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Sample records for zung self-rating depression

  1. Screening for anxiety and depression: reassessing the utility of the Zung scales.

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    Dunstan, Debra A; Scott, Ned; Todd, Anna K

    2017-09-08

    While the gold standard for the diagnosis of mental disorders remains the structured clinical interview, self-report measures continue to play an important role in screening and measuring progress, as well as being frequently employed in research studies. Two widely-used self-report measures in the area of depression and anxiety are Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). However, considerable confusion exists in their application, with clinical cut-offs often applied incorrectly. This study re-examines the credentials of the Zung scales by comparing them with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) in terms of their ability to predict clinical diagnoses of anxiety and depression made using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). A total sample of 376 adults, of whom 87 reported being in receipt of psychological treatment, completed the two-page version of the PHQ relating to depression and anxiety, together with the SDS, the SAS and the DASS. Overall, although the respective DASS scales emerged as marginally stronger predictors of PHQ diagnoses of anxiety and depression, the Zung indices performed more than acceptably in comparison. The DASS also had an advantage in discriminative ability. Using the current recommended cut-offs for all scales, the DASS has the edge on specificity, while the Zung scales are superior in terms of sensitivity. There are grounds to consider making the Zung cut-offs more conservative, and doing this would produce comparable numbers of 'Misses' and 'False Positives' to those obtained with the DASS. Given these promising results, further research is justified to assess the Zung scales ability against full clinical diagnoses and to further explore optimum cut-off levels.

  2. Validity of the brief Zung's scale for screening major depressive episode among the general population from Bucaramanga, Colombia Validez de la escala breve de Zung para tamizaje del episodio depresivo mayor en la población general de Bucaramanga, Colombia

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    Luis Alfonso Díaz; Adalberto Campo; Germán Eduardo Rueda

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Brief scales for identiying depressive disorder are as useful as long scales for screening. However, a validated scale with these characteristics is not avalaible in Colombia.
    Objective. To design a brief Zung's self-rating depression scale in order to screen major depressive episodes among adults dwelling in the general community.
    Materials and methods. After filling-out the 20-item Zung's self-rating depression scale, the ten items with the higher correl...

  3. Validity of the brief Zung's scale for screening major depressive episode among the general population from Bucaramanga, Colombia Validez de la escala breve de Zung para tamizaje del episodio depresivo mayor en la población general de Bucaramanga, Colombia

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    Luis Alfonso Díaz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Brief scales for identiying depressive disorder are as useful as long scales for screening. However, a validated scale with these characteristics is not avalaible in Colombia.
    Objective. To design a brief Zung's self-rating depression scale in order to screen major depressive episodes among adults dwelling in the general community.
    Materials and methods. After filling-out the 20-item Zung's self-rating depression scale, the ten items with the higher correlation with total score were selected. Construct and criterion validity were computed for these ten items.
    Results. The ten chosen items showed an internal consistency of 0,803, one factor that accounted for 36,6% of the variance; sensitivity was 95,5%; specificity, 70,3%; Cohen's kappa, 0,415; and area under receptor-operator curve, 0,898.
    Conclusions. The brief Zung's self-rating depression scale exhibits psychometric properties similar to the long version. This brief scale can be used as a screening device in the general population.

    Introducción. Las escalas breves para identificar trastornos depresivos conservan la utilidad de las escalas extensas como instrumentos para tamizaje. Sin embargo, no se cuenta con una escala de estas características validada en población general colombiana.
    Objetivo. Diseñar una escala abreviada de la escala de Zung para depresión para tamizaje de episodio depresivo mayor en adultos residentes en la comunidad general.
    Materiales y métodos. A partir de la aplicación de la escala de Zung de veinte items se tomaron los diez items que mostraron la mayor correlación con la puntuación total. A estos items escogidos se les determinó la validez de constructo y la validez de criterio.
    Resultados. Los diez items escogidos mostraron una consistencia interna de 0,803, un único factor principal que explicaba el 36,6% de la varianza y sensibilidad de 95,5%, especificidad de 70,3%, kappa media de Cohen de 0

  4. [Standardization of the Greek version of Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)].

