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Sample records for zur bewertung modularer

  1. Method for assessing modular concepts for reformate gas processing for PEM fuel cell systems for decentral power supply; Methodik zur Bewertung modularer Konzepte zur Reformatgasaufbereitung fuer PEM-Brennstoffzellenanlagen zur dezentralen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, J.

    2007-02-08

    The dissertation presents the fundamentals of hydrogen gas processing and CO gas purification methods and, on this basis, develops a method for energetic modularisation of the gas treatment process. All process stages are modelled and analyzed on the basis of mass and energy balances. The theoretical discussion of solution methods for the balance equations of the various process stages is limited to the steam reforming and CO gas purification system. Parameters are defined for energetic assessment of the process variants. The method leads to the identification of energetically optimized process variants. Its main goal is the optimum utilisation of process-internal energy and mass flows. The graphic pinch method is a key component of the method presented; it is adapted to the exemplary process. [German] In der Dissertation wird, ausgehend von der Darstellung der Grundlagen der Wasserstoffgasaufbereitungs- und CO-Gasreinigungsverfahren, eine Methodik zur energetischen Modularisierung des Gasaufbereitungsprozesses entwickelt. Die Modellierung und Analyse der einzelnen Prozessstufen erfolgt auf der Basis von Masse- und Energiebilanzen. Die theoretische Darstellung der Loesungsmethoden fuer die Bilanzgleichungen der einzelnen Prozessstufen ist dabei auf das System Dampfreformierung und CO-Gasreinigung eingegrenzt. Parameter zur energetischen Bewertung der Prozessvarianten werden definiert. Die Methodik fuehrt zur Eingrenzung energetisch optimierter Prozessvarianten. Ihr Hauptziel liegt in der optimalen Nutzung prozessinterner Energie- und Stoffstroeme. Ein zentraler Bestandteil der Methodik ist die graphische Pinch-Methode. Sie wird dem vorliegenden Prozess angepasst.

  2. Simulator to evaluate and optimise driver assistance systems; Ein Simulator zur Bewertung und Optimierung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locher, J. [Hella KG Hueck and Co., Paderborn (Germany); Kleinkes, M. [Hella KG Hueck and Co., Lippstadt (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    For a short time now, the L-LAB (Light-LABoratory), a joint research facility of Hella KG and the University of Paderborn, has had a simulator available which allows the evaluation of driver assistance systems and the optimisation of man-machine interfaces. It is an interactive night driver simulator, which can be used to visualise any type of headlamp beam pattern true to the original. A Smart is used as the input medium; image projection is via a 3-channel high-performance beamer projection system onto large screens. Alongside synthetic roads, there is also a digitalised course available, approx. 10 km long, the original of which is actually used by Hella as a proving ground. Road safety indicators can be recorded directly and indirectly. For example, obstacles which suddenly appear force drivers to apply the brakes. The stopping distance required can be interpreted as a direct indicator for safety. In addition, an eye tracking system is used to record the eye movements of the test subjects, which allows additional road safety indicators to be derived. Comparative investigations between the digitalised proving ground and reality allow validation of the simulator. This year, a comprehensive study will be made to optimise the man-machine interface in connection with infrared vision systems in vehicles. The advantages of simulation are not only in the economical implementation possibilities and control of the variables, but also the fact that properties of driver assistance systems can be evaluated which are not even technically possible yet in reality. The use of the simulator developed here is not limited to tests connected with the visibility of obstacles, however. Rather, it allows the investigation and evaluation of a large range of potential driver assistance systems. (orig.) [German] Dem L-LAB (Light-LABoratory), einer gemeinsamen Forschungseinrichtung der Universitaet Paderborn und der Firma Hella KG in Lippstadt, steht seit kurzer Zeit ein Simulator zur

  3. Development of a fluidized-bed method for on-line evaluation of radiotracers in vitro; Entwicklung einer Fliessbettechnik zur Bewertung von Radiopharmaka an Zellkulturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, T.

    1999-05-01

    This study presents the development of a continuously operating fluidized-bed bioreactor for on-line evaluation of radiotracers in vitro, which combines tissue-like three-dimensional cell cultivation in open porous microcarriers with a technique for on-line radioactivity detection. The long time stability of steady-state permits a large number of experiments using the same culture. All relevant parameters (O{sub 2}, pH, T, etc.) can be adjusted according to the experimental requirements. The flux of the circulating medium can be adapted to the blood flow of the corresponding organism, while the input function of the radiotracer is freely adjustable for simulation of in vivo conditions. Sampling and examination of the immobilized cells care possible at any time. Using this system, the kinetics of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) in human glioma cells (86HG39) were studied and it was shown that the dependence of the lumped constant (LC) for FDG on the medium glucose concentration is similar to that obtained in the rat brain. For normoglycemic concentrations the LC was determined to be in the range of 0.7, while in hypoglycemia it increased progressively up to a value of 1.22 at a glucose concentration of 3 mM. The rate constants in the three compartment model were found to be similar to those obtained in vivo using PET; indicating the validity of the system for tracer evaluation. Furthermore the kinetics of both diastereomeric forms of 4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-proline was investigated and found that both diastereomeres were not metabolized and reached an identical intracellular steady state concentration. The trans-form was transported three times faster than the cis-diastereomere, indicated by the rate constants. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit beschreibt die Entwicklung eines kontinuierlich betriebenen Wirbelschichtreaktors zur on-line Bewertung von Radiotracern an Zellkulturen. Der Bioreaktor kombiniert eine gewebeaehnliche, dreidimensionale Zellkultivierung in

  4. Ein Beitrag zur Bewertung der Schlachtkörperzusammensetzung an lebenden Jungsauen mit Hilfe der Ultraschall-Messmethode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Uusisalmi

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available In der Schweinezucht ist die Verbesserung der Fleischleistung in starkem Masse von der Eigenleistungsprüfung abhängig. An 97 weiblichen Mastschweinen mit einem durchschnittlichen Gewicht von 90 kg wurden die Beziehungen zwischen Ultraschallmessungen am lebenden Tier und den Schlachtleistungsmerkmalen überprüft. Die hohen Korrelationen zwischen der Speckdicke am lebenden Tier und nach dem Schlachten ermöglichen eine gute Einschätzung der Fettauflage mit dem Echolot. Werden die Ultraschall-Messwerte in Indices verknüft, so wird die Aussagefähigkeit der einzelnen Daten für den Züchter verbessert. Die Messpunkte 2,3, 4,6, 8 + 8a, 12, 13 und 14 erscheinen besonders geeignet für die komplexe Bewertung des Schlachtkörpers. Die Korrelationen zwischen dem Index aus mehreren Ultraschallmesswerten und der Rückenspeckdicke ist 0,80, zwischen dem Index und dem Anteil Haut und Fett am Schlachtkörper ist 0,77, zwischen dem Index und dem Anteil Fleisch und Knochen am Schlachtkörper ist 0,71, zwischen Index und Haut und Fettauflage am Schinken 0,66 und zwischen Index und Fleisch-Knochen vom Schinken 0,45. Diese Werte zeigen, dass eine Selektion nach der Eigenleistung mit Ultraschall ermittelt bei Jungsauen erfolgverspechend in der Schweinezucht angewendet werden kann.

  5. Feasibility study to combine the evaluation of radiological and chemical-toxicological effects of old contaminated sites; Machbarkeitsstudie zur Verknuepfung der Bewertung radiologischer und chemisch-toxischer Wirkungen von Altlasten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P; Proehl, G [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Schneider, K; Voss, J U [FoBiG Forschungs- und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The uranium mining regions of the German Federal States Saxony, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt are contaminated by radionuclides and by chemical substances. For both, ionizing radiations and chemicals, concepts and models exists to assess possible health effects for the population living in such areas. However, these assessment models were developed independently for both kinds of contaminants. Therefore, the 9{sup th} Conference of the State Ministers for Environmental Protection have claimed that for the evaluation of contaminated sites the radiological and chemical contaminants should be integrated into a joint assessment. This feasibility study describes the state of the art of the concepts and models used for the evaluation of radiological and chemical contaminants. The similarities and differences of these evaluation methods are identified and discussed. Suggestions are made for an integrated assessment to standardize the evaluation of sites contaminated by radionuclides or chemicals. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den Gebieten des ehemaligen Uranbergbaus der Bundeslaender Sachsen, Thueringen und Sachsen-Anhalt treten neben den radioaktiven Kontaminationen auch andere Schadstoffe, insbesondere Schwermetalle, auf. Fuer ionisierende Strahlung und fuer chemische Noxen existieren unabhaengig voneinander entwickelte Bewertungssysteme zum Schutz vor Gesundheitsgefahren und Empfehlungen zum Umgang mit kontaminierten Standorten. Vor diesem Hintergrund forderte die 9. Umweltministerkonferenz - Ost am 17./18. Juni 1993 eine `Verknuepfung der radiologischen und konventionellen Altlastenbewertung`. Ob diese Verknuepfung moeglich ist und in welcher Weise diese vorgenommen werden kann, ist bisher nicht untersucht worden. Diese Machbarkeitsstudie unternimmt eine Bestandsaufnahme von Uebereinstimmungen und Unterschieden der beiden bestehenden Bewertungssysteme fuer Kontaminationen mit Radionukliden und mit chemisch-toxischen Stoffen und zeigt einen Weg auf zur Verinheitlichung der

  6. Materials flow management in the metal industry. Design and techno-economical analysis of industriyl recycling concepts; Stoffstrommanagement in der Metallindustrie. Zur Gestaltung und techno-oekonomischen Bewertung industrieller Recyclingkonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehre, S.

    2000-07-01

    Materials flow management is an attempt to cope with excessive consumption of resources and with the large-scale release of pollutants, both of which are hazards of our industrialised society. It is necessary to analyse materials and energy flow along interconnected product and process chains to develop suitable concepts, e.g. for innovative environmental protection and recycling measures. A planning instrument is designed for this purpose which is based on a combination of flowsheeting models common in chemical process engineering and material flow networks based on Petri nets. Its application enables computer-assisted design and techno-economic evaluation of industrial recycling concepts, so that decision makers in enterprises and administrations will be given a tool for in-house and external material flow management. In the implementation stage, the flowsheeting system 'Aspen Plus' and the eco-banancing tool 'Umberto' were used, and exemplary problems of material flow management in the steel and zinc industry were investigated. [German] Zur Ueberwindung negativer Umwelteinfluesse der Industriegesellschaft, die inbesondere aus dem Ressourcenverbrauch und der Freisetzung grosser Schadstoffmengen resultieren, werden Massnahmen im Sinne des Stoffstrommanagements gefordert. Die Entwicklung geeigneter Konzepte, etwa zum Einsatz innovativer Umweltschutz- und Recyclingmassnahmen, macht die Analyse von Stoff- und Energiestroemen entlang vernetzter Produkt- und Prozessketten erforderlich. Hierfuer wird ein Planungsinstrument konzipiert, das auf einer Kombination verfahrenstechnischer Flowsheeting-Modelle und Petri-Netz-basierter Stoffstromnetze beruht. Sein Einsatz ermoeglicht computergestuetzt die Gestaltung und techno-oekonomische Bewertung industrieller Recyclingkonzepte, so dass Entscheidungstraeger in Unternehmen und Behoerden ein Hilfsmittel zum betrieblichen und betriebsuebergreifenden Stoffstrommanagement erhalten. Bei der Implementierung

  7. Untersuchung der Abgaswärmeübertragung und der Dampfstrahlverdichtung zur Bewertung von Dampfstrahlkälteanlagen als Ladeluftkühler aufgeladener Ottomotoren

    OpenAIRE

    Zegenhagen, Mark Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die Eigenschaften und das Potential eines mit Abgaswärme angetriebenen Dampfstrahlkälteprozesses mit dem Kältemittel R134a zur weiteren Kühlung der Ladeluft nach der konventionellen Ladeluftkühlung bei aufgeladenen Ottomotoren im Kraftfahrzeug analysiert, indem der Abgaswärmeübertrager sowie der Dampfstrahlverdichter als Kernkomponenten des Kälteprozesses getrennt voneinander experimentell und mit Simulationsmodellen theoretisch untersucht werden. Die vom ...

  8. Commission to review the financing for the phase-out of nuclear energy. Results, evaluation, implementation; Kommission zur Ueberpruefung der Finanzierung des Kernenergieausstiegs (KFK). Ergebnisse, Bewertung, Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandmair, Lothar [Wirtschaftskanzlei Graf von Westphalen, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The German Commission to Review the Financing for the Phase-out of Nuclear Energy (Kommission zur Ueberpruefung der Finanzierung des Kernenergieausstiegs, KFK) has unanimously adopted its report on 27 April 2016. Now the Federal Government is working on the implementation of the recommendations, which are directed to profound changes in the present system of financing and action responsibilities of government and operators. The proposals by KFK on their meaning and scope are described and analyzed. An overview of the tasks to implement the recommendations at the legislative and contractual level is given. The work of KFK is also classified in its social context and assessed as a viable compromise.

  9. Small specimen test results and application of advanced models for fracture mechanics assessment of RPV integrity; Ergebnisse von Kleinproben und Anwendung von Modellansaetzen zur bruchmechanischen Bewertung der RDB-Integritaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Elisabeth; Huemmer, Matthias [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany); Hoffmann, Harald [VGB (Germany); Nagel, Gerhard [e-on Kernkraft (Germany); Kuester, Karin [VENE (Germany); Koenig, Guenter; Ilg, Ulf [EnBW (Germany); Widera, Martin [RWE (Germany); Rebsamen, Daniel [KKW Goesgen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    For the RPV (reactor pressure vessel) integrity assessment the transferability of specimen test results to components is of main importance. The international project TIMES (transferability of fracture toughness of irradiated materials to components and structures) is focussed on the transferability of fracture mechanical characteristics of irradiated materials to components or structures, in order to allow the quantification of differences between sample and component characteristics based on experiments and calculations. The studies were performed for the brittle and brittle-ductile regions of the material characteristics using specimens from original RPV materials in different conditions. Based on case studies the consequence of a component assessment with postulated defects are shown when specimen-related materials properties are used. Since it is not possible to prove the transferability for an RPV in detail, component-similar effects were investigated that allow in combination with numerical modelling to quantify the safety margin. Samples and experimental procedures were developed that simulated the real component situation. The effects of crack depth and multiaxial loads, relevant for real components, were investigated with these samples. A micromechanical model was developed based on the weakest link theory and the statistical failure probability; this model is used for the prediction of fracture toughness of samples and components with defects. For a component with postulated defects the safety margin was assessed using different methodologies, based on standard fracture mechanical samples, taking into account component specific aspects. [German] Fuer die Bewertung der RDB-Integritaet ist die Uebertragbarkeit von Probenkennwerten auf Bauteile von grosser Bedeutung. Dazu wurde das Projekt ''TIMES'' - ein internationales Projekt zur Uebertragbarkeit von Bruchzaehigkeitskennwerten von bestrahlten Materialien auf Komponenten und Strukturen - durchgefuehrt, um

  10. Evaluation of the water hazard potential of solid wastes. Pt. 1. Experimental results; Untersuchung von Abfaellen mit biologischen Testverfahren zur Bewertung der Wassergefaehrdung. T. 1. Experimentelle Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackemann, H.; Hahn, J.; Vogel, U. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Hagendorf, U. [Umweltbundesamt, Langen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Wastes from three different types of waste treatment facilities (slag from a municipal waste incineration plant, slag granules from a pilot plant combining carbonization and incineration, mechanical and biological treated wastes) were examined to determine their hazard potential to different waters sites. The process temperature is seen to be the main difference between the three treatment processes. The wastes were extracted with water according to the German standard DIN 38414 S 4 and additionally at a constant pH value of 4. The leachates were investigated in a battery of aquatic bioassays and characterised physically and chemically. Every leachate revealed in a toxic effect at least in one test. The toxicity of the leachates prepared at a pH of 4 was significantly higher than the toxicity of the leachates prepared by extraction with water without pH adjustment. The leachates of the slag granules showed the lowest toxicity. On the basis of these experimental results, a scheme to derive Water Hazard Classes of wastes, which is presented in part II of this publication, was developed. (orig.) [German] Zur Bestimmung der wassergefaehrdenden Eigenschaften wurden die Eluate von Abfaellen/Rueckstaenden aus drei verschiedenen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen untersucht (Schlacke aus einer Abfallverbrennungsanlage (Rostfeuerung), Schmelzgranulat aus einer Versuchsanlage mit kombinierter Verschwelung und Hochtemperaturverbrennung sowie biologisch-mechanisch behandelter Abfall). Ein wesentlicher Unterschied dieser drei Verfahren liegt in der Behandlungstemperatur. Die Rueckstaende wurden nach DIN 38414, Teil 4 sowie bei einem konstant eingestellten pH-Wert von 4 eluiert. Die Eluate wurden mit verschiedenen aquatischen Biotests untersucht sowie physikalisch-chemisch charakterisiert. Dabei zeigte sich, dass jedes untersuchte Eluat in mindestens einem Test eine toxische Wirkung aufwies; die Toxizitaet der bei saurem pH-Wert durchgefuehrten Elutionen war deutlich erhoeht. Die Eluate

  11. Analysis and chemometry of heavy metal concentrations in the Saale, Ilm and Unstrut as a basis for assessing the pollutant level and the prospects for success of sanitation measures. Final report; Analyse und chemometrische Bewertung von Schwermetallgehalten der Saale, Ilm und Unstrut als Bestandsaufnahme und zur Abschaetzung der Auswirkungen von Sanierungsmassnahmen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einax, J.W.; Truckenbrodt, D.; Kampe, O.

    1997-09-01

    Since the mid-1980`s, heavy metal characterisation was carried out on sediments of selected sections of the river Saale and methodical work was done on the analysis of flowing water at the Friedrich Schiller University at Jena. However, there was no comprehensive and current information about the state of contamination along the whole course of the river before. The most important aim was therefore the first and current stocktaking of this extent of contamination of the water, sediment and suspended matter of the Saale. The basis of these considerations was formed by about 15,000 determined features in water samples and more than 1,000 examinations of suspended matter and 4,600 examinations of sediment. In the characterisation of contamination of flowing watercourses, it was generally usual to evaluate the change of individual features according to geographic or time aspects. The application of methods of multi-variate statistics makes it possible to identify anthropogenic and geogenic sources and to discover latent connections. A comprehensive evaluation of the actual contamination situation is possible in this way. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre werden an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena Schwermetallcharakterisierungen an Sedimenten ausgewaehlter Flussabschnitte der Saale sowie methodische Arbeiten zur Fliessgewaesseranalytik durchgefuehrt. Umfassende und aktuelle Informationen ueber den Belastungszustand entlang des gesamten Flussablaufes gab es jedoch bisher nicht. Wichtigstes Ziel war deshalb eine in diesem Umfang erstmalige und aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme zur Belastung von Wasser, Sediment und Schwebstoffe der Saale. Die Grundlage dieser Betrachtungen bilden ca. 15.000 bestimmte Merkmale in Wasserproben und mehr als 1.000 Schwebstoff- und 4.600 Sedimentuntersuchungen. Bei der Belastungscharakterisierung von Fliessgewaessern ist es derzeit allgemein ueblich, die Aenderung einzelner Merkmale nach geographischen oder zeitlichen

  12. Development of a field-suitable test method to evaluate the danger of hydrogen embrittlement due to hydrochloric acid pickling bathes and comparison of the effectiveness of pickling inhibitors; Entwicklung eines praxisgeeigneten Pruefverfahrens zur Bewertung des Wasserstoffgefaehrdungspotenzials von Salzsaeurebeizen und zum Vergleich der Wirksamkeit von Inhibitoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder-Rentrop, I.; Landgrebe, R.; Berger, C.; Hasselmann, U. [Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde, Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt Darmstadt, TU Darmstadt, Grafenstrasse 2, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Qualitaetssicherung beherrschbarer zu machen und moeglichst zu verbessern. Es wurde ein praxistaugliches Versuchsverfahren zur Prozessueberwachung inhibierter Beizen entwickelt. Bei dem Verfahren handelt es sich um einen Verspannversuch, der an Wellensicherungsringen (WSR) nach DIN 471 in einer hierfuer entwickelten Aufweitvorrichtung durchgefuehrt wird. Die Indikationssicherheit des Versuchsverfahrens wurde durch den Vergleich der Ergebnisse des Verspannversuches mit WSR mit den Ergebnissen aus anderen Untersuchungsverfahren, die mit den gleichen Salzsaeurebeizen erzielt wurden, belegt. Die ''Wiederholpraezision'' des Verspannversuches mit Wellensicherungsringen wurde durch uebereinstimmende Ergebnisse, die mit WSR aus unterschiedlichen Fertigungslosen und Waermebehandlungslosen erzielt wurden, belegt. Die Verspannversuche mit WSR eignen sich als praxistaugliches Pruefverfahren und zeichnen sich darueber hinaus durch einen geringen zeitlichen und materiellen Pruefaufwand, eine einfache Handhabung sowie einen robusten und fehlertoleranten Versuchsaufbau aus. Das im Rahmen des Projektes entwickelte, aus verschiedenen Versuchsfuehrungen bestehende Untersuchungsprogramm, ermoeglicht darueber hinaus die umfassende Bewertung geeigneter Inhibitoren fuer die Beizvorbehandlung hochfester vergueteter Verbindungselemente. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Design of a modular cogeneration plant to supply residential buildings; Dimensionierung eines Blockheizkraftwerkes zur Versorgung einer Wohnsiedlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, R.

    2000-03-01

    Excel tables are presented for fast integral calculation of all energetic and monetary parameters required for calculating the economic efficiency of a cogeneration plant. The Excel programming is more detailed than the method of calculation specified in VDI 2067 in that it also provides potential energy savings,carbon dioxide reduction and exergetic calculations. Influencing parameters like technical data, energy consumption data, fuel properties, and the cost structure of electricity and heat supply can be freely chosen so as to enable maximum parameter variation and an analysis of their influence on the result. [German] Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde ein Instrument in Form von Excel-Tabellen erstellt, das eine schnelle integrale Berechnung aller energetischen und monetaeren Ergebnisgroessen ermoeglicht, die beim Einsatz eines BHKW zur Versorgung einer Bedarfsstruktur im Vergleich zu einer konventionellen getrennten Energiebereitstellung von Interesse sind. Die Excel-Programmierung geht dabei ueber die Abbildung des in der VDI 2067 beschriebenen Berechnungsverfahrens hinaus und liefert neben der Berechnung der Waermebereitstellungskosten auch die Ermittlung von Energieeinspar-, CO{sub 2}-Minderungspotentialen sowie eine exergetische Betrachtung der Ergebnisse. Alle auf das Ergebnis einwirkende Parameter wie technische Anlagendaten, Energiebedarfswerte, Brennstoffeigenschaften, Kostenstruktur der Elektrizitaets- und Waermeversorgung u.a. sind prinzipiell frei waehlbar. So wurde sichergestellt, dass eine Variation verschiedener Parameter moeglich ist und deren Einfluss auf das Ergebnis analysiert werden kann. (orig.)

  14. Modulare und durchgängige Produktmodelle als Erfolgsfaktor zur Bedienung einer Omni-Channel-Architektur - PLM 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatchev, Julius; Felsmann, Marcus

    Mit der Transformation der Wertschöpfungsstrukturen von Utility 1.0 zu Utility 4.0 erfolgt offensichtlich auch eine Veränderung des Produkts. Vor dem Hintergrund disruptiver Technologien (IoT, Big Data, Cloud, Robotics etc.) und auch gesellschaftlicher Veränderungen entstehen ständig neue Geschäftsmodelle und Produkte, die über die reine Versorgungsdienstleistung (z. B. Strom) hinausgehen. Dabei muss der wertvolle Rohstoff Produktdaten für smarte Produkte durchgängiger und schneller nutzbar gemacht werden. Die modularen und durchgängigen Produktstrukturen leisten einen Beitrag zur Beherrschung von Komplexität und stellen somit einen wesentlichen Hebel für erfolgreiche Produktentwicklung und -management dar. In diesem Beitrag werden Ansätze beschrieben, wie es den vor der Herausforderung Utility 4.0 stehenden Unternehmen gelingen kann, Smart-Energy-Produkte so zu modellieren, dass sie die Interoperabilität der einzelnen Produktionsmodule sicherstellt und ein Ende-zu-Ende-Management ermöglicht.

  15. Study on the safety and on international developments of small modular reactors (SMR). Final report; Studie zur Sicherheit und zu internationalen Entwicklungen von Small Modular Reactors (SMR). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Sebastian; Kruessenberg, Anne; Schaffrath, Andreas; Zipper, Reinhard

    2015-05-15

    This report documents the work and results of the project RS1521 Study of Safety and International Development of Small Modular Reactors (SMR). The aims of this study can be summarized as - setting-up of a sound overview on SMR, - identification of essential issues of reactor safety research and future R and D projects, - identification of needs for adaption of system codes of GRS used in reactor safety research. The sound overview consists of the descriptions of in total 69 SMR (Small and Medium Sized Rector) concepts (32 light water reactors (LWR), 22 liquid metal cooled reactors (LMR), 2 heavy water reactors, 9 gas cooled reactors (GCR) and 4 molten salt reactors (MSR)). It provides information about the core, the cooling circuits and the safety systems. The quality of the given specifications depends on their availability and public accessibility. Using the safety requirements for nuclear power plants and the fundamental safety functions, the safety relevant issues of the described SMR concepts were identified. The systems and measures used in the safety requirements were summarized in table form. Finally it was evaluated whether these systems and measures can be already simulated with the nuclear simulation chain of GRS and where further code development and validation is necessary. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: Many of the current SMR concepts are based on integral design. Here the main components like steam generators, intermediate heat exchangers or - in case of forced convection core cooling - main cooling pumps are located within the reactor pressure vessel. Most of the SMR fulfil highest safety standards and their safety concepts are mainly based on passive safety systems. The safety of theses reactors is achieved indefinitely without energy supply or additional measures of the operators. Since SMR's aim is not only to produce electricity but also couple them with chemical or physical process plants, the safety aspects of

  16. Erstellung einer Checkliste zur Beurteilung des Arbeitsplatzes eines Physiotherapeuten nach ergonomischen Gesichtspunkten

    OpenAIRE

    Gauermann, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Einleitung: Arbeitsbedingte Erkrankungen des Muskel-Skelett-Systems sind unter Physiotherapeuten sehr häufig. Die präventive Forschung hat diese Berufsgruppe bisher kaum untersucht. In diesem Zusammenhang stellt die Veränderung des Arbeitsumfeldes einen vielversprechenden Ansatz für die Verhinderung arbeitsbedingter Erkrankungen dar. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Erstellung einer Checkliste zur Bewertung des Arbeitsplatzes eines Physiotherapeuten zu erstellen. Material und Methoden: ...

  17. IQM-Reifegradmodell für die Bewertung und Verbesserung des Information Lifecycle Management Prozesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baškarada, Saša; Gebauer, Marcus; Koronios, Andy; Gao, Jing

    Heutige Organisationen produzieren und speichern mehr Informationen als je zuvor. Der resultierende Informationsüberfluss, zusammen mit einem Mangel an Qualitätssicherung für das Information Lifecycle Management, führt zu einem unsicheren Status der Informationsqualität in vielen Organisationen. Weiterhin hat sich herausgestellt, dass das Bewerten, Verbessern und Steuern der Informationsqualität ein offenkundig schwieriges Unterfangen ist. Dieses Kapitel stellt ein Modell zur Bewertung und Verbesserung der Information Quality Management Capability Maturity (IQM-Reifegrad) vor. Es wird ein Satz von Kriterien vorgestellt, der aus Literaturrecherche und Fallstudien abgeleitet wurde. Die Reifegradindikatoren werden validiert und in einem mehrstufigen Reifegradmodell durch eine Delphi-Studie gruppiert. Das abgeleitete IQM-Reifegradmodell hilft Organisationen ihre bestehenden Praktiken im IQM zu bewerten und potentielle Lücken und Verbesserungsstrategien zu ermitteln.

  18. Fair Value Bewertung von zedierten Reserven

    OpenAIRE

    Heep-Altiner, Maria; Hoos, Sebastian; Krahforst, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Für Schadenreserven existieren keine hinreichend fungiblen Märkte und somit auch keine Marktpreise im klassischen Sinn. Für eine Fair Value Bewertung bedarf es also eines geeigneten Modellansatzes. In der Schadenversicherung wird üblicher- weise der Transaktionswert modelliert, wobei hier die korrekte Modellierung der Kapitalkosten einer der zentralen Punkte ist. Der Fair Value der zedierten Reserven kann als Differenz zwischen dem Fair Value der Bruttoreserven und dem Fair Value der Nettores...

  19. Evaluation of lung cancer risk from radon in homes. Smoking plays the important part; Bewertung des Lungenkrebsrisikos durch Wohnungsradon. Lungenkrebsrisiko ausschliesslich durch Rauchen verursacht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1999-07-01

    Studies of lung cancer risk from the beginning of the century until today are investigated and evaluated. The result shows that the risk in homes with Radon exposure is determined exclusively by the amount of smoking. Further studies of the lung cancer risk from Radon therefore should exclusively treat with non-smokers. (orig.) [German] Studien zum Lungenkrebsrisiko durch Radon vom Anfang dieses Jahrhunderts bis heute werden untersucht und bewertet. Das Ergebnis zeigt, dass das Lungenkrebsrisiko in Wohnungen mit Radonexpositionen ausschliesslich durch den Umfang des Zigarettenrauchens bestimmt wird. Untersuchungen zur Bewertung des Lungenkrebsrisikos durch Radon sollten daher ausschliesslich bei Nichtrauchern durchgefuehrt werden. (orig.)

  20. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  1. Bewertung von Fahrzeuggeräuschen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuit, Klaus; Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Fiebig, André; Haverkamp, Michael

    Bei der Wahrnehmung und Beurteilung eines Automobils sind unzählige Merkmale und Eigenschaften von Bedeutung. Dabei können Merkmale objektiv-technisch beschrieben werden, wie Angaben zur Motorisierung, Höchstgeschwindigkeit, Drehmoment, zulässige Zuladung, Verbrauch usw. Daneben sind weitere Eigenschaften von Bedeutung, die sich einer einfachen objektiv-technischen Beschreibung entziehen. Hier sind Begriffe zu nennen, wie Sicherheit, allgemeine Qualitätsanmutung, Design, Ergonomie, Komfort, Haptik, Fahrdynamik, Zuverlässigkeit, die deutlich schwieriger objektiv erfassbar und beschreibbar sind (Abb. 4.1).

  2. Particle reduction strategies - PAREST. Evaluation of emission reduction scenarios using chemical transport calculations. Traffic model TREMOD and traffic model TREMOVE. Sub-report.; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. Bewertung von Emissionsminderungsszenarien mit Hilfe chemischer Transportberechnungen. Verkehrsmodell TREMOD und Verkehrsmodell TREMOVE. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Rainer [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Troposphaerische Umweltforschung

    2013-06-15

    ;'Einfuehrung einer Grenzwertstufe Euro VI fuer schwere Nutzfahrzeuge'' und ''Bestehende Lkw-Maut inkl. Foerderung der Anschaffung emissionsaermerer SNF'' in das Referenzszenario integriert sind und nicht mehr als zusaetzliche Massnahme behandelt werden (Joerss et al., 2010). Alternativ zu TREMOD 4.17M wurden im Rahmen des Projekts auch Emissionsdatensaetze erstellt, in denen die Verkehrsemissionen mit dem Modell TREMOVE, Version 2.7 berechnet wurden (Kugler et al., 2010). TREMOVE ist das Verkehrsmodell, das von der Europaeischen Kommission fuer die Entwicklung von Verkehrsszenarien verwendet wird. Dieser Bericht dokumentiert die Unterschiede zwischen den Immissionsverteilungen von PM10 und NO{sub 2}, die sich durch die Anwendung des europaeischen Verkehrsmodells ergeben. Betrachtet werden die Referenz 2005, die den Ist-Zustand fuer das Jahr 2005 beschreibt und die Referenz 2020, die den Emissionszustand beschreibt, der nach Umsetzung jetzt bereits beschlossener Massnahmen im Jahr 2020 erreicht werden soll. Die mit TREMOVE 2.7 berechneten Auspuffemissionen fuer die Stoffe NO{sub x}, SO2 und PM10 sind deutlich hoeher und fuer die Kohlenwasserstoffe deutlich niedriger als die mit TREMOD 4.17M berechneten Emissionen. Beim PM10 gibt es in der Summe nur geringe Aenderungen, da die hoeheren PM10-Auspuffemissionen von TREMOVE durch die niedrigeren PM10-Emissionen durch Brems- und Reifenabrieb kompensiert werden. Die relativen Abnahmen von 2005 nach 2020 fallen nach TREMOVE fuer die Auspuffemissionen niedriger aus als bei TREMOD. Diese Unterschiede fuehren bei den Gesamtemissionen fuer Deutschland in der Referenz 2005 mit TREMOVE im Vergleich zur Referenz mit TREMOD zu circa 13% hoeheren NO{sub x}-Emissionen und 2% niedrigeren PM10-Emissionen. Fuer die Referenz 2020 berechnen sich auf Basis von TREMOVE in Deutschland circa 23% hoehere NO{sub x}-Emissionen und 4% niedrigere PM10-Emissionen.

  3. Remediation measures at the former hazardous waste dump at Malsch near Heidelberg; Sanierung der ehemaligen Sonderabfalldeponie Malsch. Hydrogeologische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanstein, P.; Hoetzl, H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    1998-12-31

    durchlaessige Einschaltungen in die tonig mergelige Folge, die durch Stoerungen hydraulisch miteinander verknuepft waren. Zur Sanierung wurde mit einem Kostenaufwand von ueber 100 Mio. DM eine Zweiphasen-Dichtwand, eine neue kombinierte Oberflaechenabdichtung und wegen der fehlenden Basisabdichtung eine Deponie-interne Drainage mit Sickerwasserentnahme eingerichtet. Begleitend zur Sanierung wurden 3-dimensionale Modellberechnungen zur Grundwasserstroemung im Bereich der Deponie fuer unterschiedliche Sicherungsmassnahmen sowie 2-dimensionale Modelle zur Bewertung des Schadstoffabstroms im Grundwasserleiter vorgenommen. Trotz der fehlenden Basisabdichtung konnte die Effektivitaet der Massnahme im Deponiebereich nachgewiesen und Optimierungsmoeglichkeiten aufgezeigt werden. Fuer das Umfeld konnten die recht guenstigen hydrogeologischen Barriereeigenschaften mit der geringen Schadstoffausbreitung herausgearbeitet werden. (orig.)

  4. Die Potenziale des Deprival Value-Konzepts zur entscheidungsorientierten Bewertung von Kapital in liberalisierten Netzindustrien

    OpenAIRE

    Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Die Liberalisierung der Netzindustrien hat das Interesse an den konzeptionellen Grundlagen der Kapitalkostenermittlung wiederbelebt. Im Mittelpunkt dieses Beitrags steht eine dieser Grundlagen: Das Deprival Value-Konzept. Es wird aufgezeigt, dass es sich hierbei um ein ökonomisch fundiertes Bewertungskonzept handelt, das sich sowohl in stationären als auch in nicht-stationären Bewertungskontexten konsistent als Referenzpunkt verwenden lässt. Die Kontextabhängigkeit der Deprival Value-Ermittlu...

  5. Ein dynamisches Multi-Akteurs-Modell zur integrierten Bewertung des Klimawandels

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, M.

    2004-01-01

    The interactions between climate and the socio-economic system are investigated with a Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM) obtained by coupling a nonlinear impulse response model of the climate sub-system (NICCS) to a multi-actor dynamic economic model (MADEM). The main goal is to initiate a model development that is able to treat the dynamics of the coupled climate socio-economic system, including endogenous technological change, in a non-equilibrium situation, thereby o...

  6. Economic evaluation of system concepts for biowaste fermentation; Wirtschaftliche Bewertung von Anlagenkonzepten zur Bioabfallvergaerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchmann, Tino; Rensberg, Nadja [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Currently, the utilization of biowaste from separate waste collection as well as industrial organic waste and waste from the food industry are of little significance for biogas generation in Germany. Nevertheless, the number of biogas plants that exclusively or predominantly digest biowaste and organic waste continues to grow. With regard to the biogas plants that have come into operation since 2012 as well as plants that are still under construction or in planning, it becomes apparent that the utilization of biowaste and green waste from separate collection for biogas generation plays an increasingly important role. By the end of 2014, about 140 plants generating biogas from organic waste digestion have been in operation. 83 of these plants use municipal biowaste from separate waste collection. According to the DBFZ database, 68 biogas plants are digestion plants that exclusively or predominantly use biowaste under the terms of paragraph 27a Renewable Energy Sources Act of 2012/ paragraph 45 Renewable Energy Sources Act of 2014. Due to the introduction of direct marketing and flexibility premium of renewable energy by the Renewable Energy Act 2012 (EEG 2012), incentives were created to favour a more demand-oriented power supply from biogas plants. The decision for such an operational mode depends on on-site conversion units on the economic outcome of the plants throughout the whole operating time. From an economic perspective, a duplication of the installed electrical capacity seems to be the most beneficial option for a transition to a demand-driven operation mode of an average biogas model plant under the current legal framework (EEG 2012).

  7. Objective parameters for engine noise quality evaluation; Objektive Parameter zur Bewertung der Motorgeraeuschqualitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Bernhard; Brandl, Stephan [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria); Sontacchi, Alois [Univ. fuer Musik und Darstellende Kunst, Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Elektronische Musik und Akustik; Girstmair, Josef [Kompetenzzentrum Das Virtuelle Fahrzeug, Graz (Austria). Gruppe Antriebsstrang Dynamik und Akustik

    2013-06-01

    Due to ongoing downsizing efforts and more stringent emission regulations, relevance of sound quality monitoring during engine and vehicle development is strongly increasing. Therefore AVL developed new sound quality parameters like CKI (Combustion Knocking Index) and HI (Harshness Index). Using these parameters sound quality can be objectively monitored, without subjective evaluations, online throughout the complete development process. (orig.)

  8. Ecological valuation of mechanic-biological waste treatment and waste combustion on the basis of energy balances and air pollutant balances; Oekologische Bewertung der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung und der Muellverbrennung auf Basis von Energie- und Schadgasbilanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallmann, R.

    1999-04-01

    The work aims at an ecological valuation of air pollutant emissions and energy consumption as particularly relevant aspects of waste treatment and waste combustion plants, based on new scientific results, in order to draw up ecological budgets and make system comparisons in waste treatment. The target set is particularly effectively achieved by the following: documentation and scientific derivation of relevant boundary conditions, careful surveying and data processing for the purpose of making up an ecological budget, and objective valuation and interpretation of results. The high transparency of the methodics should be emphasized. They make the results obtained conclusive and verifiable. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die oekologische Bewertung der besonders relevanten Aspekte Abluftemissionen und Energieverbrauch von MBA und MVA auf Basis aktueller Forschungsergebnisse als Grundlage fuer Oekobilanzen und Systemvergleiche zur Restabfallbehandlung. Diese Zielvorgabe wird durch die Dokumentation und wissenschaftliche Herleitung relevanter Rahmenbedingungen, sorgfaeltige Erhebung und Aufbereitung der Daten unter Gesichtspunkten der Erstellung einer Oekobilanz und letztendlich aufgrund der objektiven Bewertung und Interpretation der Ergebnisse im besonderen Masse erreicht. Besonders hervorzuheben hierbei ist die hohe Transparenz bei der methodischen Vorgehensweise. Die ermittelten Ergebnisse sind somit nachvollziehbar und ueberpruefbar. (orig.)

  9. Modular implicits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo White

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present modular implicits, an extension to the OCaml language for ad-hoc polymorphism inspired by Scala implicits and modular type classes. Modular implicits are based on type-directed implicit module parameters, and elaborate straightforwardly into OCaml's first-class functors. Basing the design on OCaml's modules leads to a system that naturally supports many features from other languages with systematic ad-hoc overloading, including inheritance, instance constraints, constructor classes and associated types.

  10. Service Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the studies on service modularity with a goal of informing service science and advancing contemporary service systems research. Modularity, a general systems property, can add theoretical underpinnings to the conceptual development of service science...... in general and service systems in particular. Our research is guided by the following question: how can modularity theory inform service system design? We present a review of the modularity literature and associated concepts. We then introduce the contemporary service science and service system discourse...

  11. Water pollution potential of mineral oils with high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extracts); Untersuchungen zur Wassergefaehrdung durch Mineraloele mit hohen Gehalten an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (Heizoel Schwer und Extrakte)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, G. [Mobil Schmierstoff GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-01-01

    A data base on highly aromatic mineral oils has been compiled to classify mineral oil products according to their water-pollution potential (water hazard class or Wassergefaehrdungsklasse, WGK). This activity has been undertaken through the Commission for Water Hazardous Materials (Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe, KBwS). In this special case, highly aromatic mineral oils containing a high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, PAK) were evaluated. A test method for measuring the elution potential of PAK into water was developed on petroleum products with high viscosity and high freeze point. This method was applied to determine the solubility of 23 PAK (including 16 PAK according to EPA 610 and 6 PAK according to the German drinking water regulation (Trinkwasserverordnung, TVO)) from heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extract in the aqueous phase. For the 6 PAK, according to TVO, a sum limit of 0,2 {mu}g/l in drinking water is permitted by German legislation. This limit was not exceeded in any of the water phases examined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Einstufung von Mineraloelprodukten in die Wassergefaehrdungsklassen (WGK) durch die Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe ist es notwendig, Basisdaten zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Im speziellen Fall handelt es sich um die Bewertung von Mineraloelen, die sich durch einen hohen Gehalt an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) auszeichnen. Zur Eluierbarkeit von PAK`s aus Produkten mit hoher Viskosiaet bzw. mit hohem Stockpunkt wurde eine Pruefmethode entwickelt. Diese Methode wurde zur Bestimmung der Loeslichkeit von 23 PAK`s (16 PAK`s nach EPA-Liste incl. 6 PAK`s der TVO) aus den Mineraloelen Heizoel Schwer und Neutralextrakt in der Wasserphase eingesetzt. Fuer die PAK der TVO ist in der TVO ein Summengrenzwert von 0,2 {mu}g/l Trinkwasser angegeben. Dieser Grenzwert wurde in keiner der untersuchten Wasserphasen ueberschritten. (orig.)

  12. Eco-balance of co-treatment of residues in digestion tanks; Oekobilanzielle Bewertung der Mitbehandlung von Abfaellen in Faulbehaeltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, H.; Knappe, F.; Vogt, R. [ifeu - Inst. fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung gGmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The activities of the regional government of Northrhine-Westfalia concerning a regulating framework for the co-fermentation of several types of biological waste in sewage plants comprise a LCA-type valuation. This shall illuminate the ecological pros and cons of this way of treatment related to the casual alternatives (e.g. composting or waste fermentation). The LCA has been adopted to waste management belongings. The results show an ecological equivalency between the co-fermentation and its alternative ways of recovery for most of the investigated types of waste. Especially those which arose by food production. A co-fermentation of municipal biowaste turns out to be relatively disadvantageous. Strong influence is due to the single case frame conditions like the content of pollutants, the way of sewage sludge disposal, technical conditions of the sewage plant, even also distances of delivery. (orig.) [German] Die Aktivitaeten des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen zur Regelung der Mitbehandlung diverser biogener Abfaelle in Faulbehaeltern von Klaeranlagen wurden durch eine umfassende oekobilanzielle Bewertung begleitet. Dabei galt es, die oekologische Sinnhaftigkeit dieser Art der Verwertung im Vergleich zu den ueblichen Entsorgungsalternativen je nach Abfall zu bestaetigen bzw. zu widerlegen. Als Bewertungsmethode wurde der Oekobilanzansatz mit Anpassung an abfallwirtschaftliche Fragestellungen herangezogen. Im Ergebnis zeigt sich die Co-Fermentation bei vielen Abfaellen - insbesondere solchen aus der Nahrungsmittelproduktion - den Alternativen gegenueber (z.B. der Kompostierung oder der Nassvergaerung) als oekologisch gleichwertig. Vergleichsweise unguenstig ist die Situation dagegen bei haeuslichem Bioabfall. Die Randbedingungen der Verwertung sind im Einzelfall vielfach von entscheidendem Einfluss auf das Oekobilanzergebnis, wie z.B. der konkrete Schadstoffgehalt, die Art der Klaerschlammentsorgung, technische Randbedingungen auf den Klaeranlagen, aber auch

  13. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  14. Development of a modular and scalable sensor system for the gathering of position and orientation of moved objects; Entwicklung eines modularen und skalierbaren Sensorsystems zur Erfassung von Position und Orientierung bewegter Objekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingbeil, L.

    2006-02-15

    A modular and scalable sensor system for the estimation of position and orientation of moving objects has been developed and characterized. A sensor unit, which is mounted to the moving object, consists of acceleration -, angular rate - and magnetic field sensors for every spatial axis. Customized Kalman filter algorithms provide a robust and low latency reconstruction of the sensor's orientation. Additionally an ultrasound transducer network is used to measure the distance of a sensor unit with respect to several reference points in the room. This allows reconstruction of the absolute position using trilateration methods. The system is scalable with respect to the number of sensor units and the covered tracking volume. It is suitable for various applications for example the analysis of body movements or head tracking in augmented or virtual reality environments. (orig.)

  15. Modular entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-02-04

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  16. Technical, economic and environmental aspects of regional waste management networks - the example of thermal disposal of sewage sludge; Zur technisch-wirtschaftlichen und umweltgerechten Ausgestaltung von standort- und betriebsuebergreifenden Entsorgungsnetzwerken - Konkretisiert am Beispiel der thermischen Klaerschlammentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasse, H.

    2000-07-01

    The author attempted to develop a tool for economic and ecological design of regional waste management networks. His investigation was based on the current attempts at developing regional solutions at minimal cost, which are modified to meet the desired goal and will include a method for regional environmental assessment. [German] Neben der Wirtschaftlichkeit ist entsprechend der im Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz verankerten Regelungen auch die Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Verwertung, Abfallbeseitigung und Abfallvermeidung gefordert. Zur Entscheidungsunterstuetzung bei der strategischen Planung zukuenftiger Entsorgungskonzepte sind somit Instrumente erforderlich, die es ermoeglichen, auf regionaler Ebene firmenuebergreifende Entsorgungsstrukturen zu entwickeln sowie diese oekonomisch und oekologisch im Sinne des KrW/-AbfG zu optimieren und zu bewerten. Derartige umfassende Planungsinstrumente zum Stoffstrommanagement stehen derzeit nicht oder nur in Ansaetzen zur Verfuegung. Fuer die vorliegende Arbeit wurde die Entsorgung von kommunalem Klaerschlamm in Baden-Wuerttemberg als Untersuchungsgegenstand ausgewaehlt. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, ein Planungsinstrument zur oekonomischen und oekologischen Ausgestaltung standortuebergreifender Entsorgungsnetzwerke zu entwickeln. Ausgangspunkt dafuer sind bisherige Ansaetze zur Entwicklung kostenminimaler regionaler Gesamtloesungen, die an die geschilderte Problematik angepasst und die in geeigneter Weise um eine Methodik zur umweltbezogenen Bewertung erweitert werden sollen. (orig.)

