel Grossmann, these notes also show that the final theory was missed late in 191...

  7. Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri Jørgensen, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The book answers ten delay-related questions when the FIDIC Red Book (internationally recognized standard construction contract) is subjected to the law of twelve different countries. Sylvie Cavaleri wrote the chapter concerning Switzerland.......The book answers ten delay-related questions when the FIDIC Red Book (internationally recognized standard construction contract) is subjected to the law of twelve different countries. Sylvie Cavaleri wrote the chapter concerning Switzerland....

  8. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karthik Raman1 Nagasuma Chandra2. Department of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Switzerland; Bioinformatics Centre, Raman building, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3. Current Issue

  9. Fine and coarse PM composition and sources in rural and urban sites in Switzerland: local or regional pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M C; Querol, X; Baltensperger, U; Prévôt, A S H

    2012-06-15

    The chemical composition and sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Switzerland were studied. PM(1) and PM(10) samples were collected in winter and summer at an urban background site in Zurich and a rural background site in Payerne. Concentrations of major and trace elements, NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+), organic and elemental carbon were determined. A subsequent Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was performed. PM(10) and PM(1) concentrations varied similarly at both sites, with average PM(10) concentrations 24-25 μg/m(3) and 13-14 μg/m(3) in winter and summer, respectively, and average PM(1) concentrations 12-17 μg/m(3) and 6-7 μg/m(3). The influence of local sources was found to be higher in winter. PM was dominated by nitrate and organic matter in winter, and by mineral matter and organic matter in summer. Trace element concentrations related to road traffic (Zn, Cu, Sb, Sn) were higher at Zurich. Concentrations of Tl and Cs, attributed to the influence of a glass industry, were higher at Payerne. The elements mainly present in the coarse fraction were those related to mineral matter and brake and tyre abrasion (Cu, Mn, Ti, Sb, Sr, Bi, Li, La, Nd), and those in the fine fraction were related to high temperature anthropogenic processes (Pb, As, Cd, Tl, Cs). Common PM(1) and PM(1-10) sources identified by PMF were: ammonium nitrate, present in winter, negligible in summer; ammonium sulfate+K(biomass burning)+road traffic; and road traffic itself, related to exhaust emissions in PM(1) and to road dust resuspension in PM(1-10). Size-fraction specific sources were: a PM(1) glass industry source characterized by Cs, Tl, Rb, Li and Na, only present in Payerne; a PM(1) background source characterized by V, Ni, sulfate and Fe; two PM(1-10) mineral-related sources, with higher contribution in summer; a PM(1-10) salt source; and a PM(1-10) organic source, with higher contribution in summer, attributed to bioaerosols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  10. New tree-ring evidence for the Late Glacial period from the northern pre-Alps in eastern Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinig, Frederick; Nievergelt, Daniel; Esper, Jan; Friedrich, Michael; Helle, Gerhard; Hellmann, Lena; Kromer, Bernd; Morganti, Sandro; Pauly, Maren; Sookdeo, Adam; Tegel, Willy; Treydte, Kerstin; Verstege, Anne; Wacker, Lukas; Büntgen, Ulf

    2018-04-01

    The rate and magnitude of temperature variability at the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum into the early Holocene represents a natural analog to current and predicted climate change. A limited number of high-resolution proxy archives, however, challenges our understanding of environmental conditions during this period. Here, we present combined dendrochronological and radiocarbon evidence from 253 newly discovered subfossil pine stumps from Zurich, Switzerland. The individual trees reveal ages of 41-506 years and were growing between the Allerød and Preboreal (∼13‧900-11‧300 cal BP). Together with previously collected pines from this region, this world's best preserved Late Glacial forest substantially improves the earliest part of the absolutely dated European tree-ring width chronology between 11‧300 and 11‧900 cal BP. Radiocarbon measurements from 65 Zurich pines between ∼12‧320 and 13‧950 cal BP provide a perspective to prolong the continuous European tree-ring record by another ∼2000 years into the Late Glacial era. These data will also be relevant for pinpointing the Laacher See volcanic eruption (∼12‧900 cal BP) and two major Alpine earthquakes (∼13‧770 and ∼11‧600 cal BP). In summary, this study emphasizes the importance of dating precision and multi-proxy comparison to disentangle environmental signals from methodological noise, particularly during periods of high climate variability but low data availability, such as the Younger Dryas cold spell (∼11‧700 and 12‧900 cal BP).

  11. Recommendations for liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: an international consensus conference report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Lesurtel, Mickael; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Gores, Gregory J.; Langer, Bernard; Perrier, Arnaud; Abecassis, M.; Balabaud, C.; Bhoori, S.; Breitenstein, S.; Broelsch, C.; Burra, P.; Cherqui, D.; Colombo, M.; d'Albuquerque, C.; D'Alessandro, A.; de Santibanes, E.; Dufour, J. F.; Durand, F.; Dutkowski, P.; El-Serag, H.; Fan, S. T.; Fisher, R.; Forner, A.; Fung, J.; Geier, A.; Germani, G.; Gouw, A. S. H.; Gurusamy, K.; Heaton, N.; Heim, M.; Hemming, A.; Hubscher, S.; Ichida, T.; Kahn, D.; Kew, M.; Kita, Y.; Kiuchi, T.; Kudo, M.; Lee, S. G.; Lencioni, R.; Livraghi, T.; Lodge, P.; McCaughan, G.; Madoff, D.; Marrero, J.; Mergental, H.; Merle, P.; Miksad, R.; Mornex, F.; Paradis, V.; Pestalozzi, B.; Poon, R.; Porte, R.; Prasad, K. R.; Roskams, T.; Rossi, M.; Schlitt, H.; Shaked, A.; Sherman, M.; Siegler, M.; Suh, K.; Todo, S.; Toso, C.; Trevisani, F.; Valdecasas, J. C. G.; Vauthey, J. N.; Vilgrain, V.; Villamil, F.; Wald, C.; Weber, A.; Wiesner, R.; Wright, L.; Zheng, S.; Zucman-Rossi, J.; Bertschi, V.; Clavien, P. A.; Meyer, M.; Müllhaupt, B.; Munson, A.; Lesurtel, M.; Raptis, D.; Vonlanthen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Although liver transplantation is a widely accepted treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), much controversy remains and there is no generally accepted set of guidelines. An international consensus conference was held on Dec 2-4, 2010, in Zurich, Switzerland, with the aim of reviewing current

  12. Post-glacial rock avalanches in the Obersee Valley, Glarner Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelisen, Jan; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Vockenhuber, Christoph; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2015-06-01

    The geological record of prehistoric rock avalanches provides invaluable data for assessing the hazard posed by these rare but destructive mass movements. Here we investigate two large rock avalanches in the Obersee valley of the Glarner Alps, Switzerland, providing detailed mapping of landslide and related Quaternary phenomena, revised volume estimates for each event, and surface exposure dating of rock avalanche deposits. The Rautispitz rock avalanche originated from the southern flank of the Obersee valley, releasing approximately 91 million m3 of limestone on steeply-dipping bedding planes. Debris had maximum horizontal travel distance of ~ 5000 m, a fahrboeschung angle (relating fall height to length) of 18°, and was responsible for the creation of Lake Obersee; deposits are more than 130 m thick in places. The Platten rock avalanche encompassed a source volume of 11 million m3 sliding from the northern flank of the Obersee valley on similar steeply-dipping limestone beds (bedrock forms a syncline under the valley). Debris had a maximum horizontal travel distance of 1600 m with a fahrboeschung angle of 21°, and is more than 80 m thick in places. Deposits of the Platten rock avalanche are superposed atop those from the Rautispitz event at the end of the Obersee valley where they dam Lake Haslensee. Runout for both events was simulated using the dynamic analysis code DAN3D; results showed excellent match to mapped deposit extents and thickness and helped confirm the hypothesized single-event failure scenarios. 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating of 13 deposited boulders revealed a Younger Dryas age of 12.6 ± 1.0 ka for the Rautispitz rock avalanche and a mid-Holocene age of 6.1 ± 0.8 ka for the Platten rock avalanche. A seismological trigger is proposed for the former event due to potentially correlated turbidite deposits in nearby Lake Zurich.

  13. Trichotillomania: the impact of treatment history on the outcome of an Internet-based intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidt S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Steffi Weidt,1 Annette Beatrix Bruehl,2,3 Aba Delsignore,1 Gwyneth Zai,2,4–6 Alexa Kuenburg,1 Richard Klaghofer,1 Michael Rufer1 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Department of Psychiatry, Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; 3Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, 5Neurogenetics Section, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 6Department of Psychiatry, Frederick W. Thompson Anxiety Disorders Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Many patients suffering from trichotillomania (TTM have never undergone treatment. Without treatment, TTM often presents with a chronic course. Characteristics of TTM individuals who have never been treated (untreated remain largely unknown. Whether treatment history impacts Internet-based interventions has not yet been investigated. We aimed to answer whether Internet-based interventions can reach untreated individuals and whether treatment history is associated with certain characteristics and impacts on the outcome of an Internet-based intervention.Methods: We provided Internet-based interventions. Subjects were characterized at three time points using the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire.Results: Of 105 individuals, 34 were untreated. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL was markedly impaired in untreated and treated individuals. Symptom severity did not differ between untreated and treated individuals. Nontreatment was associated with fewer depressive symptoms (P=0.002. Treatment history demonstrated no impact on the outcome of Internet-based interventions.Conclusion: Results

  14. Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation--Session 2 (Plenary II): May 15-17, 2013--Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    On the 15-17th May 2013, the Fourth International Conference on Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation was organized in Lausanne, Switzerland, and gathered stakeholders from academics and from the industry to discuss several challenges, advances and promises in the field of vaccine adjuvants. Plenary session 2 of the meeting was composed of four different presentations covering: (1) the recent set-up of an adjuvant technology transfer and training platform in Switzerland, (2) the proposition to revisit existing paradigms of modern vaccinology, (3) the properties of polyethyleneimine as potential new vaccine adjuvant, and (4) the progresses in the design of HIV vaccine candidates able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies.

  15. Differing trends in the association between obesity and self-reported health in Portugal and Switzerland. Data from national health surveys 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Ravasco, Paula; Paccaud, Fred

    2012-08-01

    The escalating prevalence of obesity might prompt obese subjects to consider themselves as normal, as this condition is gradually becoming as frequent as normal weight. In this study, we aimed to assess the trends in the associations between obesity and self-rated health in two countries. Data from the Portuguese (years 1995-6, 1998-6 and 2005-6) and Swiss (1992-3, 1997, 2002 and 2007) National Health Surveys were used, corresponding to more than 130,000 adults (64,793 for Portugal and 65,829 for Switzerland). Body mass index and self-rated health were derived from self-reported data. Obesity levels were higher in Portugal (17.5% in 2005-6 vs. 8.9% in 2007 in Switzerland, p Switzerland (21.8% in 2005-6 vs 3.9% in 2007, p Switzerland, the prevalence of "bad" or "very bad" rates among obese participants, increased from 6.5% in 1992-3 to 9.8% in 2007, while in Portugal it decreased from 41.3% to 32.3%. After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of stating one self's health as "bad" or "very bad" among obese relative to normal weight participants, almost doubled in Switzerland: from 1.38 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01-1.87) in 1992-3 to 2.64 (95% CI: 2.14-3.26) in 2007, and similar findings were obtained after sample weighting. Conversely, no such trend was found in Portugal: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.23-1.48) in 1995-6 and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.37-1.70) in 2005-6. Obesity is increasing in Switzerland and Portugal. Obesity is increasingly associated with poorer self-health ratings in Switzerland but not in Portugal.

  16. Photovoltaic applications in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.

    1993-01-01

    By the year 2000, Switzerland is planning to build a total of 50 MWp of grid-connected PV-installations. This challenging goal was adopted in the context of the Swiss national program 2000. The local/regional utilities are supporting this ambitious objective by reimbursing the marginal costs of the energy supplied and additional accompanying measures. Between 1988 and 1991 Switzerland installed more than 2.1 MWp of grid connected PV-installations. This represents 43% of the total grid connected capacity installed in the US over the same period including all government projects (PV USA)

  17. Results of international Dobson spectrophotometer calibrations at Arosa, Switzerland, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, R. D.; Komhyr, W. D.; Koenig, G. L.; Evans, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    An international comparison of Dobson ozone spectrophotometers, organized and partially funded by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), was held at the Lichtklimatisches Observatorium (LKO) in Arosa, Switzerland, July-August 1990. Countries participating with a total of 18 Dobson instruments were Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the United Soviet Socialist Republics. The reference standard instrument for the comparison was U.S.A. Secondary Standard Dobson Spectrophotometer 65 maintained by the NOAA Climate and Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado. The mean difference in ozone obtained with the Dobson instruments relative to Dobson instrument 65, calculated from ADDSGQP observations in the air mass range 1.15-3.2, was minus 1.0 plus or minus 1.2 (1 sigma) percent. The WMO Standard Brewer Spectrometer 39 also participated. In the mean, the Brewer instrument measured 0.6 plus or minus 0.2 (1 sigma) percent more ozone than did Dobson instrument 65. Results are presented, also, of ozone vertical profile measurements made with the Dobson instruments, two Brewer spectrometers, a LIDAR, a balloon ozonesonde flown from Hohenpeissenberg, Germany, and balloon ozonesondes flown from Payerne, Switzerland.

  18. Two speeches that changed the world: from Fulton to Zurich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan John Watson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this extract from his new book Churchill’s Legacy: Two Speeches to Save the World (Watson, 2016, Lord Watson of Richmond draws on his own experience of post war British politics, as a television presenter and media commentator and then as a Liberal Peer and Chairman of the English-Speaking Union, to analyse the significance of Churchill’s Zurich speech of 19 September 1946. He argues that, building on Churchill’s earlier speech at Fulton, Missouri, it helped change the perceptions of the West and alter their response to the emerging Cold War and the future of Europe.

  19. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  20. Communication received from Switzerland concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated, 6 August 2003, from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with Switzerland's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2002. In light of the request expressed by the Government of Switzerland in its letter of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the letter of 6 August 2003 are attached for the information of all Member States

  1. Improvements in primary care skills and knowledge with a vocational training program – a pre–post survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalali S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sima Djalali, Ryan Tandjung, Thomas Rosemann, Stefan Markun Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Facing the upcoming shortage of primary care physicians (PCPs, medical and governmental organizations have recently made major investments to foster vocational training programs in Switzerland, designed to provide context-specific training for trainees in primary care practices. Less is known about the impact of these programs on the skills and specific knowledge of trainees. We aimed to evaluate the Cantonal program for vocational primary care training in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland’s largest Canton.Methods: We undertook a pretest–posttest study and surveyed physicians before and after participating in the Cantonal program for vocational primary care training in the Swiss Canton of Zurich. All trainees who participated in the program from 2013 until the end of 2015 were eligible. Primary outcome was the proportion of trainees being confident about their professional, organizational, examination and management skills before and after completing vocational training. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of trainees stating knowledge gain in entrepreneurship and the proportion of trainees being motivated to pursue a career as PCP.Results: Data of 47 trainees participating in the vocational training between 2013 and 2015 were eligible. In total, 35 (74.5% participated in the T1 survey and 34 (72.3% in the T2 survey. At T2, significantly more trainees (T1: 11%−89%, T2: 79%−100% stated to be at least “slightly confident” about their skills (p<0.05 for each individual skill. Knowledge gain in entrepreneurship was highly expected and experienced by the trainees (55%−77% of respondents in case of medicine-specific contents, but hardly expected in case of general business contents (≤47% of respondents. Concerning trainees’ motivation to pursue a career as PCP

  2. Similarities and dissimilarities between the movement ABC-2 and the Zurich neuromotor assessment in children with suspected developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Egloff, Kristin; Caflisch, Jon; Chaouch, Aziz; Rousson, Valentin; Largo, Remo H; Jenni, Oskar G

    2014-11-01

    An established tool for the assessment of motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is the Movement-ABC-2 (M-ABC-2). The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA) is also widely used for the evaluation of children's motor performance, but has not been compared with the M-ABC-2. Fifty-one children (39 males) between 5 and 7 years of age with suspected DCD were assessed using the M-ABC-2 and the ZNA. Rank correlations between scores of different test components were calculated. The structure of the tests was explored using canonical-correlation analysis. The correlation between total scores of the two motor tests was reasonable (0.66; pABC-2, due to poor performance in the fine motor adaptive component and increased contralateral associated movements (CAM). The canonical-correlation analysis revealed that ZNA measures components like pure motor skills and CAM that are not represented in the M-ABC-2. Furthermore, there was also no equivalent for the aiming and catching items of the M-ABC-2 in ZNA. The two tests measure different motor characteristics in children with suspected DCD and, thus, can be used complementary for the diagnosis of the disorder. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Antihypertensive combination therapy in primary care offices: results of a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roas S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Roas,1 Felix Bernhart,2 Michael Schwarz,3 Walter Kaiser,4 Georg Noll5 1Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, 2Private Practice, Biberist, 3Ambulatorium Wiesendamm, Basel, 4Healthworld (Schweiz AG, Steinhausen, 5HerzKlinik Hirslanden, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Most hypertensive patients need more than one substance to reach their target blood pressure (BP. Several clinical studies indicate the high efficacy of antihypertensive combinations, and recent guidelines recommend them in some situations even as initial therapies. In general practice they seem widespread, but only limited data are available on their effectiveness under the conditions of everyday life. The objectives of this survey among Swiss primary care physicians treating hypertensive patients were: to know the frequency of application of different treatment modalities (monotherapies, free individual combinations, single-pill combinations; to see whether there are relationships between prescribed treatment modalities and patient characteristics, especially age, treatment duration, and comorbidities; and to determine the response rate (percentage of patients reaching target BP of different treatment modalities under the conditions of daily practice. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational survey among 228 randomly chosen Swiss primary care physicians analyzed data for 3,888 consecutive hypertensive patients collected at one single consultation. Results: In this survey, 31.9% of patients received monotherapy, 41.2% two substances, 20.9% three substances, and 4.7% more than three substances. By combination mode, 34.9% took free individual combinations and 30.0% took fixed-dose single-pill combinations. Combinations were more frequently given to older patients with a long history of hypertension and/or comorbidities. In total, 67.8% of patients achieved their BP target according to their physician's judgment. When compared, single

  4. Cardiorespiratory hospitalisation and mortality reductions after smoking bans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Röösli, Martin; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Schindler, Christian; Perez, Laura

    2017-01-19

    Smoking bans are considered one of the most effective policies to reduce population exposure to tobacco smoke and prevent adverse health outcomes. However, evidence on the effect of contextual variables on the effectiveness of smoking bans is still lacking. The patchwork of cantonal smoke-free laws in Switzerland was used as a quasi-experimental setting to assess changes after their introduction in: hospitalisations and mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases in adults; total hospitalisations and hospitalisations due to respiratory disorders in children; and the modifying effects of contextual factors and the effectiveness of the laws. Using hospital and mortality registry data for residents in Switzerland (2005-2012), we conducted canton-specific interrupted time-series analyses followed by random effects meta-analyses to obtain nationwide smoking ban estimates by subgroups of age, sex and causes of hospitalisation or death. Heterogeneity of the impact caused by strictness of the ban and other smoking-related characteristics of the cantons was explored through meta-regression. Total hospitalisation rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases did not significantly change after the introduction of the ban. Post-ban changes were detected in ischaemic heart disease hospitalisations, with a 2.5% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI)] -6.2 to 1.3%) for all ages and 5.5% (95% CI -10.8 to -0.2%) in adults 35-64 years old. Total mortality due to respiratory diseases decreased by 8.2% (95% CI -15.2 to -0.6%) over all ages, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality decreased by 14.0% (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5%) in adults ≥65 years old. Cardiovascular mortality did not change after the introduction of the ban, but there was an indication of post-ban reductions in mortality due to hypertensive disorders (-5.4%, 95% CI -12.6 to 2.3%), and congestive heart failure (-6.0%, 95% CI -14.5 to 3.4%). No benefits were observed for hospitalisations due to

  5. HTR development in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.

    1991-01-01

    The new activities in the field of high temperature gas-cooled reactors development in Switzerland, taking into account the general situation for nuclear power in the country, are not specifically tuned to a direct project, but are related to the improvement of the HTGR's safety in general, which will be carried out over the next 2-3 years are reported. The nature of this research and development is dedicated to more basic research where a return of industrial investment cannot be immediately foreseen. The main subjects of this basic research are outlined. Participation of Switzerland in the IAEA coordinated research programme ''Validation of Safety-Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched HTGRs'' is also described

  6. Age of peak performance in elite male and female Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, Ironman Hawaii, from 1995 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: The age of peak performance in elite endurance athletes has been investigated for elite marathoners, but not for elite Ironman triathletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the age of peak performance in swimming (3.8 km, cycling (180 km, running (42 km, and overall race time for elite female and male Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, known as the Ironman Hawaii.Methods: The age of the annual top ten overall swimmers, cyclists, runners, and annual overall finishers for both male and female elite triathletes and their corresponding split and overall race times at the Ironman Switzerland were analyzed between 1995 and 2011.Results: The mean age of the elite Ironman triathletes was 33 ± 3 years for men and 34 ± 4 years for women. For women, the age of peak performance was not significantly different between the three disciplines (P > 0.05, while for men, the best swimmers (29 ± 3 years were significantly (P < 0.05 younger than the best runners (35 ± 5 years. During the study period, the age of peak performance remained unchanged for men at 31 ± 3 years (P > 0.05, but increased for women from 30 ± 4 years in 1995 to 36 ± 5 years in 2011 (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Although both women and men improved their overall race times during the 1995–2011 period, the age of peak performance was similar between women and men in the three disciplines and in overall race time. Future studies need to examine the change in age of peak performance across years in the Ironman Hawaii world championship event.Keywords: gender difference, swimming, cycling, running

  7. Frequently asked questions in hypoxia research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenger RH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roland H Wenger,1,2 Vartan Kurtcuoglu,1,2 Carsten C Scholz,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs1,2,4 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, 2National Center of Competence in Research “Kidney.CH”, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Abstract: “What is the O2 concentration in a normoxic cell culture incubator?” This and other frequently asked questions in hypoxia research will be answered in this review. Our intention is to give a simple introduction to the physics of gases that would be helpful for newcomers to the field of hypoxia research. We will provide background knowledge about questions often asked, but without straightforward answers. What is O2 concentration, and what is O2 partial pressure? What is normoxia, and what is hypoxia? How much O2 is experienced by a cell residing in a culture dish in vitro vs in a tissue in vivo? By the way, the O2 concentration in a normoxic incubator is 18.6%, rather than 20.9% or 20%, as commonly stated in research publications. And this is strictly only valid for incubators at sea level. Keywords: gas laws, hypoxia-inducible factor, Krogh tissue cylinder, oxygen diffusion, partial pressure, tissue oxygen levels

  8. Evaluating the suitability of the SWAN/COSMO-2 model system to simulate short-crested surface waves for a narrow lake with complex bathymetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Graf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spectral wave model SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore was applied to Lake Zurich, a narrow pre-Alpine lake in Switzerland. The aim of the study is to investigate whether the model system consisting of SWAN and the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-2 is a suitable tool for wave forecasts for the pre-Alpine Lake Zurich. SWAN is able to simulate short-crested wind-generated surface waves. The model was forced with a time varying wind field taken from COSMO-2 with hourly outputs. Model simulations were compared with measured wave data at one near-shore site during a frontal passage associated with strong on-shore winds. The overall course of the measured wave height is well captured in the SWAN simulation: the wave amplitude significantly increases during the frontal passage followed by a transient drop in amplitude. The wave pattern on Lake Zurich is quite complex. It strongly depends on the inherent variability of the wind field and on the external forcing due to the surrounding complex topography. The influence of the temporal wind resolution is further studied with two sensitivity experiments. The first one considers a low-pass filtered wind field, based on a 2-h running mean of COSMO-2 output, and the second experiment uses simple synthetic gusts, which are implemented into the SWAN model and take into account short-term fluctuations of wind speed at 1-sec resolution. The wave field significantly differs for the 1-h and 2-h simulations, but is only negligibly affected by the gusts.

  9. Work-life imbalance and mental health among male and female employees in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and mental health effects of an unequal work-life balance (WLB) including potential gender differences. A cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of the Swiss employed population aged 20 to 64 (women: n = 1661; men: n = 1591). Based on a single-item measure, more than every seventh employee in Switzerland indicated major difficulties combining work and private life. In certain socio-demographic categories, up to 30% showed such work-life conflict (WLC). For both genders, work-life imbalance turned out to be a risk factor affecting mental health. Employees with self-reported WLC presented a significantly higher relative risk for poor self-rated health (women: aOR = 2.6/men: aOR = 2.0), negative emotions and depression (aOR = 3.0/3.1), low energy and optimism (aOR = 2.1/1.6), fatigue (aOR = 2.4/2.6), and sleep disorders (aOR = 1.8/1.5) compared to employees with no WLC. Internationally, few data on the prevalence of WLC exist. In Switzerland, work-life imbalance is not a marginal phenomenon among the workforce and needs to be addressed as a notable public and mental health issue.

  10. Meeting of the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (2nd) Held in Jacksonville, Florida on 9-13 May 1990. Programs and Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-30

    Kelly E. Mayo. and Eye Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland, *New York State Joseph S. Takahashi. Department of Biochemistry . Psychiatric Institute, New York...30 Room 4 & 5 Clinical Biochemistry , University of Toronto. Slide Session 4 Molecular and Cellular Studies of 17:00 Circadian Rhythmicity 31 CYCLIC AMP...College, Dept. of Anatomy, MI and The University of Michigan, Dept. of Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Kinesiology , Ann Arbor, MI. and

  11. Digitalisierung des Kulturellen Erbes (Europas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Gruber, M. R. (2011, 13 December). Digitalisierung des Kulturellen Erbes (Europas). Guest lecture at the IPMZ - Institute of Mass Communication and Media Research, Devision Media Change & Innovation, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. 77 FR 35680 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ..., New York, New York 10045-0001: 1. Muhammad Habib, Zurich, Switzerland; to retain a controlling... of Habib American Bank, New York, New York. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (Chapelle Davis...

  13. Annual meeting of the nuclear forum Switzerland 2013. The 2050 energy strategy in the context of economic reality; Jahresversammlung des Nuklearforums Schweiz 2013. Die Energiestrategie 2050 im Kontext der wirtschaftlichen Realitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Matthias [Nuklearforum Schweiz/Forum nucleaire suisse, Bern (Switzerland). Media Relations

    2013-07-15

    At this year's annual meeting of the Nuclear Forum Switzerland (Nuklearforums Schweiz) once again the 2050 Energy Strategy of the Swiss Federal Council (Schweizer Bundesrat) was the main topic. President Corina Eichenberger warned against political arbitrariness and reckless endangerment of the Swiss electricity supply. Instead she called for a more logical, a more rational and more a pragmatic discussion. Accordingly, Eichenberger dismissed clearly politically motivated operation restrictions for Swiss nuclear power plants. The guest speakers Prof. Peter Egger of the Economic Institute of the ETH Zurich and Christoph Mader, President of scienceindustries, discussed consequences of the 2050 energy strategy for economy and industry. About 130 guests from the nuclear industry, politicians and industry took part in the Annual Meeting of the Nuclear Forum to the Hotel Bellevue in Bern Switzerland. Again, the event 'The 2050 energy strategy in the context of economic reality' was of main interest due to the recent energy policy discussions. Corinna Eichenberger, President of the association, stated, that the audience received an deep view into the economic consequences of the 2050 energy strategy from the perspective of science and industry. (orig.)

  14. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Impact of HPV vaccination with Gardasil® in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot-Guillarmod, Martine; Pasquier, Jérôme; Greub, Gilbert; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Achtari, Chahin; Sahli, Roland

    2017-12-22

    Gardasil®, a quadrivalent vaccine targeting low-risk (6, 11) and high-risk (16, 18) human papillomaviruses (HPV), has been offered to 11-14 year-old schoolgirls in Switzerland since 2008. To evaluate its success and its potential impact on cervical cancer screening, HPV genotypes were examined in 18-year-old girls five years later (sub-study 1) and in outpatients participating to cervical cancer screening before and after vaccine implementation (sub-study 2). For sub-study 1, 3726 females aged 18 in 2013 were invited to fill a questionnaire on personal demographics and HPV risk factors and to provide a self-collected cervicovaginal sample for HPV genotyping and Chlamydia trachomatis PCR. Personal data were evaluated by univariable and multivariable statistics. In sub-study 2, the proportion of the vaccine-type HPV among anogenital HPV was examined with archived genotyping data of 8039 outpatients participating to cervical cancer screening from 1999 till 2015. The yearly evolution of this proportion was evaluated by segmented logistic regression. 690 (18.5%) women participated to sub-study 1 and 327 (8.8%) provided a self-collected sample. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (4.6%) and demographics confirmed that the subjects were representative of sexually-active Swiss young women. Vaccine (five-year coverage: 77.5%) was preferentially accepted by contraceptive-pill users (P = 0.001) and samples were mainly provided by sexually-active subjects (P Switzerland. Our data suggest that cervical cancer screening is now entering a stage of reduced proportion of HPV16 and/or 18 in samples reported positive by cytology. In view of the high likelihood of reduced clinical specificity of cytology, primary screening modalities involving HPV testing and cytology should now be re-evaluated in Switzerland.

  16. Estimating healthcare costs of acute gastroenteritis and human campylobacteriosis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, C; Mäusezahl, D; Bless, P J; Hatz, C; Schwenkglenks, M; Urbinello, D

    2017-03-01

    Rising numbers of campylobacteriosis case notifications in Switzerland resulted in an increased attention to acute gastroenteritis (AG) in general. Patients with a laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infection perceive their disease as severe and around 15% of these patients are hospitalized. This study aimed at estimating healthcare costs due to AG and campylobacteriosis in Switzerland. We used official health statistics, data from different studies and expert opinion for estimating individual treatment costs for patients with different illness severity and for extrapolating overall costs due to AG and campylobacteriosis. We estimated that total Swiss healthcare costs resulting from these diseases amount to €29-45 million annually. Data suggest that patients with AG consulting a physician without a stool diagnostic test account for €9·0-24·2 million, patients with a negative stool test result for Campylobacter spp. for €12·3 million, patients testing positive for Campylobacter spp. for €1·8 million and hospitalized campylobacteriosis patients for €6·5 million/year. Healthcare costs of campylobacteriosis are high and most likely increasing in Switzerland considering that campylobacteriosis case notifications steadily increased in the past decade. Costs and potential cost savings for the healthcare system should be considered when designing sectorial and cross-sectorial interventions to reduce the burden of human campylobacteriosis in Switzerland.

  17. Marathon performance in relation to body fat percentage and training indices in recreational male runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanda G

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Tanda,1 Beat Knechtle2,31DIME, Università degli Studi di Genova, Genova, Italy; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anthropometric characteristics and training indices on marathon race times in recreational male marathoners.Methods: Training and anthropometric characteristics were collected for a large cohort of recreational male runners (n = 126 participating in the Basel marathon in Switzerland between 2010 and 2011.Results: Among the parameters investigated, marathon performance time was found to be affected by mean running speed and the mean weekly distance run during the training period prior to the race and by body fat percentage. The effect of body fat percentage became significant as it exceeded a certain limiting value; for a relatively low body fat percentage, marathon performance time correlated only with training indices.Conclusion: Marathon race time may be predicted (r = 0.81 for recreational male runners by the following equation: marathon race time (minutes = 11.03 + 98.46 exp(−0.0053 mean weekly training distance [km/week] + 0.387 mean training pace (sec/km + 0.1 exp(0.23 body fat percentage [%]. The marathon race time results were valid over a range of 165–266 minutes.Keywords: endurance, exercise, anthropometry

  18. African Journals Online: Switzerland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Switzerland. Home > African Journals Online: Switzerland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  19. Annual conference SAEE 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Technical and economic challenges of a 1 t CO 2 society was the topic addressed by the 2008 annual conference of the Swiss Association for Energy Economics. One tonne of carbon dioxide per head and year as a long-term energy strategy is the theme of a presentation made by professor Konstantin Boulouchos from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland. Professor Dr. Rainhard Madlener from the Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behaviour in Aachen, Germany, took a look at the one-ton CO 2 vision as a focus for technical development. Professor Thomas F. Rutherford from the ETH presented an economic analysis of one-ton CO 2 scenarios. Eduard Schumacher, former Chairman of the Board at the IWB utility in Basel, Switzerland, presented examples of how energy policy can be implemented, using the IWB's activities as an example. Hansruedi Kunz, Head of the Energy Department in the Building Department of the Canton of Zurich discussed the chances offered and the problems posed by the implementation of measures that are to lead to the meeting of energy visions for the year 2050. A podium and discussion session completed the conference

  20. Individual and dyadic coping in chronic pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burri A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Burri,1–3 Michèle Blank Gebre,4 Guy Bodenmann1 1Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Health and Rehabilitation Research Institute, Auckland University of Technology, 3Waitemata Pain Service, Department of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, North Shore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Private Practice, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to test the associations between individual coping responses to pain, dyadic coping, and perceived social support, with a number of pain outcomes, including pain intensity, functional disability, and pain adjustment, in a sample of N = 43 patients suffering from chronic pain in Switzerland. In contrast to previous research, we were interested not only in specific pain coping but also in more general stress coping strategies and their potential influence on pain outcomes. Analyses were performed using correlation and regression analyses. “Praying and hoping” turned out to be an independent predictor of higher pain intensity and higher anxiety levels, whereas both “coping self-instructions” and “diverting attention” were associated with higher well-being, less feelings of helplessness, and less depression and anxiety. We further found a link between “focusing on and venting emotions” and “worse pain adjustment”. No significant relationship between dyadic coping and social support with any of our pain outcomes could be observed. Overall, our results indicate that individual coping strategies outweigh the effects of social support and dyadic coping on pain-related outcomes and pain adjustment. However, results need to be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. Keywords: individual coping, dyadic coping, social support, chronic pain

  1. Sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rRNA gene in Theileria equi from horses presented in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Meli, Marina L; Zhang, Yi; Meili, Theres; Stirn, Martina; Riond, Barbara; Weibel, Beatrice; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-05-15

    A reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was adapted and applied for equine blood samples collected at the animal hospital of the University of Zurich to determine the presence of piroplasms in horses in Switzerland. A total of 100 equine blood samples were included in the study. The V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed using the RLB assay. Samples from seven horses hybridized to a Theileria/Babesia genus-specific and a Theileria genus-specific probe. Of these, two hybridized also to the Theileria equi-specific probe. The other five positive samples did not hybridize to any of the species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of unrecognized Theileria variants or genotypes. The 18S rRNA gene of the latter five samples were sequenced and found to be closely related to T. equi isolated from horses in Spain (AY534822) and China (KF559357) (≥98.4% identity). Four of the seven horses that tested positive had a documented travel history (France, Italy, and Spain) or lived abroad (Hungary). The present study adds new insight into the presence and sequence heterogeneity of T. equi in Switzerland. The results prompt that species-specific probes must be designed in regions of the gene unique to T. equi. Of note, none of the seven positive horses were suspected of having Theileria infection at the time of presentation to the clinic. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of equine piroplasma infections outside of endemic areas and in horses without signs of piroplasmosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental inventories for future electricity supply systems for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S.; Doka, G.; Knoepfel, I.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides the analysis of environmental inventories for selected electricity supply systems considered as possible options to meet the expected electricity demand in Switzerland in year 2030. The work was carried out by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), and was supported by the Swiss Association of Producers and Distributers of Electricity (VSE). Two possible electricity demand level cases were postulated by VSE, both under the basic assumption of economic growth: a high-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 2% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 1% from year 2010 to year 2030, and a low-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 1% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 0.5% from year 2010 to year 2030. The base (i.e. secured) supply in year 2030 will be, according to VSE, totally dominated by hydro with rather minor contributions from combined heat-and-power plants, small gas turbines, incinerators and solar photovoltaic plants. Due to decommissioning of the currently operating nuclear power plants and expiration of long-term electricity import contracts there will eventually occur a gap between the postulated electricity demand and the base supply. VSE provided seven options to cover this gap, defined in terms of mixes with different contributions from gas, coal, nuclear and solar chains; in this context a distinction is also made with respect to shares of domestic and imported electricity. The systems considered represent advanced technologies, regarded as either typical or most suitable for the Swiss conditions. System-specific input to the present analysis has been partially generated based on direct contacts with the industry. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was used to establish environmental inventories for the systems analysed. The analysis has been performed on three levels: 1) individually for each system considered, 2) comparison of systems, 3) comparison of supply

  3. Modelling daily PM2.5 concentrations at high spatio-temporal resolution across Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogh, Kees; Héritier, Harris; Stafoggia, Massimo; Künzli, Nino; Kloog, Itai

    2018-02-01

    Spatiotemporal resolved models were developed predicting daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations across Switzerland from 2003 to 2013. Relatively sparse PM 2.5 monitoring data was supplemented by imputing PM 2.5 concentrations at PM 10 sites, using PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratios at co-located sites. Daily PM 2.5 concentrations were first estimated at a 1 × 1km resolution across Switzerland, using Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) data in combination with spatiotemporal predictor data in a four stage approach. Mixed effect models (1) were used to predict PM 2.5 in cells with AOD but without PM 2.5 measurements (2). A generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing was applied to generate grid cell predictions for those grid cells where AOD was missing (3). Finally, local PM 2.5 predictions were estimated at each monitoring site by regressing the residuals from the 1 × 1km estimate against local spatial and temporal variables using machine learning techniques (4) and adding them to the stage 3 global estimates. The global (1 km) and local (100 m) models explained on average 73% of the total,71% of the spatial and 75% of the temporal variation (all cross validated) globally and on average 89% (total) 95% (spatial) and 88% (temporal) of the variation locally in measured PM 2.5 concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgässner, C; Schmitt, S; Borgström, A; Wittenbrink, M M

    2016-06-01

    Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. So far, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of B. hyodysenteriae in Switzerland have not been investigated. Therefore, a panel of 30 porcine B. hyodysenteriae isolates were tested against 6 antimicrobial agents by using the VetMIC Brachy panel, a broth microdilution test. Tiamulin and valnemulin showed high antimicrobial activity inhibiting all isolates at low concentrations. The susceptibility testing of doxycycline revealed values from ≤0.25 μg/ ml (47%) to 2 μg/ml (10%). The MIC values of lincomycin ranged between ≤0.5 μg/ml (30%) and 32 μg/ml (43%). For tylosin, 57% of the isolates could not be inhibited at the highest concentration of ≥128 μg/ml. The MIC values for tylvalosin were between ≤0.25 μg/ml (10%) and 8 μg/ml (20%). These findings reveal Switzerland's favourable situation compared to other European countries. Above all, tiamulin and valnemulin are still effective antimicrobial agents and can be further used for the treatment of SD.

  5. Multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training to enhance dual-task walking of older adults: a secondary analysis of a 6-month randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggenberger P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Eggenberger,1 Nathan Theill,2,3 Stefan Holenstein,1 Vera Schumacher,4,5 Eling D de Bruin1,6,7 1Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, ETH Zurich, 2Division of Psychiatry Research, 3Center for Gerontology, 4Department of Gerontopsychology and Gerontology, 5University Research Priority Program “Dynamics of Healthy Aging”, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 6Department of Epidemiology, CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, 7Centre for Evidence Based Physiotherapy, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: About one-third of people older than 65 years fall at least once a year. Physical exercise has been previously demonstrated to improve gait, enhance physical fitness, and prevent falls. Nonetheless, the addition of cognitive training components may potentially increase these effects, since cognitive impairment is related to gait irregularities and fall risk. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical training would lead to greater improvements in dual-task (DT gait compared to exclusive physical training.Methods: Elderly persons older than 70 years and without cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1 virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE, 2 treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY, or 3 treadmill walking (PHYS. Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Gait variables, functional fitness (Short Physical Performance Battery, 6-minute walk, and fall frequencies were assessed at baseline, after 3 months and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were carried out.Results: Eighty-nine participants were randomized to three groups initially; 71 completed the training and 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. DANCE/MEMORY showed a

  6. Summary and Conclusions of the 'JRA Beam Telescope 2025'-Forum at the 6th Beam Telescopes and Test Beams Workshop arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, J.; Amjad, M.S.; Arling, J.-H.; Coates, T.; Dätwyler, A.; Dannheim, D.; van Dijk, M.W. U.; Eichhorn, T.; Gerbershagen, A.; Girard, O.; Gkotse, B.; Iguaz, F.J.; Kroll, J.; Ravotti, F.; Rossi, E.; Rummler, A.; Salvatore, F.; Spannagel, S.; Weers, M.; Weingarten, J.

    On January 17th 2018, a forum on a possible Joint Research Activity on a future common Beam Telescope was held during the 6th Beam Telescopes and Test Beams Workshop (BTTB) in Zurich, Switzerland. The BTTB workshop aims at bringing together the community involved in beam tests. It therefore offers a suitable platform to induce community-wide discussions. The forum and its discussions were well received and the participants concluded that appropriate actions should be undertaken promptly. Specific hardware and software proposals were discussed, with an emphasis on improving current common EUDET-type telescopes based on Mimosa26 sensors towards higher trigger rate capabilities in convolution with considerably improved time resolution. EUDAQ as a common top level DAQ and its modular structure is ready for future hardware. EUTelescope fulfils many requirements of a common reconstruction framework, but has also various drawbacks. Thus, requirements for a new common reconstruction framework were collected. A new co...

  7. [Dialectical-behavioral outpatient therapy for adolescents with impulsive and self-harming behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffezzoni, Marco; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2017-11-01

    A slightly modified version of the Dialectical-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) for impulsive and self-injurious adolescents has been implemented in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Service in Zurich, Switzerland, since 2005. This DBT-A comprises individual therapy, skills training, and a single parent meeting over a 6-month period. This article reports on the translation of this approach into clinical practice and presents an evaluation based on the clinical quality of control assessments. Participants of the treatment program were 43 female adolescents aged 14 to 19 living in the Zurich area and showing impulsive and self-injurious behavior and problems regulating their emotions and relationships. Each skill group contained 4-6 adolescents. Our mostly positive experiences with this approach were supplemented by evaluation data from a quality control group based on self- and parent-report of a total of 19 participants. There is convincing evidence that DBT-A leads to reductions in both general and specific psychopathology.

  8. Indications of neotectonic crust motion in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldimann, P.

    1987-01-01

    Indications of possible Pleistocene and Holocene tectonic activity in northern Switzerland have been found by an analysis of irregular erosional forms in the subcrop, abnormal gradients of accumulative gravel terraces and particular developments of the river course. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Energy policies of IEA countries - Switzerland. 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-26

    Switzerland is entering decisive times in its energy policy. In 2008, the country should see remarkable advance in electricity market reform. Support for renewable electricity is set to increase massively. Decisions on post-Kyoto targets are getting closer, and a CO{sub 2} tax will be introduced for heating and process fuels. Plus, new measures to increase energy efficiency and the broader use of renewable energy are high on the political agenda. Since the last in-depth review in 2003, Switzerland has made progress in most areas of energy policy. Still, more work remains to be done. Maintaining sufficient electricity capacity implies even stronger policies to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. At the same time, the country will also need to decide which sources to use for large-scale power supply. High dependency on oil can become a burden in a post-Kyoto world. In particular, Switzerland's climate policy should focus more on reducing emissions from private car use, the largest and fastest-growing emitter. Current measures have not proven effective, and the costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions are being distorted across sectors. Switzerland's world-class energy R and D is expected to more than halve energy needs per capita by the second half of this century. This ambitious goal needs to be supported by consistent policies on energy efficiency and climate change. This book takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Switzerland and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future.

  10. Cybersecurity in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Gives the reader a detailed account of how cyber-security in Switzerland has evolved over the years, using official documents and a considerable amount of inside knowledge. It focuses on key ideas, institutional arrangements, on the publication of strategy papers, and importantly, on processes leading up to these strategy documents. The peculiarities of the Swiss political system, which influence the way cyber-security can be designed and practiced in Switzerland are considered, as well as the bigger, global influences and driving factors that shaped the Swiss approach to cyber-security. It

  11. [Anthrax in the canton of Zurich between 1878 and 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes Ammann, A; Brandl, H

    2007-07-01

    Historical records reporting cases of animal anthrax in the canton of Zurich between 1878 and 2005 were analysed on the level of political communities regarding occurrence and number of cases, animals affected, and number of communities affected. Data were correlated with industrial activities (tanning, wool and horse hair processing) in a community and to the prevailing meteorological conditions. A total of 830 cases of animal anthrax has been recorded in 140 of 171 communities. Occurrence correlated with industrial activities in a community such as companies handling potentially contaminated materials (hides, fur, wool, hair, meat, or bone meal). The influence of wool processing companies (P = 0. 004) and tanneries (P = 0. 032) was significant whereas horse hair processing had no effect. However, a statistical relationship between the number of cases reported and meteorological data (rainfall, mean temperature) was not found.

  12. Genotypic Resistance Tests Sequences Reveal the Role of Marginalized Populations in HIV-1 Transmission in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilaih, Mohaned; Marzel, Alex; Yang, Wan Lin; Scherrer, Alexandra U; Schüpbach, Jörg; Böni, Jürg; Yerly, Sabine; Hirsch, Hans H; Aubert, Vincent; Cavassini, Matthias; Klimkait, Thomas; Vernazza, Pietro L; Bernasconi, Enos; Furrer, Hansjakob; Günthard, Huldrych F; Kouyos, Roger

    2016-06-14

    Targeting hard-to-reach/marginalized populations is essential for preventing HIV-transmission. A unique opportunity to identify such populations in Switzerland is provided by a database of all genotypic-resistance-tests from Switzerland, including both sequences from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) and non-cohort sequences. A phylogenetic tree was built using 11,127 SHCS and 2,875 Swiss non-SHCS sequences. Demographics were imputed for non-SHCS patients using a phylogenetic proximity approach. Factors associated with non-cohort outbreaks were determined using logistic regression. Non-B subtype (univariable odds-ratio (OR): 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8-2.1), female gender (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-1.7), black ethnicity (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7-2.1) and heterosexual transmission group (OR:1.8; 95% CI: 1.6-2.0), were all associated with underrepresentation in the SHCS. We found 344 purely non-SHCS transmission clusters, however, these outbreaks were small (median 2, maximum 7 patients) with a strong overlap with the SHCS'. 65% of non-SHCS sequences were part of clusters composed of >= 50% SHCS sequences. Our data suggests that marginalized-populations are underrepresented in the SHCS. However, the limited size of outbreaks among non-SHCS patients in-care implies that no major HIV outbreak in Switzerland was missed by the SHCS surveillance. This study demonstrates the potential of sequence data to assess and extend the scope of infectious-disease surveillance.