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    Samakouri, M; Bouhos, G; Kadoglou, M; Giantzelidou, A; Tsolaki, K; Livaditis, M

    2012-01-01

    Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), introduced by Zung, has been widely used in research and in clinical practice for the detection of anxiety. The present study aims at standardizing the Greek version of SAS. SAS consists of 20 items rated on a 1-4 likert type scale. The total SAS score may vary from 20 (no anxiety at all) to 80 (severe anxiety). Two hundred and fifty four participants (114 male and 140 female), psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals, aged 45.40±11.35 years, completed the following: (a) a demographic characteristics' questionnaire, (b) the SAS Greek version, (c) the Spielberg's Modified Greek State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI-Gr.-X) and (d) the Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS). Seventy six participants answered the SAS twice within a 12th-day median period of time. The following parameters were calculated: (a) internal consistency of the SAS in terms of Cronbach's α co-efficient, (b) its test-retest reliability in terms of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and (c) its concurrent and convergent validities through its score's Spearman's rho correlations with both the state and trait subscales of STAI-Gr X and the ZDRS. In addition, in order to evaluate SAS' discriminant validity, the scale's scores of the three groups of participants (psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals) were compared among each other, in terms of Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. SAS Cronbach's alpha equals 0.897 while ICC regarding its test-retest reliability equals 0.913. Spearman's rho concerning validity: (a) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr.-X (state), equals it 0.767, (b) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr. X (trait), it equals 0.802 and (c) when SAS is compared to ZDRS, it equals 0.835. The mentally ill scored significantly higher in SAS compared to both the healthy and the general population. In conclusion, the SAS Greek version presents very satisfactory psychometric properties regarding

  5. Ansiedad dimensional: Un análisis desde la teoría clásica del formulario autodiligenciado de Zung Dimensional anxiety: An analysis from the classical theory of the Zung self-rating anxiety scale

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    Luis C. Orozco V.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: A pesar del uso extendido del formulario de Zung para ansiedad no se encontraron artículos sobre la invarianza de la prueba. Objetivo: Establecer la invarianza por género del formulario para ansiedad autodiligenciado de Zung desde la Teoría Clásica. Métodos: Muestra no aleaotoria de 336 mujeres y 205 hombres estudiantes de varias universidades colombianas que diligenciaron el formulario. El análisis se realizo con análisis confimatorio de factores. Se investigó la invarianza dimensional, de configuración y métrica. Resultados: Se encontró que las invarianzas dimensional y de configuración se cumplen al demostrarse que el constructo es unidimensional en los 2 géneros, seleccionando los modelos con el Criterio de información Bayesiano y que la carga de los ítems es en general alta. No así la invarianza métrica para la cual debieron eliminarse 9 ítems para lograr invarianza en las cargas. Conclusión: El formulario de Zung presenta invarianzas dimensional, de configuración y métrica con 11 ítems. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (2: 159-166Introduction: There is not a published report of the invariance of anxiety Zung test, although is widely used. Objective: To stablish gender invariance of the Zung self-rating anxiety scale using Classical Test Theory. Methods: A non random sample of 336 women and 205 men students from several colombian universities that answered the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Dimensional, configurational and metric invariance were investigated. Results: Dimensional and configurational invariance are met because for both genders theres is one dimension, using Bayesian Information Crietria as the model selection strategy, and the loadings are generally high. The metric invariance was obtained after deleting 9 items. Conclusion: Eleven items of The Zung self-rating anxiety scale show dimensional, configurational and metric invariance. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (2: 159-166

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Report Depressive Symptoms among College Students.

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    Crittenden, Kathleen S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of self-report depressive symptoms measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was conducted in Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the United States with 953 college students. There are marked differences among countries in symptoms reported. Research designs and measurement strategies for cross-cultural research are discussed. (SLD)

  7. Self-esteem mediates the effect of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression.

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    Hu, Junmin; Ai, Hongshan

    2016-06-01

    There is a trend of rapid growth in both the level and occurrence of depression when people reach adolescence. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression in adolescents, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator role of self-esteem. A total of 364 senior middle school students accomplished the Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The results suggested that both parent-adolescent relationship and self-esteem were significantly correlated with depression. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent relationship and depression. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Frequency of cognitive impairment and depression in Parkinson's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Motor and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scores and the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stage were documented. Depression was assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), while cognition was evaluated using a composite score of the mini-mental state ...