  17. Detailed data set of a large administration building as a validation model for DIN V18599-software; Umfangreicher Validierungsdatensatz eines grossen Verwaltungsgebaeudes fuer Software zur DIN V 18599

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoettges, Kirsten; Woessner, Simon; de Boer, Jan; Erhorn, Hans [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik (IBP), Abt. Energiesysteme, Kassel (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik (IBP), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    The calculation method of DIN V 18599 represents a very complex model for the estimation of the energy efficiency of buildings. The method is used for certificates too, thus, the number of users is quite high. This fact and the complexity of the method causes high demands on the related software products. Most of the end user software tools work with the calculation engine ibp18599kernel developed by Fraunhofer-Institut for Building Physics. There is a continuous quality control for both, the kernel and the user interfaces, i.e. the end user software. This paper gives an overview of the process of quality control as well as a documentation of a validation model used within this process, i.e. a complex administration building as a sample. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Mit dem Berechnungsverfahren der DIN V 18599 liegt ein umfassendes Berechnungsmodell fuer die energetische Bewertung von Gebaeuden vor. Der grosse Umfang der Verfahren stellt auch an die softwaretechnischen Umsetzungen fuer die Planungspraxis hohe Anforderungen. Das Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik hat hierzu den Rechenkern ibp18599kernel entwickelt, der zwischenzeit-lich von zahlreichen Softwarehaeusern fuer Endanwendungsprogramme zur energetischen Bewertung und Erstellung von Energieausweisen eingesetzt wird. Dieser ''Rechenmotor'' unterliegt einer steten Qualitaetskontrolle zur Sicherstellung der Berechnungsgenauigkeit. Der vorliegende Aufsatz stellt den Prozess der Qualitaetssicherung anhand eines neuen Validierungsbeispiels in Form eines komplexen Verwaltungsgebaeudes vor. Die Fallstudie kann auch zur Validierung anderer Berechnungssysteme, die nicht auf dem Rechenkern basieren, genutzt werden. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Development of probabilistic methods for safety assessment of nuclear power plants; Weiterentwicklung probabilistischer Methoden zur Sicherheitsbeurteilung von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balfanz, H.P. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Norddeutschland e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Boehme, E. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Norddeutschland e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Fuhrmann, C. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Norddeutschland e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Musekamp, W. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Norddeutschland e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Neumann, L. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Norddeutschland e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Rumpf, J. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Norddeutschland e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    We have worked out a comprehensive analytical concept for CCF event evaluation which is based on the international experience on the analysis of dependent failures and our own experiences from evaluating plant operation. The concept was discussed with utilities in Germany and from abroad. The CCF approach differs from other methods because it is strictly structured according to the CCF events and independent from any CCF model which is used in a PSA. Because of this attribute the concept is due to be used in the operational reviewing process by plant staff. We have an ongoing discussion with utilities on how to integrate this concept in practical plant site use. In addition we have recommended to adapt the main features of this concept in the PSA guideline. Plant management factors: Evaluations in different industries reveal a strong impact of organisational and management factors on the course of severe accidents. Because these factors cannot explicitly be measured they are not treated in a PSA today. Comprehensive development work is under way to gain an improved insight into the influence of these risk relevant factors. These activities are specifically aimed at root cause analyses of accidents, e.g. to uncover hidden organisational and management factors. NPP staff should be integrated in this analysis process. Living PSA application can play an important role in this development process. (orig./DG) [Deutsch] Auf der Grundlage des internationalen Erfahrungsstandes zur Analyse von abhaengigen Komponentenausfaellen und aufgrund unserer Erfahrungen aus der laufenden Auswertung des Kraftwerksbetriebes haben wir ein umfassendes Analysekonzept zur GVA-Datenerfassung erstellt und mit Kraftwerksbetreibern im In- und Ausland diskutiert. Dieses Konzept zeichnet sich im Unterschied zu anderen Ansaetzen durch die vom GVA-Modell unabhaengige ereignisbezogene GVA-Bewertung aus. Es ist daher von Kraftwerksbetreibern vorgesehen, dieses Konzept im Kraftwerksbetrieb bei der

  19. Modularizing development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Doucette, Jamie

    a deeper and wider understanding of Korea’s development experience with the hope that Korea’s past can offer lessons for developing countries in search of sustainable and broad‐based development" (KSP 2011). To do so, the KSP provides users with a modularized set of policy narratives that represent Korea...

  20. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  1. Die Transition zur pflegenden Tochter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Dräger

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch aus der Reihe „Studien zur Gesundheits- und Pflegewissenschaft“ beschreibt den theoretischen Hintergrund, das methodische Vorgehen und die Ergebnisse einer biografischen Untersuchung, die sich dem Übergang von der Tochter zur pflegenden Tochter widmete. Grundlage der Publikation ist die Dissertation (2002 der Autorin. Mit der Berücksichtigung biographischer und familiärer Hintergründe wird eine neue Perspektive in der Forschung zu pflegenden Angehörigen eingenommen.

  2. Zur Entwicklung eines interaktiven Verfahrens der Sprachstandsermittlung bei mehrsprachig aufwachsenden Kindern – von der Idee zu ersten Umsetzungsschritten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Roche et al.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag skizziert ein Konzept zur Sprachstandsermittlung, das aufbauend auf Ergebnissen der gebrauchsbasierten Spracherwerbsforschung die sprachlichen Fähigkeiten von Vorschulkindern in quasi-natürlichen Gesprächssituationen misst. Den Maßstab bilden dabei die altersgemäßen Deutschkompetenzen monolingualer und bilingualer Kinder im Vorschulalter. Mit dem neuen Verfahren soll eine akkurate Bewertung der kommunikativen Kompetenzen der Kinder am Übergang zur Schule erfolgen, die eine systematische Benachteiligung mehrsprachig aufwachsender Kinder aufgrund von Vergleichen mit zielsprachlichen Erwachsenennormen vermeidet. Das neuartige Erhebungsverfahren wird dabei in Form einer digitalen Spielumgebung (App entwickelt, die eine Umsetzung der Prinzipien des handlungsorientierten Sprachenlernens erlaubt. This paper presents the implementation of a new concept of first and second language assessment for pre-school children between four and six years. The concept is theoretically grounded in usage-based linguistics. It assesses language in authentic communicative settings in a game based app. The settings provide the children with incentives to engage in communication. As a result, the assessment tool does not evaluate formal aspects of language. Instead it relies on functional categories for evaluation. Norms for evaluations are derived from longitudinal corpus studies of authentic child language production. The goal of the new approach is to generate an accurate and fair assessments of the children’s communicative capacities. Pilot studies indicate that children with L2 German appear to be more advanced than shown by traditional form-based assessment methods.

  3. Simulation on the consumption-oriented evaluation of ventilation concepts for buses; Simulation zur verbrauchsorientierten Bewertung von Omnibus-Klimatisierungskonzepten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Christian; Foersterling, Sven; Strupp, Christian; Lemke, Nicholas [TLK Thermo GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Sonnekalb, Michael [Konvekta AG, Schwalmstadt (Germany); Koehler, Juergen [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents different air conditioning system and climate control concepts for buses. These concepts are investigated based on a complete vehicle simulation in order to perform a close-to-reality assessment. The effects of various control strategies are examined in a comparative approach using boundary conditions which are based on on-the-road-relevant test cycles and climatic conditions. The focus of this study is the evaluation of the total energy consumption. Moreover, an analysis of air conditioning systems with conventional and natural refrigerants is presented (R-134a and R-744). Based on simulation results, a high fuel-saving concept is developed and tested in a virtual test drive, in order to present a specific method of control strategy evaluation with transient boundary and environmental conditions. (orig.)

  4. Development of a software tool for evaluating driving assistance systems; Entwicklung eines Softwaretools zur Bewertung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marstaller, R.; Bubb, H. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ergonomie

    2002-07-01

    The increase in road safety in Germany could for example be indicated by the reducing number of seriously injured and killed people (/6/) in spite of increasing number of cars and total amount of kilometres. The selective measures therefore are based on four points: Improvement of active and passive security, direct and indirect psychological measures. While developing systems, which assist drivers on the guidance level, the question of safety of these measures more and more occurs. This led to the development of software, which contains a so called normative driver model, and compares actual driving data with this model. Thereby, situations can be identified, which deviate from the situational normative model, and consequently could be classified as critical. The practical application to driving data with active assistance systems with regulation in longitudinal and lateral direction showed significant improvement of driving safety in comparison to data without system usage. (orig.)

  5. Ecological assessment of agricultural co-substrates for biogas production; Oekologische Bewertung der Bereitstellung landwirtschaftlicher Kosubstrate zur Biogaserzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploechl, M; Heiermann, M [Abt. Technikbewertung und Stoffkreislauefe, Inst. fuer Agrartechnik Bomim, Potsdam (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the results of simplified life cycle assessments (LCA) of the cultivation of a variety of crops suitable for biogas production. The simplification refers to that only greenhouse gases and the cumulated energy requirements (CER) are regarded. The values for the greenhouse gas emissions expressed as CO{sub 2} equivalents are around 130 g CO{sub 2}eq.kg{sup -1} ODM with lowest value of 75.5 g CO{sub 2}eq.kg{sup -1} ODM for hemp (Cannabis sativa) and the highest value of 170 g CO{sub 2}eq.kg{sup -1} ODM for rape (Brassica napus). Considering electric power as final product and referring therefore on kWh as unit the differences become even greater, mainly because of the different methane production potentials. On this basis the lowest value amounts to 84 g CO{sub 2}eq.kWh{sup -1} for alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and the highest value amounts to 438 g CO{sub 2}eq.kWh{sup -1} for rape. This general trend that the LCA identifies hemp, forage grass (Dactylis, Lolium and Festuca species), alfalfa, and maize (Zea mays) to have a low ecologic input and rape to have a high ecologic input is confirmed regarding the CER. The CER values are lowest with 0.82 MJ.kWh{sup -1} for maize and forage grass and highest with 3.47 MJ.kWh{sup -1} for rape. (orig.)

  6. Identification and evaluation of factors influencing the timing of dismantling projects; Identifizierung und Bewertung von Einflussfaktoren zur Terminsteuerung bei Rueckbauprojekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emami-Far, Hedjeh [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Abt. Technologie und Management des Rueckbaus Kerntechnischer Anlagen (TMRK)

    2013-07-01

    The problem of reactor dismantling projects is the amount of overshooting with respect to the planned project time. The question on the origin of this fact is raised together with the possibility of an early problem identification and possible counter measures to fulfill the timing plan. The main issues for the interrogation of personnel, specialists and operators were organization, competence preservation and technology concerning conditioning, storage/disposal and licensing procedures. The contribution includes details on the questions and the evaluation of answers including recommendations for the future approach.

  7. Erarbeitung eines geisteswissenschaftlichen Wachstums- und Fortpflanzungsbegriffs als Grundlage zur Bewertung aktueller Methoden der Pflanzenvermehrung und –züchtung

    OpenAIRE

    Fleck, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Im Vergleich mit den allgemeinen Wachstumsvorgängen in der Natur, die jedem Menschen aus dem Miterleben des Jahreslaufes bekannt sind, verlaufen die generativen Prozesse (Fortpflanzung) im Pflanzenbereich sehr unanschaulich und im Verborgenen. Dennoch beeinflusst deren Verständnis in immer stärkerem Maße unser gesamtes Leben, indem der Mensch über die verschiedenen angewandten Verfahren der Pflanzenzüchtung die auf diesem Wege erzeugten Produkte (Saatgut) als Grundlage für die Erzeugung seine...

  8. Graphite-modified cooling ceiling. A comparative evaluation of the performance; Graphitmodifizierte Kuehldecken. Eine vergleichende Bewertung zur Leistungsfaehigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, Gerd [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart (Germany); Hausladen, Gerhard [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Ingenieurbuero Hausladen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Jacobsen, Cornelia; Hutter, Christina; Hanusch, Christoph [Ingenieurbuero Hausladen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Schlitzberger, Stephan [Ingenieurbuero fuer Bauphysik Prof. Dr. Hauser GmbH, Kassel (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    In most cases, the utilization of graphite-modified building materials enhances their thermal conductivity. Thus, chilled ceiling systems achieve an enhanced thermal absorption in comparison to commercial chilled ceiling systems. For this, a simulation for the estimation of the thermal comfort as well as for the quantification of the impacts on the demand of electricity for the refrigeration is performed. The enhanced cooling capacity of the graphite-modified cooling ceiling 'Ecophit' affects the operation positively.

  9. Investigations of microbial regeneration of abandoned mining land. Project 1: Leachate reduction in ore mining regions with high levels of heavy metal sulfides. Final report 2000; Untersuchungen zur mikrobiellen Sicherung von Bergbaualtlasten. Teilvorhaben 1: Laugungsreduzierung in Schwermetallsulfid-belasteten Erzbergbauregionen. Abschlussbericht 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, W.; Jozsa, P.G.; Schippers, A.

    2001-02-01

    The project was aimed at the development of an optimized catalogue of measures for regeneration and reclamation of polluted mining land. Reports were published in 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998. This report summarizes the work of 1999 and 2000. A catalogue of measures is proposed on the basis of the results. [German] Ziel des Projektes ist die Erarbeitung eines optimierten Massnahmenpaketes zur Sicherung und Sanierung von Bergbaualtlasten, die durch mikrobiologische Sauerwasserbildung und Schwermetallmobilisierung Boeden und Gewaesser kontaminieren. Die Problematik und der Stand der Kenntnisse sowie erste Ergebnisse der Bestandsaufnahmen wurden in den Jahresberichten 1995 und 1996 sowie im Fortsetzungsantrag ausfuehrlich dargestellt. Ueber die Versuchsergebnisse der Jahre 1997 und 1998 wurde bereits berichtet. Im Folgenden werden die in den Jahren 1999 und 2000 erzielten Ergebnisse zusammengefasst und eine Bewertung der Projektarbeit vorgenommen. Abschliessend wird ein Massnahmenkatalog vorgeschlagen, der bei der Planung und Durchfuehrung von Sanierungsaufgaben an Bergbaualtlasten den Anwendern die aus mikrobiologischer Sicht zu beruecksichtigenden Aspekte mit Loesungsmoeglichkeiten gebuendelt zur Verfuegung stellt. (orig.)

  10. AES Modular Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project will demonstrate and infuse modular power electronics, batteries, fuel cells, and autonomous control for exploration...

  11. A method for efficient evaluation of measures for climate optimization of air traffic; Eine Methode zur effizienten Bewertung vo Massnahmen zur Klimaoptimierung des Luftverkehrs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlmann, Katrin

    2012-11-01

    For calculating the climate impact of aviation it is important to consider the effect of so-called non-CO{sub 2} emissions beside the climate effect of carbon dioxide emissions. As the impact of these non-CO{sub 2} emissions strongly depends on the location of the emission, the climate impact is no longer proportional to the total amount of emissions. Therefore it is necessary to use an efficient model which considers the impact of different climate agents as well as their geographically variable impact for calculating the climate impact of aviation emissions. Such a model (AirClim) was expanded to consider primary mode ozone and contrail-cirrus as well as uncertainties in the evaluation of different measures by using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Afterward the mitigation gain of changing flight altitude and speed of nowadays aircrafts was evaluated. This shows that it would be possible to reduce the climate impact by more than 60% by optimizing the flight altitude and speed, leading to an increase in direct operating costs by 32%. A one percentage increase in direct operating cost can results in a 12% reduction in climate impact. (orig.)

  12. Fracking for shale gas production. A contribution to its assessment from the viewpoints of energy and environmental policy; Fracking zur Schiefergasgewinnung. Ein Beitrag zur energie- und umweltpolitischen Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    Shale gas is natural gas that is bound in unconventional reservoirs and can only be extracted by hydraulic fracturing, also referred to as fracking. This technology involves the high-pressure injection of water containing various additives into the gas-containing rock formation. This creates cracks in the rock, making it more permeable and allowing the gas to rise up to the surface. In its present opinion the German Advisory Council on the Environment sees the need for a differentiated view on the opportunities and risks of shale gas production by fracking. It advocates taking a bird's eye perspective that includes aspects of both energy and environmental policy.

  13. Umfrage zur RDA-Einführung in der Universitätsbibliothek Trier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Unkhoff-Giske

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nach fast einem Jahr praktischer Erfahrung mit dem neuen Regelwerk wurde in der Universitätsbibliothek Trier eine Umfrage zur Einführung von „Resource Description and Access (RDA“ durchgeführt. Dabei ging es um den Katalogisierungsalltag: die Sicherheit im Umgang mit RDA und dem Toolkit, die Informationsversorgung, Änderungen beim Arbeitsaufwand, die Bewertung der RDA-Regelungen, insbesondere des neuen Prinzips „Cataloguer’s judgement“ und die persönliche Einstellung gegenüber dem Regelwerksumstieg. Die Ergebnisse der 20 Fragen werden im folgenden Beitrag vorgestellt und analysiert. Die Umfrage führte zu überraschend positiven Erkenntnissen, deckte aber auch Problemfelder auf, die der Nachbearbeitung bedürfen. After almost a year of practical experience with the new cataloguing standard, a survey on the implementation of “Resource Description and Access (RDA” was carried out at the University Library of Trier. It focused on everyday cataloguing: the confidence in dealing with RDA and the Toolkit, the supply of information, changes in the amount of work, the evaluation of the RDA rules, in particular the new principle “cataloguer’s judgement”, and the personal attitudes towards the change of the cataloguing code. The results of the 20 questions are presented and analysed in the following article. The survey led to surprisingly positive findings, but also uncovered problem areas that require follow-up work.

  14. Application of fracture mechanics to weldments; Bruchmechanische Bewertung von Schweissverbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbst, U.; Kocak, M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung; Huebner, P. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Weldments have been a major topic of engineering fracture mechanics research for many years as it shows up in the immense number of scientific papers published recently. Part of this generated knowledge has already been implemented in some industrial codes and standards. The focussing on weldments has its own reason in the utmost importance of this class of components in many industrial fields, but also in its susceptibility to the formation of defects during manufacturing and cracks in service, which promotes the danger of component failure. The present report is addressed to designers and material testers to provide updated information on the present state-of-the-art of fracture mechanics application to weldments. (orig.) [German] Schweissverbindungen bilden seit vielen Jahren einen Schwerpunkt der anwendungsnahen bruchmechanischen Forschung, was seinen Niederschlag in einer nahezu unuebersehbaren Fuelle an wissenschaftlichen Publikationen findet. Ein Teil der Ergebnisse hat bereits Eingang in industrienahe bruchmechanische Bewertungsvorschriften gefunden. Die Konzentration auf Schweissverbindungen hat ihre Ursache in der immensen Bedeutung dieser Bauteilklasse fuer viele Gebiete der Volkswirtschaft, aber auch in ihrer besonderen Anfaelligkeit zur Rissbildung in der Fertigung und im Betrieb und damit hinsichtlich der Gefahr von Bauteilversagen. Der vorliegende Beitrag wendet sich an Konstrukteure und Werkstoffpruefer, die einen Einblick in den gegenwaertigen Stand der Ingenieurbruchmechanik an Schweissverbindungen gewinnen wollen. (orig.)

  15. Dualisme Modular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natas Setiabudhi Daryono Putra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dualisme merupakan konsep filsafat yang menyatakan bahwa segala sesuatu memiliki dua hal yang berlawanan atau prinsip. Hidup dan mati, laki dan perempuan, siang dan malam, jiwa dan raga, sehat dan sakit, kaya dan miskin, baik dan buruk, halal dan haram, pro dan kontra, aktif dan pasif, statis dan dinamis, tampan dan buruk rupa, besar dan kecil, panjang dan pendek, manis dan pahit, mahal dan murah, kuat dan lemah, dan seterusnya. Dalam konteks karya ini merupakan representasi dari manusia yang pada dasarnya memiliki 2 kepribadian, baik dan buruk. Keduanya diterjemahkan ke dalam konsep modular dalam menyusun sebuah konfigurasi karya. Pesan yang ingin penulis sampaikan adalah seseorang tidak bisa dinilai dari “baju atau seragam” yang ia pakai. Selain itu keseimbangan dalam baik dan buruk yang direpresentasikan dengan modul positif dan negatif menjadi ambigu dalam kaitan dengan pahala dan dosa dalam Islam. Karya ini meminjam gambar Rubin’s vase/goblet (vas/piala Rubin karya seorang psikolog gestalt Edgar Rubin asal Denmark yang ditransformasi menjadi sebuah karya keramik 3 dimensional [1]. Vas/piala Rubin ini secara perseptual memiliki 2 makna, yaitu gambar vas/piala dan siluet wajah dari samping yang saling berhadapan (pengaruh antarobjek dan latar secara bergiliran. Proses kreasi berasal dari pengalaman empirik personal yang dihubungkan dengan teori-teori pendukung. Perpaduan keduanya menghasilkan karya seni yang merupakan representasi dari realitas. Dalam penciptaan karya seni rupa sebenarnya tidak ada metode baku seperti halnya dalam riset pada umumnya. Proses kreasi kadang berdasarkan intuisi, pengalaman personal yang dominan dan mengandung narasi yang sangat subjektif. Kesemuanya itu dikaitkan dengan disiplin ilmu lainnya (sosial, ekonomi, budaya dan politik untuk menghasilkan sebuah representasi. Modular Dualism Abstract. Dualism is the concept that everything has two opposite sides or principles. Life and death, male and female, day

  16. Exploring Modularity in Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    the effects of modularity and integrality on a range of different analytical levels in service architectures. Taking a holistic approach, the authors synthesize and empirically deploy a framework comprised of the three most prevalent themes in modularity and service design literature: Offering (service...... insights on the mirroring hypothesis of modularity theory to services. Originality/value The paper provides a conceptualization of service architectures drawing on service design, modularity, and market relationships. The study enriches service design literature with elements from modularity theory...

  17. Modular robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs

  18. Complexity in Managing Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2011-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...... modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....

  19. Particle reduction strategies - PAREST. Evaluation of emission reduction scenarios using chemical transport calculations. PM10- and NO{sub 2}-immission contributions in Germany. Wood combustion in small combustion systems; installations of the 13th and 17th BImSchV (Federal Immission Control Act). Sub-report.; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. Bewertung von Emissionsminderungsszenarien mit Hilfe chemischer Transportberechnungen. PM10- und NO{sub 2}-Immissionsbeitraege in Deutschland. Holzverbrennung in Kleinfeuerungsanlagen, Anlagen der 13. und 17. BImSchV. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Rainer [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Troposphaerische Umweltforschung

    2013-06-15

    This report was prepared within the research project ''Particle reduction strategies - PAREST.'' In this paper with the chemical transport model REM CALGRID following questions were investigated: 1 What is the contribution of the wood-fired small combustion plants in Germany to the PM10- and NO {sub 2}-concentrations? 2 What is the contribution of the 13th and 17th BlmSchV covered installations to the PM10 and NO{sub 2} concentrations in Germany? [German] Der vorliegende Bericht wurde im Rahmen des Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhabens ''Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung'' erstellt. In dem Beitrag werden mit dem chemischen Transportmodell REM-CALGRID folgende Fragestellungen untersucht: 1. Wie hoch ist der Beitrag der mit Holz beheizten Kleinfeuerungsanlagen in Deutschland zu den PM10- und den NO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen? 2. Wie hoch ist der Beitrag der von der 13. und 17. BImSchV erfassten Anlagen zu den PM10-und NO-2-Konzentrationen in Deutschland?.

  20. Working Group for Water Pollution Abatement in the Weser River. Weser water quality report 2001; Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser. Weserguetebericht 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Weser is Germany's only river whose catchment area is entirely in Germany. This opens up interesting options in terms of water quality investigations, water protection measures, and river management. The ARGE Weser working group, which comprises the German states of Bremen, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen and Thueringen, has been carrying out long-term measurements for many years in selected sites on the Werra, Fulda, Weser and Aller rivers. This report presents data, as well as information on the concentrations and action of the analyzed substances. It also presents an evaluation and assessment of the selected substances. [German] Das Einzugsgebiet der Weser befindet sich vollstaendig innerhalb der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Im Vergleich zu anderen bedeutenden deutschen Flusseinzugsgebieten sind mit dieser Besonderheit aussergewoehnliche Moeglichkeiten verbunden. So koennen Gewaesseruntersuchungen, Gewaesserschutz und Bewirtschaftungsmassnahmen effektiv und ohne Hemmnisse durchgefuehrt und umgesetzt werden. Die Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser (ARGE Weser), der die Bundeslaender Bremen, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen und Thueringen angehoeren, fuehrt seit vielen Jahren an ausgewaehlten Standorten der Werra, Fulda, Weser und Aller Untersuchungen zur Wasserbeschaffenheit durch. Grundlage hierfuer ist das Messprogramm Weser. Der vorliegende Bericht versucht ueber die reine Zahlendokumentation hinaus auch ueber Vorkommen und Wirkungsweise der analysierten Stoffe zu informieren. Die Betrachtung der Messdaten beinhaltet eine Auswertung und Bewertung der ausgewaehlten und untersuchten Substanzen. (orig.)

  1. Understanding Socio Technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... dimension of modularity like irrational behaviors, cultural differences, learning processes, social organization and institutional influences on modularity. The paper addresses this gab offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...

  2. Portable modular detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, James S [Rodeo, CA; Singh, Anup [Danville, CA; Throckmorton, Daniel J [Tracy, CA; Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  3. Kurzskala zur Erfassung der Unternehmenskultur

    OpenAIRE

    Jöns, Ingela; Hodapp, Markus; Weiss, Katharina

    2005-01-01

    Die Kulturskala zur Erfassung der Unternehmenskultur (KUK) fokussiert auf die Einstufung der Kultur des eigenen Unternehmens und eines anderen Unternehmens durch die Mitarbeiter, wie dies z.B. im Fall von Fusionen von Bedeutung ist. Ihre vier Dimensionen (Strategie, Struktur, Führung und Zusammenarbeit) werden anhand eines bündigen Inventars von 15 Merkmalen erfasst. In einer Untersuchung bei drei Unternehmen der Chemie- und Energiebranche mit einer Gesamtstichprobe von n = 724 konnte gezeigt...

  4. Modularity and Economic Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Mahoney, Joseph T.

    This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance to the organ......This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance...... to the organization of economic activities, including greater adaptability and evolvability than systems that lack modular properties. We draw extensively on our original 1996 paper on modularity and subsequent research to suggest broad theoretical implications of modularity for (i) firms' product strategies...... markets. We also discuss an evolutionary perspective on modularity as an emergent phenomenon in firms and industries. We explain how modularity as a relatively new field of strategy and economic research may provide a new theoretical perspective on economic organizing that has significant potential...

  5. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...

  6. Neuer Beitrag zur Kenntnis aussereuropaeischer Trichopteren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulmer, Georg

    1906-01-01

    In den folgenden Mitteilungen findet man alles veröffentlicht, was mir zur Zeit an neuem und wenig bekannten Materiale (mit Ausnahme amerikanischer Arten, für die mir keine Typen vorliegen) zur Verfügung steht. Herr Dr. H. W. van der Weele in Leiden war so freundlich, mir die aussereuropäischen

  7. Von der lernenden Region zur "Smart Region“

    OpenAIRE

    Poschwatta, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Von der lernenden Region zur "Smart Region“ / M. Hilpert, W. Poschwatta. - In: Nabizadeh-Araghi, Nima : Auf dem Weg zur "Smart Region" : regionale Entwicklung am Beispiel der Pistazienproduktion im Iran. - Augsburg : Müllerdruck, 2004. - S. 5-9. - (Terra facta ; 2)

  8. Service Modularity and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brax, Saara A.; Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    , platform-based and mass-customized service business models, comparative research designs, customer perspectives and service experience, performance in context of modular services, empirical evidence of benefits and challenges, architectural innovation in services, modularization in multi-provider contexts......Purpose: Services are highly important in a world economy which has increasingly become service driven. There is a growing need to better understand the possibilities for, and requirements of, designing modular service architectures. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the roots...... of the emerging research stream on service modularity, provide a concise overview of existing work on the subject, and outline an agenda for future research on service modularity and architecture. The articles in the special issue offer four diverse sets of research on service modularity and architecture. Design...

  9. Modular Robotic Wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this concept paper we trace the contours and define a new approach to robotic systems, composed of interactive robotic modules which are somehow worn on the body. We label such a field as Modular Robotic Wearable (MRW). We describe how, by using modular robotics for creating wearable....... Finally, by focusing on the intersection of the combination modular robotic systems, wearability, and bodymind we attempt to explore the theoretical characteristics of such approach and exploit the possible playware application fields....

  10. Characterization of Zur-dependent genes and direct Zur targets in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoyi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zinc uptake regulator Zur is a Zn2+-sensing metalloregulatory protein involved in the maintenance of bacterial zinc homeostasis. Up to now, regulation of zinc homeostasis by Zur is poorly understood in Y. pestis. Results We constructed a zur null mutant of Y. pestis biovar microtus strain 201. Microarray expression analysis disclosed a set of 154 Zur-dependent genes of Y. pestis upon exposure to zinc rich condition. Real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCR was subsequently used to validate the microarray data. Based on the 154 Zur-dependent genes, predicted regulatory Zur motifs were used to screen for potential direct Zur targets including three putative operons znuA, znuCB and ykgM-RpmJ2. The LacZ reporter fusion analysis verified that Zur greatly repressed the promoter activity of the above three operons. The subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA demonstrated that a purified Zur protein was able to bind to the promoter regions of the above three operons. The DNase I footprinting was used to identify the Zur binding sites for the above three operons, verifying the Zur box sequence as predicted previously in γ-Proteobacteria. The primer extension assay was further used to determine the transcription start sites for the above three operons and to localize the -10 and -35 elements. Zur binding sites overlapped the -10 sequence of its target promoters, which was consistent with the previous observation that Zur binding would block the entry of the RNA polymerase to repress the transcription of its target genes. Conclusion Zur as a repressor directly controls the transcription of znuA, znuCB and ykgM-RpmJ2 in Y. pestis by employing a conserved mechanism of Zur-promoter DNA association as observed in γ-Proteobacteria. Zur contributes to zinc homeostasis in Y. pestis likely through transcriptional repression of the high-affinity zinc uptake system ZnuACB and two alternative ribosomal proteins YkgM and RpmJ2.

  11. Modularization and Flexibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meel, R. M.

    Publications in the fields of educational science, organization theory, and project management were analyzed to identify the possibilities that modularization offers to institutions of higher professional education and to obtain background information for use in developing a method for modularization in higher professional education. It was…

  12. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  13. Implementing Modular A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is designed for curriculum managers at British further education (FE) colleges, presents basic information on the implementation and perceived benefits of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) modular A (Advanced) levels. The information was synthesized from a survey of 12 FE colleges that introduced the modular A levels…

  14. Proposal of 'Modular Heliotron'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo

    1994-01-01

    A new modular helical system named 'Modular Heliotron' with clean and efficient helical magnetic divertor is proposed as an extension of the present conventional design of the continuous helical coil system. The sectored helical coils on one plane of the torus and the sectored returning vertical field coils on the other plane are combined. This coil system produces magnetic surfaces nearly equivalent to those of the l=2 helical system with one-pair poloidal coils, and overcomes the defects of construction and maintenance difficulties of the continuous coil systems. This concept satisfies the compatibility between the coil modularity and the sufficient divertor-space utilization, different from previous modular coil designs. The allowable length of the gap between each modular coil is clarified to keep good magnetic surfaces. Typical examples of the reactor coil configuration are described as an extension of the LHD (Large Helical Device) configuration. (author)

  15. Evolution of Modularity Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the modularity literature to identify the established and emerging perspectives. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature search and review was conducted through the use of bibliometrics and network analysis. The analysis...... identified structure within the literature, which revealed how the research area evolved between 1990 and 2015. Based on this search, the paper establishes the basis for analyzing the structure of modularity literature. Findings Factors were identified within the literature, demonstrating how it has evolved...... from a primary focus on the modularity of products to a broader view of the applicability of modularity. Within the last decade, numerous research areas have emerged within the broader area of modularity. Through core-periphery analysis, eight emerging sub-research areas are identified, of which one...

  16. Designing Modular Robotic Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Marti, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the design of modular robotic objects that may enhance playful experiences. The approach builds upon the development of modular robotics to create a kind of playware, which is flexible in both set-up and activity building for the end-user to allow easy creation of games....... Key features of this design approach are modularity, flexibility, and construction, immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, activity design by end-users, and creative exploration of play activities. These features permit the use of such modular playware by a vast array of users, including disabled...... children who often could be prevented from using and taking benefits from modern technologies. The objective is to get any children moving, exchanging, experimenting and having fun, regardless of their cognitive or physical ability levels. The paper describes two prototype systems developed as modular...

  17. Proposal of 'modular heliotron'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo.

    1993-11-01

    A new modular helical configuration named 'Modular Heliotron' with clean and efficient helical magnetic divertor is proposed as an extension of the present conventional design of the continuous helical coil system. The sectored helical coils on one plane of the torus and the sectored returning vertical field coils on the other plane are combined. This coil system produces magnetic surfaces nearly equivalent to those of the l=2 helical system with one-pair poloidal coils, and overcomes the defects of construction and maintenance difficulties of the continuous coil systems. This concept satisfies the compatibility between the coil modularity and the sufficient divertor-space utilization, different from previous modular coil designs. The allowable length of the gap between each modular coil is clarified to keep good magnetic surfaces. Typical examples of the reactor coil configuration are described as an extension of the LHD (Large Helical Device) configuration. (author)

  18. A modular optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John Albert

    This dissertation presents the design of a modular, fiber-optic sensor and the results obtained from testing the modular sensor. The modular fiber-optic sensor is constructed in such manner that the sensor diaphragm can be replaced with different configurations to detect numerous physical phenomena. Additionally, different fiber-optic detection systems can be attached to the sensor. Initially, the modular sensor was developed to be used by university of students to investigate realistic optical sensors and detection systems to prepare for advance studies of micro-optical mechanical systems (MOMS). The design accomplishes this by doing two things. First, the design significantly lowers the costs associated with studying optical sensors by modularizing the sensor design. Second, the sensor broadens the number of physical phenomena that students can apply optical sensing techniques to in a fiber optics sensor course. The dissertation is divided into seven chapters covering the historical development of fiber-optic sensors, a theoretical overview of fiber-optic sensors, the design, fabrication, and the testing of the modular sensor developed in the course of this work. Chapter 1 discusses, in detail, how this dissertation is organized and states the purpose of the dissertation. Chapter 2 presents an historical overview of the development of optical fibers, optical pressure sensors, and fibers, optical pressure sensors, and optical microphones. Chapter 3 reviews the theory of multi-fiber optic detection systems, optical microphones, and pressure sensors. Chapter 4 presents the design details of the modular, optical sensor. Chapter 5 delves into how the modular sensor is fabricated and how the detection systems are constructed. Chapter 6 presents the data collected from the microphone and pressure sensor configurations of the modular sensor. Finally, Chapter 7 discusses the data collected and draws conclusions about the design based on the data collected. Chapter 7 also

  19. Modular Lego-Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    . Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance

  20. A modular control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B.; Drexler, J.; Olcese, G.; Santome, D.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author) [es

  1. Duality ensures modular covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Miao; Yu Ming

    1989-11-01

    We show that the modular transformations for one point functions on the torus, S(n), satisfy the polynomial equations derived by Moore and Seiberg, provided the duality property of the model is ensured. The formula for S(n) is derived by us previously and should be valid for any conformal field theory. As a consequence, the full consistency conditions for modular invariance at higher genus are completely guaranteed by duality of the theory on the sphere. (orig.)

  2. Aggregate emissions and evaluation of process combinations; Aggregierte Emissionen und Bewertung der Verfahrenskombinationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwing, E.; Jager, J. [Institut WAR, Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgruppe Abfalltechnik

    1998-12-31

    Within the framework of the R and D project ``Mechanical-biological waste conditoning in combination with thermal processing of partial waste fractions``, numerous measurements to determine gaseous and liquid emissions were carried out. These measurements reveal the environmental impact of different treatments and different inputs. They further permit to verify the quality of a treatment. Particularly interesting for the purpose of the project were the total emissions of the considered process combinations. The paper reports the outcome of emission measurements and indicates the variants of process combinations for which the emissions were aggregated. First results of the evaluation of gaseous and liquid emissions are given for these variants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Zuge des Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhabens `Mechanisch-biologische Restmuellbehandlung unter Einbindung thermischer Verfahren fuer Teilfraktionen` sind zahlreiche Emissionsmessungen bezueglich der luft- und wasserseitigen Emissionen durchgefuehrt worden. Die Ergebnisse dieser Messungen geben Aufschluss ueber die Umweltauswirkungen der verschiedenen Behandlungsverfahren bei unterschiedlichem Input. Des weiteren kann durch sie die Guete des Prozesses ueberprueft werden. Im Projekt interessant sind aber insbesondere die Gesamtemissionen der betrachteten Verfahrenskombinationen. Im folgenden werden die durchgefuehrten Emissionsmessungen und die Varianten der Verfahrenskombinationen, fuer die die Emissionen aggregiert wurden, dargestellt. Dnach werden erste Ergebnisse der Bewertung der luft- und wasserseitigen Emissionen fuer diese Varianten praesentiert. (orig.)

  3. Automation of ultrasonic testing, instrumentation and rules for application and evaluation. Proceedings; Automatisierung der Ultraschallpruefung, Geraetetechnik und Regeln zur Anwendung und Auswertung. Vortraege des Seminars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuestenberg, H. [comp.

    1997-12-31

    The proceedings volume contains 18 lectures of the seminar addressing the following (selected) aspects: Requirements to be met by PC cards for US testing applications, defined by producers and appliers; digital technology and its impact on multichannel US testing instruments; the ALOK and array systems combined into one very efficient testing system (SAPHIR); a testing system combining US radiation source arrays and the pulsed eddy current method by means of highly integrated microelectronics (ASICs); regulatory standards and specifications for automated US testing; requirements for automated US testing in compliance with nuclear engineering codes; state of the art in standardisation for definition of required properties of US testing systems; critical review of the proposed standard relating to the TOFD method; automated evaluation shown with the example of US testing of pipelines. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Dieser Band enthaelt 18 Vortraege mit folgenden Themen (Auswahl): Anforderungen an Ultraschall-PC-Karten aus der Sicht von Hersteller und Betreiber; Einfluss der Digitaltechnik auf Mehrkanal-Ultraschall-Pruefanlagen; Vereinigung der ALOK- und der Gruppenstrahler-Technik in einem leistungsfaehigen Pruefsystem (SAPHIR); Ein kombiniertes Pruefsystem fuer die Ultraschall-Gruppenstrahler- und Impuls-Wirbelstrom-Technik auf der Basis von hochintegrierter Mikroelektronik (ASICs); Regelwerke und Spezifikationen fuer die automatisierte Ultraschallpruefung; Anforderungen der kerntechnischen Regelwerke an die automatisierte Ultraschallpruefung; Stand der Normung bei der Charakterisierung der Eigenschaften von Ultraschall-Pruefsystemen; Kritische Bewertung des Normungsvorschlages zur Beugungslaufzeittechnik (TOFD); und Automatisierte Auswertung am Beispiel der Ultraschallpruefung von Fernrohrleitungen. (orig.)

  4. Economic evaluation of innovative storage technologies in energy systems with a high share of renewable energies; Oekonomische Bewertung von innovativen Speichertechnologien in Energiesystemen mit einem hohen Anteil erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondziella, Hendrik

    2017-04-13

    Anteilen an variablen erneuerbaren Energien (vEE) auftreten, koennen durch deren Integrationskosten gemessen werden. Die wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen in Bezug auf den zusaetzlichen Speicher- bzw. Flexibilitaetsbedarf fuer ein solches Energiesystem setzen haeufig bei den Ungleichgewichten in der Systembilanz an. Den jeweiligen Methoden liegen jedoch unterschiedliche Annahmen und Rahmenbedingungen zu Grunde, sodass die Ergebnisse nur eingeschraenkt miteinander verglichen werden koennen. Der stuendlich schwankende Grosshandelspreis an der Stromboerse ist ein wichtiger Indikator, um den Flexibilitaetsbedarf zu signalisieren. Viele Analysen legen historische oder auch prognostizierte Preiszeitreihen fuer eine Bewertung von Speicheroptionen zu Grunde. Jedoch wird dabei die Rueckkopplung der Betriebsweise eines Energiespeichers auf die Marktpreise aussen vor gelassen. In dieser Arbeit wird deshalb eine Methode entwickelt, um den Einfluss eines steigenden Marktvolumens an Speichern und anderen Flexibilitaetsoptionen auf die Spotmarktpreise abzuschaetzen. Untersucht wird der Einfluss des Speichereinsatzes auf die Stromnachfrage und die Spotmarktpreise in 2020 sowie 2030. Die hierfuer zu definierenden Szenarien fuer den Strommarkt werden modellgestuetzt abgebildet und ausgewertet. Fuer die Beantwortung der Fragestellung werden techno-oekonomische Modelle, z.B. das Strommarktmodell MICOES zur Kraftwerkseinsatzplanung, das Modell DeSiflex zur Glaettung der Residuallast durch integrierte Flexibilitaetsoptionen sowie das Modell Arturflex zur Abschaetzung der Arbitragegewinne durch Einsatz von Flexibilitaetsoptionen am Spotmarkt, herangezogen.

  5. Development and testing of a digital RF control system and development of a modular data acquisition system for the energy stabilisation of the S-DALINAC; Aufbau und Erprobung einer digitalen HF-Regelung und Aufbau eines modularen Messsystems zur Energiestabilisierung fuer den S-DALINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araz, Asim

    2009-07-22

    remains approximately unchanged. To achieve the required amplitude stability of 8 .10{sup -5} further improvements to the control algorithm are needed. Within the framework of this thesis, an universal and modular data acquisition system was put into operation, being the basis of an active energy stabilization system for the electron beam by means of time of flight analysis. The required analysing system was designed and installed. First tests showed that relative energy shifts of 7.6.10{sup -5} can be measured reliably. Meanwhile, the modular data acquisition system is used for diagnostic purposes and for the processing of additional signals. These include the acquisition of beam currents, the monitoring of temperatures and the control of the high-voltage platform. (orig.)

  6. Modular design in fahion industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available "Modular design" is a kind of design mode that not only can made clothing more interesting, makes the wearer can participate in choices, increase the possibility of clothing style .but also can extend the service cycle of clothing. In this "fast fashion" run market, the design idea of modular design can be a breakthrough point, help us find the way to balance the low-carbon and environmentally-friendly need and fashion. The article will combine the existing examples put the modular design summarized into three categories: component modular design and geometric modular design and compounded modular design.

  7. Symmetric modular torsatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  8. Criteria for software modularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, David N.; Page, Gerald T.; Mcgarry, Frank E.

    1985-01-01

    A central issue in programming practice involves determining the appropriate size and information content of a software module. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of two widely used criteria for software modularization, strength and size, in reducing fault rate and development cost. Data from 453 FORTRAN modules developed by professional programmers were analyzed. The results indicated that module strength is a good criterion with respect to fault rate, whereas arbitrary module size limitations inhibit programmer productivity. This analysis is a first step toward defining empirically based standards for software modularization.

  9. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  10. Multi-criteria assessment of technologies for electricity and heat supply; Multikriterielle Bewertung von Technologien zur Bereitstellung von Strom und Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberschmidt, Julia

    2010-08-26

    The present thesis deals with how decisions concerning the future energy supply can be effectively, transparently and comprehensibly supported, against the backdrop of sometimes conflicting objectives. The relevance of the question is first of all explained in the context of important framework conditions for decisions in the energy sector. Subsequently, the most significant technology paths which already contribute to today''s energy supply or represent potential future options are shown. However, none of these options alone can meet the demands for a cost-effective, environmentally friendly and reliable energy supply. Rather, their strengths and weaknesses should be carefully weighed against each other in the light of the specific framework conditions. This gives rise to the need for a multi-criteria decision-making support tool, in order to be able to evaluate energy technologies while simultaneously comparing and considering several objectives. An in-depth analysis of known applications of multi-attribute methods in the energy sector shows that methods for multi-attribute decision aiding are already established in the energy industry and energy policy. Weaknesses of known applications lie primarily in the fact that in many cases technological change has not yet been adequately addressed. Therefore, in the present thesis a multi-criteria method is developed which allows established and innovative technologies to be systematically compared, together with the consideration of criteria weighting depending on different technology cycle phases. The proposed method is implemented in a decision support system (DSS), which is validated using two case studies. In the first case study, alternative energy supply concepts for a bio-energy village are compared. In the second case study, technologies for stationary electricity storage are compared. The results show that criteria weightings depending on varying technology cyclephases produce different results than from an analysis based on identical weightings for each alternative. Furthermore, it becomes apparent that the DSS offers a solid basis to compare energy technologies in different development stages based on multiple objectives and thus to support decision-making processes in the energy sector and in energy policy. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the developed analytical framework as well as starting points for further research are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Instruments for the promotion of environmental innovations. Stocktaking, evaluation and deficit analysis; Instrumente zur Foerderung von Umweltinnovationen. Bestandsaufnahme, Bewertung und Defizitanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennings, Klaus; Rammer, Christian; Oberndorfer, Ulrich [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW), GmbH, Mannheim (DE)] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    In the ecological report 2006 of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) with the title ''Environment - Innovation - Occupation'', the Federal Ministry outlines the concept of an innovative oriented environmental policy. An innovative environmental policy contributes to the reduction of the environmental pollution and the ecological damages of industrial production. In this background, the question arises, how the environmental policy can support appropriate innovative activities. For this, the research project under consideration presents the following contributions: (a) Overview of the most important instruments for the promotion of environmental innovations in Germany; (b) Estimation of the effectiveness of the instruments including gap analysis and deficit analysis; (c) Presentation of foreign Best Practice Examples (instruments and environmental political beginnings); (d) Proposals for priority environmental political starting points to the advancement of the equipment and pointing out the further research need.

  12. A methodology for model-based planning and evaluation of energy efficiency in production; Eine Methodik zur modellbasierten Planung und Bewertung der Energieeffizienz in der Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, Holger

    2013-08-01

    As global demand is rising constantly, the sustainable use of natural resources is a central challenge for the next years. This high demand leads to shortages and thus to rising costs of energy purchase. Manufacturing companies are facing global competition and improving their ressource efficiency can lead to both economic and ecologic benefits. But to increase the energy efficiency in production, interrelationships within the shop floor must be understood and suitable control variables have to be identified and applied. The methodology developed in this thesis addresses these aspects and merges them to a model-based approach for the planning, evaluation and optimization of the energy consumption in factories. The basic methodology focuses on a state based modeling approach. This allows linking the states to the specific energy profiles. Therefore not only the resources of the main processes but also the peripheral systems have to be considered. The integration of process planning makes it possible to examine and evaluate different constellations of parameters during the planning phase already. This is important as the main aspects of the energetic behavior of a production are determined in this phase. Thus, the work planner is given the opportunity to get feedback concerning the energy efficiency and the energetic behavior of the planned system. The additional consideration of energetic aspects in the production planning and control allows operating the whole production continuously at the energetically best operating point by initiating suitable measures. This method is implemented using a bidirectional messaging system which is capable to manage a permanent exchange of data between the management system and the resources in the shop floor. A developed key performance indicator (KPI) system forms the basis to evaluate the different parameter sets or possible scenarios. Including the classic objectives of production too, the user of the KPI system not only considers energy consumption but also overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), lead time and current stocks of the given production. A power function allows to weight these criteria with specific factors and to set them in relation to each other. This leads to the possibility of using the KPI system for different issues. The methodology was evaluated on a scenario of a job-shop production with machining centers. It has proved that there are high energetic saving potentials which can be used by the organizational optimization of the production.