  13. Suicide tourism: a pilot study on the Swiss phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Saskia; Mausbach, Julian; Reisch, Thomas; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-08-01

    While assisted suicide (AS) is strictly restricted in many countries, it is not clearly regulated by law in Switzerland. This imbalance leads to an influx of people-'suicide tourists'-coming to Switzerland, mainly to the Canton of Zurich, for the sole purpose of committing suicide. Political debate regarding 'suicide tourism' is taking place in many countries. Swiss medicolegal experts are confronted with these cases almost daily, which prompted our scientific investigation of the phenomenon. The present study has three aims: (1) to determine selected details about AS in the study group (age, gender and country of residence of the suicide tourists, the organisation involved, the ingested substance leading to death and any diseases that were the main reason for AS); (2) to find out the countries from which suicide tourists come and to review existing laws in the top three in order to test the hypothesis that suicide tourism leads to the amendment of existing regulations in foreign countries; and (3) to compare our results with those of earlier studies in Zurich. We did a retrospective data analysis of the Zurich Institute of Legal Medicine database on AS of non-Swiss residents in the last 5 years (2008-2012), and internet research for current legislation and political debate in the three foreign countries most concerned. We analysed 611 cases from 31 countries all over the world. Non-terminal conditions such as neurological and rheumatic diseases are increasing among suicide tourists. The unique phenomenon of suicide tourism in Switzerland may indeed result in the amendment or supplementary guidelines to existing regulations in foreign countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Stroke in Switzerland: social determinants of treatment access and cost of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snozzi, Philippe; Blank, Patricia R; Szucs, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Few useful empirical data on stroke are available for Switzerland. The aim of this study was to collect data on the use of medical resources and associated costs among stroke patients. Special attention was paid to possible correlations between epidemiologic indicators, sociodemographic variables, resource use, and costs. We carried out a representative population survey of 19,123 households in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland with computer-assisted telephone interviews in 2005. Detailed sociodemographic data and information on the use of resources were collected from 509 individuals aged 15-75 years who had cared for a stroke patient in the past 1-2 years. In the last 1-2 years, a total of 7.8% of households were affected by stroke in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, whereas only 4.3% of households were affected in the French-speaking part of Switzerland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, P Switzerland. Patients with supplementary insurance were treated more frequently as inpatients than patients with statutory insurance (OR: 2.14, P = .014), and patients with a low household income were referred less frequently to an inpatient rehabilitation facility than those with medium or high household income (OR = .58, P Switzerland. Patients without supplementary insurance or with low household income were less likely to receive inpatient treatment. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D. [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Filderklinik, Filderstadt (Germany); Schittenhelm, Jan [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Thodberg, Hans Henrik [Visiana, Holte (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  16. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, David D.; Schittenhelm, Jan; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  17. Primary care in Switzerland gains strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Sima; Meier, Tatjana; Hasler, Susann; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Although there is widespread agreement on health- and cost-related benefits of strong primary care in health systems, little is known about the development of the primary care status over time in specific countries, especially in countries with a traditionally weak primary care sector such as Switzerland. The aim of our study was to assess the current strength of primary care in the Swiss health care system and to compare it with published results of earlier primary care assessments in Switzerland and other countries. A survey of experts and stakeholders with insights into the Swiss health care system was carried out between February and March 2014. The study was designed as mixed-modes survey with a self-administered questionnaire based on a set of 15 indicators for the assessment of primary care strength. Forty representatives of Swiss primary and secondary care, patient associations, funders, health care authority, policy makers and experts in health services research were addressed. Concordance between the indicators of a strong primary care system and the real situation in Swiss primary care was rated with 0-2 points (low-high concordance). A response rate of 62.5% was achieved. Participants rated concordance with five indicators as 0 (low), with seven indicators as 1 (medium) and with three indicators as 2 (high). In sum, Switzerland achieved 13 of 30 possible points. Low scores were assigned because of the following characteristics of Swiss primary care: inequitable local distribution of medical resources, relatively low earnings of primary care practitioners compared to specialists, low priority of primary care in medical education and training, lack of formal guidelines for information transfer between primary care practitioners and specialists and disregard of clinical routine data in the context of medical service planning. Compared to results of an earlier assessment in Switzerland, an improvement of seven indicators could be stated since 1995. As a

  18. Prostate cancer: ESMO Consensus Conference Guidelines 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horwich, A.; Hugosson, J.; de Reijke, T.; Wiegel, T.; Fizazi, K.; Kataja, V.; Parker, Chris; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Berthold, Dominik; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Carlsson, Sigrid; Daugaard, Gedske; de Meerleer, Gert; Dearnaley, David; Fizazi, Karim; Fonteyne, Valérie; Gillessen, Silke; Heinrich, Daniel; Horwich, Alan; Hugosson, Jonas; Kataja, Vesa; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Nilsson, Sten; Padhani, Anwar; Papandreou, Christos; Roobol, Monique; Sella, Avishay; Valdagni, Riccardo; van der Kwast, Theo; Verhagen, Paul; Wiegel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The first ESMO Consensus Conference on prostate cancer was held in Zurich, Switzerland, on 17-19 November 2011, with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals including experts in methodological aspects. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically

  19. In-Hospital Disease Burden of Sarcoidosis in Switzerland from 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, Susanne; Baty, Florent; Brutsche, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease with an unpredictable and sometimes fatal course while the underlying pathomechanism is still unclear. Reasons of the increasing hospitalization rate and mortality in the United States remain in dispute but incriminated are a number of distinct comorbidities and risk factors as well as the application of more aggressive therapeutic agents. Studies reflecting the recent development in central Europe are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the recent mortality and hospitalization rates as well as the underlying comorbidities of hospitalized sarcoidosis patients in Switzerland. In this longitudinal, nested case-control study, a nation-wide database provided by the Swiss Federal Office for Statistics enclosing every hospital entry covering the years 2002-2012 (n = 15,627,573) was analyzed. There were 8,385 cases with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis representing 0.054% (8,385 / 15,627,573) of all hospitalizations in Switzerland. These cases were compared with age- and sex-matched controls without the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Hospitalization and mortality rates in Switzerland remained stable over the observed time period. Comorbidity analysis revealed that sarcoidosis patients had significantly higher medication-related comorbidities compared to matched controls, probably due to systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy. Sarcoidosis patients were also more frequently re-hospitalized (median annual hospitalization rate 0.28 [IQR 0.15-0.65] vs. 0.19 [IQR 0.13-0.36] per year; p < 0.001), had a longer hospital stay (6 [IQR 2-13] vs. 4 [IQR 1-8] days; p < 0.001), had more comorbidities (4 [IQR 2-7] vs. 2 [IQR 1-5]; p < 0.001), and had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality (2.6% [95% CI 2.3%-2.9%] vs. 1.8% [95% CI 1.5%-2.1%] (p < 0.001). A worse outcome was observed among sarcoidosis patients having co-occurrence of associated respiratory diseases. Moreover, age was an important risk factor for re-hospitalization.

  20. Canine leptospirosis in Switzerland-A prospective cross-sectional study examining seroprevalence, risk factors and urinary shedding of pathogenic leptospires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaude, Alessandro; Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Dreyfus, Anou; Counotte, Michel Jacques; Francey, Thierry; Schweighauser, Ariane; Lettry, Sophie; Schuller, Simone

    2017-06-01

    Leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonosis. While human leptospirosis remains rare in Switzerland, the incidence of canine leptospirosis is unusually high compared to other European countries. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the exposure of asymtomatic dogs to pathogenic Leptospira in Switzerland, to characterise risk factors associated with seropositivity and to determine the prevalence of urinary shedding. Sampling was stratified to cover the whole of Switzerland. Sera were tested by microscopic agglutination test for antibodies against a panel of 12 serovars. Urine was tested for pathogenic Leptospira using a LipL32 real-time PCR. Of 377 sera, 55.7% (95%CI 51.2-60.7) showed a reciprocal MAT titre of ≥1:40 and 24.9% (95%CI 20.7-29.4) of ≥1:100 to at least one serovar. Seropositivity (MAT ≥1:100) was most common to serovars Australis (14.9%; 95% CI 11.4-18.6) and Bratislava (8.8%; 95%CI 6.1-11.7), followed by Copenhageni (6.1%; 95%CI 3.7-8.5), Canicola (5%; 95%CI 2.9-7.4), Grippotyphosa (4.5%; 95%CI 2.7-6.9), Pomona (4%; 95%CI 2.1-6.1), Autumnalis (2.7%; 95%CI 1.3-4.2) and Icterohaemorrhagiae (1.6%; 95%CI 0.5-2.9). In unvaccinated dogs (n=84) the prevalence of a MAT titre ≥100 was 17.9% (95%CI 10.7-26.2), with a similar distribution of reactive serovars. Variables associated with seropositivity (≥1:40) to any serovar included age (OR 1.29/year; 95%CI: 1.1-1.5) and bioregion with higher risks in the regions Northern Alps (OR 14.5; 95%CI 2.2-292.7), Central Plateau (OR 12.3; 95%CI 2.0-244.1) and Jura (OR 11.2; 95%CI 1.7-226.7) compared to Southern Central Alps. Dogs living with horses were significantly more likely to have antibodies to serovar Bratislava (OR 4.68;95%CI 1.2-17.2). Hunting was a significant risk factor for seropositivtiy to serovar Grippotyphosa (OR 8.03; 95%CI 1.6-30.8). Urine qPCR positivity was uncommon (1/408 dogs; 0.2%; 95% CI0-0.7). These results demonstrate that dogs in Switzerland are commonly exposed

  1. Programme [11. international LISA symposium, Zurich (Switzerland), 5-9 September 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Monday, 5th of September 2016 Chair: M. Colpi S. Vitale The LTP experiment on LISA Pathfinder and its first results K. Dooley Advanced LIGO: news from the dark universe B. Schutz LIGOs Black Holes and Science in the LISA Era P. McNamara LISA Pathfinder: First steps to observing gravitational waves from space M. Hewitson In-flight Performance of the Optical Metrology System on LISA Pathfinder W. Weber Physical model of the LISA Pathfinder differential acceleration measurement and its application to LISA K. Danzmann The Status of LISA Chair: O. Jennrich J. Martino On-flight characterization of Coldgas micro-Newton thrusters for Lisa Pathfinder M. Nofrarias Magnetic force noise in LISA Pathfinder L. Ferraioli The LISA Pathfinder GRS Front-End Electronics D. Vetrugno The Δ g workflow: from measured displacements to the differential external acceleration. A. Wittchen Coupling of relative intensity noise and pathlength noise to the length measurement in the optical metrology system of LISA Pathfinder S. Paczkowski Laser frequency stabilisation and interferometer path length differences on LISA Pathfinder R. Giusteri The free-fall mode experiment on LISA Pathfinder: first results P. Wass Electrostatic test-mass force-noise disturbances as measured by LISA Pathfinder R. Dolesi The contribution of Brownian noise from viscous gas damping to the differential acceleration noise measured in LISA Pathfinder between two nominally free falling test masses C. Trenkel The engineering of LISA Pathfinder – the quietest laboratory ever flown in space W. Klipstein LISA-derived Flight Phasemeter on the GRACE Follow-On Mission P. Laufer MEMS Ion Thruster Chips to Significantly Enhance Cold Gas Thruster Lifetime for LISA M. Tinto Enhanced Gravitational Wave Science with LISA and gLISA Tuesday, 6th of September 2016 Chair: P. McNamara F. Ricci Advanced VIRGO: State of the Art C. Belczynski Evolutionary predictions in the advanced LIGO/Virgo era A. Sesana The promise of multi

  2. Is Switzerland Suitable for the Invasion of Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020–2049 and 2045–2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020–2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045–2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Conclusions/Significance Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European

  3. National CO2 policy and externalities. Some general equilibrium results for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, Stefan; Schleiniger, Reto

    2002-01-01

    Switzerland, following the Kyoto agreement, plans to reduce CO 2 emissions by 10% over the next decade with a tax on the use of fossil fuels. This policy, while having a marginal effect on global CO 2 emission levels, will have a positive effect on local environmental quality. However, since different sources of energy produce different local external effects, a uniform CO 2 tax is ill targeted. This paper shows that a policy setting tax rates equal to the lower bounds of the estimated local marginal external effects would reduce the national CO 2 level by 30%. Using a computable general equilibrium model of the Swiss economy, it also finds substantial efficiency gains of Pigovian taxes as compared to a uniform CO 2 tax

  4. Countermeasures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggenstos, M.; Brunner, H.

    1995-01-01

    Concerning countermeasures in Switzerland, part of them are tested every year in exercises. An operational emergency management in the EPZ (Emergency Planning Zones) is a condition for operating a NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) in Switzerland. The NPP operators have to pay special installations and preparations, automatic monitoring network in the inner EPZ and iodine tablets for the EPZ population. Countermeasures concerning EPZ, sheltering hospitals, farmers are summarized in this document. It also presents the use of iodine tablets based on the ICRP's recommendations (International Commission Radiological Protection), and the implementation of evacuation plans, public information or exercises organised by the EOR (Emergency Organisation Radioactivity). (TEC). 4 refs., 1 fig

  5. Induction of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in hypoxic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelli A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurelia Lelli,1,2,* Karen A Nolan,1,2,* Sara Santambrogio,1,2 Ana Filipa Gonçalves,1,2 Miriam J Schönenberger,1,2 Anna Guinot,1,2 Ian J Frew,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs,1,2,4 Roland H Wenger1,2 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2National Center of Competence in Research "Kidney.CH", Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Long thought to be “junk DNA”, in recent years it has become clear that a substantial fraction of intergenic genomic DNA is actually transcribed, forming long noncoding RNA (lncRNA. Like mRNA, lncRNA can also be spliced, capped, and polyadenylated, affecting a multitude of biological processes. While the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of lncRNAs have just begun to be elucidated, the conditional regulation of lncRNAs remains largely unexplored. In genome-wide studies our group and others recently found hypoxic transcriptional induction of a subset of lncRNAs, whereof nuclear-enriched abundant/autosomal transcript 1 (NEAT1 and metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1 appear to be the lncRNAs most ubiquitously and most strongly induced by hypoxia in cultured cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-2 rather than HIF-1 seems to be the preferred transcriptional activator of these lncRNAs. For the first time, we also found strong induction primarily of MALAT1 in organs of mice exposed to inspiratory hypoxia. Most abundant hypoxic levels of MALAT1 lncRNA were found in kidney and testis. In situ hybridization revealed that the hypoxic induction in the kidney was confined to proximal rather than distal tubular epithelial cells. Direct oxygen-dependent regulation of MALAT1 lncRNA was confirmed using isolated primary

  6. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European countries suggest that the tiger mosquito will colonize new areas in Switzerland

  7. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  8. Mineralogical characteristics of andradite and grossular of te Sasa Ore Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shijakova-Ivanova, Tena; Zajkova-Paneva, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the mineralogical characteristics of garnets (andradite and grossular) of the Sasa ore field, Investigations were carried out in the Institute for Crystallography and Petrography in Zurich, Switzerland and in the laboratory of the Faculty of Mining and Geology, Shtip. (Original)

  9. Cost distribution of bluetongue surveillance and vaccination programmes in Austria and Switzerland (2007-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, Beate; Firth, Clair L; Loitsch, Angelika; Stockreiter, Simon; Hutter, Sabine; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2018-03-03

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an emerging transboundary disease in Europe, which can cause significant production losses among ruminants. The analysis presented here assessed the costs of BTV surveillance and vaccination programmes in Austria and Switzerland between 2007 and 2016. Costs were compared with respect to time, type of programme, geographical area and who was responsible for payment. The total costs of the BTV vaccination and surveillance programmes in Austria amounted to €23.6 million, whereas total costs in Switzerland were €18.3 million. Our analysis demonstrates that the costs differed between years and geographical areas, both within and between the two countries. Average surveillance costs per animal amounted to approximately €3.20 in Austria compared with €1.30 in Switzerland, whereas the average vaccination costs per animal were €6.20 in Austria and €7.40 in Switzerland. The comparability of the surveillance costs is somewhat limited, however, due to differences in each nation's surveillance (and sampling) strategy. Given the importance of the export market for cattle production, investments in such programmes are more justified for Austria than for Switzerland. The aim of the retrospective assessment presented here is to assist veterinary authorities in planning and implementing cost-effective and efficient control strategies for emerging livestock diseases. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Cost distribution of bluetongue surveillance and vaccination programmes in Austria and Switzerland (2007–2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, Beate; Loitsch, Angelika; Stockreiter, Simon; Hutter, Sabine; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2018-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an emerging transboundary disease in Europe, which can cause significant production losses among ruminants. The analysis presented here assessed the costs of BTV surveillance and vaccination programmes in Austria and Switzerland between 2007 and 2016. Costs were compared with respect to time, type of programme, geographical area and who was responsible for payment. The total costs of the BTV vaccination and surveillance programmes in Austria amounted to €23.6 million, whereas total costs in Switzerland were €18.3 million. Our analysis demonstrates that the costs differed between years and geographical areas, both within and between the two countries. Average surveillance costs per animal amounted to approximately €3.20 in Austria compared with €1.30 in Switzerland, whereas the average vaccination costs per animal were €6.20 in Austria and €7.40 in Switzerland. The comparability of the surveillance costs is somewhat limited, however, due to differences in each nation’s surveillance (and sampling) strategy. Given the importance of the export market for cattle production, investments in such programmes are more justified for Austria than for Switzerland. The aim of the retrospective assessment presented here is to assist veterinary authorities in planning and implementing cost-effective and efficient control strategies for emerging livestock diseases. PMID:29363572

  11. Biodiversity offsetting – en vogue in Madagascar?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the World Bank 2010 report, Madagascar is only just about to enter a large - scale exploitation ... tion between companies of the extractive industries, financial institutions such as the International Finance ... Forest Management and Development. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Population study of Pyxis arachnoides brygooi (Vuillemin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tantelinirina Rakotondriamanga, Jean Kala and Jutta M. Hammer

    CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland. Missouri Botanical Garden (MBG). Madagascar Research and Conservation Program. BP 3391. Antananarivo, 101 ..... south are clearly influenced by tourism, where forests are heav- ily exploited for construction material and charcoal production. (Du Puy and Moat 1998, Seddon et al. 2000).

  13. Seismic activity of northern and central Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichmann, N.; Ballarin Dolfin, D.; Kastrup, U.

    2000-12-01

    The present report is part of an ongoing study by the Swiss Seismological Service, that was initiated by Nagra almost 20 years ago. It is devoted to the detailed monitoring of the earthquake activity in northern and central Switzerland. The main objective of this study is to provide information about the locations of active deformation and the state of stress in the Earth's crust and to relate these to the geological features visible at the surface. Originally, this seismotectonic investigation was restricted to the northern part of Switzerland; later it was extended also to the central part. Concerning the seismotectonics of northern Switzerland, this report constitutes a continuation of earlier publications. Here we review the seismic activity and earthquake focal mechanisms of the last 10 years and subsequently derive a comprehensive picture of the deformation and stress in the Earth's crust of northern Switzerland, based on all data available up to the end of 1999. Concerning the seismotectonics of central Switzerland, this publication constitutes the first publicly available report. (author) [de

  14. International Biophysics Congress (8th) Held in Bristol, United Kingdom on 29 July-4 August 1984. Final Programme and Book of Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-03

    OCPA, t b-Amine, epirepbire anc :ate&in. r n.-l fubrlnQrar, lMihZ-ko --0 % clottec-t) were to4es Toc to. te-npetdtu-e (]!C20.350 K) trodSea...Liquidos y Sistemas Bioldgicon und Phys. Biochemie, Universitlt Regensburg (IFLYSIB), 1900 La Plata, Argentina. "’Departmnt X-Irradiation of single...Jescribed bt Creighton (3. Mol :Xti. 129: 235) has been ased ET-oo tb.-.ji-B0S3 ZUrich, Switzerland, to screen ritarit, forr: -7 yeait Zy- toc :6rC c Cn a

  15. Sociodemographic and Behavioural Determinants of a Healthy Diet in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Guessous, Idris

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of a healthy diet have not been studied in Switzerland. This study aimed at assessing the individual and behavioural factors associated with a healthy diet in a Swiss city. Cross-sectional, population-based study conducted between 2009 and 2013 (n = 4,439, 2,383 women, mean age 57.5 ± 10.3 years) in Lausanne. Food consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Two Mediterranean diet scores (classic score and specific for Switzerland) and the Harvard School of Public Health alternate healthy eating index were computed. For all three dietary scores considered, living in couple or having a high education were associated with a healthier diet. An unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, sedentary behaviour) or a high body mass index were associated with an unhealthier diet. Participants born in Italy, Portugal and Spain had healthier diets than participants born in France or Switzerland. Women and elderly participants had healthier diets than men and young participants according to 2 scores, while no differences were found for the Swiss-specific Mediterranean score. In Switzerland, healthy eating is associated with high education, a healthy lifestyle, marital status and country of origin. The associations with gender and age depend on the dietary score considered. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Identifying and prioritising systematic review topics with public health stakeholders: A protocol for a modified Delphi study in Switzerland to inform future research agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Dyon; Mütsch, Margot; Kien, Christina; Gerhardus, Ansgar; Lhachimi, Stefan K

    2017-08-04

    The Cochrane Collaboration aims to produce relevant and top priority evidence that responds to existing evidence gaps. Hence, research priority setting (RPS) is important to identify which potential research gaps are deemed most important. Moreover, RPS supports future health research to conform both health and health evidence needs. However, studies that are prioritising systematic review topics in public health are surprisingly rare. Therefore, to inform the research agenda of Cochrane Public Health Europe (CPHE), we introduce the protocol of a priority setting study on systematic review topics in several European countries, which is conceptualised as pilot. We will conduct a two-round modified Delphi study in Switzerland, incorporating an anonymous web-based questionnaire, to assess which topics should be prioritised for systematic reviews in public health. In the first Delphi round public health stakeholders will suggest relevant assessment criteria and potential priority topics. In the second Delphi round the participants indicate their (dis)agreement to the aggregated results of the first round and rate the potential review topics with the predetermined criteria on a four-point Likert scale. As we invite a wide variety of stakeholders we will compare the results between the different stakeholder groups. We have received ethical approval from the ethical board of the University of Bremen, Germany (principal investigation is conducted at the University of Bremen) and a certificate of non-objection from the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (fieldwork will be conducted in Switzerland). The results of this study will be further disseminated through peer reviewed publication and will support systematic review author groups (i.a. CPHE) to improve the relevance of the groups´ future review work. Finally, the proposed priority setting study can be used as a framework by other systematic review groups when conducting a priority setting study in a different context.

  17. Regional CO2 budget, countermeasures and reduction aims for the Alpine tourist region of Davos, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, A.; Calonder, G.-P.; Hagedorn, F.; Lardelli, C.; Lundstroem, C.; Stoeckli, V.

    2008-01-01

    In its latest report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that global climate change can still be slowed down if greenhouse gas emissions are rapidly and strongly reduced. We present a detailed regional CO 2 budget for the Alpine tourist region of Davos, Switzerland, including emissions and potential sinks. The aim of the study was (1) to estimate the most important CO 2 sources and sinks, (2) to identify the most efficient reduction measures and (3) to assess the feasibility of different reduction targets. The results show that the emissions due to heating contribute to a proportion of 86.3% to the total budget, which is mainly due to the harsh local climate and the tourism-focused local economy. They also show that the yearly CO 2 emissions per capita in Davos exceed the Swiss average of 6 tonnes by 25%. The augmentation of the carbon pool through the natural environment compares to 10.3% of the total emissions, and further afforestation of the community forest can contribute to an improvement of the total budget by 2.6%. The reduction aim of -15% until 2015 (compared with 2004), as set by the municipality itself, could be easily reached through better building insulation and the use of renewable energy sources. More ambitious aims, such as a 2000 W-society or CO 2 neutrality, however, will not be realised without major drawbacks in living standards

  18. Influenza Pandemics and Tuberculosis Mortality in 1889 and 1918: Analysis of Historical Data from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Kathrin; Zwahlen, Marcel; Ballif, Marie; Rieder, Hans L; Egger, Matthias; Fenner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) mortality declined in the northern hemisphere over the last 200 years, but peaked during the Russian (1889) and the Spanish (1918) influenza pandemics. We studied the impact of these two pandemics on TB mortality. We retrieved historic data from mortality registers for the city of Bern and countrywide for Switzerland. We used Poisson regression models to quantify the excess pulmonary TB (PTB) mortality attributable to influenza. Yearly PTB mortality rates increased during both influenza pandemics. Monthly influenza and PTB mortality rates peaked during winter and early spring. In Bern, for an increase of 100 influenza deaths (per 100,000 population) monthly PTB mortality rates increased by a factor of 1.5 (95%Cl 1.4-1.6, ppandemic. Nationally, the factor was 2.0 (95%Cl 1.8-2.2, ppandemics. We demonstrate excess PTB mortality during historic influenza pandemics in Switzerland, which supports a role for influenza vaccination in PTB patients in high TB incidence countries.

  19. Principles and challenges of programme planning at a language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Principles and challenges of programme planning at a language centre serving two Swiss universities. Sabina Schaffner. The UZH and ETH Zurich Language Center, Switzerland. E-mail: sabina.schaffner@sprachen.uzh.ch. 1. Introduction. In this contribution, I would like to share some of the professional challenges that I ...

  20. 78 FR 41101 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ..., 2009. Summary of Facts and Representations 1. The Bank is a national bank subsidiary of Wells Fargo... Representations Background 1. UBS AG (UBS or the Applicant) is a financial services corporation with headquarters located in Zurich, Switzerland. UBS has banking divisions and subsidiaries around the world, including in...

  1. Energy Sector Liberalisation and Privatisation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlome, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to its geographical situation, Switzerland is important for the transit lines of electricity and gas through the Alps. But Switzerland is not a member of the European Union. Furthermore, Swiss citizens enjoy extended direct-democratic rights. The author presents the story of energy sector liberalisation and privatisation in their three phases: 1. The late nineties: The phase of expectations 2. The phase of legislation: Open electricity market and elements of sustainable development as mitigating factors 3. The new awareness: Public service The Swiss citizens will have to adopt the law installing an open electricity market in June or September 2002. For the case of a (still very possible) rejection of the law, the author presents a no-go-solution and three realistic scenarios.(author)

  2. Childhood cancer survival in Switzerland (1976-2013): Time-trends and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias; Belle, Fabiën N; Grotzer, Michael A; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-01-01

    Population-based studies on childhood cancer survival are key to monitor progress against cancer and to detect potential differences between regions and other subgroups in the population. We investigated time trends and factors associated with childhood cancer survival on a national level in Switzerland, from 1976 to 2013. We extracted data from the population-based Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry of 5,776 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer from 1985 to 2014 in Switzerland. We calculated age-adjusted 5-year survival, defined the annual reduction in risk of death (ARR), and explored associations of survival with clinical and demographic factors. Overall, 5-year survival improved significantly, from 64% in 1976-1983 to 88% in 2004-2013. ARR over the whole period was 4% for all diagnostic groups, greatest for Hodgkin lymphomas (8%), ependymomas (6%), Burkitt's lymphomas (6%) and germ cell tumours (6%). Children treated in hospitals without specialised paediatric cancer centre for leukaemia (HR 12.9), lymphoma (HR 5.0) and neuroblastoma (HR 3.7) were at higher risk of death. In French-speaking Switzerland, risk of death was lower for lymphoma (HR 0.6), CNS tumours (HR 0.7) and neuroblastoma (HR 0.5). Children with migration background had a higher risk of death from all tumours except bone tumours. Childhood cancer survival significantly improved from 1976 to 2013, but there is room for further improvement. Survival rates varied by type of clinical treatment, language region and nationality. All paediatric cancer patients should be referred to a specialised paediatric cancer centre. Further research is needed to intervene and completely eliminate inequalities in survival. © 2016 UICC.

  3. Strontium-90 measurements in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedli, C.; Geering, J.J.; Lerch, P.

    1988-01-01

    Strontium-90 contamination in Switzerland has been measured since the sixties. The determination of 90 Sr in human vertebrae, milk-teeth, milk and wine have shown a maximum activity between 1964 and 1966. Since 1976, the survey has been extended to the food chain. After the Chernobyl accident, the measurements indicated a significative 90 Sr contamination in the Tessin and the north-east of Switzerland. The partition of 90 Sr in wheat has been determined and transfer factors are given for the milk - cheese - whey chain

  4. Perinatal mental health service provision in Switzerland and in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel Castro, Rita T; Schroeder, Katrin; Pinard, Claudia; Blöchlinger, Patricia; Künzli, Hansjörg; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Kammerer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of maternal perinatal-psychiatric disorders as well as their effect on the baby is well recognised. Increasingly well researched specialised treatment methods can reduce maternal morbidity, positively affect mother-baby bonding and empower women's confidence as a mother. Here, we aimed to compare guidelines and the structure of perinatal-psychiatric service delivery in the United Kingdom and in Switzerland from the government's perspective. Swiss cantons provided information regarding guidelines and structure of service delivery in 2000. A subsequent survey using the same questionnaire was carried out in 2007. In the UK, similar information was accessed through published reports from 2000-2012. Guidelines for perinatal psychiatry exist in the UK, whereas in Switzerland in 2000 none of the 26 cantons had guidelines, and in 2007 only one canton did. Joint mother-baby admissions on general psychiatric wards were offered by 92% of the Swiss cantons. In the UK, pregnant women and joint mother-baby admissions are only advised onto specialised perinatal-psychiatric units. In Switzerland, in 2007, three specialised units (max. 24 beds) were in place corresponding to 1 unit per 2.5 million people, while in the UK there were 22 mother-baby units (168 beds) in 2012 (1 unit per 2.8 million). In the UK, less than 50% of trusts provided specialised perinatal-psychiatric health care. The main difference between the UK and Switzerland was the absence of guidelines, regular assessment and plans for future development of perinatal psychiatry in Switzerland. There are still geographical differences in the provision of perinatal-psychiatric services in the UK.

  5. Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in urban areas of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Bogyó, Dávid; Sattler, Thomas; Moretti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano). A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind.), and 10 millipede species (105 ind.) were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus) and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi), urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined) was similar in Zurich (17 species) and Lucerne (16), while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the Sørensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities. This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe(Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus) while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii) is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. Trichoniscus alemannicus, Cylindroiulus verhoeffi) may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool.

  6. Strategy for responding to nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical threats in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Daniel; Kenzelmann, Marc; Cadisch, Marc; Baggenstos, Martin

    2008-01-01

    ABC- Protection in Switzerland was originally set up primarily for protection against military weapons of mass destruction, such as atomic/nuclear or chemical weapons. Protection against biological weapons - at first within the domain of the medical service - was later integrated into AC-Protection, thus leading to ABC-Protection in Switzerland. In some cases the objectives of ABC-Protection with regard to prevention and intervention were defined differently in the military and civil fields. In order to put ABC-Protection in Switzerland on a uniform basis, the Federal Council has instructed the KomABC (Commission for ABC-Protection) to develop a general strategy for 'ABC-Protection in Switzerland'. The following paper describes the objectives as well as the key elements of this general strategy, which should guarantee that all Federal and Cantonal organizations take decisions related to prevention and intervention based on the same principles. The strategy covers the following topics: 1) Reference scenarios for ABC-Protection; 2) Demands related to prevention; 3) Demands related to intervention; 4) Allocation of tasks at the Federal and Cantonal levels. Protective measures for improving ABC-Protection in Switzerland are presented. (author)

  7. Monitoring of immissions of lead, copper, zinc and cadmium in the Zurich region with the help of the moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. as bio-monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeni, L.; Schmid-Grob, I.; Hertz, J.; Urmi, E.

    1986-06-01

    Air pollution with Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in the Zurich region was monitored by analyzing 196 moss samples. The metal concentrations were evaluated with the method of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) after the samples had been thoroughly washed and after extraction with 2N nitric acid. Nine samples of the same moss species from a rural region with similar climatic conditions were used as comparison material. The average values of the urban region were higher by 6 times for Cd, 10 times for Pb, 12 times for Cu and 17 times for Zn than in the region of comparison. It was found that the emissions from traffic, from areas of high building density (e.g. domestic heating exhaust, erosion of building material) and from incineration plants were responsible for between 36% (Zn) and 62% (Pb) of the total variance (p < 0.05). The largest percentage of variance for all four metals can be attributed to the parameter traffic.

  8. Sports-related sudden cardiac deaths in the young population of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatryan, Babken; Vital, Cristina; Kellerhals, Christoph; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Gräni, Christoph; Trachsel, Lukas D; Schmied, Christian M; Saguner, Ardan M; Eser, Prisca; Herzig, David; Bolliger, Stephan; Michaud, Katarzyna; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In Switzerland, ECG screening was first recommended for national squad athletes in 1998. Since 2001 it has become mandatory in selected high-risk professional sports. Its impact on the rates of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SCD) is unknown. We aimed to study the incidence, causes and time trends of sports-related SCD in comparison to SCD unrelated to exercise in Switzerland. We reviewed all forensic reports of SCDs of the German-speaking region of Switzerland in the age group of 10 to 39 years, occurring between 1999 and 2010. Cases were classified into three categories based on whether or not deaths were associated with sports: no sports (NONE), recreational sports (REC), and competitive sports (COMP). Over the 12-year study period, 349 SCD cases were recorded (mean age 30±7 years, 76.5% male); 297 cases were categorized as NONE, 31 as REC, and 21 as COMP. Incidences of SCD per 100,000 person-years [mean (95% CI)] were the lowest in REC [0.43 (0.35-0.56)], followed by COMP [1.19 (0.89-1.60)] and NONE [2.46 (2.27-2.66)]. In all three categories, coronary artery disease (CAD) with or without acute myocardial infarction (MI) was the most common cause of SCD. Three professional athletes were identified in COMP category which all had SCD due to acute MI. There were no time trends, neither in overall, nor in cause-specific incidences of SCD. The incidence of SCD in young individuals in Switzerland is low, both related and unrelated to sports. In regions, like Switzerland, where CAD is the leading cause of SCD associated with competitions, screening for cardiovascular risk factors in addition to the current PPS recommendations might be indicated to improve detection of silent CAD and further decrease the incidence of SCD.

  9. Counseling in Switzerland: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roslyn; Henning, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    The authors review counseling in Switzerland and compare it with counseling in the United States. They evaluate the role of professional associations and programs and argue that the evolution of counseling is situated within the history and economic, social, and political systems of Switzerland. Findings suggest that Swiss counselors are ready to…

  10. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  11. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. (see the official news about the new "Carte de légitimation P") If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible...

  12. Mortality in heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland 1994-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Frick, Ulrich; Hartwig, Christina; Gutzwiller, Felix; Gschwend, Patrick; Uchtenhagen, Ambros

    2005-08-01

    A major goal of heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland has been to reduce the drug-related mortality of heroin users. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of deaths under treatment is essential. To assess mortality of participants in heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland over a 7-year period from 1994 to 2000, and to compare this mortality to the general population and to other populations of opioid users, as reported in the literature. Estimation of person years under heroin-assisted treatment from the complete case registry of heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland. Estimation of standardized mortality ratios comparing the population in treatment to the Swiss population (standardized to the year 2000). Over the 7-year period, the crude death rate of patients in heroin-assisted treatment, and including one month after discharge from treatment, was 1% per year. The standardized mortality ratio for the entire observation period was 9.7 (95% C.I. 7.3-12.8), with females having higher standardized mortality ratios (SMR 17.2) than males (SMR 8.4). There was no clear time trend. Mortality in heroin-assisted treatment was low compared to the mortality rate of Swiss opioid users 1990s (estimated to be between 2.5 and 3%). It was also low compared to mortality rates of opioid users in other maintenance treatments in other countries as reported in the literature. The SMR was also lower than that reported in the only meta-analysis in the literature: 13.2 (95% C.I. 12.3-14.1). The low mortality rate is all the more noteworthy as heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland included only refractory opioid addicts with existing severe somatic and/or mental problems. No conflicts of interest declared.

  13. Solgreen 'Kraftwerk 1' PV plant in Zurich - Final report; Solgreen Kraftwerk 1 Zuerich - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.; Stettler, S.

    2008-04-15

    The 'Solgreen Kraftwerk 1' PV plant was built in Zurich, in June 2001. The Solgreen system optimizes the integration of photovoltaic modules on green flat roofs by using the ground substrate in a double function for both; as soil substrate for the vegetation and as a foundation for the modules mounting structure. The project's main goal was to test the suitability of the Solgreen system. Furthermore, the interacting influences of the roof vegetation and the photovoltaic system were examined scientifically over a 5 year period by an external expert. 12 sample areas were covered with different substrates and different seeds were used on the roof during the test period. Ecosystem diversity amounted to 140 different breeds of plants as well as insects and animals. The modules led to a higher structural diversity on the roof by creating shaded areas and different water distribution. Saplings mainly growing in low vegetation density areas, caused shading on modules and had to be removed. Mulleins were an additional shading problem on one of the rooftops; leading to a measurable energy reduction. For future installations of this type, a low substrate height in front of the modules and seeds which produce low growing plants can reduce such shading problems. This photovoltaic system's technical performance was higher compared to the average system's performance in Zurich. Visual controls of the system showed almost no soiling of the PV modules, primarily due to the frameless modules, but maybe also due to the plants' air cleaning effect. (author)

  14. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  15. 78 FR 43930 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... influence over the management or policies of a person other than an individual; (c) The term Auction Rate... headquarters located in Zurich, Switzerland. UBS has banking divisions and subsidiaries around the world... that to the best of its knowledge, as of December 10, 2012, no Unrelated Sale to a Plan has occurred...

  16. Switzerland and the Holocaust: Teaching Contested History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schar, Bernhard C.; Sperisen, Vera

    2010-01-01

    This study is about a history textbook which introduces the new transnational master-narrative of Holocaust memory into the classrooms of the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The script of the book entails a replacement of the formerly dominant view of Switzerland as a neutral nation resisting evil in favour of an image that aligns Switzerland…

  17. Nuclear energy in limelight of publicity. [Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmaier, H

    1978-12-12

    The future of nuclear energy is discussed considering economical, political and environmental protection questions raised in Switzerland on eve of the national referendum held in February 1979. It is argued that the objections are unfounded and it is shown that Switzerland cannot afford to be without nuclear energy needed to maintain the required rate of growth of the economy.

  18. [Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing (SRAN): the development of an agenda for clinical nursing research in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Lorenz; Abderhalden, Christoph; Cignacco, Eva; Eicher, Manuela; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Schubert, Maria; Shaha, Maya

    2008-12-01

    In many Anglo-Saxon and North European countries nursing research agendas have been developed to address priorities in nursing research in accordance with a nationally defined health policy. In Switzerland, due to lack of a nationwide governmental health policy, co-ordination of nursing research so far was scarce. The "Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing (SRAN)" project developed an agenda for clinical nursing research between 2005 and 2007. Based on literature reviews, expert panels and a national survey a project team formulated an agenda which passed a consensus conference. The agenda recommends aspects that should lead research and defines seven research priorities for nursing in Switzerland for the time between 2007 and 2017. Nursing research should prioritize to investigate 1) the effectiveness of nursing interventions; 2) the influences of service adaptations in a changing health care system; 3) the phenomena in patients requiring nursing care; 4) the influence of the work environment on the quality of nursing care; 5) the functioning of family and social systems; 6) varieties of life circumstances and their integration; and 7) the implementation of ethical principles in nursing. Written in German and French, the Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing for the first time formulates priorities for nursing research in Switzerland and can be used for strategic discussions. As a next step, the development of an action plan to enhance nursing research will take place in Switzerland.

  19. Martinandresite, Ba2(Al4Si12O32)·10H2O, a new zeolite from Wasenalp, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Zubkova, Natalia V.; Meisser, Nicolas; Ansermet, Stefan; Weiss, Stefan; Pekov, Igor V.; Belakovskiy, Dmitriy I.; Vozchikova, Svetlana A.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Pushcharovsky, Dmitry Yu.

    2018-06-01

    The new zeolite martinandresite, ideally Ba2(Al4Si12O32)·10H2O, was discovered in the armenite locality of Wasenalp near the Isenwegg peak, Ganter valley, Simplon region, Switzerland. The associated minerals are armenite, quartz, dickite, and chlorite. Martinandresite forms tan-coloured blocky crystals up to 8 × 5 × 3.5 mm, their aggregates up to 6 cm across, as well as cruciform twins up to 3.5 mm. The major form is {010}; the subordinate forms are {100} and {001}. Indistinct cleavage is observed, presumably on (010) and in a direction across (010). The Mohs' hardness is 4½. Density measured by flotation in heavy liquids is 2.482(5) g/cm3. Density calculated using the empirical formula is equal to 2.495 g/cm3. Martinandresite is optically biaxial, negative, α = 1.500(2), β = 1.512(2), γ = 1.515(2) ( λ = 589 nm). 2 V (meas.) = 55(10)°. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of martinandresite is (wt%; electron microprobe, H2O determined by the modified Penfield method): Na2O 0.37, K2O 0.12, BaO 21.55, Al2O3 15.03, SiO2 49.86, H2O 12.57, total 99.50. The empirical formula based on 16 atoms Si + Al pfu is Na0.17K0.04Ba2.00(Al4.19Si11.81O32)H19.85O9.93. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is orthorhombic, space group Pmmn, with a = 9.4640(5), b = 14.2288(6), c = 6.9940(4) Å, V = 941.82(8) Å3 and Z = 1. The crystal structure of martinandresite is unique and is based on the Al-Si-O tetrahedral framework containing four-, six- and eight-membered rings of tetrahedra. Si and Al are disordered between the two independent tetrahedral sites. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [ d, Å ( I, %) ( hkl)] are: 6.98 (74) (001), 6.26 (83) (011), 5.61 (100) (101), 3.933 (60) (220, 031), 3.191 (50) (112), 3.170 (62) (041), 3.005 (79) (231, 141). Martinandresite is named after Martin Andres (b. 1965), the discoverer of the armenite locality of Wasenalp.

  20. Martinandresite, Ba2(Al4Si12O32)·10H2O, a new zeolite from Wasenalp, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Zubkova, Natalia V.; Meisser, Nicolas; Ansermet, Stefan; Weiss, Stefan; Pekov, Igor V.; Belakovskiy, Dmitriy I.; Vozchikova, Svetlana A.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Pushcharovsky, Dmitry Yu.

    2017-12-01

    The new zeolite martinandresite, ideally Ba2(Al4Si12O32)·10H2O, was discovered in the armenite locality of Wasenalp near the Isenwegg peak, Ganter valley, Simplon region, Switzerland. The associated minerals are armenite, quartz, dickite, and chlorite. Martinandresite forms tan-coloured blocky crystals up to 8 × 5 × 3.5 mm, their aggregates up to 6 cm across, as well as cruciform twins up to 3.5 mm. The major form is {010}; the subordinate forms are {100} and {001}. Indistinct cleavage is observed, presumably on (010) and in a direction across (010). The Mohs' hardness is 4½. Density measured by flotation in heavy liquids is 2.482(5) g/cm3. Density calculated using the empirical formula is equal to 2.495 g/cm3. Martinandresite is optically biaxial, negative, α = 1.500(2), β = 1.512(2), γ = 1.515(2) (λ = 589 nm). 2V (meas.) = 55(10)°. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of martinandresite is (wt%; electron microprobe, H2O determined by the modified Penfield method): Na2O 0.37, K2O 0.12, BaO 21.55, Al2O3 15.03, SiO2 49.86, H2O 12.57, total 99.50. The empirical formula based on 16 atoms Si + Al pfu is Na0.17K0.04Ba2.00(Al4.19Si11.81O32)H19.85O9.93. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is orthorhombic, space group Pmmn, with a = 9.4640(5), b = 14.2288(6), c = 6.9940(4) Å, V = 941.82(8) Å3 and Z = 1. The crystal structure of martinandresite is unique and is based on the Al-Si-O tetrahedral framework containing four-, six- and eight-membered rings of tetrahedra. Si and Al are disordered between the two independent tetrahedral sites. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 6.98 (74) (001), 6.26 (83) (011), 5.61 (100) (101), 3.933 (60) (220, 031), 3.191 (50) (112), 3.170 (62) (041), 3.005 (79) (231, 141). Martinandresite is named after Martin Andres (b. 1965), the discoverer of the armenite locality of Wasenalp.