  9. Prevalence Rate and Risk Factors of Depression in Outpatients with Premature Ejaculation

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    Xiansheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence rate and risk factors of depression in outpatients who were diagnosed with PE. Therefore, between September 2009 and September 2011, 1801 outpatients at andrology clinics were enrolled and consented to participate in our survey by completed a verbal questionnaire. It included the following: (1 demographic data (e.g., age, body mass index, (2 PE duration, medical history, and sexual history, (3 self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times, (4 the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS, and (5 the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI and (6 the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5. The results showed that a total of 1,206 patients were diagnosed with PE. The prevalence rate of depression in these PE patients was 26.78%. Depression was associated with PE duration, NIH-CPSI score, and IIEF-5 score. Risk factors for depression specifically included PE durations for 13–24, 25–60, or ≥61 months, CPSI scores of 15–30 or ≥31, and IIEF-5 scores <22. These findings suggested that several associated factors (PE duration, CPSI scores, and IIEF-5 scores were the risk factors of depression in men with PE.

  10. Depression: relationships to sleep paralysis and other sleep disturbances in a community sample

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    Szklo-Coxe, Mariana; Young, Terry; Finn, Laurel; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Sleep disturbances are important correlates of depression, with epidemiologic research heretofore focused on insomnia and sleepiness. This epidemiologic study’s aim was to investigate, in a community sample, depression’s relationships to other sleep disturbances: sleep paralysis (SP), hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations (HH), cataplexy – considered rapid eye movement-related disturbances – and automatic behavior (AB). Although typical of narcolepsy, these disturbances are prevalent, albeit under-studied, in the population. Cross-sectional analyses (1998–2002), based on Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study population-based data from 866 participants (mean age 54, 53% male), examined: depression (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale), trait anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI-T ≥ 75th percentile), and self-reported sleep disturbances. Descriptive sleep data were obtained by overnight polysomnography. Adjusted logistic regression models estimated depression’s associations with each (>few times ever) outcome – SP, HH, AB, and cataplexy. Depression’s associations with self-reported SP and cataplexy were not explained by anxiety. After anxiety adjustment, severe depression (Zung ≥55), vis-à-vis Zung <50, increased SP odds ~500% (P = 0.0008). Depression (Zung ≥50), after stratification by anxiety given an interaction (P = 0.02), increased self-reported cataplexy odds in non-anxious (OR 8.9, P = 0.0008) but not anxious (OR 1.1, P = 0.82) participants. Insomnia and sleepiness seemed only partial mediators or confounders for depression’s associations with self-reported cataplexy and SP. Anxiety (OR 1.9, P = 0.04) partially explained depression’s (Zung ≥55) association with HH (OR 2.2, P = 0.08). Anxiety (OR 1.6, P = 0.02) was also more related than depression to AB. Recognizing depression’s relationships to oft-neglected sleep disturbances, most notably SP, might assist in better characterizing depression and the full range

  11. Exploring depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency with different degrees of internet addiction among Chinese college students.

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    Nie, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency functions among normal internet users, mild internet addictions and severe internet addictions. The survey sample consisted of 316 college students, and their internet addiction symptoms, depression and self-esteem symptoms were assessed using the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. From this sample, 16 students with non-addictions, 19 students with mild internet addiction (sub-MIA) and 15 students with severe internet addiction (sub-SIA) were recruited and subjected to the classical verbal fluency tests, including the semantic and phonemic fluency task. The results indicated that severe internet addiction in the survey sample showed the highest tendency towards depressive symptoms and lowest self-esteem scores, and sub-SIA showed poor performance on the semantic fluency task. In conclusion, severe internet addiction was significantly associated with depression, low self-esteem and semantic verbal fluency problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Revised multicultural perspective index and measures of depression, life satisfaction, shyness, and self-esteem.

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    Mowrer, Robert R; Parker, Keesha N

    2004-12-01

    In a 2002 publication, Mowrer and McCarver reported weak but significant correlations (r =.24) between scores on the Multicultural Perspective Index and scores on Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin's 1961 Life Satisfaction Index-A and the Life Satisfaction Scale developed in 1985 by Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin. Using 382 undergraduate students the present study reduced the Index from 42 to 29 items based on each item's correlation with total items. An additional 104 undergraduate students then completed the modified 29-item version, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, Cheek and Buss's Shyness Scale, the Self-rating Depression Scale by Zung, and the Neugarten, et al. Life Satisfaction Index-A. Scores on the modified Index were negatively correlated with those on the Depression and Shyness scales and positively correlated with scores on the Self-esteem and Life Satisfaction scales (p< .05).