  13. Biomass for energy production. Economic evaluation, efficiency comparison and optimal utilization of biomass; Biomasse zur Energiegewinnung. Oekonomische Bewertung, Effizienzvergleich und optimale Biomassenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeddies, Juergen [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landwirtschaftliche Betriebslehre; Schoenleber, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    An optimized and/or goal-oriented use of available biomass feedstock for energetic conversion requires a detailed analysis of bioenergy production lines according to technical and economic efficiency indicators. Accordingly, relevant parameters of selected production lines supplying heat, electricity and fuel have been studied and used as data base for an optimization model. Most favorable combination of bioenergy lines considering political and economic objectives are analyzed by applying a specifically designed linear optimization model. Modeling results shall allow evaluation of political courses of action.

  14. On the consideration of geological uncertainties in the evaluation of lignite deposits; Zur Beruecksichtigung geologischer Ungewissheit in der Bewertung von Braunkohlevorkommen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, Joerg [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Geosciences and Engineering; Naworyta, Wojciech [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Open Pit Mining

    2012-12-15

    All phases of planning as well as the operational open-cast mining require a sufficient knowledge on the spatial distribution of the properties of deposits with respect to quality and geometrical structure. This knowledge is a requisition to a sustainable and optimal utilization of lignite as a raw material under security-related and economic aspects. The spatial distribution of the deposit based on exploration data utilizing different methods of interpolation is recognized as a planning framework and also illustrated in a three-dimensional model. The geo-statistics offers different approaches of modelling whereby at each time the specific tasks and aims specify the selection of the specific methodology. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration compare different approaches of methodology with actual analyses using a deposit in Central Europe as a case study. These approaches of methodology are evaluated under the criteria of the prediction accuracy as well as their derivability from exceeding probabilities and lower deviation probabilities of threshold values. The results of this investigation give information about the profitability of certain concepts in the lignite mining.

  15. Assessment of hydrogen storage systems as a means of integrating electricity from renewable energies; Bewertung von Wasserstoffspeichersystemen zur Integration von Strom aus erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, Julia; Genoese, Fabio; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Hydrogen storage is a possible option for an improved integration of renewable energies into the electricity supply system. Similarly to other technical storage options it is faced with the challenge of having to be economically viable. Compared with other storage media hydrogen has the virtue of being versatile. This has a significant impact on assessments of its profitability.

  16. Investigation of the evaluation of the sustainable development of the coal industry in China; Untersuchung zur Bewertung der nachhaltigen Entwicklung der Kohlenindustrie Chinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Fuchen [Guangdong Ocean Univ., Zhanjiang (China). School of Economics and Management; Niemann-Delius, Christian [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Rohstoffgewinnung ueber Tage und Bohrtechnik

    2012-07-01

    The challenge of sustainable development in the coal mining industry consists of continuous guarantee of the aims of economic viability, security of supply, compatibility with the environment and social interests. Sustainable development of the coal industry is thus a complex large system, which consists of four partial systems, viz. economy, society, environment and resources of the coal fields. It is based on the coordinated development of these four partial systems. To investigate quantitatively the state of the coal industry in China and the future trends for its sustainable development, an evaluation indicator system consisting of target, criterion and indicator level was formulated in this contribution. According to the structure of the indicator system two evaluation models were developed, viz. fuzzy model based on the AHP method (AHP = Analytical Hierarchy Process) and a model with the aid of main component analysis. With regard to the historical data of the indicators the sustainable development of the coal industry in China was evaluated with the aid of the development models. (orig.)

  17. Trace element analytics and multivariate statistics for investigation and assessment of the pollution situation in rivers; Elementspurenanalytik und multivariate Statistik zur Untersuchung und Bewertung des Belastungszustandes von Fliessgewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulinger, A.M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2002-07-01

    In order to describe and assess the element distribution and the trend of the pollution in sediments, particulate suspended matter and dissolved matter of the river Elbe more than 60 elements were determined in several sampling campaigns along the entire river during the nineties. By analyzing the resulting data with two- and multi-way principal components analysis geogenic and anthropogenically influenced elements were distinguished and typical longitudinal profiles concerning geogenic or anthropogenic characteristics were summarized. Sampling locations having similiar element distribution patterns were aggregated to characteristic Elbe sections by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The temporal trend of the pollution within the different sections was quantified by comparing the mean concentrations of the anthropogenically influenced elements. Two- and Three-way PLS regression models were applied to predict element concentrations in one certain river compartment from measured concentrations in one or two different compartments. (orig.)

  18. Development of a boundary element based program system for fracture mechanical evaluation of cracked structures; Entwicklung eines randelementbasierten Programmsystems zur bruchmechanischen Bewertung rissbehafteter Strukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Wilhelm

    2010-07-01

    Cracks, which trace back to damaging during the manufacturing process, are often the origin of the failure of structures. The collapse of safety-relevant parts results in perilous situations for human beings. Therefore, the fracture mechanical assessment of these structures becomes more important in the dimensioning process. For this purpose numerical tools are required. In presence of cyclic loading conditions fatigue crack propagation is very critical, because crack growth occurs for lower stresses compared to static loadings. Due to the non-linear nature of crack growth an incremental procedure has to be applied for the simulation of crack propagation. Each increment starts with a complete stress analysis including the determination of the fracture mechanical parameters along the crack front. Then, the 3D crack growth criterion is evaluated for the calculation of the crack extension and the kink angle. Finally, the discretization is adjusted to the new crack geometry for the next incremental loop. For the stress analysis the boundary element method (BEM) in terms of the collocation technique is applied. The BEM has been proven as an efficient numerical tool for stress concentration problems. Moreover, the modification of the mesh during the simulation of crack propagation is easier by using boundary elements compared to volume orientated methods. By the application of the adaptive cross approximation the numerical complexity of the stress analysis is reduced significantly. In the framework of the dual discontinuity method the discontinuities of the displacements and the tractions are used directly as primary variables at the crack. Therewith 3D crack surface contact using a penalty formulation is taken into account for the forst time within this work. The simulation of crack growth is implemented in the framework of a predictor-corrector-scheme. This method ensures high accuracy with respect to the location and shape of the numerically determined crack fronts. Furthermore, it can be utilized for steady state as well as transient loading conditions. In addition, nonproportional mixed model loadings are also treatable, which arise from crack surface contact. Beside crack growth, rupture due to static overload is an important topic. Here, elastic-plastic stress analyzes have to carried out for the determination of the maximum load. Since volume discretization of 3D structures with arbitrary crack geometries is very complicated the BEM is also utilized for this task. Indeed, a volume discretization is required for the elastic-plastic stress analysis with the BEM. However, only the inelastic domain has to be meshed that can be encased by simple geometries. Therefore, the advantage of the BEM concerning the discretization is reduced only slightly. The results of the crack growth simulation as well as of the elastic-plastic stress analysis are utilized for a general assessment according to the failure assessment diagram, that includes altogether safety against brittle fracture, ductile fracture and plastic collapse. The accuracy of the numerical tool is shown on selected specimens. Furthermore, the influence of the crack surface roughness is analyzed and the industrial applicability is demonstrated on a complex real structure. (orig.)

  19. Data base for the evaluation of energy efficiency measures 2008 (Exploitation for 2007); Datenbasis zur Bewertung von Energieeffizienzmassnahmen 2008 (Auswertung fuer 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seefeldt, Friedrich; Wuensch, Marco [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany); Schlomann, Barbara; Fleiter, Tobias; Gerspacher, Andreas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Geiger, Bernd; Kleeberger, Heinrich; Ziesing, Hans-Joachim [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik

    2012-03-15

    The investigation under consideration provides a detailed data base regarding a final and useful energy demand in Germany. It serves as a basis for a future assessment of energy efficiency developments in separate sectors, applications and purposes. The project was conducted with data for the reference year 2007. The project focused on three final consumption sectors 'Private Household', 'Trade, commerce and services' and 'industry'. It did not cover the transport sector. With respect to the differentiation of energy demand, the main purpose was to provide results that are as transparent and comprehensible as possible by making estimates or calculations based on publicly available sources. The main approach was to derive results from primary statistical data. In some cases, where no published data were available, models or expert estimates had to be used, and the associated assumptions were disclosed.

  20. Data base for the evaluation of energy efficiency measures 2008 (Exploitation for the year 2008); Datenbasis zur Bewertung von Energieeffizienzmassnahmen 2008 (Auswertung fuer das Jahr 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensch, Marco; Seefeldt, Friedrich [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany); Schlomann, Barbara; Fleiter, Tobias; Gerspacher, Andreas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Rohde, Clemens [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik; Geiger, Bernd; Kleeberger, Heinrich [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik

    2012-03-15

    The investigation under consideration provides a detailed data base regarding a final and useful energy demand in Germany. It serves as a basis for a future assessment of energy efficiency developments in separate sectors, applications and purposes. The project was conducted with data for the reference year 2007. The project focused on three final consumption sectors 'Private Household', 'Trade, commerce and services' and 'industry'. It did not cover the transport sector. The first chapter presents a calculation of the energy demand for the year 2008. Especially, it addresses the issue of changes in the procedure in comparison to the previous year. The second chapter presents the results of a differentiated final energy consumption for the year 2008 in the case of the three final consumption sectors. The results for the year 2008 are very good loadable.

  1. Multi-criteria assessment of technologies for electricity and heat supply; Multikriterielle Bewertung von Technologien zur Bereitstellung von Strom und Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberschmidt, Julia

    2010-08-26

    The present thesis deals with how decisions concerning the future energy supply can be effectively, transparently and comprehensibly supported, against the backdrop of sometimes conflicting objectives. The relevance of the question is first of all explained in the context of important framework conditions for decisions in the energy sector. Subsequently, the most significant technology paths which already contribute to today''s energy supply or represent potential future options are shown. However, none of these options alone can meet the demands for a cost-effective, environmentally friendly and reliable energy supply. Rather, their strengths and weaknesses should be carefully weighed against each other in the light of the specific framework conditions. This gives rise to the need for a multi-criteria decision-making support tool, in order to be able to evaluate energy technologies while simultaneously comparing and considering several objectives. An in-depth analysis of known applications of multi-attribute methods in the energy sector shows that methods for multi-attribute decision aiding are already established in the energy industry and energy policy. Weaknesses of known applications lie primarily in the fact that in many cases technological change has not yet been adequately addressed. Therefore, in the present thesis a multi-criteria method is developed which allows established and innovative technologies to be systematically compared, together with the consideration of criteria weighting depending on different technology cycle phases. The proposed method is implemented in a decision support system (DSS), which is validated using two case studies. In the first case study, alternative energy supply concepts for a bio-energy village are compared. In the second case study, technologies for stationary electricity storage are compared. The results show that criteria weightings depending on varying technology cyclephases produce different results than from an analysis based on identical weightings for each alternative. Furthermore, it becomes apparent that the DSS offers a solid basis to compare energy technologies in different development stages based on multiple objectives and thus to support decision-making processes in the energy sector and in energy policy. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the developed analytical framework as well as starting points for further research are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Entwicklung einer Methode zur monetären Bewertung des Wassers für ein Unternehmen unter Einbeziehung des Wasser-Fußabdrucks

    OpenAIRE

    Hentschel, Nora

    2011-01-01

    Wassernutzung und Abbau der Frischwasser-Ressourcen sind heutzutage ein Thema, das als so wichtig wahrgenommen wird wie der Klimawandel. Wasser wird somit zunehmend Auswirkungen auf den ökonomischen Wert von Unternehmen haben. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, den monetären Wert des Wassers mithilfe des Wasser-Fußabdrucks zu bestimmen. Hierfür werden nach einer kurzen Einführung in Kapitel 2 der ökologische Fußabdruck, der CO2-Fußabdruck und der Wasser-Fußabdruck kurz vorgestellt und in...

  3. Evidence-based radiology: a new approach to evaluate the clinical practice of radiology; Evidenzbasierte Radiologie: Ein neuer Ansatz zur Bewertung von klinisch angewandter radiologischer Diagnostik und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, S. [Univ.Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Univ. Wien (Austria); Forschungsprogramm fuer Evidenzbasierte Medizinische Diagnostik, Inst. fuer Public Health, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Felder-Puig, R. [Ludwig-Boltzmann-Inst. fuer Health Technology Assessment, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-15

    Over the last several years, the concept and methodology of evidence-based medicine (EBM) have received significant attention in the scientific community. However, compared to therapeutic medical disciplines, EBM-based radiological publications are still underrepresented. This article summarizes the principles of EBM and discusses the possibilities of their application in radiology. The presented topics include the critical appraisal of studies on the basis on EBM principles, the explanation of EBM-relevant statistical outcome parameters (e.g., ''likelihood ratio'' for diagnostic and ''number needed to treat'' for interventional procedures), as well as the problems facing evidence-based radiology. Evidence-based evaluation of radiological procedures does not only address aspects of cost-effectiveness, but is also particularly helpful in identifying patient-specific usefulness. Therefore it should become an integral part of radiologist training. (orig.)

  4. Adaptive Modular Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user...

  5. Modularization of Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Arizona Coll., Thatcher.

    Eastern Arizona College has developed a modularized system of instruction for five vocational and vocationally related courses--Introduction to Business, Business Mathematics, English, Drafting, and Electronics. Each course is divided into independent segments of instruction and students have open-entry and exit options. This document reviews the…

  6. Modular Cure Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Hansen, Casper; Frandsen, Thomas

    facilitate co-creation through open platforms and service modularity. Based on data from two pharmaceuticals we explore issues of governance related to the relative openness of platforms and their completeness. Whereas some pharmaceuticals should cater to sophisticated needs of competent users through open...

  7. The Challenges of Modularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Saunders, Danny

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the movement towards credit accumulation and transfer in higher education institutions based on experiences at two universities in the United Kingdom, the University of Northumbria and the University of Glamorgan. Modularization, or unitization, and semesterization are considered, and three key areas are addressed: management, student…

  8. Modular co-ordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach, K.

    Notatet er på engelsk, idet det er lavet som et oplæg til den internationale standardiseringsorganisations (ISO) arbejde med målkoordinering i byggeriet. Materialet har også været forelagt ekspertgrupperne i CIB W24 og i International Modular Group. Det i notatet præsenterede materiale er blevet...

  9. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  10. Der Weg von der Computerkompetenz zur Medienkompetenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zuliani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Weiterführende Gedanken zur „Schlüsselkompetenz Nr.4“ des Europäischen Rates im Bereich des lebenslangen Lernens: Computerkompetenz bzw. Medienkompetenz, sowie Anwendungsbeispiele aus dem Bereich der Volksschule: Klassenblog und verschiedener Apps via iPad - 2 Praxisberichte

  11. Wege zur Entdeckung von Communities in Folksonomies

    OpenAIRE

    Jäschke, Robert; Hotho, Andreas; Schmitz, Christoph; Stumme, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Ein wichtiger Baustein des neu entdeckten World Wide Web - des "Web 2.0" - stellen Folksonomies dar. In diesen Systemen können Benutzer gemeinsam Ressourcen verwalten und mit Schlagwörtern versehen. Die dadurch entstehenden begrifflichen Strukturen stellen ein interessantes Forschungsfeld dar. Dieser Artikel untersucht Ansätze und Wege zur Entdeckung und Strukturierung von Nutzergruppen ("Communities") in Folksonomies.

  12. WASA-BOSS. Development and application of Severe Accident Codes. Evaluation and optimization of accident management measures. Subproject E. Improvement of the lower head model in MELCOR and calculations in connection with the FUKUSHIMA accident. Final report; WASA-BOSS. Weiterentwicklung und Anwendung von Severe Accident Codes. Bewertung und Optimierung von Stoerfallmassnahmen. Teilprojekt E. Verbesserung des Lower Head-Modelles fuer MELCOR und MELCOR-Rechnungen zu Fukushima. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzschmar, Frank; Dietrich, Philipp; Gabriel, Stephan; Miassoedov, Alexei

    2016-12-15

    The knowledge of the key phenomena, which govern the chronological sequence of a core melt accident, is a crucial precondition for the development of SAMGs (Severe Management Guides) to avoid and mitigate the radiological consequences for the population and the environment. In the frame of a dissertation a new model has been coupled with MELCOR, which describes the thermal interaction of a core melt with the RPV (reactor pressure vessel) wall in the lower plenum. This model allows a better description of this phenomenon. The method to couple extern programs with MELCOR had been already developed and used in a former dissertation at KIT-IKET. The model has been validated recalculating according experiments in the LIVE facility. Afterwards a defined accident scenario has been calculated for a German generic KONVOI power plant. 12 months after the start of the project a MELCOR input has been developed using data delivered by the Ruhr university of Bochum (subproject ''Simulation des Unfalls in Fukushima-Daichi zur Bewertung des Stoerfall-Analysecodes ATHLET-CD''). The results of this simulation have made a contribution to review the current understanding of the FUKUSHIMA sequence. HZDR and KIT-IKET have agreed in the course of the project, that KIT-IKET will develop a MELCOR input of a german generic KONVOI power plant following an ATHLET-CDinput of HZDR. Using this MELCOR input, a comparative analysis has been performed.

  13. Fracture mechanics based assessment of postulated flaws in the nozzle region of RPV-KKS under loss of coolant accidents; Bruchmechanische Bewertung von postulierten Fehlern im Stutzenbereich des RDB-KKS bei Kuehlmittelverlust-Stoerfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, D.; Hodulak, L.; Varfolomeyev, I. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Nagel, G. [Preussen Elektra AG, Hannover (Germany). Hauptverwaltung

    1998-11-01

    Safety assessment of reactor components has to encompass the nozzles, as in the event of a LOCA, the nozzle areas are subject to heavy thermal stresses due to the low temperature there of the cooling agent. The paper refers to three-dimensional, elasto-plastic FEM analyses of the integer RPV and calculations of the J-integral for various crack locations and geometries, for derivation of realistic transients. The J-integral and K values calculated with FEM have been compared with stress intensity factors determined by means of enhanced analytical methods. Calculations for description of the integer nozzle yield plastifications in the cladded and the ferritic areas, so that the K concept of linear-elastic fracture mechanics is restricted in applicability. For postulated cracks beneath the integer cladding, J-integral values are determined which are below the initiating value J{sub 1} of the material used, which excludes crack initiation. For the largest postulated, 20 mm deep surface crack and through-cladding damage, a crack growth of 0.1 mm is derived according to the crack resistance curve. The analytical method for calculating the stress intensity factors has been expanded to also include application to evaluation of nozzle edge cracks under the cladding. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Bei der sicherheitstechnischen Bewertung von Reaktorkomponenten sind auch die Stutzen zu beruecksichtigen, da der Stutzenbereich bei Kuehlmittelverlust-Faellen, bedingt durch die dort vorliegenden tiefen Temperaturen des Kuehlmediums, hohen thermischen Beanspruchungen ausgesetzt ist. Fuer realistische Transienten werden dreidimensionale, elastisch-plastische FEM-Analysen fuer den integren RDB und Berechnungen des J-Integrals fuer verschiedene Risslagen und Rissgeometrien durchgefuehrt. Die mit FEM berechneten J-Integral- und K-Werte werden mit nach weiterentwickelten analytischen Methoden ermittelten Spannungsintensitaetsfatoren verglichen. Die Berechnungen fuer den integren Stutzen ergeben

  14. Modularization of Industrial Service Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    In this paper we examine how complex service processes can be dealt with through the lenses of modularization strategies. Through an illustrative case study of a manufacturer of industrial equipment for process industries we propose the use of the service modularity function to conceptualize...... and assess the service modularity of service offerings. The measured degree of modularity would allow us to sharpen our understanding of modularity in the context of industrial services, such as the role of standardization and component reuse on architecture flexibility. It would also provide a foundation...

  15. Ein Beitrag zur Blutzellmorphologie ausgewählter karnivorer Zootierarten

    OpenAIRE

    Güth, Henrike

    2004-01-01

    Henrike Güth Ein Beitrag zur Blutzellmorphologie ausgewählter karnivorer Zootierarten Zoo Leipzig Januar 2003 156 Seiten, 222 Abbildungen, 67 Tabellen, 1 Graphik, 151 Literaturangaben, Anhang mit 25 Abbildungen und 6 Tabellen Zur Beurteilung des Blutbildes ist es nötig, neben der quantitativen Betrachtung der Blutzellen auch ihre Morphologie in die Untersuchungen einzubeziehen. In der Praxis werden dazu häufig nach May-Grünwald-Giemsa-gefärbte Ausstriche verwendet. Referenzwerte zur physiolog...

  16. The universal modular platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    A new and patented design for offshore wellhead platforms has been developed to meet a 'fast track' requirement for increased offshore production, from field locations not yet identified. The new design uses modular construction to allow for radical changes in the water depth of the final location and assembly line efficiency in fabrication. By utilizing high strength steels and structural support from the well conductors the new design accommodates all planned production requirements on a support structure significantly lighter and less expensive than the conventional design it replaces. Twenty two platforms based on the new design were ready for installation within 18 months of the project start. Installation of the new platforms began in 1992 for drilling support and 1993 for production support. The new design has become the Company standard for all future production platforms. Large saving and construction costs have been realized through its light weight, flexibility in both positioning and water depth, and its modular construction

  17. Modular chemiresistive sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Maksudul M.; Sampathkumaran, Uma

    2018-02-20

    The present invention relates to a modular chemiresistive sensor. In particular, a modular chemiresistive sensor for hypergolic fuel and oxidizer leak detection, carbon dioxide monitoring and detection of disease biomarkers. The sensor preferably has two gold or platinum electrodes mounted on a silicon substrate where the electrodes are connected to a power source and are separated by a gap of 0.5 to 4.0 .mu.M. A polymer nanowire or carbon nanotube spans the gap between the electrodes and connects the electrodes electrically. The electrodes are further connected to a circuit board having a processor and data storage, where the processor can measure current and voltage values between the electrodes and compare the current and voltage values with current and voltage values stored in the data storage and assigned to particular concentrations of a pre-determined substance such as those listed above or a variety of other substances.

  18. Fast quantum modular exponentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meter, Rodney van; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the impact on quantum modular exponentiation of architectural features and possible concurrent gate execution. Various arithmetic algorithms are evaluated for execution time, potential concurrency, and space trade-offs. We find that to exponentiate an n-bit number, for storage space 100n (20 times the minimum 5n), we can execute modular exponentiation 200-700 times faster than optimized versions of the basic algorithms, depending on architecture, for n=128. Addition on a neighbor-only architecture is limited to O(n) time, whereas non-neighbor architectures can reach O(log n), demonstrating that physical characteristics of a computing device have an important impact on both real-world running time and asymptotic behavior. Our results will help guide experimental implementations of quantum algorithms and devices

  19. Modular Mobile Application Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Hahn; Nathaniel Ryckman

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Minrva library app for Android phones. The decisions to build a native application with Java and use a modular design are discussed. The application includes five modules: catalog search, in-building navigation, a barcode scanning feature, and up to date notifications of circulating technology availability. A sixth module, Amazon recommendations, that is not included in the version of the app that was released is also discussed. The article also r...

  20. Modular remote radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Fabio; Farias, Marcos S.; Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Oliveira, Mauro V.

    2013-01-01

    The Modular Remote Radiation Monitor (MRRM) is a novel radiation monitor suitable for monitoring environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is a portable compact-size low-power microprocessor-based electronic device which provides its monitoring data to other electronic systems, physically distant from it, by means of an electronic communication channel, which can be wired or wireless according to the requirements of each application. Besides its low-power highly-integrated circuit design, the Modular Remote Radiation Monitor is presented in a modular architecture, which promotes full compliance to the technical requirements of different applications while minimizing cost, size and power consumption. Its communication capability also supports the implementation of a network of multiple radiation monitors connected to a supervisory system, capable of remotely controlling each monitor independently as well as visualizing the radiation levels from all monitors. A prototype of the MRRM, functionally equivalent to the MRA-7027 radiation monitor, was implemented and connected to a wired MODBUS network of MRA-7027 monitors, responsible for monitoring ionizing radiation inside Argonauta reactor room at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. Based on the highly positive experimental results obtained, further design is currently underway in order to produce a consumer version of the MRRM. (author)

  1. MUSIC, MODULARITY AND SYNTAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valenzuela

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available First generation cognitive science has always maintained that the mind/brain is a modular system. This has been especially apparent in linguistics, where the modularity thesis goes largely unquestioned by the linguistic mainstream. Cognitive linguists have long disputed the reality of modular architectures of grammar. Instead of conceiving syntax as a computational system of a relatively small set of formal principles and parameters, cognitive linguists take the notion of grammatical construction to be the basic unit of syntax: syntax is simply our repertoire of form-meaning pairings. On such a view, there is no a-priori reason to believe that semantics and phonology cannot affect syntax. In the present paper, we want to take things a step further and suggest, more generally, that language is not a module of cognition in any strict sense. We present preliminary results from research in progress concerning the effect of music on grammatical constructions. More specifically, our experiment compares reaction times between two grammatical constructions that differ in semantics and intonational curves but share lexical material. Our data so far suggests that subjects take less time reading the construction when the semantic bias and intonation match than in non-matching cases. This, we argue, suggests not only that semantics, phonology and syntax form an information bundle (i.e. a construction in the cognitive linguistic sense, but that perceived similarity of music can influence linguistic cognition.

  2. Evaluation of anthropogenic urban soils. Final report; Bewertung anthropogener Stadtboeden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, H.P.; Schleuss, U. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The research project `Evaluation of Anthropogenic Urban Soils` was subsidized by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology and adviced by the working group `Stadtboeden` of the German Society of Soil Science. It was realized as a cooperation between the universities of Berlin (TU), Halle-Wittenberg, Hohenheim, Kiel and Rostock and had three objectives: - to characterize soils developed from anthropogenic substratums (`urban soils`), - to figure out distribution patterns of such soils and - to verify whether urban soils could be evaluated according to their filtering and habitat function in the same way as soils developed from natural parent material. Evaluation methods based on easily obtainable field data had to be adapted to `urban soils` respectively developed anew. For that reason some typical soils of anthropogenic lithogenesis had to be examined between 1993 and 1996 both on their importance as habitats for plants and soil organisms and on their filtering, buffering and transforming capacities for organic and inorganic pollutants. Accordingly representative `urban soils` were gathered in the towns of Berlin, Eckernfoerde, Essen, Halle, Kiel, Rostock and Stuttgart; these soils had developed from technogenic substratums (brick and mortar debris, municipal waste, ashes, slag, sludge) and redeposited alkaline resp. acidic natural substratums (mud, coal mine and coking plant deposits). Some of the soils were influenced by ground water, and all soils developed from the same kind of parent material belonged to different stages of development. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Ziele des vom BMBF gefoerderten und vom Arbeitskreis Stadtboeden der Deutschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft beratenen Verbundprojektes `Bewertung anthropogener Stadtboeden` waren die Charakterisierung von Boeden anthropogener Substrate, die exemplarische Ermittlung des Verteilungsmusters derartiger Boeden und die Pruefung, inwieweit sie sich aehnlich den Boeden natuerlicher

  3. On sub-modularization and morphological heterogeneity in modular robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyder, A. H.; Stoy, K.; Garciá, R. F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Modular robots are a kind of robots built from mechatronic modules, which can be assembled in many different ways allowing the modular robot to assume a wide range of morphologies and functions. An important question in modular robotics is to which degree modules should be heterogeneous....... In this paper we introduce two contributing factors to heterogeneity namely morphological heterogeneity and sub-functional modularization. Respectively, the ideas are to create modules with significantly different morphologies and to spread sub-functionality across modules. Based on these principles we design...... and implement the Thor robot and evaluate it by participating in the ICRA Planetary Robotic Contingency Challenge. The Thor robot demonstrates that sub-functional modularity and morphological heterogeneity may increase the versatility of modular robots while reducing the complexity of individual modules, which...

  4. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  5. Improved model for the calculation of the energy demand for the energetic evaluation of non-residential buildings; Verbessertes Modell zur Berechnung des Energiebedarfs zur energetischen Bewertung von Nichtwohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempf, Heike

    2011-06-29

    The German Industrial Norm DIN V 18599, which is related to the German Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV), addresses the energetic evaluation of nonresidential buildings. With its more than 800 pages it is very voluminous and complex. Due to the complex subject of DIN V 18599, discrepancies causing considerable differences in the overall result are possible. A further weak point in the current procedure for energetic evaluation is the composition of individual zones within the considered buildings and the subsequent effort for acquisition and determination of values needed during computation. Before a non-residential building can be evaluated energetically, the building has to be divided into individual areas with identical boundary conditions (zoning). The process of zoning is an elementary step within the balancing according to DIN V 18599. It provides, beside the determination of geometrical data, the basis for further computations. Thus, the energetic evaluation of non-residential buildings is based on the so-called Multiple-Zone-Model as described in DIN V 18599. Zoning, especially the gathering of data connected to it, is a very time-consuming task, because the building areas and volumes have to be determined for each zone individually. Nevertheless, zoning is mandatory because of the often completely different net energies to be provided. In order to reduce this effort, a Single-Zone-Model was added to the Energieeinsparverordnung, which may be used under certain preconditions. However, in comparison to the Multi-Zone-Model, differences in the evaluation results are possible. The elimination of weak points, that is to say the difference in time and result, is reached by the computation of the annual primary energy demand on the basis of an Improved-Single-Zone-Model. The Improved-Single-Zone-Model works with improved use values and includes computations of the Single-Zone-Model as well as the Multiple-Zone-Model. The advantage of the Improved-Single-Zone-Model in comparison to the Multiple-Zone-Model is the simplified data evaluation in the field of zoning. The advantage of the Improved-Single-Zone-Model in comparison to the Single-Zone-Model is the reduced difference in the results of the annual primary energy demand. The basic principle of the Improved-Single-Zone-Model depends on a percentage division of each use value concerning the net building area. Due to this improved use values the balancing is no longer determined on the basis of general values by acceptance of a prior existing zone, but there is a calculated average value of all existing zones. This thesis introduces an Improved-Single-Zone-Model for school buildings with regard to zoning. This procedure obtains a relatively exact result with low expenditure of time by utilization of improved use values. Generally, this procedure can be easily applied for other types of non-residential buildings. (orig.)

  6. Sie lebt! Zur Verbraucherforschung im deutschsprachigen Raum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehler, Andreas; Reisch, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    jeweils eine existierende Aktivität; eine deutliche Lücke, die es zu schließen gilt (Wachstumsfelder der Verbraucherforschung). Zur Finanzierung der Verbraucherforschung ergibt sich der deutliche Befund, dass mit weitem Abstand die „Bordmittel“ der jeweiligen Professur bzw. des jeweiligen Lehrstuhls als...... oder des BMELV darauf hindeuten, dass die Verbraucherforschung zunehmend als wichtiges Element oder gar als Voraussetzung für eine fundierte moderne Verbraucherpolitik gesehen wird....

  7. Wohnquartiersbeschreibung: ein Instrument zur Regionalisierung von Nachbarschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, Jürgen H. P.

    2001-01-01

    'Ausgehend von der Annahme, daß soziale Differenzierung sich in räumlicher Differenzierung niederschlägt, bietet eine Beschreibung der Struktur des näheren Wohnumfeldes die Möglichkeit, das Wohnquartier als Handlungsraum und Sozialisationsinstanz zur Interpretation von Umfragedaten zu nutzen. Das vorliegende Instrumentarium erlaubt es, das Wohnquartier unabhängig von Zensusdaten über Merkmale, die in der eigenen Umfrage erhoben werden, zu charakterisieren.' (Autorenreferat) 'The general hy...

  8. Verfahren zur genbasierten Diagnose eines Legasthenierisikos

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcke, Arndt; Ahnert, Peter; Kirsten, Holger; Ligges, Carolin; Boltze, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Die vorliegende Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zur Diagnose eines Legasthenierisikos, umfassend die Schritte: a) Bereitstellung einer Nukleinsäure beinhaltenden Probe von einem zu diagnostizierenden Menschen, b) Bestimmung des Genotyps der Nukleinsäure der Probe für mindestens eine chromosomale Region, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus der Region von Nukleotid 12091000 bis 12200000 des Chromosoms 1, der Region von Nukleotid 89066000 bis 89088000 des Chromosoms 15, der Region von Nukle...

  9. Modular organization and hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Ludwig; Vera, Antonio

    2007-02-01

    The concept of modularization represents a modern form of organization, which contains the vertical disaggregation of the firm and the use of market mechanisms within hierarchies. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the use of modular structures has a positive effect on hospital performance. The empirical section makes use of multiple regression analyses and leads to the main result that modularization does not have a positive effect on hospital performance. However, the analysis also finds out positive efficiency effects of two central ideas of modularization, namely process orientation and internal market mechanisms.

  10. Modular analysis of biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Stelling, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of complex biological networks has traditionally relied on decomposition into smaller, semi-autonomous units such as individual signaling pathways. With the increased scope of systems biology (models), rational approaches to modularization have become an important topic. With increasing acceptance of de facto modularity in biology, widely different definitions of what constitutes a module have sparked controversies. Here, we therefore review prominent classes of modular approaches based on formal network representations. Despite some promising research directions, several important theoretical challenges remain open on the way to formal, function-centered modular decompositions for dynamic biological networks.

  11. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  12. Modular biometric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

  13. Modular gamma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millegan, D.R.; Nixon, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards requires sensitive, easily operated instruments for rapid inspection of personnel and vehicles to ensure that no uranium or plutonium is being diverted. Two portable gamma-ray detection systems have been developed. The Modular Gamma System (MGS) is very sensitive and two or more systems can be connected for even better performance. The multiunit configuration can be deployed by motor vehicle for search of large areas too extensive to search on foot. The Programmable Rate Monitor (PRM) is less sensitive but much smaller and therefore is more suitable for search of vehicles, personnel, or smaller areas. The PRM is programmable, which implements measurement and alarm algorithms for individual applications

  14. Emotion, Modularity and Rationalaction

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Manrique, Fernando; Universidad de Granada

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary theories of emotion view it as related to rational action. This paper begins stating two ways in which a system could be deemed rational, which I call the contributive and constitutive way. I assess the possibility whether emotion can be rational in both ways, as a system capable of producing rational action by itself. To this end I analyze the modular view of emotion, especially in a version of dual-system theory. I will argue that this view has at least two problems –the proble...

  15. Modular Mobile Application Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Hahn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of the Minrva library app for Android phones. The decisions to build a native application with Java and use a modular design are discussed. The application includes five modules: catalog search, in-building navigation, a barcode scanning feature, and up to date notifications of circulating technology availability. A sixth module, Amazon recommendations, that is not included in the version of the app that was released is also discussed. The article also reports on the findings of two rounds of usability testing and the plans for future development of the app.

  16. Modular power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T; Kanazawa, T

    1979-03-19

    In order to shorten the construction period of powerstations, to reduce the number of specialists at site and to prevent technical breakdowns, it was proposed that considerable parts of the powerstation should be assembled on a floating platform and then be towed to site by water, where they are set on foundations and then connected. It is now proposed that the necessary additional equipment (such as water supply plant, storage plant, Diesel generator and service buildings etc.) should be assembled on a second platform, and also transported by water on this. This modular construction will also reduce costs.

  17. Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to control communication of data, via the bus, with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  18. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  19. Fable: Socially Interactive Modular Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Arnþór; Pacheco, Moises; Moghadam, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Modular robots have a significant potential as user-reconfigurable robotic playware, but often lack sufficient sensing for social interaction. We address this issue with the Fable modular robotic system by exploring the use of smart sensor modules that has a better ability to sense the behavior...

  20. Modular Engineering of Production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Based on a case-study on design of pharmaceutical production plants, this paper suggests that modularity may support business efficiency for companies with one-of-a-kind production and without in-house manufacturing. Modularity may support efficient management of design knowledge and may facilitate...

  1. Modular Flooring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  2. Contributions on ecotoxicology. Proceedings; Beitraege zur Oekotoxikologie. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A.; Brueggemann, R. [eds.

    1997-11-01

    Ecotoxicological effects can be defined in terms of changes in reaction patterns, processes, structures, and functions of ecosystems. At an all-day workshop at GSF on 10. November 1995 various working groups presented their reports on this subject. Taken together the contributions provide good coverage of the present state of knowledge on ecotoxicology. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Oekotoxikologische Wirkungen lassen sich als Aenderungen hinsichtlich auftretender Reaktionsmuster, Prozesse, Strukturen und Funktionen von Oekosystemen definieren. 1. Molekulare, noxenbezogene Ebene; 2. Zellebene; 3. Organismenebene; 4. Modellsysteme; 5. Systemebene; Oekotoxikologische Bewertung; Im Rahmen eines ganztaegigen Workshops am 10. November 1995 in der GSF wurden Berichte verschiedener Arbeitsgruppe allen Themenbereichen vorgestellt. (orig./SR)

  3. CANDU 3 - Modularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAskie, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The CANDU 3 Heavy Water Reactor is the newest design developed by AECL CANDU. It has set as a major objective, the achievement of significant reductions in both cost and schedule over previous designs. The basic construction strategy is to incorporate extensive modularization of the plant in order to parallel the civil and mechanical installation works. This results in a target 38 month construction schedule from first concrete to in-service compared to 68 months for the Wolsong-1 CANDU 6 actually achieved and the 54 months envisaged for an improved CANDU 6. This paper describes the module concepts that have been developed and explains how they contribute to the overall construction program and achieve the desired cost and schedule targets set for the CANDU 3. (author). 7 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Wässrige Nanosuspensionen zur pulmonalen Applikation

    OpenAIRE

    Scherließ, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Entwicklung einer Nanosuspensionsformulierung zur inhalativen Anwendung mit dem schwerlöslichen Antimykotikum Itraconazol untersucht. Viele der neu entwickelten pharmazeutischen Wirkstoffe sind nach der Arzneibuchdefinition als schwerlöslich, sehr schwer löslich oder gar praktisch unlöslich einzuteilen. Das bedingt in der Praxis häufig Probleme in der Bioverfügbarkeit und stellt eine große Herausforderung für die Galenik dar. Die Herstellung der Nan...

  5. Untersuchungen zur Genauigkeit digitaler intraoraler Scans

    OpenAIRE

    Benedickt, Christopher Roland

    2017-01-01

    Ziel der hier vorliegenden In-vitro-Studie war es, zu untersuchen, ob es bei digitalen int-raoralen Scans zu Verzerrungen, Streckungen, Stauchungen, Verdrillungen oder Biegun-gen, kommt. Als Prüfmodell diente ein vollbezahntes Oberkiefermodell aus einer Chrom-Kobalt-Molybdän-Legierung. Auf diesem waren die Zähne 11, 15, 24 und 26 zur Auf-nahme eines Veneers, einer Vollkrone, eines Inlays präpariert, und auf inzisalen bezie-hungsweise okklusalen Mulden der Zähne 13, 23, 17 und 27 waren Metallk...

  6. Modulare Bearbeitungsanlage und Verfahren zur Montage, Herstellung und Bearbeitung und Analyse

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Dirk; Iseringhausen, Tobias; Adamietz, Raphael

    2009-01-01

    DE 102009031018 A1 UPAB: 20110124 NOVELTY - The processing system has processing levels (1a-1d) and two function columns perpendicular to the processing levels. The processing levels have process modules (2a-2d) which are arranged for executing a process step. The process modules of the processing levels are arranged in the function columns. A product module (3) is provided which is movable in the latter function column between the processing levels. DETAILED DESCRIPTION - An INDEPENDENT CLAI...

  7. Modular reconfigurable machines incorporating modular open architecture control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachee, J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available degrees of freedom on a single platform. A corresponding modular Open Architecture Control (OAC) system is presented. OAC overcomes the inflexibility of fixed proprietary automation, ensuring that MRMs provide the reconfigurability and extensibility...

  8. Modular robotics for playful physiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    We developed modular robotic tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We tested the modular robotic tiles for an extensive period of time (3 years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.......g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients in their private home. In all pilot test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find the playful use of modular robotic tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform...

  9. Habidite: viviendas modulares industrializadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Jáuregui, V.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an introduction to one of the most relevant constructive systems of the last years: The integral industrialized construction. This method, based on three-dimensional modules, produces buildings made mainly from spatial cells of big dimensions; these three-dimensional modules are fabricated entirely in factory and, once they are finished, they are carried out to the site, where they are assembled in an easy manner. Even though it’s not a totally new system (in fact, the precedents will also be mentioned in this essay, Habidite is very confident in backing this tendency and doing its part in order to obtain modular reinforced concrete buildings of extraordinary quality, with domotic implements totally integrated in the dwellings and a high degree of sustainability, eco-technology and energetic efficiency. Many advantages are exposed and explained, dealing with the optimization of the productive processes in construction by means of the most advanced technologies.En este artículo se realiza una breve introducción a uno de los sistemas constructivos que más auge está teniendo en los últimos años: la edificación industrializada integral. Realizado a base de módulos tridimensionales, es éste un método de construcción en el cual los edificios se conforman básicamente por medio de células espaciales de grandes dimensiones; estos módulos tridimensionales se elaboran íntegramente en fábrica y, una vez están totalmente terminados, se transportan a obra, donde son montados de forma sencilla y rápida. Aunque no es un sistema totalmente novedoso (de hecho sus antecedentes también serán tratados brevemente en este texto, Habidite apuesta fuertemente por esta tendencia y aporta su grano de arena para conseguir edificios modulares de hormigón armado de extraordinaria calidad, con implementos domóticos totalmente integrados en la vivienda y un alto grado de sostenibilidad, eco-tecnología y eficiencia energética. Se abordan

  10. The modularity of pollination networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens Mogens; Bascompte, J.; Dupont, Yoko

    2007-01-01

    In natural communities, species and their interactions are often organized as nonrandom networks, showing distinct and repeated complex patterns. A prevalent, but poorly explored pattern is ecological modularity, with weakly interlinked subsets of species (modules), which, however, internally...... consist of strongly connected species. The importance of modularity has been discussed for a long time, but no consensus on its prevalence in ecological networks has yet been reached. Progress is hampered by inadequate methods and a lack of large datasets. We analyzed 51 pollination networks including...... almost 10,000 species and 20,000 links and tested for modularity by using a recently developed simulated annealing algorithm. All networks with >150 plant and pollinator species were modular, whereas networks with

  11. Utilization scenarios for driving support systems in cargo traffic and their evaluation; Einsatzszenarien fuer Fahrerassistenzsysteme im Gueterverkehr und deren Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, K.; Preuschoff, E. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    The report presents a summary of the project of the above title (EFAS project). While earlier projects focused on the technical side, EFAS is the first to present a systematic analysis, presentation and evaluation of the parameters influencing driving support systems. With the aid of a systemic analysis, the key influencing factors are defined and analyzed, and three scenarios are developed which take account of user-oriented, organizational, operational, technical, infrastructural and legal aspects. The scenarios are evaluated with the aid of driving and traffic simulations in the fields of humans, organization and technology, and actions are recommended on this basis for driving support systems in cargo transport. [German] Der Bericht fasst die Ergebnisse des Projektes ''Einsatzszenarien fuer Fahrerassistenzsysteme im Gueterverkehr'' (EFAS) zusammen. Bisher wurde die Thematik Fahrerassistenzsysteme hauptsaechlich auf der Seite der Fahrzeugtechnik vorangetrieben. Das Projekt EFAS stellt nun zum ersten Mal eine umfassende Analyse, Darstellung und Bewertung dar. Mit Hilfe einer systemischen Analyse werden die wesentlichen Einflussfaktoren fuer die Einbindung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen in das Gesamtsystem ''Verkehr'' bestimmt und untersucht. Hieraus werden drei Einsatzszenarien entwickelt, die nutzerbezogene, organisatorische, betriebliche, fahrzeugtechnische, infrastukturelle und rechtliche Aspekte zu Zukunftsbildern zusammenfuegen. Die Szenarien werden mit Hilfe von Fahr- und Verkehrssimulationen in den Bereichen Mensch, Organisation und Technik bewertet. Aus den Ergebnissen werden konkrete Handlungsempfehlungen fuer den Einsatz von Fahrerassistenzsystemen im Strassengueterverkehr abgeleitet. (orig.)

  12. Modular Lego-Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.

    2017-10-24

    Electronic system components have thousands of individual field effect transistors (FETs) interconnected executing dedicated functions. Assembly yield of >80% will guarantee system failure since a single interconnect failure will result in undesired performance. Hence, a paradigm shift is needed in the self-assembly or integration of state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) for a physically compliant system. Traditionally, most ICs share same geometry with only variations in dimensions and packaging. Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance throughput. Various geometries at the backside of the silicon die and on the destination site having the same geometry with relaxed dimension (up to 50 µm extra) allow targeted site binding like DNA assembly. Different geometries, angles, and heights for different modules provide a unique identity to each of the ICs. A two-level geometric combination presented here helps in maintaining the uniqueness of individual module to assemble at exact matching site like a perfect lock-and-key model. The assembled ICs offer uncompromised electrical performance, higher yield, and fabrication ease. In future, this method can further be expanded for fluidic assisted self-assembly.

  13. Untersuchungen zur Rauchgasentstickung mittels Schwefelwasserstoff in Tri-n-butylphosphat

    OpenAIRE

    Homann, Jörg

    2000-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Reaktion von Stickstoffmonoxid (NO) mit Schwefelwassersoff (H2S) in Tri-n-butylphosphat (TBP) im Hinblick auf ein alternatives Verfahren zur Entstickung von Rauchgasen untersucht. Mittels einer gasvolumetrischen Absorptionsapparatur wurden zuerst Daten zur physikalischen Löslichkeit in TBP ermittelt, die für den Erhalt kinetischer Daten der stofftransportüberlagerten Reaktionen in TBP relevant sind. Es sind dies die Henrykoeffizienten von NO, H2S und die d...

  14. Bewertung des Aufbaus einer Ladeinfrastruktur für eine Redox-Flow-Batteriebasierte Elektromobilität

    OpenAIRE

    Funke, Simon Árpád; Wietschel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Eine Erreichung ambitionierter internationaler Klimaziele ist bei wachsendem Mobiliätsbedarf ohne Elektromobilität nicht möglich. Elektromobilität in Verbindung mit regenerativen Energien wird als wichtiger Baustein zur Reduktion der Treibhausgasemissionen angesehen. Gleichzeitig ist die Verbreitung von Elektrofahrzeugen gering, da diese gegenüber Verbrennungsfahrzeugen mit Einschränkungen verbunden sind. Neben den Anschaffungsausgaben stehen lange Ladezeiten und eine beschränkte Reichweite d...

  15. Lectures on Hilbert modular varieties and modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Goren, Eyal Z

    2001-01-01

    This book is devoted to certain aspects of the theory of p-adic Hilbert modular forms and moduli spaces of abelian varieties with real multiplication. The theory of p-adic modular forms is presented first in the elliptic case, introducing the reader to key ideas of N. M. Katz and J.-P. Serre. It is re-interpreted from a geometric point of view, which is developed to present the rudiments of a similar theory for Hilbert modular forms. The theory of moduli spaces of abelian varieties with real multiplication is presented first very explicitly over the complex numbers. Aspects of the general theory are then exposed, in particular, local deformation theory of abelian varieties in positive characteristic. The arithmetic of p-adic Hilbert modular forms and the geometry of moduli spaces of abelian varieties are related. This relation is used to study q-expansions of Hilbert modular forms, on the one hand, and stratifications of moduli spaces on the other hand. The book is addressed to graduate students and non-exper...