  1. Neuropathological survey reveals underestimation of the prevalence of neuroinfectious diseases in cattle in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchet, Laura; Walland, Julia; Wüthrich, Daniel; Boujon, Céline L; Posthaus, Horst; Bruggmann, Rémy; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Oevermann, Anna; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2017-09-01

    Neuroinfectious diseases in livestock represent a severe threat to animal health, but their prevalence is not well documented and the etiology of disease often remains unidentified. The aims of this study were to generate baseline data on the prevalence of neuroinfectious diseases in cattle in Switzerland by neuropathological survey, and to identify disease-associated pathogens. The survey was performed over a 1-year period using a representative number of brainstem samples (n=1816) from fallen cattle. In total, 4% (n=73) of the animals had significant lesions, the most frequent types of which were indicative of viral (n=27) and bacterial (n=31) etiologies. Follow-up diagnostics by immunohistochemistry, PCR protocols and next-generation sequencing identified infection with Listeria monocytogenes (n=6), ovine herpesvirus 2 (n=7), bovine astrovirus CH13 (n=2), bovine herpesvirus 6 (n=6), bovine retrovirus CH15 (n=2), posavirus 1 (n=2), and porcine astroviruses (n=2). A retrospective questionnaire-based investigation indicated that animals' owners observed clinical signs of neurological disease in about one-third of cases with lesions, which was estimated to correspond to approximately 85 cases per year in the adult fallen cattle population in Switzerland. This estimate stands in sharp contrast to the number of cases reported to the authorities and reveals a gap in disease surveillance. Systematic neuropathological examination and follow-up molecular testing of neurologically diseased cattle could significantly enhance the efficiency of disease detection for the purposes of estimating the prevalence of endemic diseases, identifying new or re-emerging pathogens, and providing "early warnings" of disease outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Publication performances of university clinics for anesthesiology: Germany, Austria and Switzerland from 2001 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, G; Ausserer, J; Wenzel, V; Pehböck, D; Widmann, T; Lindner, K; Hamm, P; Paal, P

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the publication performance of university departments of anesthesiology in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The number of publications, original articles, impact factors and citations were evaluated. A search was performed in PubMed to identify publications related to anesthesiology from 2001 to 2010. All articles from anesthesiology journals listed in the fields of anesthesia/pain therapy, critical care and emergency medicine by the "journal citation report 2013" in Thomson Reuters ISI web of knowledge were included. Articles from non-anaesthesiology journals, where the stem of the word anesthesia (anes*, anaes*, anäst*, anast*) appears in the affiliation field of PubMed, were included as well. The time periods 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared. Articles were allocated to university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland via the affiliation field. A total of 45 university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland and 125,979 publications from 2,863 journals (65 anesthesiology journals, 2,798 non-anesthesiology journals) were analyzed. Of the publications 23 % could not be allocated to a given university department of anesthesiology. In the observation period the university department of anesthesiology in Berlin achieved most publications (n = 479) and impact points (1,384), whereas Vienna accumulated most original articles (n = 156). Austria had the most publications per million inhabitants in 2006-2010 (n=50) followed by Switzerland (n=49) and Germany (n=35). The number of publications during the observation period decreased in Germany (0.5 %), Austria (7 %) and Switzerland (8 %). Tables 2 and 4-8 of this article are available at Springer Link under Supplemental. The research performance varied among the university departments of anesthesiology in Germany, Austria and Switzerland whereby larger university departments, such as Berlin or Vienna published most. Publication output in Germany, Austria and

  3. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M.; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano; Hunt, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO 2 -tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  4. [Uroliths of cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, B; Brandenberger-Schenk, F; Rothenanger, E; Müller, C

    2016-10-01

    In this study data on composition of uroliths collected from cats and epidemiologic data of affected cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009 are summarised. Of 884 stones analysed 50% (n=441) were composed of calcium oxalate, 45% (n=398) of struvite, 3% (n=18) of ammonium urate, 1% (n=12) were mixed stones, 1% (n=9) were composed of silica, 3 stones were solidified blood, 2 consisted of cystine and 1of xanthine. 40% of the ureteral stones were composed of struvite. Domestic cats had significantly less calcium oxalate stones compared to British Shorthair or Persian cats. Cats with calcium oxalate stones were older and cats with struvite stones were younger than other affected cats. Female and male cats were equally affected with stones. Compared to studies from other countries, in Switzerland silica stones occurred more often and ureteral stones were more often composed of Struvite. The present study shows that occurrence and prevalence of urinary calculi of cats from Switzerland exhibited only slight differences to studies from other countries.

  5. Geothermal conditions in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Eugster, W.; Griesser, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The geothermal field in northern Switzerland, derived from a great number of borehole temperature measurements, is characterized by a strongly positive temperature gradient and heat flow anomaly (>150 mW/m 2 ) in the lower Aare valley. The anomaly is centered above the recently discovered Permocarboniferous trough. Several possibilities to explain the anomaly (thermal disturbance in the mantle, cooling shallow intrusion, locally strong uplift/erosion, local contrasts in petrophysical properties) can be ruled out on the basis of model calculations. Uprising deep groundwater is favoured as the mechanism creating the observed anomaly. Deep groundwater circulation was investigated in detail, especially to clarify the hydraulic role of the Permocarboniferous trough, by coupled thermo-hydraulic modelling, using the integrated finite difference technique. The model was carefully validated by field data. The results reveal the draining effect of the Permocarboniferous trough and indicate that vertical permeability is present in the vicinity of the trough even at depths of several kilometers. They further imply that large parts of the crystalline basement in northern Switzerland have average hydraulic conductivities >10 -9 m/sec and that Darcy velocities in the order of 10 mm/year must be expected. (author) 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Trends in prevalence of allergic rhinitis and correlation with pollen counts in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Thomas; Gassner, Ewald

    2008-11-01

    In recent decades, a large number of epidemiological studies investigating the change of prevalence of hay fever showed an increase in the occurrence of this disease. However, other studies carried out in the 1990s yielded contradictory results. Many environmental factors have been hypothesized to contribute to the increasing hay fever rate, including both indoor and ambient air pollution, reduced exposure to microbial stimulation and changes in diets. However, the observed increase has not convincingly been explained by any of these factors and there is limited evidence of changes in exposure to these risk factors over time. Additionally, recent studies show that no further increase in asthma, hay fever and atopic sensitisation in adolescents and adults has been observed during the 1990s and the beginning of the new century. As the pattern of pollen counts has changed over the years, partly due to the global warming but also as a consequence of a change in the use of land, the changing prevalence of hay fever might partly be driven by this different pollen exposure. Epidemiological data for hay fever in Switzerland are available from 1926 until 2000 (with large gaps between 1926 and 1958 and 1958 to 1986) whereas pollen data are available from 1969 until the present. This allows an investigation as to whether these data are correlated provided the same time spans are compared. It would also be feasible to correlate the pollen data with meteorological data which, however, is not the subject of our investigation. Our study focuses on analyzing time series of pollen counts and of pollen season lengths in order to identify their trends, and to ascertain whether there is a relationship between these trends and the changes in the hay fever prevalence. It is shown in this paper that the pollen exposure has been decreasing in Basel since the beginning of the 1990s whereas the rate of the hay fever prevalence in Switzerland remained approximately unchanged in this period

  7. Potential for geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} in Switzerland - Final report; Studie zur Abschaetzung des Potenzials fuer CO{sub 2}-Sequestrierung in der Schweiz - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, L. W.; Chevalier, G. [Institut fuer Geologie, Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Leu, W. [Geoform AG, Geologische Beratungen und Studien, Villeneuve (former Minusio) (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    One approach to dispose of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} is to inject it into deep, porous geological formations, where is remains safely trapped over periods of many millennia. This report evaluates the potential for this option within Switzerland, based on a literature review. Only geological criteria for CO{sub 2} sequestration are taken into account, following international best-practice principles for reservoir safety. Simultaneous consideration of nine geological attributes (including faulting and natural seismicity) allows the sequestration potential to be mapped at a resolution of a few km{sup 2}, using a scale between 0 (negligible potential) and 1 (high potential). It is concluded that the crystalline rocks of the Alps and the sediments underlying the valleys of Valais, Ticino and Grisons are unsuitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. However, the sedimentary rocks below the Central Plateau (and to lesser extent below the Jura Chain), locally show moderate to very good potential. At least four formations of porous sandstones and limestones (saline aquifers) underlie large areas of the Plateau within the technically favoured depth interval of 800-2500 m. Approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of the Plateau (mostly in the sector Fribourg-Olten-Lucerne) exhibits sequestration potentials above 0.6, offering a theoretical (unproven) storage capacity for approximately 2680 million tonnes of CO{sub 2}. From a purely geological point of view these results are promising. Although the high potentials do not guarantee the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration, they serve as guides to areas that warrant detailed investigation. If this CO{sub 2} storage option is pursued in Switzerland, then more detailed geological investigations and a pilot study would be necessary to prove its feasibility. The assessed risks, leakage-monitoring procedures and non-geological criteria (proximity to CO{sub 2} point-sources, economics, conflicts of use of the subsurface, etc.) would have to be

  8. Switzerland - its position within a liberalised European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at the situation in Switzerland shortly before parliamentary discussions on the liberalisation of Switzerland's electricity market. In particular the interconnection of Switzerland's electricity supply system with that of the rest of Europe is discussed. The power black-out that occurred in Italy in September 2003 is looked at. In particular, its relevance to power supply infrastructures is discussed and the fast-changing international configurations that are resulting from the liberalisation of electricity markets are looked at. Questions of international power transfer capacities and their allocation are looked at in detail in the light of the occurrences in 2003. The lessons that must be learned from the blackout are discussed and Switzerland's geographical position as an important hub of the European power transfer system are considered

  9. Performance of commercial laying hen genotypes on free range and organic farms in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenstra, F; Maurer, V; Bestman, M; van Sambeek, F; Zeltner, E; Reuvekamp, B; Galea, F; van Niekerk, T

    2012-01-01

    1. A total of 257 farmers with free ranging laying hens (organic and conventional) in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands with 273 flocks were interviewed to determine the relationships between the genotype of the hens, management conditions and performance. 2. Almost 20 different genotypes (brands) were present on the farms. In France, all birds were brown feathered hens laying brown eggs. In Switzerland and The Netherlands, there were brown, white (white feathered hens laying white eggs) and silver (white feathered hens laying brown eggs) hens. In Switzerland, mixed flocks were also present. 3. The overall effect of system (organic vs. conventional free range) on egg production and mortality was significant, with higher mortality and lower egg production among organic hens. In pair wise comparisons within country, the difference was highly significant in The Netherlands, and showed a non-significant tendency in the same direction in Switzerland and France. 4. White hens tended to perform better than brown hens. Silver hens appeared to have a higher mortality and lower production per hen housed at 60 weeks of age. 5. There were no significant relationships between production, mortality, feather condition and use of outside run or with flock size. 6. There was more variation in mortality and egg production among farms with a small flock size than among farms with a large flock size.

  10. Experience gained with energy taxes in Europe - Lessons for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, M.; Lueckge, H.; Iten, R.; Trageser, J.; Goerlach, B.; Blobel, D.; Kraemer, A.

    2007-12-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at experience gained with energy taxes in Europe and the lessons that can be learned for Switzerland. The variety of energy and CO 2 taxes that have been introduced in Europe since the early 1990s is reviewed. These are intended to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions and complement conventional mineral oil taxes. Some of these non-fiscal energy and CO 2 taxes that have been created within the scope of the EU directive on energy taxation are examined and commented on, as is their impact on energy consumption. The situation in EU member states is described and commented on. Success-factors and general conditions are examined and conclusions that can be drawn for Switzerland are examined.

  11. Implementation of the obligations of the Convention on Nuclear Safety - 6th national report of Switzerland to the Convention in accordance with its article 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-08-01

    After a short description of Switzerland as a state in the middle of Europe and of its political organization, the report explains the development of the nuclear power from the first experimental reactor in 1957. Presently five nuclear power plants (NPP) are operating in Switzerland, producing about 40% of the electricity consumption of the country, the rest being produced essentially by hydroelectric plants. As the first regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission was set up in 1960, which evolved to the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) which came into force at the end of 1996. Since there, Switzerland has prepared and submitted the country reports for the regular Review Meetings of Contracting Countries. This 6th report by ENSI provides an update on compliance with CNS obligations. It gives consideration to issues that aroused particular interest at the 5th meeting and at the extraordinary meeting dedicated to the consequences of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi. Shortly after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi, the Swiss government has decided to phase out nuclear energy; existing plants will continue to operate as long as they are safe. In Switzerland, on-going activities regarding safety assessment of the different stages in the lifetime of nuclear installations consist of periodic assessments and assessments of long-term operation for existing Swiss NPPs. Such assessments have been performed for two Swiss NPPs (Beznau NPP and Muehleberg NPP) which have been in commercial operation for over 40 years. A detailed examination demonstrated that the conditions for the taking out of service of an NPP are not and will not be reached by these two plants within the next 10 years. Nevertheless, it is mandatory to continue with the scheduled ageing management, maintenance and backfitting activities. After the Fukushima accident, additional safety reviews were performed. All Swiss

  12. Implementation of the obligations of the Convention on Nuclear Safety - 6th national report of Switzerland to the Convention in accordance with its article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    After a short description of Switzerland as a state in the middle of Europe and of its political organization, the report explains the development of the nuclear power from the first experimental reactor in 1957. Presently five nuclear power plants (NPP) are operating in Switzerland, producing about 40% of the electricity consumption of the country, the rest being produced essentially by hydroelectric plants. As the first regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission was set up in 1960, which evolved to the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) which came into force at the end of 1996. Since there, Switzerland has prepared and submitted the country reports for the regular Review Meetings of Contracting Countries. This 6th report by ENSI provides an update on compliance with CNS obligations. It gives consideration to issues that aroused particular interest at the 5th meeting and at the extraordinary meeting dedicated to the consequences of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi. Shortly after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi, the Swiss government has decided to phase out nuclear energy; existing plants will continue to operate as long as they are safe. In Switzerland, on-going activities regarding safety assessment of the different stages in the lifetime of nuclear installations consist of periodic assessments and assessments of long-term operation for existing Swiss NPPs. Such assessments have been performed for two Swiss NPPs (Beznau NPP and Muehleberg NPP) which have been in commercial operation for over 40 years. A detailed examination demonstrated that the conditions for the taking out of service of an NPP are not and will not be reached by these two plants within the next 10 years. Nevertheless, it is mandatory to continue with the scheduled ageing management, maintenance and backfitting activities. After the Fukushima accident, additional safety reviews were performed. All Swiss

  13. Photovoltaic (PV) energy in the Netherlands and Switzerland. A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Loo, F.; Spiessens, P.

    1995-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Switzerland and the Netherlands is compared for a number of aspects. The Swiss have realized more PV capacity. Also the economic conditions to develop PV are better in Switzerland than in the Netherlands. In Switzerland the public support is mobilized for solar energy while in the Netherlands a social basis is created for wind energy. 3 ills., 3 tabs

  14. Assisted Suicide in Switzerland: Clarifying Liberties and Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia A; Mauron, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Assisting suicide is legal in Switzerland if it is offered without selfish motive to a person with decision-making capacity. Although the 'Swiss model' for suicide assistance has been extensively described in the literature, the formally and informally protected liberties and claims of assistors and recipients of suicide assistance in Switzerland are incompletely captured in the literature. In this article, we describe the package of rights involved in the 'Swiss model' using the framework of Hohfeldian rights as modified by Wenar. After outlining this framework, we dissect the rights involved in suicide assistance in Switzerland, and compare it with the situation in England and Germany. Based on this approach, we conclude that in Switzerland, claim rights exist for those requesting suicide assistance, and for those who are considering providing such assistance, even though no entitlements exist toward suicide assistance. We then describe the implementation of the 'Swiss model' and difficulties arising within it. Clarifying these issues is important to understand the Swiss situation, to evaluate what features of it may or may not be worth correcting or emulating, and to understand how it can impact requests for suicide assistance in other countries due to 'suicide tourism'. It is also important to understand exactly what sets Switzerland apart from other countries with different legislations regarding suicide assistance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hypofolins A - L, ent-Labdane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Hypoestes phyllostachya 'Pink Splash'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bin; Ding, Lin-Fen; Yan, Tong; Xie, Zhang-Qiao; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Song, Liu-Dong; Wu, Xing-De; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2018-06-01

    Twelve new ent-labdane diterpenoids, hypofolins A - F (1 - 6) and hypofolins G - L (7a/7b, 8a/8b, and 9a/9b), were isolated from the roots of Hypoestes phyllostachya 'Pink Splash'. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic and HR-MS data. The absolute configurations of 1, 2, 5, and 7a/7b were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and ECD analysis, as well as chemical transformations. Compounds 7a/7b, 8a/8b, and 9a/9b were isolated as three pairs of interconverting mixture of two isomers between ketone and hemiketal types. Compound 1 showed weak cytotoxicity against SMMC-7721 cell line with IC 50 value of 31.40 μm. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Department of Management, Technology and Economics, Centre for Energy Policy and Economics; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland). Istituto di microeconomia e economia Pubblica; Hunt, L.C. [University of Surrey (United Kingdom). Department of Economics, Surrey Energy Economics Centre

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO{sub 2}-tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  17. The greatest solar refrigeration plant of Switzerland. Holistic saving of CO{sub 2} at a private bank; Die groesste solare Kaelteanlage der Schweiz. Ganzheitliche CO{sub 2}-Einsparung bei einer Privatbank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    Since June 2008, the Swiss private bank Pictet and Cie. (Geneva, Switzerland) operates the largest solar refrigerant plant of Switzerland. The solar generated heat is used all over the year for heating up of drinking water, seasonally for room air conditioning and in the summer for driving of three absorption refrigerators with a refrigerating capacity of totally 210 kW. This is sufficient in order to keep the office space of nearly 4,000 m{sup 2} at a moderate temperature by means of cooling ceilings.

  18. Report on the first workshop on Movement Pattern Analysis MPA10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Olivier Laube

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the 1st Workshop on Movement Pattern Analysis, held as a pre-GIScience 2010 workshop in September 2010 in Zurich, Switzerland. The report outlines the scientific motivation for the event, summarizes its main contributions and outcomes, discusses the implications of the gathering, and indicates directions for the road ahead.

  19. National report for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, R [and others

    1997-12-01

    The presentation discusses general situation with nuclear energy in Switzerland; energy debate on the future of nuclear power; reactor operation; licensing questions; construction of a Swiss interim storage facility; final repository for low and intermediate level wastes; fuel research.

  20. National report for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, R.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses general situation with nuclear energy in Switzerland; energy debate on the future of nuclear power; reactor operation; licensing questions; construction of a Swiss interim storage facility; final repository for low and intermediate level wastes; fuel research

  1. Surgical Treatment of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Switzerland: Results from a Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Mossuti, Frédéric; Fisch, Urs; Schoettker, Patrick; Gugliotta, Marinella; Morard, Marc; Schucht, Philippe; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Levivier, Marc; Walder, Bernhard; Fandino, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of modern surgical techniques and monitoring tools for the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Switzerland, standardized nationwide operative procedures are still lacking. This study aimed to assess surgical management and monitoring strategies in patients admitted throughout Switzerland with severe TBI. Demographic, clinical, and radiologic data from a prospective national cohort study on severe brain-injured patients (Patient-relevant Endpoints after Brain Injury from Traumatic Accidents [PEBITA]) were collected during a 3-year period. This study evaluated patients admitted to 7 of the 11 trauma centers included in PEBITA. We retrospectively analyzed surgery-related computed tomography (CT) findings prior to and after treatment, intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, size and technical features of craniotomy, as well as surgical complications. ResULTS: This study included 353 of the 921 patients enrolled in PEBITA who underwent surgical treatment for severe TBI. At admission, acute subdural hematoma was the most frequent focal lesion diagnosed (n = 154 [44%]), followed by epidural hematoma (n = 96 [27%]) and intracerebral hematoma (n = 84 [24%]). A total of 198 patients (61%) presented with midline shift. Clinical deterioration in terms of Glasgow Coma Scale scores or intractable ICP values as an indication for surgical evacuation or decompression were documented in 20% and 6%, respectively. A total of 97 (27.5%) only received a catheter/probe for ICP monitoring. Surgical procedures to treat a focal lesion or decompress the cerebrum were performed in 256 patients (72.5%). Of the 290 surgical procedures (excluding ICP probe implantation), craniotomy (137 [47.2%]) or decompressive craniectomy (133 [45.9%]) were performed most frequently. The mean size of craniectomy in terms of maximal linear width on the CT axial slice was 8.4 ± 2.9 cm. Intraoperative ICP monitoring was reported in 61% of the interventions. Significant

  2. Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We use a representative survey covering 1,500 households to document the level of financial literacy in Switzerland and to examine how financial literacy is related to retirement planning. We measure financial literacy with standardized questions that capture knowledge about three basic financial concepts: Compound interest, inflation, and risk diversification. We measure retirement planning by the incidence of a voluntary retirement savings account. Our results show that financial literacy in Switzerland is high by international standards--a result which is compatible with the high ranking of Switzerland on the PISA mathematical scales. Financial literacy is lower among low-income, less-educated, and immigrant, non-native-speaking households as well as among women. We find that financial literacy is strongly correlated with voluntary retirement saving. Our results also show that financial literacy is correlated with financial market participation and mortgage borrowing.

  3. On the bridge over the translational valley of death: interview with Per I Arvidsson

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Per I

    2017-01-01

    Per I Arvidsson speaks to Francesca Lake, Managing Editor: Per received his PhD in organic chemistry from Gothenburg University (Sweden) in 1999, where he continued as a lecturer for a short time. Following 2 years at the ETH Zurich (Switzerland) as a postdoctoral fellow, he went on to establish an independent research group at the Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry at Uppsala University (Sweden). In 2006, he joined AstraZeneca R&D S?dert?lje (Sweden). After 1-year in-house trai...

  4. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne P. Oechslin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Switzerland is lacking. Results Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled at 18 (sub- urban collection sites throughout Switzerland showed carrier rates of 0% for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 18.0% for Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato, 2.5% for Borrelia miyamotoi, 13.5% for Rickettsia spp., 1.4% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 6.2% for "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and 0.8% for Babesia venatorum (Babesia sp., EU1. Site-specific prevalence at collection sites with n > 45 ticks (n = 9 significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l., Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2% tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358 were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Conclusions Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub- urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite.

  5. The effects of an 8-week multicomponent inpatient treatment program on body composition and anaerobic fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karner-Rezek K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Klaus Karner-Rezek,1 Beat Knechtle,2,3 Matthias Fenzl,4 Christian Schlegel,4 Manuela Konrad,5 Thomas Rosemann2 1Private University of the Principality of Liechtenstein, Triesen, Principality of Liechtenstein, 2Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 4Swiss Olympic Medical Center, Medizinisches Zentrum Bad Ragaz, Switzerland; 5University of Applied Sciences JOANNEUM, Bad Gleichenberg, Austria Background: High intensity exercise is considered as an effective means for reducing body fat. The aims of the present study were to investigate (1 whether body mass would be lost and body composition would change and (2 whether variables of anaerobic fitness prior to the intervention period would be related to loss of body mass and changes in body composition in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 28 children and adolescents (19 boys, 9 girls attended an 8-week multicomponent inpatient program. Caloric intake was based on the subject's weight and a daily energy deficit of ~500 kcal was targeted. At the beginning and at the end of the program, variables of anaerobic fitness were assessed using Wingate tests. Body composition was measured before and after the program using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Body mass decreased by 11.4% ± 1.6% in boys and by 11.0% ± 2.8% in girls (P < 0.001. Fat mass decreased by 23.8% ± 6.1% in boys and by 21.5% ± 5.2% in girls (P < 0.001. The decrease in fat mass was associated with the decrease in body mass in boys (r = 0.54, P = 0.017 but not in girls (P > 0.05. The decrease in body mass and the decrease in fat mass were neither associated with overall energy expenditure nor with the energy deficit in both genders (P > 0.05. Mean power in W/kg increased in the Wingate tests by 95.4% ± 109.1% in boys and by 100.0% ± 119.9% in girls (P < 0.001. Conclusions

  6. New Cytotoxic Bibenzyl and Other Constituents from Bauhinia ungulata L. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Leôncio M; de Carvalho, Jarbas L; da Silva, Horlando C; Lemos, Telma L G; Arriaga, Angela M C; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Militão, Gardênia C G; Silva, Thiago D S; Ribeiro, Paulo R V; Santiago, Gilvandete M P

    2016-12-01

    A new bibenzyl, 2'-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-4-methylbibenzyl (1) and four known compounds identified as 2'-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybibenzyl (2), liquiritigenin (3), guibourtinidol (4) and fisetinidol (5) were isolated from the roots of Bauhinia ungulata L. Phytochemical investigations of the stems of B. ungulata led to the isolation of the known compounds identified as liquiritigenin (3), guibourtinidol (4), fisetinidol (5), taraxerol (6), betulinic acid (7), taraxerone (8), glutinol (9), a mixture of sitosterol (10) and stigmasterol (11), pacharin (12), naringenin (13) and eriodictyol (14). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). The cytotoxicity of the bibenzyl 1 has been evaluated against four human cancer cell lines, showing the IC 50 values of 4.3 and 6.5 μg ml -1 against pro-myelocytic leukemia (HL-60) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HEP-2) cell lines, respectively. This article also registers for the first time the 13 C-NMR data of the known bibenzyl 2. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. Annuities in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Monika; Ruesch, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Switzerland's pension system has attracted considerable attention, mainly due to its reliance on a three-pillar structure. A relatively small pay-as-you-go system (first pillar) is complemented by a mandatory, employer-based, fully funded occupational pension scheme (second pillar). The main goal of this paper is to provide a detailed description and analysis of the Swiss pension system. P...

  8. Natural gas and its consumption in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniriah, N.

    1991-01-01

    In this report the worldwide position of natural gas as an important energy of the coming decades and its modest current standing in the Swiss energy balance are highlighted. The relative role and importance of the principal fossil fuels in the energy supply, the average energy prices and taxes, particularly those of gas and fuel oil in the residential sector and the overall statistically related inter-fuel substitution in Switzerland are examined. The role of governments in energy supply in general and with gas utilization in particular is examined. The international trade in gas and its supply infrastructure are reviewed and the advantageous situation of Switzerland in Western Europe and the latter in the World, with respect to present and future gas supplies, are underlined. Considering the current level of gas consumption in Switzerland and its past and projected rates of market penetration, in comparison to other OECD countries, it would appear that Switzerland is not taking full advantage of the situation. The implicit message, even if diffidently conveyed, is intervention by prescription and by proscription. In the absence of such measures, and with the virtual demise of nuclear energy or its expansion, the disproportionate and dominant position of fuel oil in the energy mix, will endure whereas the share of gas grows very slowly remaining at much lower levels than in the neighbouring countries. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  9. Seismic wave attenuation from borehole and surface records in the top 2.5 km beneath the city of Basel, Switzerland

    KAUST Repository

    Bethmann, Falko; Deichmann, Nicholas; Mai, Paul Martin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate attenuation (Q−1) of sediments of 2.5–3.5km thickness underneath the city of Basel, Switzerland. We use recordings of 195 induced events that were obtained during and after the stimulation of a reservoir for a Deep Heat Mining Project

  10. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions.Methods: Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group. The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12.Results: After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55 and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52 in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.Keywords: fall prevention, exercise, dance, video game

  11. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  12. Long-term Outcome of Arterial Stroke in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at University Children’s Hospital, Inselspital, and Universities of Bern, Geneva, Basel, and Zurich, Switzerland compared long-term outcome of children (1 month-16 years and young adults (16.1-45 years with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS using prospective data from the Swiss Neuropediatric Stroke Registry and the Adult Bernese stroke registry, between Jan 2000 and Dec 2008.

  13. Exercise electrocardiogram testing in two brothers with different outcome – a case study exercise testing in master cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandAbstract: The cases of two brothers training and competing as master cyclists and both preparing for a cycling tour are presented. The older brother aged 66 years went first to the primary care physician and presented with an asymptomatic depression in the exercise stress test of the ST segment in V5 and V6 during recovery after complete exhaustion. Coronary angiography revealed a multi vessel coronary artery disease and he underwent bypass surgery. One year later, he successfully completed his planned cycling tour of ~600 km in seven stages and covering ~12,000 m of total ascent. The younger brother aged 59 years went a few months later to the primary care physician and also performed asymptomatic exercise stress testing without changes in the ST segments. Unfortunately, 2 months later he suffered a cardiac arrest during his cycling tour and survived following immediate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the road by his cycling colleagues. Immediate invasive coronary arteriography showed a complete stenosis of the trunk of arteria coronaria sinistra (left coronary artery, a 40%–50% stenosis of ramus circumflexus, and a 20% stenosis of arteria coronaria dextra (right coronary artery. The left coronary artery was dilated and he continued cycling 2 months later. In both brothers, familial hypercholesterolemia was the main cardiovascular risk factor for the multi vessel coronary artery disease. A negative exercise electrocardiogram in siblings with an increased risk for coronary artery disease seemed not to exclude an advanced multi vessel coronary artery disease. In master athletes with asymptomatic exercise electrocardiogram but a positive family history, further examinations should be performed in order to detect

  14. EUROPE: Swiss role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On its continual round of CERN Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) met in Bern, Switzerland, in March. With CERN based in Geneva, and with a national research centre at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland figures prominently in European particle physics. The Bern ECFA meeting provided a full picture of Swiss particle physics activities, project by project, and was prefaced by an overview by Claude Joseph of Lausanne. The number of experimental particle physicists in the country is about 200, with an academic staff of about 170. These are distributed among seven universities - Basel, Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Lausanne, Neuchâtel and Zurich. In addition there are substantial research groups at ETH-Zurich and at PSI. Probably reflecting the proximity of CERN, the size of the national research community, when scaled to the population, is above the CERN Member State average. At CERN, there is a strong Swiss participation in research at the LEP electron-positron collider (concentrated on L3), with 44 physicists. There are also 33 physicists working at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring, in particular the Crystal Barrel and CP-LEAR studies. In addition there is interest in heavy ion research and in neutrino physics (NOMAD) as well as substantial participation in research and development work for experiments at the LHC. Away from CERN, there are 6 Swiss physicists working at the HERA electron-proton collider at DESY, Hamburg, with the national PSI programme involving about 40 physicists. (The PSI programme was covered at the Bern ECFA meeting by H.C. Walter.) Following the illustrious tradition of Fritz Zwicky, Switzerland also counts many astrophysicists. Theoretical physics, with a community of some 80 researchers, has a great tradition. Throughout the 20th century, leading Swiss research centres have been beacons of brilliance. Zurich, in particular, played a leading role, with Einstein, Schrödinger and Pauli among

  15. Response of Biomass Development, Essential Oil, and Composition of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. to Irrigation Frequency and Harvest Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Ali S; Astatkie, Tessema; Alataway, Abed; Mahmoud, Abeer A; Gendy, Ahmed S H; Said-Al Ahl, Hussein A H; Tkachenko, Kirill G

    2018-03-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of four irrigation intervals (4, 8, 12, and 16 days) and six harvests (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months after transplanting) on biomass, essential oil content, and composition of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Fresh weight and essential oil yield decreased with increasing irrigation interval; whereas, essential oil content was stimulated by water stress and increased as the irrigation interval increased. Fresh weight of Plectranthus amboinicus irrigated every 4 days peaked when harvested at 6 months, but essential oil content peaked when irrigated every 16 days and harvested at 2 months after transplantation. On the other hand, essential oil yield peaked when irrigated every 8 days and harvested at 6 months. Thymol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, and β-caryophyllene were the major compounds, and they peaked at different irrigation intervals and harvest times. This study showed biomass, essential oil content, and yield as well as the major and minor constituents of Plectranthus amboinicus are influenced by irrigation interval and the timing of harvest. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Amphipod Species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems. PMID:25354099

  17. Switzerland advances payments to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the picture, Charles Kleiber (third from left) visits the TI8 tunnel with (left to right) Jean-Luc Baldy, Head of the LHC civil engineering group, Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General, Jean-Pierre Ruder, Swiss Delegate to CERN Council, Guy Hentsch, Personal adviser to the Director-General, Michel Buchs and Frédéric Chavan, representatives of the firm Prader Losinger. The State Secretary for Science and Research in Switzerland, Charles Kleiber, signed an agreement with CERN last week for an advancement of contributions from his country. The Confédération Helvétique will make an advanced payment of 90 million CHF. There will be no interest involved in this payment and the amount of money will be deducted from Switzerland's ordinary contributions to CERN in later years.

  18. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Major

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  19. Efficiency potentials of heat pumps with combined heat and power. For maximum reduction of CO2 emissions and for electricity generation from fossil fuels with CO2 reduction in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognon, F.

    2005-06-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how the efficiency potential of heat pumps together with combined heat and power systems can help provide a maximum reduction of CO 2 emissions and provide electricity generation from fossil fuel in Switzerland together with reductions in CO 2 emissions. In Switzerland, approximately 80% of the low-temperature heat required for space-heating and for the heating-up of hot water is produced by burning combustibles. Around a million gas and oil boilers were in use in Switzerland in 2000, and these accounted for approximately half the country's 41.1 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions. The authors state that there is a more efficient solution with lower CO 2 emissions: the heat pump. With the enormous potential of our environment it would be possible to replace half the total number of boilers in use today with heat pumps. This would be equivalent to 90 PJ p.a. of useful heat, or 500,000 systems. The power source for heat pumps should come from the substitution of electric heating systems (electric resistor-based systems) and from the replacement of boilers. This should be done by using combined heat and power systems with full heat utilisation. This means, according to the authors, that the entire required power source can be provided without the need to construct new electricity production plants. The paper examines and discusses the theoretical, technical, market and realisable potentials

  20. Radiocarbon dates to access the origin of the ice man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklaus, R [Institute of Particle Physics, ETH Zurich, Hongerberg (Switzerland); [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Bonani, G [Institute of Particle Physics, ETH Zurich, Hongerberg (Switzerland); Prinoth-Fornwagner, R [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Different samples from the Late and Final Neolithic in Northern Italy were radiocarbon dated at the AMS Facility in Zurich, Switzerland in order to determine the origin of the Ice Man from the Hauslabjoch. The cultural classification was obtained on the basis of topological studies of the cooper axe and of the flint dagger as well as studies of artefact materials (the flint or the wood of a composite arrow), while the chronological classification of the Ice Man was obtained with the help of new and old radiocarbon dates. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  1. Radiocarbon dates to access the origin of the ice man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklaus, R. [Institute of Particle Physics, ETH Zurich, Hongerberg (Switzerland)]|[Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Bonani, G. [Institute of Particle Physics, ETH Zurich, Hongerberg (Switzerland); Prinoth-Fornwagner, R. [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    Different samples from the Late and Final Neolithic in Northern Italy were radiocarbon dated at the AMS Facility in Zurich, Switzerland in order to determine the origin of the Ice Man from the Hauslabjoch. The cultural classification was obtained on the basis of topological studies of the cooper axe and of the flint dagger as well as studies of artefact materials (the flint or the wood of a composite arrow), while the chronological classification of the Ice Man was obtained with the help of new and old radiocarbon dates. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. "Ich kam unter die Schweizer": Teaching Switzerland as a Multi-Ethnic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Karin

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a five-week module on "Switzerland as a multi-ethnic society" intended to counteract the popular image of Switzerland as a homogenous country concerned mostly with tourism, chocolate, and watches. Instead, the module treats Switzerland through topics such as the definition of identity in a multi-ethnic society, the…

  3. Sleep duration and subjective psychological well-being in adolescence: a longitudinal study in Switzerland and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Serge; Lemola,Sakari; Holsboer-Trachsler,Edith; Grob,Alexander; Kalak,Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,2 Serge Brand,1,3 Edith Holsboer–Trachsler,1 Alexander Grob21Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorder, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Psychology, 3Department of Sport and Health Science, Division of Sport Science, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Adolescents’ sleep duration and subjective psychological well-being are...

  4. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Bloch-Infanger

    Full Text Available The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland.At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations.Hundred ninety five of 2'544 and 516 of 6'243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea, respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years. Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (p<0.001 and were the main reasons for hospitalizations (33.3% of 45 and 55.6% of 81 hospitalized patients, p = 0.017 in 2004/05 compared to 2014/15. The leading infectious diseases in hospitalized patients were tuberculosis (n = 4 and bacterial skin infections (n = 2 in 2004/05; Malaria (n = 9, pneumonia (n = 6, Chickenpox (n = 5, other viral infections (n = 5 and bacterial skin infections (n = 5 in 2014/15. Infectious diseases like malaria, cutaneous diphtheria, louseborne-relapsing fever or scabies were only found in the second study period. Almost one third of the admitted asylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6-9.5 days in both study periods.The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges.

  5. 6 February 2012 - Supreme Audit Institutions from Norway, Poland, Spain and Switzerland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5, CMS underground experimental area, CERN Control Centre and LHC superconducting magnet test hall. Delegations are throughout accompanied by Swiss P. Jenni, Polish T. Kurtyka, Spanish J. Salicio, Norwegian S. Stapnes and International Relations Adviser R. Voss. (Riksrevisjonen, Oslo; Tribunal de Cuentas , Madrid; the Court of Audit of Switzerland and Najwyzsza Izba Kontroli, Varsaw)

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    6 February 2012 - Supreme Audit Institutions from Norway, Poland, Spain and Switzerland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5, CMS underground experimental area, CERN Control Centre and LHC superconducting magnet test hall. Delegations are throughout accompanied by Swiss P. Jenni, Polish T. Kurtyka, Spanish J. Salicio, Norwegian S. Stapnes and International Relations Adviser R. Voss. (Riksrevisjonen, Oslo; Tribunal de Cuentas , Madrid; the Court of Audit of Switzerland and Najwyzsza Izba Kontroli, Varsaw)

  6. Strong RFI observed in protected 21 cm band at Zurich observatory, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monstein, C.

    2014-03-01

    While testing a new antenna control software tool, the telescope was moved to the most western azimuth position pointing to our own building. While de-accelerating the telescope, the spectrometer showed strong broadband radio frequency interference (RFI) and two single-frequency carriers around 1412 and 1425 MHz, both of which are in the internationally protected band. After lengthy analysis it was found out, that the Webcam AXIS2000 was the source for both the broadband and single-frequency interference. Switching off the Webcam solved the problem immediately. So, for future observations of 21 cm radiation, all nearby electronics has to be switched off. Not only the Webcam but also all unused PCs, printers, networks, monitors etc.

  7. Monthly Rainfall Erosivity Assessment for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion is crucially controlled by rainfall erosivity, which is quantified out of the kinetic energy of raindrop impact and associated surface runoff. Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as the R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). Just like precipitation, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland has a characteristic seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This inter-annual variability is to be assessed by a monthly and seasonal modelling approach. We used a network of 86 precipitation gauging stations with a 10-minute temporal resolution to calculate long-term average monthly R-factors. Stepwise regression and Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV) was used to select spatial covariates to explain the spatial pattern of R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The regionalized monthly R-factor is mapped by its individual regression equation and the ordinary kriging interpolation of its residuals (Regression-Kriging). As covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included like snow height, a combination of hourly gauging measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), mean monthly alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD) and monthly precipitation sums (Rhires). Topographic parameters were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of all 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed seasonality with highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) and lowest rainfall erosivity in winter months. Besides the inter-annual temporal regime, a seasonal spatial variability was detectable. Spatial maps of monthly rainfall erosivity are presented for the first time for Switzerland. The assessment of the spatial and temporal dynamic behaviour of the R-factor is valuable for the identification of more susceptible seasons and regions as well as for the application of selective erosion control measures. A combination with monthly vegetation

  8. The changing international linkages of Switzerland: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Tille, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the economic linkages between Switzerland and the rest of the world have been transformed. First, merchanting and the chemical industry account for an increasing share of international trade, with chemicals exports expanding robustly in recent years despite the European crisis and the strong Swiss franc. Second, the nature of international financial integration has changed. While private investors drove Switzerland's financial flows and net foreign assets before the fina...

  9. Integrating environmental and self-report data to refine cannabis prevalence estimates in a major urban area of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Frederic; Schneider, Christian; Zobel, Frank; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Cannabis consumption is a topical subject because of discussions about reviewing current regulations. In this context, having a more comprehensive approach to assess and monitor prevalence and consumption is highly relevant. The objective of this work was to refine current estimates about prevalence of cannabis use by combining self-report data and results derived from wastewater analysis. Self-report data was retrieved from surveys conducted in Switzerland and Europe. Wastewater samples were collected at the wastewater treatment plant of Lausanne, western Switzerland, over a 15 months period. The occurrence of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), a specific metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was monitored. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate consumption, prevalence and number of cannabis users in the investigated area. According to survey data, 12-months prevalence in western Switzerland was estimated to 6.2% of the population aged 15 or older, with an estimated daily cannabis consumption of 8.1gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1) (at 11.2% purity). The integrative model comprising self-report and wastewater data substantially reduced the uncertainty in the estimates and suggested a last-year prevalence of 9.4%, with a daily cannabis consumption of 14.0gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1). Although in the same order of magnitude, consumption and prevalence estimates obtained with the integrative model were 78% and 52% higher compared to self-report figures, respectively. Interestingly, these figures are similar to discrepancies observed when comparing self-reported alcohol consumption and sales or tax data. The suggested integrative model allowed to account for known sources of uncertainty and provided refined estimates of cannabis prevalence in a major urban area of Switzerland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  11. Comparative Studies of Spinal Celes in Switzerland, Jamaica, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Methods and Materials: From 1975 to 2008,17 spinal celes (including 2 meningoceles) were routinely repaired in Imo and Ebonyi States of Nigeria, and 5 in Jamaica,the West Indies; none in Basel, Switzerland. All 20 meningomyeloceles were incontinent of urine and faeces, had severe paraparesis to paraplegia, ...

  12. Quantitative Psychology : the 82nd Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Culpepper, Steven; Janssen, Rianne; González, Jorge; Molenaar, Dylan

    2018-01-01

    This proceedings book highlights the latest research and developments in psychometrics and statistics. Featuring contributions presented at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS), organized by the University of Zurich and held in Zurich, Switzerland from July 17 to 21, 2017, its 34 chapters address a diverse range of psychometric topics including item response theory, factor analysis, causal inference, Bayesian statistics, test equating, cognitive diagnostic models and multistage adaptive testing. The IMPS is one of the largest international meetings on quantitative measurement in psychology, education and the social sciences, attracting over 500 participants and 250 paper presentations from around the world every year. This book gathers the contributions of selected presenters, which were subsequently expanded and peer-reviewed.

  13. Seismicity, state of stress and induced seismicity in the molasse basin and Jura (N-Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deichmann, N. [Schweizerischer Erdbebendienst, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Burlini, L. [Institut of Geology, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one of a series of appendices dealing with the potential for geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} in Switzerland. This report takes a look at the seismicity, state of stress and induced seismicity in the molasse basin and Jura Mountains in northern Switzerland. Data collected since 1983 by the Swiss Earthquake Service and the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA on the tectonics and seismic properties of North-western Switzerland is noted. The results are illustrated with a number of maps and graphical representations and are discussed in detail. Cases of induced seismicity as resulting from both natural and man-made causes are examined.

  14. Status of Court Management in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At an international level, and in particular in the Anglo-American region, there is a long tradition of scientific study of court management. Thus in Australia there has for quite some time been the Australasian Institution of Judicial Administration (AIJA, which concerns itself with every aspect of court administration. In the USA too, research and education in the field of court management has been institutionalized for a long time, in particular by the National Center for State Courts (NCSC and the related Institute for Court Management (ICM. In Europe, a working group known as the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ deals with issues of court management as part of the activities of the Council of Europe. The fact that court management is also increasingly becoming an important topic in the European area was demonstrated by the establishment, in 2008, of a new professional journal that focuses on court management, the International Journal for Court Administration (IJCA. In Switzerland, the issue of court management was discussed for the first time in the course of the New Public Management (NPM projects in the cantons, but was often limited to the question of whether to include the courts in the relevant cantonal NPM model. Generally speaking, court management was a matter that was only sporadically raised, such as at a symposium of the Swiss Society of Administrative Sciences (SSAS in 2003 or more recently in an article in which theses on good court management are formulated. In Switzerland even today there is a general dearth of empirical and other theoretical findings on the mode of operation of the justice system and its interaction with society, or with specific social target groups. For example, it was only in 2009 that the first indications were obtained of how cases in various categories were handled by the highest administrative and social insurance courts in Switzerland. In the fields of criminal and civil

  15. Electric vehicle market penetration in Switzerland by 2020 - We cannot forecast the future but we can prepare for it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    electric demand by 1.2 to 1.7 TWh a year, i.e. only 1.8 to 2.6 % of the Swiss power generation (66 TWh a year). Simultaneously charging 50% of these electric vehicles would also demand an output power of about 1.3 GW. In a Vision 2020 study entitled 'Electric vehicle market penetration in Switzerland by 2020 (Lausanne and Olten, July 2009)' the Swiss electric utility Alpiq evaluated the impact of such a measure on production and distribution of electric power. Following assumptions were made: 4/5 of the electrical cars would be Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles and 1/5 Battery Electric Vehicles; each car would run 37 km a day on average, or 13,500 km a year; and the mean electric consumption would be 20 kWh for a guaranteed range of 120 km, with one charging at least each third day, mainly slowly in the night ('Sleep and Charge' with a domestic low input power of 3.5 kW for 8 hours), but also quickly ('Coffee and Charge' with a particularly high input power of 55 kW), and with possible intermediate accelerated charging modes ('Work/Shop and Charge' with a mean input power of 7 to 12 kW). Eventually, the number, type and location of the charging facilities needed were estimated on the basis of a characterization of electrical vehicles owners. On the basis of an electric fleet of 720,000 cars, it is concluded that about 650,000 domestic slow charging points, 80,000 private accelerated charging points at working places, 23,000 public accelerated charging points in cities, and 150 quick charging points with each 6 sockets located in ordinary petrol (gas) service stations would be needed

  16. Biocrystallography in Switzerland: achievements and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grütter, Markus G

    2014-01-01

    The first protein crystallography group in Switzerland was installed at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel approximately 40 years ago. Since then protein crystallography has grown and matured remarkably and is now established in the molecular biology, biochemistry or biological medicine departments of most major Swiss Universities as well as in the pharmaceutical industry and in biotech startup companies. Swiss X-ray biocrystallography groups have made remarkable contributions from the beginning and have brought Switzerland to the forefront in biostructural research during the last 5 to 10 years. Switzerland has now a leading position in the areas of supramolecular complexes, membrane proteins and structure-based drug design in pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Protein crystallography on the outer membrane protein ompF as well as the development of the lipidic cubic phase crystallization methodology has been pioneered at the Biozentrum. The latter found its somewhat late recognition through the recent explosion in structure determinations of the seven transmembrane helix G-coupled receptors. Highlights from Swiss structural biology groups in the field of supramolecular complexes include the structures of ribosomal particles, of the nucleosome and the pilus assembly complex of uropathogenic E. coli. On the membrane protein side advances in the field of ABC transporters and ion channels are world-recognized achievements of Swiss structural biology. Dedicated laboratories at many academic and industrial institutions, their current research programs, the availability of excellent infrastructure and the continuing efforts to build new facilities such as the SwissFEL indicate an even brighter future for structural biology in Switzerland.