  13. Eating behavior, depression, and self-esteem in high school students.

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    Tomori, M; Rus-Makovec, M

    2000-05-01

    In a representative sample of 4700 Slovene high school students, we examined their eating behavior and its correlations with some psychosocial and psychological characteristics with the aim of identifying the main risk factors for disordered eating. Using a questionnaire which also included Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, we compared girls (n = 2507) and boys (n = 2193) with regard to their satisfaction with their body weight, weight-reducing activities, and frequency of binge eating. We assessed their family relationships, abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs, suicidal ideation, and suicidal tendences, as well as their level of depression and self-esteem. The results showed significant differences between girls and boys, between groups of those who were satisfied and those who were dissatisfied with their body weight, and also between groups which indulged in frequent binge eating and those which did not. Within a general population of adolescents, there is a substantial number of subjects with disordered eating behavior, some part of whom are at high risk for eating disorders.

  14. Effects of Self-Rated Health and Self-Rated Economic Situation on Depressed Mood Via Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Costa Rica

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    Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relationship of self-rated health and self-rated economic situation with depressed mood, and life satisfaction as mediator of this relationship among older adults in Costa Rica. Method: A longitudinal study was conducted with a subsample (N = 1,618) from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES). Self-rated health, self-rated economic situation, depressed mood, and life satisfaction were measured at baseline, and depressed mood was reassessed 18 months later. Putative mechanisms for changes in depressed mood were examined by means of conditional process analysis. Results: Self-rated health was negatively associated to depressed mood. This effect took place via life satisfaction. An interaction showed that better economic situation compensated the effect of a low self-rated health on life satisfaction. Discussion: This study suggests that subjective variables such as self-rated health, economic situation, and life satisfaction should be considered when addressing the onset of depressed mood. PMID:26092651

  15. Association between depressive symptoms, use of antidepressant medication and the metabolic syndrome: the Maine-Syracuse Study

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    Georgina E. Crichton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both depression and the metabolic syndrome (MetS are two major public health issues. The aim of this study was to examine associations between depressive symptoms, the use of antidepressant medications, and the prevalence of MetS. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 970 participants from the Maine-Syracuse Study. Depressive symptoms were measured using two self-reported depression scales, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Zung self-rating depression scale. Antidepressant medication use was also self-reported. MetS was defined according to the recent harmonized criteria. Results The risk of MetS were approximately 79 and 86 % higher for those in the highest quartile for the CESD and the Zung (CES-D: OR = 1.79, p = 0.003; Zung: OR = 1.71, p = 0.006, compared to those in the lowest quartile. With adjustment for socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors and C-reactive protein (CRP, risk was attenuated, but remained statistically significant for the CES-D. In those who reported using antidepressant medication, the odds of having MetS were over 2-fold higher (OR = 2.22, p < 0.001, fully adjusted model, compared to those who did not use antidepressants. Both measures of depressed mood were also associated with low high density-lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels. Antidepressant use was associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose concentrations, hypertension, and low HDL-cholesterol. Conclusion Depressive symptoms and the use of antidepressant medications are associated with the prevalence of MetS, and with some of the individual components of the syndrome.

  16. Correlations among Psychological Resilience, Self-Efficacy, and Negative Emotion in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

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    Liu, Neng; Liu, Shaohui; Yu, Nan; Peng, Yunhua; Wen, Yumei; Tang, Jie; Kong, Lingyu

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the influencing factors of the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion. Eighty-eight participants were enrolled. Psychological resilience, self-efficacy, and negative emotion were assessed with the Psychological Resilience Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), respectively. Furthermore, the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion were investigated. The average scores of psychological resilience, self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression were 70.08 ± 13.26, 21.56 ± 9.66, 53.68 ± 13.10, and 56.12 ± 12.37, respectively. The incidences of anxiety and depression were 23.90% (21/88) and 28.40% (25/88), respectively. The psychological resilience and self-efficacy scores of AMI patients after PCI varied significantly with age and economic status. SAS scores and SDS scores were significantly negatively correlated with psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Negative emotions in AMI patients after PCI are closely related to psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Therefore, anxiety and depression could be alleviated by improving the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of patients undergoing PCI, thus improving patients' quality of life.