  16. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  17. Bone graft substitutes for the treatment of traumatic fractures of the extremities [Knochenersatzmaterialien zur Behandlung von traumatischen Frakturen der Extremitäten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Knochenersatzmaterialien eingesetzt.Es stellt sich die Frage nach der Wirksamkeit, Kostenwirksamkeit sowie nach ethischen, sozialen und juristischen Implikationen beim Einsatz von Knochenersatzmaterialien bei traumatischen Frakturen.Eine systematische Literaturrecherche wird in den medizinischen elektronischen Datenbanken MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. im Dezember 2009 durchgeführt. In die Bewertung werden randomisierte kontrollierte Studien (RCT ggf. mit gesundheitsökonomischen Analysen sowie Publikationen zu ethischen, sozialen sowie juristischen Aspekten einbezogen. Die medizinische Informationssynthese erfolgt nach Bewertung der Studienqualität u.a. in Form von Metaanalysen, die gesundheitsökonomische Informationssynthese deskriptiv.14 RCT werden in die medizinische und zwei Analysen in die gesundheitsökonomische Bewertung einbezogen, zu ethischen, sozialen und juristischen Aspekten werden keine Publikationen identifiziert. Beim Vergleich Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2 gegenüber Standardtherapie ohne Knochentransplantat bei Frakturen ergeben sich in einem RCT (mit erhöhtem Verzerrungspotenzial signifikante Unterschiede zugunsten BMP-2 bezüglich mehrerer Endpunkte. Bei Calciumphosphat (CaP-Zementen und knochenmarkhaltigen Kompositmaterialien zeigen sich beim Vergleich gegenüber Knochentransplantaten in den RCT (alle mit hohem Verzerrungspotenzial signifikante Unterschiede zugunsten der Knochenersatzmaterialien bezüglich einzelner Endpunkte. Bei allen anderen Materialien finden sich in fast allen Vergleichen keine signifikanten Unterschiede.Die BMP-2-Anwendung zusätzlich zur Standardbehandlung ohne Knochentransplantation führt bei Betrachtung aller Patienten mit traumatischen offenen Frakturen zur Kostenerhöhung. Einsparungen durch zusätzlichen BMP-2-Einsatz lassen sich allerdings bei der Patientensubgruppe mit hochgradig offenen Frakturen (Gustilo-Anderson-Grad-IIIB errechnen. Die Kostenwirksamkeit beim BMP-2-Einsatz vs. Standardbehandlung mit Knochentransplantation sowie beim

  18. Sustainable water management and regional development. Analysis and assessment of scenarios on conflicts of water use in the Upper Spree catchment area, a region impacted by brown coal mining; Nachhaltige Wasserbewirtschaftung und regionale Entwicklung. Analyse und Bewertung von Szenarien zum Wassernutzungskonflikt im bergbaubeeinflussten Einzugsgebiet der Oberen Spree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, F. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Sektion Oekonomie, Soziologie und Recht; Kaltofen, M. (eds.) [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Wasserwirtschaftliche Planung und Systemforschung mbH (WASY), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    , Wassernutzungskonflikten und daraus resultierenden Umwelt- und soziooekonomischen Problemen im Elbeeinzugsgebiet. Zur Erfuellung dieser Fragestellung wurde der Integrative Methodische Ansatz von GLOWA-Elbe (IMA) entwickelt und angewendet. Untersuchungsraeume waren das Gesamtflussgebiet der Elbe inklusive einer Intensivstudie im Unstrut-Flussgebiet mit Bezug auf die Wasserqualitaetsproblematik sowie die Teilraeume Obere Spree, Spreewald (vgl. Dietrich et al. 2004) und Berlin (vgl. Finke et al. 2003) zur Analyse des besonders bedeutsamen Oberflaechenwasserverfuegbarkeitskonflikts im Spreeeinzugsgebiet. Das Teilgebietsprojekt Obere Spree beschaeftigte sich im Rahmen von GLOWA Elbe mit der integrierten Analyse und Bewertung des Obere-Spree-Gebietes, in dem bedingt durch jahrzehntelange Nutzung als Braunkohleabbaugebiet einer der groessten Oberflaechenwassermengen- und -qualitaetskonflikte in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland zu bewaeltigen ist. Der IMA wurde im Kontext dieses Teilgebietprojektes entwickelt und getestet. In diesem Ergebnisbericht werden die wesentlichen wasserwirtschaftlichen und sozio-oekonomischen Ergebnisse dieses Teilgebietsprojektes dargelegt, wobei verschiedene Ergebnisse aus anderen Teilprojekten von GLOWA Elbe massgeblich verarbeitet wurden. Ausfuehrlichere Darlegungen zu Einzelaspekten des GLOWA-Elbe-Projektes sind in Publikationen nachzulesen, die andernorts erschienen sind. Zu verweisen ist in diesem Zusammenhang auf die Homepage von GLOWA Elbe (http://www.glowa-elbe.de) sowie auf den PIK-Report 2004. In diesem Bericht wird auf weiterfuehrende Literatur zum Teilgebietsprojekt Obere Spree jeweils an gegebenem Ort verwiesen. (orig.)

  19. From modular invariants to graphs: the modular splitting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isasi, E; Schieber, G

    2007-01-01

    We start with a given modular invariant M of a two-dimensional su-hat(n) k conformal field theory (CFT) and present a general method for solving the Ocneanu modular splitting equation and then determine, in a step-by-step explicit construction (1) the generalized partition functions corresponding to the introduction of boundary conditions and defect lines; (2) the quantum symmetries of the higher ADE graph G associated with the initial modular invariant M. Note that one does not suppose here that the graph G is already known, since it appears as a by-product of the calculations. We analyse several su-hat(3) k exceptional cases at levels 5 and 9

  20. Zur interaktionistischen Theorie der mediatisierten Kommunikation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Holefleisch

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicht nur Fachleute beklagen die mangelnde Qualität der deutschen Filme und Werbespots. Eine Ursache für die mangelnden Erfolge solcher mediatisierten Kommunikation liegt in einer systematischen Interaktionsstörung zwischen der Medienpraxis und Medienforschung. Die aktuelle deutschsprachige Medienwirkungsforschung entzieht sich weitgehend der gebotenen und von Macher/innen erwarteten gesellschafts- und praxisdienenden Aufgabe. Der Hauptgrund hierfür liegt darin, dass die zumeist zugrunde gelegten Forschungsrahmen (conceptual frameworks praxisrelevante Kategorien wie die der Zuschauerperspektive weitgehend ignorieren. Das hier vorgestellte interaktionistische Modell der mediatisierten Kommunikation will deshalb als Forschungsrahmen den Blick auf Übersehenes richten. Darüber hinaus soll dieses Modell auch für Praktiker als Prüfschema zur Mediaplanung dienen, mediatisierte Kommunikation - gemessen am eigenen Anspruch - kalkulierbarer und damit auch erfolgreicher zu machen.

  1. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  2. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  3. Modular invariance and stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.R.; Rubin, M.A.; Zwanziger, D.

    1989-01-01

    In Polyakov path integrals and covariant closed-string field theory, integration over Teichmueller parameters must be restricted by hand to a single modular region. This problem has an analog in Yang-Mills gauge theory---namely, the Gribov problem, which can be resolved by the method of stochastic gauge fixing. This method is here employed to quantize a simple modular-invariant system: the Polyakov point particle. In the limit of a large gauge-fixing force, it is shown that suitable choices for the functional form of the gauge-fixing force can lead to a restriction of Teichmueller integration to a single modular region. Modifications which arise when applying stochastic quantization to a system in which the volume of the orbits of the gauge group depends on a dynamical variable, such as a Teichmueller parameter, are pointed out, and the extension to Polyakov strings and covariant closed-string field theory is discussed

  4. Modularity in New Market Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Hang, Chang Chieh

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we appraise the ways in which use of closed-system proprietary product architectures versus open-system modular product architectures is likely to influence the dynamics and trajectory of new product market formation. We compare the evolutions of new markets in China for gas......-powered two-wheeled vehicles (G2WVs) based (initially) on closed-system proprietary architectures and for electric-powered two-wheeled vehicles (E2WVs) based on open-system modular architectures. We draw on this comparison to suggest ways in which the use of the two different kinds of architectures...... as the basis for new kinds of products may result in very different patterns and speeds of new market formation. We then suggest some key implications of the different dynamics of market formation associated with open-system modular architectures for both the competence-based strategic management (CBSM...

  5. Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinwei; Monticone, Francesco; Elias, Sarah; Wu, Yanwen; Ratchford, Daniel; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    A key element enabling the microelectronic technology advances of the past decades has been the conceptualization of complex circuits with versatile functionalities as being composed of the proper combination of basic ‘lumped’ circuit elements (for example, inductors and capacitors). In contrast, modern nanophotonic systems are still far from a similar level of sophistication, partially because of the lack of modularization of their response in terms of basic building blocks. Here we demonstrate the design, assembly and characterization of relatively complex photonic nanocircuits by accurately positioning a number of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles acting as modular lumped elements. The nanoparticle clusters produce the desired spectral response described by simple circuit rules and are shown to be dynamically reconfigurable by modifying the direction or polarization of impinging signals. Our work represents an important step towards extending the powerful modular design tools of electronic circuits into nanophotonic systems.

  6. Modular system design and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Mark Sh

    2015-01-01

    This book examines seven key combinatorial engineering frameworks (composite schemes consisting of algorithms and/or interactive procedures) for hierarchical modular (composite) systems. These frameworks are based on combinatorial optimization problems (e.g., knapsack problem, multiple choice problem, assignment problem, morphological clique problem), with the author’s version of morphological design approach – Hierarchical Morphological Multicritieria Design (HMMD) – providing a conceptual lens with which to elucidate the examples discussed. This approach is based on ordinal estimates of design alternatives for systems parts/components, however, the book also puts forward an original version of HMMD that is based on new interval multiset estimates for the design alternatives with special attention paid to the aggregation of modular solutions (system versions). The second part of ‘Modular System Design and Evaluation’ provides ten information technology case studies that enriches understanding of th...

  7. Emergent interfaces for feature modularization

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Márcio; Brabrand, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Developers frequently introduce errors into software systems when they fail to recognise module dependencies. Using forty-three software families and Software Product Lines (SPLs), where the majority are commonly used in industrial practice, the authors reports on the feature modularization problem and provides a study of how often it may occur in practice. To solve the problem they present the concept of emergent feature modularization which aims to establish contracts between features to prevent developers from breaking other features when performing a maintenance task.

  8. Modular Firewalls for Storage Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Giant honeycomb structures assembled in modular units. Flammable materials stored in cells. Walls insulated with firebrick to prevent spread of fire among cells. Portable, modular barrier withstands heat of combustion for limited time and confines combustion products horizontally to prevent fire from spreading. Barrier absorbs heat energy by ablation and not meant to be reused. Designed to keep fires from spreading among segments of solid rocket propellant in storage, barrier erected between storage units of other flammable or explosive materials; tanks of petroleum or liquid natural gas. Barrier adequate for most industrial purposes.

  9. Inherent controllability in modular ALMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1989-01-01

    As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs ANL has proposed the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular sized reactors which would be built in multiple power paks together with an integrated fuel cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept as applied to the modular designs has significant advantages in regard to ATWS transients. Attention is now being focussed on determining whether or not those advantages deriving from the traits of the IFR can be translated to the operational/DBA (design basis accident) class of transients. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Modular nuclear fuel assembly rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A modular nuclear fuel assembly rack constructed of an array of identical cells, each cell constructed of a plurality of identical flanged plates. The unique assembly of the plates into a rigid rack provides a cellular compartment for nuclear fuel assemblies and a cavity between the cells for accepting neutron absorbing materials thus allowing a closely spaced array. The modular rack size can be easily adapted to conform with available storage space. U-shaped flanges at the edges of the plates are nested together at the intersection of four cells in the array. A bar is placed at the intersection to lock the cells together

  11. Modular envelopes, OSFT and nonsymmetric (non-$\\sum$) modular operads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2016), s. 775-809 ISSN 1661-6952 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : open string * surface * modular completion Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016 http://www.ems-ph.org/journals/show_abstract.php?issn=1661-6952&vol=10&iss=2&rank=12

  12. A modular interpretation of various cubic towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound.......In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound....

  13. Inductive charging of electric cars. A techno-economic assessment; Induktives Laden von Elektromobilen. Eine techno-oekonomische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schraven, Sebastian; Kley, Fabian; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energy Politik und Energie Systeme

    2010-07-01

    Most concepts for charging of electric vehicles are based on cables that must be plugged in and out. In case of frequent charging or short-term charging, however, this may be impractical, and an inductive (cableless) solution would be preferable. The contribution attempts to analyze if inductive power transmission is technically feasible in electric vehicles, and in what areas it will be economically attractive to users. To begin with, the two charging technologies are presented and compared. This is followed by a cost assessment. It is found that the inductive technology involves significant additional cost, so it cannot be expected to spread quickly. In certain conditions, however, it may be applicable as a niche technology in certain commercial applications, e.g. taxis. (orig.) [German] In den bisher diskutierten Konzepten zur Ladung von Elektrofahrzeugen ist die kabelgebundene (konduktive) Ladung vorherrschend, bei der der Nutzer das Kabel zur Ladung ein- bzw. wieder ausstecken muss. Haeufige Ladevorgaenge und insbesondere Kurzladungen lassen jedoch dieses Ein- und Ausstecken neben der reduzierten Reichweite des Elektrofahrzeugs unpraktisch in der Nutzung erscheinen. Demgegenueber bietet die induktive (kabellose) Energieuebertragung das Laden ohne erforderlichen Nutzereingriff. Der vorliegende Artikel versucht die Fragen zu beantworten, ob ein Einsatz der induktiven Energieuebertragung bereits technisch zur Ladung von Elektrofahrzeugen realisierbar ist, und in welchen Bereichen diese eine wirtschaftlich attraktive Loesung fuer den Nutzer darstellt. Dazu werden zunaechst die Ladetechnologien vor- und technisch gegenuebergestellt. Auf Basis einer Kostenbetrachtung ist auch ein oekonomischer Vergleich der beiden Ladetechnologien moeglich. Es zeigt sich, dass aus wirtschaftlicher Sicht aufgrund signifikanter Mehrkosten vorlaeufig kein weitverbreiteter Einsatz der induktiven Technik zu erwarten ist. Unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen ergibt sich aber ein begrenztes

  14. Probabilistic exposure assessment in environmental medicine and customer protection. Part 1. Probabilistic exposure assessment for assessing the health effects of environmental pollution; Probabilistische Expositionsabschaetzung in Umweltmedizin und Verbraucherschutz. T. 1. Probabilistische Expositionsabschaetzung zur Beurteilung der gesundheitlichen Auswirkungen von Umweltbelastungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintermeyer, D. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene

    1999-07-01

    Risikoabschaetzungen ueber die moeglichen gesundheitlichen Auswirkungen von Umweltbelastungen sind moeglichst exakte Abschaetzungen der Schadstoffexposition der Betroffenen unerlaesslich. Zur Durchfuehrung solcher Expositionsabschaetzungen koennen zwei grundlegend unterschiedliche Ansaetze verfolgt werden: Die traditionelle (deterministische) Methode der Expositionsabschaetzung geht von Messwerten einzelner Belastungsparameter (z.B. Schadstoff-Konzentration in der Luft, im Boden etc.) aus und verknuepft diese mit individuellen Einflussgroessen (z.B. Aufnahmerate, Koerpergewicht). Zur Beschreibung der Exposition und damit zur Ableitung des zu erwartenden Risikos wird fuer die in die Berechnung einfliessenden Groessen haeufig jeweils das 95. Perzentil verwendet. Dieses als Punktschaetzung fuer den sog. 'unguenstigen Fall' bezeichnete Verfahren kann eine u.U. unrealistische Ueberschaetzung der Exposition und damit des gesundheitlichen Risikos zur Folge haben. Der probabilistische Ansatz verwendet demgegenueber fuer alle verfuegbaren Parameter deren statistische Verteilungen und verknuepft sie miteinander. Beim Monte Carlo-Verfahren werden entsprechend der Verteilungsfunktionen der eingehenden Parameter Stichproben 'gezogen' und miteinander verknuepft. Mit zunehmendem Stichprobenumfang konvergieren die Simulationsergebnisse schliesslich gegen die gesuchte Expositionsverteilung. Gerade in den fuer die gesundheitliche Bewertung besonders relevanten Randbereichen der Verteilungen liegen zuweilen nur wenige Daten vor. Dies fuehrt zu Ungenauigkeiten in der Expositionsabschaetzung, da deren Qualitaet wesentlich von der Qualitaet, Quantitaet und Repraesentativitaet der vorhandenen Messwerte abhaengt, aus denen die Ausgangsverteilungen bestimmt werden. Dennoch ist bei ausreichender Datenbasis der probabilistische Ansatz der Verwendung von Punktschaetzern zur Expositionsabschaetzung deutlich ueberlegen und sollte daher zunehmend auch Eingang in die Praxis der Risikoabschaetzung

  15. Reasoning and change management in modular ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Klein, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of modular representations are well known from many areas of computer science. While in software engineering modularization is mainly a vehicle for supporting distributed development and re-use, in knowledge representation, the main goal of modularization is efficiency of reasoning. In

  16. Modular invariance of N=2 minimal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidenius, J.

    1991-01-01

    We prove modular covariance of one-point functions at one loop in the diagonal N=2 minimal superconformal models. We use the recently derived general formalism for computing arbitrary conformal blocks in these models. Our result should be sufficient to guarantee modular covariance at arbitrary genus. It is thus an important check on the general formalism which is not manifestly modular covariant. (orig.)

  17. A Modularized Counselor-Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas V.; Dimattia, Dominic J.

    1978-01-01

    Counselor-education programs may be enriched through the use of modularized learning experiences. This article notes several recent articles on competency-based counselor education, the concepts of simulation and modularization, and describes the process of developing a modularized master's program at the University of Bridgeport in Connecticut.…

  18. Prospect of small modular reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huailin; Zhu Qingyuan; Wang Suli; Xia Haihong

    2014-01-01

    Small modular reactor has the advantages of modular construction, enhanced safety/robustness from simplified designs, better ecomonic, clean and carbon free, compatible with the needs of smaller utilities and diversified application. In this paper, the prospect of small modular reactor is discussed from technology development status, constraints, economic. (authors)

  19. Integrity and change in modular ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Klein, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The benefits of modular representations arc well known from many areas of computer science. In this paper, we concentrate on the benefits of modular ontologies with respect to local containment of terminological reasoning. We define an architecture for modular ontologies that supports local

  20. Modular networks with hierarchical organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several networks occurring in real life have modular structures that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper, we have proposed a model for such networks, using a stochastic generation method. Using this model we show that, the scaling relation between the clustering and degree of the nodes is not a necessary ...

  1. Modularity in Cancer Care Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a case study research conducted within the Danish healthcare system aimed at analyzing how modularity is deployed in the process of delivery cancer care. Three cancer packages are presented into detailed describing the process of defining the diagnosis and treat...

  2. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  3. Physical Modeling Modular Boxes: PHOXES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Serafin, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a set of musical instruments, which are based on known physical modeling sound synthesis techniques. The instruments are modular, meaning that they can be combined in various ways. This makes it possible to experiment with physical interaction and sonic...

  4. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  5. Modular forms a classical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Henri

    2017-01-01

    The theory of modular forms is a fundamental tool used in many areas of mathematics and physics. It is also a very concrete and "fun" subject in itself and abounds with an amazing number of surprising identities. This comprehensive textbook, which includes numerous exercises, aims to give a complete picture of the classical aspects of the subject, with an emphasis on explicit formulas. After a number of motivating examples such as elliptic functions and theta functions, the modular group, its subgroups, and general aspects of holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms are explained, with an emphasis on explicit examples. The heart of the book is the classical theory developed by Hecke and continued up to the Atkin-Lehner-Li theory of newforms and including the theory of Eisenstein series, Rankin-Selberg theory, and a more general theory of theta series including the Weil representation. The final chapter explores in some detail more general types of modular forms such as half-integral weight, Hilbert, Jacob...

  6. Analysis of the incentives and awards regulations for EMAS-organisations at European level and an assessment with respect to their feasibility at domestic level; Anreiz und Belohnungsregelungen fuer EMAS-Organisationen auf europaeischer Ebene und Bewertung hinsichtlich der nationalen Umsetzbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, C.; Heck, A.; Wirth, S.

    2003-10-01

    restrictive requirements concerning product labelling. From the results of the research-and-development project conclusions are drawn as theses. (orig.) [German] Die Ziele des Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhabens sind die Erfassung, Systematisierung und Bewertung der Gesamtheit als auch ausgewaehlter Schwerpunkte der praktizierten Anreiz- und Belohnungsregelungen zur Foerderung der Beteiligung an EMAS in den Mitgliedsstaaten der Europaeischen Union. Darueber hinaus sollen Vorschlaege fuer Massnahmen und Regelungen bzw. deren Verbesserung entwickelt werden. Den Kern der Untersuchung bilden die als Anreiz- und Belohnungsregelungen wirkenden umweltpolitischen bzw. umweltrechtlichen Instrumente. Die Untersuchung fusst auf der Verzahnung dreier verschiedener, methodischer Vorgehensweisen: der rechtswissenschaftlichen Analyse und Auslegungsmethodik, der Sekundaeranalyse und einer empirischen Komponente in Form von Befragungen. (orig./CB)

  7. Bundling Products and Services Through Modularization Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana; Rajahonka, Mervi

    2012-01-01

    Modularity has been recognized as a powerful tool in improving the efficiency and management of product design and manufacturing. However, the integrated view on covering both, product and service modularity for product-service systems (PSS), is under researched. Therefore, in this paper our...... objective is to contribute to the PSS modularity. Thus, we describe configurations of PSSs and the bundling of products and services through modularization strategies. So far there have not been tools to analyze and determine the correct combinations of degrees of product and service modularities....

  8. RoboMusic with modular playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Kasper; Bærendsen, Niels Kristian; Nielsen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concepts of RoboMusic and modular playware, we developed a system composed of modular playware devices which allow any user to perform music in a simple, interactive manner. The key features exploited in the modular playware approach are modularity, fl exibility, construction......, immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, creative exploration of play activities, and in some cases activity design by end-users (e.g., DJs). We exemplify the approach with the development of 11 rock genres and 6 pop music pieces for modular I-BLOCKS, which are exhibited and in daily use at the Rock Me...

  9. RoboMusic with Modular Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Bærendsen, Niels Kristian; Nielsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Based on the concepts of RoboMusic and Modular Playware, we developed a system composed of modular playware devices, which allow any user to perform music in a simple, interactive manner. The key features exploited from the Modular Playware approach are modularity, flexibility, and construction......, immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, creative exploration of play activities, and in some cases activity design by end-users (e.g. DJ’s). We exemplify the approach with the development of 11 rock genres and 6 pop music pieces for modular I-BLOCKS, which are exhibited and in daily use at the Rock Me...

  10. Vergleich verschiedener Methoden zur Haftkraftmessung von Dentinadhäsiven

    OpenAIRE

    Schwertner, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Zur Bestimmung der Haftkraft von Adhäsiven stehen verschiedene Methoden zur Verfügung. Ziel dieser Studie war es, vier gebräuchliche in vitro Haftkraftmessmethoden (Tensile Bond Strength Test, Shear Bond Strength Test, Microtensile Bond Strength Test, Push-out Bond Strength Test) an drei unterschiedlichen Adhäsivsystemen (Syntac, Clearfil SE Bond, Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose) zu testen und die Ergebnisse zu vergleichen. Die Haftkräfte sind abhängig von der verwendeten Messmethode. Viele Pa...

  11. Digitale Transformation, aber wie? - Von der Spielwiese zur Umsetzungsplanung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Thomas

    Es besteht wohl kaum Anlass zur Annahme, dass die seit Jahrzehnten etablierten Markt- und Technologiestrukturen der Energiewirtschaft sich nicht in einem radikalen Ablöseprozess mit Gewinnern und Verlierern befinden. Aber Vorsicht - vordergründig bereits verloren erscheinende Geschäftsmodelle erfahren im Zuge der Digitalisierung einerseits noch intensiveren Wettbewerbsdruck, können aber andererseits von diesem "technologischen Jungbrunnen" profitieren, um verlorenes Terrain zurückzugewinnen. Im folgenden Kapitel wird ein Managementzyklus aufgezeigt, der in Anlehnung an die bereits erfolgreiche Implementierung digitaler R/Evolutionen anderer Branchen aufzeigt, wie die Geschäftsleitung systematisch kostenbewusst und zielorientiert die Digitalisierung umsetzen kann.

  12. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR

  13. CP violation and modular symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Dent, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent non-invariance of the results under duality. We find an unambiguous modular CP invariance condition, applicable to predictive models of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated a...

  14. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  15. A Modular Instant Messaging System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Raad; Zouhair Bazzal; Majd Ghareeb; Hanan Farhat; Semar Bahmad

    2017-01-01

    Instant Messaging (IM) Android applications are a trend nowadays. These applications are categorized according to their features: usability, flexibility, privacy and security. However, IM applications tend to be inflexible in terms of functionality offered. The “Dble-U” system was developed as a solution to this inflexibility, with a focus on privacy as an example use case. “Dble-U” is a configurable modular system consisting of an Android chatting application, a privacy controller applicatio...

  16. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  17. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve

  18. Modular programming method at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Kiyoshi; Katsuragi, Satoru

    1982-02-01

    In this report the histories, concepts and a method for the construction and maintenance of nuclear code systems of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) are presented. The method is mainly consisted of novel computer features. The development process of the features and experiences with them which required many man-months and efforts of scientists and engineers of JAERI and a computer manufacturer are also described. One of the features is a file handling program named datapool. The program is being used in code systems which are under development at JAERI. The others are computer features such as dynamic linking, reentrant coding of Fortran programs, interactive programming facility, document editor, quick system output viewer and editor, flexible man-machine interactive Fortran executor, and selective use of time-sharing or batch oriented computer in an interactive porgramming environment. In 1980 JAERI has replaced its two old computer systems by three FACOM M-200 computer systems and they have such features as mentioned above. Since 1981 most code systems, or even big single codes can be changed to modular code systems even if the developers or users of the systems will not recognize the fact that they are using modular code systems. The purpose of this report is to describe our methodology of modular programming from aspects of computer features and some of their applications to nuclear codes to get sympathetic understanding of it from persons of organizations who are concerned with the effective use of computers, especially, in nuclear research fields. (author)

  19. Self-organized modularization in evolutionary algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauscher, Peter; Uthmann, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The principle of modularization has proven to be extremely successful in the field of technical applications and particularly for Software Engineering purposes. The question to be answered within the present article is whether mechanisms can also be identified within the framework of Evolutionary Computation that cause a modularization of solutions. We will concentrate on processes, where modularization results only from the typical evolutionary operators, i.e. selection and variation by recombination and mutation (and not, e.g., from special modularization operators). This is what we call Self-Organized Modularization. Based on a combination of two formalizations by Radcliffe and Altenberg, some quantitative measures of modularity are introduced. Particularly, we distinguish Built-in Modularity as an inherent property of a genotype and Effective Modularity, which depends on the rest of the population. These measures can easily be applied to a wide range of present Evolutionary Computation models. It will be shown, both theoretically and by simulation, that under certain conditions, Effective Modularity (as defined within this paper) can be a selection factor. This causes Self-Organized Modularization to take place. The experimental observations emphasize the importance of Effective Modularity in comparison with Built-in Modularity. Although the experimental results have been obtained using a minimalist toy model, they can lead to a number of consequences for existing models as well as for future approaches. Furthermore, the results suggest a complex self-amplification of highly modular equivalence classes in the case of respected relations. Since the well-known Holland schemata are just the equivalence classes of respected relations in most Simple Genetic Algorithms, this observation emphasizes the role of schemata as Building Blocks (in comparison with arbitrary subsets of the search space).

  20. Von der Medienwirkungsbehauptung zur erziehungswissenschaftlichen Medienrezeptionsforschung. Vorschlag zur Analyse von Filmkommunikaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Drinck

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Im Hinblick auf die Erforschung spezifischer Zusammenhänge von Medienkonsum und der Herausbildung von Einstellungen und Handlungen wird eine konstruktivistische Theorieorientierung plausibilisiert, indem zunächst auf den Stand der Medienwirkungsforschung eingegangen und vor dem Hintergrund einer begründeten Kritik des Wirkungsverständnisses auf die Notwendigkeit einer medienrezeptionswissenschaftlichen Forschungsalternative hingewiesen wird. Weiterhin wird der Stand der (erziehungswissenschaftlichen Medienrezeptionsforschung erörtert. Sodann werden Elemente einer konstruktivistischen Methodologie von Medienrezeptionsforschung beschrieben, die am Beispiel der Rezeption von Filmen konkretisiert werden. Dabei wird das Konzept des Kommunikates (S.J. Schmidt als Ausgangspunkt genommen, ein Vorschlag für eine Beschreibungssprache für (Film- Kommunikate entwickelt und eine Adaption des Ansatzes filmischer Narration zur Sprache gebracht.

  1. Modular properties of 6d (DELL) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, G.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-11-01

    If super-Yang-Mills theory possesses the exact conformal invariance, there is an additional modular invariance under the change of the complex bare charge [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]. The low-energy Seiberg-Witten prepotential ℱ( a), however, is not explicitly invariant, because the flat moduli also change a - → a D = ∂ℱ/∂ a. In result, the prepotential is not a modular form and depends also on the anomalous Eisenstein series E 2. This dependence is usually described by the universal MNW modular anomaly equation. We demonstrate that, in the 6 d SU( N) theory with two independent modular parameters τ and \\widehat{τ} , the modular anomaly equation changes, because the modular transform of τ is accompanied by an ( N -dependent!) shift of \\widehat{τ} and vice versa. This is a new peculiarity of double-elliptic systems, which deserves further investigation.

  2. Modular Design in Treaty Verification Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Benz, Jacob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tolk, Keith [Milagro Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, Tom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    It is widely believed that modular design is a good thing. However, there are often few explicit arguments, or even an agreed range of definitions, to back up this belief. In this paper, we examine the potential range of design modularity, the implications of various amounts of modularity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each level of modular construction. We conclude with a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each type, as well as discuss many caveats that should be observed to take advantage of the positive features of modularity and minimize the effects of the negative. The tradeoffs described in this paper will be evaluated during the conceptual design to determine what amount of modularity should be included.

  3. Modular Robotics in an African Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the concept, development and use of modular robotic devices for education, health improvements, and business in Africa. The modular robotics inspired technology has the advantage of allowing any user easy access to a physical construction of new and advanced technology. We...... conceptualized several educational tools inspired by modular robotics for contextualized IT education in Tanzania, leading to a novel IT degree program and the development of East Africa’s first science and business park in Iringa, Tanzania. The prototypes inspired by modular robotics were developed in the local......, rural context and tested by local users in hospitals and rehabilitation centres. In this paper, we review the development of both modular building blocks for education and modular robotic tiles for rehabilitation in Tanzania....

  4. (Automated) software modularization using community detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The modularity of a software system is known to have an effect on, among other, development effort, change impact, and technical debt. Modularizing a specific system and evaluating this modularization is, however, challenging. In this paper, we apply community detection methods to the graph...... of class dependencies in software systems to find optimal modularizations through communities. We evaluate this approach through a study of 111 Java systems contained in the Qualitas Corpus. We found that using the modularity function of Newman with an Erdős-Rényi null-model and using the community...... detection algorithm of Reichardt and Bornholdt improved community quality for all systems, that coupling decreased for 99 of the systems, and that coherence increased for 102 of the systems. Furthermore, the modularity function correlates with existing metrics for coupling and coherence....

  5. Siebenjährige Follow-up-Studie zur Anwendung des spannungsfreien Vaginalbandes (TVT zur Behandlung der Stressharninkontinenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson CG

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Studienzweck: Evaluierung der langfristigen Heilungs- und Spätkomplikationsraten bei Stressharninkontinenz der Frau bei Behandlung mit dem spannungsfreien Vaginalband (TVT, das anhand einer minimal-invasiven Operation eingesetzt wird. Methodik: In drei Studienzentren durchgeführte prospektive Beobachtungs- und Kohortenstudie mit ursprünglich 90 Frauen, deren primäre Stressharninkontinenz einen operativen Eingriff erforderlich machte. Zu den Bewertungsvariablen gehörten ein Vorlagentest (Pad-Test zur Messung des Uringewichts je 24 Stunden, ein Stresstest, eine visuelle Analogskala (VAS zur Beurteilung des Beschwerdegrads sowie ein Fragebogen zur Beurteilung der subjektiven Wahrnehmung des Kontinenzstatus durch die Frauen. Ergebnisse: Als Follow-up-Zeitraum wurde ein durchschnittlicher Zeitraum von 91 Monaten (78–100 Monate festgelegt. Sowohl die objektive als auch die subjektive Heilungsrate lag bei den an der Follow-up-Studie teilnehmenden 80 Frauen bei 81,3 %. Bei 7,8 % der Frauen wurde ein asymptomatischer Prolaps der Organe des kleinen Beckens, bei 6,3 % De-novo-Drangsymptome und bei 7,5 % eine rezidivierende Harnwegsinfektion festgestellt. Weitere unerwünschte Nebenwirkungen des Verfahrens wurden nicht festgestellt. Schlussfolgerung: Die Wirkung der TVT-Operation zur Behandlung der Stressharninkontinenz der Frau bleibt über einen Zeitraum von 7 Jahren erhalten.

  6. Anomalies and modular invariance in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, A.N.; Warner, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    All known anomaly cancellations of heterotic string theories are derived directly from one-loop modular invariance, and are shown to be related to a property of modular functions of weight 2. Using modular invariance infinite classes of anomaly free field theories are constructed in (8m+2) dimensions for any m. A generating function is obtained for the anomalies of string-related field theories in (8m+2) dimensions. (orig.)

  7. KWU's modular approach to HTR commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frewer, H.; Weisbrodt, I.

    1983-01-01

    As a way of avoiding the uncertainties, delays and unacceptable commercial risks which have plagued advanced reactor projects in Germany, KWU is advocating a modular approach to commercialization of the high-temperature reactor (HTR), using small size standard reactor units. KWU has received a contract for the study of a co-generation plant based on this modular system. Features of the KWU modular HTR, process heat, gasification, costs and future development are discussed. (UK)

  8. Identification of drivers for modular production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Bossen, Jacob; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Todays competitive environment in industry creates a need for companies to enhance their ability to introduce new products faster. To increase rampup speed reconfigurable manufacturing systems is a promising concept, however to implement this production platforms and modular manufacturing...... is required. This paper presents an analysis whether and which module drivers from general product development can be applied to the development process of a modular manufacturing system. The result is a compiled list of modular drivers for manufacturing and examples of their use....

  9. The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, D.E.; Lipps, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Due to relatively high operating temperatures, the gas-cooled reactor has the potential to serve a wide variety of energy applications. This paper discusses the energy applications which can be served by the modular HTGR, the magnitude of the potential markets, and the HTGR product cost incentives relative to fossil fuel competition. Advantages of the HTGR modular systems are presented along with a description of the design features and performance characteristics of the current reference HTGR modular systems

  10. Modular invariance, chiral anomalies and contact terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutasov, D.

    1988-03-01

    The chiral anomaly in heterotic strings with full and partial modular invariance in D=2n+2 dimensions is calculated. The boundary terms which were present in previous calculations are shown to be cancelled in the modular invariant case by contact terms, which can be obtained by an appropriate analytic continuation. The relation to the low energy field theory is explained. In theories with partial modular invariance, an expression for the anomaly is obtained and shown to be non zero in general. (author)

  11. Development of a product data model to support an integral planning of buildings and their heating- and air conditioning devices; Entwicklung eines Produktdatenmodells zur Unterstuetzung der integralen Planung von Gebaeuden und ihrer heiz- und raumlufttechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkelmann, M.

    2000-08-01

    . (orig.) [German] Der Lebenszyklus aller technischen Anlagen ist weitgehend gleich. Eine Anlage wird zunaechst geplant, dann errichtet und abgenommen, anschliessend beginnt der normale Betrieb. Im regulaeren Betrieb wird in regelmaessigen Zeitabstaenden eine Wartung durchgefuehrt. In groesseren Abstaenden werden umfangreiche Erneuerungen, Renovierungen, notwendig. Der zeitliche Ablauf eiener Renovierung ist wie der zeitliche Ablauf einer Neuplanung. In jeder Phase des Lebenszyklus werden Software-Werkzeuge zur Bewertung der Planungs- bzw. Betriebszustaende und zur Unterstuetzung der Planungsaufgaben eingesetzt. Die Effizienz dieser Werkzeuge haengt entscheidend von einem reibungslosen Datenaustausch ab. Es gilt daher ein Schema zu finden, das die Integration der Software-Werkzeuge fuer Planung, Betrieb und Renovierung ermoeglicht. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Szenario zur Integration von Planungs- und Bewertungswerkzeugen fuer HLK-Anlagen entwickelt. Das Szenario orientiert sich an den Gegebenheiten des heute ueblichen Planungsablaufs mit verschiedenen unabhaengigen Planern. Zentraler Bestandteil dieses Szenarios ist ein Produktdatenmodell, das sich durch eine flexible und offene Beschreibung von Gebaeude und technischer Anlage auszeichnet. Es wird eine, als ein Metamodell bezeichnete, uebergeordnete Struktur vorgeschlagen, mit deren Hilfe das Produktdatenmodell einheitlich und ueberschaubar dargestellt werden kann. Das Metamodell erleichtert zudem die Erweiterungen des Datenmodells, da Erweiterungen zunaechst auf der abstrakten Ebene des Metamodells behandelt werden koennen und erst in einem zweiten Schritt ausformuliert werden. Um nicht eine Vielzahl von technischen Komponenten abbilden zu muessen, wird ein allgemeines Datenmodell fuer technische Komponenten vorgeschlagen, das mit Hilfe eines abstrakten Datentyps 'Parameter' implementiert wird. Das im Rahmen dieser Arbeit implementierte System ermoeglicht erstmalig, Simulationsmodelle fuer das

  12. Modular Structures in a Multinational Force Headquarters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, K; Christie, M

    2004-01-01

    .... It is proposed that future Multinational Force (MNF) military headquarters (HQ) can achieve this flexibility through a modular organizational structure enabled by networked information management and communication technologies...

  13. A Modular SOS for Action Notation - Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    A draft modular SOS for the new version of AN, referred to as AN-2, has been available since 2000. It is written in CASL and has been checked for well-formedness using CATS (CASL Tool Set). It appears to be significantly more accessible than the original SOS of AN-1. However, it now appears......-notation for the modular SOS rules. After discussing the issues, we look at some illustrative examples taken from an improved modular SOS of AN-2 (in preparation). We also look at the possibility of empirical testing of the modular SOS by a straightforward translation to Prolog....

  14. Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Erik Hermann; Meseguer, José

    Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution and verif......Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution...

  15. Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Edward Hermann; Meseguer, José

    2003-01-01

    Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution and verif......Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution...

  16. Modular representation and analysis of fault trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos, J; Wolf, L [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1978-08-01

    An analytical method to describe fault tree diagrams in terms of their modular compositions is developed. Fault tree structures are characterized by recursively relating the top tree event to all its basic component inputs through a set of equations defining each of the modulus for the fault tree. It is shown that such a modular description is an extremely valuable tool for making a quantitative analysis of fault trees. The modularization methodology has been implemented into the PL-MOD computer code, written in PL/1 language, which is capable of modularizing fault trees containing replicated components and replicated modular gates. PL-MOD in addition can handle mutually exclusive inputs and explicit higher order symmetric (k-out-of-n) gates. The step-by-step modularization of fault trees performed by PL-MOD is demonstrated and it is shown how this procedure is only made possible through an extensive use of the list processing tools available in PL/1. A number of nuclear reactor safety system fault trees were analyzed. PL-MOD performed the modularization and evaluation of the modular occurrence probabilities and Vesely-Fussell importance measures for these systems very efficiently. In particular its execution time for the modularization of a PWR High Pressure Injection System reduced fault tree was 25 times faster than that necessary to generate its equivalent minimal cut-set description using MOCUS, a code considered to be fast by present standards.

  17. Problems in the theory of modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram; Graves, Hester

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the fascinating world of modular forms through a problem-solving approach. As such, besides researchers, the book can be used by the undergraduate and graduate students for self-instruction. The topics covered include q-series, the modular group, the upper half-plane, modular forms of level one and higher level, the Ramanujan τ-function, the Petersson inner product, Hecke operators, Dirichlet series attached to modular forms and further special topics. It can be viewed as a gentle introduction for a deeper study of the subject. Thus, it is ideal for non-experts seeking an entry into the field. .

  18. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high-level...

  19. Decentralizing decision making in modularization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    which distorts the economic effects of modularization at the level of the individual product. This has the implication that decisions on modularization can only be made by top management if decision authority and relevant information are to be aligned. To overcome this problem, we suggest a solution...... that aligns the descriptions of the economic consequences of modularization at the project and portfolio level which makes it possible to decentralize decision making while making sure that local goals are congruent with the global ones in order to avoid suboptimal behaviour. Keywords: Modularization......; Accounting; Cost allocation; Decision rule; Decentralization...

  20. Mechanical property tests in hot gas environment for evaluation of life expectancy of aero-engine turbine blades and for assessment of procedures for prolonging service life. Mechanische Pruefung unter Heissgasatmosphaere zur Ermittlung der Lebenserwartung von Fluggasturbinenschaufeln und zur Bewertung von Verfahren zur Lebensdauerverlaengerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peichl, L

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this programme was the determination and optimization of mechanical testing procedures in order to enable a service life prediction for turbine blades as well as to measure the life consumption of blades which have already been in service. Under these testing conditions procedures were to be investigated which lead to a prolongation of the service life of the blades. The results have shown that the rig test at constant values of load and temperature, which are typical for service conditions, is sufficient for the laboratory simulation. The life consumption of blades run in the engine can be determined by measuring the residual creep life in the rig test. Using the resulting data the life consumption of a particular blade run in the engine can be estimated by the non-destructive measurement of its elongation. The precision of residual life prediction is raised by respecting the master heat and porosity of the blades. From the investigation of high-temperature corrosion resistant coatings it follows that IN 100 can be protected against the attack of sea salt over its whole creep life by coating with a precious metal modified aluminide or by LPPS- or EB-PVD-MCrAlY-coatings. By aluminising, the cooling channels of turbine blades can be protected against oxidation over more than 700 h in the temperature/load cycling test. However, the coating technique used is only applicable under laboratory conditions. In contrary, internal coating by pulse aluminising, which is compatible to production conditions, showed less oxidation resistance.

  1. On modular stellarator reactor coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, F.; Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Wobig, H.

    1985-01-01

    Modular twisted coils are discussed which produce magnetic fields of the Advanced Stellarator WENDELSTEIN VII-AS type. Reducing the number coils/FP offers advantage for maintenance of coils, but increases the magnetic ripple and B m /B o . Computation of force densities within the coils of ASR and ASB yield local maximum values of about 80 and 180 MN/m 3 , respectively. A system of mutual coil support is being developed. Twisted coils in helical arrangement provide a reactor-sized HELIAC system. In order to reduce the magnetic ripple, a large number of 14 coils/FP in special arrangement is used

  2. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our

  3. CP violation and modular symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent noninvariance of the results under duality. We find a modular CP invariance condition, applicable to any predictive model of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated as a source of CP violation, but is likely experimentally excluded. We consider the prospects for explaining CP violation in strongly coupled strings and brane worlds

  4. Decentralized and Modular Electrical Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisabelar, Christian; Lebaratoux, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the studies made on the definition and design of a decentralized and modular electrical architecture that can be used for power distribution, active thermal control (ATC), standard inputs-outputs electrical interfaces.Traditionally implemented inside central unit like OBC or RTU, these interfaces can be dispatched in the satellite by using MicroRTU.CNES propose a similar approach of MicroRTU. The system is based on a bus called BRIO (Bus Réparti des IO), which is composed, by a power bus and a RS485 digital bus. BRIO architecture is made with several miniature terminals called BTCU (BRIO Terminal Control Unit) distributed in the spacecraft.The challenge was to design and develop the BTCU with very little volume, low consumption and low cost. The standard BTCU models are developed and qualified with a configuration dedicated to ATC, while the first flight model will fly on MICROSCOPE for PYRO actuations and analogue acquisitions. The design of the BTCU is made in order to be easily adaptable for all type of electric interface needs.Extension of this concept is envisaged for power conditioning and distribution unit, and a Modular PCDU based on BRIO concept is proposed.

  5. Modular plants for small deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Moral, A.; Otero, J.L.; Suarez, E.

    1985-01-01

    The large investment required to recover uranium from small deposits is the greatest obstacle to their economic development. Various concepts (caravan mill, pure mill or semimobile mill) have been elaborated in different countries. Studies have also been made in Spain to develop a simple and economic flowsheet suitable for the beneficiation of small uranium deposits. An acid heap-leaching and solvent extraction process was chosen because there is already a great deal of experience of it in Spain. Modifications were necessary to make the equipment easy to transport and also to have a low and reusable investment when this flowsheet is used for small deposits. The aim was to develop a modular plant with all the elements fitted in compact units that needs little site preparation and little time and effort to connect the units. A standard small portable crushing plant can be borrowed and the mining operation and heap construction can be put to contract. There is a solvent extraction unit (150 m 3 /d) in continuous operation (24 h/d) and concentrate precipitation and handling facilities. The whole of the equipment is standard and as light as possible. Little civil engineering is required and the erection of the plant only needs a few months. The uranium capacity of these modular plants is between 35 and 50 t U 3 O 8 /a. Special consideration has been paid to regulations and the environmental aspects. (author)

  6. Hydraulic Modular Dosaging Systems for Machine Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Kotlobai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The justified principle of making modular dosaging systems for positive-displacement multimotor hydraulic drives used in running gear and technological equipment of mobile construction, road and agricultural machines makes it possible to synchronize motion of running parts. The examples of the realization of modular dosaging systems and an algorithm of their operation are given in the paper.

  7. Theta function identities associated with Ramanujan's modular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Chapter 20 of his second notebook [6], Ramanujan recorded several theta function identities associated with modular equations of composite degree 15. These identities have previously been proved by Berndt in [3]. But he proved most of these theta function identities using modular equations. These identities can also ...

  8. Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew; Suchanek, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.

  9. Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek, E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.p [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Jaskolski, Zbigniew, E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.p [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Suchanek, Paulina, E-mail: paulina@ift.uni.wroc.p [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-02-22

    The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.

  10. Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew; Suchanek, Paulina

    2010-02-01

    The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.

  11. Curriculum Development through YTS Modular Credit Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document reports the evaluation of the collaborately developed Modular Training Framework (MainFrame), a British curriculum development project, built around a commitment to a competency-based, modular credit accumulation program. The collaborators were three local education authorities (LEAs), those of Bedfordshire, Haringey, and Sheffield,…

  12. Higher-order (non-)modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Claus; van Oostrom, Vincent; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We show that, contrary to the situation in first-order term rewriting, almost none of the usual properties of rewriting are modular for higher-order rewriting, irrespective of the higher-order rewriting format. We show that for the particular format of simply typed applicative term rewriting...... systems modularity of confluence, normalization, and termination can be recovered by imposing suitable linearity constraints....

  13. Modular interdependency in complex dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard A; Pollack, Jordan B

    2005-01-01

    Herbert A. Simon's characterization of modularity in dynamical systems describes subsystems as having dynamics that are approximately independent of those of other subsystems (in the short term). This fits with the general intuition that modules must, by definition, be approximately independent. In the evolution of complex systems, such modularity may enable subsystems to be modified and adapted independently of other subsystems, whereas in a nonmodular system, modifications to one part of the system may result in deleterious side effects elsewhere in the system. But this notion of modularity and its effect on evolvability is not well quantified and is rather simplistic. In particular, modularity need not imply that intermodule dependences are weak or unimportant. In dynamical systems this is acknowledged by Simon's suggestion that, in the long term, the dynamical behaviors of subsystems do interact with one another, albeit in an "aggregate" manner--but this kind of intermodule interaction is omitted in models of modularity for evolvability. In this brief discussion we seek to unify notions of modularity in dynamical systems with notions of how modularity affects evolvability. This leads to a quantifiable measure of modularity and a different understanding of its effect on evolvability.