  17. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 2 May 2013 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012 [es

  18. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 2 July 2012 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011 [es

  19. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 2 July 2012 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011

  20. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 2 May 2013 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012

  1. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 2 May 2013 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012 [fr

  2. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 2 July 2012 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011 [fr

  3. Venture Capital Investment in the Life Sciences in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosang, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Innovation is one of the main driving factors for continuous and healthy economic growth and welfare. Switzerland as a resource-poor country is particularly dependent on innovation, and the life sciences, which comprise biotechnologies, (bio)pharmaceuticals, medical technologies and diagnostics, are one of the key areas of innovative strength of Switzerland. Venture capital financing and venture capitalists (frequently called 'VCs') and investors in public equities have played and still play a pivotal role in financing the Swiss biotechnology industry. In the following some general features of venture capital investment in life sciences as well as some opportunities and challenges which venture capital investors in Switzerland are facing are highlighted. In addition certain means to counteract these challenges including the 'Zukunftsfonds Schweiz' are discussed.

  4. Analysis of participation and performance in athletes by age group in ultramarathons of more than 200 km in length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zingg MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Zingg,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph A Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers3 1Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France Background: Participation and performance trends for athletes by age group have been investigated for marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races up to 161 km, but not for longer distances of more than 200 km. Methods: Participation and performance trends in athletes by age group in the Badwater (217 km and Spartathlon (246 km races were compared from 2000 to 2012. Results: The number of female and male finishers increased in both races across years (P 0.05. In Spartathlon, the age of the annual five fastest finishers was unchanged at 39.7 ± 2.4 years for men and 44.6 ± 3.2 years for women (P > 0.05. In Badwater, running speed increased in men from 7.9 ± 0.7 km/hour to 8.7 ± 0.6 km/hour (r2 = 0.51, P 0.05. In Badwater, the number of men in age groups 30–34 years (r2 = 0.37, P = 0.03 and 40–44 years (r2 = 0.75, P < 0.01 increased. In Spartathlon, the number of men increased in the age group 40–44 years (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04. Men in age groups 30–34 (r2 = 0.64, P < 0.01, 35–39 (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04, 40–44 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.04, and 55–59 years (r2 = 0.40, P = 0.02 improved running speed in Badwater. In Spartathlon, no change in running speed was observed. Conclusion: The fastest finishers in ultramarathons more than 200 km in distance were 40–45 years old and have to be classified as “master runners” by definition. In contrast to reports of marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races of 161 km in distance, the increase in participation and the improvement in performance by age group were less pronounced in ultramarathoners competing in races of more than 200 km. Keywords: ultra

  5. A Conversation with Howard Schultz CEO of Starbucks

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Muller

    2014-01-01

    At the 12th annual European Food Service Summit in Zurich, Switzerland in September 2011, Professor Christopher Muller sat down with Howard Schultz, the CEO of Starbucks to discuss a wide range of topics. Their discussion touched on best management and business practices and the techniques that Schultz used to bring Starbucks back from the brink of bankruptcy to the international coffee corporation it is today.

  6. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    OpenAIRE

    Simberloff, Daniel; Vilà, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative Biology, Zurich, Switzerland. Fred Allendorf University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA. James Aronson CEFE/CNRS, Montpellier, France. Pedro M. Antunes Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Onta...

  7. First results with the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, O.; Frei, C.

    2000-01-01

    The GEM-E3 model has been implemented and applied for Switzerland. It has been in particular used to assess an ecological tax reform in Switzerland. Results of this analysis are presented here. (author)

  8. Nuclear phase-out in Switzerland. Rationality first

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Just a few months ago, the Swiss voters have rejected the initiative of the Green Party to accelerate the nuclear phase-out in Switzerland with an impressive majority. Once again, it becomes clear that in Switzerland on issues of energy policy rationality and not ideology is leading. With their vote against an accelerated nuclear phase-out, the Swiss citizens underlined that they have no sympathy for radical, ideologically proposals for solutions, which on closer inspection are expensive, risky and immature. The majority has understood that the extensive expansion of renewable energies and power grids is burdened with numerous risks and uncertainties.

  9. Culture, risk factors and mortality: can Switzerland add missing pieces to the European puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeh, D; Minder, C; Gutzwiller, F; Bopp, M

    2009-08-01

    The aim was to compare cause-specific mortality, self-rated health (SRH) and risk factors in the French and German part of Switzerland and to discuss to what extent variations between these regions reflect differences between France and Germany. Data were used from the general population of German and French Switzerland with 2.8 million individuals aged 45-74 years, contributing 176 782 deaths between 1990 and 2000. Adjusted mortality risks were calculated from the Swiss National Cohort, a longitudinal census-based record linkage study. Results were contrasted with cross-sectional analyses of SRH and risk factors (Swiss Health Survey 1992/3) and with cross-sectional national and international mortality rates for 1980, 1990 and 2000. Despite similar all-cause mortality, there were substantial differences in cause-specific mortality between Swiss regions. Deaths from circulatory disease were more common in German Switzerland, while causes related to alcohol consumption were more prevalent in French Switzerland. Many but not all of the mortality differences between the two regions could be explained by variations in risk factors. Similar patterns were found between Germany and France. Characteristic mortality and behavioural differentials between the German- and the French-speaking parts of Switzerland could also be found between Germany and France. However, some of the international variations in mortality were not in line with the Swiss regional comparison nor with differences in risk factors. These could relate to peculiarities in assignment of cause of death. With its cultural diversity, Switzerland offers the opportunity to examine cultural determinants of mortality without bias due to different statistical systems or national health policies.

  10. Coxiella burnetii Infections in Small Ruminants and Humans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magouras, I; Hunninghaus, J; Scherrer, S; Wittenbrink, M M; Hamburger, A; Stärk, K D C; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2017-02-01

    The recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands raised concerns about the potential risk of outbreaks in other European countries. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Q fever in animals and humans has not been studied in recent years. In this study, we describe the current situation with respect to Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in small ruminants and humans in Switzerland, as a basis for future epidemiological investigations and public health risk assessments. Specific objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (i) estimate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in sheep and goats, (ii) quantify the amount of bacteria shed during abortion and (iii) analyse temporal trends in human C. burnetii infections. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii in small ruminants was determined by commercial ELISA from a representative sample of 100 sheep flocks and 72 goat herds. Herd-level seroprevalence was 5.0% (95% CI: 1.6-11.3) for sheep and 11.1% (95% CI: 4.9-20.7) for goats. Animal-level seroprevalence was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.8-3.4) for sheep and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-6) for goats. The quantification of C. burnetii in 97 ovine and caprine abortion samples by real-time PCR indicated shedding of >10 4 bacteria/g in 13.4% of all samples tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii quantities in a large number of small ruminant abortion samples. Annual human Q fever serology data were provided by five major Swiss laboratories. Overall, seroprevalence in humans ranged between 1.7% and 3.5% from 2007 to 2011, and no temporal trends were observed. Interestingly, the two laboratories with significantly higher seroprevalences are located in the regions with the largest goat populations as well as, for one laboratory, with the highest livestock density in Switzerland. However, a direct link between animal and human infection data could not be established in this study. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Plio-Pleistocene landscape evolution in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlemann, J.; Rhan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Re-evaluation of the river history, palaeosurface levels and exhumation history in northern Switzerland for the last 10 million years reveals that distinct morphotectonic events about 4.2 and 2.8 million years ago (Ma) caused major reorganisation of river networks and morphosculpture. As a result of the earlier formation of the Swiss Jura, potential relief energy in the piggy-back North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) of northern central Switzerland south of the Jura fold belt was built up after 11–10 Ma. It was suddenly released by river capture at about 4.2 Ma when the Aare-Danube was captured by a tributary of the Rhône-Doubs river system which rooted southeast of the Black forest. This event triggered rapid denudation of weakly consolidated Molasse sediments, in the order of about 1 km, as constrained by apatite fission track data from drill holes in the NAFB. Likely mechanisms of river capture are (a) headward erosion of Rhône-Doubs tributaries, (b) uplift and rapidly increasing erosion of the Swiss Alps after about 5.3 Ma, and (c) gravel aggradation at the eastern termination of the Jura fold belt in the course of eastward and northward tilt of the piggy-back NAFB. A morphotectonic event between 4.2 and 2.5 Ma, probably at about 2.8 Ma, caused a phase of planation, accompanied by local gravel aggradation and temporary storage of Alpine debris. Between 2.8 and 2.5 Ma, the Aare-Rhône river system is cannibalised by the modern Rhine River, the latter later connecting with the Alpine Rhine River. (authors)

  12. Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruettener, E.

    1995-01-01

    Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  13. Mentoring in general surgery in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto M. Kaderli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mentorship has been found as a key factor for a successful and satisfying career in academic medicine and surgery. The present study was conducted to describe the current situation of mentoring in the surgical community in Switzerland and to evaluate sex differences regarding the impact of mentoring on career success and professional satisfaction. Methods: The study was designed as an anonymous national survey to all members of the Swiss Surgical Society in 2011 (820 ordinary and 49 junior members. It was a 25-item questionnaire addressing mentor–mentee relationships and their impact on the professional front. Results: Of the 869 mailed surveys, 512 responses were received (response rate: 58.9%. Mentor–mentee relationships were reported by 344 respondents (68.1% and structured mentoring programs were noted in 23 respondents (6.7%. Compared to individuals without mentors, male mentees exhibited significantly higher subjective career advancement (5.4±1.2 vs. 5.0±1.3; p=0.03 and career development (3.3±1.9 vs. 2.5±1.7; p<0.01 scores, but the differences for female mentees were not statistically significant (4.7±1.1 vs. 4.3±1.2, p=0.16; 2.5±1.6 vs. 1.9±1.4, p=0.26; respectively. The pursuit of an academic career was not influenced by the presence of a mentor–mentee relationship for female (p=0.14 or male participants (p=0.22. Conclusions: Mentor–mentee relationships are important for the career advancement of male surgeons. The reason for the lack of an impact on the careers of female surgeons is difficult to ascertain. However, mentoring also provides lifelong learning and personal development. Thus, specific attention should be paid to the development of more structured mentoring programs for both sexes.

  14. Assessing the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism – a practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrni J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Fahrni,1 Marc Husmann,2 Silvia B Gretener,3 Hong H Keo1 1Division of Angiology, Medical University Clinic, Kantonsspital Aarau AG, Aarau, Switzerland; 2Clinic for Angiology, University Hospital, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland; 3Clinic for Angiology Oberaargau, Langenthal, Switzerland Abstract: Recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This risk is lowered by anticoagulation, with a large effect in the initial phase following the venous thromboembolic event, and with a smaller effect in terms of secondary prevention of recurrence when extended anticoagulation is performed. On the other hand, extended anticoagulation is associated with an increased risk of major bleeding and thus leads to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the risk of recurrence for VTE on an individual basis, and a recommendation for secondary prophylaxis should be specifically based on risk calculation of recurrence of VTE and bleeding. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of relevant risk factors for recurrent VTE and a practical approach for assessing the risk of recurrence in daily practice. Keywords: thrombosis, hemorrhage, risk assessment 

  15. Bovine besnoitiosis in Switzerland: imported cases and local transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Walter; Lesser, Maren; Grimm, Felix; Hilbe, Monika; Sydler, Titus; Trösch, Luzia; Ochs, Hansueli; Braun, Ueli; Deplazes, Peter

    2013-12-06

    Bovine besnoitiosis is an economically important disease of cattle, caused by Besnoitia besnoiti (Protozoa, Apicomplexa). A considerable spreading of this parasitic infection has been observed in Europe in the last ten years, mainly related to animal trade. In order to investigate the possibility of B. besnoiti being unnoticed introduced and getting established in Switzerland through the import of breeding cattle from France, a total of 767 animals (650 cattle imported from France and 117 cattle that had contact with B. besnoiti positive cattle in Swiss farms) were screened for antibodies against B. besnoiti by both a commercial ELISA and by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 101 (13.17%) samples showed a positive reaction in ELISA (cut-off: percent of positivity [PP] ≥ 15) and 16 (2.09%) samples had IFAT titers ≥ 1:100. Eight of those samples reacted positive in Western blot (WB), corresponding to five imported Limousin cattle (two cows and one bull from France and two cows from Germany) and to three cattle born in Switzerland (one Limousin heifer born from one of the positive German cows, and two adult Braunvieh cows, that had been in contact with one of the French cows at a Swiss farm). Seven of those animals were subclinically infected and one animal showed only very mild signs. They were subsequently slaughtered, and the serological diagnosis could be confirmed by real-time PCR and/or histopathology in seven animals. The most frequent parasite localizations were the tendons and surrounding connective tissue of the distal limbs and the skin of the head region. Furthermore, B. besnoiti could be successfully isolated in vitro from one French, one German and one Swiss cattle (isolates Bb-IPZ-1-CH, Bb-IPZ-2-CH and Bb-IPZ-3-CH). In the current situation in Switzerland, prophylactic and control measures should include a serological examination of cattle to be imported from endemic areas and the culling of all confirmed positive animals from

  16. Actions conducted in Switzerland for energy conservation and CO2 emission reduction, particularly in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattin, J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of Switzerland is to stabilize the CO 2 emissions by year 2000 and to reduce them from 20 pc by 2005 and from 50 pc by 2025. In order to attain these objectives, several measures should be taken: in the residential sector, the heating appliances (space heating and hot water production) should be efficiency-enhanced and an individual counting system should be used; energy audits should be enforced in industry; in the transportation sector, railway transportation should be enhanced and a pollution tax on automobile fuel should be applied

  17. Quantification of sources of PCBs to the atmosphere in urban areas: A comparison of cities in North America, Western Europe and former Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasic, Bojan; MacLeod, Matthew; Klanova, Jana; Scheringer, Martin; Ilic, Predrag; Lammel, Gerhard; Pajovic, Aleksandar; Breivik, Knut; Holoubek, Ivan; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2010-01-01

    We present estimated emission source strengths of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners for Banja Luka, a city that was affected by the civil war in Bosnia and Hercegovina (former Yugoslavia) in the 1990s. These emission estimates are compared to PCB emission rates estimated for the cities of Zurich, Switzerland, and Chicago, USA using an approach that combines multimedia mass balance modeling and measurement data. Our modeled per-capita emission estimates for Banja Luka are lower by a factor of ten than those for Zurich and Chicago, which are similar. This indicates that the sources of PCB emissions in Banja Luka are likely to be weaker than in the Western European and North American cities which show relatively high PCB emissions. Our emission rates from the three cities agree within a factor of ten with emission estimates from a global PCB emission inventory derived from production and usage estimates and emission factors. - Urban emission source strengths were estimated for seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners for Banja Luka, Zurich and Chicago.

  18. Quantification of sources of PCBs to the atmosphere in urban areas: A comparison of cities in North America, Western Europe and former Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasic, Bojan, E-mail: bojan.gasic@chem.ethz.c [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); MacLeod, Matthew [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Klanova, Jana [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Scheringer, Martin [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Ilic, Predrag [Institute of Protection, Ecology and Informatics, Scientific-Research Institute, Vidovdanska 43, 78000 Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Hercegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Lammel, Gerhard [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, J.-J.-Becher-Weg 27, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Pajovic, Aleksandar [Republic Hydrometeorological Institute Banja Luka, Put Banjaluckog Odreda BB, 78 000 Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Hercegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Breivik, Knut [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, P.O. Box 100, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 1033, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Holoubek, Ivan [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Hungerbuehler, Konrad [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    We present estimated emission source strengths of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners for Banja Luka, a city that was affected by the civil war in Bosnia and Hercegovina (former Yugoslavia) in the 1990s. These emission estimates are compared to PCB emission rates estimated for the cities of Zurich, Switzerland, and Chicago, USA using an approach that combines multimedia mass balance modeling and measurement data. Our modeled per-capita emission estimates for Banja Luka are lower by a factor of ten than those for Zurich and Chicago, which are similar. This indicates that the sources of PCB emissions in Banja Luka are likely to be weaker than in the Western European and North American cities which show relatively high PCB emissions. Our emission rates from the three cities agree within a factor of ten with emission estimates from a global PCB emission inventory derived from production and usage estimates and emission factors. - Urban emission source strengths were estimated for seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners for Banja Luka, Zurich and Chicago.

  19. Debates about assisted suicide in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Sandra; La Harpe, Romano

    2012-12-01

    Assisted suicide is allowed in 3 states of the United States (Oregon, Washington, Montana) but only if performed by a physician.On the opposite, in Switzerland, at the beginning of the 20th century, the Swiss Penal Code referred to assisted suicide in the context of honor or an unhappy love affair. It was only in 1985 that Exit Deutsche Schweiz (Exit for German-speaking Switzerland) "medically" assisted the first patient to end his life.Even if authorized by the Swiss law upon certain conditions, assisted suicide is subject to debates for ethical reasons. The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences described directives to guide physicians on this difficult subject.Different studies showed an increase in the number of medical-assisted suicide in Switzerland since the 1990s. Now, this number seems to be quite stable. Assisted suicide is authorized in a few hospitals under strict conditions (especially when returning home is impossible).Thus, according to the Swiss law, any person could perform assisted suicide; this is essentially performed by 3 main associations, using pentobarbital on medical prescription as lethal substance.Generally speaking, the Swiss population is rather in favor of assisted suicide. Among politics, the debate has been tough until 2010, when the Federal Council decided not to modify the Swiss Penal Code concerning assisted suicide.

  20. Anti-HSV-1 and HSV-2 Flavonoids and a New Kaempferol Triglycoside from the Medicinal Plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ürményi, Fernanda Gouvêa Gomes; Saraiva, Georgia do Nascimento; Casanova, Livia Marques; Matos, Amanda Dos Santos; de Magalhães Camargo, Luiza Maria; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2016-12-01

    Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Crassulaceae) is a medicinal plant native to Madagascar. The aim of this study was to investigate the flavonoid content of an aqueous leaf extract from K. daigremontiana (Kd), and assess its antiherpetic potential. The major flavonoid, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1), was isolated from the AcOEt fraction (Kd-AC). The BuOH-soluble fraction afforded quercetin 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (2) and the new kaempferol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), named daigremontrioside. The crude extract, Kd-AC fraction, flavonoids 1 and 2 were evaluated using acyclovir-sensitive strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2. Kd-AC was highly active against HSV-1 (EC 50  = 0.97 μg/ml, SI > 206.1) and HSV-2 (EC 50  = 0.72 μg/ml, SI > 277.7). Flavonoids 1 and 2 showed anti-HSV-1 (EC 50  = 7.4 μg/ml; SI > 27 and EC 50  = 5.8 μg/ml; SI > 8.6, respectively) and anti-HSV-2 (EC 50  = 9.0 μg/ml; SI > 22.2 and EC 50  = 36.2 μg/ml; SI > 5.5, respectively) activities, suggesting the contribution of additional substances to the antiviral activity. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Ten years of integrated care in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Berchtold

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Switzerland, a growing part of primary care is provided by networks of physicians and health maintenance organizations (HMOs acting on the principles of gatekeeping. To date, an average of one out of eight insured person in Switzerland, and one out of three in the regions in north-eastern Switzerland, opted for the provision of care by general practitioners in one of the 86 physician networks or HMOs. About 50% of all general practitioners and more than 400 other specialists have joined a physician networks. Seventy-three of the 86 networks (84% have contracts with the healthcare insurance companies in which they agree to assume budgetary co-responsibility, i.e. to adhere to set cost targets for particular groups of patients. Within and outside the physician networks, at regional and/or cantonal levels, several initiatives targeting chronic diseases have been developed, such as clinical pathways for heart failure and breast cancer patients or chronic disease management programs for patients with diabetes. The relevance of these developments towards more integration of healthcare as well as their implications for the future are discussed.

  2. Biogas in Austria and Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, A.

    Several well-functioning biogas plants in Austria and in Switzerland are briefly described. The profitability of the combination of dairy farming and pig breeding is emphasized. The whey produced by the cheese-dairies is fed to the pigs and the pigs dung is fermented to biogas.

  3. Imperial College Alumni Association in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Are you a graduate of Imperial College London? If so, you might be interested in its new Swiss alumni association for graduate engineers and scientists. The aim of the founder members is to create a network of the several hundred graduates of Imperial College working at CERN, in Geneva, Lausanne and Zurich with a view to organising social and scientific events, informing members of the studies and research done by Imperial College, setting up a link between the College and Swiss academic institutes and, of course, building up an alumni directory. Membership applications and requests for further information should be sent to: Imperial College Alumni (ICA) - Swiss chapter Case Postale CH-1015 Lausanne Tel. : + 41 22 794 57 94 Fax : + 41 22 794 28 14 Email : imperialcollegeswissalumni@epfl.ch

  4. Intolerance toward immigrants in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance is neverthel......Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance...... that Swiss who view rising immigration to mean a loss of economic privileges and an erosion of Swiss cultural values are less tolerant toward immigrants. Moreover, our results indicate that contact with immigrants may moderate this effect. However, not all group settings are able to reduce the perceived...... threats in a similar way, and not all sorts of social contact are able to foster tolerance toward immigrants....

  5. European dominance in multistage ultramarathons: an analysis of finisher rate and performance trends from 1992 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou Shoak M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohannad Abou Shoak,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Romuald Lepers,3 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: Participation and performance trends regarding the nationality of ultraendurance athletes have been investigated in the triathlon, but not in running. The present study aimed to identify the countries in which multistage ultramarathons were held around the world and the nationalities of successful finishers.Methods: Finisher rates and performance trends of finishers in multistage ultramarathons held worldwide between 1992 and 2010 were investigated.Results: Between 1992 and 2010, the bulk of multistage ultramarathons were held in Germany and France, with more than 30 races organized in each country. Completion rates for men and women increased exponentially, with women representing on average 16.4% of the total field. Since 1992, 6480 athletes have competed in Morocco, 2538 in Germany, and 1842 in France. A total of 81.9% of athletes originated from Europe, and more specifically from France (22.9%, Great Britain (18.0%, and Germany (13.4%.Conclusion: European ultramarathoners dominated the athletes who completed multistage ultramarathons worldwide, with specific dominance of French, British, and German athletes. Future studies should investigate social aspects, such as sport tourism, among European athletes to understand why European athletes are so interested in participating in multistage ultramarathons.Keywords: ultraendurance, run, nationality, distance, stage

  6. Fuel management for the Beznau nuclear power plant in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Beznau nuclear power plant consists of two 350 MW(e) PWRs of Westinghouse design. A number of special features characterize the nuclear industry in Switzerland: there is no fuel cycle industry; nuclear materials must be moved through several countries before they arrive in our country, it is therefore important that agreements are in place between those countries and Switzerland; nearly all of the materials and services required have to be paid in foreign currencies; the interest rate in Switzerland is traditionally low. Aspects of fuel management at the Beznau plant discussed against this background are: the procurement of natural uranium, its conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication, in-core management, reprocessing and plutonium recycling; and fuel cycle costs. (author)

  7. State of the nuclear waste management in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerzeler, P.

    1988-01-01

    A deficiency in the realization of repositories in Switzerland is not a deficiency due to lack of knowledge or responsibility, even if not solely an execution deficiency. Our mode of legislation, i.e. laws, should be made with due consideration of citizen rights so that forthcoming tasks can be solved within a reasonable period. The energy policy is being presently reviewed in Switzerland and the renewal of the nuclear energy legislation is imminent. Let us contribute to the retention of nuclear energy as an alternative also the aspect of waste management. 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Cost-effectiveness of roflumilast in combination with bronchodilator therapies in patients with severe and very severe COPD in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyshkin Y

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yevgeniy Samyshkin,1 Michael Schlunegger,2 Susan Haefliger,3 Sabine Ledderhose,3 Matthew Radford11IMS Health, Health Economics and Outcomes Research, London, United Kingdom; 2Marketing Specialty Care, 3Medical Department, Takeda Pharma AG, Pfäffikon, SwitzerlandObjective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD represents a burden on patients and health systems. Roflumilast, an oral, selective phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor reduces exacerbations and improves lung function in severe/very severe COPD patients with a history of exacerbations. This study aimed to estimate the lifetime cost and outcomes of roflumilast added-on to commonly used COPD regimens in Switzerland.Methods: A Markov cohort model was developed to simulate COPD progression in patients with disease states of severe, very severe COPD, and death. The exacerbation rate was assumed to be two per year in severe COPD. COPD progression rates were drawn from the published literature. Efficacy was expressed as relative ratios of exacerbation rates associated with roflumilast, derived from a mixed-treatment comparison. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted for roflumilast added to long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA, long-acting ß2-agonist/inhaled corticosteroids (LABA/ICS, and LAMA + LABA/ICS. The analysis was conducted from the Swiss payer perspective, with costs and outcomes discounted at 2.5% annually. Parameter uncertainties were explored in one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Results: In each of the comparator regimens mean life expectancy was 9.28 years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained were 6.19. Mean estimated lifetime costs per patient in the comparator arms were CHF 83,364 (LAMA, CHF 88,161 (LABA/ICS, and CHF 95,564 (LAMA + LABA/ICS respectively. Adding roflumilast resulted in a mean cost per patient per lifetime of CHF 86,754 (LAMA + roflumilast, CHF 91,470 (LABA/ICS + roflumilast, and CHF 99,364 (LAMA + LABA/ICS + roflumilast

  9. The diversity of waste disposal planning in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.

    1989-01-01

    In this overview of radioactive waste disposal planning in Switzerland, emphasis is placed upon describing the diversity of the planning and explaining the strategic thinking which has resulted in this diversity. Although Switzerland is a small country and has only a modest nuclear programme in absolute terms, planning and preparation for final disposal projects has been progressing for the last 10 or more years on a very broad front. The reasons for this breadth of approach are partly technical and partly determined by political and public pressures. Following a summary of the requirements for disposal and of the relevant boundary conditions, the resulting concepts are described and the controversial issue of repository siting is discussed. The current status of projects for disposal of low and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW) and of high-level wastes (HLW) is noted; we conclude with some remarks on the advantages and disadvantages from the side of the organization responsible for implementation of repository projects of proceeding on such a broad technical front. (aughor). 2 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Mortality atlas of the main causes of death in Switzerland, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the spatial distribution of mortality data is important for identification of high-risk areas, which in turn might guide prevention, and modify behaviour and health resources allocation. This study aimed to update the Swiss mortality atlas by analysing recent data using Bayesian statistical methods. We present average pattern for the major causes of death in Switzerland. We analysed Swiss mortality data from death certificates for the period 2008-2012. Bayesian conditional autoregressive models were employed to smooth the standardised mortality rates and assess average patterns. Additionally, we developed models for age- and gender-specific sub-groups that account for urbanisation and linguistic areas in order to assess their effects on the different sub-groups. We describe the spatial pattern of the major causes of death that occurred in Switzerland between 2008 and 2012, namely 4 cardiovascular diseases, 10 different kinds of cancer, 2 external causes of death, as well as chronic respiratory diseases, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, influenza and pneumonia, and liver diseases. In-depth analysis of age- and gender-specific mortality rates revealed significant disparities between urbanisation and linguistic areas. We provide a contemporary overview of the spatial distribution of the main causes of death in Switzerland. Our estimates and maps can help future research to deepen our understanding of the spatial variation of major causes of death in Switzerland, which in turn is crucial for targeting preventive measures, changing behaviours and a more cost-effective allocation of health resources.

  11. [Treatment Methods for Patients with Dupuytren's Disease in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M; Krefter, C; Herren, D B

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate what treatment options are currently used in Switzerland for Dupuytren's disease. Furthermore, regional preferences and treatment differences based on surgeon experience were analysed. In this survey, an electronic questionnaire was sent to all members of the Swiss Society for Hand Surgery. Participants were asked to indicate their current treatment methods for Dupuytren's disease. In addition, 8 standard patient cases were presented to identify the preferred treatment option. Furthermore, sociodemographic data of the participants were gathered. In total, 70 questionnaires were completed, corresponding to a response rate of 34%. Fasciectomy is performed by 94% of participants, while 59% inject collagenase in certain cases, 40% perform open fasciotomy, and 24% carry out percutaneous needle aponeurotomy if the indication is given. 20% of responders offer one of these techniques, 50% offer 2, 23% offer 3, and 7% offer all 4 treatment techniques. In the case of isolated metacarpophalangeal joint contracture, 51% of participants inject collagenase, whereas fasciectomy is preferred for the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joint contractures or in cases of recurrence. In German-speaking Switzerland, the treatment strategy has changed towards applying collagenase injections in the past 5 years. In this part of the country, 83% of surgeons now use more collagenase than 5 years ago, whereas only 33% of surgeons in French-speaking Switzerland have changed their treatment strategy in favour of collagenase injections (p=0.027). Surgeons with less than 10 years of experience apply more collagenase than their more experienced colleagues (79 vs. 54%, p=0.131). In Switzerland, fasciectomy is the preferred option for treating patients with Dupuytren's disease. In recent years, however, collagenase injection has become more and more popular. More research is needed to define guidelines for the treatment of patients with Dupuytren

  12. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Progress report, January 1, 1985-December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1985-87. These studies have involved investigations of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions. They have been carried out at the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, at the SIN laboratory near Zurich, Switzerland, and at the TRIUMF accelerator in Vancouver, Canada. 86 refs., 5 figs

  13. International Conference on Organometallic Chemistry (13th) Held in Torino, Europe on 4-9 September 1988. Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-09

    190, 8057 ZUrich, Switzerland Joseph Edwin and William E.Geiger, Department of Chemistry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 Arnold L...On Synthesis Of Dialkyl d-Trimethylsilyloxyalkylphosphonates Zhao Yong-Zhen and Li Zhong- Rua Dpartment o chemistry, Hua Zhong Normal University, Wuhan...Jose Vicente. Jose-AntelC hAd. Na-Yeij~xa Qhicote. Ju~an-Francisco Gutliez-Jugo. Carmen Ramirez do Arel lano. Departamento do Oulmica InordanIca

  14. A Conversation with Howard Schultz CEO of Starbucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Muller

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At the 12th annual European Food Service Summit in Zurich, Switzerland in September 2011, Professor Christopher Muller sat down with Howard Schultz, the CEO of Starbucks to discuss a wide range of topics. Their discussion touched on best management and business practices and the techniques that Schultz used to bring Starbucks back from the brink of bankruptcy to the international coffee corporation it is today.

  15. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback: Progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzer, J.; Haller, S.; Scharnowski, F.; Weiskopf, N.; Birbaumer, N.; Blefari, M.L.; Bruehl, A.B.; Cohen, L.G.; deCharms, R.C.; Gassert, R.; Goebel, R.; Herwig, U.; LaConte, S.; Linden, D.; Luft, A.; Seifritz, E.; Sitaram, R.

    2016-01-01

    In February of 2012, the first international conference on real time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) neurofeedback was held at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), Switzerland. This review summarizes progress in the field, introduces current debates, elucidates open questions, and offers viewpoints derived from the conference. The review offers perspectives on study design, scientific and clinical applications, rtfMRI learning mechanisms and future outlook. PMID:23541800

  16. A Study on Run Time Assurance for Complex Cyber Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    Systems. PhD thesis, Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Sep 2006. [202] Joseph Porter, Graham Hemingway , Harmon Nine...Systems Design. Part 1: Language, Framework, and Analysis. Sep 2010. [203] G. Hemingway , J. Porter, N. Kottenstette, H. Nine, C. vanBuskirk, G. Karsai...interoperability. In Intelligent Solutions in Embedded Systems, 2007 Fifth Workshop on, pages 76 –86, june 2007. [244] J. Porter and G. Hemingway . The ESMoL

  17. The Integrated Care of Asthma in Switzerland (INCAS) Study: Changes in Asthma Control and Perception of Health Care through Asthma Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Selina; Hersberger, Kurt E; Zeller, Andreas; Scheuzger, Jonas; Miedinger, David; Gregoriano, Claudia; Joos Zellweger, Ladina; Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Leuppi, Jörg Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Despite great efforts in establishing optimal asthma management, asthma may remain uncontrolled. To effectively manage chronic diseases, such as asthma, it is important to train patients in self-management skills. The aim of this study was to assess the potential benefit of standardised asthma education in Switzerland for asthma control and patients' perception of received asthma care and of self-management support. For this multicentre longitudinal controlled study, asthma patients were recruited in Switzerland. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) was used to assess asthma control. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care questionnaire (PACIC 5A) was applied to evaluate received health-care services and self-management support. Patients were offered the possibility to attend asthma education sessions conducted by the Swiss Lung League and Swiss Allergy Centre. After 1 year, attenders and non-attenders completed the questionnaires again. Changes in ACT and PACIC 5A scores were analysed using dependent t tests. Overall, 223 patients with asthma were investigated (mean age 43 ± 12 years, 38% male, 13% current smokers, 29% ex-smokers). Sixty-one (27%) patients attended education sessions. Both groups had improved asthma control at follow-up (attenders: t(56) = -3.2, r = 0.4 [medium effect size], p = 0.002; non-attenders: t(141) = -2.6, r = 0.2 [small effect size], p = 0.010). Attenders improved in PACIC and 5A sum scores (t(50) = -3.6, r = 0.5 [medium effect size], p = 0.001). A comprehensive self-management asthma education programme in Switzerland improved asthma control and patients' perception of received asthma care and of self-management support. Professionals should motivate patients to attend asthma education in order to become active partners in managing their disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Infections and Coinfections of Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks by Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens in Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommano, Elena; Bertaiola, Luce; Dupasquier, Christèle

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the vector of many pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus, which have been the subject of numerous investigations. Less is known about the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens like Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks. In this study, questing nymph and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected at 11 sites located in Western Switzerland. A total of 1,476 ticks were analyzed individually for the simultaneous presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and A. phagocytophilum. B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” were detected in ticks at all sites with global prevalences of 22.5%, 10.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. Babesia- and A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks showed a more restricted geographic distribution, and their prevalences were lower (1.9% and 1.5%, respectively). Species rarely reported in Switzerland, like Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Rickettsia monacensis, were identified. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia helvetica, were detected in 19.6% of infected ticks. Globally, 34.2% of ticks were infected with at least one pathogen. The diversity of tick-borne pathogens detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of coinfections underline the need to take them seriously into consideration when evaluating the risks of infection following a tick bite. PMID:22522688

  19. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Different Morphological Parts of Pinus cembra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Anna; Kalinowska, Aleksandra; Krajewska, Agnieszka; Mellor, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    The essential oils from needles, twigs, bark, wood, and cones of Pinus cembra were analyzed by GC-FID, GC/MS, and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. More than 130 compounds were identified. The oils differed in the quantitative composition. The principal components of the oil from twigs with needles were α-pinene (36.3%), limonene (22.7%) and β-phellandrene (12.0%). The needle oil was dominated by α-pinene (48.4%), whereas in the oil from bark and in the oil from twigs without needles there were limonene (36.2% and 33.6%, resp.) and β-phellandrene (18.8% and 17.1%, resp.). The main constituents of the wood oil as well as cone oil were α-pinene (35.2% and 39.0%, resp.) and β-pinene (10.4% and 18.9%, resp.). The wood oil and the cone oil contained large amounts of oxygenated diterpenes in comparison with needle, twig, and bark oils. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. 1.     Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) 2.     Catherine BRANDT (DG – IR) 3.     Oliver BRÜNING (BE – HDO) 4.     Michelle CONNOR (PH – DI) 5.     Gaëlle DUPERRIER (PH – DI) 6.     Patrick FASSNACHT (PH – ADO) 7.     Fernando FERN...

  1. Public-health and individual approaches to antiretroviral therapy: township South Africa and Switzerland compared.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Keiser

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in resource-limited settings follows a public health approach, which is characterised by a limited number of regimens and the standardisation of clinical and laboratory monitoring. In industrialized countries doctors prescribe from the full range of available antiretroviral drugs, supported by resistance testing and frequent laboratory monitoring. We compared virologic response, changes to first-line regimens, and mortality in HIV-infected patients starting HAART in South Africa and Switzerland.We analysed data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and two HAART programmes in townships of Cape Town, South Africa. We included treatment-naïve patients aged 16 y or older who had started treatment with at least three drugs since 2001, and excluded intravenous drug users. Data from a total of 2,348 patients from South Africa and 1,016 patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study were analysed. Median baseline CD4+ T cell counts were 80 cells/mul in South Africa and 204 cells/mul in Switzerland. In South Africa, patients started with one of four first-line regimens, which was subsequently changed in 514 patients (22%. In Switzerland, 36 first-line regimens were used initially, and these were changed in 539 patients (53%. In most patients HIV-1 RNA was suppressed to 500 copies/ml or less within one year: 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] 95%-97% in South Africa and 96% (94%-97% in Switzerland, and 26% (22%-29% and 27% (24%-31%, respectively, developed viral rebound within two years. Mortality was higher in South Africa than in Switzerland during the first months of HAART: adjusted hazard ratios were 5.90 (95% CI 1.81-19.2 during months 1-3 and 1.77 (0.90-3.50 during months 4-24.Compared to the highly individualised approach in Switzerland, programmatic HAART in South Africa resulted in similar virologic outcomes, with relatively few changes to initial regimens. Further innovation and resources are

  2. Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüpbach, R; Wegmüller, R; Berguerand, C; Bui, M; Herter-Aeberli, I

    2017-02-01

    Vegetarian and vegan diets have gained popularity in Switzerland. The nutritional status of individuals who have adopted such diets, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the intake and status of selected vitamins and minerals among vegetarian and vegan adults living in Switzerland. Healthy adults [omnivores (OVs), n OV  = 100; vegetarians (VGs), n VG  = 53; vegans (VNs), n VN  = 53] aged 18-50 years were recruited, and their weight and height were measured. Plasma concentrations of the vitamins A, C, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid, niacin, biotin and β-carotene and of the minerals Fe, Mg and Zn and urinary iodine concentration were determined. Dietary intake was assessed using a three-day weighed food record, and questionnaires were issued in order to assess the physical activity and lifestyle of the subjects. Omnivores had the lowest intake of Mg, vitamin C, vitamin E, niacin and folic acid. Vegans reported low intakes of Ca and a marginal consumption of the vitamins D and B12. The highest prevalence for vitamin and mineral deficiencies in each group was as follows: in the omnivorous group, for folic acid (58 %); in the vegetarian group, for vitamin B6 and niacin (58 and 34 %, respectively); and in the vegan group, for Zn (47 %). Despite negligible dietary vitamin B12 intake in the vegan group, deficiency of this particular vitamin was low in all groups thanks to widespread use of supplements. Prevalence of Fe deficiency was comparable across all diet groups. Despite substantial differences in intake and deficiency between groups, our results indicate that by consuming a well-balanced diet including supplements or fortified products, all three types of diet can potentially fulfill requirements for vitamin and mineral consumption.

  3. Light - Controlled automatically or by pressing a button?; Licht - per Knopfdruck oder Automatik? Tageslichtgesteuerte Beleuchtungen fordern psychologisches und technisches Feingefuehl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santner, G.

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses the psychological aspects and the technical tactfulness needed when implementing daylight-controlled lighting systems. On the basis of experience gained, the author concludes that the same amount of energy can be saved if the lighting is controlled half-automatically or when the lighting is always switched off when rooms are unoccupied. The article reviews the experience gained with automatically-dimmed lighting in a school in Zurich, Switzerland, and at the University of Zurich. The requirements placed on the control of lighting by the 'Minergie' low energy consumption standard are discussed. Control methods that have been implemented in various public buildings are looked at and the variations in the personal sensitivity of users to varying lighting levels are discussed. The placing of sensors for light-level and occupancy is discussed.

  4. Compliance assurance in the safe transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1994-01-01

    Quality Assurance in the transport of radioactive materials (RAM) has been a legal requirement in Switzerland since 1 January 1990. Some four years later, Switzerland is well on the way to having a comprehensive system of Compliance Assurance covering the transport of RAM. By the end of 1994 Compliance Assurance will be fully operational with regard to nuclear fuel cycle shipments which account for over 90% of all radioactivity transported in Switzerland. Compliance Assurance has been delayed in Switzerland for non-fuel-cycle radioactive material shipments. This has been due to the need to modify the legal infrastructure for the relevant supervisory authorities. Nevertheless, it is hoped to have Compliance Assurance related to Radiation Units (large sources in Type B packages) operational before the end of 1994. Systematic progress is being made regarding Compliance Assurance relating to the movement of smaller sources. This involves a very large number of smaller organisations and will take some time to become routine. (author)

  5. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  6. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P

    2005-03-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  7. [Legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, H

    1970-01-01

    Aspects of legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland are discussed. About 110,000 births, 25,000 therapeutic abortions (75% for psychiatric indications) and an estimated 50,000 illegal abortions occur annually in Switzerland. Although the mortality and morbidity of therapeutic aborti on are similar to those of normal births (1.4 per 1000 and 11%, respectively) the mortality and morbidity of criminal abortions are far greater (3 per 1000 and 73%, respectively). In the author's view, too strict an interpretatiok of Swiss abortion law (which permits abortion to avoid serious harm to the mother's health) does not take into account the severe and lasting emotional and psychological damage which may be caused by unwanted pregnancy, birth, and childraising. In the present social situation, the social and psychological support required by these women is not available; until it is, abortion is to be preferred.

  8. Market segmentation by motivation: The case of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Bieger, Thomas; Laesser, Christian

    2002-01-01

    This contribution is about the segmentation of mature travel markets, as exemplified by Switzerland. Based on an extensive and representative travel survey covering 2,000 households and more than 11,000 trips, a situational, motivation-based travel market segmentation is proposed. The clustering of motivations proves to be a valuable means to segment markets. The results reveal a diminishing role of socio-demographic segment descriptors. It is more the (anticipated) travel profile and the att...

  9. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and food has been going on in Switzerland since the mid 1950s. This report contains a summary of the values measured in 1993, along with the interpretation of the data and the resultant radiation dose for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other radiation sources. With two exceptions, the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual release limits in 1993, and measurements carried out in the environment revealed no inadmissible radioactivity concentrations or dose values. The population's mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv. Some 40% of this is due to radon in the home, with a mean of 1.6 mSv and extreme values as high as around 100 mSv; 30% or 1.2 mSv, may be ascribed to natural radiation, leaving less then 0.2 mSv ascribable to man-made sources, excluding medical applications. (author) figs., tabs

  10. Portuguese migrants in Switzerland: healthcare and health status compared to Portuguese residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luís; Azevedo, Ana; Barros, Henrique; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Most migrant studies have compared health characteristics between migrants and nationals of the host country. We aimed at comparing health characteristics of migrants with nationals from their home country. Portuguese national health survey (2005-6; 30,173 participants aged 18-75 years) and four national health surveys conducted in Switzerland (2002, 2004, 2007 and 2011, totalling 1,170 Portuguese migrants of the same age range). Self-reported data on length of stay, cardiovascular risk factors, healthcare use and health status were collected. Resident Portuguese were significantly older and more educated than migrants. Resident Portuguese had a higher mean BMI and prevalence of obesity than migrants. Resident Portuguese also reported more frequently being hypertensive and having their blood pressure screened within the last year. On the contrary, migrant Portuguese were more frequently smokers, had a medical visit in the previous year more frequently and self-rated their health higher than resident Portuguese. After adjustment for age, gender, marital status and education, migrants had a higher likelihood of smoking, of having a medical visit the previous year, and of self-rating their current health as good or very good than resident Portuguese. Compared to Portuguese residents, cholesterol screening in the previous year was more common only among migrants living in Switzerland for more than 17 years. Portuguese migrants in Switzerland do not differ substantially from resident Portuguese regarding most cardiovascular risk factors. Migrants consider themselves healthier than Portuguese residents and more often had a recent medical visit.

  11. Energy loss and straggling of MeV Si ions in gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vockenhuber, C., E-mail: vockenhuber@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Arstila, K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Jensen, J. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Julin, J.; Kettunen, H.; Laitinen, M.; Rossi, M.; Sajavaara, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Thöni, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Whitlow, H.J. [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées Arc, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    We present measurements of energy loss and straggling of Si ions in gases. An energy range from 0.5 to 12 MeV/u was covered using the 6 MV EN tandem accelerator at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, and the K130 cyclotron accelerator facility at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Our energy-loss data compare well with calculation based on the SRIM and PASS code. The new straggling measurements support a pronounced peak in He gas at around 4 MeV/u predicted by recent theoretical calculations. The straggling curve structure in the other gases (N{sub 2}, Ne, Ar, Kr) is relatively flat in the covered energy range. Although there is a general agreement between the straggling data and the theoretical calculations, the experimental uncertainties are too large to confirm or exclude the predicted weak multi-peak structure in the energy-loss straggling.

  12. Sustainable development in city districts: BaLaLuZ project. Final report phase 2. BaBeL Lucerne; Nachhaltige Quartierentwicklung BaLaLuZh. Schlussbericht Phase 2. Quartier BaBeL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandeler, M.; Inderbitzin, J. [Babel, Lucerne (Switzerland); Geissbuehler, D. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Architektur (HTA) Luzern, Horw (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one of a series of reports concerning municipal development in various cities in Switzerland. The four city districts involved include Basel (Gundeldinger Feld), Lausanne (Bellevaux), Lucerne (Basel-/Bernstrasse) and Zurich (Werdwies). This final report summarises the results of the second phase of the project concerning the Baselstrasse and Bernstrasse districts in Lucerne. Alongside the planned work, a planning instrument that aids co-ordination and know-how-transfer was developed in this second phase. This master plan and the organisational structure for 2006 is described. Application work to be done from 2007 onwards is looked at. The main part of this report consists of eight annexes that define and describe building blocks for measures to be taken, the master plan, a plan of action 2007 - 2009, along with organisational and financial data.