  17. Analysis of depression and anxiety state and changes of regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiangyuan; Li Yaming; Yin Yafu; Li Xuena; Han Chunqi; Li Deshun; Liu Hao; Li Na; Liang Chenrong; Sun Zhenqiu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the incidence of depression and anxiety state and the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with Graves' disease (GD). Methods: Twenty-one GD patients underwent rCBF SPECT imaging, and their mental state was evaluated by Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) and Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) respectively. Results: Total scores obtained from SDS and SAS were both significantly greater in the GD group than that in the control group (t SDS =7.26, t SAS =5.35, P 3 , FT 4 and TSH levels. In SPECT imaging, GD group had decreased uptake of radioactivity in frontal lobs, temporal lobs, basal ganglia and thalamus mainly. There was also no significant correlation between the decrease of rCBF and SDS or SAS scores. Conclusions: The psychiatric symptoms in GD group are more significant than normal controls, rCBF of GD group decreases mainly in bilateral frontal lobes, temporal lobes, basal ganglia and thalamus. (authors)

  18. Sex Partnership and Self-Efficacy Influence Depression in Chinese Transgender Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Lie; Hao, Chun; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Wang, Jian; Chang, Margaret M; Zhao, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Transgender women often suffer from transition-related discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender transition, which may pose considerable psychological challenges and may lead to a high prevalence of depression in this population. Increased self-efficacy may combat the adverse effects of gender transition on depression. However, few available studies have investigated the protective effect of self-efficacy on depression among transgender women, and there is a scarcity of research describing the mental health of Chinese transgender women. This study aims to describe the prevalence of depression among Chinese transgender women and to explore the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province of China by convenience sampling from January 2014 to July 2014. Two hundred and nine Chinese transgender women were interviewed face-to-face with questionnaires that covered topics including the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), demographic characteristics, transition status, sex partnership, perceived transgender-related discrimination, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the adapted General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with SDS scores. The prevalence of depression among transgender women was 45.35%. Transgender women with regular partners or casual partners exhibited higher SDS scores than those without regular partners or casual partners. Regression analyses showed that sex partnership explained most (16.6%) of the total variance in depression scores. Self-efficacy was negatively associated with depression. Chinese transgender women experienced high levels of depression. Depression was best predicted by whether transgender women had a regular partner or a casual partner rather than transgender-related discrimination and transition status. Moreover, self-efficacy had positive effects on

  19. Sex Partnership and Self-Efficacy Influence Depression in Chinese Transgender Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Xiaoshi Yang

    Full Text Available Transgender women often suffer from transition-related discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender transition, which may pose considerable psychological challenges and may lead to a high prevalence of depression in this population. Increased self-efficacy may combat the adverse effects of gender transition on depression. However, few available studies have investigated the protective effect of self-efficacy on depression among transgender women, and there is a scarcity of research describing the mental health of Chinese transgender women. This study aims to describe the prevalence of depression among Chinese transgender women and to explore the associated factors.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province of China by convenience sampling from January 2014 to July 2014. Two hundred and nine Chinese transgender women were interviewed face-to-face with questionnaires that covered topics including the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, demographic characteristics, transition status, sex partnership, perceived transgender-related discrimination, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and the adapted General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with SDS scores.The prevalence of depression among transgender women was 45.35%. Transgender women with regular partners or casual partners exhibited higher SDS scores than those without regular partners or casual partners. Regression analyses showed that sex partnership explained most (16.6% of the total variance in depression scores. Self-efficacy was negatively associated with depression.Chinese transgender women experienced high levels of depression. Depression was best predicted by whether transgender women had a regular partner or a casual partner rather than transgender-related discrimination and transition status. Moreover, self-efficacy had positive

  20. Role of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in anxiety, depression and self-esteem: A controlled cross-sectional study.