  14. Analytic properties of the Virasoro modular kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemkov, Nikita [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISIS, The Laboratory of Superconducting metamaterials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    On the space of generic conformal blocks the modular transformation of the underlying surface is realized as a linear integral transformation. We show that the analytic properties of conformal block implied by Zamolodchikov's formula are shared by the kernel of the modular transformation and illustrate this by explicit computation in the case of the one-point toric conformal block. (orig.)

  15. Modularity and its effects on innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    systematic work and management type of tasks, although it conflicts with the typical characteristics associated with the entrepreneur. If not managed properly, modularization can foster the modularity trap over time. At this stage intrapreneurial activities can help the organization stay ahead of the game...

  16. A Formal Theory for Modular ERDF Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyti, Anastasia; Antoniou, Grigoris; Damásio, Carlos Viegas

    The success of the Semantic Web is impossible without any form of modularity, encapsulation, and access control. In an earlier paper, we extended RDF graphs with weak and strong negation, as well as derivation rules. The ERDF #n-stable model semantics of the extended RDF framework (ERDF) is defined, extending RDF(S) semantics. In this paper, we propose a framework for modular ERDF ontologies, called modular ERDF framework, which enables collaborative reasoning over a set of ERDF ontologies, while support for hidden knowledge is also provided. In particular, the modular ERDF stable model semantics of modular ERDF ontologies is defined, extending the ERDF #n-stable model semantics. Our proposed framework supports local semantics and different points of view, local closed-world and open-world assumptions, and scoped negation-as-failure. Several complexity results are provided.

  17. Modular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    This research centres on assembly systems designed for utilizing product modularization. Altogether, the task for companies has become an issue of managing the overall trade-off between the external market’s desire for variety and the internal efficiency and effectiveness. Product modularization...... a number of theoretical and managerial implications are identified. From a management point of view, the most im-portant finding is that modularization needs to be configured for the two competitive situations, i.e. 1) the volume flexible configuration focusing on generational product variety and 2......) the mix flexible con-figuration focusing on the simultaneous product variety. These two views are in particular different in respect to the understanding of product modularization. All in all, modularization needs to be, and can be, configured in regard to the specific task, which is believed constituting...

  18. Enablers & Barriers for Realizing Modularity Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Thyssen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    far less attention compared to the theories and methods concerning modularization of technical systems. Harvesting the full potential of modularization, particularly in relation to product development agility, depends on more than an optimal architecture. Key enablers in this context......Although modularization is becoming both a well-described domain in academia and a broadly applied concept in business, many of today’s firm still struggle to realize the promised benefits of this approach. Managing modularization is a complex matter, and in spite of this, a topic that has received...... are the organizational and systems related aspects. Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers with regard to obtaining the full...

  19. Synthesizing Modular Invariants for Synchronous Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loic Garoche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore different techniques to synthesize modular invariants for synchronous code encoded as Horn clauses. Modular invariants are a set of formulas that characterizes the validity of predicates. They are very useful for different aspects of analysis, synthesis, testing and program transformation. We describe two techniques to generate modular invariants for code written in the synchronous dataflow language Lustre. The first technique directly encodes the synchronous code in a modular fashion. While in the second technique, we synthesize modular invariants starting from a monolithic invariant. Both techniques, take advantage of analysis techniques based on property-directed reachability. We also describe a technique to minimize the synthesized invariants.

  20. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  1. Entwicklung eines kontinuierlichen Verfahrens zur enzymkatalysierten Synthese eines strukturierten Triglycerides

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Hans-Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Ausgangspunkt für die in der vorliegenden Arbeit durchgeführten Entwicklung eines kontinuierlichen Verfahrens zur Synthese des strukturierten Triglycerides 1,3-Oleyl-2-palmitoylglycerin war die von Schmid [Schmid 1999] entwickelte lipase-katalysierte Zwei-Schritt-Synthese für strukturierte Triglyceride vom Typ ABA [European Patent Application; EP 0 882 797 A2]. In der ersten Reaktionsstufe dieser zweistufigen Umesterung wird in einer Folgereaktion das Substrat Tripalmitin mit Hilfe ein...

  2. Offenheit: Poster zur Nacht des Wissens Hamburg 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hapke, Thomas; Rajski, Beate; Bieler, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Die Posterserie zum Thema Offenheit wurde von der Universitätsbibliothek der Technischen Universität Hamburg für die Nacht des Wissens am 7. November 2015 erstellt. Sie enthält die Poster Offenheit vonWissen Open Access Open Access Publizieren Offene Inhalte - Creative Commons Lizenzen TUBdok: Open Access Repository der TUHH Offene Bildung - Open Educational Resources Zur Geschichte der Offenheit des Wissens

  3. Strategien zur HLA-Typisierung mit PyrosequencingTM

    OpenAIRE

    Entz, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Der Haupthistokompatibilitätskomplex ist durch seine biologische Funktion eine für die Diagnostik und Forschung äußerst wichtige Region im humanen Genom. Die Untersuchung von HLA-Genorten stellt ein wichtiges Instrument in der molekulargenetischen Praxis dar. Die Pyrosequencing-Technik ist gut geeignet, um kurze DNA-Abschnitte mit weitgehend bekannter Sequenz schnell und effizient zu untersuchen. Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Entwicklung von Pyrosequencing-basierten Methoden zur HLA-Typisierung....

  4. Zur Dialektik von Soft Skills und fachlicher Kompetenz

    OpenAIRE

    Jendrowiak, Hans-Werner

    2010-01-01

    [Der Autor stellt folgende Thesen zur Dialektik von Soft Skills und fachlicher Bildung auf:] 1. Soft Skills sind normale Bildungskategorien und Teil einer Allgemeinen Bildung. […] 2. Soft Skills sind als personalgebundene Kriterien auch immer schon Gegenstand bildungstheoretischer Debatten. […] 3. Soft Skills ist eine trendorientierte Bezeichnung für Bildung. […] 4. Soft Skills sind Ausdruck von Vorstellungen, Ideen und Theorien (Schulkultur, Unternehmenskultur, Unternehmensphilosophie). 5. S...

  5. Ein Beitrag zur Erweiterung von Beamforming-Methoden

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Im automobilen Entwicklungsprozess haben sich akustische Messsysteme etabliert, die mit einer Anordnung von Mikrofonen, einer optischen Kamera und einer nachgeschalteten Signalverarbeitung die Schalleinfallsrichtung detektieren und dadurch die Schalldruckverteilung auf Quellorte im Fernfeld zurückrechnen und visualisieren können. Die Signalverarbeitung beruht i. A. auf dem Delay&Sum-Beamforming, deren Umsetzung im Zeit- oder Frequenzbereich erfolgt. Die Schwächen dieser Messtechnik bezüglich ...

  6. Sensory testing of emissions from construction products. Integration into the Blue Angel award criteria and assessment scheme of the Committee for Health Evaluation of Building Products; Sensorische Bewertung der Emissionen aus Bauprodukten.- Integration in die Vergabegrundlagen fuer den Blauen Engel und das Bewertungsschema des Ausschusses zur gesundheitlichen Bewertung von Bauprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Birgit; Danielak, Maciej [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Panaskova, Jana [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. for Energy Efficient Buildings and Indoor Climate; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Mueller, Dirk [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. for Energy Efficient Buildings and Indoor Climate

    2011-06-15

    Emissions from construction products impact the quality of indoor air considerably. The AgBB scheme is employed to evaluate the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from construction products. The hygienic evaluation according to the AgBB scheme requires product-specific measuring procedures. These exist for a range of products. They have been validated in co-operation with several research and testing institutes and have been included in the criteria for awarding the eco-label Blue Angel. The evaluation is, however, stricter and generally has lower limits. VOC emissions and odours can cause health problems so sensory testing is an important element in the evaluation of construction products and has - for reasons of precaution - been set down in the AgBB scheme. The main goal of the project is to derive a method of sensory evaluation and limits for awarding the Blue Angel and for the AgBB scheme. Based on the research conducted (see Chapter 5 Results and Discussion), perceived intensity and hedonics are suggested for the evaluation method. The derivation of limits for the sensory evaluation on the 28th day was effected in the present study through the additional questioning of the test subjects on the reasonability of a sample. For the Blue Angel, there could be different limits of perceived intensity and hedonic for each group of products. A preliminary suggestion for possible limits - here for all product groups - is a perceived intensity of 7 pi (5 pi + 2 pi as confidence coefficient, Chapter 5.1.5. ''Minimum Requirements for the Size of Test Groups'') and -1 (0{+-}0.8, rounded to -1) for the hedonic value (see Figure 6-1). (orig.)

  7. Alexandru Popa, Untersuchungen zu den römisch-barbarischen Kontakten Östlich der römischen Provinz Dacia Antiquitatis reihe 3 Abhnadlungen zur vor-und frühgeschichte, zur klassichen und provinzial-römischen archäologie und zur geschichte des altertum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Iarmulschi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Review on book - Alexandru Popa, Untersuchungen zu den römisch-barbarischen Kontakten Östlich der römischen Provinz Dacia Antiquitatis reihe 3 Abhnadlungen zur vor-und frühgeschichte, zur klassichen und provinzial-römischen archäologie und zur geschichte des altertum

  8. Modular crystals as modulated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elcoro, L.; Perez-Mato, J.M.; Friese, K.

    2008-01-01

    The use of the superspace formalism is extended to the description and refinement of the homologous series of modular structures with two symmetry-related modules with different orientations. The lillianite homologous series has been taken as a study case. Starting from a commensurate modulated...... composite description with two basic subsystems corresponding to the two different modules, it is shown how a more efficient description can be achieved using so-called zigzag modulation functions. These linear zigzag modulations, newly implemented in the program JANA2006, have very large fixed amplitudes...... and introduce in the starting model the two orientations of the underlying module sublattices. We show that a composite approach with this type of function, which treats the cations and anions as two separate subsystems forming a misfit compound, is the most appropriate and robust method for the refinements....

  9. Modular reactor head shielding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    An improved modular reactor head shielding system is provided that includes a frame which is removably assembled on a reactor head such that no structural or mechanical alteration of the head is required. The shielding system also includes hanging assemblies to mount flexible shielding pads on trolleys which can be moved along the frame. The assemblies allow individual pivoting movement of the pads. The pivoting movement along with the movement allowed by the trolleys provides ease of access to any point on the reactor head. The assemblies also facilitate safe and efficient mounting of the pads directly to and from storage containers such that workers have additional shielding throughout virtually the entire installation and removal process. The flexible shielding pads are designed to interleave with one another when assembled around the reactor head for substantially improved containment of radiation leakage

  10. Planning processes with integrated evaluation of climate and air; Einbindung und Bewertung von Klima und Luft in Plannungsablaeufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzschner, L. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich 13 - Stadt- und Landschaftsplanung

    1997-09-01

    More and more often, plannings require climate statements which are suitable to be considered in the weighing of the different factors. The paper makes climate assessment proposals permitting a qualitative and quantitative judgement. Parameters employed are the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) as well as, increasingly, statements regarding the quality of ventilation. Examples illustrate how space-related planning clues can be derived from climate function maps. The basis for this are climate-geographic surveys (orohydrographic analysis, topographic gradient determination etc.), as well as the analysis of dynamic parameters (air conduction paths and barriers) and thermal parameters (areas warming up excessively, areas of cold and fresh air generation). Linking of these aspects yields a climate function map. It is used to prepare a planning recommendations map which differentiates and evaluates climate-ecological sensitivities. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen von Planungsprozessen werden immer haeufiger Klimaaussagen verlangt, die in die Planungsabwaegung Eingang finden koennen. Dazu werden Klimabewertungsvorschlaege fuer eine qualitative und quantitative Beurteilung gemacht. Anwendung finden die bioklimatischen Komplexgroessen und vermehrt Aussagen zur Belueftungsqualitaet. Beispiele verdeutlichen, wie sich aus den Klimafunktionskarten raeumliche Planungshinweise ableiten lassen. Grundlage sind klimageographische Erhebungen (orohydrographische Analyse, topographische Gradientenbestimmung usw.) sowie die Analyse der dynamischen (Luftleitbahnen und Barrieren) und thermischen Parameter (Ueberwaermungsgebiete, Kalt- und Frischluftentstehungsgebiete). In einer Verknuepfung dieser Aspekte wird die Klimafunktionskarte erstellt, aus der die Planungshinweiskarte abgeleitet wird, die klimaoekologische Empfindlichkeiten differenziert und bewertet. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of air quality in environmental impact assessments. Evaluation criteria and standards with a view to effective precautionary care of the environment; Die Bewertung der Luftqualitaet bei Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefungen. Bewertungsmassstaebe und Standards zur Konkretisierung einer wirksamen Umweltvorsorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehling, W.; Peters, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    Since the beginning of the debate surrounding the environmental impact statement in Germany, opinion is divided over what yardsticks should be applied in assessing a scheme`s environmental impact, and what consequences they involve for the environment. This book is a comprehensive compilation of air quality standards by substances and objects of protection containing a definition of the term ``active precautionary care of the environment`` as mentioned in section 1 of the act on environmental impact statements (UVPG). The reasons that the book is important for day-to-day work with environmental impact statements lie, for one thing, in its technical relevance and, for the other, in the fact that the proposed assessment criteria are legally unobjectionable. The book stakes out the legal boundaries, points out differentiated criteria for the definition of standards, selects relevant substances, explains the procedure in defining standards and the evaluation grid used, demonstrates how the standards are applied, and contains a tabulated summary. Part two of the book deals with the investigated compounds and groups of compounds. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Seit der UVP-Debatte in Deutschland ist strittig, welcher Massstab bei der Beurteilung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit einer Massnahme anzulegen ist und wie deren Umweltauswirkungen zu bewerten sind. Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit liegt eine umfassende stoff- und schutzgutorientierte Zusammenstellung von Luftqualitaetsstandards und eine Interpretation des Begriffes ``wirksame Umweltvorsorge`` nach Para. 1 UVPG vor. Die Bedeutung der Arbeit fuer die UVP-Praxis liegt neben der fachwissenschaftlichen Relevanz vor allem auch in der juristischen Absicherung der vorgeschlagenen Bewertungsmassstaebe. (orig./HP)

  12. Development of computational methods for the safety assessment of gas-cooled high-temperature and supercritical light-water reactors. Final report; Rechenmethoden zur Bewertung der Sicherheit von gasgekuehlten Hochtemperaturreaktoren und superkritischen Leichtwasserreaktoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, S.; Cron, D. von der; Hristov, H.; Lerchl, G.; Papukchiev, A.; Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Weis, J.; Weyermann, F.

    2012-12-15

    This report documents developments and results in the frame of the project RS1191 ''Development of computational methods for the safety assessment of gas-cooled high temperature and supercritical light-water reactors''. The report is structured according to the five work packages: 1. Reactor physics modeling of gas-cooled high temperature reactors; 2. Coupling of reactor physics and 3-D thermal hydraulics for the core barrel; 3. Extension of ATHLET models for application to supercritical reactors (HPLWR); 4. Further development of ATHLET for application to HTR; 5. Further development and validation of ANSYS CFX for application to alternative reactor concepts. Chapter 4 describes the extensions made in TORT-TD related to the simulation of pebble-bed HTR, e.g. spectral zone buckling, Iodine-Xenon dynamics, nuclear decay heat calculation and extension of the cross section interpolation algorithms to higher dimensions. For fast running scoping calculations, a time-dependent 3-D diffusion solver has been implemented in TORT-TD. For the PBMR-268 and PBMR-400 as well as for the HTR-10 reactor, appropriate TORT-TD models have been developed. Few-group nuclear cross sections have been generated using the spectral codes MICROX- 2 and DRAGON4. For verification and validation of nuclear cross sections and deterministic reactor models, MCNP models of reactor core and control rod of the HTR-10 have been developed. Comparisons with experimental data have been performed for the HTR-10 first criticality and control rod worth. The development of the coupled 3-D neutron kinetics and thermal hydraulics code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D is documented in chapter 5. Similar to the couplings with ATHLET and COBRA-TF, the ''internal'' coupling approach has been implemented. Regarding the review of experiments and benchmarks relevant to HTR for validation of the coupled code system, the PBMR-400 benchmarks and the HTR-10 test reactor have been selected. Performed test and validation calculations for short and long term transients like withdrawal and ejection of all or single control rods, cold helium ingress or depressurized loss of forced cooling (DLOFC) demonstrate the applicability of TORT-TD/ATTICA3D to 3-D analyses of pebble bed HTR. Chapter 6 documents the extension made in ATHLET regarding application to supercritical water reactors. This includes the implementation of supercritical water as a working fluid and extensions of the model equations for the physics of heat transfer and pressure drop at supercritical water pressure as well as the extension of the material properties package to pressures above the critical point and the modeling of supercritical discharge. The extensions in ATHLET to simulate pebble-bed HTR are described in chapter 7. In ATHLET, the coolant helium has been implemented both as gas component and a working fluid. The material properties package has been properly extended. For the thermal hydraulic modeling of the reactor pressure vessel, a generic parallel channel model including cross connections has been developed for the PBMR-400 design. The HECU model in ATHLET has been extended to spherical geometries in order to simulate the heat transfer processes in HTR fuel pebbles with detailed representation of the TRISO particle fuel. In addition, ATHLET models of gas turbine and compressor have been developed and tested. Finally, chapter 8 documents the development and validation of ANSYS CFX for application to alternative reactor concepts. This includes extensions and applications of the CFX code regarding HPLWR requirements. Accuracy demonstrations of ANSYS CFX models for heat transfer and wall interfaces of gas cooled systems have been performed for several turbulence models by comparing with experimental data. Finally, the development and validation of the coupled code system ATHLET/ANSYS CFX for alternative reactor concepts is described and first coupled steam and helium simulations are presented.

  13. The methodological convention 2,0 for the estimation of environmental costs. An economic evaluation of environmental damages; Methodenkonvention 2.0 zur Schaetzung von Umweltkosten. Oekonomische Bewertung von Umweltschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The reliable estimation of environmental damage costs requires a high degree of transparency of the objectives, assumptions and methods of assessment in order to ensure a correct classification and comparability of the cost factors. The methods convention under consideration aims to develop uniform standards for the technical evaluation of environmental costs and to improve the transparency of the estimates.

  14. Methodological problems of monetary evaluations of complex environmental damages - the example of the forest damages in the Federal Republic of Germany. Zur monetaeren Bewertung von Umweltschaeden - methodische Untersuchung am Beispiel der Waldschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, H J; Brabaender, H D; Brechtel, H M; Both, M; Hayessen, E; Jahn, A; Moehring, B; Moog, M; Nohl, W; Richter, U

    1986-01-01

    The study analyses the methodological problems of monetary evaluations of complex environmental damages by treating an actual example, the monetary evaluation of the present and further expectable forest damages in the Federal Republic of Germany. The state of the forest ecosystems, which can be expected under different plausible assumptions with respect to emissions and immissions of important air contaminants like SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/, is established by using expert surveys and scenario-techniques. The monetary consequences of different states of the forest system (status-quo-scenario: air pollution of the beginning 80ies continues; trend-scenario: strong, but possible reductions of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions during the simulation period; reference-scenario: development path as if no air pollution existed) are estimated for three fields (timber production, recreation and tourism, water and soil protection) and for a period of 77 years (1984 to 2060).

  15. Prospects and risks of future network-bound supply systems. A multi-criteria procedure for the assessment of future scenarios; Chancen und Risiken zukuenftiger netzgebundener Versorgung. Ein multi-kriterielles Verfahren zur Bewertung von Zukunftsszenarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karger, C.R.; Hennings, W.; Jaeger, T.

    2006-07-01

    Shaping the developments of network-based supply systems is a difficult challenge in the context of preparing for the future. The structures for supplying the public with the basic goods electricity, gas and water, and also telecommunication services, have become the subject of public debates. A sustainable future for the supplies is being sought: measures for protecting the climate have been requested; citizens have committed themselves to opposing not only planned power stations, and coal mining, but also wind power plants; energy resources like coal, oil and natural gas are becoming scarce and expensive. At the same time, the supply utilities must meet the challenges of privatization, market openings and globalization. The pressure of high costs necessitates savings. The question is which choices are open within the framework of these determining factors. Setting the course for a sustainable future supply means that a method is needed for diagnosing the opportunities and risks of future developments as early as possible and for leveling out promising paths. The bases upon which decisions are made should be as transparent as possible and hence be easy to understand and put into action. lt is against this background that this study looks at specific options for the future and uses this as a basis for developing a method which tries to answer the question ''What is it that we want?''. It is not about an abstract discussion of the sustainability of future supplies or the contribution of specific technologies to sustainability, but about views of the future of supplies with respect to all societal aspects, with reference to which specific objectives are discussed, the pros and cons of which are weighed up, and regarding which the expected conflicts and potentials for reaching a consensus are leveled out. The essential features of this method are the multiple stages involved and the inclusion of science and society. Scientific and societal actors are involved in structured stages that build upon each other so that the elaborate opportunities and risks of different options for the future can be hammered out. (orig.)

  16. Methods for the risk assessment of rock bursts under the condition of the Upper Silesian coal basin; Methoden zur Bewertung des Risikos von Gebirgsschlaegen unter Bedingungen des oberschlesischen Kohlebeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myszkowski, Jacek [Forschungsanstalt fuer Gebirgsschlaege und Gebirgsmechanik BT, Katowice (Poland). Hauptinst. fuer Bergbau

    2013-06-15

    The assessment of the risk of rock burst in underground coal mines is associated with the forecasting, assessment and management of risks. The contribution under consideration presents methods for the risk assessment and prevention of rock bursts.

  17. A probabilistic calculation of load flow as a method for the evaluation of the impact of stochastic generators and consumers on the network flow; Probabilistische Leistungsflussberechnung als Methode zur Bewertung der Einfluesse stochastischer Erzeuger und Verbraucher auf die Netzbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huehnerbein, Benjamin Rudolf

    2011-07-01

    The load flow situation has significantly changed in electric power systems throughout the deregulation of European electricity market and the development of renewable energy sources. In the past load profiles of transmission lines and transformers were only dependent on the customers power demand. Today it is a mixture of load curves, power feed in by renewables and power transits which affect the usage of the transmission system. This leads to a fluctuating utilisation with a certain probability for each state with respect to the stochastic character of the above influences. Knowledge of the utilisation is the precondition for an efficient dimensioning of the power system. For these specific requirements the probabilistic power flow calculation is introduced and further developed. The state variables of the power system are defined as random variables and the probability of each grid state is determined. Different types of network equations and calculation techniques, resulting from various assumptions and simplifications of the well-known power flow equations are compared. The solution is found by either convolution techniques or Monte-Carlo-Simulation. The mathematic models is completed by implementation of a balanced power generation as well as by the integration of a correlation approach. This allows more or less realistic behavior for the interaction of load and generation on the one hand and the concurrence of similar nodal powers on the other hand. The result is proven by a boundary load flow on the base of the exact load flow equations. This allows a comparison of the minimum and the maximum values between the linearised and the exact solution. As long as this deviation is known, the results of the probabilistic power flow can be used in power system evaluation. At least an approach for the combination of probabilistic power flow and reliability evaluation is outlined to determine the probability for overloading components for the reason of network outages. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of methods to reduce or compensate for the effects of increased levels of atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Bewertung von Massnahmen zur Reduzierung bzw. Kompensation der Answirkung von CO/sub 2/ - Anreicherungen in der Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, W; Jung, H J

    1980-07-01

    After a short introduction to the carbon dioxide issue carbon dioxide disposal methods are evaluated. Studies of the prognosis for energy conservation are reviewed and the possibility of reducing the consumption of fossil fuels discussed. Methods of compensating for a carbon dioxide warming by modifying the earth's albedo are examined with particular attention to the consequences of this countermeasure for the radiative heat balance and the climate. (In German)

  19. Analysis and first evaluation of the course of the Chernobyl accident up to the excursion. Interim report. Analyse und erste Bewertung des Unfallablaufs in Tschernobyl bis zur Leistungsexkursion. Zwischenbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, M; Frisch, W; Langenbuch, S; Weber, J P

    1986-01-01

    This report contains a description and an evaluation of the course of the Tschernobyl accident up to the excursion. It is based on information obtained during the IAEA conference in Vienna in August 1986 and includes a first qualitative evaluation of the course of the accident as well as results of analyses carried out at GRS. This work was done with the aim to better understand the particular phases of the accident and to demonstrate the typical dynamic behaviour of the RBMK-1000 type reactor with a positive void coefficient in contrast to the behaviour of german BWRs with negativ void coefficients. The calculations also contribute to the evaluation of the consequences of the violations and errors executed by the operating team and the consequences of design weaknesses of the plant.

  20. Analysis and evaluation of forest carbon projects and respective certification standards for the voluntary offset of greenhouse gas emissions; Analyse und Bewertung von Waldprojekten und entsprechender Standards zur freiwilligen Kompensation von Treibhausgasemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Christian; Tennigkeit, Timm; Techel, Grit; Seebauer, Matthias [UNIQUE forestry consultants GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Forest based CO{sub 2} sequestration projects, regardless of their methodological approach, are always defined by the interaction of two carbon pools: (a) the CO{sub 2} stored in the forest ecosys-tem and (b) the CO{sub 2} present in the atmosphere. Forests are sinks for atmospheric carbon. This holds especially true for young or immature forests, if they are not disturbed and are not yet at equilibrium of increment, harvest and/or decay and harvest. This positive net sequestration of CO{sub 2} can be traded via emission reduction certificates, e.g. to offset emissions from industrial production, travelling and energy consumption. In contrast, the atmospheric pool increases if forests are destroyed leading to the release of the stored CO{sub 2}. This occurs if forest lands are converted into other land uses such as agricul-ture, or through forest management activities like harvesting or natural disturbances like for-est fires or pests. In all these cases forests become sources of CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  1. Methods and instruments for the ecological assessment of the treatment of solvent wastes in the chemical industry; Methoden und Instrumente zur oekologischen Bewertung der Abfall-Loesungsmittelbehandlung in der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capello, Ch.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which looked at the treatment of solvent wastes in the chemical industry and its ecological impact. The development of a method based on the life-cycle-analysis (LCA) approach is described. The LCA methodology is to provide support for decision-making in the area of solvent waste disposal in the chemical industry. Various methods of disposal, such as distillation or incineration are looked at. The results of calculations using a software tool called 'ecosolvent' are presented and discussed. The 15 most important solvents and their quantities as used in the 6 facilities examined, are listed. The functioning of the ecosolvent software is discussed and illustrated in a flow-diagram. Along with detailed results, a few qualitative rules of thumb are quoted for the treatment of solvent wastes.

  2. Evaluation of methodologies for the calculation of leak rates for pressure retaining components with crack-like leaks; Bewertung von Methoden zur Berechnung von Leckraten fuer druckfuehrende Komponenten mit rissartigen Lecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Juergen; Heckmann, Klaus; Blaesius, Christoph

    2015-06-15

    For the demonstration of break preclusion for pressure retaining components in nuclear power plants, the nuclear safety standard KTA 3206 determines also the requirements for the leak-before-break verification. For this procedure, it has to be ensured that a wall-penetrating crack is subcritical with respect to instable growth, and that the resulting leakage under stationary operation conditions can be detected by a leak detection system. Within the scope of the project 3613R01332 analyses with respect to conservative estimates of the leak rates in case of detections regarding break preclusion were performed by means of leak rate models being available at GRS. For this purpose, conservative assumptions in the procedure were quantified by comparative calculations concerning selected leak rate experiments and the requirements regarding the determination of leak rates indicated in the KTA 3206 were verified and specified. Moreover, the models were extended and relevant recommendations for the calculation procedure were developed. During the investigations of leak rate tests the calculation methods were validated, qualified by means of both examples indicated in KTA 3206 and applied to a postulated leak accident in the cooling circuit of a PWR. For the calculation of leak rates several simplified solution methods which are included in the GRS program WinLeck were applied, and for the simulation of a leak accident the large-scale programs ANSYS Mechanical and ATHLET (thermohydraulics program developed by GRS) were used. When applying simplified methods for the calculation of leak rates using the limiting curve for the friction factor which has been derived during the project and which is included in the KTA 3206 attention has to be paid to the fact that in case of small flow lengths the entrance loss can dominate compared to the friction loss. However, the available data do not suffice in order to make a quantitative statement with respect to limits of applicability. There are still open issues, especially with respect to the detailed simulation of flow processes in crack-like leaks in connection with adequately instrumented leak rate experiments, and in particular the quantification of the entrance losses. In order to simulate a leak accident thermohydraulic and structural-mechanical analyses for postulated leak positions in the surge line of a Konvoi-type PWR were performed. The size of these leaks was determined within the scope of FE-calculations. With these leak sizes ATHLET-calculations on thermohydraulics in the reactor circuit and on leak rates were made during which particularly the impact of the consideration of a variable leak size was analyzed as well. The effects of a leak size which is decreasing due to the loss of pressure and mechanical strains accompanied with a correspondingly smaller leak rate on the time dependent course of the accident and e.g. also on the pressure flow in the reactor circuit are significant. The consideration of these effects can increase the accuracy of analyses of accidents and severe accidents.

  3. Assessment of fracking for shale gas production from the viewpoints of energy policy and environmental policy. Opinion of the German Advisory Council on the Environment; Energie- und umweltpolitische Bewertung des Fracking zur Schiefergasgewinnung. Stellungnahme des Sachverstaendigenrates fuer Umweltfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Mechthild; Taeuber, Sabine [Sachverstaendigenrat fuer Umweltfragen, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The proponents of shale gas production in Europe hope that the effects it has occasioned in the USA, namely falling prices and growing competitiveness, will also come about in Germany. However a decrease in gas prices is not to be expected, given Germany's comparatively modest shale gas reserves; these are even only enough to have a slightly moderating effect on the country's decline in domestic natural gas production. While it is true that the improved climate footprint of the USA is attributable to the increasing substitution of natural gas for coal, this is of little benefit to the global climate, since the coal does not remain in the ground but, as a result of the decline in domestic demand, is successfully exported as a cheap energy resource, leading to higher CO{sub 2} emissions elsewhere. For the purposes of the energy turnaround shale gas production is dispensable because it is not available short-term and gas demand will decrease over the medium term. Shale gas production is associated with a real risk of groundwater contamination or an inadvertent release of climatically harmful gases; however these are probably controllable with the aid of continued research as well as stringent environmental regulations and monitoring. Other consequences such as soil sealing and the loss of natural and recreational space cannot be avoided, however. Here the costs and benefit of shale gas production will have to be weighed against each other with great care. There are still major gaps in available knowledge on its environmental effects; these should be closed through representative pilot projects prior to commercial production.

  4. Die Erfassung von städtischen Oberflächen mittels EDV-gestützter Luftbildauswertung : ein Beitrag zur klimatologischen und luftklimatischen Bewertung von städtischen Teilflächen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sandtner

    Full Text Available The article shows that the computer-aided, analogous-visual, stereometric interpretation of large-scale colour-infrared (CIR aerial photographs and subsequent data processing in a Geographical Information System (GIS can provide fundamental data necessary to describe aspects of urban ecology in a scale relevant for city-planning. This is exemplified by an evaluation of urban areas concerning their climates and airpollution using maps of urban surfaces (scale1:2500. An argumentation relying on such detailed and current basic data can stress the importance of environmental aspects in contrast to competing public and private interests in the process of city planning.

  5. Method for the appraisal and classification of the suitability for use of watercourses - Final report; Methodik zur Bewertung und Klassierung der Nutzungseignung von Fliessgewaesserstrecken. Grundlagen fuer die raeumliche Prioritaetensetzung bei der Wasserkraftnutzung und dem Schutz von Gewaessern - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehse, H.

    2009-10-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the fundamentals for setting priorities on the use of hydropower and the protection of streams and rivers. New general conditions for the realisation of hydropower projects in Switzerland resulting from the cost-covering remuneration scheme for renewable energy sources have led to an increasing number of new projects. The article discussed the conflicts of interest between power station projects and environmental protectionists and anglers. A method is proposed that is to help resolve such conflicts. The development of the proposed methodology is discussed and the results of a test application of the methodology are examined. The report is enhanced with a comprehensive appendix.

  6. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  7. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisinger, Joseph W. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a FR-amework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator FR-om these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC(trademark)s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost

  8. Specialization can drive the evolution of modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa-Soto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organismal development and many cell biological processes are organized in a modular fashion, where regulatory molecules form groups with many interactions within a group and few interactions between groups. Thus, the activity of elements within a module depends little on elements outside of it. Modularity facilitates the production of heritable variation and of evolutionary innovations. There is no consensus on how modularity might evolve, especially for modules in development. We show that modularity can increase in gene regulatory networks as a byproduct of specialization in gene activity. Such specialization occurs after gene regulatory networks are selected to produce new gene activity patterns that appear in a specific body structure or under a specific environmental condition. Modules that arise after specialization in gene activity comprise genes that show concerted changes in gene activities. This and other observations suggest that modularity evolves because it decreases interference between different groups of genes. Our work can explain the appearance and maintenance of modularity through a mechanism that is not contingent on environmental change. We also show how modularity can facilitate co-option, the utilization of existing gene activity to build new gene activity patterns, a frequent feature of evolutionary innovations.

  9. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

    2008-12-24

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  10. Generalized epidemic process on modular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kihong; Baek, Yongjoo; Kim, Daniel; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-05-01

    Social reinforcement and modular structure are two salient features observed in the spreading of behavior through social contacts. In order to investigate the interplay between these two features, we study the generalized epidemic process on modular networks with equal-sized finite communities and adjustable modularity. Using the analytical approach originally applied to clique-based random networks, we show that the system exhibits a bond-percolation type continuous phase transition for weak social reinforcement, whereas a discontinuous phase transition occurs for sufficiently strong social reinforcement. Our findings are numerically verified using the finite-size scaling analysis and the crossings of the bimodality coefficient.

  11. Algebra and Arithmetic of Modular Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustom, Nadim

    In [Rus14b] and [Rus14a], we study graded rings of modular forms over congruence subgroups, with coefficients in subrings A of C, and determine bounds of the weights of modular forms constituting a minimal set of generators, as well as on the degree of the generators of the ideal of relations...... between them. We give an algorithm that computes the structures of these rings, and formulate conjectures on the minimal generating weight for modular forms with coefficients in Z. We discuss questions of finiteness of systems of Hecke eigenvalues modulo pm, for a prime p and an integer m ≥ 2, in analogy...

  12. Modularity for Modulating Exercises and Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Nielsen, Camilla Balslev

    2011-01-01

    The modular interactive tiles aim at engaging anybody (elderly, carer, hospital personnel, children) in performing playful and motivating physical activities. Inspired by modular robotics, each tile is a self-contained module with processing power and communication to neighbouring modules....... In this paper, we investigate the therapeutic use. We show how the tiles are tested extensively with cardiac patients, COLD patients and stroke patients in hospitals and in the private homes of patients and elderly. We find that therapists are using the modular aspect of the tiles for personalized training...

  13. A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be 'passive control laws', i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust

  14. Environmental effects on fatigue of steels for structural parts in water-steam-circuits of light water reactors. Considerations concerning the question of transferability of results from laboratory tests to real operating conditions; Der Einfluss des Mediums auf Ermuedungsvorgaenge in Staehlen fuer Strukturbauteile in Wasser-Dampf-Kreislaeufen von Leichtwasserreaktoren. Ueberlegungen zur Frage der Uebertragbarkeit von Ergebnissen aus Laborversuchen auf den realen Anlagenbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Armin [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    .B. von Staehlen, beeinflussen kann. Schon vor einigen Jahrzehnten wurde experimentell nachgewiesen, dass z.B. Hochtemperaturwasser in Laborversuchen zur Untersuchung des Ermuedungsverhaltens von Staehlen zu deutlichen Effekten fuehrt. Dabei wird je nach Versuchsfuehrung entweder die Zeit bis zur Initiierung von Anrissen verkuerzt oder die Wachstumsgeschwindigkeit vorhandener Risse erhoeht. Dieser zu erwartende Einfluss des Mediums auf den Ermuedungsprozess wurde in den Anfaengen der Regulierung von Konstruktion und Auslegung von Bauteilen und Komponenten fuer Kernkraftwerke in den relevanten Regelwerken (z.B. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III) weltweit nicht explizit beruecksichtigt. Pauschal beruecksichtigt werden Umgebungseffekte dagegen in den entsprechenden da/dN-Risswachstumskurven des ASME Code, Section XI zur Bewertung des betrieblichen Verhaltens von Oberflaechenfehlern. Historisch betrachtet erfolgte in den Regelwerken die Festlegung der Vorgehensweise zur Komponentenauslegung allerdings lange vor dem gezielten experimentellen Nachweis der Umgebungseffekte auf Rissinitiierung und Risswachstum durch Ermuedung von Staehlen in Hochtemperaturwasser. Trotz dieser Erkenntnis ist es weltweit nicht zu generischen, systematischen Schaeden in Medium fuehrenden Systemen von Leichtwasserreaktoren (LWR) durch Korrosionsermuedung infolge von Fehlauslegung gekommen. Vereinzelt aufgetretene Schaeden mit deutlichen Merkmalen umgebungsbeeinflusster Ermuedungsvorgaenge konnten immer eindeutig auf das Vorkommen von unerwarteten, nicht im spezifizierten Belastungskollektiv enthaltenen Betriebstransienten zurueckgefuehrt werden. Zu diesen Ursachen zaehlen z.B. das Auftreten von thermischer Schichtung oder lokale, stroemungsinduzierte Vibrationen. In diesem Beitrag werden Ueberlegungen vorgestellt, welche die zu beobachtende Diskrepanz zwischen der diesbezueglich weltweit ueberwiegend positiven Betriebserfahrung und den Ergebnissen aus Laborversuchen mit dem

  15. WASA-BOSS. Development and application of Severe Accident Codes. Evaluation and optimization of accident management measures. Subproject F. Contributions to code validation using BWR data and to evaluation and optimization of accident management measures. Final report; WASA-BOSS. Weiterentwicklung und Anwendung von Severe Accident Codes. Bewertung und Optimierung von Stoerfallmassnahmen. Teilprojekt F. Beitraege zur Codevalidierung anhand von SWR-Daten und zur Bewertung und Optimierung von Stoerfallmassnahmen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Marcello, Valentino; Imke, Uwe; Sanchez Espinoza, Victor

    2016-09-15

    The exact knowledge of the transient course of events and of the dominating processes during a severe accident in a nuclear power station is a mandatory requirement to elaborate strategies and measures to minimize the radiological consequences of core melt. Two typical experiments using boiling water reactor assemblies were modelled and simulated with the severe accident simulation code ATHLET-CD. The experiments are related to the early phase of core degradation in a boiling water reactor. The results reproduce the thermal behavior and the hydrogen production due to oxidation inside the bundle until relocation of material by melting. During flooding of the overheated assembly temperatures and hydrogen oxidation are under estimated. The deviations from the experimental results can be explained by the missing model to simulate bore carbide oxidation of the control rods. On basis of a hypothetical loss of coolant accident in a typical German boiling water reactor the effectivity of flooding the partial degraded core is investigated. This measure of mitigation is efficient and prevents failure of the reactor pressure vessel if it starts before molten material is relocated into the lower plenum. Considerable amount of hydrogen is produced by oxidation of the metallic components.

  16. Analysis and evalution of selected future biofuel options on the basis of solid biomass; Analyse und Bewertung ausgewaehlter zukuenftiger Biokraftstoffoptionen auf der Basis fester Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2011-12-13

    The aim of this work is starting from the investigation of the technical development prospects along the fuel delivery chain to develop a suitable reproducible tool for the analysis and evaluation of future biofuel policies and on selected fuel options from solid biomass (1. bioethanol by biochemical fermentation, 2. Fischer-Tropsch-Diesel by thermochemical gasification, and 3. Bio-Synthetic Natural Gas (Bio-SNG) by thermochemical gasification). For this it is necessary for these biofuels in accordance with the current technology state the essential perspectives for the practical implementation taking into account the short, medium and long term (e.g. time horizon for implementation in up to 5 years, in about 10 to 15 years, or about 20 to 25 years) to identify possible technical options. [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, ausgehend von der Untersuchung der technischen Entwicklungsperspektiven entlang der Kraftstoffbereitstellungskette ein geeignetes reproduzierbares Werkzeug fuer die Analyse und Bewertung zukuenftiger Biokraftstoffkonzepte zu entwickeln und auf ausgewaehlte Kraftstoffoptionen auf Basis fester Biomasse (hier Bioethanol ueber die biochemische Fermentation, Fischer-Tropsch-Diesel ueber die thermochemische Vergasung und Bio-Synthetic Natural Gas (Bio-SNG) ueber die thermochemische Vergasung) anzuwenden. Dazu gilt es fuer diese Biokraftstoffe unter Beachtung des aktuellen Technikstandes die wesentlichen Perspektiven fuer die praktische Umsetzung unter Beruecksichtigung der kurz-, mittel- bis langfristig (d.h. Zeithorizont fuer die Realisierung in bis zu 5 Jahren, in etwa 10 bis 15 Jahren bzw. in etwa 20 bis 25 Jahren) denkbaren technischen Moeglichkeiten zu identifizieren.

  17. Modular Actuators for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocketstar Robotics is proposing the development of a modern dual drive actuator. Rocketstar has put together numerous modern concepts for modular actuators that...

  18. Massive Modularity of Space and Surface Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will conduct a systems level investigation of a modular design and operations approach for future NASA exploration systems. Particular emphasis will be...

  19. Honeywell modular automation system computer software documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, L.T.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides a Computer Software Documentation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-21I

  20. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Government is not required to procure additional increments. (e) To avoid obsolescence, a modular... maximum extent practicable, deliveries under the contract should be scheduled to occur within 18 months...

  1. Contrasting platform thinking and product modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Persson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Product modularization and platform thinking are both practices that seek to alleviate the negative impact of product customization and variety on internal operations by relying on economies of substitution. Through the use of a standardized pool of components and interfaces, these practices aim...... to create a broad spectrum of product choices. At first sight, product modularization and platform thinking are very similar. The difference between these practices can, however, be found in the manner in which they employ standardization. Where product modularization focuses on creating standardized...... variants. There is a general lack of research addressing the contingency factors that dictate the appropriateness of the use of product modularization and platform thinking in different contexts. To our knowledge, no large-scale empirical research has been reported in which the two concepts, contextual...

  2. Automatic Modeling and Simulation of Modular Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C.; Wei, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The ability of reconfiguration makes modular robots have the ability of adaptable, low-cost, self-healing and fault-tolerant. It can also be applied to a variety of mission situations. In this manuscript, a robot platform which relied on the module library was designed, based on the screw theory and module theory. Then, the configuration design method of the modular robot was proposed. And the different configurations of modular robot system have been built, including industrial mechanical arms, the mobile platform, six-legged robot and 3D exoskeleton manipulator. Finally, the simulation and verification of one system among them have been made, using the analyses of screw kinematics and polynomial planning. The results of experiments demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of this modular system.

  3. Modular thought in the circuit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Applied to solve the problem of modular thought, provides a whole for simplification's method, the complex problems have become of, and the study of circuit is similar to the above problems: the complex connection between components, make the whole circuit topic solution seems to be more complex, and actually components the connection between the have rules to follow, this article mainly tells the story of study on the application of the circuit modular thought. First of all, this paper introduces the definition of two-terminal network and the concept of two-terminal network equivalent conversion, then summarizes the common source resistance hybrid network modular approach, containing controlled source network modular processing method, lists the common module, typical examples analysis.

  4. Automatic Specialization of Modular Robot Limbs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modular robotic systems have the potential to be adapted to varying tasks using a single platform and enable customizable robots to be developed faster and more...

  5. Small modular reactors are 'crucial technology'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2018-03-01

    Small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs) offer a way for the UK to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation, while allowing the country to meet the expected increase in demand for electricity from electric vehicles and other uses.

  6. Outsourcing Sealift for the Modular Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donnie Walker, Jr, Flem B

    2008-01-01

    .... Army transforms its force to modular expeditionary brigade combat teams to compensate for these evolving challenges and threats, the importance of strategic sealift becomes paramount in terms of power projection...

  7. Understanding Complex Construction Systems Through Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tor Clarke; Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for understanding complexity in construction projects by combining theories of complexity management and modularization. The framework incorporates three dimensions of product, process, and organizational modularity with the case of gypsum wall elements. The analysis...... system, rather than a modular, although the industry forces modular organizational structures. This creates a high complexity degree caused by the non-alignment of building parts and organizations and the frequent swapping of modules....... finds that the main driver of complexity is the fragmentation of the design and production, which causes the production modules to construct and install new product types and variants for each project as the designers are swapped for every project. The many interfaces are characteristics of an integral...

  8. Sound insulation design of modular construction housing

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, D. J.; Hughes, Lawrence; Campbell, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an insight into the acoustic issues of modular housing using the Verbus System of construction. The paper briefly summarises the history of the development of Verbus modular housing and the acoustic design considerations of the process. Results are presented from two sound insulation tests conducted during the course of the project. The results are discussed in terms of compliance with Approved Document E1 and increased performance standards such as EcoHomes2.

  9. Reliability and diagnostic of modular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kohlas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability and diagnostic are in general two problems discussed separately. Yet the two problems are in fact closely related to each other. Here, this relation is considered in the simple case of modular systems. We show, how the computation of reliability and diagnostic can efficiently be done within the same Bayesian network induced by the modularity of the structure function of the system.

  10. ALIAS an innovative intranet-system for the remaining life analysis of systems and components; ALIAS - ein innovatives Intranet-System zur Restlebensdaueranalyse von Systemen und Bauteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A S; Schweikhard, T [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Balos, D [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; [Grosskraftwerk Mannheim AG (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The paper describes an innovative and advanced system for remaining life assessment of industrial high-temperature components developed at MPA Stuttgart, Germany and being currently introduced into the power plants in Germany and in several other countries. The system is a corporate memory system, essentially meaning that all the information/knowledge of a corporation (company, institute, etc.) should be maximally exploited in future activities of the company, with minimum changes in the existing structure of the data/information/knowledge already available. The system has two main aspects of practical implementation: (a) the organizational one, represented by MPA LifeTech, and (b) the software system one represented by the ``parent systems`` WISDOM and (WISDOM - WWW-based Intelligent System for Data and Documentation Management, ALIAS - The Advanced modular intelligent Life Assessment Software System). (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Papier beschreibt ein innovatives und fortschrittliches Softwaresystem, das an der MPA Stuttgart entwickelt wurde und bei mehreren europaeischen und deutschen Kraftwerksbetreibern eingefuehrt wird. Das Konzept beruht auf der Idee von s.g. corporate memory systems mit der Zielsetzung, die gesamte Bandbreite an Informationen und Wissen eines Unternehmens (Firma, Institution usw.) fuer dessen zukuenftige Aktivitaeten optimal zu nutzen. Die bestehende Struktur der bereits vorhandenen Daten sollte dabei nur geringfuegig geaendert werden muessen. Zur praktischen Durchfuehrung des Konzepts sind zwei Aspekte von Bedeutung: die Organisation (MPA LifeTech) und das Softwaresystem bzw. Systeme WISDOM und ALIAS (WISDOM - WWW-based Intelligent System for Data and Documentation Management, ALIAS - The Advanced modular Intelligent Life Assessment Software System). (orig.)