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection surveillance in different countries. Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The information and historical review on the Nuclear Surveillance in Switzerland has been presented. Special attention has been paid on: general tasks and responsibility of the Nuclear Surveillance, its organization structures, legal aspects, regulations and recommendations governing all nuclear activities in Switzerland, licensing processes and their procedures, inspections and control functions as well as international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety and environment protection

  14. Worksite tobacco prevention in the Canton of Zurich: stages of change, predictors, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Verena; Brügger, Adrian; Bauer, Georg

    2009-01-01

    This study provides information about the prevalence of tobacco prevention (TP) and the stages of change with respect to the introduction of TP among companies in the Canton of Zurich (n = 1,648). It explores the factors that predict restrictiveness of smoking policies, number of individual support measures, interest in services to promote TP, and the relationship between TP and health outcomes. Data were gathered by means of a written questionnaire and analysed using ordinal regression models. Whereas many companies maintain smoke-free policies, only few provide cessation-courses. Health and welfare organisations have strictest, and building and hospitality companies have least strict policies. Company size predicts number of individual support measures but not policy restrictiveness. Both measures are predicted by personal concern of the representative. Interest in services is predicted by tobacco-related problems and medium stages of change. Finally, stricter policies are associated with lower proportion of smokers and less tobacco-related problems. Health professionals should support less advanced companies in their endeavour to implement TP. The findings provide a baseline to evaluate the implementation of the forthcoming smoke-free legislation.

  15. Einstein's Years in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plendl, Hans S.

    2005-11-01

    Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first son Hans Albert in Bern and working as a technical expert at the Swiss Patent Office, he published his dissertation on the determination of molecular dimensions, his papers on Brownian Motion that helped to establish the Kinetic Theory of Heat and on the Photo-Electric Effect that validated the Quantum Theory of Light, and the two papers introducing the Special Theory of Relativity. How the young Einstein could help to lay the foundations of these theories while still working on his dissertation, holding a full-time job and helping to raise a family has evoked much discussion among his biographers. In this contribution, the extent to which living within Swiss society and culture could have made this feat possible will be examined. Old and recent photos of places in Switzerland where Einstein has lived and worked will be shown.

  16. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  17. Associations of daily levels of PM10 and NO₂ with emergency hospital admissions and mortality in Switzerland: Trends and missed prevention potential over the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Laura; Grize, Leticia; Infanger, Denis; Künzli, Nino; Sommer, Hansjörg; Alt, Gian-Marco; Schindler, Christian

    2015-07-01

    In most regions of the world, levels and constituents of the air pollution mixture have substantially changed over the last decades. To evaluate if the effects of PM10 and NO2 on daily emergency hospital admissions and mortality have changed during a ~10 year period in Switzerland; to retrospectively estimate prevention potential of different policy choices. Thirteen Poisson-regression models across Switzerland were developed using daily PM10 and NO2 levels from central monitors and accounting for several temporal and seasonal confounders. Time trends of effects were evaluated with an interaction variable. Distributed lag models with 28 days exposure window were used to retrospectively predict missed prevention potential for each region. Overall, emergency hospitalizations and mortality from any medical cause increased by 0.2% (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 0.01, 0.33) and 0.2% (95% CI: -0.1, 0.6) for a 10 µg/m(3) increment of PM10, and 0.7% (95% CI: 0.1, 1.3) for NO2 and mortality. Over the study period, the association between respiratory emergencies and PM10 changed by a factor of 1.017 (95% CI: 1.001, 1.034) and by a factor of 0.977 [95% CI: 0.956, 0.998]) for respiratory mortality among the elderly for NO2. During the study period, abatement strategies targeting a 20% lower overall mean would have prevented four times more cases than abating days exceeding daily standards. During the last decade, the short term effects of PM10 and NO2 on hospitalizations and mortality in Switzerland have almost not changed. More ambitious strategies of air pollutant reduction in Switzerland would have had non negligible public health benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Revascularization Treatment of Emergency Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland: Results from a Nationwide, Cross-Sectional Study in Switzerland for 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Claudia; Jüni, Peter; Endrich, Olga; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and in Switzerland. When applied, treatment guidelines for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) improve the clinical outcome and should eliminate treatment differences by sex and age for patients whose clinical situations are identical. In Switzerland, the rate at which STEMI patients receive revascularization may vary by patient and hospital characteristics. To examine all hospitalizations in Switzerland from 2010-2011 to determine if patient or hospital characteristics affected the rate of revascularization (receiving either a percutaneous coronary intervention or a coronary artery bypass grafting) in acute STEMI patients. We used national data sets on hospital stays, and on hospital infrastructure and operating characteristics, for the years 2010 and 2011, to identify all emergency patients admitted with the main diagnosis of acute STEMI. We then calculated the proportion of patients who were treated with revascularization. We used multivariable multilevel Poisson regression to determine if receipt of revascularization varied by patient and hospital characteristics. Of the 9,696 cases we identified, 71.6% received revascularization. Patients were less likely to receive revascularization if they were female, and 80 years or older. In the multivariable multilevel Poisson regression analysis, there was a trend for small-volume hospitals performing fewer revascularizations but this was not statistically significant while being female (Relative Proportion = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.97) and being older than 80 years was still associated with less frequent revascularization. Female and older patients were less likely to receive revascularization. Further research needs to clarify whether this reflects differential application of treatment guidelines or limitations in this kind of routine data.

  19. Personal best times in an Olympic distance triathlon and in a marathon predict Ironman race time in recreational male triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knechtle P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst1, Beat Knechtle1,2, Patrizia Knechtle2, Thomas Rosemann1, Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U887, University of Burgundy, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Dijon, FranceBackground: The purpose of this study was to define predictor variables for recreational male Ironman triathletes, using age and basic measurements of anthropometry, training, and previous performance to establish an equation for the prediction of an Ironman race time for future recreational male Ironman triathletes.Methods: Age and anthropometry, training, and previous experience variables were related to Ironman race time using bivariate and multivariate analysis.Results: A total of 184 recreational male triathletes, of mean age 40.9 ± 8.4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.06 m, and weight 76.3 ± 8.4 kg completed the Ironman within 691 ± 83 minutes. They spent 13.9 ± 5.0 hours per week in training, covering 6.3 ± 3.1 km of swimming, 194.4 ± 76.6 km of cycling, and 45.0 ± 15.9 km of running. In total, 149 triathletes had completed at least one marathon, and 150 athletes had finished at least one Olympic distance triathlon. They had a personal best time of 130.4 ± 44.2 minutes in an Olympic distance triathlon and of 193.9 ± 31.9 minutes in marathon running. In total, 126 finishers had completed both an Olympic distance triathlon and a marathon. After multivariate analysis, both a personal best time in a marathon (P < 0.0001 and in an Olympic distance triathlon (P < 0.0001 were the best variables related to Ironman race time. Ironman race time (minutes might be partially predicted by the following equation: (r2 = 0.65, standard error of estimate = 56.8 = 152.1 + 1.332 × (personal best time in a marathon, minutes + 1.964 × (personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon, minutes.Conclusion: These results suggest

  20. Electric vehicle market penetration in Switzerland by 2020 - We cannot forecast the future but we can prepare for it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-15

    } equivalent a year. These 720,000 electrical vehicles would increase the electric demand by 1.2 to 1.7 TWh a year, i.e. only 1.8 to 2.6 % of the Swiss power generation (66 TWh a year). Simultaneously charging 50% of these electric vehicles would also demand an output power of about 1.3 GW. In a Vision 2020 study entitled 'Electric vehicle market penetration in Switzerland by 2020 (Lausanne and Olten, July 2009)' the Swiss electric utility Alpiq evaluated the impact of such a measure on production and distribution of electric power. Following assumptions were made: 4/5 of the electrical cars would be Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles and 1/5 Battery Electric Vehicles; each car would run 37 km a day on average, or 13,500 km a year; and the mean electric consumption would be 20 kWh for a guaranteed range of 120 km, with one charging at least each third day, mainly slowly in the night ('Sleep and Charge' with a domestic low input power of 3.5 kW for 8 hours), but also quickly ('Coffee and Charge' with a particularly high input power of 55 kW), and with possible intermediate accelerated charging modes ('Work/Shop and Charge' with a mean input power of 7 to 12 kW). Eventually, the number, type and location of the charging facilities needed were estimated on the basis of a characterization of electrical vehicles owners. On the basis of an electric fleet of 720,000 cars, it is concluded that about 650,000 domestic slow charging points, 80,000 private accelerated charging points at working places, 23,000 public accelerated charging points in cities, and 150 quick charging points with each 6 sockets located in ordinary petrol (gas) service stations would be needed

  1. Beyond Watches and Chocolate-Global Mental Health Elective in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Andres R; Weiss, Andrea; von Blumenthal, Suzanne; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G; Schwartz, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    Despite increasing interest in global mental health training opportunities, only a few psychiatry residency programs offer global mental health training experiences in developing countries and even fewer programs offer it in other first-world countries. The authors developed a global mental health elective giving US psychiatry residents the opportunity to visit Switzerland to study and experience the mental health care system in this European country. This elective focuses on four major learning objectives: (1) the system of training and curriculum of postgraduate psychiatry education in Switzerland, (2) clinical and organizational aspects of Swiss mental health, (3) administrative aspects of Swiss mental health care delivery, and (4) scholarly activity. This program was uniquely tailored for psychiatry residents. The preliminary experiences with US psychiatry residents show that they value this learning experience, the opportunity to access a different mental health care system, as well as the potential to build international connections with peers.

  2. Switzerland: the pragmatics of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    Switzerland has a population of seven million and approximately 600 medical technology companies are located there. This equates to one company per 12 thousand people and arguably the highest density in the world. The factors that make the country a successful place to do business are outlined in this interview with Professor Bestetti, Head of the CTI Medtech initiative.

  3. Predictor variables for a half marathon race time in recreational male runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst1, Beat Knechtle1,2, Patrizia Knechtle2, Ursula Barandun1, Romuald Lepers3, Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U887, University of Burgundy, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Dijon, FranceAbstract: The aim of this study was to investigate predictor variables of anthropometry, training, and previous experience in order to predict a half marathon race time for future novice recreational male half marathoners. Eighty-four male finishers in the ‘Half Marathon Basel’ completed the race distance within (mean and standard deviation, SD 103.9 (16.5 min, running at a speed of 12.7 (1.9 km/h. After multivariate analysis of the anthropometric characteristics, body mass index (r = 0.56, suprailiacal (r = 0.36 and medial calf skin fold (r = 0.53 were related to race time. For the variables of training and previous experience, speed in running of the training sessions (r = –0.54 were associated with race time. After multivariate analysis of both the significant anthropometric and training variables, body mass index (P = 0.0150 and speed in running during training (P = 0.0045 were related to race time. Race time in a half marathon might be partially predicted by the following equation (r2 = 0.44: Race time (min = 72.91 + 3.045 * (body mass index, kg/m2 –3.884 * (speed in running during training, km/h for recreational male runners. To conclude, variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half marathon race time in recreational male half marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable.Keywords: anthropometry, body fat, skin-folds, training, endurance

  4. Communication received from Switzerland concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 1 June 2005 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with Switzerland's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2004. In light of the request expressed by Switzerland in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the letter of 1 June 2005 are attached for the information of all Member States

  5. Electricity and gas market in Switzerland - concepts and rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, A.

    2003-01-01

    The political process to introduce the opening of the market in Switzerland is slow, but in movement. The preparation allows to participate in the experience of other countries and to adapt the system to the particularities of the industries and the country. The principle of subsidiarity allows the utilities to organise the technical and organisational realisation and to keep the legal rules to a minimum. The high technical integration in the European interconnection network asks for an EU compatible, but not identical, system in Switzerland.(author)

  6. Gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billieux, Joël; Achab, Sophia; Savary, Jean-Félix; Simon, Olivier; Richter, Frédéric; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2016-09-01

    To provide an overview of gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland, including historical aspects, past and current legislation and policies, treatment options and the research base. A literature search was conducted on two databases (PubMed and PsycINFO), and official government and statistical reports selected from the official websites of four sources (Federal Office of Justice; Federal Gambling Board; Federal Office of Statistics; Swiss Lottery and Betting Board). After a history of banning or partial banning, Swiss gambling became regulated at the beginning of the 20th century through successive laws. The current system is characterized by important differences in the law and policies for casinos and lotteries, and contradictions in the regulation of these two areas are still under debate in order to develop new legislation. Gambling is widespread in Switzerland, and the prevalence of problem gambling in this country was comparable to that in other European countries in 2014. Most gambling treatment facilities are integrated into mental health treatment services that have out-patient programmes, and treatment for problem gambling is covered by a universal compulsory Swiss health insurance system. The availability of public funding for gambling research is still limited. Switzerland needs to develop a more coherent regulatory and prevention policy approach to gambling, overcoming conflicts in the current dual system of federal and cantonal regulation. Recent efforts to enhance funding for gambling research are promising, and could lead to a more systematic analysis of the efficacy of prevention and treatment programmes. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. 1. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) 2. Catherine BRANDT (DG – IR) 3. Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) 4. Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) 5. Patrick FASSNACHT (PH – ADO) 6. Fernando FERNANDEZ SAVORGNANO (HR – TA) 7. David FOSTER (IT – DI) 8. Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) 9. Cécile NOELS (DG – DI) 10. Maria QUINTAS (HR – TA) 11. Kate RICHARDSON (PH –  AGS) 12. Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) 13. José SALICIO-DIEZ (...

  8. Chemical Composition Variability of Essential Oils of Daucus gracilis Steinh. from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyelles, Batoul; Allali, Hocine; Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2017-06-01

    The chemical compositions of 20 Algerian Daucus gracilis essential oils were investigated using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 47 compounds were identified, accounting for 90 - 99% of the total oil compositions. The main components were linalool (18; 12.5 - 22.6%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (20; 9.2 - 20.2%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (10; 4.2 - 12.2%), ammimajane (47; 2.6 - 37.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (15; 0.2 - 12.8%) and 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (19; 3.3 - 9.6%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs was also studied. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaves and flowers allowed identifying 47 compounds, amounting to 92.3% and 94.1% of total oil composition, respectively. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaf and flower oils allowed identifying linalool (22.7%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (18.9%), 2-methylbutyl isovalerate (13.6%), ammimajane (10.4%), 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (10.3%), (E)-β-ocimene (8.4%) and isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate (8.1%) as main components. The chemical variability of the Algerian oil samples was studied using statistical analysis, which allowed the discrimination of three main Groups. A direct correlation between the altitudes, nature of soils and the chemical compositions of the D. gracilis essential oils was evidenced. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Estimating Loss to Follow-Up in HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: The Effect of the Competing Risk of Death in Zambia and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwango, Albert; Stringer, Jeffrey; Ledergerber, Bruno; Mulenga, Lloyd; Bucher, Heiner C.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Calmy, Alexandra; Boulle, Andrew; Chintu, Namwinga; Egger, Matthias; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is common in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes. Mortality is a competing risk (CR) for LTFU; however, it is often overlooked in cohort analyses. We examined how the CR of death affected LTFU estimates in Zambia and Switzerland. Methods and Findings HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years who started ART 2004–2008 in observational cohorts in Zambia and Switzerland were included. We compared standard Kaplan-Meier curves with CR cumulative incidence. We calculated hazard ratios for LTFU across CD4 cell count strata using cause-specific Cox models, or Fine and Gray subdistribution models, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and clinical stage. 89,339 patients from Zambia and 1,860 patients from Switzerland were included. 12,237 patients (13.7%) in Zambia and 129 patients (6.9%) in Switzerland were LTFU and 8,498 (9.5%) and 29 patients (1.6%), respectively, died. In Zambia, the probability of LTFU was overestimated in Kaplan-Meier curves: estimates at 3.5 years were 29.3% for patients starting ART with CD4 cells Switzerland since only few patients died. The results from Cox and Fine and Gray models were similar: in Zambia the risk of loss to follow-up and death increased with decreasing CD4 counts at the start of ART, whereas in Switzerland there was a trend in the opposite direction, with patients with higher CD4 cell counts more likely to be lost to follow-up. Conclusions In ART programmes in low-income settings the competing risk of death can substantially bias standard analyses of LTFU. The CD4 cell count and other prognostic factors may be differentially associated with LTFU in low-income and high-income settings. PMID:22205933

  10. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 18 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with Switzerland's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2007

  11. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 3 September 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with Switzerland's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006 [es

  12. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 3 September 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with Switzerland's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006

  13. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 3 September 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with Switzerland's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006 [fr

  14. Healthcare quality management in Switzerland--a survey among providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderli, Reto; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Businger, Adrian P

    2012-04-27

    In the last decade assessing the quality of healthcare has become increasingly important across the world. Switzerland lacks a detailed overview of how quality management is implemented and of its effects on medical procedures and patients' concerns. This study aimed to examine the systematics of quality management in Switzerland by assessing the providers and collected parameters of current quality initiatives. In summer 2011 we contacted all of the medical societies in Switzerland, the Federal Office of Public Health, the Swiss Medical Association (FMH) and the head of Swiss medical insurance providers, to obtain detailed information on current quality initiatives. All quality initiatives featuring standardised parameter assessment were included. Of the current 45 initiatives, 19 were powered by medical societies, five by hospitals, 11 by non-medical societies, two by the government, two by insurance companies or related institutions and six by unspecified institutions. In all, 24 medical registers, five seals of quality, five circles of quality, two self-assessment tools, seven superior entities, one checklist and one combined project existed. The cost of treatment was evaluated by four initiatives. A data report was released by 24 quality initiatives. The wide variety and the large number of 45 recorded quality initiatives provides a promising basis for effective healthcare quality management in Switzerland. However, an independent national supervisory authority should be appointed to provide an effective review of all quality initiatives and their transparency and coordination.

  15. Seismic risk maps of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegesser, R.; Rast, B.; Merz, H.

    1977-01-01

    Seismic Risk Maps of Switzerland have been developed under the auspices of the Swiss Federal Division on Nuclear Safety. They are primarily destined for the use of owners of future nuclear power plants. The results will be mandatory for these future sites. The results will be shown as contourmaps of equal intensities for average return periods of 500, 1000, 10 000... years. This general form will not restrict the use of the results to nuclear power plants only, rather allows their applicability to any site or installation of public interest (such as r.a. waste deposits, hydropower plants, etc.). This follows the recommendations of the UNESCO World Conference (Paris, February 1976). In the study MSK 64 INTENSITY was chosen. The detailed scale allowed a precise handling of historical data and separates the results from continuously changing state-of-the-art correlations to acceleration and other input motion parameters. The method used is the probabilistic theory developed by C.A. Cornell and others at MIT in the late 1960's with the program in the version of the US Geological Survey by R. McGuire. In the study, the program was extended for the use of the continuous attenuation law by Sponheuer, azimuth-dependency in the attenuation relation, a quadratic intensity-frequency relation, large number of gross sources and output modifications with respect to the mapping program used. To determine the basic parameters, more than 3000 independent events in an area of approximately 240 000km 2 -Switzerland with its neighbouring parts of Italy, Austria, Germany and France- were systematically classified (and relocated where necessary)

  16. Contribution of bacteria-like particles to PM2.5 aerosol in urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dällenbach, K.; Bruns, E.; Vasilescu, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2017-07-01

    We report highly time-resolved estimates of airborne bacteria-like particle concentrations in ambient aerosol using an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). AMS measurements with a newly developed PM2.5 and the standard (PM1) aerodynamic lens were performed at an urban background site (Zurich) and at a rural site (Payerne) in Switzerland. Positive matrix factorization using the multilinear engine (ME-2) implementation was used to estimate the contribution of bacteria-like particles to non-refractory organic aerosol. The success of the method was evaluated by a size-resolved analysis of the organic mass and the analysis of single particle mass spectra, which were detected with a light scattering system integrated into the AMS. Use of the PM2.5 aerodynamic lens increased measured bacteria-like concentrations, supporting the analysis method. However, at all sites, the low concentrations of this component suggest that airborne bacteria constitute a minor fraction of non-refractory PM2.5 organic aerosol mass. Estimated average mass concentrations were below 0.1 μg/m3 and relative contributions were lower than 2% at both sites. During rainfall periods, concentrations of the bacteria-like component increased considerably reaching a short-time maximum of approximately 2 μg/m3 at the Payerne site in summer.

  17. Best strategy through Marketing Alliances for Switzerland Tourism North America

    OpenAIRE

    Bourquin, Charlotte; Holleran, James

    2014-01-01

    Having partnerships with Marketing Alliances has been proved to be an effective way for Switzerland Tourism North America to push the Destination promotion and sales as well as increase the awareness of Switzerland with the network. The two existing partnerships are with Virtuoso and Signature Travel Network, both luxury/leisure focused companies. Particularly successful results have been observed with Virtuoso. The process of choosing the right partnership has to be carefully defined ...

  18. Electricity market Switzerland/Europe - Going, going, gone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillwicks, T.

    2007-01-01

    This short article takes a look at how, since January 2006, power auctions have been held at the Swiss borders to Germany and Austria. In an interview with Thomas Tillwicks, head of mains economics at the Swiss national electricity network 'swissgrid', topics concerning the functions and mechanisms of bottleneck management in the Swiss national grid are discussed. The auctioning of grid capacities in Switzerland is discussed, in particular for the long-distance, Europe-wide transport of power. The auctioning mechanisms are discussed and the distribution of the returns is looked at. Positive effects on the security of supply are discussed. Effects on prices and the role of Switzerland in European power exchange are looked at. Finally, the question is posed if physical expansion of grid capacity were not a better solution

  19. Dosimetry of persons in Switzerland occupationally exposed to radiation. 18. Report of the Federal Commission on Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report is a summary of the data that was registered in Switzerland from 10 dosimetric stations for people. Given are whole and part body doses, doses as a result of incorporation as well as the accumulated total doses. 8 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Sustainable development in city districts: BaLaLuZ project - Building ecology; Schlussbericht 'Gebaeudeoekologie' - Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Mueller, W.; Voyame, J.-P.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one of a series of reports concerning municipal development in various cities in Switzerland. The four city districts involved include Basel (Gundeldinger Feld), Lausanne (Bellevaux), Lucerne (Basel-/Bernstrasse) and Zurich (Werdwies). This paper takes a look at aspects of building ecology. In the four areas, the following building types and projects were examined with respect to their ecology: Basel: conversion of commercial premises to a community centre, Lausanne and Lucerne: Enhancement of residential areas, Zurich: a new residential building. Criteria examined include general building ecology, building materials, raw materials, toxic substances, recycling, maintenance and deconstruction, energy for heating and hot water, grey energy, electricity, ground usage, water, wastes and public infrastructure. Knowledge gained along with questions and problems still to be addressed are summarised and suggestions are made for further projects.

  1. Acceptance of Ambulatory Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Central Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Sandra P; Fischer, Henning; Brunner, Alexander R; Honigmann, Philipp; Metzger, Jürg

    2017-11-01

    Currently, most patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in Switzerland are inpatients for 2-3 days. Due to a lack of available hospital beds, we asked whether day-case surgery would be an option for patients in central Switzerland. The questions of acceptability of outpatient LC and factors contributing to the acceptability thus arose. Hundred patients suffering from symptomatic cholecystolithiasis, capable of communicating in German, and between 18 and 65 years old, were included. Patients received a pre-operative questionnaire on medical history and social situation when informed consent on surgery and participation in the study was obtained. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from acute cholecystitis or any type of cancer; having a BMI >40 kg/m 2 ; needing conversion to open cholecystectomy or an intraoperative drainage; and non-German speakers. Surgery was performed laparoscopically. Both surgeon and patient filled in a postoperative questionnaire. The surgeon's questionnaire listed medical and technical information, and the patients' questionnaire listed medical information, satisfaction with the treatment and willingness to be released on the same day. These data from both questionnaires were grouped into social and medical factors and analysed on their influence upon willingness to accept an ambulatory procedure. No outpatient follow-up apart from checking for readmission to our hospital within 1 month after discharge was performed. Of the 100 participants, one-third was male. More than two-thirds were Swiss citizens. Only one participant was ineligible for rapid release evaluation due to need of a drainage. Among the social factors contributing to the acceptability of ambulatory care, we found nationality to be relevant; Swiss citizens preferred an inpatient procedure, whereas non-Swiss citizens were significantly more willing to return home on the same day. Household size, sex and age did not correlate with a preference for

  2. Noncontiguous Finished Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus KLT6, a Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Positive Strain Involved in a Food Poisoning Outbreak in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobes, Raquel; Manrique, Marina; Brozynska, Marta; Stephan, Roger; Pareja, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We present the first complete genome sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus strain assigned to clonal complex 12. The strain was isolated in a food poisoning outbreak due to contaminated potato salad in Switzerland in 2009, and it produces staphylococcal enterotoxin B. PMID:23704175

  3. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  4. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  5. Travel Market Switzerland 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Laesser, Christian; Bieger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Technical Report and Results - In 2007, for the seventeenth time since 1972, a survey on the travel behaviour of the Swiss population was conducted. The database resulting from this project (Travel Market Switzerland 2007) is still the most extensive on private trips by the Swiss resident population. Private trips are defined/ delimited as all journeys by private persons with at least one overnight stay outside their home and their normal life and work environment. They include all types of l...

  6. Long-term evolution of the loading of CH4, N2O, CO, CCI2F2, CHCIF2 and SF6 above Central Europe during the last 15 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, R.; Mahieu, E.; Demoulin, P.; Servais, C.; Melen, F.

    2000-01-01

    Long-term monitoring activities of some 20 atmospheric constituents are continuing at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, based on remote infra-red solar observations with high spectral resolution Fourier transform spectrometers. As a contribution to non-CO2 greenhouse gas investigations, we report the trends observed in the vertical column abundances measured regularly since the mid-1980s for CH4, N2O, CO, CCI2F2, CHCIF2 and SF6. With the exception of CO, all species show positive rates of change in their near past atmospheric loading, those of CH4, N2O and CCI2F2 having slowed significantly during the more recent years. The derived rates of change will be compared to findings resulting from ground-level in situ investigations at latitudes similar to that of the Jungfraujoch, and be interpreted in terms of resulting global loading changes. 14 refs

  7. The ‘Indianisation of Switzerland'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    This paper demonstrates how Indian popular cultural expressions (Bollywood films) are transforming sociospatial textures in central Switzerland. Empirical illustrations are derived from various data sources from an ongoing fieldwork conducted in multiple Swiss locations (Interlaken, Luzern......-induced spatial transformations and experience innovations are captured. The paper concludes with a reflection on emerging conflicts and controversies emerging from hybrid imageries and fundamentally distinct constructions of Alpine experiences....

  8. Nuclear energy discussion in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brupbacher, F.

    1989-01-01

    As regards the subject of nuclear power, Switzerland is no better off than Germany or the Benelux nations. In particular, Swiss people do not have superior insight or more general agreement in their views as to nuclear energy use. With reference to the whole nation, advocates and opponents of nuclear power currently are about equal in number; hence decisions are blocked the same as elsewhere. (orig.) [de

  9. Back to "once a caesarean: always a caesarean"? A trend analysis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann-Schmid, Corina; Raio, Luigi; Scheibner, Katrin; Müller, Martin; Surbek, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Caesarean sections (CS) have significantly increased worldwide and a previous CS is nowadays an important and increasingly reported indication to perform a repeat CS. There is a paucity of information in Switzerland on the incidence of repeat CS after previous CS and relationship between the rates of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC). The aim of this study was to analyse the actual trend in VBAC in Switzerland. We performed a retrospective cohort study to analyse the proportion of VBAC among all pregnant women with previous sections which give birth during two time periods (group 1:1998/1999 vs. group 2:2004/2005) in our tertiary care referral hospital and in the annual statistics of Swiss Women's Hospitals (ASF-Statistics). In addition, the proportion of induction of labour after a previous caesarean and its success was analysed. In both cohorts studied, we found a significant decrease of vaginal births (p Switzerland. There was no significant change in labour induction during the study period. While this trend might reflect an increasing demand for safety in pregnancy and childbirth, it concomitantly increases maternal risks of further pregnancies, and women need to be appropriately informed about long-term risks.

  10. Methane losses in biogas processing; Methanverluste bei der Biogasaufbereitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, S.; Baier, U. [ZHAW, Zuercher Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften, IBT Institut fuer Biotechnologie, Fachgruppe Umweltbiotechnologie, Waedenswil (Switzerland); Judex, J.; Biollaz, S.; Schneebeli, J. [PSI, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI and the Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland, presents the results of a study made on methane losses that occur during the processing of biogas to provide natural gas quality. Such losses are considered as possibly compromising the environmental advantages offered by the feeding-in of processed biogas into the national gas mains. This processing involves the removal of carbon dioxide from the biogas. The state-of-the-art in this area is discussed, relevant factors and analysis methods are looked at. An overview of methods used to prevent methane losses is presented. The results of investigations made at an installation in Lucerne, Switzerland, are presented and discussed.

  11. LOW ENDOPHTHALMITIS RATES AFTER INTRAVITREAL ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR INJECTIONS IN AN OPERATION ROOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, Florentina J; Brynskov, Troels; Munk, Marion R

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the rate of presumed endophthalmitis (EO) after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections in three European hospitals performed in an operation room (OR) under sterile conditions. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study between 2003 and 2016...... at three European sites, City Hospital Triemli Zurich, Switzerland (CHT), Zealand University Hospital Roskilde, Denmark (ZUH) and University Clinic Bern, Switzerland (UCB). Intravitreal injection (IVI) database of each department was reviewed. All anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections were...... performed using a standardized sterile technique in an operation room. Injection protocols were similar between the three sites. No preinjection antibiotics were given. Postoperative antibiotics varied among sites. RESULTS: A total of 134,701 intravitreal injections were performed at the 3 sites between...

  12. The opalinus clay project - disposal of medium and highly-active nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the project to demonstrate the feasibility of disposing of long-living medium-active and highly-radioactive nuclear wastes in sedimentary rock in Switzerland. The disposal tasks to be carried out are reviewed and the solutions proposed are described, including short-term handling, intermediate storage and final disposal of low, medium and highly-active wastes. The present state of affairs is described and, in particular, the feasibility of implementing a final storage facility in the opalinus clay beds to be found in northern Switzerland. The project for such a facility in the wine-growing area of the canton of Zurich is described in detail, including the storage concept, the technology to be used and operational aspects as well as questions of safety

  13. Spatiotemporal aspects of flood exposure in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röthlisberger Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While flood hazard mapping in Switzerland is close to completion, only a limited number of studies have been specifically conducted on exposure and vulnerability. We fill this knowledge gap by conducting a nation-wide study of flood exposure of buildings in Switzerland. Therefore, we generate a country-wide comprehensive and homogenous data set of polygons of residential buildings and their period of construction and overlay these building polygons with compiled and harmonized flood hazard maps provided by the Swiss cantons. In this paper we present first results of spatiotemporal analyses, namely the evolution of exposure from 1919 to 2012. Surprising is the increase in the share of exposure of new constructed buildings since the 1980s which contradicts the indented effects of the Swiss flood risk management strategies and calls for further investigations.

  14. Non typical results of the first and second irradiation set of the surveillance programme of a boiling water reactor in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, G; Krompholz, K [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    In the surveillance programme for the pressure vessel of the Muhleberg NPP in Switzerland, tensile and impact tests on the base material (ASTM A 508 Cl 2) and two weldments (main and automatic) as well as the heat affected zone, were performed with two sets of irradiation (neutron fluence of 5.5.10{sup 17} and 1.1.10{sup 18}) leading to different shifts of the transition temperature (except for the automatic welded joints which keep the same large shift). Results and causes of the discrepancy are discussed. (authors). 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  16. Lateglacial environmental variability from Swiss tree rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub, Matthias; Büntgen, Ulf; Kaiser, Klaus Felix

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of annually resolved environmental variations during the Allerød interstadial is presented using 81 fossil Scots pine tree-ring series from Gaenziloo and Landikon, near Zurich, Switzerland. The absolute age of the trees ranges between 11,920 and 10,610 14C BP, which was determined by wig...... and the gray-scale varve record from the Cariaco basin. Even though the amplitudes are not yet fully understood, similarities on decadal-to-centennial scales are apparent....

  17. Risk analysis for repositories in north Switzerland. Extent and probability of geologic processes and events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buergisser, H M; Herrnberger, V

    1981-07-01

    The literature study assesses, in the form of expert analysis, geological processes and events for a 1200 km/sup 2/-area of northern Switzerland, with regard to repositories for medium- and high-active waste (depth 100 to 600 m and 600 to 2500 m, respectively) over the next 10/sup 6/ years. The area, which comprises parts of the Tabular Jura, the folded Jura and the Molasse Basin, the latter two being parts of the Alpine Orogene, has undergone a non-uniform geologic development since the Oligocene. Within the next 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 5/ years a maximum earthquake intensity of VIII-IX (MSK-scale) has been predicted. After this period, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the area, glaciations will probably occur, with asociated erosion of possibly 200 to 300 m. Fluvial erosion as a response to an uplift could reach similar values after 10/sup 5/ to 10/sup 6/ years; however, there are no data on the recent relative vertical crustal movements of the area. The risk of a meteorite impact is considered small as compared to that of these factors. Seismic activity and the position and extent of faults are so poorly known within the area that the faulting probability cannot be derived at present. Flooding by the sea, intrusion of magma, diapirism, metamorphism and volcanic eruptions are not considered to be risk factors for final repositories in northern Switzerland. For the shallow-type repositories, the risk of denudation and landslides have to be judged when locality-bound projects have been proposed.

  18. Cochlear implantation in children and adults in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Yves; Senn, Pascal; Kompis, Martin; Dillier, Norbert; Allum, John H J

    2014-02-04

    The cochlear implant (CI) is one of the most successful neural prostheses developed to date. It offers artificial hearing to individuals with profound sensorineural hearing loss and with insufficient benefit from conventional hearing aids. The first implants available some 30 years ago provided a limited sensation of sound. The benefit for users of these early systems was mostly a facilitation of lip-reading based communication rather than an understanding of speech. Considerable progress has been made since then. Modern, multichannel implant systems feature complex speech processing strategies, high stimulation rates and multiple sites of stimulation in the cochlea. Equipped with such a state-of-the-art system, the majority of recipients today can communicate orally without visual cues and can even use the telephone. The impact of CIs on deaf individuals and on the deaf community has thus been exceptional. To date, more than 300,000 patients worldwide have received CIs. In Switzerland, the first implantation was performed in 1977 and, as of 2012, over 2,000 systems have been implanted with a current rate of around 150 CIs per year. The primary purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary overview of cochlear implantation, emphasising the situation in Switzerland.

  19. Homicide-suicide cases in Switzerland and their impact on the Swiss Weapon Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabherr, Silke; Johner, Stephan; Dilitz, Carine; Buck, Ursula; Killias, Martin; Mangin, Patrice; Plattner, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Homicide followed by the suicide of the offender is a well-known phenomenon. In most cases, it takes place in the context of the so-called "family tragedies." A recent series of such family tragedies in Switzerland prompted an intensive debate in the media and the Swiss government concerning the Swiss Weapon Law, in particular the requirement to keep personal army weapons at home. The present study of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland, thus focuses on the role played by guns, especially military weapons, in such crimes. We investigated retrospectively 75 cases of Homicide-Suicide, comprising 172 individuals and spanning a period of 23 years in western and central Switzerland. Our results show that if guns were used in 76% of the cases, army weapons were the cause of death in 25% of the total. In 28% of the deaths caused by a gunshot, the exact type of the gun and its origin could not be determined. Thus, the majority of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland involve the use of guns. The exact percentage of cases were military weapons were involved could not be defined. In our opinion, a stricter weapons law, restricting access to firearms, would be a factor of prevention of Homicide- Suicide cases in Switzerland.

  20. Determinants of successful chronic hepatitis C case finding among patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Oliver; Seidenberg, André; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Injection drug users are at high risk for chronic hepatitis C virus infection (CHC). Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) offers a unique opportunity to screen for CHC. This study proposed the hypothesis that a general practitioner (GP) with special interest in addiction medicine can achieve CHC screening rates comparable to specialized centres and aimed to investigate determinants for a successful CHC case finding in a primary care setting. Retrospective medical record analysis of 387 patients who received opioid maintenance therapy between 1 January 2002 and 31 May 2008 in a general practice in Zurich, Switzerland. Successful CHC assessment was defined as performance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) serology with consecutive polymerase chain reaction-based RNA and genotype recordings. The association between screening success and patient characteristics was assessed using multiple logistic regression. findings: Median (interquartile range) age and duration of OMT of the 387 (268 males) patients was 38.5 (33.6-44.5) years and 34 (11.3-68.0) months, respectively. Fourteen patients (3.6%) denied HCV testing and informed consent about screening was missing in 13 patients (3.4%). In 327 of 360 patients (90.8%) with informed consent a successful CHC assessment has been performed. Screening for HCV antibodies was positive in 136 cases (41.6%) and in 86 of them (63.2%) a CHC was present. The duration of OMT was an independent determinant of a successful CHC assessment. In addicted patients a high CHC assessment rate in a primary care setting in Switzerland is feasible and opioid substitution provides an optimal framework.

  1. Energy efficiency in the foreground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baettig, I.

    2006-01-01

    In this interview with Eberhard Jochem, professor at the Centre for Energy Policy and Economics at the Federal Institute of Science and Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, several energy-relevant topics are discussed. These include high oil prices, possible power shortages and binding commitments in the climate-protection area. The question is asked, how, in consideration of such general conditions, energy use and energy supply should develop in Switzerland. Options for increasing efficiency or the tapping of new energy sources is discussed, as is Switzerland's increasing energy consumption. The '2000 Watt' concept being worked on at the ETH and the activities needed for its realisation are discussed. The effects of this concept on economical and business development are discussed. The potential of renewable forms of energy and the possibility of building combined gas and steam power stations are looked at. Ways of promoting renewable energy and questions concerning the extent of the state intervention in the energy business are considered

  2. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Windstorms can cause significant financial damage and they rank among the most hazardous meteorological hazards in Switzerland. Risk associated with windstorms involves the combination of hazardous weather conditions, such as high wind gust speeds, and socio-economic factors, such as the distribution of assets as well as their susceptibilities to damage. A sophisticated risk assessment is important in a wide range of areas and has benefits for e.g. the insurance industry. However, a sophisticated risk assessment needs a large sample of storm events for which high-resolution, quantitative meteorological and/or loss data are available. Latter is typically an aggravating factor. For present-day windstorms in Switzerland, the data basis is generally sufficient to describe the meteorological development and wind forces as well as the associated impacts. In contrast, historic windstorms are usually described by graphical depictions of the event and/or by weather and loss reports. The information on historic weather events is overall sparse and the available historic weather and loss reports mostly do not provide quantitative information. It has primarily been the field of activity of environmental historians to study historic weather extremes and their impacts. Furthermore, the scarce availability of atmospheric datasets reaching back sufficiently in time has so far limited the analysis of historic weather events. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) ensemble dataset, a global atmospheric reanalysis currently spanning 1871 to 2012, offers potentially a very valuable resource for the analysis of historic weather events. However, the 2°×2° latitude-longitude grid of the 20CR is too coarse to realistically represent the complex orography of Switzerland, which has considerable ramifications for the representation of smaller-scale features of the surface wind field influenced by the local orography. Using the 20CR as a starting point, this study illustrates a method to

  3. An empirical investigation of the efficiency effects of integrated care models in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Reich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigates the efficiency gains of integrated care models in Switzerland, since these models are regarded as cost containment options in national social health insurance. These plans generate much lower average health care expenditure than the basic insurance plan. The question is, however, to what extent these total savings are due to the effects of selection and efficiency. Methods: The empirical analysis is based on data from 399,274 Swiss residents that constantly had compulsory health insurance with the Helsana Group, the largest health insurer in Switzerland, covering the years 2006 to 2009. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the different integrated care models, we apply an econometric approach with a mixed-effects model. Results: Our estimations indicate that the efficiency effects of integrated care models on health care expenditure are significant. However, the different insurance plans vary, revealing the following efficiency gains per model: contracted capitated model 21.2%, contracted non-capitated model 15.5% and telemedicine model 3.7%. The remaining 8.5%, 5.6% and 22.5% respectively of the variation in total health care expenditure can be attributed to the effects of selection. Conclusions: Integrated care models have the potential to improve care for patients with chronic diseases and concurrently have a positive impact on health care expenditure. We suggest policy makers improve the incentives for patients with chronic diseases within the existing regulations providing further potential for cost-efficiency of medical care.

  4. An empirical investigation of the efficiency effects of integrated care models in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Reich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigates the efficiency gains of integrated care models in Switzerland, since these models are regarded as cost containment options in national social health insurance. These plans generate much lower average health care expenditure than the basic insurance plan. The question is, however, to what extent these total savings are due to the effects of selection and efficiency.Methods: The empirical analysis is based on data from 399,274 Swiss residents that constantly had compulsory health insurance with the Helsana Group, the largest health insurer in Switzerland, covering the years 2006 to 2009. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the different integrated care models, we apply an econometric approach with a mixed-effects model.Results: Our estimations indicate that the efficiency effects of integrated care models on health care expenditure are significant. However, the different insurance plans vary, revealing the following efficiency gains per model: contracted capitated model 21.2%, contracted non-capitated model 15.5% and telemedicine model 3.7%. The remaining 8.5%, 5.6% and 22.5% respectively of the variation in total health care expenditure can be attributed to the effects of selection.Conclusions: Integrated care models have the potential to improve care for patients with chronic diseases and concurrently have a positive impact on health care expenditure. We suggest policy makers improve the incentives for patients with chronic diseases within the existing regulations providing further potential for cost-efficiency of medical care.

  5. Age and gender as independent predictors of violence under the influence of alcohol in Zurich, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mica, Ladislav; Oesterle, Linda; Werner, Clément M L; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2015-04-08

    Violent behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is frequently reported by different media. Clinical data analysing the correlation between alcohol intoxication, age, gender and violence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender and blood alcohol content on violent behaviour under the influence of alcohol under central European conditions. Three hundred patients admitted to the emergency department were included into this study in the time period from January 01. to December 31. 2009. The inclusion criteria were a blood alcohol content (BAC) of ≥10 mmol/l, any traumatic injury and an age ≥16 years. Violence was defined as an evitable act committed by others leading to patient's hospitalisation. The data were compared with Wilcoxon and χ2-test for proportions. The data were considered as significant if pviolence with no correlation to blood alcohol content found. Logistic regression analysis revealed male gender and young age as an independent predictor for violence. These results clarify the relationship between alcohol, age, gender and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  6. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S

    2008-12-15

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007. During this period, 531 earthquakes and 92 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, 30 are aftershocks of the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel in December of 2006. With 20 events with {mu}{sub {iota}} {>=} 2.5, four of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2007 was far below the average over the previous 32 years. (author)

  7. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007. During this period, 531 earthquakes and 92 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, 30 are aftershocks of the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel in December of 2006. With 20 events with Μ ι ≥ 2.5, four of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2007 was far below the average over the previous 32 years. (author)

  8. Regionalization of monthly rainfall erosivity patternsin Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    One major controlling factor of water erosion is rainfall erosivity, which is quantified as the product of total storm energy and a maximum 30 min intensity (I30). Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). As rainfall erosivity is closely correlated with rainfall amount and intensity, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland can be expected to have a regional characteristic and seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This intra-annual variability was mapped by a monthly modeling approach to assess simultaneously spatial and monthly patterns of rainfall erosivity. So far only national seasonal means and regional annual means exist for Switzerland. We used a network of 87 precipitation gauging stations with a 10 min temporal resolution to calculate long-term monthly mean R-factors. Stepwise generalized linear regression (GLM) and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) were used to select spatial covariates which explain the spatial and temporal patterns of the R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The monthly R-factor is mapped by summarizing the predicted R-factor of the regression equation and the corresponding residues of the regression, which are interpolated by ordinary kriging (regression-kriging). As spatial covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included such as snow depths, a combination product of hourly precipitation measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), daily Alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD), and monthly precipitation sums (RhiresM). Topographic parameters (elevation, slope) were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of the 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed a distinct seasonality with the highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) influenced by intense rainfall events. Winter months have the lowest rainfall erosivity. A proportion of 62 % of

  9. Nuclear energy and democracy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangger, C.

    1974-01-01

    Since nuclear energy is a question of international moment, critical citizens are today orienting the attention of the Swiss public more and more towards the international problems presented by the fuel cycle: problems about which a small country like Switzerland can do nothing without international co-operation and information. The most important concerns from the standpoint of the information which Swiss citizens ought to receive and about which I should like to make a few proposals. These are the problem of ultimate disposal of the high-level radioactive waste produced in irradiated fuel reprocessing plants; and the problem of diversion of plutonium by criminals. In conclusion, the last points I have made show quite clearly that the problems raised by the relationship between nuclear energy and democracy in Switzerland are going to be, more and more, problems connected with security and international solidarity. Member States should put International Atomic Energy Agency in a position where it can discharge effectively its tasks of standardization and information related to all sensitive stages of the nuclear fuel cycle

  10. Dental injuries in mountain biking--a survey in Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin E; Persic, Robert; Pohl, Yango; Krastl, Gabriel; Filippi, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Mountain biking is considered an extreme sport, causing not only head and neck injuries, but also injuries to every part of the body. Using standardised interview, the aim of this work was to survey the frequency of dental injuries in mountain biking, as well as the behaviour of athletes after experiencing dental trauma, depending on their intensity level. Furthermore, habits of wearing helmets and mouthguards as well as knowledge about the tooth rescue kit were investigated. A total of 423 male mountain bikers from Germany, Italy, Austria and Switzerland were surveyed for this study, including 50 juniors from Switzerland. 27 athletes (5.7%) had endured tooth accidents in mountain biking. Only 246 (52%) were aware of the fact that avulsed teeth can be replanted, and only 30 individuals knew about the tooth rescue kit (6.3%). 71.9% (n=340) were familiar with mouthguards; however, only 21 individuals (4.4%) used mouthguards while mountain biking. The results show that where mountain biking is concerned, more information about prevention is required.