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    Fortuna, Giulio; Aria, Massimo; Cepeda-Valdes, Rodrigo; Garcia-Garcia, Sandra Cecilia; Moreno Trevino, Maria Guadalupe; Salas-Alanís, Julio Cesar

    2016-01-01

    The psychological aspect in patients with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is poorly documented. We sought to determine the role of DEB in anxiety, depression and self-esteem. We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 27 DEB patients and 26 healthy individuals. DEB patients and healthy controls completed three different psychometric scales for anxiety and depression and one scale for self-esteem. DEB patients and healthy controls were homogeneous for age and sex (P > 0.05), but not for employment, marital status and economic level (P depression (P = 0.037) and slightly significant for Zung Scale for anxiety (P = 0.048) with no difference between DEB patients with dominant versus recessive form in all scales (P > 0.05). Among DEB patients, only employment showed a significant difference in all scales (P depression, whereas self-esteem seemed to be affected by marriage (P = 0.04) and education (P = 0.016). DEB patients apparently are not more anxious and/or depressed and do not have less self-esteem than healthy individuals. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Anxiety and depression in patients suffering from chronic low backache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.R.; Saleem, B.; Ahsin, S.; Farooqi, A.Z.; Farooqi, A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic low backache and to document other co-morbidities among these patients presenting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences from July 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 170 chronic low backache patients were administered urdu translated Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scales. Scoring was done on Likert-type scale of 1-4 (based on these replies: a little of the time, some of the time, good part of the time, most of the time) with overall assessment by cumulative score ranging from 20 to 80, where 20-44 was normal range, 45-59 mildly depressed/anxious, 60-69 moderately depressed / anxious and 70 and above severely depressed / anxious. Results: Out of 170 patients, 157 patients above 18 years of age with male to female ratio 2:3 completed the study. Among study sample 72.2% had mild depression, 21.6% had mild anxiety, 32% had mixed mild anxiety and depression, 0.8% had severe depression, 1.6% had severe anxiety while 2.4% suffered from severe mixed symptoms. Overall, 125 (79.6%) patients were suffering from mild to severe form of depression and anxiety both alone or mixed. Obesity was present in 34 (21.66%) of patients with chronic backache and out of these 29 (85.3%) had psychological co-morbidity. Conclusion: Two thirds of the chronic backache patients reporting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital were suffering from mild to severe degree of depression and anxiety. This worrying situation calls for thorough systematic evaluation of all chronic backache patient arriving at rheumatology clinic for mood disorders and psychological ailment. (author)

  2. Psychopharmacological correlates of post-psychotic depression: a double-blind investigation of haloperidol vs thiothixene in outpatient schizophrenia.

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    Abuzzahab, F S; Zimmerman, R L

    1982-03-01

    A 24-week double-blind study was conducted to compare haloperidol and thiothixene for efficacy and safety in 46 schizophrenic outpatients. In addition to the standard psychiatric rating scales, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE), and Evaluation of Social Functioning Rating (ESFR), two scales more sensitive to the incidence of treatment emergent depression were utilized. They were the Hamilton Depression Scale (HPRSD) and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZUNG). On the BPRS factors, haloperidol was significantly superior to thiothixene in Thought Disturbance and Hostility-Suspiciousness, and in Total symptomatology. Haloperidol was also significantly superior to thiothixene in Cognitive Disturbance on the HPRSD. Results of global evaluations suggested haloperidol produced slightly more rapid relief of symptoms than did thiothixene. The inclusion of the depression scales was useful in following patients who exhibited depressive symptoms; clinically significant depression was seen in 5 patients receiving haloperidol and 3 receiving thiothixene. A high incidence of akathisia in the thiothixene group was responsible for a statistically significant difference between groups in the number of central nervous system symptoms. Mean doses of test drugs were 17.5 mg/day for haloperidol an 31.8 mg/day for thiothixene. The study showed that haloperidol was equal to and in some parameters superior to thiothixene in producing improvement in the symptoms of psychosis.

  3. Increased prevalence of depression and anxiety among subjects with metabolic syndrome and known type 2 diabetes mellitus - a population-based study.