  11. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.i [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy); Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N. [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5{mu}s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  12. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  13. Fracture assessment of laser welde joints using numerical crack propagation simulation with a cohesive zone model; Bruchmechanische Bewertung von Laserschweissverbindungen durch numerische Rissfortschrittsimulation mit dem Kohaesivzonenmodell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheider, I.

    2001-07-01

    This thesis introduces a concept for fracture mechanical assessment of structures with heterogenuous material properties like weldments. It is based on the cohesive zone model for numerical crack propagation analysis. With that model the failure of examined structures due to fracture can be determined. One part of the thesis contains the extension of the capabilities of the cohesive zone model regarding modelling threedimensional problems, shear fracture and unloading. In a second part new methods are developed for determination of elastic-plastic and fracture mechanical material properties, resp., which are based on optical determination of the specimen deformation. The whole concept has been used successfully for the numerical simulation of small laser welded specimens. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Konzept vorgestellt, mit dem es moeglich ist, Bauteile mit heterogenen Materialeigenschaften, wie z.B. Schweissverbindungen, bruchmechanisch zu bewerten. Es basiert auf einem Modell zur numerischen Rissfortschrittsimulation, dem Kohaesivzonenmodell, um das Versagen des zu untersuchenden Bauteils infolge von Bruch zu bestimmen. Ein Teil der Arbeit umfasst die Weiterentwicklung des Kohaesivzonenmodells zur Vorhersage des Bauteilversagens in Bezug auf die Behandlung dreidimensionaler Probleme, Scherbuch und Entlastung. In einem zweiten Teil werden Methoden zur Bestimmung sowohl der elastischplastischen als auch der bruchmechanischen Materialparameter entwickelt, die zum grossen Teil auf optischen Auswertungsmethoden der Deformationen beruhen. Das geschlossene Konzept wird erfolgreich auf lasergeschweisste Kleinproben angewendet. (orig.)

  14. Theory for the Emergence of Modularity in Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Michael; Park, Jeong-Man

    2013-03-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of modularity in these systems. We find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at long times. In addition, we find a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity at short times. We discuss a number of biological and social systems that can be understood with this framework. The modularity of the protein-protein interaction network increases when yeast are exposed to heat shock, and the modularity of the protein-protein networks in both yeast and E. coli appears to have increased over evolutionary time. Food webs in low-energy, stressful environments are more modular than those in plentiful environments, arid ecologies are more modular during droughts, and foraging of sea otters is more modular when food is limiting. The modularity of social networks changes over time: stock brokers instant messaging networks are more modular under stressful market conditions, criminal networks are more modular under increased police pressure, and world trade network modularity has decreased

  15. Odontologie im numismatischen Spiegel : Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Zahnheilkunde

    OpenAIRE

    Heckert, Gerold Rüdiger

    2006-01-01

    Obgleich Medaillen mit zahnheilkundlichen Motiven schon sehr lange vertreten sind, hat dies in der Literatur bisher wenig Beachtung gefunden. Eine eigenständige Veröffentlichung erschien 1988 herausgegeben von Ladendorf und Salaschek (Proskauer 1940), die sich aber nur mit der Reklame von Zahnärzten und für Zahnärzte auf Medaillen befasst. Dieser Publikation liegt die Zusammenstellung von Storer und der Katalog zur Sammlung Brettauer zu Grunde. In den USA führte der Gynäkologe Horatio...

  16. Technische Feuchtgebiete zur Nachreinigung von Abwasser:Stickstoff, Abwasserdesinfektion, Spurenstoffe

    OpenAIRE

    Rühmland, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Stickstoff, Spurenstoffe und Krankheitserreger können auch in geringen Mengen Schäden in Gewässern bzw. beim Menschen verursachen. In dieser Arbeit soll geklärt werden, inwieweit das naturnahe Abwasserreinigungsverfahren der technischen Feuchtgebiete zur Nachreinigung von Abwasser geeignet ist. Dafür wurden in Berlin sieben bewachsene Bodenfilter und Abwasserteiche im techni-schen Maßstab einer Kläranlage mit Nährstoffelimination nachgeschaltet. Ein Sandfilter, ein Sandfilter mit Lehm und...

  17. Präanalytik zur HCMV-Diagnostik

    OpenAIRE

    Travers-Podmaniczky, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    Die kongenitale HCMV-Infektion ist der wichtigste Auslöser geistiger Retardierung viraler Genese und ist für die meisten neurosensorischen Hörstörungen nicht genetischen Ursprunges verantwortlich. Die Entwicklung neuer Strategien zur Prävention der HCMV-Infektion bei Neugeborenen ist also von höchster Dringlichkeit. Die Einführung von universellen Screeningprogrammen bei Neugeborenen könnte die frühzeitige Erkennung einer Infektion und somit einen frühen therapeutischen Einsatz ermöglichen. U...

  18. Migration und differenzierte Citizenship : Zur Post-Amerikanisierung Europas

    OpenAIRE

    Cattacin, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    Während sich Frankreich in Kopftuchdebatten in den Schulen auf seine Wurzeln rückbesinnen möchte, Deutschland an der Operationalisierung der Leitkultur herumbastelt und sich Forscherscharen an der politisch gestellten Frage abmühen, was „Integration“ bedeute, schreitet die Pluralisierung unserer Gesellschaft unbekümmert weiter. Diese Pluralisierung, die nur bedingt auf Migration zurückzuführen ist, fordert die europäischen nationalen Gesellschaften dreifach heraus. Erstens durch die ständige ...

  19. Modular Rake of Pitot Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Timothy A.; Henry, Michael W.; Homyk, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    The figure presents selected views of a modular rake of 17 pitot probes for measuring both transient and steady-state pressures in a supersonic wind tunnel. In addition to pitot tubes visible in the figure, the probe modules contain (1) high-frequency dynamic-pressure transducers connected through wires to remote monitoring circuitry and (2) flow passages that lead to tubes that, in turn, lead to remote steady-state pressure transducers. Prior pitot-probe rakes were fabricated as unitary structures, into which the individual pitot probes were brazed. Repair or replacement of individual probes was difficult, costly, and time-consuming because (1) it was necessary to remove entire rakes in order to unbraze individual malfunctioning probes and (2) the heat of unbrazing a failed probe and of brazing a new probe in place could damage adjacent probes. In contrast, the modules in the present probe are designed to be relatively quickly and easily replaceable with no heating and, in many cases, without need for removal of the entire rake from the wind tunnel. To remove a malfunctioning probe, one first removes a screw-mounted V-cross-section cover that holds the probe and adjacent probes in place. Then one removes a screw-mounted cover plate to gain access to the steady-state pressure tubes and dynamicpressure wires. Next, one disconnects the tube and wires of the affected probe. Finally, one installs a new probe in the reverse of the aforementioned sequence. The wire connections can be made by soldering, but to facilitate removal and installation, they can be made via miniature plugs and sockets. The connections between the probe flow passages and the tubes leading to the remote pressure sensors can be made by use of any of a variety of readily available flexible tubes that can be easily pulled off and slid back on for removal and installation, respectively.

  20. Modular architectures for quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirker, A.; Wallnöfer, J.; Dür, W.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the problem of generating multipartite entangled states in a quantum network upon request. We follow a top-down approach, where the required entanglement is initially present in the network in form of network states shared between network devices, and then manipulated in such a way that the desired target state is generated. This minimizes generation times, and allows for network structures that are in principle independent of physical links. We present a modular and flexible architecture, where a multi-layer network consists of devices of varying complexity, including quantum network routers, switches and clients, that share certain resource states. We concentrate on the generation of graph states among clients, which are resources for numerous distributed quantum tasks. We assume minimal functionality for clients, i.e. they do not participate in the complex and distributed generation process of the target state. We present architectures based on shared multipartite entangled Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states of different size, and fully connected decorated graph states, respectively. We compare the features of these architectures to an approach that is based on bipartite entanglement, and identify advantages of the multipartite approach in terms of memory requirements and complexity of state manipulation. The architectures can handle parallel requests, and are designed in such a way that the network state can be dynamically extended if new clients or devices join the network. For generation or dynamical extension of the network states, we propose a quantum network configuration protocol, where entanglement purification is used to establish high fidelity states. The latter also allows one to show that the entanglement generated among clients is private, i.e. the network is secure.

  1. Vom Referat bis zur Examensarbeit: Naturwissenschaftliche Texte perfekt verfassen und gestalten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Bruno P.

    Welches Thema eignet sich für mein Referat oder meine Seminararbeit? Wie sammle ich Stoff? Wie gliedere ich den Text? Bruno P. Kremer beantwortet auf nur 200 Seiten alle wichtigen Fragen zur wissenschaftlichen Arbeit in den naturwissenschaftlichen Fächern. Dabei beschränkt er sich auf das für Studenten und Schüler wirklich notwendige Wissen und lässt jeglichen unnützen Ballast beiseite. Dieser praktische Ratgeber verhilft Ihnen zur erfolgreichen wissenschaftlichen Arbeit - vom Referat bis zur Examensarbeit.

  2. The components of the unique Zur regulon of Cupriavidus metallidurans mediate cytoplasmic zinc handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütof, Lucy; Schmidt-Vogler, Christopher; Herzberg, Martin; Große, Cornelia; Nies, Dietrich H

    2017-08-14

    Zinc is an essential trace element and at the same time it is toxic at high concentrations. In the beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans the highly efficient removal of surplus zinc from the periplasm is responsible for its outstanding metal resistance. Rather than having a typical Zur-dependent, high-affinity ATP-binding cassette transporter of the ABC protein superfamily for zinc uptake at low concentrations, C. metallidurans instead has the secondary zinc importer ZupT of the ZRT/IRT (ZIP) family. It is important to understand, therefore, how this zinc-resistant bacterium copes when it is exposed to low zinc concentrations. Members of the Zur regulon in C. metallidurans were identified by comparing the transcriptomes of a Δ zur mutant and its parent strain. The consensus sequence of the Zur-binding box was derived for the zupTp promoter-regulatory region using a truncation assay. The motif was used to predict possible Zur-boxes upstream of Zur regulon members. Binding of Zur to these boxes was confirmed. Two Zur-boxes upstream of the cobW 1 gene, encoding a putative zinc chaperone, proved to be required for complete repression of cobW 1 and its downstream genes in cells cultivated in mineral salts medium. A Zur box upstream of each of zur-cobW 2 , cobW 3 and zupT permitted low-expression level of these genes plus their up-regulation under zinc starvation conditions. This demonstrates a compartmentalization of zinc homeostasis in C. metallidurans with the periplasm being responsible for removal of surplus zinc and cytoplasmic components for management of zinc as an essential co-factor, with both compartments connected by ZupT. Importance Elucidating zinc homeostasis is necessary to understand both host-pathogen interactions and performance of free-living bacteria in their natural environment. Escherichia coli acquires zinc under low zinc concentrations by the Zur-controlled ZnuABC importer of the ABC superfamily, and this was also the paradigm for other

  3. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meunier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or “modules-within-modules” decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at the highest level of the hierarchy were medial occipital, lateral occipital, central, parieto-frontal and fronto-temporal systems; occipital modules demonstrated less sub-modular organization than modules comprising regions of multimodal association cortex. Connector nodes and hubs, with a key role in inter-modular connectivity, were also concentrated in association cortical areas. We conclude that methods are available for hierarchical modular decomposition of large numbers of high resolution brain functional networks using computationally expedient algorithms. This could enable future investigations of Simon's original hypothesis that hierarchy or near-decomposability of physical symbol systems is a critical design feature for their fast adaptivity to changing environmental conditions.

  4. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  5. Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre

    2006-01-01

    In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights

  6. Evaluation of scenarios for energy systems. Potentials, limits and acceptance; Bewertung von Szenarien fuer Energiesysteme. Potenziale, Grenzen und Akzeptanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Daniel Kurt Josef

    2016-05-15

    In contrast to previous approaches in connection with the energy transition, the dissertation leads to a change of perspective towards social consideration. Previous scenario studies focused on technical feasibility as well as individual cost and environmental aspects, as shown in the pre-analysis. Society plays a secondary role in this case. Instead of being taken into account in the prior decision-making process, time and effort are often invested in the downstream conviction of the population only after that. The approach pursued in the work consistently focuses on incorporating social preferences and barriers into the decision-making process in advance, so that decisions themselves have lasting validity. Representative telephone surveys are used to determine the preferences of the population on the one hand and the limits of acceptance in the form of willingness to pay on the other hand. Only then are scenario calculations carried out in order to be able to quantitatively evaluate energy policy options for action. In the subsequent comparison of social barriers and model results, however, the limits of this approach are also made clear: a desired action option from the perspective of the population (here the brown coal exit) can also fail because of political and legal barriers. [German] Die Dissertationsschrift fuehrt im Gegensatz zu bisherigen Ansaetzen im Zusammenhang mit der Energiewende einen Perspektivwechsel hin zur gesellschaftlichen Beruecksichtigung herbei. Bisherige Szenariostudien richteten ihren Fokus auf die technische Machbarkeit sowie einzelne Kosten- und Umweltaspekte, wie in der Voranalyse gezeigt wird. Die Gesellschaft spielt in diesem Fall eine sekundaere Rolle. Statt einer Beruecksichtigung im vorab geschalteten Entscheidungsprozess werden so haeufig erst im Anschluss Zeit und Aufwand in die nachgelagerte Ueberzeugung der Bevoelkerung investiert. Der in der Arbeit verfolgte Ansatz setzt konsequent darauf, gesellschaftliche Praeferenzen und

  7. Measuring Modularity in Open Source Code Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Modularity of an open source software code base has been associated with growth of the software development community, the incentives for voluntary code contribution, and a reduction in the number of users who take code without contributing back to the community. As a theoretical construct, modularity links OSS to other domains of research, including organization theory, the economics of industry structure, and new product development. However, measuring the modularity of an OSS design has proven difficult, especially for large and complex systems. In this article, we describe some preliminary results of recent research at Carleton University that examines the evolving modularity of large-scale software systems. We describe a measurement method and a new modularity metric for comparing code bases of different size, introduce an open source toolkit that implements this method and metric, and provide an analysis of the evolution of the Apache Tomcat application server as an illustrative example of the insights gained from this approach. Although these results are preliminary, they open the door to further cross-discipline research that quantitatively links the concerns of business managers, entrepreneurs, policy-makers, and open source software developers.

  8. Modular low-voltage electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    Modular, low-voltage electron emitters simplify electron beam (EB) technology for many industrial uses and for research and development. Modular electron emitters are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory, eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A plug-out-plug-in method of replacement facilitates servicing. By using an ultra-thin 6-7 μm titanium foil window, solid-state power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, these modular units combine ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 kV and 150 kV with beam currents up to 40 mA per 25 cm across the beam window. These new devices have been made in three widths: 5 cm, 25 cm, and 40 cm. Details of the beam construction and illustrations of industrial uses will be presented. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas have welcomed this modular technology as well as uses for surface sterilization. Being compact and lightweight (∼15 kg/emitter), these modular beams have been configured around complex shapes to achieve three-dimensional surface curing at high production rates

  9. Modular low-voltage electron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2005-12-01

    Modular, low-voltage electron emitters simplify electron beam (EB) technology for many industrial uses and for research and development. Modular electron emitters are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory, eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A plug-out-plug-in method of replacement facilitates servicing. By using an ultra-thin 6-7 μm titanium foil window, solid-state power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, these modular units combine ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 kV and 150 kV with beam currents up to 40 mA per 25 cm across the beam window. These new devices have been made in three widths: 5 cm, 25 cm, and 40 cm. Details of the beam construction and illustrations of industrial uses will be presented. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas have welcomed this modular technology as well as uses for surface sterilization. Being compact and lightweight (∼15 kg/emitter), these modular beams have been configured around complex shapes to achieve three-dimensional surface curing at high production rates.

  10. Advantages of going modular in HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutler, H.; Lohnert, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    A multitude of problems that are encountered in large HTR power plans, constructively as well as concerning plant safety, can be related to the mere physical size of a large reactor core. In limiting the thermal power of an HTR-module to approximately 200 MW an inherent limitation of the fuel element temperature below critical values can be guaranteed for all possible core heat up accidents. Consequently, a significant failure rate of coated particles can be excluded and, hence, out of physical reasons, no intolerable fission product release from the core will ever have to be considered. The HTR-module is so qualified and very well suited for all possible plant sides which have to be taken into consideration for medium sized plants for the production of process steam and electricity. The cost investigations show considerable cost advantages for modular HTRs. For German conditions it was found that even a four-modular plant (800 MW/thermal) is competitive with a fossile-fueled plant of the same size, the specific plant costs were evaluated to be DM 4700/kW (electric). Moreover the investigations show that the increase of the power of the modular unit yields only small cost advantages, therefore in a modularized power plant it even would be possible to reduce the power of a modular unit below 200 MW without having to cope with severe economic penalties, if the distance from technological or safety limits is felt to be too small. (orig.)

  11. Modular co-evolution of metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhong-Hao

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The architecture of biological networks has been reported to exhibit high level of modularity, and to some extent, topological modules of networks overlap with known functional modules. However, how the modular topology of the molecular network affects the evolution of its member proteins remains unclear. Results In this work, the functional and evolutionary modularity of Homo sapiens (H. sapiens metabolic network were investigated from a topological point of view. Network decomposition shows that the metabolic network is organized in a highly modular core-periphery way, in which the core modules are tightly linked together and perform basic metabolism functions, whereas the periphery modules only interact with few modules and accomplish relatively independent and specialized functions. Moreover, over half of the modules exhibit co-evolutionary feature and belong to specific evolutionary ages. Peripheral modules tend to evolve more cohesively and faster than core modules do. Conclusion The correlation between functional, evolutionary and topological modularity suggests that the evolutionary history and functional requirements of metabolic systems have been imprinted in the architecture of metabolic networks. Such systems level analysis could demonstrate how the evolution of genes may be placed in a genome-scale network context, giving a novel perspective on molecular evolution.

  12. Semiokapitalismus und imperiale Kontrollgesellschaft Zur Digitalisierung der Produktion am Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Neurath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Neurath analysiert angesichts des kybernetischen Semiokapitalismus und des durch ihn entstandenen "Kognitariats" in welcher Art und Weise digitale Produktions- und Wertschöpfungsprozesse am Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts zur Kontrolle eingesetzt werden ...

  13. Contributions to ecosystem research and environmental education III; Beitraege zur Oekosystemforschung und Umwelterziehung III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, K H [ed.; Nauber, J [ed.

    1996-09-01

    The publication comprises the following chapters: Contributions to the implementation of findings in policy and administration; Contributions to biosphere reservations; Contributions to ecosystems research; Contributions to environmental education. The first chapter discusses environmental protection from the political point of view, while the second chapter describes biosphere reservations world-wide as well as their protection, conservation and development. (SR) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Veroeffentlichung teilt sich in folgende Kapitel auf: Beitraege zur Umsetzung von Erkenntnissen in Politik und Verwaltung, Beitraege zu Biosphaerenreservaten, Beitraege zur Oekosystemforschung sowie Beitraege zur Umwelterziehung. Im ersten Kapitel wird der Umweltschutz von der politischen Seite aus beleuchtet. Das zweite Kapitel beschreibt verschiedene Biosphaerenreservate in der ganzen Welt und deren Schutz, Pflege und Entwicklung. Das dritte Kapitel beinhaltet Beitraege zur oekologischen Forschung. Abschliessend werden im letzten Kapitel psychologische Aspekte der Umwelterziehung dargestellt. (SR)

  14. Entwicklung und Anwendung neuer NMR-Methoden: Orientierungsmedien zur Strukturbestimmung mit anisotropen Parametern und Metabonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Büchler, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Entwicklung und Anwendung neuer Orientierungsmedien zur Strukturbestimmung mit anisotropen Parametern, sowie die Etablierung von Metabonomics-Studien an Flüssigzellkulturen und Reispflanzen.

  15. [Alfred Ritscher. Reval an der schwelle zur neuzeit. T. 2] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Ritscher, Alfred. Reval an der schwelle zur neuzeit. T. 2: Vom tode Wolters von Plettenberg bis zum Untergang des Deutschen Ordens in Livland (1535-1561). Bonn: Kulturstiftung der deutshen Vertriebenen 2001. (Historische Forschungen).

  16. Der gläserne Aschenbecher - oder - Zur Verallgemeinerung des Eulerschen Polyedersatzes

    OpenAIRE

    Gallin, P

    2009-01-01

    Eine Diskussion unter Mathematikern im Lehrerzimmer einer Kantonsschule führt zusammen mit Beiträgen der Schülerinnen und Schüler unversehens zu topologischen Einsichten, die normalerweise im Gymnasium nicht zur Sprache kommen.

  17. Capital costs of modular HTR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, K.; Froehling, W.

    1993-01-01

    A decisive factor in the introduction of a reactor line, in addition of its safety, which should exclude releases of radioactivity into the environment, is its economic development and, consequently, its competitiveness. The costs of the pressurized water reactor are used for comparison with the modular HTR reactor. If the measures proposed for evolutionary increases in safety of the PWR are taken, cost increases will have to be expected for that line. The modular HTR can now attain specific construction costs of 3000 deutschmarks per electric kilowatt. Mass production and the introduction of cost-reducing innovations can improve the economy of this line even further. In this way, the modular HTR concept offers the possibility to vendors and operators to set up new economic yardsticks in safety technology. (orig.) [de

  18. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  19. Robustness and modular structure in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagrow, James P.; Lehmann, Sune; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    -12]. Many complex systems, from power grids and the Internet to the brain and society [13-15], can be modeled using modular networks comprised of small, densely connected groups of nodes [16, 17]. These modules often overlap, with network elements belonging to multiple modules [18, 19]. Yet existing work...... on robustness has not considered the role of overlapping, modular structure. Here we study the robustness of these systems to the failure of elements. We show analytically and empirically that it is possible for the modules themselves to become uncoupled or non-overlapping well before the network disintegrates....... If overlapping modular organization plays a role in overall functionality, networks may be far more vulnerable than predicted by conventional percolation theory....

  20. PLM system support for modular product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    A modular design strategy both enables, but also demands, parallelism in design activities and collaboration between a diversity of disciplines in companies, which often involves supporting computer-based tools for enhancing interaction, design management, and communication. Product data management...... (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM) systems offer support by automating and managing some of the operational complexity of modular design activities. PLM system tools are used for handling a variety of product definitions, to manage workflow of development activities, and to measure relational...... properties such as cost and performance. Companies often use a PLM tool for management of CAD files, documents, and drawings, but they do not take advantage of the full potential of the PLM system to support the development activities of modular product designs. The key result of this paper...

  1. Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tureav, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds

  2. Balancing Modularity and Solution Space Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vos, Maren A.; Raassens, Néomie; Van der Borgh, Michel

    2018-01-01

    that modularity reflects knowledge specialisation and solution space freedom reflects knowledge variety. Both of these dimensions affect organisational learning and, in turn, sustainable innovation. Second, we argue that the relationship between customisation and organisational learning is affected by supplier...... theory to provide insights into how TI firms can achieve ‘win-win’ situations where sustainable innovation is increased through customisation. First, we argue that customisation should be viewed two-dimensionally and identify both modularity and solution space freedom as important dimensions. We argue...... characteristics, specifically supplier sophistication. Survey data from 166 managers were used to empirically test the conceptual model and hypotheses. Polynomial response surface analysis confirms that customising by balancing high degrees of both modularity and solution space freedom results in superior...

  3. Modularization Technology in Power Plant Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenji Akagi; Kouichi Murayama; Miki Yoshida; Junichi Kawahata

    2002-01-01

    Since the early 1980's, Hitachi has been developing and applying modularization technology to domestic nuclear power plant construction, and has achieved great rationalization. Modularization is one of the plant construction techniques which enables us to reduce site labor by pre-assembling components like equipment, pipes, valves and platforms in congested areas and installing them using large capacity cranes for cost reduction, better quality, safety improvement and shortening of construction time. In this paper, Hitachi's modularization technologies are described especially from with respect to their sophisticated design capabilities. The application of 3D-CAD at the detailed layout design stage, concurrent design environment achieved by the computer network, module design quantity control and the management system are described. (authors)

  4. Altautoverwertung zwischen Staat und Markt: Bedingungen und Potentiale zur Modernisierung von Lagerhaltung und Marketing gebrauchter Autoteile

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    Das Arbeitspapier diskutiert vor dem Hintergrund veränderter gesetzlicher Rahmen-und Wettbewerbsbedingungen in der Autoverwertung Ziele und Maßnahmen zurStärkung kleiner und mittelständischer Verwertungsbetriebe. Der Bereich GebrauchteAutoteile wird im Rahmen eines regionalen Fallbeispiels einer tiefergehenden Analyseunterzogen. Hieraus werden Vorschläge zur regionalen Netzwerkbildung innerhalb derBranche und neue Dienstleistungsperspektiven abgeleitet. Ein wesentliches Koope-rationsfeld ist ...

  5. Competitive Intelligence : Aufbau einer Informationsbasis und Entscheidungssystematik zur Definition strategischer Zielmärkte

    OpenAIRE

    Maffenbeier, Sina

    2010-01-01

    Im Rahmen der Globalisierung und des daraus resultierenden Wettbewerbs ist es für ein Unternehmen von zentraler Bedeutung, Wissen über die Wettbewerbssituation zu erhalten. Nicht nur zur Erschließung neuer Märkte, sondern auch zur Sicherung der Unternehmensexistenz ist eine Wettbewerbsanalyse unabdingbar. Konkurrenz- bzw. Wettbewerbsforschung wird überwiegend als „Competitive Intelligence“ bezeichnet. In diesem Sinne beschäftigt sich die vorliegende Bachelorarbeit mit einem Bereich von Compet...

  6. The 16-Year Evolution of Proximal Modular Stem Design – Eliminating Failure of Modular Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Tkach

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The complexity of hip reconstruction has been and continues to be a perplexing problem with restoring leg length, femoral offset, joint stability and overall hip implant fixation. These were contributing factors that lead to the development of a novel proximal femoral component design “Apex Modular Stem” (Omni, Raynham, MA. The basic stem geometry features a straight stem with a metaphyseal fit and fill cone, a medial triangle and a modular neck junction that allows for version and offset adjustment. In recent years, there has been great concern with the use of modularity in total hip arthroplasty. The goals of this study are (1 to identify complications with the use of a proximal modular design and (2 demonstrated factors that have eliminated those complications. Methods: This is a retrospective study of a single surgeon series (Design A and Design B of using the same cementless stem and proximal modular neck body (Apex Modular Stem and Omni Mod Hip Stem from 2000 to 2016 totaling 2,125 stems. 483 stems were the Design A and 1,642 stems, were of the Design B style. Results: Design A, 483 stems were implanted between 2000 and 2004. 31 alignment pins sheared resulting in a revision rate of 6.4%. Design B, 1,642 stems have been implanted between 2004 and 2016 all by the same surgeon, with no failures of the modular junction. Conclusion: All implant devices entail a multitude of risks and benefits. The Apex Modular Stem (Design A, provided excellent fixation, minimal risk of modular junction  corrosion, and simple control of anteversion and femoral offset. The limitation was found to be the risk of the alignment pin shearing (6.4%. The pin was enlarged to make it 225% stronger in torsional resistance, and in a subsequent series of over 1,600 femoral stems in a single surgeon series, there were no pin failures over a 12 year duration.

  7. Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Edward Hermann; Meseguer, José

    2003-01-01

    and verification of MSOS specifications, we have defined a mapping, named , from MSOS to rewriting logic (RWL), a logic which has been proposed as a logical and semantic framework. We have proven the correctness of and implemented it as a prototype, the MSOS-SL Interpreter, in the Maude system, a high......Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution...

  8. Geometric modular action and transformation groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    We study a weak form of geometric modular action, which is naturally associated with transformation groups of partially ordered sets and which provides these groups with projective representations. Under suitable conditions it is shown that these groups are implemented by point transformations of topological spaces serving as models for space-times, leading to groups which may be interpreted as symmetry groups of the space-times. As concrete examples, it is shown that the Poincare group and the de Sitter group can be derived from this condition of geometric modular action. Further consequences and examples are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostermann, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics de...... defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not....

  10. Model engineering in a modular PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlhuber, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis) for complex industrial systems, often PSA models in the form of fault and event trees are developed to model the risk of unwanted situations (hazards). While the recent decades, PSA models have gained high acceptance and have been developed massively. This lead to an increase in model sizes and complexity. Today, PSA models are often difficult to understand and maintain. This manuscript presents the concept of a modular PSA. A modular PSA tries to cope with the increased complexity by the techniques of modularization and instantiation. Modularization targets to treat a model by smaller pieces (the 'modules') to regain control over models. Instantiation aims to configure a generic model to different contexts. Both try to reduce model complexity. A modular PSA proposes new functionality to manage PSA models. Current model management is rather limited and not efficient. This manuscript shows new methods to manage the evolutions (versions) and deviations (variants) of PSA models in a modular PSA. The concepts of version and variant management are presented in this thesis. In this context, a model comparison and fusion of PSA models is precised. Model comparison provides important feedback to model engineers and model fusion kind of combines the work from different model engineers (concurrent model engineering). Apart from model management, methods to understand the content of PSA models are presented. The methods focus to highlight the dependencies between modules rather than their contents. Dependencies are automatically derived from a model structure. They express relations between model objects (for example a fault tree may have dependencies to basic events). To visualize those dependencies (for example in form of a model cartography) can constitute a crucial aid to model engineers for understanding complex interrelations in PSA models. Within the scope of this thesis, a software named 'Andromeda' has been

  11. Proving relations between modular graph functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links. (paper)

  12. Modular arrangement of regulatory RNA elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roßmanith, Johanna; Narberhaus, Franz

    2017-03-04

    Due to their simple architecture and control mechanism, regulatory RNA modules are attractive building blocks in synthetic biology. This is especially true for riboswitches, which are natural ligand-binding regulators of gene expression. The discovery of various tandem riboswitches inspired the design of combined RNA modules with activities not yet found in nature. Riboswitches were placed in tandem or in combination with a ribozyme or temperature-responsive RNA thermometer resulting in new functionalities. Here, we compare natural examples of tandem riboswitches with recently designed artificial RNA regulators suggesting substantial modularity of regulatory RNA elements. Challenges associated with modular RNA design are discussed.

  13. Modular radwaste volume reduction and solidification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes both the modular transportable and the modular mobile liquid radwaste volume reduction and solidification units based on a General Electric Company developed and patented process called AZTECH (a trademark of GE). An AZTECH system removes all water by azeotropic distillation and encapsulates the remaining solids in a polyester compound. The resulting monolith is suitable for either long term above ground storage or shallow land burial. Pilot and demonstration plant testing has confirmed the design parameters. The three processing modules are covered together with data which resulted in Nuclear Regulatory Commission approval on Dec. 30, 1985

  14. Modular nuclear fuel element, modular capsule for a such element and fabrication process for a modular capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chotard, A.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear fuel rod is made by a tubular casing closed at both ends and containing a series of modular capsules with little play with the casing and made by a jacket closed by porous plugs at both ends and containing a stack of fuel pellets [fr

  15. Modularization, inter-functional integration and operational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    for firms to indeed use product modularity beneficially, in particular inter-functional integration between manufacturing and purchasing, design and sales, respectively. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the direct performance effects of modularization, as well as the mediating effects of the three...... forms of integration in the modularization-performance relationship....

  16. Development of a guidance manual for the identification and assessment of interactions as part of Environmental Impact Assessment; Entwicklung einer Arbeitsanleitung zur Beruecksichtigung der Wechselwirkungen in der Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassmus, J.; Bruening, H.; Kleinschmidt, V.; Reck, H.; Dierssen, K.; Bonk, A. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Oekologie-Zentrum

    2001-03-01

    Schnittstellen fuer die Datenuebergabe zwischen den Fachgutachtern an Knotenpunkten dieser Ketten/Netze empfiehlt. Die derart festgestellten Auswirkungen werden in schutzgutbezogenen Kapiteln beschrieben und in der herkoemmlichen Weise mit den nach allgemeinem Kenntnisstand heranzuziehenden Bewertungsmassstaeben (z.B. Grenzwerte der Fachgesetze, vorsorgeorientierte Richt- und Schwellenwerte) bewertet. Als weiterer Baustein wurde im Vorhaben eine Methodik fuer die medienuebergreifende Bewertung von Auswirkungen entwickelt. Dazu werden aus den bereits bei den Schutzguetern beschriebenen direkten und indirekten (d.h. die ueber Wirkungsketten und -netze verursachten) Auswirkungen diejenigen ausgewaehlt und gemeinsam bewertet, die im Hinblick auf medienuebergreifende Ziele bzw. Teilziele (Schutz der menschlichen Gesundheit/Verbesserung der Umweltbedingungen als Beitrag zur Lebensqualitaet des Menschen/Erhaltung des Lebensraumpotentials fuer Pflanzen und Tiere) von Bedeutung sind. (orig.)

  17. Theoretical Analysis of the Relationships Between Modularity in Design and Modularity in Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubota, Flávio Issao; Hsuan, Juliana; Cauchick-Miguel, Paulo Augusto

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between modularity in design (MID) and modularity in production (MIP) in the automotive industry in terms of how automotive companies obtain benefits and/or drawbacks through MID/MIP relationships. A literature analysis was conducted in order to identify...... the possible relationships between MID and MIP as well as the concepts behind these connections. Sixty-one papers were identified to portray relationships between modular product architecture and modular production systems. Results show a representation of MID and MIP relationships by illustrating that many...... propositions are offered for future field research. Finally, relationships between MID and MIP might be connected with modularity’s maturity level in companies. This is a literature review paper; therefore, empirical evidence is needed to further support current findings. Future studies could analyze...

  18. Recommended procedure for selection of detector systems for in vivo measurement of incorporated radioactivity; Empfehlungen zur Auswahl von Detektorsystemen zur Direktmessung der Koerperaktivitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P. [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik (VKTA) Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany); Wahl, W. [GSF Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Doerfel, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The paper presents and discusses a variety of aspects and objectives to be considered and explains the selection criteria to be applied with reference to the available detector systems. All available detector systems are shown and explained in a table. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Zur Direktmessung der Koerperaktivitaet werden vorwiegend Halbleiter- und Szintillationsdetektoren verwendet. Bei Halbleiterdetektoren kommen der Regel HPGe-Detektoren und in Einzelfaellen auch Si(Li)-Detektoren zum Einsatz. Bei Szintillationsdetektoren werden hauptsaechlich NaI(TI)-Detektoren sowie NaI(TI)/CsI(TI)-Phoswich-Detektoren verwendet. Verschiedene Gesichtspunkte zur Auswahl von Detektorsystemen werden vorgestellt. (orig./SR)

  19. Review of the Modular Administrative Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand Valley State Colleges, Allendale, MI. Office of Institutional Analysis.

    The modular administrative structure implemented at Grand Valley State Colleges in 1973 is described as a system in which administrative affairs are divided into functional self-contained units called modules, each of which has a head or acting head who is responsible for the management of the functions contained within the module. A long-range…

  20. Modular cogeneration for commercial light industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhuja, R.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of gas utilities' efforts to market small cogeneration systems could be helpful to entrepreneurs now venturing into this area. Orders have been placed with Thermo Electron, USA for 15 Tecogen modular cogeneration units. Applications range from an airline catering kitchen to a university swimming pool. 5 figures, 1 table.

  1. Conformal branching rules and modular invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Using the outer automorphisms of the affine algebra SU(n), we show how the branching rules for the conformal subalgebra SU(pq) contains SU(p) x SU(q) may be simply calculated. We demonstrate that new modular invariant combinations of SU(n) characters are obtainable from the branching rules. (orig.)

  2. Progress toward Modular UAS for Geoscience Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, R. P.; Clark, M. A.; Comstock, R. J.; Fladeland, M.; Gascot, H., III; Haig, T. H.; Lam, S. J.; Mazhari, A. A.; Palomares, R. R.; Pinsker, E. A.; Prathipati, R. T.; Sagaga, J.; Thurling, J. S.; Travers, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have become accepted tools for geoscience, ecology, agriculture, disaster response, land management, and industry. A variety of consumer UAS options exist as science and engineering payload platforms, but their incompatibilities with one another contribute to high operational costs compared with those of piloted aircraft. This research explores the concept of modular UAS, demonstrating airframes that can be reconfigured in the field for experimental optimization, to enable multi-mission support, facilitate rapid repair, or respond to changing field conditions. Modular UAS is revolutionary in allowing aircraft to be optimized around the payload, reversing the conventional wisdom of designing the payload to accommodate an unmodifiable aircraft. UAS that are reconfigurable like Legos™ are ideal for airborne science service providers, system integrators, instrument designers and end users to fulfill a wide range of geoscience experiments. Modular UAS facilitate the adoption of open-source software and rapid prototyping technology where design reuse is important in the context of a highly regulated industry like aerospace. The industry is now at a stage where consolidation, acquisition, and attrition will reduce the number of small manufacturers, with a reduction of innovation and motivation to reduce costs. Modularity leads to interface specifications, which can evolve into de facto or formal standards which contain minimum (but sufficient) details such that multiple vendors can then design to those standards and demonstrate interoperability. At that stage, vendor coopetition leads to robust interface standards, interoperability standards and multi-source agreements which in turn drive costs down significantly.

  3. Modular Regiospecific Synthesis of Nitrated Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, Katharina J.; Grimmer, Jennifer; Göbel, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous nitrated fatty acids are an important class of signaling molecules. Herein a modular route for the efficient and regiospecific preparation of nitrooleic acids as well as various analogues is described. The approach is based on a simple set of alkyl halides as common building blocks...

  4. A Comparison of Modular Verification Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Staunstrup, Jørgen; Maretti, Niels

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents and compares three techniques for mechanized verification of state oriented design descriptions. One is a traditional forwardgeneration of a fixed point characterizing the reachable states. The two others can utilize a modular structure provided by the designer. Onerequires...

  5. Modularization--A Road to Relevance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palow, William P.

    This paper describes a modular program at a community college for instructing non-science majors in college algebra. The two-course sequence is comprised of four modules each and successful completion of a module is required before a student proceeds to the next. Placement, grading policies, and scheduling are all discussed. A formative evaluation…

  6. Modular construction approach for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Boudreaux, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    Modular construction has been designated as one of the major features of the AP600 program, a small innovative 600-MW (electric) advanced light water reactor (ALWR) that is currently being developed by Westinghouse and its subcontractors. This program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with several other DOE and Electric Power Research Institute ALWR programs. Two major objectives of the AP600 program are as follows: (1) to provide a cost of power competitive with other power generation alternatives; and (2) to provide a short construction schedule that can be met with a high degree of certainty. The AP600 plant addresses these objectives by providing a simplified plant design and an optimized plant arrangement that result in a significant reduction in the number and size of systems and components, minimizes the overall building volumes, and consequently reduces the required bulk quantities. However, only by adopting a modular construction approach for the AP600 can the full cost and schedule benefits be realized from the advances made in the plant systems design and plant arrangement. Modularization is instrumental in achieving both of the above objectives, but most of all, a total modularization approach is considered absolutely essential to ensure that an aggressive construction schedule can be met with a high degree of certainty

  7. A Case Study in Modular Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Midtgaard, Jan; Winther, Johnni

    We report our experience in using two different languages to build the same software project. Specifically, we have converted an entire undergraduate compiler course from using AspectJ, an aspect-oriented language, to using OCaml, a functional language. The course has evolved over a period of eig...... in a modular way....

  8. The Modular Market. Studies in Further Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossin, Ernest

    Origins of modular courses and the module in British postcompulsory education are considered, along with characteristics of modules, credit transfer, five case studies, and marketing in further and higher education. A module is a measured part (or course) of an extended learning experience that leads to specified qualifications. A designated…

  9. Modular simulation of reefer container dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    for faults enabling preventive maintenance. In this paper the feasibility of using different simulation methods is assessed with the goal of identifying a fast but accurate method that works well in a multi-rate environment. A modular multi-rate simulation environment for a dynamical system consisting...

  10. Building blocks for modular data acquisition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B

    1996-12-31

    The principles of building blocks for modular data acquisition systems by means of the VIC bus are discussed. Real time operating systems based on the VME environment for program development drastically reducing the time needed to develop a working system. 4 figs.

  11. Modular sequent calculi for classical modal logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, David; Maffezioli, Paolo

    This paper develops sequent calculi for several classical modal logics. Utilizing a polymodal translation of the standard modal language, we are able to establish a base system for the minimal classical modal logic E from which we generate extensions (to include M, C, and N) in a modular manner. Our

  12. Modularity, Working Memory and Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of modularity is used to contrast the approach to working memory proposed by Truscott with the Baddeley and Hitch multicomponent model. This proposes four sub components comprising the "central executive," an executive control system of limited attentional capacity that utilises storage based on separate but interlinked…

  13. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  14. Modular Stellarator Reactor conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment

  15. BEETLE - A modular electronics family for robotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available of applications. A family of modular electronic elements is proposed to address this need. The Beautiful Embedded Electronic Logic Element (BEETLE) family of boards is designed to be compact, low cost, robust, reusable and easy to program. This allows the boards...

  16. Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...

  17. Creating Modular Platforms for Strategic Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In developing products, long‐term success depends on designing components that facilitate the creation of a family of current and future product options. Ron Sanchez emphasizes that this requires careful planning of shared technologies and production processes. The payoff is a modular approach...

  18. Modular groups in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, H.-J.

    2000-01-01

    The author discusses the connection of Lagrangean quantum field theory, perturbation theory, the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann theory, Wightman's quantum field theory, the Euclidean quantum field theory, and the Araki-Haag-Kastler theory of local observables with modular groups. In this connection he considers the PCT-theorem, and the tensor product decomposition. (HSI)

  19. A Framework for Determining Product Modularity Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Haug, Anders

    2017-01-01

    products have been implemented in specific types companies (mostly mass producers), but little guidance exists on how to identify the right level of modularity for other types of companies (such as engineer-to-order companies). In this article, we address this gap by suggesting a framework that categorizes...

  20. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CUNNINGHAM, L.T.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides a Computer Software Documentation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-211 and vertical denitration calciner in HC-230C-2

  1. Modular interpreters with implicit context propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Inostroza Valdera (Pablo); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractModular interpreters are a crucial first step towards component-based language development: instead of writing language interpreters from scratch, they can be assembled from reusable, semantic building blocks. Unfortunately, traditional language interpreters can be hard to extend because

  2. Modular stellarator reactor conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment

  3. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  4. Music, Language and Modularity Framed in Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Peretz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, I examine to what extend music and speech share processing components by focusing on vocal production, that is, singing and speaking. In shaping my review, the modularity concept has been and continues to play a determinant role. Thus, I will first provide a brief background on the contemporary notion of modularity. Next, I will present evidence that musical abilities depend, in part, on modular processes. The evidence is coming mainly from neuropsychological dissociations. The relevance of findings of overlap in neuroimaging, of interference and domain-transfer effects between music and speech will also be addressed and discussed. Finally, I will contrast the modularity position with the resource-sharing framework proposed by Patel (2003, 2008a. This critical review should be viewed as an invitation to undertake future comparative research between music and language by focusing on the details of the functions that these mechanisms carry out, not only their specificity. Such comparative research is very important not only theoretically but also in practice because of their obvious clinical and educational implications.

  5. A Semantics for Modular General Logic Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro

    1998-01-01

    Modular programs are built as a combination of separate modules, which may be developed and verified separately. Therefore, in order to reason over such programs, compositionality plays a crucial role: the semantics of the whole program must be obtainable as a simple function from the semantics of

  6. A semantics for modular general logic programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Modular programs are built as a combination of separate modules, which may be developed and verified separately. Therefore, in order to reason over such programs, compositionality plays a crucial role: the semantics of the whole program must be obtainable as a simple function from the semantics of

  7. Modular pulse sequencing in a tokamak system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, A.C.; Lee, S.; Saw, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Pulse technique applied in the timing and sequencing of the various part of the MUT tokamak system are discussed. The modular architecture of the pulse generating device highlights the versatile application of the simple physical concepts in precise and complicated research experiment. (author)

  8. Principles for Implementing Modularity in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soffers, Ruter; Meijboom, Bert; Hsuan, Juliana

    in a modular way. We identify three principles to do so: 1) the service architecture should be decomposable; 2) a proper service specification process should be introduced; and 3) the presence of interfaces should be ensured. Followingthese principles should help policy makers as well as managers to implement...

  9. Modular action on the massive algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffary, T.

    2005-12-01

    The subject of this thesis is the modular group of automorphisms (σ m t ) t element of R , m>0, acting on the massive algebra of local observables M m (O) having their support in O is contained in R 4 . After a compact introduction to micro-local analysis and the theory of one-parameter groups of automorphisms, which are used extensively throughout the investigation, we are concerned with modular theory and its consequences in mathematics, e.g., Connes' cocycle theorem and classification of type III factors and Jones' index theory, as well as in physics, e.g., the determination of local von Neumann algebras to be hyperfinite factors of type III 1 , the formulation of thermodynamic equilibrium states for infinite-dimensional quantum systems (KMS states) and the discovery of modular action as geometric transformations. However, our main focus are its applications in physics, in particular the modular action as Lorentz boosts on the Rindler wedge, as dilations on the forward light cone and as conformal mappings on the double cone. Subsequently, their most important implications in local quantum physics are discussed. The purpose of this thesis is to shed more light on the transition from the known massless modular action to the wanted massive one in the case of double cones. First of all the infinitesimal generatore δ m of the group (σ m t ) t element of R is investigated, especially some assumptions on its structure are verified explicitly for the first time for two concrete examples. Then, two strategies for the calculation of σ m t itself are discussed. Some formalisms and results from operator theory and the method of second quantisation used in this thesis are made available in the appendix. (orig.)

  10. INFORMATION SECURITY IN MOBILE MODULAR MEASURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Tkhishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A special aspect of aircraft test is carrying out both flight evaluation and ground operation evaluation in a structure of flying aids and special tools equipment. The specific of flight and sea tests involve metering in offshore zone, which excludes the possibility of fixed geodetically related measuring tools. In this regard, the specific role is acquired by shipbased measurement systems, in particular the mobile modular measuring systems. Information processed in the mobile modular measurement systems is a critical resource having a high level of confidentiality. When carrying out their functions, it should be implemented a proper information control of the mobile modular measurement systems to ensure their protection from the risk of data leakage, modification or loss, i.e. to ensure a certain level of information security. Due to the specific of their application it is difficult to solve the problems of information security in such complexes. The intruder model, the threat model, the security requirements generated for fixed informatization objects are not applicable to mobile systems. It was concluded that the advanced mobile modular measuring systems designed for flight experiments monitoring and control should be created due to necessary information protection measures and means. The article contains a diagram of security requirements formation, starting with the data envelopment analysis and ending with the practical implementation. The information security probabilistic model applied to mobile modular measurement systems is developed. The list of current security threats based on the environment and specific of the mobile measurement system functioning is examined. The probabilistic model of the information security evaluation is given. The problems of vulnerabilities transformation of designed information system into the security targets with the subsequent formation of the functional and trust requirements list are examined.