  11. The importance of nuclear power to energy supply in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of nuclear power is a matter of dispute also in Switzerland. The first opposition to plans for the Kaiseraugst nuclear power station near Basel sprang up in the seventies. In Switzerland, referenda are a popular expression of political disputes. On a federal level, a total of six referenda have been conducted about nuclear power since 1979. As a rule, antinuclear projects were rejected by a slim majority, except for the 1990 moratorium initiative. As a consequence, there was a ten-year ban on the construction of new nuclear power plants. Despite efforts by many parties it was not possible to develop a general consensus on an energy supply strategy. Because of the considerable importance to the power economy, and the economy at large, of nuclear power in Switzerland, where the five nuclear power plants in operation generate approx. 38% of the country's electricity, while 58% is produced in hydroelectric plants, a new Nuclear Power Act was adopted by Parliament in late February 2001. It constitutes the framework for the continued safe operation of nuclear power plants, keeps the nuclear option open for future planning, and handles spent fuel and waste management, final storage, and decommissioning. Also possible international solutions of final storage outside of Switzerland are taken into account. In this way, the Swiss government and parliament have advocated the continued use of nuclear power as one element of energy supply. (orig.) [de

  12. [Imported diseases in Switzerland: development and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrémont, A; Lorenz, N

    1990-10-01

    During the last years, imported diseases have become more frequent in Switzerland. This is easily explained by the enormous increase of tourism to tropical and subtropical countries. Immigration from these countries has equally seen an important augmentation. The principal imported diseases are still malaria and gastrointestinal infections. Viral infections are rarely diagnosed, with the exception of hepatitis and HIV infection. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases is most certainly underestimated. The differential diagnosis of imported skin diseases is still difficult. Rare tropical diseases will probably become more frequent in the coming years as travellers leave more and more the traditional tourist paths. Practitioners have to look out for such problems, and continuous training programmes for them will have to take these new problems into account. Referral centres of infectious diseases should be established in all regions of Switzerland. High priority should be given to the prevention of imported diseases.

  13. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CENSUS OF THE POPULATION, BUILDINGS AND HOUSING IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relation with the Host States Service; Tel. 72848

    2000-01-01

    A census of the population, buildings and housing is to be conducted on the whole territory of the Swiss Confederation on 5 December 2000. For this purpose, those residing in Switzerland will receive a personal questionnaire at their place of residence plus a questionnaire on buildings and housing if they own real estate in Switzerland. The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organizations in Geneva has requested CERN to invite members of its personnel to complete these questionnaires and either to hand them to the census agents when they call at their places of residence on 5 December 2000 or to post them to the address indicated on the questionnaire.

  15. Readiness of pharmacists and consumers for pharmacy-based chlamydia screening in Australia and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnet, Isabelle; Gudka, Sajni; Salter, Sandra; Hersberger, Kurt E; Clifford, Rhonda

    2018-06-01

    To assess chlamydia knowledge, willingness to undertake pharmacy-based chlamydia testing, and facilitators and barriers to such testing in consumers and community pharmacists, in Australia (AUS) and Switzerland (CH). Statements of interest were retrieved from literature and assembled into a 12-item online survey (English and German versions). Survey was disseminated through Facebook, pharmacies' publicly available emails and professional websites (March 2015). Consumers and pharmacists (AUS: n cons  = 198, n pharm  = 162; CH: n cons  = 209, n pharm  = 223) were predominantly female (>65%). Mean chlamydia knowledge scores (maximum of 8) were higher in Australia in consumers (AUS: 6.8 ± 1.5 vs CH: 4.2 ± 2.4; p business. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Using the framework of corporate culture in “mergers” to support the development of a cultural basis for integrative medicine – guidance for building an integrative medicine department or service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt CM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Claudia M Witt,1–3 Marion Pérard,2 Brian Berman,3,4 Susan Berman,4 Timothy C Birdsall,5 Horst Defren,6 Sherko Kümmel,7 Gary Deng,8 Gustav Dobos,9 Atje Drexler,10 Christine Holmberg,2 Markus Horneber,11 Robert Jütte,9 Lori Knutson,12 Christopher Kummer,13 Susanne Volpers,14 David Schweiger15 1University Hospital Zurich, Institute for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany; 3University of Maryland School of Medicine, Center for Integrative Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 4The Institute for Integrative Health, Baltimore, USA; 5Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Goodyear, Arizona, USA, 6Kliniken Essen Mitte, Evang, Huyssen-Stiftung/Knappschaft GmbH Patientenmanagement, Essen, Germany; 7Department of Senology, Breast Center, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Evang. Huyssens Stiftung, Knappschaft GmbH, Essen, Germany; 8Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA; 9Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Academic Teaching Hospital of the University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; 10Robert Bosch Foundation GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany; 11Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology and Hematology, Paracelsus Medical University, Klinikum Nürnberg, Germany; 12Integrative Healthcare Solutions, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; 13Institute of Mergers, Acquisitions and Alliances (IMAA, Zurich, Switzerland; 14Frauenselbsthilfe nach Krebs, Bonn, Germany; 15Schweiger, Schweiger & Associates, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, USA Background: An increasing number of clinics offer complementary or integrative medicine services; however, clear guidance about how complementary medicine could be successfully and efficiently integrated into conventional health care settings is still lacking. Combining conventional and complementary medicine into integrative medicine can be regarded as a kind of

  17. Liver fibrosis in treatment-naïve HIV-infected and HIV/HBV co-infected patients: Zambia and Switzerland compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandeler, Gilles; Mulenga, Lloyd; Vinikoor, Michael J; Kovari, Helen; Battegay, Manuel; Calmy, Alexandra; Cavassini, Matthias; Bernasconi, Enos; Schmid, Patrick; Bolton-Moore, Carolyn; Sinkala, Edford; Chi, Benjamin H; Egger, Matthias; Rauch, Andri

    2016-10-01

    To examine the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients in Zambia and Switzerland. HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy in two clinics in Zambia and Switzerland were included. Liver fibrosis was evaluated using the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio index (APRI), with a ratio >1.5 defining significant fibrosis and a ratio >2.0 indicating cirrhosis. The association between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity, HBV replication, and liver fibrosis was examined using logistic regression. In Zambia, 96 (13.0%) of 739 patients were HBsAg-positive compared to 93 (4.5%) of 2058 in Switzerland. HBsAg-positive patients were more likely to have significant liver fibrosis than HBsAg-negative ones: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 3.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-7.33) in Zambia and 2.50 (95% CI 1.19-5.25) in Switzerland. Patients with a high HBV viral load (≥20000 IU/ml) were more likely to have significant liver fibrosis compared to HBsAg-negative patients or patients with an undetectable viral load: aOR 3.85 (95% CI 1.29-11.44) in Zambia and 4.20 (95% CI 1.64-10.76) in Switzerland. In both settings, male sex was a strong risk factor for significant liver fibrosis. Despite the differences in HBV natural history between Sub-Saharan Africa and Europe, the degree of liver fibrosis and the association with important risk factors were similar. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Dose calibrators quality controls in Switzerland: six years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochud, F.; Spring, Ph.; Baechler, S.; Twerenbold, D.; Linder, R.; Leibundgut, F.

    2006-01-01

    In Switzerland, the legal use of open radioactive sources in nuclear medicine and the general requirements for quality controls are defined in a federal ordinance. The metrological traceability is guaranteed through a directive of the Swiss metrological office (M.E.T.A.S.) that requires each instrument to be monitored at least once a year through either a verification or an intercomparison. The verification is performed onsite by an accredited laboratory with a set of three gamma sources (Co-57, Cs-137 and Co-60) and - if applicable - a beta source (Sr-90/Y- 90). The intercomparison is made through conventional mail. A source of I-131 or Tc- 99 m is measured both in the nuclear medicine department and in an accredited laboratory. The maximum tolerated error is 10% for gamma sources and 20% for beta sources. This methodology guarantees that the instruments have a correct response for most of the energy range used in practice. Not all nuclides are systematically probed and manufacturers are ultimately responsible for the calibration factors. The precision of the measurements performed in Switzerland is satisfactory with only about 6% of the measurements out of the tolerances. This monitoring also allowed us to improve the skills of the personnel and update the park of instruments by getting rid of dose calibrators displaying old units. (authors)

  19. Dose calibrators quality controls in Switzerland: six years of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochud, F.; Spring, Ph.; Baechler, S. [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee, Lausanne (Switzerland); Twerenbold, D. [METAS, Lindenweg 50, Bern-Wabern (Switzerland); Linder, R. [Bundesamt fur Gesundheit, Abteilung Strahlenschutz, Bern (Switzerland); Leibundgut, F. [Raditec radiation and technology, Schoftland (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    In Switzerland, the legal use of open radioactive sources in nuclear medicine and the general requirements for quality controls are defined in a federal ordinance. The metrological traceability is guaranteed through a directive of the Swiss metrological office (M.E.T.A.S.) that requires each instrument to be monitored at least once a year through either a verification or an intercomparison. The verification is performed onsite by an accredited laboratory with a set of three gamma sources (Co-57, Cs-137 and Co-60) and - if applicable - a beta source (Sr-90/Y- 90). The intercomparison is made through conventional mail. A source of I-131 or Tc- 99 m is measured both in the nuclear medicine department and in an accredited laboratory. The maximum tolerated error is 10% for gamma sources and 20% for beta sources. This methodology guarantees that the instruments have a correct response for most of the energy range used in practice. Not all nuclides are systematically probed and manufacturers are ultimately responsible for the calibration factors. The precision of the measurements performed in Switzerland is satisfactory with only about 6% of the measurements out of the tolerances. This monitoring also allowed us to improve the skills of the personnel and update the park of instruments by getting rid of dose calibrators displaying old units. (authors)

  20. Association between education and quality of diabetes care in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatz, Aline; Casillas, Alejandra; Stringhini, Silvia; Zuercher, Emilie; Burnand, Bernard; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status is associated with higher prevalence of diabetes, worse outcomes, and worse quality of care. We explored the relationship between education, as a measure of socioeconomic status, and quality of care in the Swiss context. Data were drawn from a population-based survey of 519 adults with diabetes during fall 2011 and summer 2012 in a canton of Switzerland. We assessed patients and diabetes characteristics. Eleven indicators of quality of care were considered (six of process and five of outcomes of care). After bivariate analyses, regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and diabetic complications were performed to assess the relationship between education and quality of care. Of 11 quality-of-care indicators, three were significantly associated with education: funduscopy (patients with tertiary versus primary education were more likely to get the exam: odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004-3.3) and two indicators of health-related quality of life (patients with tertiary versus primary education reported better health-related quality of life: Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life: β=0.6 [95% CI, 0.2-0.97]; SF-12 mean physical component summary score: β=3.6 [95% CI, 0.9-6.4]). Our results suggest the presence of educational inequalities in quality of diabetes care. These findings may help health professionals focus on individuals with increased needs to decrease health inequalities.

  1. Changes in alcohol consumption following a reduction in the price of spirits: a natural experiment in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Jean-Luc; Gmel, Gerhard; Zurbrügg, Christoph; Kuo, Meichun; Rehm, Jürgen

    2003-10-01

    To discover what changes in alcohol consumption had occurred in subgroups defined by age, sex, volume of drinking and drinking occasions, following a reduction in the price of spirits in Switzerland in July 1999. Quasi-experimental. Longitudinal general-population survey with baseline 3 months before and follow-up 3 months after price change. Probabilistic telephone sample of 1347 individuals with at least monthly consumption on average in the previous 6 months at both interviews. The response rate at baseline was 74,8% and the attrition rate from baseline to follow-up 20.2%. Alcohol consumption was assessed by means of a beverage-specific graduated-frequency measure. High volume of drinking was defined as 40 + g/day for men and 20 + g/day for women. Binge drinking was defined as six + drinks on an occasion for men and four + drinks for women. Spirits consumption increased significantly (by 28.6%) in the total sample, and specifically in young males and in individuals who were low-volume drinkers at baseline. Consumption of alcohol overall, or of wine or beer, did not change significantly. No indication of effects of substitution was found. Spirits consumption showed price-responsiveness in the early postintervention period. This finding is of particular interest, as (a) the increase in spirits consumption took place at a time of generally declining consumption of alcohol in Switzerland; and (b) in contrast to the findings of most studies, the intervention, namely price reduction, increased availability.

  2. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Peptidomimetic N-Substituted Cbz-4-Hyp-Hpa-Amides as Novel Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacherikov, Valeriy A; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avery, Mitchell A

    2017-08-01

    A new series of peptidomimetic N-substituted Cbz-4-Hyp-Hpa-amides were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum. Substituents on the N-atom of the amide group were selected alkyl-, allyl-, aryl-, 2-hydroxyethyl-, 2-cyanoethyl-, cyanomethyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl-, 2,2-diethoxyethyl-, or 2-ethoxy-2-oxoethylamino groups, and about of 40 new compounds were synthesized and evaluated for antiplasmodial activity in vitro. Antimalarial activity has been investigated as for the final peptide mimetics, and their immediate predecessors, carrying TBDMS or TBDPS protecting groups on 4-hydroxyproline residue and 18 derivatives exhibited toxicity against P. falciparum. Of these agents, compound 23e was shown to have potent antimalarial activity with IC 50 528 ng/ml. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. Geophysical investigation programme of Northern Switzerland: Gravimetric measurements 81/82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingele, E.; Schwendener, H.

    1984-10-01

    Within the frame of the geophysical investigations of the NAGRA in the northern part of Switzerland the Swiss Geophysical Commission has measured 4954 gravity stations. The gravity data were processed and presented as Bouguer-anomaly and residual anomaly maps. The densities used for the corrections were 2.40 and 2.67 g/cm 3 . The residual field showed a negative anomaly along an axis passing through Weiach and Villigen. This anomaly can be interpreted quantitatively in terms of depth of the crystalline basement. (author)

  4. Wind turbines in Switzerland - Bat mortality; Eoliennes en Suisse - Mortalite de chauves-souris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuzinger, Y.; Lugon, A.; Bontadina, F.

    2008-03-15

    There are growing concerns about possible negative impact of wind turbines on bats. In this study we evaluated the occurrence of bat mortality caused by wind turbines in Switzerland. From about 20 existing wind turbines in year 2007 we selected five medium to large sized turbines in two hilly regions of Switzerland. Between June and October we searched 10 times in regular intervals for carcasses on the ground (total 50 controls) in a circle of up to 40 m distance to the tower. We measured detectability and bait removal rates by experiments at every site (using 12 dummy bats and 10 dead mice per site, respectively). Two bat carcasses were found at two sites, one of the migrating species N. leisleri in August, another in September, belonging to the non-migrating species P. pipistrellus. The detectability was 74 {+-} 13% (mean {+-} standard deviation). The removal rate was 72 {+-} 25% in the first 2-3 days and an average of 91% in the control intervals of 15 days. Estimates of seasonal bat mortality, corrected for season, detectability and removal rate, revealed an average of 8.2 (range 4.9 - 11.4) dead bats per turbine and season. This study demonstrates the occurrence of bat mortality caused by wind turbines in Switzerland. However, the estimated mortality per season remains in international comparisons small to medium at the studied sites. The mortality of individuals of endangered and protected species is a serious issue, but most important, the long-term effect on populations is difficult to assess. In the case of the investigated wind turbines the negative impact on bats does not generally preclude the development of wind energy sites in Switzerland. We recommend avoiding sites in and near woodlands. The abundance of local and migratory bats at planned sites should be evaluated, obligatory in the case of larger wind parks and at exposed sites (ridge tops, mountain passes, river valleys), in order to consider adequately bat conservation. (author)

  5. The cataclasis in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland two main phases of cataclastic deformation can be distinguished: a 'cataclasis 1' in a higher temperature hydrothermal regime, as a consequence of tectonic and magmatic-hydrothermal events in Upper Carboniferous time and a lower temperature 'cataclasis 2', which can be related to Permian tectonics at the northern margin of the Paleozoic Konstanz-Frick trough. These cataclases are interpreted as a result of longlasting and complex tectonic processes at shallow crustal levels. (author) 30 refs., 4 figs

  6. Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme: Particle Therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Particle Therapy using Proton and Ion Beams - From Basic Principles to Daily Operations and Future Concepts by Andreas Peter (Head of Accelerator Operations, Heidelberg Ion Beam Theraps Centre (HIT), Germany) Part I: Tuesday, September 11, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant ) • An introduction about the historical developments of accelerators and their use for medical applications: tumour treatment from X-rays to particle therapy • Description of the underlying physics and biology of particle therapy; implications on the requirements for the needed beam parameters (energy, intensity, focus, beam structure) • Accelerator technology used for particle therapy so far: cyclotrons and synchrotrons • Particle therapy facilities worldwide: an overview and some examples in detail: PSI/Switzerland, Loma Linda/USA, HIMAC/Japan, HIT/Heidelberg, CNAO/Italy Part II: Wednesday, September 12, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CER...

  7. Physics colloquium: Electron counting in quantum dots in and out of equilibrium

    CERN Multimedia

    Geneva University

    2011-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92olé   Lundi 31 octobre 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM « Electron counting in quantum dots in and out of equilibrium » Prof. Klaus Ensslin Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland   Electron transport through quantum dots is governed by Coulomb blockade. Using a nearby quantum point contact the time-dependent charge flow through quantum dots can be monitored on the basis of single electrons. This way electron transport has been investigated in equilibrium as well as out of equilibrium. Recently it has become possible to experimentally verify the fluctuation theorem. The talk will also address electron counting experiments in grapheme. Une verrée ...

  8. On risk analysis for repositories in northern Switzerland: extent and probability of geological processes and events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buergisser, H.M.; Herrnberger, V.

    1981-01-01

    The literature study assesses, in the form of expert analysis, geological processes and events for a 1200 km 2 -area of northern Switzerland, with regard to repositories for medium- and high-active waste (depth 100 to 600 m and 600 to 2500 m, respectively) over the next 10 6 years. The area, which comprises parts of the Tabular Jura, the folded Jura and the Molasse Basin, the latter two being parts of the Alpine Orogene, has undergone a non-uniform geologic development since the Oligocene. Within the next 10 4 to 10 5 years a maximum earthquake intensity of VIII-IX (MSK-scale) has been predicted. After this period, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the area, glaciations will probably occur, with associated erosion of possibly 200 to 300 m. Fluvial erosion as a reponse to an uplift could reach similar values after 10 5 to 10 6 years; however, there are no data on the recent relative vertical crustal movements of the area. The risk of a meteorite impact is considered small as compared to that of these factors. Seismic activity and the position and extent of faults are so poorly known within the area that the faulting probability cannot be derived at present. Flooding by the sea, intrusion of magma, diapirism, metamorphism and volcanic eruptions are not considered to be risk factors for final repositories in northern Switzerland. For the shallow-type repositories, the risk of denudation and landslides have to be judged when locality-bound projects have been proposed. (Auth.)

  9. Federal census of the population in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

    A federal census of the 2010 population has been underway since January 2011. The objective is to provide important insights into the composition of the resident population, households and families in Switzerland and identify trends. The census methods have been modernised so that it covers only information that is not already contained in Federal, Cantonal and municipal registries of persons; the information will be gathered via questionnaires issued to approximately 3% of the population residing in Switzerland. In order to obtain representative information about the local population, the Canton of Geneva has requested that questionnaires be issued to international civil servants and members of their families aged 15 and over who live in the Canton. They will be invited to respond to the questionnaire on a strictly voluntary basis. If they choose not to respond to the questionnaire, they will not be contacted again. The Permanent Swiss Mission to the International Organizations in Geneva wishes in advance t...

  10. Energy strategy 2050 and its effects on the industrial location Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    scienceindustries is the Swiss trade association chemical pharmaceuticals biotechnology. The branch comprises around 250 companies in the most intensive value-creating fields chemicals, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology. With approx. 70,000 employees in Switzerland and 310,000 in over 80 countries, this sector generates 40 % of the total Swiss exports and contributes 44 % to the private research expenses of Switzerland. At the same time the companies face hard international competition. This lets us recognize immediately just how much the industry in Switzerland depends on good parameters for research, production and export. This value creation could not be achieved without these prerequisites. In Switzerland, besides being a regulatory and internationally outstanding corporate location, this includes, for example, an attractive tax environment or a monetary policy geared to stability. Our companies also require competitive production factors in sufficient amounts to be able to generate their important contribution to the national economy. In this context, electricity is assigned an important role, as a clean, versatile energy source that is available anytime and everywhere. That is why scienceindustries as an industrial association feels more than obliged to declare its position regarding electricity supply unambiguously to the public and politics. For our industry it is simply also a question of economic survival: the macroeconomic contribution of our industry cannot be ensured in future without a sufficient, uninterrupted and competitive electricity supply. (orig.)

  11. Modelling the economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Christoph; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Martius, Olivia; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Severe winter storms such as "Vivian" in February 1990 and "Lothar" in December 1999 are among the most destructive meteorological hazards in Switzerland. Disaster severity resulting from such windstorms is attributable, on the one hand, to hazardous weather conditions such as high wind gust speeds; and on the other hand to socio-economic factors such as population density, distribution of values at risk, and damage susceptibility. For present-day winter storms, the data basis is generally good to describe the meteorological development and wind forces as well as the associated socio-economic impacts. In contrast, the information on historic windstorms is overall sparse and the available historic weather and loss reports mostly do not provide quantitative information. This study illustrates a promising technique to simulate the economic impacts of both historic and present winter storms in Switzerland since end of the 19th century. Our approach makes use of the novel Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) spanning 1871-present. The 2-degree spatial resolution of the global 20CR dataset is relatively coarse. Thus, the complex orography of Switzerland is not realistically represented, which has considerable ramifications for the representation of wind systems that are strongly influenced by the local orography, such as Föhn winds. Therefore, a dynamical downscaling of the 20CR to 3 km resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was performed, for in total 40 high-impact winter storms in Switzerland since 1871. Based on the downscaled wind gust speeds and the climada loss model, the estimated economic losses were calculated at municipality level for current economic and social conditions. With this approach, we find an answer to the question what would be the economic losses of e.g. a hazardous Föhn storm - which occurred in northern Switzerland in February 1925 - today, i.e. under current socio-economic conditions. Encouragingly, the pattern of

  12. Issues around the Prescription of Half Tablets in Northern Switzerland: The Irrational Case of Quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S. Allemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prescription of fragmented tablets is useful for individualisation of dose but includes several drawbacks. Although without score lines, the antipsychotic drug quetiapine was in 2011 the most often prescribed 1/2 tablet in discharge prescriptions at the University Hospital in Basel (USB, 671 beds. We aimed at analysing the prescription patterns of split tablets in general and of quetiapine in particular in Switzerland. Methods. All orders of community pharmacies for unit-of-use soft pouch blisters placed at Medifilm AG, the leader company in Switzerland for repackaging into pouch blisters, were analysed. Results. Out of 4,784,999 tablets that were repacked in 2012 in unit-of-use pouch blisters, 8.5% were fragmented, mostly in half (87.6%, and were predominantly psycholeptics (pipamperone 15.8%. Prescription of half quetiapine appears to be a Basel specificity (highest rates of fragments and half quetiapine. Conclusions. Prescription of fragmented tablet is frequent. It represents a safety issue for the patient, and a pharmaceutical care issue for the pharmacist. In ambulatory care, the patient’s cognitive and physical capacities must be clarified, suitability of the splitting of the tablet must be checked, appropriate aids must be offered, like a pill-splitting device in order to improve accuracy, and safe use of the drug must be ensured.

  13. Chemodiversity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicchi, Rosario; Geraci, Anna; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei (Pinaceae) is a species occurring in a very small population only in a restricted area of Sicily. Its taxonomic classification as different species has been object of discussion. In this work the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves is presented for the first time and compared to the essential oils from other euroasiatic species reported in literature. Peculiar characteristics of the essential oil of A. nebrodensis are highlighted. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim that mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (1) permissive gun laws, (2) widespread gun ownership, (3) encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters, and cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source m...

  15. Perceived discrimination against diabetics in the workplace and in work-related insurances in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebiker-Pedrotti, Piera M; Keller, Ulrich; Iselin, Hans-Ulrich; Ruiz, Juan; Pärli, Kurt; Caplazi, Alexandra; Puder, Jardena J

    2009-02-21

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of perceived diabetes-related discrimination in the workplace and in work-related insurances in persons with diabetes mellitus in Switzerland. 509 insulin-treated diabetic subjects representative of the northwestern Swiss population responded to a self-report questionnaire on perceived diabetes-related discrimination in the workplace and in work-related insurances (salary loss insurance, supplementary occupational plan). Discrimination was defined as being treated differently at least once in relation to diabetes. The reported rates of different aspects of discrimination in the workplace and in work-related insurances ranged between 5-11% and 4-15% respectively. Risk factors that independently increased the risk of not being hired due to diabetes were the presence of at least two severe hypoglycaemic events/year and relevant diabetic complications (OR 5.6 and OR 2.6 respectively; bothdiscrimination in work-related insurances (OR for denial 2.1-2.4; OR for reserve 3.9-4.4; alldiscrimination in the workplace and by work-related insurances is a common problem. In the light of our findings the introduction of effective non-discrimination legislation for patients with chronic illnesses appears to be desirable.

  16. One health in Switzerland: a visionary concept at a crossroads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisser, Andrea; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2011-05-13

    One Health stands for the health of humans, animals and the environment. There is only one health in our entire ecosystem, and the equation for its promotion is in interdisciplinary cooperation. One Health benefits from synergies to generate added value and is a promising strategy to strengthen health systems. A growing number of One Health conferences worldwide bear witness to a spirit of optimism which should result in the implementation of a sustainable One Health policy globally, regionally, nationally and locally. The purpose of this study was to investigate the opportunities for implementation of the One Health concept in Switzerland. Between April and August 2010, semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 key experts selected from among the leading personalities in the Swiss health system. The experts confirmed the potential of the One Health concept for Switzerland. Barriers such as cultural differences, absence of evidence, federal structures and a relatively low degree of suffering were identified and a road map established, including research activities, capacity-building and a stakeholder approach to joint preparation and tailored implementation of the One Health concept in Switzerland. These data suggest that One Health can support the opinion leaders in their quest for solutions. The detailed and unbiased description of potential barriers and a clear guide for a step-by-step action plan represent suggestions for a realistic way forward. Experience gained and lessons learnt in Switzerland may be of interest to other countries and help communicate and promote the One Health concept.

  17. The HIV care cascade in Switzerland: reaching the UNAIDS/WHO targets for patients diagnosed with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Philipp; Schmidt, Axel J; Cavassini, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Calmy, Alexandra; Battegay, Manuel; Bernasconi, Enos; Ledergerber, Bruno; Vernazza, Pietro

    2015-11-28

    To describe the HIV care cascade for Switzerland in the year 2012. Six levels were defined: (i) HIV-infected, (ii) HIV-diagnosed, (iii) linked to care, (iv) retained in care, (v) on antiretroviral treatment (ART), and (vi) with suppressed viral load. We used data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) complemented by a nationwide survey among SHCS physicians to estimate the number of HIV-patients not registered in the cohort. We also used Swiss ART sales data to estimate the number of patients treated outside the SHCS network. Based on the number of patients retained in care, we inferred the estimates for levels (i) to (iii) from previously published data. We estimate that (i) 15 200 HIV-infected individuals lived in Switzerland in 2012 (margins of uncertainty, 13 400-19 300). Of those, (ii) 12 300 (81%) were diagnosed, (iii) 12 200 (80%) linked, and (iv) 11 900 (79%) retained in care. Broadly based on SHCS network data, (v) 10 800 (71%) patients were receiving ART, and (vi) 10 400 (68%) had suppressed (Switzerland is substantially lower than previously reported, halving previous national HIV prevalence estimates to 0.2%. In Switzerland in 2012, 91% of patients in care were receiving ART, and 96% of patients on ART had suppressed viral load, meeting recent UNAIDS/WHO targets.

  18. POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION FUNCTIONING PATTERNS OF TOURISM SPHERE SPECIALISTS IN SWITZERLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Закордонець

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Functioning patterns of postgraduate education of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been established. The competences of tourism sphere specialist, the formation of which programs of postgraduate education are focused on have been considered. The benefits of educational qualification of Masters in Business Administration with a major specialization in tourism have been outlined. The characteristics of the core curriculum of the Doctor of Management of leading universities in the field of tourism education have been determined. The performance criteria of postgraduate education system functioning of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been revealed.

  19. 76 FR 1990 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC-6/350...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ..., CH-6371 STANS, Switzerland; telephone: +41 (0) 41 619 65 01; fax: +41 (0) 41 619 65 76; Internet..., including the comment received, and determined that air safety and the public interest require adopting the... rate is $85 per work-hour. Based on these figures, we estimate the cost of this AD on U.S. operators to...

  20. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 3 September 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Switzerland's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines'), has made available a document concerning the Swiss Policy on Nuclear Energy and Recycling of Plutonium

  1. Obesity framing for health policy development in Australia, France and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchett, Annabelle D; Yeatman, Heather R; Johnson, Keryn M

    2016-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is a consequence of the interaction of cultural, environmental, genetic and behavioural factors; framing the issue is central to determining appropriate solutions. This study used content and thematic framing analysis to explore portrayal of responsibility for obesity in policy documents in Australia, France and Switzerland. For Australia and France, obesity causality was a combination of individual and environmental factors, but for Switzerland, it was predominantly individual. The primary solutions for all countries were health promotion strategies and children's education. Industry groups proposed more school education while health advocates advised government intervention. Where France emphasized cultural attitudes towards taste, Australia focused on sport. The French were most keen on legislating against unhealthy foods compared with Switzerland where there was opposition towards regulation of individual's choices. To curb the increasing prevalence of obesity, allocation of responsibility needs to be considered and initiatives enacted accordingly. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Erosion and filling of glacially-overdeepened troughs in the Northern Alpine Foreland as recorded in a deep drill core from Northern Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnert, Andreas; Axel Kemna, Hans; Anselmetti, Flavio; Drescher-Schneider, Ruth; Graf, Hans Rudolf; Lowick, Sally; Preusser, Frank; Züger, Andreas; Furrer, Heinz

    2010-05-01

    As the major weather divide in Europe, the Alps represent one of the most interesting areas for understanding past climate change and its impact on continental environments. However, our knowledge of the Quaternary environmental history of the region is still rather limited, especially for the time preceding the last glaciation of the Alps. Geological and geophysical studies in the Wehntal, 20 km northwest of Zurich, Switzerland, in 2007 and 2008 have revealed the existence of a glacially overdeepened trough cut into Miocene molasse bedrock, which is today filled with ~90 to 180 m of Pleistocene sediments. In March 2009, a 93.6 m long sediment core (NW09/1) has been drilled east of the famous mammoth-site Niederweningen. This record is one of the very few sites in the northern Alpine Foreland that provides crucial insights into the timing of the erosion and infilling history of pre-Eemian glacially overdeepened troughs and also helps to understand the climate and environmental history. Based on chronological data deduced from the nearby, but shorter, 2007 core and on new multi-proxy data, the NW09/1 record is interpreted as: 4.1 m of in-situ molasse bedrock, overlain by 3.4 m of diamictic till. These glacial deposits were deposited by a Linth glacier lobe during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 (Rissian), although, the possibility that an even older glaciation was responsible cannot currently be excluded (e.g. MIS 8, luminescence dating, pollen interpretations, and palaeomagnetic studies in progress). It is suggested that this extensive ice advance, which once covered the entire Wehntal valley, caused the final erosion of the bedrock. The till is overlain by a 29.5 m thick sequence of laminated, carbonate-rich, fine-grained siliciclastic sediments that are interpreted as proglacial lake sediments. It is supposed that this unit was deposited in a proximal setting to a calving glacier-front confirmed by the presence of numerous dropstones. The damming of this Wehntal

  3. The shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in Switzerland - A first assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leu, W.; Gautschi, A.

    2014-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale (Middle and Lower Jurassic) below the Swiss Molasse Basin in the light of the future role of domestic gas production within the expected future energy shift of Switzerland and possible conflicts in underground use. The Opalinus Clay of northern Switzerland is a potential host rock for repositories of both high-level and low-to-intermediate level radioactive waste and the exploitation of shale gas resources within or below this formation would represent a serious conflict of use. Well data from northern Switzerland shows that these two formations are unsuitable for future shale gas recovery. They never reached the gas window during their burial history (maturity values are ≤ 0.6% R o ) and as a consequence never generated significant quantities of thermogenic gas. Geochemical data further shows that the average TOC values are in the range of 0.7%, i.e. clearly below accepted values of more than 1.5% for prospective shales. A review of available exploration data for the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in the deeper and western part of the Swiss Molasse Basin indicate that their shale gas potential may be substantial. The gross Posidonia Shale thickness increases from central Switzerland from less than 10 m to over 100 m in the Yverdon-Geneva area and is characterised by numerous bituminous intervals. A simplified shale gas resource calculation results for a geologically likely scenario in a technically recoverable gas volume of ∼120 billions m 3 . The current database for such estimates is small and as a consequence, the uncertainties are large. However, these first encouraging results support a more detailed exploration phase with specific geochemical and petrophysical analysis of existing rock and well log data. (authors)

  4. The shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in Switzerland - A first assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, W. [Geoform Ltd, Villeneuve (Switzerland); Gautschi, A. [NAGRA, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    There has been recent interest in the shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale (Middle and Lower Jurassic) below the Swiss Molasse Basin in the light of the future role of domestic gas production within the expected future energy shift of Switzerland and possible conflicts in underground use. The Opalinus Clay of northern Switzerland is a potential host rock for repositories of both high-level and low-to-intermediate level radioactive waste and the exploitation of shale gas resources within or below this formation would represent a serious conflict of use. Well data from northern Switzerland shows that these two formations are unsuitable for future shale gas recovery. They never reached the gas window during their burial history (maturity values are ≤ 0.6% R{sub o}) and as a consequence never generated significant quantities of thermogenic gas. Geochemical data further shows that the average TOC values are in the range of 0.7%, i.e. clearly below accepted values of more than 1.5% for prospective shales. A review of available exploration data for the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in the deeper and western part of the Swiss Molasse Basin indicate that their shale gas potential may be substantial. The gross Posidonia Shale thickness increases from central Switzerland from less than 10 m to over 100 m in the Yverdon-Geneva area and is characterised by numerous bituminous intervals. A simplified shale gas resource calculation results for a geologically likely scenario in a technically recoverable gas volume of ∼120 billions m{sup 3}. The current database for such estimates is small and as a consequence, the uncertainties are large. However, these first encouraging results support a more detailed exploration phase with specific geochemical and petrophysical analysis of existing rock and well log data. (authors)

  5. Age group athletes in inline skating: decrease in overall and increase in master athlete participation in the longest inline skating race in Europe – the Inline One-Eleven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teutsch U

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Teutsch,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009.Methods: The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed.Results: Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years.Conclusion: To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races.Keywords: endurance, men, women, gender

  6. Geophysical investigation program Northern Switzerland: Refraction-seismic measurements 84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, G.; Driessen, L.; Lehnen, I.

    1985-01-01

    Acting on instructions from the SGPK/Nagra working group (Baden, Switzerland), PRAKLA-SEISMOS GmbH, Hanover, planned, processed and interpreted seismic refraction measurements in northern Switzerland; CGG, Massy (France) was responsible for carrying out the field work. The aim of the survey was to investigate the shape and depth of a regional, WSW-ENE striking Permocarboniferous trough which underlays the mesozoic sediments of the Tabular Jura. The crystalline basement surface and possibly other geological boundaries were to be identified on the basis of refractor velocities. The recording arrangement included a 36 km spread in the assumed trough axis and four 12 km long spreads perpendicular to the axis (broad side 'T') which covered the trough edges. The resulting good quality data indicated two refractors: horizon H5 which is attributable to the lower Permocarboniferous could only be detected in the western half of the spread with any certainty. Horizon H6 probably represents the crystalline basement surface. If anisotropy is taken into account, the refractor velocity closely corresponds to the Gneiss of the WEIACH- and the Granite 3 of the BOETTSTEIN-borehole. This horizon was clearly discernible on all recordings and allowed the approximate mapping of the trough's shape. The assumed strike direction and depth was largely confirmed. In the WSW section the trough is more than 3300 m deep, it rises to - 3000 m in the ESE section and shows only in the east of the survey area a tendency towards a narrower width and shallower depth (depth data relate to the seismic reference datum at 500 m above MSL). (author)

  7. Communication received from Switzerland concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 30 June 2004 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Switzerlands's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2003. In light of the request expressed by Switzerland in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the letter of 30 June 2004 are attached for the information of all Member States

  8. Providing Quality Therapeutics in Switzerland: Role of the Stakeholders and Recent Incentives for Further Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Marie; Samer, Caroline; Rollason, Victoria; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules

    2015-07-01

    Quality therapeutics play an important role in Switzerland's health care and economy. Switzerland holds a key position in the world of research and development, as well as in drug production. Recently, new emphasis has been placed on promoting clinical research and maintaining Switzerland's position as a center of excellence in the field. Recent revisions to the law regarding medical trials in human research allow for better allocation of regulatory resources and simplified procedures for drugs already authorized in Switzerland. The country has its own regulatory agency, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (Swissmedic), which is a public institution of the Swiss government. Swissmedic is responsible for ensuring safety in medicines, particularly regarding authorizations and market surveillance in the sector of medicinal products and medical devices. Although the centralized authorization procedure of the European Union for medicines does not apply to Switzerland, there are mutual recognition mechanisms between the Swiss medicine regulatory authority and the European Medicines Agency. Swissmedic is also in charge of postmarketing safety and oversees the national pharmacovigilance center, which collaborates closely with the World Health Organization center in Uppsala. In addition, university hospital-based clinical pharmacologists, who are involved in basic science and clinical research, regulatory affairs, ethics committees, and pharmacovigilance, promote quality therapeutics. This article discusses the role of the various stakeholders and the recent efforts made to provide a better allocation of resources aimed at further improving quality therapeutics in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Organ donation in Switzerland--an analysis of factors associated with consent rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Weiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Switzerland has a low post mortem organ donation rate. Here we examine variables that are associated with the consent of the deceased's next of kin (NOK for organ donation, which is a prerequisite for donation in Switzerland. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: During one year, we registered information from NOK of all deceased patients in Swiss intensive care units, who were approached for consent to organ donation. We collected data on patient demographics, characteristics of NOK, factors related to the request process and to the clinical setting. We analyzed the association of collected predictors with consent rate using univariable logistic regression models; predictors with p-values <0.2 were selected for a multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 266 NOK approached for consent, consent was given in 137 (51.5% cases. In multivariable analysis, we found associations of consent rates with Swiss nationality (OR 3.09, 95% CI: 1.46-6.54 and German language area (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.14-0.73. Consent rates tended to be higher if a parent was present during the request (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 0.93-3.33 and if the request was done before brain death was formally declared (OR 1.87, 95% CI: 0.90-3.87. CONCLUSION: Establishing an atmosphere of trust between the medical staff putting forward a request and the NOK, allowing sufficient time for the NOK to consider donation, and respecting personal values and cultural differences, could be of importance for increasing donation rates. Additional measures are needed to address the pronounced differences in consent rates between language regions.

  10. Ethical research on the implementation of DRGs in Switzerland--a challenging project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Verina; Pfister, Eliane; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2012-08-09

    Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) are currently being introduced on a national scale as a prospective reimbursement scheme in Swiss in-patient hospital care, replacing any remaining retrospective day-rate arrangements. DRGs are expected to promote transparency and efficiency while helping to contain health care costs. The governmental decision to introduce DRGs has caused considerable controversy among different stakeholders, due to diverging appraisals of what will happen when DRGs are introduced as an economic management tool in Switzerland. The controversial discourse on DRGs is particularly interesting from an ethical point of view, since all arguments inevitably contain ethical considerations. In this paper we summarise the results of our exploratory ethical studies that have led to a larger research project funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation: "Impact of Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs) on patient care and professional practice" (IDoC). In section 1: 'Developing an understanding of the ethical issues at stake' we briefly explain how DRGs work, what the intended effects are, what the public is concerned about and what the scientific research tells us so far. In section 2: 'Developing an ethical framework for research on DRGs in Switzerland' we summarise the ethical issues and explain the ethical framework we will use in order to perform research on the complex issue of DRGs in Switzerland. Only once a profound understanding of the challenges exists can research on the ethical implications of DRGs be successful.

  11. [Quality of involuntary hospital administration in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Matthias; Ospelt, Isabelle; Kawohl, Wolfram; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Rössler, Wulf; Hoff, Paul

    2014-05-21

    This study aims at investigating the formal and content-related quality of medical certificates directing compulsory hospital admissions before the scheduled alteration of the Swiss civil legislation in January 2013. A comparison between physicians with different professional backgrounds concerning certificates and patients was conducted. Retrospective investigation of medical records of involuntary inpatients at the University Hospital of Psychiatry in Zurich during a period of six months (N=489). Considerable deficits concerning formal and particularly content-related aspects of the certificates were found. Psychiatrists issued certificates of the highest quality followed by emergency physicians, hospital doctors and general practitioners. Patients differed with respect to several sociodemographic and clinical variables. The quality of certificates directing involuntary hospital admission has to be improved considering the impact on the individual concerned. The consequences of the new legislation on the quality of the admission practices should be inquired in order to improve professional training on the issue.

  12. [The LORAS project and quality assurance. In four years from input- to outcome-oriented financing in public health. 2: LORAS project outcome parts 1 & 98].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, M J; Hochreutener, M A

    2001-04-01

    This series of three articles is a summary of the operations, findings and results of the hospital reform projects in the Canton of Zurich, termed LORAS. With the aid of the LORAS project within four years Zurich hospitals have been transformed. Whereas they used to adhere to input-oriented covering of deficits they now operate with outcome-oriented prospective financing of output. Part 1 describes the whole project. Part 2 focuses on the development of outcome-measurement. Part 3 finally describes the implementation of the outcome-measurement in the canton of Zurich.

  13. Environmental research programme for Switzerland in the period 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This is the Environmental Research Programme for Switzerland worked out by the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forestry and Landscape. The document reviews the present status with emphasis on the current main projects, the institutions involved, the financing available for them and the organisations and institutions in charge of research coordination and controlling. In a second part, the report defines the goals for the period 2000-2003. In particular, more interdisciplinary projects shall be conducted in co-operation with human sciences and future potential users of the research results, so that their introduction into practice is accelerated. The subjects to be dealt with regard both the global environmental destructions and the current acute issues for Switzerland. There are four topics of high priority: (i) conservation and sustainable usage of the biological and landscape diversity; (ii) mankind and environment protection from pollutants and dangerous organisms; (iii) human behaviours, economical incentives and education systems; (iv) the objectives of international agreements on environmental issues and the instruments they need to be applied. The authors assume that public support for environmental research in Switzerland will be around 850 millions USD for the four-years period considered in this document

  14. Dietary proteins in humans: basic aspects and consumption in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigoz, Yves

    2011-03-01

    This introductory review gives an overview on protein metabolism, and discusses protein quality, sources, and requirements as well as the results from recent studies on Swiss spontaneous protein consumption. To assess protein quality in protein mixes and foods, the "protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score" (PDCAAS) is presented as a valuable tool in addition to the biological value (BV). Considering protein intake recommendations, the lower limit recommended has been defined according to the minimal amount needed to maintain short-term nitrogen balance in healthy people with moderate activity. Evaluation of intakes in Switzerland from food consumption data is about 90 g/day of protein per person. Two-thirds of proteins consumed in Switzerland are animal proteins with high biological value [meat and meat products (28 %), milk and dairy products (28 %), fish (3 %), and eggs (3 %)] and about 1/3 of proteins are of plant origin (25 % of cereals, 3 - 4 % of vegetables). Actual spontaneous protein consumption in Switzerland by specific groups of subjects is well within the actual recommendations (10 - 20 % of energy) with only the frail elderly being at risk of not covering their requirements for protein.

  15. Environmental research programme for Switzerland in the period 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This is the Environmental Research Programme for Switzerland worked out by the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forestry and Landscape. The document reviews the present status with emphasis on the current main projects, the institutions involved, the financing available for them and the organisations and institutions in charge of research coordination and controlling. In a second part, the report defines the goals for the period 2000-2003. In particular, more interdisciplinary projects shall be conducted in co-operation with human sciences and future potential users of the research results, so that their introduction into practice is accelerated. The subjects to be dealt with regard both the global environmental destructions and the current acute issues for Switzerland. There are four topics of high priority: (i) conservation and sustainable usage of the biological and landscape diversity; (ii) mankind and environment protection from pollutants and dangerous organisms; (iii) human behaviours, economical incentives and education systems; (iv) the objectives of international agreements on environmental issues and the instruments they need to be applied. The authors assume that public support for environmental research in Switzerland will be around 850 millions USD for the four-years period considered in this document [fr

  16. The Development of a "Neighborhood in Solidarity" in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwygart, Marion; Plattet, Alain; Ammor, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a case study based on the "Neighborhood in Solidarity" (NS) methodology to illustrate its application in a locality of 8,000 inhabitants in Switzerland. This specific project is proposed to exemplify the global aim of the NS methodology. That aim is to increase the integration of elderly persons in societies in order to improve their quality of life. The case study demonstrates the enhancement of the capacity of the older people to remain actively engaged in their neighborhood. The article focuses on the creation of an autonomous community of empowered older people who can resolve their own problems after a 5-year project. The construction of the local community is presented throughout the six steps of the methodology: (1) preliminary analysis, (2) diagnostic, (3) construction, (4) project design, (5) project implementation, and (6) empowerment and with three degrees of involvement (community, participative, and integrative involvement). Performance and output indicators, quality indicators, and social determinants of health assess the development of the local project. The impacts of the projects which are illustrated in this specific example motivated this publication to inspire practitioners from other countries.

  17. Tectonic overview map of Northern Switzerland and correlation of aquifer-seal pairs within the molasse basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naef, H.

    2010-07-01

    This short report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one of a series of appendices dealing with the potential for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide in Switzerland. This report provides a graphical overview of the situation in Northern Switzerland and correlates aquifer-seal pairs within the molasse basin. The tectonic overview is based on published tectonic summary maps from Swisstopo and the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes (NAGRA). It shows the known large, near-surface structures that are relevant to CO{sub 2} sequestration. A second map shows the correlation of Aquifer-Seal pairs in the molasse basin, based on data from eight deep drillings, illustrating the lengths and thicknesses of the aquifer-seal formations evaluated for CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  18. Short-term impacts of air pollutants in Switzerland: Preliminary scenario calculations for selected Swiss energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S; Keller, J [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    In the frame of the comprehensive assessment of Swiss energy systems, air quality simulations were performed by using a 3-dimensional photo-chemical dispersion model. The objective is to investigate the impacts of pollutants in Switzerland for future options of Swiss energy systems. Four scenarios were investigated: Base Case: simulations with the projected emissions for the year 2030, Scenario 1) all nuclear power plants were replaced by oil-driven combined cycle plants (CCP), Scenarios 2 to 4) traffic emissions were reduced in whole Switzerland as well as in the cities and on the highways separately. Changes in the pollutant concentrations and depositions, and the possible short-term impacts are discussed on the basis of exceedences of critical levels for plants and limits given to protect the public health. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  19. Grimsel and planning of the nuclear waste management in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, H.

    1997-01-01

    NAGRA (Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung Radioaktiver Abfaelle) was founded 25 years ago as a responsible for all preparatory work associated with the safe disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland. Extensive international R and D work has been carried out during the past 14 years at the GRIMSEL test site (GTS), one of the two underground rock laboratories headed by NAGRA. GTS is located approximately 450 meters beneath the crystalline rock in the Alps in the southern Central Switzerland. The rock lab is open for visitors not only to get acquainted with the research technology but also to admire the 16 million year old crystal cave at the place (author)

  20. Gender-specific hip fracture risk in community-dwelling and institutionalized seniors age 65 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterwald, M; Sidelnikov, E; Orav, E J; Dawson-Hughes, B; Theiler, R; Egli, A; Platz, A; Simmen, H P; Meier, C; Grob, D; Beck, S; Stähelin, H B; Bischoff-Ferrari, H A

    2014-01-01

    In this study of acute hip fracture patients, we show that hip fracture rates differ by gender between community-dwelling seniors and seniors residing in nursing homes. While women have a significantly higher rate of hip fracture among the community-dwelling seniors, men have a significantly higher rate among nursing home residents. Differences in gender-specific hip fracture risk between community-dwelling and institutionalized seniors have not been well established, and seasonality of hip fracture risk has been controversial. We analyzed detailed data from 1,084 hip fracture patients age 65 years and older admitted to one large hospital center in Zurich, Switzerland. In a sensitivity analysis, we extend to de-personalized data from 1,265 hip fracture patients from the other two large hospital centers in Zurich within the same time frame (total n = 2,349). The denominators were person-times accumulated by the Zurich population in the corresponding age/gender/type of dwelling stratum in each calendar season for the period of the study. In the primary analysis of 1,084 hip fracture patients (mean age 85.1 years; 78% women): Among community-dwelling seniors, the risk of hip fracture was twofold higher among women compared with men (RR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.74-2.69) independent of age, season, number of comorbidities, and cognitive function; among institutionalized seniors, the risk of hip fracture was 26% lower among women compared with men (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.63-0.95) adjusting for the same confounders. In the sensitivity analysis of 2,349 hip fracture patients (mean age 85.0 years, 76% women), this pattern remained largely unchanged. There is no seasonal swing in hip fracture incidence. We confirm for seniors living in the community that women have a higher risk of hip fracture than men. However, among institutionalized seniors, men are at higher risk for hip fracture.

  1. Scientific visualization of glacier changes for public communication: the example of Findelengletscher, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastner, Philipp; Jörg, Philipp Claudio; Huss, Matthias; Zemp, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The melting of glaciers and ice caps has been recognized as one of the best natural indicators for global climate change. In Switzerland, the early onset of both glacier research and detailed mapping of the country resulted in a wealth of historical material documenting glacier changes over the past 160 years. Fife years ago, the Universities of Zurich and Fribourg, along with the Swiss energy utility Axpo, launched the Glacier Laserscanning Experiment Obervallis (GLAXPO). In this project three laserscanning flights were performed on Findelengletscher in order to create high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM). These DEM provide a precise mapping of the glacier surface topography and serve as reference surface for the co-registration of past DEMs computed from digitized historical maps. In addition to that distributed numerical glacier models were run with ensembles of climate change scenarios in order to calculate glacier changes over the 21st century. The present work makes use of this great data pool for a scientifically correct visualization of 3-dimensional changes of Findelengletscher from AD 1850 to 2100 for public communication. We therefore collected ten different historical maps with the earliest dating from 1862 (plane survey sheet of the Dufour map). The pre-processing included georeferencing and digitalization of contour lines for the creation of different historical DEMs. Afterwards all historical DEMs were co-registered to one of the latest high resolution laserscanning DEM (from 2005). In between years with available DEMs, surface changes were interpolated linearly to create a sequence for the computer animation. For future developments, modeled glacier elevation changes where added/subtracted from the latest DEM (from 2010). Finally, two animations, showing glacier changes from 1850-2010 and 2010-2100, were composed and rendered in the animation program Visual Nature Studio 3. In cooperation with professional booth and model builders, these

  2. Impacts of the May 2015 bad weather in Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Strong precipitations occurred on Western Switzerland in the beginning of May 2015, especially on May 1st. Over 100 mm of rain fell in about 24 hours in some places in Western Switzerland, with a maximum of 130 mm at La Dôle, Canton of Vaud. Those heavy rains caused different damages as debris flow, floods and landslides. Several roads and railway have been closed, preventively or due to tracks obstructions in the Alps, the Jura mountains and in the Swiss Plateau. Two landslides have disrupted two main railway tracks, causing high traffic disturbances due to deviations and affecting the railway traffic during more than one week. In the village of St-Gingolph in the Canton of Valais, the Morge river overflowed two restaurants with debris flows. Their ground floor levels have been totally destroyed. In the town of Monthey, Canton of Valais, about 300 residents along the Viège river have been evacuated during the night because of the high risk of floods. The Arve river -which flows through the Chamonix Valley in the French Alps- has reached a flow rate record with 903 m3/s compared to its standard flow of 77 m3/s at its mouth into the Rhône river in Geneva on 2nd May. Several bridges in the town had to be closed, affecting the urban traffic of the second biggest town of Switzerland. North-east of the Western Switzerland, the lakes of Neuchâtel (Canton of Neuchâtel), Biel (Canton of Bern) and Morat (Canton of Fribourg), overflowed because of the high flow rate of the Aare river. The maximum height of water level has been reached about 8 days after the first heavy rain with a water level increase of 1 meter. A lot of wood has been carried by the rivers to the shores of the lakes. The damages are only material, no injuries were identified. Financial and temporal damages consequences are high for the two destroyed restaurants. The return to normality for river flows and water levels of the lakes took several weeks. The aim of this study is to document the natural

  3. Opioid maintenance therapy in Switzerland: an overview of the Swiss IMPROVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, J; Beck, T; Wiesbeck, G; Hämmig, R; Kuntz, A; Abid, S; Stohler, R

    2014-01-01

    Switzerland's drug policy model has always been unique and progressive, but there is a need to reassess this system in a rapidly changing world. The IMPROVE study was conducted to gain understanding of the attitudes and beliefs towards opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) in Switzerland with regards to quality and access to treatment. To obtain a "real-world" view on OMT, the study approached its goals from two different angles: from the perspectives of the OMT patients and of the physicians who treat patients with maintenance therapy. The IMPROVE study collected a large body of data on OMT in Switzerland. This paper presents a small subset of the dataset, focusing on the research design and methodology, the profile of the participants and the responses to several key questions addressed by the questionnaires. IMPROVE was an observational, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study on OMT conducted in Switzerland. Respondents consisted of OMT patients and treating physicians from various regions of the country. Data were collected using questionnaires in German and French. Physicians were interviewed by phone with a computer-based questionnaire. Patients self-completed a paper-based questionnaire at the physicians' offices or OMT treatment centres. A total of 200 physicians and 207 patients participated in the study. Liquid methadone and methadone tablets or capsules were the medications most commonly prescribed by physicians (60% and 20% of patient load, respectively) whereas buprenorphine use was less frequent. Patients (88%) and physicians (83%) were generally satisfied with the OMT currently offered. The current political framework and lack of training or information were cited as determining factors that deter physicians from engaging in OMT. About 31% of OMT physicians interviewed were ≥60 years old, indicating an ageing population. Diversion and misuse were considered a significant problem in Switzerland by 45% of the physicians. The subset of IMPROVE data

  4. Gnomoniopsis castanea is the main agent of chestnut nut rot in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca G. DENNERT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuts of sweet chestnut have been an important food source for the alpine population in Switzerland since the Middle Ages and are still valued today for the preparation of traditional food commodities. Nut quality is reduced by insect damage and by various pathogenic fungi. In the last few years, producers and consumers perceived an increase of brown nut rot; while the nut rot agent Gnomoniopsis castanea was reported locally in southern Switzerland, its presence has not been investigated over large areas until now. This study assessed the incidence of brown nut rot and identified the causal agent present in Switzerland. Fully ripened nuts were collected from the main sweet chestnut growing areas of Switzerland. A filamentous fungus morphologically identified as G. castanea was isolated from 10 to 91% of the sampled nuts, despite only 3 to 21% of the sampled nuts showing brown rot symptoms. This fungus was isolated from symptomatic chestnuts as well as from apparently healthy chestnuts. Our results suggest a possible endophytic lifestyle in ripened nuts as well as in branches, leaves and unripe nuts as previously found. Species identity of 45 isolates was confirmed by EF-1alpha, beta-tubulin and ITS sequencing. Concatenation of β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences showed that several haplotypes were present at each sampling locality. No other nut rot pathogens could be isolated in this study, suggesting that G. castanea is the main causal agent of nut rot in Switzerland. The presence of this species is reported for the first time in a site in northern Switzerland. Further studies are needed to assess the influence of meteorological conditions and chestnut varieties on the incidence of G. castanea in order to provide prevention strategies for chestnut growers. Normal 0 21 false false false FR-CH X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso

  5. Effects of vernal equinox solar eclipse on temperature and wind direction in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Werner; Emmel, Carmen; Wolf, Sebastian; Buchmann, Nina; McFadden, Joseph P.; Whiteman, Charles David

    2017-12-01

    The vernal equinox total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 produced a maximum occultation of 65.8-70.1 % over Switzerland during the morning hours (09:22 to 11:48 CET). Skies were generally clear over the Swiss Alps due to a persistent high-pressure band between the UK and Russia associated with a rather weak pressure gradient over the continent. To assess the effects of penumbral shading on near-surface meteorology across Switzerland, air temperature data measured at 10 min intervals at 184 MeteoSwiss weather stations were used. Wind speed and direction data were available from 165 of these stations. Additionally, six Swiss FluxNet eddy covariance flux (ECF) sites provided turbulent measurements at 20 Hz resolution. During maximum occultation, the temperature drop was up to 5.8 K at a mountain site where cold air can pool in a topographic depression. The bootstrapped average of the maximum temperature drops of all 184 MeteoSwiss sites during the solar eclipse was 1.51 ± 0.02 K (mean ± SE). A detailed comparison with literature values since 1834 showed a temperature decrease of 2.6 ± 1.7 K (average of all reports), with extreme values up to 11 K. On fair weather days under weak larger-scale pressure gradients, local thermo-topographic wind systems develop that are driven by small-scale pressure and temperature gradients. At one ECF site, the penumbral shading delayed the morning transition from down-valley to up-valley wind conditions. At another site, it prevented this transition from occurring at all. Data from the 165 MeteoSwiss sites measuring wind direction did not show a consistent pattern of wind direction response to the passing of the penumbral shadow. These results suggest that the local topographic setting had an important influence on the temperature drop and the wind flow patterns during the eclipse. A significant cyclonic effect of the passing penumbral shadow was found in the elevation range ≈ 1700-2700 m a. s. l., but not at lower

  6. Decomposition of the Gender Wage Gap Using Matching: An Application for Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dragana Djurdjevic; Sergiy Radyakin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the gender wage differentials for Switzerland. Using micro data from the Swiss Labour Force Survey, we apply a matching method to decompose the wage gap in Switzerland. Compared to the traditional Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, this nonparametric technique does not require any estimation of wage equations and accounts for wage differences that can be due to differences in the support. Our estimation results show that the problem of gender differences in the suppor...

  7. Stakeholder mapping of CSR in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Looser, S; Wehrmeyer, WCH

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate, using stakeholder map methodology, showing power, urgency, legitimacy and concerns of different actors, the current state of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Switzerland. Previous research on CSR in Europe has made few attempts to identify stakeholders and their contribution to this topic. Design/methodology/approach – To derive this map, publicly available documents were explored, augmented by 27 interviews with key stakeholders (consumers, m...

  8. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in Switzerland: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, Cédric; Wandeler, Gilles; Owczarek, Marta; Gorgievski-Hrisoho, Meri; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Semmo, Nasser; Zürcher, Samuel

    2015-10-30

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects up to 7% of the European population. Specific HBV genotypes are associated with rapid progression to end-stage liver disease and sub-optimal interferon treatment responses. Although the geographic distribution of HBV genotypes differs between regions, it has not been studied in Switzerland, which lies at the crossroads of Europe. In a retrospective analysis of 465 HBV samples collected between 2002 and 2013, we evaluated the HBV genotype distribution and phylogenetic determinants, as well as the prevalence of serological evidence of hepatitis delta, hepatitis C and HIV infections in Switzerland. Baseline characteristics of patients were compared across their region of origin using Fisher's exact test and ANOVA, and risk factors for HBeAg positivity were assessed using logistic regression. The Swiss native population represented 15.7% of HBV-infected patients living in Switzerland. In the overall population, genotype D was most prevalent (58.3%), whereas genotype A (58.9%) was the predominant genotype among the Swiss native population. The prevalence of patients with anti-HDV antibodies was 4.4%. Patients of Swiss origin were most likely to be HBeAg-positive (38.1%). HBV genotypes of patients living in Switzerland but sharing the same original region of origin were consistent with their place of birth. The molecular epidemiology of HBV infection in Switzerland is driven by migration patterns and not by the genotype distribution of the native population. The prevalence of positive anti-HDV antibodies in our cohort was very low.

  9. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 13 March 2014 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as “Guidelines”) and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2013. In light of the request expressed by Switzerland in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the note verbale of 13 March 2014 and the enclosures therewith are circulated for the information of all Member States

  10. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 13 March 2014 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as “Guidelines”) and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2013. In light of the request expressed by Switzerland in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the note verbale of 13 March 2014 and the enclosures therewith are circulated for the information of all Member States [ru

  11. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 13 March 2014 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as “Guidelines”) and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2013. In light of the request expressed by Switzerland in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the note verbale of 13 March 2014 and the enclosures therewith are circulated for the information of all Member States [fr

  12. A drive system for the car of the future; Ein Antriebssystem fuer das Auto der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Professor Lino Guzzela from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, takes a look at drive systems for the car of the future. New concepts for increasing the efficiency of cars are discussed, including down sizing and supercharging, a pneumatic hybrid and recuperation systems. The results of simulations and measurements made on an actual pneumatic engine and supercharged units are presented and discussed. Finally, options for future work are presented and discussed.

  13. Religion and assisted and non-assisted suicide in Switzerland: National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Adrian; Zwahlen, Marcel; Bopp, Matthias; Gutzwiller, Felix; Egger, Matthias

    2010-12-01

    In the 19th century, eminent French sociologist Emile Durkheim found suicide rates to be higher in the Protestant compared with the Catholic cantons of Switzerland. We examined religious affiliation and suicide in modern Switzerland, where assisted suicide is legal. The 2000 census records of 1,722,456 (46.0%) Catholics, 1,565,452 (41.8%) Protestants and 454,397 (12.2%) individuals with no affiliation were linked to mortality records up to December 2005. The association between religious affiliation and suicide, with the Protestant faith serving as the reference category, was examined in Cox regression models. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for age, marital status, education, type of household, language and degree of urbanization. Suicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants were 19.7 in Catholics (1664 suicides), 28.5 in Protestants (2158 suicides) and 39.0 in those with no affiliation (882 suicides). Associations with religion were modified by age and gender (P < 0.0001). Compared with Protestant men aged 35-64 years, HRs (95% CI) for all suicides were 0.80 (0.73-0.88) in Catholic men and 1.09 (0.98-1.22) in men with no affiliation; and 0.60 (0.53-0.67) and 1.96 (1.69-2.27), respectively, in men aged 65-94 years. Corresponding HRs in women aged 35-64 years were 0.90 (0.80-1.03) and 1.46 (1.25-1.72); and 0.67 (0.59-0.77) and 2.63 (2.22-3.12) in women aged 65-94 years. The association was strongest for suicides by poisoning in the 65-94-year-old age group, the majority of which was assisted: HRs were 0.45 (0.35-0.59) for Catholic men and 3.01 (2.37-3.82) for men with no affiliation; 0.44 (0.36-0.55) for Catholic women and 3.14 (2.51-3.94) for women with no affiliation. In Switzerland, the protective effect of a religious affiliation appears to be stronger in Catholics than in Protestants, stronger in older than in younger people, stronger in women than in men, and particularly strong for assisted suicides.

  14. Novel fluid dynamic instrumentation for mixing studies developed at ETH Zurich and PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, H.-M.; Damsohn, M.; Frey, S.; Fokken, J.

    2009-01-01

    Wire-mesh sensors primarily developed for two-phase flows are known to be useful also for mixing studies in single-phase flows. A prominent example is the boron mixing test facility ROCOM in Rossendorf. ETH Zurich and PSI have started to use wire-mesh sensors for the characterization of the turbulent mixing process in T-junctions, which have gained a considerable relevance to nuclear safety since temperature fluctuations generated by the mixing of fluids of different temperature may cause dangerous thermal loads to the wall material. In the present paper, the application of a high-resolution wire-mesh sensor for the cross-section of the flow duct, combined with a novel wall sensor is reported. The wall sensor is as well based on a conductivity measurement, while the electrodes are manufactured as conducting structures directly flush to the surface of the channel wall. This type of nonintrusive sensor is able to provide information on concentration fluctuations from the boundary layer in experiments where salt tracers are used to substitute the temperature as transport scalar. In an experimental feasibility study it was furthermore shown that both wiremesh sensors and the new wall sensor are sensitive enough to record conductivity changes that are caused by temperature fluctuations in experiments without a tracer salt. This means that benefit can be taken from of high spatial and temporal resolution of both types of sensors to study temperature fluctuations. (author)

  15. Sustainable development in city districts: BaLaLuZ project - Bellevaux Phase 2; Quartiers durables BaLaLuZh. Rapport Lausanne-Bellevaux. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, D; Nicol, L [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire d' energie solaire et de physique du batiment (LESO-PB), Lausanne (Switzerland); Pattaroni, L [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire de sociologie urbaine (LASUR), Lausanne (Switzerland); Muehll, D von der [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire Choros, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one of a series of reports concerning municipal development in various cities in Switzerland. The four city districts involved include Basel (Gundeldinger Feld), Lausanne (Bellevaux), Lucerne (Basel-/Bernstrasse) and Zurich (Werdwies). This final report summarises the results of the second phase of the project in the Bellevaux district of Lausanne. The work done in this second phase is reviewed. The results of phase 1 were followed up in that it was decided to facilitate the renovation of specific buildings where possible. A further aim was to evaluate the extent to which cycling is used as a means of transport as well as to identify possible barriers and solutions to the more widespread use of cycling as a means of transportation. The report describes the work necessary and strategies for specific buildings, including participatory procedures. As far as cycling is concerned, the results of questionnaires are examined and discussed. Communication and animation projects are also looked at.

  16. Paediatric oral peanut challenges: a comparison of practice in London and western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludman, S; Wassenberg, J; Du Toit, G; Fox, A T; Lack, G; Eigenmann, P A

    2013-04-01

    There are guidelines on how to develop a food challenge protocol, but at present there is no gold standard guidance on method, and separate units produce differing protocols. We performed a retrospective analysis of 200 patients' data from the paediatric allergy units in Lausanne and Geneva, Western Switzerland, and St Thomas' Hospital (STH), UK. St Thomas' Hospital has a younger cohort with a lower overall mean spIgE (2.36 kU/l vs. 8.00 kU/l, P = 0.004). The target peanut protein volumes differed: Switzerland 4.4 g vs. STH 8.4 g. Despite this, the dose actually achieved in positive challenges was not significantly different (2.33 g vs. 1.49 g, P = 0.16). 26% of challenges reacted at 4 g or more of peanut protein. The differences in results highlight how the variation in reasoning behind food challenge alters the outcome. Standardization of food challenges would allow easy comparison between hospitals and geographical areas for research purposes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. [Jakob Klaesi on his 120th birthday].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenel, T

    2003-05-01

    Jakob Klaesi was born on the 29th May 1883 in Glarus Canton (Switzerland) and was assistant and later head physician at the Psychiatric University Hospital in Zurich, directed by Eugen Bleuler. Klaesi directed the new Psychiatric Outpatient Department in Basel from 1923 to 1926 and later founded the Schloss Kronau private clinic in the Zurich Canton. In 1933 he became director of the Psychiatric University Hospital in Bern. His attitude toward somatic treatment methods was skeptical, although about 1920 he founded a psychiatric sleep cure with Somnifen. Klaesi was primarily a psychotherapist and interested in the psychodynamics of his patients. With his great empathy, he was able to understand especially well their expressive behaviour. This capacity for empathy and his philosophic orientation enabled him to develop a phenomenological analysis of expression. He died on the 17th August 1980. Differences and parallels to the thinking of Alfred Adler and Karl Jaspers are discussed.

  18. Energy rating of solar modules; Workshop 'vergleichender Modulertrag'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeni, R. (ed.)

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a workshop held in Zurich, Switzerland. The project aimed to help commercial investors in the photovoltaics area who need better information on component costs involved in photovoltaics installations. Today, solar module prices are compared using the power output under standard conditions. The authors propose that they should be compared with their energy production. The workshop, held in March 2002 in Zurich, aimed to provide an overview of existing rating methods for energy production. Various methods of comparison are discussed, including a matrix method based on electrical and meteorological measurements, a production calculation method involving efficiency measurements made for various locations and conditions as well as another approach that takes irradiance, cell temperature, spectral correction into account. A further method of calculating energy ratings from laboratory measurements is also presented, as is a review of developments in relevant standardisation areas. Various methods are compared and commented on.

  19. Local acceptance of existing biogas plants in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soland, Martin; Steimer, Nora; Walter, Götz

    2013-01-01

    After the Swiss government's decision to decommission its five nuclear power plants by 2035, energy production from wind, biomass, biogas and photovoltaic is expected to increase significantly. Due to its many aspects of a direct democracy, high levels of public acceptance are necessary if a substantial increase in new renewable energy power plants is to be achieved in Switzerland. A survey of 502 citizens living near 19 biogas plants was conducted as the basis for using structural equation modeling to measure the effects of perceived benefits, perceived costs, trust towards the plant operator, perceived smell, information received and participation options on citizens’ acceptance of “their” biogas plant. Results show that local acceptance towards existing biogas power plants is relatively high in Switzerland. Perceived benefits and costs as well as trust towards the plant operator are highly correlated and have a significant effect on local acceptance. While smell perception and information received had a significant effect on local acceptance as well, no such effect was found for participation options. Reasons for the non-impact of participation options on local acceptance are discussed, and pathways for future research are presented. - Highlights: • Acceptance of biogas plants by local residents in Switzerland is relatively high. • Local acceptance is highly affected by perceived outcomes and citizens’ trust. • Smell perception increases perceived costs and reduces perceived benefits and trust. • Information offers reduce perceived costs and increase trust and perceived benefits. • Participation offers do not have any effect on local acceptance

  20. Influence of border disease virus (BDV) on serological surveillance within the bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) eradication program in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, V; Nebel, L; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Zanoni, R G; Schweizer, M

    2017-01-13

    In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the absence of BVD is surveilled serologically since 2012. In view of steadily decreasing pestivirus seroprevalence in the cattle population, the susceptibility for (re-) infection by border disease (BD) virus mainly from small ruminants increases. Due to serological cross-reactivity of pestiviruses, serological surveillance of BVD by ELISA does not distinguish between BVD and BD virus as source of infection. In this work the cross-serum neutralisation test (SNT) procedure was adapted to the epidemiological situation in Switzerland by the use of three pestiviruses, i.e., strains representing the subgenotype BVDV-1a, BVDV-1h and BDSwiss-a, for adequate differentiation between BVDV and BDV. Thereby the BDV-seroprevalence in seropositive cattle in Switzerland was determined for the first time. Out of 1,555 seropositive blood samples taken from cattle in the frame of the surveillance program, a total of 104 samples (6.7%) reacted with significantly higher titers against BDV than BVDV. These samples originated from 65 farms and encompassed 15 different cantons with the highest BDV-seroprevalence found in Central Switzerland. On the base of epidemiological information collected by questionnaire in case- and control farms, common housing of cattle and sheep was identified as the most significant risk factor for BDV infection in cattle by logistic regression. This indicates that pestiviruses from sheep should be considered as a source of infection of domestic cattle and might well impede serological BVD surveillance.

  1. Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Schlumpf, Nadia; Minikus-Stary, Nicole; Hagedorn, Frank; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schoch, Werner; Burga, Conradin; Bonani, Georges; Schmidt, Michael W.I.; Cherubini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14 C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ∼1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans

  2. Synthesis and characterization of [Ru(η6-C6Me6)Cl2(CNPy)] and [Cl26-C6Me6)Ru-(μ-CNPy)-Ru(η6-C6Me6)Cl2] and reactivity of [Ru(η6-C6Me6)Cl2(CNPy)] with various bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, D.S.; Sahay, A.N.; Agarwala, U.C.

    1996-01-01

    Reactions of [(Ru(η 6 -C 6 Me 6 )Cl 2 ) 2 ] with 4-cyanopyridine leads to the formation of neutral mono and dimeric complexes viz., [Ru(η 6 C 6 Me 6 )Cl 2 (CNPy)] (I) and [Cl 26 -C 6 Me 6 ) Ru-(μ-CNPy)-Ru(η 6 -C 6 Me 6 )Cl 2 ] (II). Complex (I) undergoes metathetical reactions with EPh 3 (E=P, As and Sb) and N-donor heterocyclic bases yielding corresponding substitutional products which have been characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopic: (IR, UV/vis, 1 H and 13 C NMR) studies. (author). 21 refs., 1 tab

  3. Intercultural Education in Spain and Switzerland: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Ferrer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural education during the last two decades in Spain and Switzerland can be understood as balancing acts because policymakers in both countries saw their school systems enrolling a growing number of immigrant and minority students. While solutions were formulated and adopted in response to each country's unique problems and political tradition, they were also driven by forces that fostered a restrictive immigration policy toward immigrants from third world countries. This article examines the emergence of intercultural education and compares diverse practices linked to this process. Some similarities were found in both socio-cultural contexts. The use of compensatory education with culturally diverse children contributes to school segregation. Although cultural and linguistic diversity is a structural and historical component of Spanish and Swiss identities, there is a clear separation between "internal" and "external" diversity in educational policy. It is interesting, for instance, to observe that the concept used in addressing regional identities in Spain and Switzerland is "bilingual education" while the theme used for immigrants is "intercultural education". We also identified some important differences between the two contexts. The number of immigrant youth is much more important in Switzerland. On the other hand, the presence of Gypsy students is a central issue of cultural diversity in Spain. The paper also reports on the general lack of teacher education departments to prepare their pre-service students for diverse schools. Most teacher education programs acknowledge in principle the importance of pluralistic preparation of teachers. In practice, however, most teacher education programs actually represent a monocultural approach. Continuing education in the field of intercultural education is linked to individual initiatives rather than to an institutional awareness of the importance of cross-cultural training. In order to

  4. Reconstructing the 2003/2004 H3N2 influenza epidemic in Switzerland with a spatially explicit, individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Simulation models of influenza spread play an important role for pandemic preparedness. However, as the world has not faced a severe pandemic for decades, except the rather mild H1N1 one in 2009, pandemic influenza models are inherently hypothetical and validation is, thus, difficult. We aim at reconstructing a recent seasonal influenza epidemic that occurred in Switzerland and deem this to be a promising validation strategy for models of influenza spread. Methods We present a spatially explicit, individual-based simulation model of influenza spread. The simulation model bases upon (i) simulated human travel data, (ii) data on human contact patterns and (iii) empirical knowledge on the epidemiology of influenza. For model validation we compare the simulation outcomes with empirical knowledge regarding (i) the shape of the epidemic curve, overall infection rate and reproduction number, (ii) age-dependent infection rates and time of infection, (iii) spatial patterns. Results The simulation model is capable of reproducing the shape of the 2003/2004 H3N2 epidemic curve of Switzerland and generates an overall infection rate (14.9 percent) and reproduction numbers (between 1.2 and 1.3), which are realistic for seasonal influenza epidemics. Age and spatial patterns observed in empirical data are also reflected by the model: Highest infection rates are in children between 5 and 14 and the disease spreads along the main transport axes from west to east. Conclusions We show that finding evidence for the validity of simulation models of influenza spread by challenging them with seasonal influenza outbreak data is possible and promising. Simulation models for pandemic spread gain more credibility if they are able to reproduce seasonal influenza outbreaks. For more robust modelling of seasonal influenza, serological data complementing sentinel information would be beneficial. PMID:21554680

  5. Variation in Essential Oil and Bioactive Compounds of Curcuma kwangsiensis Collected from Natural Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanyue; Yang, Zhiwen; Huang, Zebin; Zhao, Mincong; Li, Penghui; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi; Lin, Li; Tang, Jian; Fang, Yanxiong; Du, Zhiyun

    2017-07-01

    The chemical compositions of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Curcuma kwangsiensis rhizomes collected from six natural habitats in P. R. China were evaluated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifty-seven components were identified from the six EOs, and their main constituents were 8,9-dehydro-9-formyl-cycloisolongifolene (2.37 - 42.59%), germacrone (6.53 - 22.20%), and l-camphor (0.19 - 6.12%). The six EOs exhibited different DPPH radical-scavenging activities (IC 50 , 2.24 - 31.03 μg/ml), with the activity of most of EOs being much higher than that of Trolox C (IC 50 , 10.49 μg/ml) and BHT (IC 50 , 54.13 μg/ml). Most EOs had potent antimicrobial effects against the tested bacteria and fungus. They also exhibited cytotoxicity against B16 (IC 50 , 4.44 - 147.4 μg/ml) and LNCaP cells (IC 50 , 73.94 - 429.25 μg/ml). The EOs showed excellent anti-inflammatory action by significantly downregulating expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α. This study provides insight into the interrelation among growth location, phytoconstituents, and bioactivities, and the results indicate the potential of C. kwangsiensis as natural nutrients, medicines, and others additives. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Women in surgery: a survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderli, Reto; Guller, Ulrich; Muff, Brigitte; Stefenelli, Ulrich; Businger, Adrian

    2010-11-01

    An increasing proportion of women work in medicine; however, only few choose surgical specialties. The objective of this study was to analyze the current situation of female surgeons and surgical residents in Switzerland concerning their personal and professional fulfillment. Of 318 female surgeons and surgical residents included in our study, 189 (59.4%) returned the anonymous questionnaire. Mentor-mentee relationships were mentioned by 110 (58.2%) of the 189 respondents. On the basis of a 7-point Likert scale, these women responded that they were moderately satisfied with their professional (mean score [SD], 2.7 [1.3]) and personal (mean score [SD], 3.0 [1.7]) lives. Of the 189 respondents, 113 (59.8%) mentioned that they felt underappreciated. The most important ways suggested for increasing the attractiveness of a surgical career for women were a reduction in workload (49 respondents [25.9%]), more flexible working hours (38 respondents [20.1%]), and better structured residency programs (23 respondents [12.2%]).

  7. Safe havens in Europe: Switzerland and the ten dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paldam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven towealth, and that theoretically equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds.

  8. Birth year distribution in reported hepatitis C cases in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggmann, Philip; Richard, Jean-Luc

    2015-02-01

    Data of the national hepatitis C virus (HCV) notification system and the Swiss hepatitis C cohort study have been analysed for birth year distribution. Persons born between 1955 and 1974 are disproportionally affected by HCV, accounting for 61% of all reported infections. Over the course of the reporting period from 1988 to 2012, the majority of affected persons were born in the mid-60s and a sharply increasing proportion between 1975 and 1984 (from 0.6 to 19.5%). To enhance the so far insufficient HCV detection rates in Switzerland, additional testing strategies such as birth cohort screening must be further evaluated and discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Patient safety issues in office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Schwappach, David; Harder, Yves; Staender, Sven; Elger, Bernice

    2017-08-01

    To identify the spectrum of patient safety issues in office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland. Purposive sample of 23 experts in surgery and anaesthesia and quality and regulation in Switzerland. Data were collected via individual qualitative interviews using a researcher-developed semi-structured interview guide between March 2016 and September 2016. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using conventional content analysis. Issues were categorised under the headings "structure", "process", and "outcome". Experts identified two key overarching patient safety and regulatory issues in relation to office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland. First, experts repeatedly raised the current lack of data and transparency of the setting. It is unknown how many surgeons are operating in offices, how many and what types of operations are being done, and what the outcomes are. Secondly, experts also noted the limited oversight and regulation of the setting. While some standards exists, most experts felt that more minimal safety standards are needed regarding the requirements that must be met to do office-based surgery and what can and cannot be done in the office-based setting are needed, but they advocated a self-regulatory approach. There is a lack of empirical data regarding the quantity and quality office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland. Further research is needed to address these research gaps and inform health policy in relation to patient safety in office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. [How patient safety programmes can be successfully implemented - an example from Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, Irene; Mascherek, Anna; Bezzola, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, the implementation of patient safety programmes poses a major challenge. In the first part, we will demonstrate that various measures have been found to be effective in the literature but that they often do not reach the patient because their implementation proves difficult. Difficulties arise from both the complexity of the interventions themselves and from different organisational settings in individual hospitals. The second part specifically describes the implementation of patient safety improvement programmes in Switzerland and discusses measures intended to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of implementation in Switzerland. Then, the national pilot programme to improve patient safety in surgery is presented, which was launched by the federal Swiss government and has been implemented by the patient safety foundation. Procedures, challenges and highlights in implementing the programme in Switzerland on a national level are outlined. Finally, first (preliminary) results are presented and critically discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. [Reasons for General Practitioner Shortage – a Comparison Between France and Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Thomas; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan; Chmiel, Corinne

    2016-05-25

    Both France and Switzerland face a general practitioner (GP) shortage. What differences or parallels exist between the two countries with regard to the causes for this shortage? What conclusions might be drawn from a systematic comparison? Literature review with qualitative and semi-quantitative content analysis. Parallels exist in the comparing categories work contents, working structure, income and social status, medical school formation, private life, psychological motives. Differences are found in the categories biography and social selection, medical socialisation, residency. In Switzerland, residency is not uniformly structured, rarely institutionally organised and contains only few elements specific to general medicine. In France, medical socialisation not only exalts the specialists, but also strongly devaluates the GPs. By systematic analysis and comparison of both countries' pertinent literature, France and Switzerland can deepen their understanding of GP shortage. This paper identifies possible fields of action from medical school through residency up to workplace conditions that are pivotal in addressing the shortage of GPs.

  12. Bromine-rich Zinc Bromides: Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)5, Zn4Br8(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)3, and Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, David; Feldmann, Claus

    2016-06-20

    The bromine-rich zinc bromides Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)5 (1), Zn4Br8(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)3 (2), and Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)2 (3) are prepared by reaction of ZnBr2, 18-crown-6, and elemental bromine in the ionic liquid [MeBu3N][N(Tf)2] (N(Tf)2 = bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide). Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)5 (1) is formed instantaneously by the reaction. Even at room temperature, compound 1 releases bromine, which was confirmed by thermogravimetry (TG) and mass spectrometry (MS). The release of Br2 can also be directly followed by the color and density of the title compounds. With controlled conditions (2 weeks, 25 °C, absence of excess Br2) Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)5 (1) slowly releases bromine with conconcurrent generation of Zn4Br8(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)3 (2) (in ionic liquid) and Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)2 (3) (in inert oil). All bromine-rich zinc bromides contain voluminous uncharged (e.g., Zn3Br6(18-crown-6), Zn2Br4(18-crown-6)) or ionic (e.g., [Zn2Br3(18-crown-6)](+), [(Zn2Br6)×(Br2)2](2-)) building units with dibromine molecules between the Zn oligomers and partially interconnecting the Zn-containing building units. Due to the structural similarity, the bromine release is possible via crystal-to-crystal transformation with retention of the crystal shape.

  13. [Silicosis in Switzerland. A half century of observation. The physician's viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, J M; Zufferey, R; Fellmann, E

    1983-01-01

    In Switzerland, the first cases of silicosis were recorded by Zangger in 1900. Since 1930, patients with silicosis have been provided with certain services by the "Caisse Nationale Suisse d'Assurances" (i.e. Swiss National Insurance Fund), an organization enforcing the Occupational Accidents and Diseases Bill. However, it took another two years before an effectively organized struggle against silicosis was started. Eventually, by 1938, this specific pneumoconiosis was acknowledged as an occupational disease under Swiss Law. Thus, the CNSA has been concerned with this disease for half a century, and it seems relevant now to take stock of the situation. From 1930 to late 1980, 9690 cases of silicosis were accepted by the CNSA. Nearly one half (46%) of these silicotic patients were still alive on December 31, 1980; another third had died of silicosis and the rest of other affections not related The origin of cases has remained remarkably constant over the course of time. Underground working and the stone-working industry account for the majority of cases (70%), followed by smelting works (16%) and the ceramic industry (5%). The remaining 9% are due to various causes. Silicosis hazards have declined but still remain real. In late 1980, 1287 companies in Switzerland were being monitored from this standpoint. More than two-thirds (67%) belong to the stone-working industry (even though only 30% of hazard-exposed workers are employed in this sector), 10% are involved in underground work (10% of hazard-exposed workers), 10% are smelting industries (36% exposed) and 6% belong to the ceramic industry (17% exposed). Since 1950, the number of hazard-exposed people has fluctuated between relatively narrow limits (i.e. 15,000 and 20,000). Corresponding figures for previous periods are not known. Some facts indicate that silicosis is becoming less problematic: a) The annual incidence rate of silicosis in Switzerland has evolved in three distinct phases. From 1930 to 1940 the

  14. Internalisation of external costs in Switzerland and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, U.

    1995-01-01

    Plans and resistance for internalising the external costs are discussed taking the conditions in Switzerland and in other countries of Europe into account. Internalisation is seen as signpost to regressive development. (author) 5 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Euthanasia and assisted suicide: comparison of legal aspects in Switzerland and other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, S; La Harpe, R; Harding, T W; Sobel, J

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the legal aspects associated with assisted suicide in Switzerland and compare them with those in other countries. Like euthanasia, assisted suicide is a subject that induces much discussion in many countries. While the law is very liberal in some countries, such as Belgium and the Netherlands (where both euthanasia and assisted suicide take place), these practices are very controversial in other countries, such as France, where they remain taboo subjects. In the United States of America, the laws concerning assisted suicide can differ greatly from one state to another. For example, in Oregon, assisted suicide is allowed if applied by a medical doctor; in others, this act is illegal. In Canada, it is punishable according to the Criminal Code. In Switzerland euthanasia is punishable by law. However, the penal code does not condemn assisted suicide, whether carried out by a medical doctor or another person, provided it is not carried out through selfish motives. The application of these practices has become simplified in recent years and societies for the right to die with dignity based on this principle have come into being (Exit and Dignitas). In the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland the association Exit assists individuals living in Switzerland with serious progressive and incurable disease in their engagement to end their life. The association Dignitas, in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, also undertakes--in the same circumstances--to assist individuals coming from foreign countries. Dignitas welcomes several such individuals every year, especially from Germany, where a similar approach does not currently exist.

  16. The association of depressive symptoms and physical diseases in Switzerland: a cross-sectional general population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donja eRodic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the association between depressive symptoms and physical diseases in Switzerland, as respective findings might inform about future estimates of mental and physical health care costs.Methods: A population-based study, using data from the Swiss Health Survey collected by computer assisted telephone interviews and additional written questionnaires during the year 2007 (n = 18,760 in Switzerland. The multistage stratified random sample included subjects aged 15 and older, living in a private Swiss household with a telephone connection. Complete data was available for 14,348 subjects (51% of all subjects reached by telephone. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between depressive symptoms and any physical disease, or a specific physical disease out of 13 non-communicable physical diseases assessed with a self-report checklist on common physical diseases. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, education, occupation and household income. Results: In the adjusted models depressive symptoms were associated with arthrosis and arthritis (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.28−2.50 and any physical disease (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.33−2.10 after controlling for multiple testing.Conclusion: Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the comorbidity of depressive symptoms and arthrosis and arthritis in Switzerland and might have implications for more precise future estimates of mental and physical health care costs.

  17. [Remedy for shortage or risk for national security? The search for oil in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Lea; Gisler, Monika

    2014-03-01

    Over several decades, geologists, entrepreneurs, politicians, and public authorities dealt with a potential petroleum occurrence in Switzerland. They provided scientific expertise, granted concessions, invested capital and sank bore holes. Although the endeavour was never successful economically, it reveals how closely related geopolitical situations and the exploitation of natural resources were. This article investigates the search for crude oil in Switzerland from the 1930s until the 1960s, combining a history of science and technology perspective with a history of the political regulations and economic considerations concerning the extractive industry. It traces the changing fears and hopes about potential oil occurrences in Switzerland: From an investment to overcome future shortages, to the risk of imperial desires if oil would be found in abundance.

  18. Geothermal heat can cool, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstein, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at how geothermal energy can not only be used to supply heating energy, but also be used to provide cooling too. The article reports on a conference on heating and cooling with geothermal energy that was held in Duebendorf, Switzerland, in March 2008. The influence of climate change on needs for heating and cooling and the need for additional knowledge and data on deeper rock layers is noted. The seasonal use of geothermal systems to provide heating in winter and cooling in summer is discussed. The planning of geothermal probe fields and their simulation is addressed. As an example, the geothermal installations under the recently renewed and extended 'Dolder Grand' luxury hotel in Zurich are quoted. The new SIA 384/6 norm on geothermal probes issued by the Swiss Association of Architects SIA is briefly reviewed.

  19. Interfacing a one-dimensional lake model with a single-column atmospheric model: 2. Thermal response of the deep Lake Geneva, Switzerland under a 2 × CO2 global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Marjorie; Goyette, StéPhane

    2012-06-01

    In the companion to the present paper, the one-dimensional k-ɛ lake model SIMSTRAT is coupled to a single-column atmospheric model, nicknamed FIZC, and an application of the coupled model to the deep Lake Geneva, Switzerland, is described. In this paper, the response of Lake Geneva to global warming caused by an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (i.e., 2 × CO2) is investigated. Coupling the models allowed for feedbacks between the lake surface and the atmosphere and produced changes in atmospheric moisture and cloud cover that further modified the downward radiation fluxes. The time evolution of atmospheric variables as well as those of the lake's thermal profile could be reproduced realistically by devising a set of adjustable parameters. In a "control" 1 × CO2 climate experiment, the coupled FIZC-SIMSTRAT model demonstrated genuine skills in reproducing epilimnetic and hypolimnetic temperatures, with annual mean errors and standard deviations of 0.25°C ± 0.25°C and 0.3°C ± 0.15°C, respectively. Doubling the CO2 concentration induced an atmospheric warming that impacted the lake's thermal structure, increasing the stability of the water column and extending the stratified period by 3 weeks. Epilimnetic temperatures were seen to increase by 2.6°C to 4.2°C, while hypolimnion temperatures increased by 2.2°C. Climate change modified components of the surface energy budget through changes mainly in air temperature, moisture, and cloud cover. During summer, reduced cloud cover resulted in an increase in the annual net solar radiation budget. A larger water vapor deficit at the air-water interface induced a cooling effect in the lake.

  20. Serum antibodies and DNA indicate a high prevalence of equine papillomavirus 2 (EcPV2) among horses in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nina M; Favrot, Claude; Birkmann, Katharina; Jackson, Michele; Schwarzwald, Colin C; Müller, Martin; Tobler, Kurt; Geisseler, Marco; Lange, Christian E

    2014-06-01

    The DNA of equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) is consistently found in equine papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas, indicating a causal association of EcPV2 in the pathogenesis of these tumours; however, little is known about the prevalence of this virus. The aim of this study was to determine the geno- and seroprevalence of EcPV2 in clinically healthy horses in Switzerland. Fifty horses presented to the equine department of the university clinic, displaying no skin or mucous membrane lesions or severe signs of other diseases, were sampled. Cytobrush samples from the penis or vulva and serum samples were collected. To determine the genoprevalence of EcPV2, DNA was extracted from cytobrush samples and tested for viral DNA with a PCR assay amplifying a 338 bp fragment of the E7/E1 region of the viral genome. Seroprevalence was tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay aimed to detect antibodies against the major capsid protein (L1) of EcPV2. In five of 50 horses (10%), EcPV2-specific DNA was amplified but no antibodies could be detected, whereas in 14 of 50 horses (28%), antibodies against EcPV2 but no DNA were demonstrated. Both antibodies and viral DNA were detected in four of 50 horses (8%). Neither antibodies nor viral DNA were found in 27 of 50 horses (54%). The seroprevalence suggests that EcPV2 is prevalent in the Swiss equine population, while the genoprevalence indicates that currently ongoing infections are less common. The discrepancy between geno- and seroprevalence probably indicates different stages of infection in the tested cohort. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. [Feline leukemia virus infection: importance and current situation in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Gönczi, E; Riond, B; Meli, M; Willi, B; Howard, J; Schaarschmidt-Kiener, D; Regli, W; Gilli, U; Boretti, F

    2018-02-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) leads to fatal disease in cats with progressive infection. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of FeLV infection in Switzerland and make a comparison with previous studies. Of 881 blood samples taken from cats living in Switzerland (minimum of 20 samples per Canton), 47 samples were provirus-positive (5.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.9-7.0%) and 18 samples were antigen-positive (2%; 95% CI 1.2-3.2%). Together with data previously collected in similar studies, these findings demonstrated a decrease in prevalence between 1997 and 2003 followed by a relative constant low prevalence thereafter. Young cats (=2 years) were more frequently infected than older cats, but FeLV-positive cats were up to 15 (antigen-positive) and 19 (provirus-positive) years old. Sexually intact cats were more frequently viremic than neutered cats; purebred cats were somewhat less frequently FeLV-positive than non-purebred cats. In a second study, in which 300 saliva samples were analyzed, samples from 5 cats were FeLV-RNA positive (1.7%; 95% CI, 0.5-3.8%), although one young feral cat had been falsely assumed to be FeLV-negative based on a point-of-care test. Of the 300 cats, only 50% were FeLV tested or vaccinated, although 90% of the cats were at risk of exposure to FeLV. Testing and vaccination of all cats with exposure risk may help further decrease the prevalence of FeLV infection. Moreover, characteristics of FeLV tests should be considered, such as the risk of false negative results in the early phase of infection when performing antigen testing.