  11. Cranial modularity and sequence heterochrony in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anjali

    2007-01-01

    Heterochrony, the temporal shifting of developmental events relative to each other, requires a degree of autonomy among those processes or structures. Modularity, the division of larger structures or processes into autonomous sets of internally integrated units, is often discussed in relation to the concept of heterochrony. However, the relationship between the developmental modules derived from studies of heterochrony and evolutionary modules, which should be of adaptive importance and relate to the genotype-phenotype map, has not been explicitly studied. I analyzed a series of sectioned and whole cleared-and-stained embryological and neonatal specimens, supplemented with published ontogenetic data, to test the hypothesis that bones within the same phenotypic modules, as determined by morphometric analysis, are developmentally integrated and will display coordinated heterochronic shifts across taxa. Modularity was analyzed in cranial bone ossification sequences of 12 therian mammals. A dataset of 12-18 developmental events was used to assess if modularity in developmental sequences corresponds to six phenotypic modules, derived from a recent morphometric analysis of cranial modularity in mammals. Kendall's tau was used to measure rank correlations, with randomization tests for significance. If modularity in developmental sequences corresponds to observed phenotypic modules, bones within a single phenotypic module should show integration of developmental timing, maintaining the same timing of ossification relative to each other, despite differences in overall ossification sequences across taxa. Analyses did not find any significant conservation of developmental timing within the six phenotypic modules, meaning that bones that are highly integrated in adult morphology are not significantly integrated in developmental timing.

  12. Analysis of enabling factors in realizing modularization benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2012-01-01

    Although modularization is becoming a welldescribed and broadly applied concept, many of today’s firms still struggle to realize the promised benefits of this approach. Managing modularization is a complex matter, and in spite of this, a topic that has received far less attention compared...... to theories and methods concerning modularization of technical systems.Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers...... with regard to obtaining the full potential of modularization....

  13. Ilse von zur Mühlen. Glanz und Elend. Mythos und Wirklichkeit der Herrenhäuser im Baltikum. Begleitpublikation zur gleichnahmigen Ausstellung des Ostpreußischen Landesmuseums und der Carl-Schirren-Gesellschaft e.V. / Anja Wilhelmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wilhelmi, Anja, 1966-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mühlen, Ilse von zur. Glanz und Elend. Mythos und Wirklichkeit der Herrenhäuser im Baltikum. Begleitpublikation zur gleichnahmigen Ausstellung des Ostpreußischen Landesmuseums und der Carl-Schirren-Gesellschaft e.V. (1. Dezember 2012 bis 14. April 2013), Lindenberg i. Allgäu 2012

  14. The German contribution to the global forest policy. Analysis and evaluation of the engagement for biodiversity conservation and mitigation measures climatic change; Der deutsche Beitrag zur globalen Waldpolitik. Analyse und Bewertung des Engagements zum Erhalt der Biodiversitaet und zur Eindaemmung des Klimawandels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Anika

    2013-07-01

    The booklet on the German contribution to the global forest policy covers with analysis and evaluation of the engagement for biodiversity conservation and mitigation measures climatic change. The analysis is based on expert interviews; the theoretical background is the conception on society by Niklas Lehmann. The evaluation includes the issues of allocation of public goods, the improvement of public participation, and improvement of financing resources.

  15. Assessment of clinical image quality in feline chest radiography with a needle-image plate (NIP) storage phosphor system. An approach to the evaluation of image quality in neonatal radiography; Untersuchungen zur Qualitaet von Thoraxaufnahmen bei Katzen mit einem auf einer Nadelstruktur basierenden Speicherfoliensystem. Modelluntersuchungen zur Bewertung der Bildqualitaet bei Neugeborenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewig, E.; Bosch, B.; Gaebler, K.; Succow, D.; Werrmann, A. [Klinik fuer Kleintiere, Univ. Leipzig (Germany); Hirsch, W.; Sorge, I. [Abt. Paediatrische Radiologie, Univ. Leipzig (Germany); Gosch, D. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Univ. Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Is the image quality of thoracic radiographs of cats obtained with a needle-based storage phosphor (NIP) system superior to conventional (PIP) storage phosphor radiography? Is it possible to decrease the mAs by 50% with the NIP system without significant loss of information? Materials and Methods: From each of the 20 animals, three lateral radiographs were acquired. The assessment of the exposure level was based on the generated IgM-values. Images were acquired 1. with the NIP system and exposure settings equivalent to an IgM of 1.9, 2. with the PIP system and identical settings, and 3. with the NIP system and 50% of the mAs. Six blinded readers used a 5-step scale to assess the reproducibility of five anatomical structures and image noise sensation. Data were analysed using Visual Grading Characteristics Analysis (VGC). Results: While applying identical exposure values the NIP system for all features revealed superior ratings to those of the PIP system (AUC{sub VGC} values ranged from 0.81 for ''cardiac silhouette'' to 0.92 for ''trachea''). Even when reducing mAs by 50% in the NIP images all features were rated better compared with the PIP images and original settings (AUC{sub VGC} values ranged from 0.60 for ''cardiac silhouette'' to 0.74 for ''trachea'' and ''caudal thoracic field''). Conclusion: The NIP system demonstrates clearly better image quality compared to the reference PIP system. A dose reduction of 50% seems to be possible without relevant detraction from image quality. The results obtained in the animal model are valid for simulating conditions in neonatal radiological practise. (orig.)

  16. Modularity Design Approach for Preventive Machine Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, D.; Pudji, E.; Ngatilah, Y.; Handoyo, R.

    2018-01-01

    In a company, machine maintenance system will be very influential in production process activity. The company should have a scheduled engine maintenance system that does not require high costs when repairing and replacing machine parts. Modularity Design method is able to provide solutions to the engine maintenance scheduling system and can prevent fatal damage to the engine components. It can minimize the cost of repair and replacement of these machine components.The paper provides a solution to machine maintenance problems. The paper is also completed with case study of milling machines. That case studies can give us a real description about impact implementation of modularity design to prevent fatal damage to components and minimize the cost of repair and replacement of components of the machine.

  17. Siegel modular forms and black hole entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belin, Alexandre; Castro, Alejandra [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gomes, João [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Utrecht,Leuvenlaan 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands); Keller, Christoph A. [Department of Mathematics, ETH Zurich,CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-11

    We discuss the application of Siegel Modular Forms to Black Hole entropy counting. The role of the Igusa cusp form χ{sub 10} in the D1D5P system is well-known, and its transformation properties are what allows precision microstate counting in this case. We apply a similar method to extract the Fourier coefficients of other Siegel modular and paramodular forms, and we show that they could serve as candidates for other types of black holes. We investigate the growth of their coefficients, identifying the dominant contributions and the leading logarithmic corrections in various regimes. We also discuss similarities and differences to the behavior of χ{sub 10}, and possible physical interpretations of such forms both from a microscopic and gravitational point of view.

  18. The Modular Helium Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Harvego; M. Richards; A. Shenoy; K. Schultz; L. Brown; M. Fukuie

    2006-01-01

    For electricity and hydrogen production, an advanced reactor technology receiving considerable international interest is a modular, passively-safe version of the high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), known in the U.S. as the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR), which operates at a power level of 600 MW(t). For hydrogen production, the concept is referred to as the H2-MHR. Two concepts that make direct use of the MHR high-temperature process heat are being investigated in order to improve the efficiency and economics of hydrogen production. The first concept involves coupling the MHR to the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical water splitting process and is referred to as the SI-Based H2-MHR. The second concept involves coupling the MHR to high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) and is referred to as the HTE-Based H2-MHR

  19. DCNS invents the immersed civil modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhem, Jean

    2013-01-01

    SMRs (Small and Modular Reactors) are a response to networks smaller than 10 GW. They are under study in USA, Russia and China, and a Korean one is already certified. In France, DCNS proposes Flexblue, a compact modular 160 MWe reactor, completely immersed 60 to 100 m under the sea level, few kilometres off the coasts. Almost invisible and protected by the marine environment, it will benefit from an infinite cold source which will ensure a high safety level. It is designed to produce 1 MWh at less than 100 euros. It will be retrieved onshore for its dismantling at the end of its service life. Its operation is said to be neutral for surrounding ecosystems with a tritium release more than 90 per cent less than that of onshore power plants

  20. Lectures on tensor categories and modular functors

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, Bojko

    2000-01-01

    This book gives an exposition of the relations among the following three topics: monoidal tensor categories (such as a category of representations of a quantum group), 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory, and 2-dimensional modular functors (which naturally arise in 2-dimensional conformal field theory). The following examples are discussed in detail: the category of representations of a quantum group at a root of unity and the Wess-Zumino-Witten modular functor. The idea that these topics are related first appeared in the physics literature in the study of quantum field theory. Pioneering works of Witten and Moore-Seiberg triggered an avalanche of papers, both physical and mathematical, exploring various aspects of these relations. Upon preparing to lecture on the topic at MIT, however, the authors discovered that the existing literature was difficult and that there were gaps to fill. The text is wholly expository and finely succinct. It gathers results, fills existing gaps, and simplifies some pro...

  1. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Lydia K; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-06-07

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.

  2. SMARBot: a modular miniature mobile robot platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Johnson, Kerry; Simms, Brian; Conforth, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Miniature robots have many advantages over their larger counterparts, such as low cost, low power, and easy to build a large scale team for complex tasks. Heterogeneous multi miniature robots could provide powerful situation awareness capability due to different locomotion capabilities and sensor information. However, it would be expensive and time consuming to develop specific embedded system for different type of robots. In this paper, we propose a generic modular embedded system architecture called SMARbot (Stevens Modular Autonomous Robot), which consists of a set of hardware and software modules that can be configured to construct various types of robot systems. These modules include a high performance microprocessor, a reconfigurable hardware component, wireless communication, and diverse sensor and actuator interfaces. The design of all the modules in electrical subsystem, the selection criteria for module components, and the real-time operating system are described. Some proofs of concept experimental results are also presented.

  3. [Modularization by the open standard. (I)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, H

    2000-10-01

    We are proceeding with the project called "Open LA21 Project" in the course of the clinical laboratory automation toward the 21st century. With the modular system that realizes integration, downsizing, a reasonable price, and is the future course in the clinical testing automation system as well, we aim to establish common standards among manufacturers as the only way to create user friendly market environments where the proper competition exists among the manufacturers. The common standards which are in preparation by the participating companies as "Open module system standards" are the standards which are going to be made public. They are intended to guarantee connection, compatibility of the products in conformity with the standards. In this project, we intend to realize the modular system that integrates each field, such as chemistry, hematology, coagulation/fibrinolysis, immunology, urinalysis in an early stage, and contribute positively to restructuring and upgrading the "raison d'etre" of the 21st century clinical testing.

  4. Toward the Modularization of Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Decision support systems are typically developed entirely from scratch without the use of modular components. This “stovepiped” approach is inefficient and costly because it prevents a developer from leveraging the data, models, tools, and services of other developers. Even when a decision support component is made available, it is difficult to know what problem it solves, how it relates to other components, or even that the component exists, The Spatial Decision Support (SDS) Consortium was formed in 2008 to organize the body of knowledge in SDS within a common portal. The portal identifies the canonical steps in the decision process and enables decision support components to be registered, categorized, and searched. This presentation describes how a decision support system can be assembled from modular models, data, tools and services, based on the needs of the Earth science application.

  5. Implementing a modular system of computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.

    1983-07-01

    A modular computation system has been developed for nuclear reactor core analysis. The codes can be applied repeatedly in blocks without extensive user input data, as needed for reactor history calculations. The primary control options over the calculational paths and task assignments within the codes are blocked separately from other instructions, admitting ready access by user input instruction or directions from automated procedures and promoting flexible and diverse applications at minimum application cost. Data interfacing is done under formal specifications with data files manipulated by an informed manager. This report emphasizes the system aspects and the development of useful capability, hopefully informative and useful to anyone developing a modular code system of much sophistication. Overall, this report in a general way summarizes the many factors and difficulties that are faced in making reactor core calculations, based on the experience of the authors. It provides the background on which work on HTGR reactor physics is being carried out

  6. Modular, Reconfigurable, High-Energy Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The Modular, Reconfigurable High-Energy (MRHE) Technology Demonstrator project was to have been a series of ground-based demonstrations to mature critical technologies needed for in-space assembly of a highpower high-voltage modular spacecraft in low Earth orbit, enabling the development of future modular solar-powered exploration cargo-transport vehicles and infrastructure. MRHE was a project in the High Energy Space Systems (HESS) Program, within NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program. NASA participants included Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Glenn Research Center (GRC). Contractor participants were the Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville, AL, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA, ENTECH, Inc. in Keller, TX, and the University of AL Huntsville (UAH). MRHE's technical objectives were to mature: (a) lightweight, efficient, high-voltage, radiation-resistant solar power generation (SPG) technologies; (b) innovative, lightweight, efficient thermal management systems; (c) efficient, 100kW-class, high-voltage power delivery systems from an SPG to an electric thruster system; (d) autonomous rendezvous and docking technology for in-space assembly of modular, reconfigurable spacecraft; (e) robotic assembly of modular space systems; and (f) modular, reconfigurable distributed avionics technologies. Maturation of these technologies was to be implemented through a series of increasingly-inclusive laboratory demonstrations that would have integrated and demonstrated two systems-of-systems: (a) the autonomous rendezvous and docking of modular spacecraft with deployable structures, robotic assembly, reconfiguration both during assembly and (b) the development and integration of an advanced thermal heat pipe and a high-voltage power delivery system with a representative lightweight high-voltage SPG array. In addition, an integrated simulation testbed would have been developed

  7. Discrete optimization in architecture extremely modular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2017-01-01

    This book is comprised of two parts, both of which explore modular systems: Pipe-Z (PZ) and Truss-Z (TZ), respectively. It presents several methods of creating PZ and TZ structures subjected to discrete optimization. The algorithms presented employ graph-theoretic and heuristic methods. The underlying idea of both systems is to create free-form structures using the minimal number of types of modular elements. PZ is more conceptual, as it forms single-branch mathematical knots with a single type of module. Conversely, TZ is a skeletal system for creating free-form pedestrian ramps and ramp networks among any number of terminals in space. In physical space, TZ uses two types of modules that are mirror reflections of each other. The optimization criteria discussed include: the minimal number of units, maximal adherence to the given guide paths, etc.

  8. Modular Power Architectures for Microgrid Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Liu, Leo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important elements in microgrids is the configuration architecture which includes installed capacity, devices location, converter topologies, as well as system control and management strategies. Reliability, security and stability in microgrids require global communication systems...... in order to provide information for management, supervision, and protection purposes. In this paper, the main objective is to reveal the reasons leading to unreliability and insecurity in microgrids systems, and to propose a generic modular concept which is conceived from the viewpoint of a unified system....... The user-frame concept proposed here when designing microgrids considers that the end-user is the basis for the geographical deployment. Meanwhile, a modular user-oriented approach is adopted in order to enhance reliability and expansibility. Finally, a unified dispatching and hierarchical management...

  9. Integrating modular mechatronic systems for immersive performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    and video output in a very easy manner, thanks to mechatronical wearable interfaces. In this light, we describe two of our systems that explore the concept of run-time composition of a variety of input and output modalities, e.g. both music and graphical expression. Indeed, we developed both hardware......As a branch of mechatronic research in interactivity, and in robot art, we describe the concept of implementing Playware based tools inspired by modern AI robotic systems for audio-video performances. We develop immersive and personalizable tools that can allow any user to manipulate both audio...... to create a run-time audio-video performance that is original and unique. This can further be combined with modular wearable – inspired by modular robotics – to interact and control the performance. This mechatronic wearable concept and its implementations exemplify how to convey a user-centered experience...

  10. Hierarchical State Machines as Modular Horn Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loïc Garoche

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In model based development, embedded systems are modeled using a mix of dataflow formalism, that capture the flow of computation, and hierarchical state machines, that capture the modal behavior of the system. For safety analysis, existing approaches rely on a compilation scheme that transform the original model (dataflow and state machines into a pure dataflow formalism. Such compilation often result in loss of important structural information that capture the modal behaviour of the system. In previous work we have developed a compilation technique from a dataflow formalism into modular Horn clauses. In this paper, we present a novel technique that faithfully compile hierarchical state machines into modular Horn clauses. Our compilation technique preserves the structural and modal behavior of the system, making the safety analysis of such models more tractable.

  11. Reasoning about modular datatypes with Mendler induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Torrini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In functional programming, datatypes a la carte provide a convenient modular representation of recursive datatypes, based on their initial algebra semantics. Unfortunately it is highly challenging to implement this technique in proof assistants that are based on type theory, like Coq. The reason is that it involves type definitions, such as those of type-level fixpoint operators, that are not strictly positive. The known work-around of impredicative encodings is problematic, insofar as it impedes conventional inductive reasoning. Weak induction principles can be used instead, but they considerably complicate proofs. This paper proposes a novel and simpler technique to reason inductively about impredicative encodings, based on Mendler-style induction. This technique involves dispensing with dependent induction, ensuring that datatypes can be lifted to predicates and relying on relational formulations. A case study on proving subject reduction for structural operational semantics illustrates that the approach enables modular proofs, and that these proofs are essentially similar to conventional ones.

  12. Parallel Relational Universes – experiments in modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    : We here describe Parallel Relational Universes, an artistic method used for the psychological analysis of group dynamics. The design of the artistic system, which mediates group dynamics, emerges from our studies of modular playware and remixing playware. Inspired from remixing modular playware......, where users remix samples in the form of physical and functional modules, we created an artistic instantiation of such a concept with the Parallel Relational Universes, allowing arts alumni to remix artistic expressions. Here, we report the data emerged from a first pre-test, run with gymnasium’s alumni....... We then report both the artistic and the psychological findings. We discuss possible variations of such an instrument. Between an art piece and a psychological test, at a first cognitive analysis, it seems to be a promising research tool...

  13. Criteria of validity in the measurement of shearing fracture toughness; Gueltigkeitskriterien zur Bestimmung von Scherbruchzaehigkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiese, W

    2000-01-01

    The investigations aimed at the development of criteria for measuring valid shearing fracture toughness data K{sub IIc} in analogy to the measurement of mode-I fracture toughness K{sub Ie}. Details are presented, and practical recommendations are given. [German] Die Brucheigenschaften von Werkstoffen werden ueblicherweise unter Zugbeanspruchungsbedingungen (Mode-I) bestimmt. Im Anwendungsbereich der linear-elastischen Bruchmechanik bzw. des Kleinbereichsfliessens geschieht dieses in Form der Bruchzaehigkeit K{sub Ic}. Es existieren entsprechende Richtlinien zur Durchfuehrung des Tests sowie zur Registrierung und Auswertung der Daten. Diese Kriterien sind in Standards festgelegt. Empfehlungen zur Bestimmung der Bruchzaehigkeit K{sub IIc} unter ebener Scherbelastung (Mode-II) fuer Werkstoffe mit im wesentlichen linear-elastischem Verhalten existieren nicht. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden durch den Vergleich der Groesse der plastischen Rissspitzenzonen im Verhaeltnis zu den Abmessungen von Probe bzw. Bauteil Kriterien zur Messung gueltiger Scherbruchzaehigkeiten K{sub IIc} analog zur Messung der Mode-I-Bruchzaehigkeit K{sub Ic} entwickelt. Der Groessenvergleich der plastischen Rissspitzenzonen fuer beide Beanspruchungsarten zeigt unter aequivalenten Beanspruchungen, d.h. K{sub II}=K{sub I}, dass bei Mode-II beanspruchten Rissen die plastischen Zonen groesser, aber die Differenzen in der Groesse der plastischen Zonen fuer die Zustaende ebener Spannung und ebener Dehnung kleiner sind als unter entsprechenden Mode-I-Beanspruchungen.

  14. AP1000{sup TM} plant modularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarero L, C.; Demetri, K. J. [Westinghouse Electric Co., 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Quintero C, F. P., E-mail: cantarc@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Spain, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    The AP1000{sup TM} plant is an 1100 M We pressurized water reactor (PWR) with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. Modules are used extensively in the design of the AP1000 plant nuclear island. The AP1000 plant uses modern, modular-construction techniques for plant construction. The design incorporates vendor-designed skids and equipment packages, as well as large, multi-ton structural modules and special equipment modules. Modularization allows traditionally sequential construction tasks to be completed simultaneously. Factory-built modules can be installed at the site in a planned construction schedule. The modularized AP1000 plant allows many more construction activities to proceed in parallel. This reduces plant construction calendar time, thus lowering the costs of plant financing. Furthermore, performing less work onsite significantly reduces the amount of skilled field-craft labor, which costs more than shop labor. In addition to labor cost savings, doing more welding and fabrication in a factory environment raises the quality of work, allowing more scheduling flexibility and reducing the amount of specialized tools required onsite. The site layout for the AP1000 plant has been established to support modular construction and efficient operations during construction. The plant layout is compact, using less space than previous conventional plant layouts. This paper provides and overview of the AP1000 plant modules with an emphasis on structural modules. Currently the Westinghouse AP1000 plant has four units under construction in China and four units under construction in the United States. All have shown successful fabrication and installation of various AP1000 plant modules. (Author)

  15. Ripple transport in a modular Helias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beidler, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Neoclassical transport rates are determined for Helical-Axis Advanced Stellarators (Helias). Special emphasis is given to Wendelstein VII-X candidates, for which the magnetic field is produced by a large number of discrete non-planar coils. The investigation is concentrated on the long-mean-free-path regime where particles trapped in local ripple wells of the magnetic field make the dominant contribution to transport. For Wendelstein VII-X, such particles fall into two classes; those localized in the helical ripple common to all stellarator-type devices and those very-localized particles which are trapped in the modular ripples existing between the individual coils. Using analytical techniques it is shown that helical-ripple transport rates are substantially reduced for all Wendelstein VII-X candidates relative to classical stellarator/torsatron configurations. This reduction is most pronounced in the 1/ν regime - equivalent helical ripples of less than 1% lead to reduction factors of more than an order of magnitude - but is significant throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime. Modular ripple transport in Wendelstein VII-X is calculated by analytically solving the appropriate bounce-averaged kinetic equation. This solution assumes a general magnetic field model and fully accounts for the deformation of modular ripples due to the presence of the other magnetic-field harmonics. Results indicate that 12 coils per field period are necessary if modular-ripple losses are to remain smaller than helical-ripple losses over the entire plasma cross section. (orig.)

  16. A Modular Toolkit for Distributed Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lange

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the design, architecture, and implementation of a toolkit which supports some theories for distributed interactions. The main design principles of our architecture are flexibility and modularity. Our main goal is to provide an easily extensible workbench to encompass current algorithms and incorporate future developments of the theories. With the help of some examples, we illustrate the main features of our toolkit.

  17. Modular architecture for robotics and teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert J.

    1996-12-03

    Systems and methods for modularization and discretization of real-time robot, telerobot and teleoperation systems using passive, network based control laws. Modules consist of network one-ports and two-ports. Wave variables and position information are passed between modules. The behavior of each module is decomposed into uncoupled linear-time-invariant, and coupled, nonlinear memoryless elements and then are separately discretized.

  18. Asynchronous networks: modularization of dynamics theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Christian; Field, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Building on the first part of this paper, we develop the theory of functional asynchronous networks. We show that a large class of functional asynchronous networks can be (uniquely) represented as feedforward networks connecting events or dynamical modules. For these networks we can give a complete description of the network function in terms of the function of the events comprising the network: the modularization of dynamics theorem. We give examples to illustrate the main results.

  19. AP1000"T"M plant modularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantarero L, C.; Demetri, K. J.; Quintero C, F. P.

    2016-09-01

    The AP1000"T"M plant is an 1100 M We pressurized water reactor (PWR) with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. Modules are used extensively in the design of the AP1000 plant nuclear island. The AP1000 plant uses modern, modular-construction techniques for plant construction. The design incorporates vendor-designed skids and equipment packages, as well as large, multi-ton structural modules and special equipment modules. Modularization allows traditionally sequential construction tasks to be completed simultaneously. Factory-built modules can be installed at the site in a planned construction schedule. The modularized AP1000 plant allows many more construction activities to proceed in parallel. This reduces plant construction calendar time, thus lowering the costs of plant financing. Furthermore, performing less work onsite significantly reduces the amount of skilled field-craft labor, which costs more than shop labor. In addition to labor cost savings, doing more welding and fabrication in a factory environment raises the quality of work, allowing more scheduling flexibility and reducing the amount of specialized tools required onsite. The site layout for the AP1000 plant has been established to support modular construction and efficient operations during construction. The plant layout is compact, using less space than previous conventional plant layouts. This paper provides and overview of the AP1000 plant modules with an emphasis on structural modules. Currently the Westinghouse AP1000 plant has four units under construction in China and four units under construction in the United States. All have shown successful fabrication and installation of various AP1000 plant modules. (Author)

  20. The Galois closure of Drinfeld modular towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study Drinfeld modular curves X0(pn) associated to congruence subgroups Γ0(pn) of GL(2,Fq[T]) where p is a prime of Fq[T]. For n>r>0 we compute the extension degrees and investigate the structure of the Galois closures of the covers X0(pn)→X0(pr) and some of their variations...

  1. Modularity analysis of automotive control software

    OpenAIRE

    Dajsuren, Y.; Brand, van den, M.G.J.; Serebrenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    A design language and tool like MATLAB/Simulink is used for the graphical modelling and simulation of automotive control software. As the functionality based on electronics and software systems increases in motor vehicles, it is becoming increasingly important for system/software architects and control engineers in the automotive industry to ensure the quality of the highly complex MATLAB/Simulink control software. For automotive software, modularity is recognized as being a crucial quality a...

  2. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  3. Good families of Drinfeld modular curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate examples of good and optimal Drinfeld modular towers of function fields. Surprisingly, the optimality of these towers has not been investigated in full detail in the literature. We also give an algorithmic approach for obtaining explicit defining equations for some...... of these towers and, in particular, give a new explicit example of an optimal tower over a quadratic finite field....

  4. Modular low-voltage electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, A.J.; Avnery, Tovi; Carlson, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Modular, low-voltage systems have simplified electron beam (EB) technology for industrial uses and for research and development. Modular EB units are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A simple plug-out--plug-in method of replacement eliminates downtime for servicing. Use of ultra-thin beam windows (<10 μm of titanium foil), solid-state 19 in. (48 cm) rack-mounted power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, combine for ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 and 150 kV and with high beam currents (up to 40 mA across the 25 cm window). These electron systems are available in three widths, the standard 25 cm and new 5 and 40 cm beams. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas as well as uses in surface sterilization have found these compact, lightweight (approximately 15 kg) modular beams of interest. Units have been configured around complex shapes to enable three-dimensional surface curing (as for coatings on aluminum tubing) to be achieved at high production rates. Details of the beam construction and some industrial uses are discussed

  5. Modular low-voltage electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berejka, Anthony J.; Avnery, Tovi; Carlson, Carl

    2004-09-01

    Modular, low-voltage systems have simplified electron beam (EB) technology for industrial uses and for research and development. Modular EB units are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A simple plug-out—plug-in method of replacement eliminates downtime for servicing. Use of ultra-thin beam windows (innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, combine for ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 and 150 kV and with high beam currents (up to 40 mA across the 25 cm window). These electron systems are available in three widths, the standard 25 cm and new 5 and 40 cm beams. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas as well as uses in surface sterilization have found these compact, lightweight (approximately 15 kg) modular beams of interest. Units have been configured around complex shapes to enable three-dimensional surface curing (as for coatings on aluminum tubing) to be achieved at high production rates. Details of the beam construction and some industrial uses are discussed.

  6. More modular invariant anomalous U(1) breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, Mary K.; Giedt, Joel

    2002-01-01

    We consider the case of several scalar fields, charged under a number of U(1) factors, acquiring vacuum expectation values due to an anomalous U(1). We demonstrate how to make redefinitions at the superfield level in order to account for tree-level exchange of vector supermultiplets in the effective supergravity theory of the light fields in the supersymmetric vacuum phase. Our approach builds upon previous results that we obtained in a more elementary case. We find that the modular weights of light fields are typically shifted from their original values, allowing an interpretation in terms of the preservation of modular invariance in the effective theory. We address various subtleties in defining unitary gauge that are associated with the noncanonical Kaehler potential of modular invariant supergravity, the vacuum degeneracy, and the role of the dilaton field. We discuss the effective superpotential for the light fields and note how proton decay operators may be obtained when the heavy fields are integrated out of the theory at the tree-level. We also address how our formalism may be extended to describe the generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism for multiple anomalous U(1)'s that occur in four-dimensional Type I and Type IIB string constructions

  7. Preliminary feasibility study of modular reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    In the future, electric utilities will be required to make a switch-over to a more flexible and dynamic form of power supply due to the slowing growth of power demand, increasing uncertainty, the stagnating economy of increasing scale, the bottleneck of transmission and so on. Nuclear technology would also be required to adapt to this changing environment surrounding its development. The long term prospect of energy demand and nuclear power growth, and the evolution of commercial reactors in Japan are shown. The design of 1,300 MWe advanced LWRs has been completed, and as the reactors of next generation, the ultralarge LWRs of 1,500 - 1,800 MWe are suggested. However, there can be an alternative future for nuclear power development, and in this paper, the possibility for altering the image of conventional nuclear power technology by developing modular reactors which are economical even at small capacity, and can be sited in urban areas just like conventional thermal power plants is examined. The factors for the economical evaluation of modular reactors, learning effect and scale effect on the economy, the case study on a modular high temperature reactor designed by Interatom-GHT, and the possibility of siting in urban areas due to the system of inherent safety are reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Small Modular Reactors (468th Brookhaven Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, Robert

    2011-01-01

    With good reason, much more media attention has focused on nuclear power plants than solar farms, wind farms, or hydroelectric plants during the past month and a half. But as nations around the world demand more energy to power everything from cell phone batteries to drinking water pumps to foundries, nuclear plants are the only non-greenhouse-gas producing option that can be built to operate almost anywhere, and can continue to generate power during droughts, after the sun sets, and when winds die down. To supply this demand for power, designers around the world are competing to develop more affordable nuclear reactors of the future: small modular reactors. Brookhaven Lab is working with DOE to ensure that these reactors are designed to be safe for workers, members of surrounding communities, and the environment and to ensure that the radioactive materials and technology will only be used for peaceful purposes, not weapons. In his talk, Bari will discuss the advantages and challenges of small modular reactors and what drives both international and domestic interest in them. He will also explain how Brookhaven Lab and DOE are working to address the challenges and provide a framework for small modular reactors to be commercialized.

  9. RAMS (Risk Analysis - Modular System) methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The Risk Analysis - Modular System (RAMS) was developed to serve as a broad scope risk analysis tool for the Risk Assessment of the Hanford Mission (RAHM) studies. The RAHM element provides risk analysis support for Hanford Strategic Analysis and Mission Planning activities. The RAHM also provides risk analysis support for the Hanford 10-Year Plan development activities. The RAMS tool draws from a collection of specifically designed databases and modular risk analysis methodologies and models. RAMS is a flexible modular system that can be focused on targeted risk analysis needs. It is specifically designed to address risks associated with overall strategy, technical alternative, and `what if` questions regarding the Hanford cleanup mission. RAMS is set up to address both near-term and long-term risk issues. Consistency is very important for any comparative risk analysis, and RAMS is designed to efficiently and consistently compare risks and produce risk reduction estimates. There is a wide range of output information that can be generated by RAMS. These outputs can be detailed by individual contaminants, waste forms, transport pathways, exposure scenarios, individuals, populations, etc. However, they can also be in rolled-up form to support high-level strategy decisions.

  10. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.; Butterfield, Karla [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.

    2016-03-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  11. Modular load flow for restructured power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hariharan, M V; Gupta, Pragati P

    2016-01-01

    In the subject of power systems, authors felt that a re-look is necessary at some conventional methods of analysis. In this book, the authors have subjected the time-honoured load flow to a close scrutiny. Authors have discovered and discussed a new load flow procedure – Modular Load Flow. Modular Load Flow explores use of power – a scalar – as source for electrical circuits which are conventionally analysed by means of phasors – the ac voltages or currents. The method embeds Kirchhoff’s circuit laws as topological property into its scalar equations and results in a unique wonderland where phase angles do not exist! Generators are shown to have their own worlds which can be superimposed to obtain the state of the composite power system. The treatment is useful in restructured power systems where stakeholders and the system operators may desire to know individual generator contributions in line flows and line losses for commercial reasons. Solution in Modular Load Flow consists of explicit expression...

  12. Adaptive multi-resolution Modularity for detecting communities in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Wang, Zhi-Zhong; Bao, Mei-Hua; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Ji; Xiang, Ju; Li, Jian-Ming; Yi, Chen-He

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is a common topological property of complex networks, which attracted much attention from various fields. Optimizing quality functions for community structures is a kind of popular strategy for community detection, such as Modularity optimization. Here, we introduce a general definition of Modularity, by which several classical (multi-resolution) Modularity can be derived, and then propose a kind of adaptive (multi-resolution) Modularity that can combine the advantages of different Modularity. By applying the Modularity to various synthetic and real-world networks, we study the behaviors of the methods, showing the validity and advantages of the multi-resolution Modularity in community detection. The adaptive Modularity, as a kind of multi-resolution method, can naturally solve the first-type limit of Modularity and detect communities at different scales; it can quicken the disconnecting of communities and delay the breakup of communities in heterogeneous networks; and thus it is expected to generate the stable community structures in networks more effectively and have stronger tolerance against the second-type limit of Modularity.

  13. Innovations for vehicle weight savings; Innovationen zur Gewichtseinsparung bei Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, W.C. [Budd Technical Center, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    1999-04-01

    The American auto market provides an example of the conflict between government legislation calling for fuel economy and lower emissions, which can be achieved among other things by reducing vehicle weight, and other legislative initiatives on the safety front as well as the growing demands of consumers for comfort, which add weight to the vehicle. Automakers are responding by making increasing use of lightweight materials and weight-optimized vehicle concepts. Backed by years of experience with a variety of materials, The Budd Company - an American subsidiary of the Thyssen-Krupp Group - is in an excellent position to offer customized lightweight systems solutions. From conventional steel to high-strength steels, aluminum castings, sheet and extrusions through to high-quality plastics such as SMC and SRIM, lightweight solutions for auto bodies and chassis are developed and offered to the automotive industry. The lightweighting potential of these various materials is being further exploited through the use of advanced manufacturing processes, such as the hydroforming of steel and aluminum, tailored blanks made of steel, and bonding techniques for aluminum. (orig.) [German] Das Beispiel des amerikanischen Automobilmarktes zeigt die entgegengesetzten Forderungen des Gesetzgebers zur Kraftstoff- und Emissionsreduzierung, was u.a. durch eine Verringerung des Fahrzeuggewichtes zu erreichen ist, und Gesetzesinitiativen im Bereich der Fahrzeugsicherheit sowie wachsende Komfort-Ansprueche der Kunden, die zur Gewichtserhoehung fuehren, auf. Die Fahrzeughersteller reagieren hierauf mit zunehmendem Einsatz leichter Werkstoffe und gewichtsoptimierter Leichtbau-Konzepte. Im Verbund des ThyssenKrupp Konzerns ist das amerikanische Tochterunternehmen The Budd Company aufgrund ihrer jahrelangen Erfahrungen mit einer Vielzahl von Werkstoffen in der herausragenden Position, individuelle und den jeweiligen Anforderungen entsprechende Leichtbau-Systemloesungen anbieten zu koennen. Vom

  14. Modularization and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Modularization Task Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This report describes the results of the work performed by the Technology Transfer Task Team on Modularization. This work was performed as part of the Technology Transfer work being performed under Department of Energy Contract 54-7WM-335406, between December, 1984 and February, 1985. The purpose of this task team effort was to briefly survey the current use of modularization in the nuclear and non-nuclear industries and to assess and evaluate the techniques available for potential application to nuclear power. A key conclusion of the evaluation was that there was a need for a study to establish guidelines for the future development of Light Water Reactor, High Temperature Gas Reactor and Liquid Metal Reactor plants. The guidelines should identify how modularization can improve construction, maintenance, life extension and decommissioning

  15. Literature study: State of knowledge on pollutant decomposition and transport in natural soils; Literaturstudie zum Thema: Darstellung und Bewertung des Wissensstandes zum Schadstoffabbau und -transport in natuerlichen Boeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, R. (ed.); Hahn, M.; Koennemann, T.; Mangold, S.; Ouerfelli, I.; Preuss, V.; Schoepke, R.; Sonntag, B.

    2000-07-01

    The use of natural soils for low-cost removal of precipitated water and slightly polluted waste water has become an issue in legal procedures concerning water management. Although groundwater protection is given high priority, authorities do not have sufficient data on long-term effects and decomposition effects during passage to the soil. The Hydrology Department of Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet Cottbus, on behalf of the Thuringian Environmental Authority, investigated the state of the art of discharge of precipitated water into natural soils. The investigation is the first in a series of which the following effects are expected: Faster results by preliminary assessment of the applicability of the technique envisaged, use of this low-cost technology for waste water treatment in consideration of surface water protection. [German] Die Nutzung natuerlicher Boeden zur kostenguenstigen Beseitigung von Niederschlagswasser aber auch von schwachbelastetem Abwasser ist eine Variante der Abwasserbeseitigung, die zunehmend Antragsgegenstand in wasserrechtlichen Verfahren ist. Der Schutz des Grundwassers ist dabei in besonderem Masse zu beachten. Die Einschaetzung der Eignung dieser Variante ist Behoerden aufgrund unzureichender Aussagen zum Langzeitverhalten und zu Abbaueffekten waehrend der Bodenpassage derzeit nicht moeglich. Durch die THUeRINGER LANDESANSTALT FUeR UMWELT erhielt der Lehrstuhl Wassertechnik der Brandenburgischen Technischen Universitaet Cottbus den Auftrag, im Rahmen einer Literaturstudie, den gegenwaertigen Stand der schadlosen Versickerung von Niederschlagswasser in natuerlichen Boeden aufzuzeigen. Die Literaturrecherche bildet den ersten Schritt einer Untersuchungsreihe, von der folgende Wirkungen erwartet werden: Verfahrensbeschleunigung durch Bewertbarkeit der Eignung der Behandlungsvariante, Nutzung dieser kostenguenstigen Umwelttechnologie zur Behandlung von Abwasser unter Beachtung des Gewaesserschutzes. (orig.)

  16. MC-PELMO 3.0 - a computer model to estimate groundwater contamination caused by leaching of wood preservatives from storage sites of treated wood in Germany; Grundwassergefaehrdung durch Holzschutzmittel. MCPELMO 3.0 - ein mathematische Simulationsprogramm zur Abschaetzung der Grundwassergefaehrdung unter Holzlagerflaechen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie, Schmallenberg-Grafschaft (Germany); Herrmann, M. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    verarbeitet dabei 22 ausgewaehlte Versickerungsszenarien, die ihrerseits aus der Verknuepfung von Leitboeden aus 12 Bodenregionen und Wetterdaten von 9 Klimastationen abgeleitet wurden. Diese Szenarien werden gewichtet mit den Standortdaten von Holzimpraegnierbetrieben in Deutschland. Als Ergebnis der Simulationsrechnungen werden statistische Wahrscheinlichkeiten fuer die Konzentrationen im Sickerwasser unter Holzlagerplaetzen in den vom Anwender ausgewaehlten Regionen angegeben. Ergebnisse und Diskussion. Die Ergebnisprotokolle der Simulationsrechnungen beinhalten sowohl mittlere Sickerwasserkonzentrationen als auch frei waehlbare Perzentile (50-99), sowie die jeweils maximale Standortkonzentration. Die Ergebnisse koennen in Relation zur Gesamtflaeche der Bundesrepublik, den jeweiligen forstlich genutzten Flaechenanteilen, oder zur Dichte von Holzschutzmittel anwendenden Betrieben dargestellt werden. Neben der Konzentration der Ausgangssubstanz koennen auch fuer mehrere Abbauprodukte Konzentrationen in der Grundwasserneubildung berechnet werden. Schlussfolgerungen. Das beschriebene Modell ist insbesondere zum Vergleich der Grundwassergefaehrdung durch verschiedene Holzschutzmittel geeignet. Die vergleichende Bewertung stellt ein neues Element der EU-Politik zur Chemikaliensicherheit dar, das zum ersten Mal in der Biozidrichtlinie 98/8/EG festgeschrieben wurde. Die Ergebnisse der Modellrechnungen identifizieren aber auch besonders gefaehrdete Regionen in Deutschland, fuer die geeignete Risikominderungsmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen um das dortige Grundwasser zu schuetzen. (orig.)

  17. Summer School and Conference : Computations with Modular Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Wiese, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains original research articles, survey articles and lecture notes related to the Computations with Modular Forms 2011 Summer School and Conference, held at the University of Heidelberg. A key theme of the Conference and Summer School was the interplay between theory, algorithms and experiment. The 14 papers offer readers both, instructional courses on the latest algorithms for computing modular and automorphic forms, as well as original research articles reporting on the latest developments in the field. The three Summer School lectures provide an introduction to modern algorithms together with some theoretical background for computations of and with modular forms, including computing cohomology of arithmetic groups, algebraic automorphic forms, and overconvergent modular symbols. The 11 Conference papers cover a wide range of themes related to computations with modular forms, including lattice methods for algebraic modular forms on classical groups, a generalization of the Maeda conjecture, ...

  18. Failure of Emperion modular femoral stem with implant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Stronach, MD, MS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modularity in total hip arthroplasty provides multiple benefits to the surgeon in restoring the appropriate alignment and position to a previously damaged hip joint. The vast majority of modern implants incorporate modularity into their design with some implants having multiple modular interfaces. There is the potential for failure at modular junctions because of fretting and crevice corrosion in combination with mechanical loading. This case report details the failure of an Emperion (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, TN femoral stem in a 67-year-old male patient 6 years after total hip replacement. Analysis of the implant revealed mechanically assisted crevice corrosion that likely accelerated fatigue crack initiation in the hip stem. The benefits of modularity come with the potential drawback of a combination of fretting and crevice corrosion at the modular junction, which may accelerate fatigue, crack initiation and ultimately reduce the hip longevity.

  19. Towards a Formal Basis for Modular Safety Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Safety assurance using argument-based safety cases is an accepted best-practice in many safety-critical sectors. Goal Structuring Notation (GSN), which is widely used for presenting safety arguments graphically, provides a notion of modular arguments to support the goal of incremental certification. Despite the efforts at standardization, GSN remains an informal notation whereas the GSN standard contains appreciable ambiguity especially concerning modular extensions. This, in turn, presents challenges when developing tools and methods to intelligently manipulate modular GSN arguments. This paper develops the elements of a theory of modular safety cases, leveraging our previous work on formalizing GSN arguments. Using example argument structures we highlight some ambiguities arising through the existing guidance, present the intuition underlying the theory, clarify syntax, and address modular arguments, contracts, well-formedness and well-scopedness of modules. Based on this theory, we have a preliminary implementation of modular arguments in our toolset, AdvoCATE.

  20. A Comprehensive View On Benefits From Product Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2010-01-01

    In many cases the phenomenon of product modularization is presented in an inherently positive way. Based on the frequency of these positive cases it might be expected that product modularization is a universal cure for any competitive weaknesses experienced by manufacturing or service companies....... Definitely, the many various aspects of product modularization have demonstrated substantial potentials regarding improved and enhanced competitiveness, but our empirical studies illustrate that the efforts in regards to realizing specific product modularization benefits need to be managed carefully. Our...... studies illustrates that the expected and the realized benefits from a product modularization effort rarely match. In most cases the companies have only weak estimations about both the type and the magnitude of the potential benefits when planning the modularization project. This indicates a serious need...

  1. Modular robotic tiles: experiments for children with autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Dam Pedersen, Martin; Beck, Richard

    2009-01-01

    rehabilitation), and with the proper radio communication mechanism they may give unique possibilities for documentation of the physical activity (e.g., therapeutic treatment). A major point of concern in modular robotics is the connection mechanism, so we investigated different solutions for the connection......We developed a modular robotic tile and a system composed of a number of these modular robotic tiles. The system composed of the modular robotic tiles engages the user in physical activities, e.g., physiotherapy, sports, fitness, and entertainment. The modular robotic tiles motivate the user...... to perform physical activities by providing immediate feedback based upon their physical interaction with the system. With the modular robotic tiles, the user is able to make new physical set-ups within less than a minute. The tiles are applicable for different forms of physical activities (e.g., therapeutic...

  2. An analytically solvable model for rapid evolution of modular structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadav Kashtan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems often display modularity, in the sense that they can be decomposed into nearly independent subsystems. Recent studies have suggested that modular structure can spontaneously emerge if goals (environments change over time, such that each new goal shares the same set of sub-problems with previous goals. Such modularly varying goals can also dramatically speed up evolution, relative to evolution under a constant goal. These studies were based on simulations of model systems, such as logic circuits and RNA structure, which are generally not easy to treat analytically. We present, here, a simple model for evolution under modularly varying goals that can be solved analytically. This model helps to understand some of the fundamental mechanisms that lead to rapid emergence of modular structure under modularly varying goals. In particular, the model suggests a mechanism for the dramatic speedup in evolution observed under such temporally varying goals.

  3. Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R; Herrmann, H J; de Arcangelis, L

    2014-03-13

    The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.

  4. Modular products: Smartphone design from a circular economy perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Schischke, Karsten; Proske, Marina; Nissen, Nils F.; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Currently a range of modular smartphones is emerging, including the Fairphone 2, Puzzlephone, Google's Project ARA, RePhone, LG's G5 and others. In an industry of perceived short product cycles a modular design concept might become crucial for longer product lifetimes. The paper provides an overview on latest product developments and assesses these against environmental criteria, including longevity, durability, upgradeability, repairability and Design for Recycling and Reuse. Modular product...

  5. Environmental versatility promotes modularity in large scale metabolic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Samal A.; Wagner Andreas; Martin O.C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The ubiquity of modules in biological networks may result from an evolutionary benefit of a modular organization. For instance, modularity may increase the rate of adaptive evolution, because modules can be easily combined into new arrangements that may benefit their carrier. Conversely, modularity may emerge as a by-product of some trait. We here ask whether this last scenario may play a role in genome-scale metabolic networks that need to sustain life in one or more chem...

  6. Deficits and Solutions in the Development of Modular Factory Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Kampker; Peter Burggräf; Moritz Krunke; Hanno Voet

    2017-01-01

    As a reaction to current challenges in factory planning, many companies think about introducing factory standards to lower planning times and decrease planning costs. If these factory standards are set-up with a high level of modularity, they are defined as modular factory systems. This paper deals with the main current problems in the application of modular factory systems in practice and presents a solution approach with its basic models. The methodology is based on methods from factory pla...

  7. Modular invariants from simple currents. An explicit proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, A.N.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1989-01-01

    In a previous paper an orbifold construction was used to demonstrate that the existence of primary fields with simple fusion rules in a conformal field theory implies the existence of non-diagonal modular invariant partition functions. Here we present a direct and explicit proof of modular invariance, which also covers a few cases that could not be obtained with the orbifold method. We also give a very simple general formula for the modular matrix M. (orig.)

  8. Calculation and modular properties of multiloop superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    Multiloop superstring amplitudes are calculated within an extensively used gauge where the two-dimensional gravitino field carries Grassmann moduli. In general, the amplitudes possess, instead of modular symmetry, symmetry with respect to modular transformation supplemented with appropriate transformations of two-dimensional local supersymmetry. If the number of loops is larger than three, the integrationmeasures are notmodular forms, while the expression for the amplitude contains integrals along the boundary of the fundamental region of the modular group.