  2. Sun protective behaviour of primary and secondary school students in North-Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinau, Daphne; Meier, Christoph; Gerber, Nathalie; Hofbauer, Günther F L; Surber, Christian

    2012-02-24

    The skin cancer incidence in Switzerland is one of the highest in Europe and still on the rise. Sun protection is the main preventive measure and of utmost importance during childhood and adolescence, since sunburns within these early phases of life increase the risk of developing skin cancer in adulthood. The aim of this prospective study, the first of its kind in Switzerland, was to investigate the sun protective behaviour of primary and secondary school students in Basel (North-Western Switzerland) and to test their knowledge about adverse health effects of solar radiation and about protective measures. Between March and April 2010, supervised classroom surveys during regular school lessons were conducted in 13 public schools using a multiple-choice questionnaire. 960 questionnaires were handed out to 48 school classes. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed on the data of 887 (>90%) students from three different grades (3rd, 6th and 9th grade). Sun-related knowledge was high in one third of all respondents only and significantly depended on student's age and educational background. Although the oldest students reached the highest knowledge scores, they protected themselves the least from the sun. Sunscreen was the principal form of sun protection mentioned, but was insufficiently applied. Seeking shade and wearing clothing as protective measures were hardly used. High educational background (i.e., of the parents) was a determinant for routine use of sunscreen but was not associated with following other sun protective measures. The desire for a suntan had no impact on the use of sunscreen, but was a significant predictor for not seeking shade and wearing shoulderless shirts when in the sun. More than half of all study participants experienced at least one sunburn during the year preceding the survey. Fair skin type, higher grade, not seeking shade and wearing shoulderless shirts were directly associated with increased odds of

  3. “Having got Tired of the Storms That Covered Europe, I Retired to Switzerland in Search of the Peace”: F. G. Golovkin in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smekalina Valentina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyses one of the examples of the “Russian” “Swiss myth” in the travel notes of Russian travelers in the late 18th — early 19th centuries. Count FedorGolovkin, issuing from a noble Russian family abroad, left extensive and informative notes and letters about this country in which he spent several years. He writes not only about the beauties of the nature in Switzerland, but also depicts its history, social and political life. Herewith he enriches the “classical” “Swiss myth” with the traits of a “nobleman’s idyl” as a serene and quiet life of a philosopher and an aristocrat. Golovkin is not only attached to Switzerland as a country, but also to his friends there and to the cultural scenery of the “alpine republic”. Basing on the analysis of Golovkins memoires and letters the author reflects on the incorporation of the Russian nobility into the European cultural space, and on the influence of the political changes in Europe on the ideology of the noble Russians abroad. It is characteristic that even in Switzerland Golovkin still was anxios about the massive political changes in Europe, which anticipates the later more tragic perception of Europe by the next generations of Russian travelers.

  4. Double-dividend analysis with SCREEN: an empirical study for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Christoph W.; Haldi, Pierre-Andre; Sarlos, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study that quantifies the effects of an ecological fiscal reform as recently rejected by the Swiss population. The measure aims to encourage employment and, at the same time, to dissuade from an excessive energy use and thereby decrease energy-induced external costs (CO 2 , etc.). The analysis is based on the model SCREEN, a general equilibrium model using the complementarity format for the hybrid description of economy-wide production possibilities where the electricity sector is represented by a bottom-up activity analysis and the other production sectors are characterised by top-down production functions. A dynamic formulation of the activity analysis of technologies allows for the reproduction of endogenous structural change (see Frei, C.W., Haldi, P.-A., Sarlos, G., 2003. Dynamic formulation of a top-down and bottom-up merging energy policy model. Energy Policy 31 (10), 1017-1031.). The labour market is formulated according to the microeconomically founded efficiency wages and calibrated for Switzerland. The study includes the development of a consistent set of top-down, bottom-up and labour data for Switzerland. The collection of bottom-up data on the electricity sector, just before liberalisation, was not easy. The electricity sector characterising data was prepared, based on original statistics about 140 Swiss electricity companies

  5. Coherence between institutions and technologies - The case of mini hydropower in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Crettenand, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Switzerland, with the forecasted electricity gap between domestic production and demand, aims to significantly increase renewable energy sources including hydropower. Mini hydropower (below 1MW) currently has considerable unused technical potential. As a renewable energy source (RES) it can contribute to climate change mitigation. CO2-taxes or emission trading systems (ETS) for planned thermal power plants could help facilitate mini hydropower (MHP). The technology is mature, but requires ade...

  6. Reactor physics teaching and research in the Swiss nuclear engineering master

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, R.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008, a Master of Science program in Nuclear Engineering (NE) has been running in Switzerland, thanks to the combined efforts of the country's key players in nuclear teaching and research, viz. the Swiss Federal Inst.s of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL) and at Zurich (ETHZ), the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) at Villigen and the Swiss Nuclear Utilities (Swissnuclear). The present paper, while outlining the academic program as a whole, lays emphasis on the reactor physics teaching and research training accorded to the students in the framework of the developed curriculum. (authors)

  7. Targeted Fluoro Positioning for the Discovery of a Potent and Highly Selective Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas; Riedl, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Invited for this month's cover picture is the group of Professor Rainer Riedl from the Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW), Switzerland. The cover picture depicts the structure-based design of a drug-like small molecule inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) with a combined dual binding motif. The targeted introduction of a single fluoro atom was of vital importance for the optimization of the inhibitor. For more details, read the full text of the Communication at 10.1002/open.201600158.

  8. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Chris; Alken, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 12th revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was issued in December 2014 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division V Working Group V-MOD (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/igrf.html). This revision comprises new spherical...... by the British Geological Survey (UK), DTU Space (Denmark), ISTerre (France), IZMIRAN (Russia), NOAA/NGDC (USA), GFZ Potsdam (Germany), NASA/GSFC (USA), IPGP (France), LPG Nantes (France), and ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Each candidate model was carefully evaluated and compared to all other models and a mean model...

  9. Evaluation of a new portable glucose meter designed for the use in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, E; Moretti, S; Tschuor, F; Reusch, C E

    2009-09-01

    Portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) are useful in the management of diabetes mellitus in cats. In the present study we compared the performance of two PBGMs: the AlphaTRAK (Abbott Animal Health, Maidenhead, England) specifically developed for dogs and cats, and the Ascensia ELITE (Bayer HealthCare, Zurich, Switzerland) developed for humans. Quality parameters, including precision and accuracy, were better for the AlphaTRAK meter compared to Ascensia ELITE. While the AlphaTRAK meter results did not differ from the reference method, results from the Ascensia ELITE were significantly (Pblood glucose levels in cats.

  10. New discoveries with radio telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.

    1985-01-01

    The author describes in a simple fashion the results obtained by astronomers from ETH Zurich using the broadband 7-m radio telescope in Switzerland to observe the sun over a period of six years. He explains the results in terms of our present understanding of the sun's workings. The astronomers found that a solar eruption is not a single event but consists of tens of thousands of small eruptions or spikes each only 200 km high and producing a burst of radio waves 10-100 times as intense as the background. (T.J.R.A.)

  11. Is solar power too expensive? In the long term, no

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    This short article reports on a workshop held by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in Zurich, Switzerland, which addressed the question if solar power is too expensive. The article summarises the presentations of energy and financial experts from around the world who attended the workshop. Developments in solar technology, traditional energy supply and the various applications of solar energy are discussed. Marketing aspects and price developments are examined and the risks and chances offered by the solar business are discussed. The lack of purchasing power in developing countries is also addressed.

  12. 40 years of progress in female cancer death risk: a Bayesian spatio-temporal mapping analysis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christian; Ess, Silvia; Thürlimann, Beat; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-10-09

    In the past decades, mortality of female gender related cancers declined in Switzerland and other developed countries. Differences in the decrease and in spatial patterns within Switzerland have been reported according to urbanisation and language region, and remain controversial. We aimed to investigate geographical and temporal trends of breast, ovarian, cervical and uterine cancer mortality, assess whether differential trends exist and to provide updated results until 2011. Breast, ovarian, cervical and uterine cancer mortality and population data for Switzerland in the period 1969-2011 was retrieved from the Swiss Federal Statistical office (FSO). Cases were grouped into Switzerland since 1990. Geographical differences are small, present on a regional or canton-overspanning level, and different for each cancer site and age group. No general significant association with cantonal or language region borders could be observed.

  13. A comparison of the newest scenarios for energy supply in Switzerland and their results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schucan, T.H.

    1984-09-01

    The author defines an energy scenario and considers several such scenarios for Switzerland. A presentation of perspectives is given, followed by an analysis of the scenario. Remarks are made on the energy economy and on the environmental loading (specific emissions for heat pumps and block heat power stations, total emission for the year 2020 and radiation loading for people and plants in Switzerland). (A.N.K.)

  14. Development of natural gas in the French-speaking part of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defago, E.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas has known a rapid development in the French-speaking part of Switzerland and this trend is still continuing. Natural gas represents 13% of the overall energy consumption, which lies significantly above the Swiss average and, in the year 2000, it should reach about 20%. In order to meet the expected growth of consumption, Gaznat has already contracted, under long term agreements, large quantities of natural gas from diversified sources. Underground storage capacities in nearby France have been considerably increased and new gas-pipelines are being built. These pipelines will enable to double the supply capacity of the French-speaking part of Switzerland within the next three years. (orig.) [de

  15. New Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Albizia gummifera (J.F.Gmel.) C.A.Sm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Line Made; Noté, Olivier Placide; Mbing, Joséphine Ngo; Aouazou, Sarah Ali; Guillaume, Dominique; Muller, Christian Dominique; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Lobstein, Annelise

    2017-10-01

    As part of our search for new bioactive saponins from Cameroonian medicinal plants, two new oleanane-type saponins, named gummiferaosides D and E (1 and 2), along with one known saponin, julibroside J 8 (3), were isolated from the roots of Albizia gummifera. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR ( 1 H- and 13 C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY, and HMBC) and HR-ESI-MS studies, and by chemical evidence. The apoptotic effect of saponins 1 - 3 was evaluated on the A431 human epidermoid cancer cell. Flow cytometric analyses showed that saponins 1 - 3 induced apoptosis of human epidermoid cancer cell (A431) in a dose-dependent manner. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Performance and age of African and non-African runners in half- and full marathons held in Switzerland, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschmann, André; Knechtle, Beat; Cribari, Marco; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Onywera, Vincent; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background Endurance running performance of African (AF) and non-African (NAF) athletes is investigated, with better performances seen for Africans. To date, no study has compared the age of peak performance between AF and NAF runners. The present research is an analysis of the age and running performance of top AF and NAF athletes, using the hypothesis that AF athletes were younger and faster than NAF athletes. Methods Age and performance of male and female AF and NAF athletes in half-marathons and marathons held in Switzerland in 2000–2010 were investigated using single and multilevel hierarchical regression analyses. Results For half-marathons, male NAF runners were older than male AF runners (P = 0.02; NAF, 31.1 years ± 6.4 years versus AF, 26.2 years ± 4.9 years), and their running time was longer (P = 0.02; NAF, 65.3 minutes ± 1.7 minutes versus AF, 64.1 minutes ± 0.9 minutes). In marathons, differences between NAF and AF male runners in age (NAF, 33.0 years ± 4.8 years versus AF, 28.6 years ± 3.8 years; P 0.05) or running time (NAF, 75.0 minutes ± 3.7 minutes versus AF, 75.6 minutes ± 5.3 minutes; P > 0.05) between NAF and AF female half-marathoners. For marathoners, NAF women were older than AF female runners (P = 0.03; NAF, 31.6 years ± 4.8 years versus AF, 27.8 years ± 5.3 years), but their running times were similar (NAF, 162.4 minutes ± 7.2 minutes versus AF, 163.0 minutes ± 7.0 minutes; P > 0.05). Conclusion In Switzerland, the best AF male half-marathoners and marathoners were younger and faster than the NAF counterpart runners. In contrast to the results seen in men, AF and NAF female runners had similar performances. Future studies need to investigate performance and age of AF and NAF marathoners in the World Marathon Majors Series. PMID:24379724

  17. Switzerland as Europe's ''battery''. Wishful dream or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammer, Adrian; Zurmuehle, Damian; Salzmann, Michael; Baumgartner, Raphael; Mignone, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    There are plans for Swiss pumped hydrostorage systems to absorb large quantities of excess electricity from European wind and solar power generation. Model-based analyses have shown however that ''Europe's battery'', as Switzerland would like to see itself, will not be needed until the middle of this century. Even if all extension projects currently in progress should be completed, Switzerland will not have sufficient pump capacity or import capacity to absorb large amounts of excess electricity. Furthermore, the primary means of making storage capacity available for import electricity would be to reduce reservoir power plant capacity. In view of all this Switzerland's hopes for a role as a major European electricity storage provider appear somewhat exaggerated even in the long-term perspective.

  18. Effects of vernal equinox solar eclipse on temperature and wind direction in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Eugster

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The vernal equinox total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 produced a maximum occultation of 65.8–70.1 % over Switzerland during the morning hours (09:22 to 11:48 CET. Skies were generally clear over the Swiss Alps due to a persistent high-pressure band between the UK and Russia associated with a rather weak pressure gradient over the continent. To assess the effects of penumbral shading on near-surface meteorology across Switzerland, air temperature data measured at 10 min intervals at 184 MeteoSwiss weather stations were used. Wind speed and direction data were available from 165 of these stations. Additionally, six Swiss FluxNet eddy covariance flux (ECF sites provided turbulent measurements at 20 Hz resolution. During maximum occultation, the temperature drop was up to 5.8 K at a mountain site where cold air can pool in a topographic depression. The bootstrapped average of the maximum temperature drops of all 184 MeteoSwiss sites during the solar eclipse was 1.51 ± 0.02 K (mean ± SE. A detailed comparison with literature values since 1834 showed a temperature decrease of 2.6 ± 1.7 K (average of all reports, with extreme values up to 11 K. On fair weather days under weak larger-scale pressure gradients, local thermo-topographic wind systems develop that are driven by small-scale pressure and temperature gradients. At one ECF site, the penumbral shading delayed the morning transition from down-valley to up-valley wind conditions. At another site, it prevented this transition from occurring at all. Data from the 165 MeteoSwiss sites measuring wind direction did not show a consistent pattern of wind direction response to the passing of the penumbral shadow. These results suggest that the local topographic setting had an important influence on the temperature drop and the wind flow patterns during the eclipse. A significant cyclonic effect of the passing penumbral shadow was found in the elevation range

  19. Synthesis of the Novel 4,4?- and 6,6?- Dihydroxamic - 2,2?-Bipyridines and Improved Routes to 4,4?- and 6,6?- Substituted 2,2?-Bipyridines and Mono-N-Oxide-2,2?-Bipyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnici Claudio Luis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of key precursors for many 2,2?-bipyridine derivatives such as 4,4?-dicarboxy- 2,2?-bipyridine (I, 6,6?-dicarboxy-2,2?-bipyridine- acid (II, 4,4?-dinitro-2,2?-bipyridine-N,N-dioxide (III, 6,6?-dicarbothioamide-2,2?-bipyridine (IV and mono-N-oxide-2,2?-bipyridine (VII through more efficient methods is described. The syntheses of the novel ligands 4,4?-dihydroxamic-2,2?-bipyridine (V and 6,6?-dihydroxamic-2,2?-bipyridine (VI are also reported.

  20. Regulations relevant to the transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1996-01-01

    As is the case in many countries, the transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland is primarily regulated by the national regulations for the transport of dangerous goods. Currently these regulations, in the case of radioactive material, incorporate the 1985 IAEA Safety Series 6 Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (As amended 1990). However, as is also the case in some other countries, consignors, shippers and carriers of radioactive materials must also comply with additional laws when shipping radioactive materials. The most important of these other laws and their accompanying regulations are those concerned with radiation protection (import, export and carriers licences) and nuclear power (import, export, inland transport and transit licences). This paper sets out to describe the collective requirements resulting from all three of these sets of regulations. (Author)

  1. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Ferro-Luzzi

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Swiss inter-industry wage structure in the light of the current debate on the efficiency wage hypothesis. Results clearly indicate the presence of an industry component in the determinants of earnings in Switzerland. No definite conclusion emerges though as to the source of wage variation. The stability of the wage structure and the role of tenure point to the existence of "wage rents". However, these results may be severely biased if unobserved ability is used by firm...

  2. The macro economic relevance of renewable energy sources for Switzerland; Volkswirtschaftliche Bedeutung erneuerbarer Energien fuer die Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathani, C.; Schmid, C.; Rieser, A.; Ruetter, H. [Ruetter und Partner, Rueschlikon (Switzerland); Bernath, K.; Felten, N. von [Ernst Basler und Partner, Zollikon (Switzerland); Walz, R.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    This study analyses the economic relevance of renewable energy in Switzerland. In 2010 the enterprises in the renewable energy sector generated a gross value added of 4.8 bn CHF (equalling 0.9% of Swiss GDP). Employment in this sector approximated 22,800 fulltime jobs (0.6% of total Swiss employment). Including supply chain companies, 1.5% of Swiss GDP and 1.2% of total employment can be related to the use of renewable energy. Exports of renewable energy related goods and services equalled 3.2 bn CHF. Since 2000 the Swiss renewable energy sector has experienced an above-average annual growth of more than 4%. Its potential development until the year 2020 was studied with two scenarios. In the policy scenario, that assumes additional policy measures for renewable energy promotion, direct value added of the renewable energy sector would amount to 6.4 bn CHF (+33%), direct employment would increase to 29,200 fulltime jobs (+28%, gross effects resp.). In the more conservative baseline scenario, growth would be much weaker, but still slightly stronger than anticipated for the average economy. (authors)

  3. Wood energy x 2 - Scenario for the development of wood energy use in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This study for the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscapes (SAEFL) and the Swiss wood-energy association (Holzenergie Schweiz) presents the results of a scenario-study that examined if, and under what conditions, doubling the use of wood energy in Switzerland could help reach carbon dioxide reduction targets. Two scenarios are presented that are based on high and low rates of growth for the number of automatic wood-chipping or pellets-fired installations. For both scenarios, figures are presented on the amount of wood used and the heating energy generated. The political and financial prerequisites for the scenarios are discussed and other boundary conditions are defined. The report draws conclusions from the study of the two scenarios and summarises the political action deemed necessary

  4. From the history of radiation protection in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poretti, G.

    1991-01-01

    The first part of this contribution describes the development of medical radiation protection in Switzerland, grouped into X-ray diagnostics, radiation therapy, and nuclear medicine. The second part gives a detailed chronology of Swiss radiation protection for nuclear engineering and industry, laws and regulations, authorities and government institutions, and unions and societies. (orig.) [de

  5. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuser Jürg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes of antibiotics recommended for treatment of human campylobacteriosis are also used in veterinary medicine, in view of food safety, the resistance status of Campylobacter isolated from poultry meat is of special interest. Methods Raw poultry meat samples were collected throughout Switzerland and Liechtenstein at retail level and examined for Campylobacter spp. One strain from each Campylobacter-positive sample was selected for susceptibility testing with the disc diffusion and the E-test method. Risk factors associated with resistance to the tested antibiotics were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results In total, 91 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 415 raw poultry meat samples. Fifty-one strains (59% were sensitive to all tested antibiotics. Nineteen strains (22% were resistant to a single, nine strains to two antibiotics, and eight strains showed at least three antibiotic resistances. Resistance was observed most frequently to ciprofloxacin (28.7%, tetracycline (12.6%, sulphonamide (11.8%, and ampicillin (10.3%. One multiple resistant strain exhibited resistance to five antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These are the most important antibiotics for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. A significant risk factor associated with multiple resistance in Campylobacter was foreign meat production compared to Swiss meat production (odds ratio = 5.7. Conclusion Compared to the situation in other

  6. Hydrochemical synthesis Northern Switzerland: tertiary- and Malm-aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmassmann, H.; Kullin, M.; Wexsteen, P.

    1990-05-01

    This Tertiary-Malm synthesis represents the first part of an overall hydrochemical synthesis of deep groundwaters in Northern Switzerland and adjacent areas. The investigation is mainly based on data from Nagra deep boreholes, from Nagra regional programme as well as from external sources. The first part provides a hydrogeological overview including a brief description of the aquifer rocks. A compilation of all existing hydraulic potential data is given and discussed for Northern Switzerland, Bodensee area and western Swabian Alb. In the Molasse Basin, hydrochemical and isotope analyses allowed a distinction of three main water types positioned one upon another: calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate groundwaters, sodium-bicarbonate and sodium-chloride deep groundwaters. Hydrochemical and isotopegeochemical details of these three water types comprise the major part of this report. Unlike the other two water types, the calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate groundwaters also include shallow waters with considerable tritium activities, indicating a mean residence time of less than 35 years. The spacial distribution of these three water types are demonstrated and different secular flow models in the Tertiary-Malm Aquifer group are discussed. (author) figs., tabs., 194 refs

  7. Patient doses in CT examinations in Switzerland: Implementation of national diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treier, R.; Aroua, A.; Verdun, F. R.; Samara, E.; Stuessi, A.; Trueb, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were established for 21 indication-based CT examinations for adults in Switzerland. One hundred and seventy-nine of 225 computed tomography (CT) scanners operated in hospitals and private radiology institutes were audited on-site and patient doses were collected. For each CT scanner, a correction factor was calculated expressing the deviation of the measured weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI) to the nominal weighted CTDI as displayed on the workstation. Patient doses were corrected by this factor providing a realistic basis for establishing national DRLs. Results showed large variations in doses between different radiology departments in Switzerland, especially for examinations of the petrous bone, pelvis, lower limbs and heart. This indicates that the concept of DRLs has not yet been correctly applied for CT examinations in clinical routine. A close collaboration of all stakeholders is mandatory to assure an effective radiation protection of patients. On-site audits will be intensified to further establish the concept of DRLs in Switzerland. (authors)

  8. Radon - how Switzerland does react to the potential danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piller, G.; Horvath, S.

    2005-01-01

    First of all, the Radon investigations in Switzerland are dealt with as a basis for praxis oriented regulations. Then the establishment of limit and guiding values as well as measures for protection of concerned people are discussed and the present state is given. (orig.)

  9. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 4 August 2009 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008 [fr

  10. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 4 August 2009 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008 [es

  11. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 4 May 2010 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009 [es

  12. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 24 August 2011 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [es

  13. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 24 August 2011 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010

  14. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 4 May 2010 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009

  15. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 4 August 2009 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008

  16. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 4 May 2010 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009 [fr

  17. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 24 August 2011 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [fr

  18. Phytochemical Investigation of Male and Female Hedyosmum scabrum (Ruiz & Pav.) Solms Leaves from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Claudia; Morocho, Vladimir; Vidari, Giovanni; Bicchi, Carlo; Gilardoni, Gianluca

    2018-02-01

    This article reports the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of male and female H. scabrum fresh leaves. The essential oils, HSMO and HSFO, respectively, were analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. A total of 93 components were detected, accounting for 94.8% and 95.3% of HSMO and HSFO, respectively. The prevalent constituents of HSMO were pinocarvone (13.1%), d-germacren-4-ol (12.6%), 1,8-cineole (10.8%), α-pinene (6.4%), and β-pinene (4.8%), whereas the major components of HSFO were 1,8-cineole (20.5%), linalool (16.5%), α-pinene (15.0%), β-pinene (6.4%), and sabinene (6.3%). The different enantiomeric distribution of β-pinene, sabinene, limonene, linalool in the two oils, was determined. The non-volatile esters of p-coumaric and ferulic acids with borneol (1 and 4), cis-chrysanthenol (2 and 5), and cis-pinocarveol (3 and 6) were identified in the leaves after basic hydrolysis and analysis of the NMR spectra of the free acids, and GC/MS spectra of the monoterpene alcohols, respectively. Compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 have been found in nature for the first time. These findings demonstrated that, from a chemical point of view, male and female individuals of H. scabrum collected in Ecuador seem quite differentiated between each other and from samples of the same species growing in Bolivia and in Peru. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Examining perceptions about IQOS heated tobacco product: consumer studies in Japan and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Elizabeth C; Bennett, Morgane; Sheen, Emily; Cantrell, Jennifer; Briggs, Jodie; Fenn, Zoe; Willett, Jeffrey G; Vallone, Donna

    2018-05-15

    To examine consumer perceptions, attitudes and behaviours regarding the heated tobacco product, IQOS, as well as to document the product's marketing strategies to determine its potential for appealing to youth and young adults. Truth Initiative, in collaboration with Flamingo, collected qualitative data via: (1) expert interviews, (2) semiotic analysis of IQOS packing and marketing materials, and (3) 12 focus groups with adults in Switzerland (ages 19-44 years; June 6-9, 2016) and Japan (ages 20-39 years; June 22-24, 2016) (n=68 for both groups). Expert interviews and IQOS packing and marketing analyses revealed the product is being marketed as a clean, chic and pure product, which resonated very well in Japan given the strong cultural values of order, cleanliness, quality and respect for others. Focus groups results indicated Japanese IQOS users used the product for socialising with non-smokers. Focus group participants in both Japan and Switzerland reported lower levels of satisfaction with the product relative to combustible cigarettes, although many found the product packaging to be appealing. While participants identified several benefits and barriers related to IQOS, few reported any potential health benefits of use compared with combustible tobacco products. IQOS was marketed as a sophisticated, high tech and aspirational product. Because youth and young adults are more interested in such product positioning, this approach raises some concern about youth appeal. This research shows cultural factors appeared to affect the appeal of this messaging, indicating that prevalence and uptake data will likely not be similar from country to country. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Integrated care organizations in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Peter; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The Swiss health care system is characterized by its decentralized structure and high degree of local autonomy. Ambulatory care is provided by physicians working mainly independently in individual private practices. However, a growing part of primary care is provided by networks of physicians and health maintenance organizations (HMOs) acting on the principles of gatekeeping. The share of insured choosing an alternative (managed care) type of basic health insurance and therefore restrict their choice of doctors in return for lower premiums increased continuously since 1990. To date, an average of one out of eight insured person in Switzerland, and one out of three in the regions in north-eastern Switzerland, opted for the provision of care by general practitioners in one of the 86 physician networks or HMOs. About 50% of all general practitioners and more than 400 other specialists have joined a physician networks. Seventy-three of the 86 networks (84%) have contracts with the healthcare insurance companies in which they agree to assume budgetary co-responsibility, i.e., to adhere to set cost targets for particular groups of patients. Within and outside the physician networks, at regional and/or cantonal levels, several initiatives targeting chronic diseases have been developed, such as clinical pathways for heart failure and breast cancer patients or chronic disease management programs for patients with diabetes. Swiss physician networks and HMOs were all established solely by initiatives of physicians and health insurance companies on the sole basis of a healthcare legislation (Swiss Health Insurance Law, KVG) which allows for such initiatives and developments. The relevance of these developments towards more integration of healthcare as well as their implications for the future are discussed.

  1. The practice of analytical psychotherapy, counselling and examination. Institute for legal psychology, Uster (Zurich, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinfried H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapy is often regarded as a technique by which convicts can be changed in accordance with the wishes of society. Independent client activity is paid too little attention to. However, it is the one on which it depends whether the therapeutic work will begin, as well as the extent to which the client will be able to transfer the acquired in the course of the therapy awareness so that it can last after his release from a prison. In order to check how deep the mental changes are, you can use some analytical therapeutic approaches that help the therapist to control the process. Therapeutic interventions of different psychological schools make it possible to enhance a customer and to stimulate his activity

  2. Does psychomotor agitation in major depressive episodes indicate bipolarity? Evidence from the Zurich Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Benazzi, Franco; Ajdacic, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-02-01

    Kraepelin's partial interpretation of agitated depression as a mixed state of "manic-depressive insanity" (including the current concept of bipolar disorder) has recently been the focus of much research. This paper tested whether, how, and to what extent both psychomotor symptoms, agitation and retardation in depression are related to bipolarity and anxiety. The prospective Zurich Study assessed psychiatric and somatic syndromes in a community sample of young adults (N = 591) (aged 20 at first interview) by six interviews over 20 years (1979-1999). Psychomotor symptoms of agitation and retardation were assessed by professional interviewers from age 22 to 40 (five interviews) on the basis of the observed and reported behaviour within the interview section on depression. Psychiatric diagnoses were strictly operationalised and, in the case of bipolar-II disorder, were broader than proposed by DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. As indicators of bipolarity, the association with bipolar disorder, a family history of mania/hypomania/cyclothymia, together with hypomanic and cyclothymic temperament as assessed by the general behavior inventory (GBI) [15], and mood lability (an element of cyclothymic temperament) were used. Agitated and retarded depressive states were equally associated with the indicators of bipolarity and with anxiety. Longitudinally, agitation and retardation were significantly associated with each other (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.2), and this combined group of major depressives showed stronger associations with bipolarity, with both hypomanic/cyclothymic and depressive temperamental traits, and with anxiety. Among agitated, non-retarded depressives, unipolar mood disorder was even twice as common as bipolar mood disorder. Combined agitated and retarded major depressive states are more often bipolar than unipolar, but, in general, agitated depression (with or without retardation) is not more frequently bipolar than retarded depression (with or without agitation), and

  3. Thio-, selenido-, and telluridogermanates(III): K/sub 6/Ge/sub 2/S/sub 6/, K/sub 6/Ge/sub 2/Se/sub 6/, and Na/sub 6/Ge/sub 2/Te/sub 6/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, B; Kieselbach, E; Schaefer, H; Schrod, H [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Anorganische Chemie und Kernchemie

    1984-09-01

    The new compounds K/sub 6/Ge/sub 2/S/sub 6/ and K/sub 6/Ge/sub 2/Se/sub 6/ crystallize in the monoclinic system, space group C2/m (No 12). The compounds are isotypic and form the K/sub 6/Si/sub 2/Te/sub 6/ structure. Na/sub 6/Ge/sub 2/Te/sub 6/ crystallizes in the K/sub 6/Sn/sub 2/Te/sub 6/ structure, monoclinic, space group P2/sub 1//c (No 14). The lattice constants are given.

  4. Energy supply and energy policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1985-01-01

    The article gives an outline of the problems of energy supply in Switzerland, with some emphasis upon the extent to which Federal and Cantonal constitutions and the functioning of Swiss democracy, notably the relatively frequent recourse to referendums and the strong public interest in conservation and ecology, affect the nature of decisions upon technical matters such as the authorisation and siting of generating plants and the construction of transmission lines. The dominating factor in the energy situation in Switzerland has been and will remain the need to import about 84% of the energy used, mainly in the form of oil, the cost of which is nearly 10% of the total value of all imports. Water power accounts for 13% of the total supply and is approaching the limit of its possible development. The use of energy constantly increases but the political difficulties in the way of providing the consequently necessary resources increase if anything still more rapidly. The resulting difficult situation is discussed in some detail. The author urges the energy industry to view its political difficulties in a positive manner, and to see them rather as a spur to effort than as merely an unwelcome obstacle to private enterprise. (C.J.O.G.)

  5. Strain, Stress and Seismicity pattern in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlié, Nicolas; Woessner, Jochen; Villiger, Arturo; Deichmann, Nicholas; Rothacher, Markus; Giardini, Domenico; Geiger, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Switzerland lies across one of the most complex plate boundary in the world. With a 100 Ma of deformation history, and a wide diversity of deformation mechanism, it is an ideal place to study the link(s) between small strain rates measured at the surface and stress dissipated at depth. The link is of genuine interest for seismic hazard assessment as it provides an independent estimate for moment release within the seismogenic volume. We use geodetic (GPS velocities, shortening axes, strain maps) and seismic (anisotropy, P-axes, focal mechanisms) datasets in order to assess whether the stress accumulated at depth due to the continental collision reflects the deformation rates measured at the surface and correlates with the seismic activity as well as the stress directions deduced from earthquake focal mechanisms throughout the area - or not. While the deformation amplitudes of the area are small (less than 10-7 yr-1) in some areas of Switzerland, we can relate long- and short-term features of the tectonic processes occurring over the last 10+ Ma. Preliminary results suggest that while deformation rates measured by GPS are large in the Ticino compared to the Valais region - its seismic activity rate is lower. This implies other processes might play important roles in the generation of seismicity.

  6. Dissecting the compression of mortality in Switzerland, 1876-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Lan Karen Cheung

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine changes in common longevity and variability of the adult life span, and attempts to answer whether or not the compression of mortality continues in Switzerland in the years 1876-2005. The results show that the negative relationships between the large increase in the adult modal age at death, observed at least from the 1920s, and the decrease in the standard deviation of the ages at deaths occurring above it, illustrate a significant compression of adult mortality. Typical adult longevity increased by about 10Š during the last fifty years in Switzerland, and adult heterogeneity in the age at death decreased in the same proportion. This analysis has not found any evidence suggesting that we are approaching longevity limits in term of modal or even maximum life spans. It ascertains a slowdown in the reduction of adult heterogeneity in longevity, already observed in Japan and other low mortality countries.

  7. Experience gained with energy taxes in Europe - Lessons for Switzerland; Erfahrungen mit Energiesteuern in Europa. Lehren fuer die Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, M.; Lueckge, H.; Iten, R.; Trageser, J. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Goerlach, B.; Blobel, D.; Kraemer, A. [Ecologic Institut fuer Internationale und Europaeische Umweltpolitik, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at experience gained with energy taxes in Europe and the lessons that can be learned for Switzerland. The variety of energy and CO{sub 2} taxes that have been introduced in Europe since the early 1990s is reviewed. These are intended to reduce energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions and complement conventional mineral oil taxes. Some of these non-fiscal energy and CO{sub 2} taxes that have been created within the scope of the EU directive on energy taxation are examined and commented on, as is their impact on energy consumption. The situation in EU member states is described and commented on. Success-factors and general conditions are examined and conclusions that can be drawn for Switzerland are examined.

  8. Geometric Accuracy Investigations of SEVIRI High Resolution Visible (HRV Level 1.5 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Kocaman Aksakal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available GCOS (Global Climate Observing System is a long-term program for monitoring the climate, detecting the changes, and assessing their impacts. Remote sensing techniques are being increasingly used for climate-related measurements. Imagery of the SEVIRI instrument on board of the European geostationary satellites Meteosat-8 and Meteosat-9 are often used for the estimation of essential climate variables. In a joint project between the Swiss GCOS Office and ETH Zurich, geometric accuracy and temporal stability of 1-km resolution HRV channel imagery of SEVIRI have been evaluated over Switzerland. A set of tools and algorithms has been developed for the investigations. Statistical analysis and blunder detection have been integrated in the process for robust evaluation. The relative accuracy is evaluated by tracking large numbers of feature points in consecutive HRV images taken at 15-minute intervals. For the absolute accuracy evaluation, lakes in Switzerland and surroundings are used as reference. 20 lakes digitized from Landsat orthophotos are transformed into HRV images and matched via 2D translation terms at sub-pixel level. The algorithms are tested using HRV images taken on 24 days in 2008 (2 days per month. The results show that 2D shifts that are up to 8 pixels are present both in relative and absolute terms.

  9. Determinants of sheep and goat meat consumption in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aepli, M.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the

  10. Perceptions of diabetes control among physicians and people with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on basal insulin in Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brod, Meryl; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M; Barnett, Anthony H

    2016-01-01

    Objective A large proportion of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain uncontrolled on basal insulin. Yet, there is limited understanding of how people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (PWUD) perceive control and insulin intensification and whether their perceptions differ from those...... of physicians. The purpose of the study was to investigate perceptions of control and views on insulin intensification among physicians and PWUD. Research design and methods Web surveys of 1012 PWUD on basal insulin and 300 physicians were conducted in Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Results...... very/extremely important for deciding whether or not diabetes is well controlled. In contrast PWUD were significantly more likely to place importance on a variety of factors, including energy levels (74.5% vs. 33.0%, p 

  11. Changes in autopsy rates among cancer patients and their impact on cancer statistics from a public health point of view: a longitudinal study from 1980 to 2010 with data from Cancer Registry Zurich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Uwe; Moch, Holger; Dehler, Silvia; Korol, Dimitri; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    During the last decades, autopsy rates have dramatically decreased in many countries. The Cancer Registry Zurich, which exists since 1980, provides the opportunity to address to what extent the number of autopsies in cancer patients has changed over a longer period of time and how often autopsies provide a diagnosis of clinically undetected cancer. Data from the Cancer Registry Zurich consisting of 102,434 cancer cases among 89,933 deceased patients between 1980 and 2010 were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics. The autopsy rate declined from 60 % in 1980 to 7 % in 2010. The total number of autopsies performed decreased from 1179 in 1986 to 220 in 2010. Furthermore, there was also a decline in the rate of newly detected tumours based on autopsy information. In 1980, the rate of newly detected tumours through autopsy was 42 % compared with 2010, when the rate had declined to 17 %. A consequence of the reduced autopsy rate is the reduction of incidental findings at autopsy in cancer registration. However, this reduction has not negatively affected the total incidence of cancer. It seems that the state-of-the-art diagnostic tools used for tumour detection are sufficiently reliable, allowing the scientific community to trust the quality of data provided by cancer registries in spite of decreasing autopsy rates.

  12. The nido-osmaboranes [2,2,2-(CO)(PPh(3))(2)-nido-2-OsB(5)H(9)] and [6,6,6-(CO)(PPh(3))(2)-nido-6-OsB(9)H(13)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, J; Kennedy, J D; Thomas, R L; Rath, N P; Barton, L

    2001-11-01

    The structural characterization of the osmahexaborane 2-carbonyl-2,2-bis(triphenylphosphine)-nido-2-osmahexaborane(9), [Os(B(5)H(9))(C(18)H(15)P)(2)(CO)], (I), a metallaborane analogue of B(6)H(10), confirms the structure proposed from NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the osmadecaborane 6-carbonyl-6,6-bis(triphenylphosphine)-nido-6-osmadecaborane(13), [Os(B(9)H(13))(C(18)H(15)P)(2)(CO)], (IV), is similarly confirmed. The short basal B-B distance of 1.652 (8) A in (I), not bridged by an H atom, mirrors that in the parent hexaborane(10) [1.626 (4) A].

  13. Analysis of the revision of the nuclear cooperation agreement between the USA and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    The US and Switzerland enforced a new nuclear cooperation agreement in June 1998. After extended negotiation for the new nuclear cooperation agreement, Switzerland accomplished to get the advance, long-term consent approach, not to allow the US's prior consent right on the spent fuel used in the US-origin reactors, and to specify conditions for the suspension of advance, long-term consent. This paper analyzes the contents and implications of the revision of the nuclear cooperation agreement between the two countries

  14. Serratospiculosis in Captive Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Inês B; Schediwy, Marion; Hentrich, Brigitte; Frey, Caroline F; Marreros, Nelson; Stokar-Regenscheit, Nadine

    2017-09-01

    Infection with Serratospiculum species was identified in a captive peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland. Pathologic and parasitologic examination results revealed generalized severe granulomatous airsacculitis, with intralesional adults, larvae, and eggs of Serratospiculum species. Subsequently, an individual coprological analysis of the remaining 15 falcons (peregrine falcons and gyrfalcons [Falco rusticolus]) from the same owner was performed. Eggs of Serratospiculum species (4 birds) and Capillaria species (11 birds), and oocysts of Caryospora species (1 bird) were detected. Treatment with ivermection (2 mg/kg SC) was effective, as none of the falcons excreted Serratospiculum species eggs 10 days after one dose. To our knowledge, this is the first report of infection with Serratospiculum species in captive falcons in Europe.

  15. Small hydropower station Duennern Olten, Switzerland; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Munzingerareal, Duennern Olten. Vorprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenberger, P.

    2007-07-15

    This illustrated technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Olten, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to build a new hydropower installation on the Duennern stream in which the approximately 10 metres difference in height is to be used to generate around 1.6 GWh of power annually using a 345 kW turbine. The present situation is described as far as the existing channelled stream, water quantities and concessions, land ownership etc. are concerned. Four variants for the realisation of the new hydropower installation are presented and discussed. The report recommends a single variant that should be further studied and lists details of the project, including plans and cost estimates.

  16. Einsteins of the future on a visit to CERN?

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The five pupils of the Gymnasium Appenzell high school who won a visit to CERN. In 1896 a 17-year-old named Albert Einstein joined ETH Zurich. Here, he was to spend the next four years building the foundation for his brave new vision of the physical world. Fast-forward almost 110 years and on 17 June 2005, ETH Zurich's Department of Physics organized a “Night of Physics”, a special event open to the public. This formed part of a series of activities at ETH to celebrate its 150th anniversary, as well as the World Year of Physics. It gave thousands of visitors a chance to experience the excitement of doing experiments, learning about Einstein's breakthroughs, visiting world-class labs or observing galaxies through high-quality telescopes. Amongst these were about five-hundred high school students from all over German-speaking Switzerland, who participated in a physics competition. They were highly motivated to win, not least because of the first prize: a trip to CERN! The winners visited CERN on the 21st S...

  17. Valentine L. Telegdi, 1922-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A distinguished physicist, a major personality at CERN, Prof. Valentine Telegdi has passed away. He spent extended periods here as a visitor, carried out many experiments, gave lectures to the summer students and was a member of the Scientific Policy Committee (SPC), acting as chairman from 1981 to 1983. After his retirement from ETH Zurich he was a permanent unpaid visitor at CERN, except for three months each winter, which he spent in California. It was there that he died on 8 April after various medical problems. Val was born in Budapest and, after school years in Vienna and Brussels, he worked from 1940 to 1943 in a patent office in Milan. He then fled to Switzerland, where he obtained a Master of Science degree in chemistry at EPUL (now EPFL) in Lausanne in 1946. He received his PhD in nuclear physics at ETH Zurich under the joint direction of Paul Scherrer and Wolfgang Pauli. It was there he met his wife, Lidia (Lia) Leonardi, in 1950. He then moved to the University of Chicago, where he started as an...

  18. FameLab Switzerland: a CERN PhD student triumphs

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexander Brown

    2013-01-01

    Would you be able to explain your work to a non-specialist in just three minutes? On Friday 24 May, the Swiss national final of FameLab saw six young researchers from CERN attempt just that. FameLab is an international competition in the style of a TV talent show, seeking out the next generation of talent in science communication.   Participants in the Swiss national final of FameLab alongside Deni Subasic, presenter of the event (far left), on Friday 24 May. Having qualified from the Geneva heat held in the Globe in March, the six CERN representatives took to the stage in Moods bar in Zurich. As well as particle physics, from the fundamental building blocks (literally) of the Standard Model to medical applications, the line-up featured immunology, neurology and genetics. Although slideshows are strictly banned from FameLab, other visual props are strongly encouraged. For instance, Piotr Traczyk (CMS) represented the apparent chaos of particle collisions by throwing together two decks of ca...

  19. Benefits of smoking bans on preterm and early-term births: a natural experimental design in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Schindler, Christian; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Dratva, Julia; Röösli, Martin; Perez, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Birth outcomes are relevant for future children's heath. Capitalising on a natural experimental design in Switzerland, we evaluated how regional smoking bans introduced at different time points affected birth outcomes, including preterm and early-term births. We used birth registry data of all singleton neonates born in Switzerland (2007-2012). We developed canton-specific interrupted time-series followed by random meta-analysis to evaluate the benefits of smoking bans on preterm (Switzerland with cantons that adopted more comprehensive smoking bans achieving greater benefits. Early-term births constitute a previously ignored though important group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Family Caregivers' Reflections on Experiences of Assisted Suicide in Switzerland: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamondi, C; Pott, Murielle; Preston, Nancy; Payne, Sheila

    2018-04-01

    Thousands of family members worldwide are annually involved in assisted dying. Family participation in assisted dying has rarely been investigated and families' needs typically are not considered in assisted dying legislation and clinical guidelines. To explore family caregivers' reflections on experiences of assisted suicide in Switzerland. A cross-sectional qualitative interview study conducted in the Italian- and French-speaking regions of Switzerland. Interpretation and analysis were performed using qualitative content analysis. Twenty-eight close relatives and family carers of 18 patients who died by assisted suicide in Switzerland were interviewed. Family members perceived their involvement in assisted suicide as characterized by five phases; 1) contemplation, 2) gaining acceptance, 3) gaining permission, 4) organization, and 5) aftermath. Families can participate in these phases at diverse levels and with varying degrees of involvement. Important triggers for families and patients for transition between phases include patients' experiences of their life-threatening illnesses and related treatments, their increasing awareness of approaching death, and family member recognition of their loved one's unbearable suffering. Participating in assisted suicide created further demanding tasks for families in addition to their role of caregivers. Families appeared to be involved in the preparation of assisted suicide along with patients, irrespective of their personal values regarding assisted dying. Support for family members is essential if they are involved in tasks preparatory to assisted suicide. Clinical guidelines and policies concerning assisted dying should acknowledge and address family needs. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.