  9. Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The main goal of the original MUSIQC proposal was to construct and demonstrate a modular and universally- expandable ion...Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 02-06-2016 1-Aug-2010 31-Jan-2016 Final Report: Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer The views...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Ion trap quantum computation, scalable modular architectures REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  10. Beiträge zur indogermanischen wortforschung IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Čop

    1958-12-01

    Full Text Available »Hoffnung«, pahl. umēt bzw. ōmēt soll nach Horn, Grdr. d. npers. Etym. 26 aus ava (Präp. und dem Yerbum may- »einsenken« zusammengesetzt sein, was leider aus bedeutungsgeschichtlichen Gründen unannehmbar ist. Hübschmann, Pers. St. 17 f. erklärt das Wort für vollkommen dunkel. Die uriran. Form *ava-maiti- (Hübschmann kann nicht auf eine Zusammensetzung mit *mn-ti- »Denken, Gedanke« = ai. mati-š, aw. -maitiš zurückgehen, da eine i-Epenthese hier völlig unmöglich wäre. Man muß *-mai-ti- analysieren, es ergibt sich also eine Wurzel *mai-, idg. entweder mei dann Vollstufe in dem /i-Abstraktum wie in ai. man-ti- »Denken«, got. ana-minds »Verdacht« — oder eventuell *mēi-.

  11. Investigations on passive containment cooling; Untersuchungen zur passiven Containmentkuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knebel, J.U.; Cheng, X.; Neitzel, H.J.; Erbacher, F.J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik; Hofmann, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Projekt Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung

    1997-12-31

    The composite containment design for advanced LWRs that has been examined under the PASCO project is a promising design concept for purely passive decay heat removal after a severe accident. The passive cooling processes applied are natural convection and radiative heat transfer. Heat transfer through the latter process removes at an emission coefficient of 0.9 about 50% of the total heat removed via the steel containment, and thus is an essential factor. The heat transferring surfaces must have a high emission coefficient. The sump cooling concept examined under the SUCO project achieves a steady, natural convection-driven flow from the heat source to the heat sink. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das im PASCO Programm untersuchte Verbundcontainment fuer zukuenftige Leichtwasserreaktoren ist ein erfolgversprechendes rein passives System zur Nachwaermeabfuhr nach einem schweren Stoerfall. Die passiven Mechanismen der Waermeuebertragung sind Naturkonvektion und Waermestrahlung. Die durch Waermestrahlung uebertragene Waerme betraegt fuer einen Emissionskoeffizienten von 0.9 etwa 50% der insgesamt ueber das Stahl-Containment abgefuehrten Waerme und ist somit von entscheidender Bedeutung fuer die Nachwaermeabfuhr. Fuer die waermeuebertragenden Oberflaechen ist ein hoher Emissionkoeffizient erforderlich. Das im SUCO Programm untersuchte Sumpfkuehlkonzept realisiert eine stabile Naturkonvektionsstroemung zwischen Waermequelle und Waermesenke. (orig./DG)

  12. Optimum control strategy for phosphate elimination; Optimale Steuerstrategie zur Phosphatelimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, D.

    1997-12-31

    This study describes the most common phosphate elimination techniques. In the simplest cases, the chemicals are dosed according to previously established time curves. Nowadays, by contrast, dosage in proportion to quantity is largely preferred. Freight-proportional dosage will be more frequently employed in the future at plants for a population of more than 10000. Since investigations revealed that the results obtained using control systems are inferior to those obtained by means of automatic control systems, the latter are increasingly used. Even if PID control devices perform best, overshoot is not to be avoided with certainty because of the long dead time. According to the current state of knowledge, matched control and automatic control systems yield the best results. Further optimization can be achieved by driving them via a fuzzy-based system. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Ausarbeitung wurden die gebraeuchlichsten Verfahren zur Phosphatelimination vorgestellt. In einfachsten Faellen wird die Dosierung nach festen Ganglinien vorgenommen. Sie wird heute weitgehend durch eine mengenproportionale Dosierung ersetzt. Frachtproportionale Dosierungen sind fuer Anlagen ueber 10.000 EW in Zukunft haeufiger zu finden. Nachdem die Untersuchungen gezeigt haben, dass Steuerungen nicht so gute Ergebnisse wie Reglungen ergaben, finden diese verstaerkt Anwendung. Auch wenn PID Regler das beste Ergebnis bringen, so kann mit Ihen wegen der langen Totzeiten ein Ueberschwingen nicht sicher vermieden werden. Nach heutiger Kenntnis erbringen aufeinander abgestimmte Steuer- und Reglungen die besten Ergebnisse. Werden sie ueber ein fuzzybasiertes System angesteuert, so ist eine weitere Optimierung gegeben. (orig.)

  13. Verbesserte Visualisierung der Koronararterien in MSCT-Daten mit direkter Vergleichbarkeit zur Angiographie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacalli, Christina; Jähne, Marion; Wesarg, Stefan

    In diesem Beitrag stellen wir neue, automatisierte Verfahren zur Visualisierung der Koronararterien einerseits und für eine direkte Vergleichbarkeit mit konventionellen Angiogrammen andererseits vor. Unser Ansatz umfasst Methoden für die automatische Extraktion des Herzens aus kontrastverstärkten CT-Daten, sowie für die Maskierung grosser kontrastmittelgefüllter Kavitäten des Herzens, um die Sichtbarkeit der Koronararterien bei der Darstellung mittels Volumenrendering zu verbessern. Zum direkten Vergleich mit konventionellen Angiographien wurde ein Verfahren zur automatischen Generierung von Projektionsansichten aus den CT-Daten entwickelt.

  14. An Incremental Approach to Support Realization of Modularization Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2010-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...... modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we studied 40 modularity cases. Then we develop a research framework with the purpose of uncovering the current state. Furthermore, we formulate a tentative model aiming at guiding the platform management...

  15. Calculation and modular properties of multi-loop superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, G S

    2012-01-01

    Multi-loop superstring amplitude is calculated in the conventional gauge where Grassmann moduli are carried by the 2D gravitino field. Generally, instead of the modular symmetry, the amplitudes hold the symmetry under modular transformations added by relevant transformations of the 2D local supersymmetry. If a number of loops are larger than 3, the integration measures are not modular forms. In this case the expression for the amplitude contains an integral over the bound of the fundamental region of the modular group. (paper)

  16. Equacions de corbes modulars biel.líptiques

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes González, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals primarily with the question of finding equations for bielliptic modular curves of the type $X_{0}(N)$. After introducing the reader to some of the fundamental aspects on the theory modular curves, we discuss four different techniques for finding such models and give examples of their implementation in Sage.. Es tracta d'estudiar les corbes modulars biel.líptiques, determinades per F. Bars en l'article Bielliptic Modular curves [1999], amb l'objectiu de trobar equacions i, en...

  17. Modularity-like objective function in annotated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jia-Rong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2017-12-01

    We ascertain the modularity-like objective function whose optimization is equivalent to the maximum likelihood in annotated networks. We demonstrate that the modularity-like objective function is a linear combination of modularity and conditional entropy. In contrast with statistical inference methods, in our method, the influence of the metadata is adjustable; when its influence is strong enough, the metadata can be recovered. Conversely, when it is weak, the detection may correspond to another partition. Between the two, there is a transition. This paper provides a concept for expanding the scope of modularity methods.

  18. The Impact of Product and Service Modularity on Business Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Frandsen, Thomas; Raja, Jawwad

    Modularity has been proposed as a powerful way of managing complexity. The emerging literature points to the importance of modularity of service architecture, with case based studies in logistics and healthcare. Little is known about the relationship between product and service modularity...... and their effects on business performance, both empirically and theoretically. This paper explores the relationship between product and service modularity and their effects on business performance based on a survey of Danish manufacturers. We provide empirical and theoretical insights into the emerging fields...

  19. Imaging Total Stations - Modular and Integrated Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauth, Stefan; Schlüter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: 3D-Metrology, Engineering Geodesy, Digital Image Processing Initialized in 2009, the Institute for Spatial Information and Surveying Technology i3mainz, Mainz University of Applied Sciences, forces research towards modular concepts for imaging total stations. On the one hand, this research is driven by the successful setup of high precision imaging motor theodolites in the near past, on the other hand it is pushed by the actual introduction of integrated imaging total stations to the positioning market by the manufacturers Topcon and Trimble. Modular concepts for imaging total stations are manufacturer independent to a large extent and consist of a particular combination of accessory hardware, software and algorithmic procedures. The hardware part consists mainly of an interchangeable eyepiece adapter offering opportunities for digital imaging and motorized focus control. An easy assembly and disassembly in the field is possible allowing the user to switch between the classical and the imaging use of a robotic total station. The software part primarily has to ensure hardware control, but several level of algorithmic support might be added and have to be distinguished. Algorithmic procedures allow to reach several levels of calibration concerning the geometry of the external digital camera and the total station. We deliver insight in our recent developments and quality characteristics. Both the modular and the integrated approach seem to have its individual strengths and weaknesses. Therefore we expect that both approaches might point at different target applications. Our aim is a better understanding of appropriate applications for robotic imaging total stations. First results are presented. Stefan Hauth, Martin Schlüter i3mainz - Institut für Raumbezogene Informations- und Messtechnik FH Mainz University of Applied Sciences Lucy-Hillebrand-Straße 2, 55128 Mainz, Germany

  20. Development of small simplified modular reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiki, Hideaki; Nakamaru, Mikihide

    2003-01-01

    The small simplified modular reactor, which is being development with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, will provide attractiveness for the energy market in the world due to its flexibility in energy demands as well as in site conditions, its high potential in reducing investment risk and its safety feature facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by small output of 300 MWe and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). The investment potential is expected from simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, internal upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and hull structure building concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps as well as needs for maintenance of such pumps. The internal CRDs shorten the height of the reactor vessel (RPV) and consequently shorten the primary containment vessel (PCV). The hull structure facilitates modular arrangement, design standardization and factory fabrication. The safety feature mainly consists of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive containment cooling system (PCCS), passive auto-catalytic recombiner and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response time in case of design base accidents including loss of coolant accidents. The PCCS suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without and AC power. The recombiner decreases hydrogen concentration in the PCV in case of a severe accident. The IVR could cool the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability. These innovative systems/components featured in the small simplified modular reactor will stimulate global energy market. (author)

  1. Interfaces in service modularity : A typology developed in modular health care provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, C.; Meijboom, B.R.; Luijkx, K.G.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Schroeder, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    We conduct case research in a particular service context, i.e. the sector for elderly care, in order to explore characteristics of interfaces and the role they play in service customization. Even though the study of modularity in areas other than goods production is increasing, little is known about

  2. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STUBBS, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This CSWD describes hardware and PFP developed software for control of stabilization furnaces. The Honeywell software can generate configuration reports for the developed control software. These reports are described in the following section and are attached as addendum's. This plan applies to PFP Engineering Manager, Thermal Stabilization Cognizant Engineers, and the Shift Technical Advisors responsible for the Honeywell MAS software/hardware and administration of the Honeywell System

  3. 5-axes modular CNC machining center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breaz Radu-Eugen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the development of a 5-axes CNC machining center. The main goal of the machine was to provide the students a practical layout for training in advanced CAM techniques. The mechanical structure of the machine was built in a modular way by a specialized company, which also implemented the CNC controller. The authors of this paper developed the geometric and kinematic model of the CNC machining center and the post-processor, in order to use the machine in a CAM environment.

  4. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2009-01-01

    Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is difficult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any configuration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion...... speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot configurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...

  5. Quantization and non-holomorphic modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Unterberger, André

    2000-01-01

    This is a new approach to the theory of non-holomorphic modular forms, based on ideas from quantization theory or pseudodifferential analysis. Extending the Rankin-Selberg method so as to apply it to the calculation of the Roelcke-Selberg decomposition of the product of two Eisenstein series, one lets Maass cusp-forms appear as residues of simple, Eisenstein-like, series. Other results, based on quantization theory, include a reinterpretation of the Lax-Phillips scattering theory for the automorphic wave equation, in terms of distributions on R2 automorphic with respect to the linear action of SL(2,Z).

  6. Multizone Modular Artillery Propelling Charge Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    15). As in the previous tcst s, !it th hi-,pad and 4bd itlo A" was at the front o)f the .1 A Aŕ~~ ComEŔ"MU 11- ZONE MODULAR CHARGE obk0- 51 m OMA-22...EXPPTP.R7-2a b A ,tO 1 N.Wfl& ’-.k TYP 11 (CTUAL L(T)__ PA’+ 2,00 5-w bt --356 d td 14~ Jan 82 - - PCD-18,020 lbs. --- C. ARMNY AY ,UNMTON PLANT, RADFORD, VA

  7. Playful Interaction with Voice Sensing Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heesche, Bjarke; MacDonald, Ewen; Fogh, Rune

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a voice sensor, suitable for modular robotic systems, which estimates the energy and fundamental frequency, F0, of the user’s voice. Through a number of example applications and tests with children, we observe how the voice sensor facilitates playful interaction between child...... children and two different robot configurations. In future work, we will investigate if such a system can motivate children to improve voice control and explore how to extend the sensor to detect emotions in the user’s voice....

  8. Testing programs for the Multimission Modular Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) provides a standard spacecraft bus to a user for a variety of space missions ranging from near-earth to synchronous orbits. The present paper describes the philosophy behind the MMS module test program and discusses the implementation of the test program. It is concluded that the MMS module test program provides an effective and comprehensive customer buy-off at the subsystem contractor's plant, is an optimum approach for checkout of the subsystems prior to use for on-orbit servicing in the Shuttle Cargo Bay, and is a cost-effective technique for environmental testing.

  9. Entire cyclic cohomology and modular theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoytchev, O.Ts.

    1992-04-01

    We display a close relationship between C* and W*-dynamical systems with KMS states on them and entire cyclic cohomology theory. We construct a character form which assigns to each such system (A, α, R) an even entire cyclic cocycle of the subalgebra A of differentiable (with respect to the given automorphism group) elements of A. We argue that the most interesting case is the von Neumann algebra one, where the automorphism group is determined uniquely by the faithful normal state on the algebra (the modular group) and where the character may provide important information about the algebra. (author). 11 refs

  10. Modular invariance and covariant loop calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.L.; Roland, K.O.; Sidenius, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The covariant loop calculus provides and efficient technique for computing explicit expressions for the density on moduli space corresponding to arbitrary (bosonic string) loop diagrams. Since modular invariance is not manifest, however, we carry out a detailed comparison with known explicit 2- and 3- loop results derived using analytic geometry (1 loop is known to be ok). We establish identity to 'high' order in some moduli and exactly in others. Agreement is found as a result of various non-trivial cancellations, in part related to number theory. We feel our results provide very strong support for the correctness of the covariant loop calculus approach. (orig.)

  11. Some Learning Properties of Modular Network SOMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Manabu; Ikeda, Kazushi; Furukawa, Tetsuo

    The Modular Network Self-Organizing Map (mnSOM) is a generalization of the SOM, where each node represents a parametric function such as a multi-layer perceptron or another SOM. Since given datasets are, in general, fewer than nodes, some nodes never win in competition and have to update their parameters from the winners in the neighborhood. This is a process that can be regarded as interpolation. This study derives the interpolation curve between winners in simple cases and discusses the distribution of winners based on the neighborhood function.

  12. Modular functionalization of allenes to aminated stereotriads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher S; Boralsky, Luke A; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2012-07-04

    Nitrogen-containing stereotriads, compounds with three adjacent stereodefined carbons, are commonly found in biologically important molecules. However, the preparation of molecules bearing these motifs can be challenging. Herein, we describe a modular oxidation protocol which converts a substituted allene to a triply functionalized amine of the form C-X/C-N/C-Y. The key step employs a Rh-catalyzed intramolecular conversion of the allene to a strained bicyclic methylene aziridine. This reactive intermediate is further elaborated to the target products, often in one reaction vessel and with effective transfer of the axial chirality of the allene to point chirality in the stereotriad.

  13. CMS modular basat en Laravel 5

    OpenAIRE

    Reches Urbano, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    En aquest Treball de Fi de Grau es realitza el desenvolupament d’una aplicació web CMS modular i un framework CSS per dotar-la d’interfície gràfica. Els objectius principals són la modularitat de l’aplicació, el desenvolupament d’un panell d’administració i la cerca d’unes convencions CSS que facin el codi intuïtiu. La creació de l’aplicació es porta a terme utilitzant tecnologies web client-servidor i el framework PHP Laravel, mentre que el framework CSS es construeix sobre el preprocessador...

  14. Language constructs for modular parallel programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.

    1996-03-01

    We describe programming language constructs that facilitate the application of modular design techniques in parallel programming. These constructs allow us to isolate resource management and processor scheduling decisions from the specification of individual modules, which can themselves encapsulate design decisions concerned with concurrence, communication, process mapping, and data distribution. This approach permits development of libraries of reusable parallel program components and the reuse of these components in different contexts. In particular, alternative mapping strategies can be explored without modifying other aspects of program logic. We describe how these constructs are incorporated in two practical parallel programming languages, PCN and Fortran M. Compilers have been developed for both languages, allowing experimentation in substantial applications.

  15. Modular Track System For Positioning Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Conceptual system for positioning mobile robotic manipulators on large main structure includes modular tracks and ancillary structures assembled easily along with main structure. System, called "tracked robotic location system" (TROLS), originally intended for application to platforms in outer space, but TROLS concept might also prove useful on Earth; for example, to position robots in factories and warehouses. T-cross-section rail keeps mobile robot on track. Bar codes mark locations along track. Each robot equipped with bar-code-recognizing circuitry so it quickly finds way to assigned location.

  16. Automorphism modular invariants of current algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannon, T.; Walton, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    We consider those two-dimensional rational conformal field theories (RCFTs) whose chiral algebras, when maximally extended, are isomorphic to the current algebra formed from some untwisted affine Lie algebra at fixed level. In this case the partition function is specified by an automorphism of the fusion ring and corresponding symmetry of the Kac-Peterson modular matrices. We classify all such partition functions when the underlying finite-dimensional Lie algebra is simple. This gives all possible spectra for this class of RCFTs. While accomplishing this, we also find the primary fields with second smallest quantum dimension. (orig.). With 3 tabs

  17. Modular strategies for PET imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging.

  18. CAMAC: a standardized modular instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michot, Felicia

    1978-01-01

    In view of its modular aspect and its standardization at the international level, the CAMAC system appears as a very interesting system every time that there is a need for fastly constructing an experiment or a mounting in the laboratory or industry. As it can be connected to a computer interface CAMAC may be used for data acquisition, with machine-tools or for industrial process control. The operation mode of said system is discussed in the paper, together with its constituting elements and performance [fr

  19. Modular invariance and covariant loop calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.L.; Roland, K.O.; Sidenius, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The covariant loop calculus provides an efficient technique for computing explicit expressions for the density on moduli space corresponding to arbitrary (bosonic string) loop diagrams. Since modular invariance is not manifest, however, we carry out a detailed comparison with known explicit two- and three-loop results derived using analytic geometry (one loop is known to be okay). We establish identity to 'high' order in some moduli and exactly in others. Agreement is found as a result of various nontrivial cancellations, in part related to number theory. We feel our results provide very strong support for the correctness of the covariant loop calculus approach. (orig.)

  20. Modularization as an avenue to economic competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, J H [Avondale Industries, Inc., Rumson, NJ (United States)

    1990-07-01

    There are many features of the emerging next generation of nuclear power which impact the competitiveness of the facilities. We will focus on the equipment fabrication and erection phase of the work. Utility plants, like other complex facilities, require comprehensive program management skills. While any project is sensitive to cost, schedule and quality control, nuclear plants have strict and regulated requirements associated with quality control, and its associated materials source and record keeping. The industry has developed an increasing interest in the adaptation of prefabrication, or modularization, to the design, engineering and construction of power plants. Avondale Industries has been actively involved for the past several years with the DOE/EPRI sponsored Westinghouse design for an advanced passive 600 MWe PWR nuclear power plant (the AP-600). The Westinghouse team is currently working on the detailed design and NRC licensing/design certification phase. This program is a part of the current industry advanced light water (ALWR) efforts aimed at re-establishing the nuclear power option to meet U.S. electric generation needs in the 1990s and beyond. The Westinghouse program has the objective of developing the conceptual design of a greatly simplified 600 MWe pressurized water reactor plant with major improvements in safety, licensing certainty, life cycle cost, and construction schedule. One of the major tasks of the program is the development of an optimized plant arrangement and construction approach using modular construction to assist in achieving a short construction schedule and cost-effective plant configuration. Although the finite effect of modularization has yet to be tested in the dynamics of the erection of a commercial nuclear power plant, we feel that there is sufficient evidence from experience in other major manufacturing areas to warrant its application to future construction programs. In order to focus on the potential for modular

  1. Modularization as an avenue to economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    There are many features of the emerging next generation of nuclear power which impact the competitiveness of the facilities. We will focus on the equipment fabrication and erection phase of the work. Utility plants, like other complex facilities, require comprehensive program management skills. While any project is sensitive to cost, schedule and quality control, nuclear plants have strict and regulated requirements associated with quality control, and its associated materials source and record keeping. The industry has developed an increasing interest in the adaptation of prefabrication, or modularization, to the design, engineering and construction of power plants. Avondale Industries has been actively involved for the past several years with the DOE/EPRI sponsored Westinghouse design for an advanced passive 600 MWe PWR nuclear power plant (the AP-600). The Westinghouse team is currently working on the detailed design and NRC licensing/design certification phase. This program is a part of the current industry advanced light water (ALWR) efforts aimed at re-establishing the nuclear power option to meet U.S. electric generation needs in the 1990s and beyond. The Westinghouse program has the objective of developing the conceptual design of a greatly simplified 600 MWe pressurized water reactor plant with major improvements in safety, licensing certainty, life cycle cost, and construction schedule. One of the major tasks of the program is the development of an optimized plant arrangement and construction approach using modular construction to assist in achieving a short construction schedule and cost-effective plant configuration. Although the finite effect of modularization has yet to be tested in the dynamics of the erection of a commercial nuclear power plant, we feel that there is sufficient evidence from experience in other major manufacturing areas to warrant its application to future construction programs. In order to focus on the potential for modular

  2. Modular system design for plastic euro pallets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although pallet, as a tool, yields significant and widely recognized economic effects in production and distribution systems, it is still not fully utilized, indicating that it needs to be defined and developed as a specific product. Euro pallet product was designed using PRO/ENGINEER software system CAD module, as one of the most popular Cax systems, yielding a pallet of novel modular design that meets all the operational requirements of the existing range. The chosen material ensures high pallet longevity and durability, in line with the concept of sustainable development.

  3. The axion mass in modular invariant supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

    2005-01-01

    When supersymmetry is broken by condensates with a single condensing gauge group, there is a nonanomalous R-symmetry that prevents the universal axion from acquiring a mass. It has been argued that, in the context of supergravity, higher dimension operators will break this symmetry and may generate an axion mass too large to allow the identification of the universal axion with the QCD axion. We show that such contributions to the axion mass are highly suppressed in a class of models where the effective Lagrangian for gaugino and matter condensation respects modular invariance (T-duality)

  4. Synchronous Control of Modular Multilevel Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bose, Bimal K.

    2002-01-01

    A novel method of direct synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is applied for control of modular multilevel converters consisting from three standard triphase inverter modules along with an 0.33 p.u. output transformer. The proposed method provides synchronisation of the voltage waveforms...... for each module and the composed voltage at the output of the converter. Multilevel output voltage of the converter has quarter-wave symmetry during the whole range including the zone of overmodulation. Both continuous and discontinuous versions of synchronous PWM, based on vector approach...

  5. Data Acquisition for Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodsinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to collect data asynchronously, via the bus, from the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules according to a relative fullness of the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  6. Pflicht zur Prüfung der Existenz des Internen Kontrollsystems: Bestandesaufnahme zur Steuerung und Kontrolle mittelgrosser Unternehmen in der Schweiz

    OpenAIRE

    Ruud, T F; Isufi, S; Friebe, P

    2008-01-01

    Die Pflicht zur Prüfung der Existenz des internen Kontrollsystems betrifft auch etliche mittelgrosse Unternehmen. Im Rahmen einer Umfrage haben das Institut für Rechnungswesen und Controlling der Universität Zürich und PricewaterhouseCoopers bei diesen Unternehmen eine Bestandesaufnahme zu Kontroll- und Prüfungsaktivitäten durchgeführt. Nachstehend werden die Ergebnisse der Umfrage zum internen Kontrollsystem präsentiert.

  7. Modular beam diagnostics instrument design for Cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaddha, N.; Bhole, R.B.; Sahoo, S.; Nandy, P.P.; Pal, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Cyclotrons at VECC, Kolkata i.e. Room Temperature Cyclotron (RTC) and Superconducting Cyclotron (SCC) comprise of internal and external Beam Diagnostic systems. These systems provide the beam developer with position, intensity, beam profile, a visual impression of the size and shape of ion beam, and operational control over diagnostic components like 3-finger probe, Beam Viewer probe, Deflector probe, Faraday cup, X-Y slit, Beam viewer etc. Automation of these components was initially done using customised modules for individual sub-system. An expansion of this facility and various levels of complexity demand modular design to cater easy modification and upgradation. The overall requirements are analysed and modular cards are developed based on basic functionalities like valve operation, probe/slit/viewer control, position read-out, Interlock, aperture control of beam line and communication. A 32-bit Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) based card with embedded EPICS is chosen as the master controller and FPGA/microcontroller is used for functional modules. The paper gives a comprehensive description of all modules and their integration with the control system. (author)

  8. The Modular Optical Underwater Survey System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhul Amin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center deploys the Modular Optical Underwater Survey System (MOUSS to estimate the species-specific, size-structured abundance of commercially-important fish species in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. The MOUSS is an autonomous stereo-video camera system designed for the in situ visual sampling of fish assemblages. This system is rated to 500 m and its low-light, stereo-video cameras enable identification, counting, and sizing of individuals at a range of 0.5–10 m. The modular nature of MOUSS allows for the efficient and cost-effective use of various imaging sensors, power systems, and deployment platforms. The MOUSS is in use for surveys in Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, and Southern California. In Hawaiian waters, the system can effectively identify individuals to a depth of 250 m using only ambient light. In this paper, we describe the MOUSS’s application in fisheries research, including the design, calibration, analysis techniques, and deployment mechanism.

  9. A Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ty Davis

    Electric propulsion technologies promise to revolutionize access to space, opening the door for mission concepts unfeasible by traditional propulsion methods alone. The Hall effect thruster is a relatively high thrust, moderate specific impulse electric propulsion device that belongs to the class of electrostatic thrusters. Hall effect thrusters benefit from an extensive flight history, and offer significant performance and cost advantages when compared to other forms of electric propulsion. Ongoing research on these devices includes the investigation of mechanisms that tend to decrease overall thruster efficiency, as well as the development of new techniques to extend operational lifetimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with the design and construction of a Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster (SMLHET), and its operation on argon propellant gas. Particular attention was addressed at low-cost, modular design principles, that would facilitate simple replacement and modification of key thruster parts such as the magnetic circuit and discharge channel. This capability is intended to facilitate future studies of device physics such as anomalous electron transport and magnetic shielding of the channel walls, that have an impact on thruster performance and life. Preliminary results demonstrate SMLHET running on argon in a manner characteristic of Hall effect thrusters, additionally a power balance method was utilized to estimate thruster performance. It is expected that future thruster studies utilizing heavier though more expensive gases like xenon or krypton, will observe increased efficiency and stability.

  10. A modular platform for targeted RNAi therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedmi, Ranit; Veiga, Nuphar; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Goldsmith, Meir; Rosenblum, Daniel; Dammes, Niels; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Nahary, Limor; Leviatan-Ben-Arye, Shani; Harlev, Michael; Behlke, Mark; Benhar, Itai; Lieberman, Judy; Peer, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have identified relevant genes and signalling pathways that are hampered in human disorders as potential candidates for therapeutics. Developing nucleic acid-based tools to manipulate gene expression, such as short interfering RNAs 1-3 (siRNAs), opens up opportunities for personalized medicine. Yet, although major progress has been made in developing siRNA targeted delivery carriers, mainly by utilizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for targeting 4-8 , their clinical translation has not occurred. This is in part because of the massive development and production requirements and the high batch-to-batch variability of current technologies, which rely on chemical conjugation. Here we present a self-assembled modular platform that enables the construction of a theoretically unlimited repertoire of siRNA targeted carriers. The self-assembly of the platform is based on a membrane-anchored lipoprotein that is incorporated into siRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles that interact with the antibody crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain. We show that a simple switch of eight different mAbs redirects the specific uptake of siRNAs by diverse leukocyte subsets in vivo. The therapeutic potential of the platform is demonstrated in an inflammatory bowel disease model by targeting colon macrophages to reduce inflammatory symptoms, and in a Mantle Cell Lymphoma xenograft model by targeting cancer cells to induce cell death and improve survival. This modular delivery platform represents a milestone in the development of precision medicine.

  11. Quantification of complex modular architecture in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Catherine; Kaandorp, Jaap; Jansson, Fredrik; Puillandre, Nicolas; Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Cornette, Raphaël; Jabbour, Florian; Coudert, Yoan; Patiño, Jairo; Flot, Jean-François; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2018-04-01

    Morphometrics, the assignment of quantities to biological shapes, is a powerful tool to address taxonomic, evolutionary, functional and developmental questions. We propose a novel method for shape quantification of complex modular architecture in thalloid plants, whose extremely reduced morphologies, combined with the lack of a formal framework for thallus description, have long rendered taxonomic and evolutionary studies extremely challenging. Using graph theory, thalli are described as hierarchical series of nodes and edges, allowing for accurate, homologous and repeatable measurements of widths, lengths and angles. The computer program MorphoSnake was developed to extract the skeleton and contours of a thallus and automatically acquire, at each level of organization, width, length, angle and sinuosity measurements. Through the quantification of leaf architecture in Hymenophyllum ferns (Polypodiopsida) and a fully worked example of integrative taxonomy in the taxonomically challenging thalloid liverwort genus Riccardia, we show that MorphoSnake is applicable to all ramified plants. This new possibility of acquiring large numbers of quantitative traits in plants with complex modular architectures opens new perspectives of applications, from the development of rapid species identification tools to evolutionary analyses of adaptive plasticity. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettleworth, Sara J

    2012-10-05

    Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research.

  13. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O; Cameron, D; Ellert, M; Groenager, M; Johansson, D; Kleist, J; Dobe, P; Joenemo, J; Konya, B; Fraagaat, T; Konstantinov, A; Nilsen, J K; Saada, F Ould; Qiang, W; Read, A; Kocan, M; Marton, I; Nagy, Zs; Moeller, S; Mohn, B

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  14. Modular packaging concept for MEMS and MOEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchly, Vanessa; Reinert, Wolfgang; Quenzer, Hans-Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Wherever technical systems detect objects in their environment or interact with people, optical devices may play an important role. Light can be relatively easily produced and spatially and temporally modulated. Laser can project sharp images over long distances or cut materials in short distances. Depending on the wavelength an invisible scanning in near infrared for gesture recognition is possible as well as a projection of brilliant colour images. For several years, the Fraunhofer ISIT develops Opto-Packaging processes based on the viscous reshaping of glass wafers: First, hermetically sealed laser micro-mirror scanners WLP with inclined windows deflect in the central light reflex of the window out of the image area. Second, housing with lateral light exit permits hermetic sealing of edge-emitting lasers for highest reliability and durability. Such systems are currently experiencing an extremely high interest of the industry in all segments, from consumer to automotive through to materials processing. Our modular Opto-Packaging platform enables fast product developments. Housing for opto mechanical MEMS devices are equipped with inclined windows to minimize distortion, stray light and reflection losses. The hot viscous glass forming technology is also applied to functionalized substrate wafers which possess areas with high heat dissipation in addition to thermally insulating areas. Electrical contacts may be realized with metal filled vias or TGV (Through Glass Vias). The modular system reduces the development times for new, miniaturized optical systems so that manufacturers can focus on the essentials in their development, namely their product functionalities.

  15. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnova, O; Cameron, D; Ellert, M; Groenager, M; Johansson, D; Kleist, J [NDGF, Kastruplundsgade 22, DK-2770 Kastrup (Denmark); Dobe, P; Joenemo, J; Konya, B [Lund University, Experimental High Energy Physics, Institute of Physics, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Fraagaat, T; Konstantinov, A; Nilsen, J K; Saada, F Ould; Qiang, W; Read, A [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P. O. Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Kocan, M [Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Faculty of Science, Jesenna 5, SK-04000 Kosice (Slovakia); Marton, I; Nagy, Zs [NIIF/HUNGARNET, Victor Hugo 18-22, H-1132 Budapest (Hungary); Moeller, S [University of Luebeck, Inst. Of Neuro- and Bioinformatics, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23538 Luebeck (Germany); Mohn, B, E-mail: oxana.smirnova@hep.lu.s [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Div. of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Box 535, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-04-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  16. A modular platform for targeted RNAi therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedmi, Ranit; Veiga, Nuphar; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Goldsmith, Meir; Rosenblum, Daniel; Dammes, Niels; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Nahary, Limor; Leviatan-Ben-Arye, Shani; Harlev, Michael; Behlke, Mark; Benhar, Itai; Lieberman, Judy; Peer, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have identified relevant genes and signalling pathways that are hampered in human disorders as potential candidates for therapeutics. Developing nucleic acid-based tools to manipulate gene expression, such as short interfering RNAs1-3 (siRNAs), opens up opportunities for personalized medicine. Yet, although major progress has been made in developing siRNA targeted delivery carriers, mainly by utilizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for targeting4-8, their clinical translation has not occurred. This is in part because of the massive development and production requirements and the high batch-to-batch variability of current technologies, which rely on chemical conjugation. Here we present a self-assembled modular platform that enables the construction of a theoretically unlimited repertoire of siRNA targeted carriers. The self-assembly of the platform is based on a membrane-anchored lipoprotein that is incorporated into siRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles that interact with the antibody crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain. We show that a simple switch of eight different mAbs redirects the specific uptake of siRNAs by diverse leukocyte subsets in vivo. The therapeutic potential of the platform is demonstrated in an inflammatory bowel disease model by targeting colon macrophages to reduce inflammatory symptoms, and in a Mantle Cell Lymphoma xenograft model by targeting cancer cells to induce cell death and improve survival. This modular delivery platform represents a milestone in the development of precision medicine.

  17. Modular control of fusion power heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This work is motivated by the growing demand for auxiliary heating on small and large machines worldwide. Numerous present and planned RF experiments (EBW, Lower Hybrid, ICRF, and ECH) are increasingly complex systems. The operational challenges are indicative of a need for components of real-time control that can be implemented with a moderate amount of effort in a time- and cost-effective fashion. Such a system will improve experimental efficiency, enhance experimental quality, and expedite technological advancements. The modular architecture of this control-suite serves multiple purposes. It facilitates construction on various scales from single to multiple controller systems. It enables expandability of control from basic to complex via the addition of modules with varying functionalities. It simplifies the control implementation process by reducing layers of software and electronic development. While conceived with fusion applications in mind, this suite has the potential to serve a broad range of scientific and industrial applications. During the Phase-I research effort we established the overall feasibility of this modular control-suite concept. We developed the fundamental modules needed to implement open-loop active-control and demonstrated their use on a microwave power deposition experiment

  18. Einfalt der Vielfalt. Zur Heterogenität als neuer Norm der (Sexual-)Pädagogik

    OpenAIRE

    Dammer, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Der Autor befasst sich mit der aktuellen Diskussion zur Schulentwicklung in Baden-Württemberg. Diese dreht sich um den Versuch, in den schulischen Lehrplan die sexuelle Vielfalt zum Thema zu machen. Dem Autor geht es dabei um die sexualpädagogischen Konsequenzen des Diversitätsdiskurses im Hinblick auf Heterogenität und ideologischen Implikationen von Normierung. (DIPF/JS)

  19. [Heinz von zur Mühlen. Auf den Spuren einiger revlaer Firmen und Familien] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinz von zur Mühlen. Auf den Spuren einiger revlaer Firmen und Familien. In : Buch und Bildung im Baltikum. Münster : LIT, 2005, lk. 527-541. Pika tänava majade omanikest alates 17. sajandist - perekonnad Koch, Meyer, Kluge, Ströhm, Wassermann, Glehn, Eggers, Koppelson, Weiss. Nii loob autor pildi Tallinna "firmade ajaloost"

  20. Folgebewertung im vorratsvermögen - Fallstudie zur Vorgehensweise nach IFSR und HGB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quick, Reiner; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    über die wichstigsten Normen zur Folgebeweriung nach IFSR und HGB sowie zu deren Auslegung. Es schliessen sich ein Fallbeispiel und ein Vorschlag zu dessen Lösung an, in dessen Mittelpunkt sinkende Zeitwerte, die Frage des für die Folgebewerunng relevanten Markts und das Zuschreibungsgebot stehen....

  1. Eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Analyse von Oszillatoren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weber

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Analyse nichtlinearer dynamischer Schaltungen ist bis heute eine herausfordernde Aufgabe, da nur selten analytische Lösungen angegeben werden können. Daher wurden eine Vielzahl von Methoden entwickelt, um eine qualitative oder quantitative Näherung für die Lösungen der Netzwerkgleichung zu erhalten. Oftmals wird beispielsweise eine Kleinsignalanalyse mit Hilfe einer Taylorreihe in einem Arbeitspunkt durchgeführt, die nach den Gliedern erster Ordnung abgebrochen wird. Allerdings ist diese Linearisierung nur in der Nähe des stabilen Arbeitspunktes für hyperbolische Systeme gültig. Besonders für die Analyse des dynamischen Verhaltens von Oszillatoren treten jedoch nicht-hyperbolische Systeme auf, sodass diese Methode nicht angewendet werden kann Mathis(2000. Carleman hat gezeigt, dass nichtlineare Differentialgleichungen mit polynomiellen Nichtlinearitäten in ein unendliches System von linearen Differentialgleichungen transformiert werden können Carleman(1932. Wird das unendlichdimensionale Gleichungssystem für numerische Zwecke abgebrochen, kann bei Oszillatoren der Übergang in eine stationäre Schwingung (Grenzzyklus nicht wiedergegeben werden.In diesem Beitrag wird eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Untersuchung von Oszillatoren vorgestellt, die auch dann anwendbar ist, wenn die Nichtlinearitäten keinen Polynomen entsprechen. Anstelle einer linearen Näherung um einen Arbeitspunkt, erfolgt mit Hilfe der Carleman Linearisierung eine Approximation auf einem vorgegebenen Gebiet. Da es jedoch mit der selbstkonsistenten Technik nicht möglich ist, das stationäre Verhalten von Oszillatoren zu beschreiben, wird die Berechnung einer Poincaré-Abbildung durchgeführt. Mit dieser ist eine anschließende Analyse des Oszillators möglich.

  2. Eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Analyse von Oszillatoren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Harry; Mathis, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Die Analyse nichtlinearer dynamischer Schaltungen ist bis heute eine herausfordernde Aufgabe, da nur selten analytische Lösungen angegeben werden können. Daher wurden eine Vielzahl von Methoden entwickelt, um eine qualitative oder quantitative Näherung für die Lösungen der Netzwerkgleichung zu erhalten. Oftmals wird beispielsweise eine Kleinsignalanalyse mit Hilfe einer Taylorreihe in einem Arbeitspunkt durchgeführt, die nach den Gliedern erster Ordnung abgebrochen wird. Allerdings ist diese Linearisierung nur in der Nähe des stabilen Arbeitspunktes für hyperbolische Systeme gültig. Besonders für die Analyse des dynamischen Verhaltens von Oszillatoren treten jedoch nicht-hyperbolische Systeme auf, sodass diese Methode nicht angewendet werden kann Mathis (2000). Carleman hat gezeigt, dass nichtlineare Differentialgleichungen mit polynomiellen Nichtlinearitäten in ein unendliches System von linearen Differentialgleichungen transformiert werden können Carleman (1932). Wird das unendlichdimensionale Gleichungssystem für numerische Zwecke abgebrochen, kann bei Oszillatoren der Übergang in eine stationäre Schwingung (Grenzzyklus) nicht wiedergegeben werden. In diesem Beitrag wird eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Untersuchung von Oszillatoren vorgestellt, die auch dann anwendbar ist, wenn die Nichtlinearitäten keinen Polynomen entsprechen. Anstelle einer linearen Näherung um einen Arbeitspunkt, erfolgt mit Hilfe der Carleman Linearisierung eine Approximation auf einem vorgegebenen Gebiet. Da es jedoch mit der selbstkonsistenten Technik nicht möglich ist, das stationäre Verhalten von Oszillatoren zu beschreiben, wird die Berechnung einer Poincaré-Abbildung durchgeführt. Mit dieser ist eine anschließende Analyse des Oszillators möglich.

  3. Barrierefreiheit zur Routine machen – Praxisfall: Digitale Bibliothek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Baudisch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sechs Jahre sind vergangen seit Deutschland am 24. Februar 2009 die Behindertenrechtskonvention der Vereinten Nationen (BRK, die die volle Teilhabe aller Menschen an der Gesellschaft als Menschenrecht festschreibt, ratifizierte. Bereits seit 2002 gibt es in Deutschland ein Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz (BGG, den barrierefreien Zugang zu Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien regelt die Barrierefreie Informationstechnik-Verordnung (BITV. Aus Sicht des Gesetzgebers sind die Rahmenbedingungen gegeben, Barrierefreiheit gehört inzwischen zum gängigen Vokabular im öffentlichen und teils auch privatwirtschaftlichen Bereich. Längst möchte man meinen, es sei ein alter Hut, Barrierefreiheit als Kernanliegen zu thematisieren oder gar einzufordern. Dies betrifft auch den rasant wachsenden Bereich digitaler Medien, der Wissen und Bildung für jedermann verfügbar macht - oder machen sollte. Vor diesem Hintergrund stellen sich die Autoren der Frage, inwieweit Barrierefreiheit in den digitalen Angeboten wissenschaftlicher und öffentlicher Bibliotheken in Deutschland angekommen ist; ob diese Angebote tatsächlich von allen genutzt werden können. Ausgehend von rechtlichen Grundlagen und Normen werden Formate und Standards für barrierefreie Netzpublikationen an Beispielen diskutiert. Im Fokus stehen einerseits Werkzeuge zum Suchen und Finden digitaler Information (Kataloge und Rechercheoberflächen, andererseits Ausgabeformate digitaler Dokumente (wie XML, PDF, EPUB oder TEI. Den Abschluss bilden Empfehlungen für (Digitale Bibliotheken und deren Verbände, um Barrierefreiheit künftig zur Routine zu machen. Das Fazit: Barrierefreiheit muss gewollt, geplant und sinnvoll umgesetzt werden. Technische Komponenten sind ein wichtiger, doch meist erst der zweite Schritt.

  4. Dynamics of modular expansion joints: The Martinus Nijhoff Bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuada Coelho, B.A.; Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.; Peelen, W.H.A.; Leendertz, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Modular expansion joints are structures that are submitted to severe fatigue load conditions. This may lead to unexpected premature damage of the structure which, besides the economic cost of repair, may limit the regular service of the bridge. To better understand the dynamic behaviour of modular

  5. Modular functors are determined by their genus zero data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We prove in this paper that the genus zero data of a modular functor determines the modular functor. We do this by establishing that the S-matrix in genus one with one point labeled arbitrarily can be expressed in terms of the genus zero information and we give an explicit formula. We do not assume...

  6. Application of Network Analysis for Characterizing Service Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of the application of network analytical techniques to identify and characterize modularity of service processes. Services can be conceptualized as systems of interrelated components which can be decomposed in order to achieve a modular design...

  7. What professionals consider when designing a modular service architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Manda; van Offenbeek, Marjolein; van der Laan, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The paper explores how functional and appropriateness arguments influence the adoption of modularity principles during the design of a professional service architecture. Design: Action design research was conducted to examine the design process of a modular service architecture for

  8. Buying Modular Systems in Technology-Intensive Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, R.T.; Stremersch, S.; Weiss, Allen M.; Dellaert, B.

    2003-01-01

    Technology-intensive markets consist of products that are often interdependent and operate together as a modular system. Although prior research has extensively addressed standardization and network externalities in such markets, it has not addressed the buying of modular systems. The authors

  9. Product, Organizational and Performance Effects of Product Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    beyond these industries. To be able to establish whether firms not part of these industries would experience the same performance effects, survey research will be needed. To support future survey research, this paper proposes an operationalization of product modularity and details the link between...... product modularity and firm performance, to support the future development of measures and hypotheses....

  10. Plant systems/components modularization study. Final report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    The final results are summarized of a Plant Systems/Components Modularization Study based on Stone and Webster's Pressurized Water Reactor Reference Design. The program has been modified to include evaluation of the most promising areas for modular consideration based on the level of the Sundesert Project engineering design completion and the feasibility of their incorporation into the plant construction effort.

  11. Modular invariants and fusion rule automorphisms from Galois theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.; Gato-Rivera, B.; Schellekens, B.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica; Schweigert, C.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1994-05-01

    We show that Galois theory of cyclotomic number fields provides a powerful tool to construct systematically integer-valued matrices commuting with the modular matrix S, as well as automorphisms of the fusion rules. Both of these prescriptions allow the construction of modular invariants and offer new insight in the structure of known exceptional invariants. (orig.)

  12. Modularity, Working Memory, and Second Language Acquisition: A Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2017-01-01

    Considerable reason exists to view the mind, and language within it, as modular, and this view has an important place in research and theory in second language acquisition (SLA) and beyond. But it has had very little impact on the study of working memory and its role in SLA. This article considers the need for modular study of working memory,…

  13. Modularized construction, structural design and analysis of CANDU 3 plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, J K; Wollin, S; Selvadurai, S; Saudy, A M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    CANDU 3 is rated at 450 MW electric, and is a smaller and advanced version of CANDU reactors successfully operating in Canada and abroad. The design uses modularization to minimize the construction schedule and thereby reduce cost. The paper (which is published only as a long summary), deals with the concept of modularization, and with stress analysis of the various civil structures.

  14. The Potential for Computer Based Systems in Modular Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    The paper elaborates on knowledge management and the possibility for computer support of the design process of pharmaceutical production plants in relation to the ph.d. project modular engineering.......The paper elaborates on knowledge management and the possibility for computer support of the design process of pharmaceutical production plants in relation to the ph.d. project modular engineering....

  15. Modularization in construction processes New Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, I.; Cobos, A.; Herrera Ropero, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is that it has the capacity and expertise to analyze the suitability of modular technology design and construction compared to conventional nuclear plants. It will define the criteria for selecting the areas of modularity and the impact on design and its interfaces with engineering, supply, including logistics and construction.

  16. Understanding the Modularity of Socio-technical Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    This paper seeks to contribute to the development of Configurational Theory by offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network Theory (ANT) in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social...

  17. On Modularity in (V)Shorad Air Defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, E.M. van der

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the concept of modularity in the context of (V)Shorads Air Defence. Modularity is a technical concept that provides improved operational flexibility to (V)Shorad systems. Such improved flexibility is specifically relevant to mobile crisis reaction forces. The discussion is

  18. An investigation of the effectiveness of the modular general English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study show that the modular system should be discontinued as it has certain ... 2012), the academic English needs of university students are generally neglected in .... University through qualitative and quantitative data from the perspective of students, ..... The major problems with the modular sys-.

  19. Supply Chain Management of a Modular Product with Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulku, M. Ali; Hsuan, Juliana; Yu, Dennis

    Modularity and returns relate to sustainability. In a retailer-manufacturer setting and when the demand for a returnable product depends on both price and modularity level, we develop a profit-maximizing stochastic model. The solution includes optimal expressions for the price, and the order...

  20. Modularized construction, structural design and analysis of CANDU 3 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, J.K.; Wollin, S.; Selvadurai, S.; Saudy, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    CANDU 3 is rated at 450 MW electric, and is a smaller and advanced version of CANDU reactors successfully operating in Canada and abroad. The design uses modularization to minimize the construction schedule and thereby reduce cost. The paper (which is published only as a long summary), deals with the concept of modularization, and with stress analysis of the various civil structures