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    Shinkov, Alexander; Borissova, Anna-Maria; Kovatcheva, Roussanka; Vlahov, Jordan; Dakovska, Lilia; Atanassova, Iliana; Petkova, Paulina

    2018-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The MetS and its elements have been linked to anxiety and depressive disorders. The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of depression and anxiety, measured by the Zung Self-Rating Scale in subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. A total of 2111 adults were included, 1155 female, age 47.6 (13.7) and 956 male, age 45.2 (13.5). All participants filled questionnaires covering current and past disorders and medication, smoking and family history. Zung self-rating depression and anxiety scales were completed. Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured, BMI was calculated, serum glucose and lipids were measured. Depression (SDSi) and anxiety scores (SASi) were higher in the females and increased with age (p anxiety were more prevalent in the subjects with known diabetes than in those with normal glucose tolerance but not in the newly-diagnosed diabetes. The OR for depressiveness was 2.0 (1.3; 2.6) in subjects with MetS and 4.2 (2.3; 7.8) in those with known diabetes. In conclusion, depressiveness and anxiety were associated positively with age and female gender and were more prevalent among subjects with MetS and known diabetes mellitus.

  4. [Sleep Quality, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Esteem in People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiang-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Wen-Chuan; Yu, Chien-Tai; Feng, Ming-Chu

    2017-12-01

    HIV has become a chronic disease. Therefore, the mental health and sleep quality of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have become increasingly important issues of concern. To explore the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of PLWHA and the correlation between sleep quality and various related mental-health factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study was conducted at a medical center in southern Taiwan in 2013-2014. Data on the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of 146 PLWHA cases were collected using a structural questionnaire (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung's Self-Administered Anxiety Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Three-fifths (60.3%) of the cases had poor sleep quality, 50% were inclined toward depression, and 36.3% were inclined toward anxiety, indicating that sleep quality, depression, and anxiety levels in these cases were worse than the general population. Moreover, significant correlations were identified between poor sleep quality and the variables of depression (r = .40, p self-esteem. About half of the PLWHA cases in the present study exhibited poor sleep quality and tendencies toward depression and anxiety. Moreover, sleep quality and mental health factors were found to be not correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, or receiving antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, early evaluation of the sleep quality and mental health of people living with HIV/AIDS is recommended in order to provide holistic care.

  5. Affective (depressive) morbidity in puerperal Nigerian women: validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwakwe, Richard; Okonkwo, John E N

    2003-04-01

    To determine the rate of depression in a group of postpartum Nigerian women and to validate the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in this group. Between April and August 2000, all postpartum women who remained in the maternity ward for up to 7 days, and those who attended the postnatal clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital were recruited. Translated local language versions of the EPDS and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were used to screen the subjects. A structured interview schedule was adapted from the depression section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and affective module of the ICD-10 Symptom Check List to assess screened subjects. The total rejection rate was 23%, with 225 women participating in the study. Twenty-four subjects (10.7%) had depression. At the optimal cut-off score of 9, the EPDS had a sensitivity of 0.75, and specificity of 0.97. The EPDS clearly distinguished between depressed and non-depressed postpartum mothers (t = 7.63, P < 0.001, df = 222). Because of its brevity and acceptability, it is recommended that the EPDS be used in routine postnatal screening.

  6. DYNAMICS OF DEPRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression becomes more and more typical for adolescence. The study of dynamics of depression during the teenage years is important for differentiation of the most vulnerable periods for development of depression in this age and to be pointed out some factors that could contribute to triggering, preventing or recovering depression. This study of dynamics of depression was based on Developmental theories of dynamics of depression that relate depression to some vulnerable age groups and on the theories that relate dynamics of depression to one or more factors that trigger depression in different stages of human life. Depression in Bulgarian high – school students was compared at the beginning and at the end of the school year in a longitudinal study. 360 Bulgarian secondary school students from 9th to 12th grade were studied twice - at the beginning of the school year 2013/2014 and at the end of this school year. Several methods were used - Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. A model of dynamics of depression at upper school age in Bulgaria has been suggested. According to this model, depression slightly increases from the beginning to the end of the school year being differentiated by the types of the schools at the beginning of the school year and by the interaction of the types of schools, gender and grade at the end of the school year. Some of its correlates (anxiety, extraversion/introversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism and social determinants (gender, school grade, and types of schools were found. The interventions focused on diminishing anxiety, neuroticism (for example by meeting students’ expectancies and psychoticism (developing empathy and altruism, and increasing extraversion (better communication, social support could be effective for diminishing depression throughout the whole school year. Motivating students for participating in more extra

  7. Postoperative depression analysis and nursing in breast cancer%乳腺癌术后患者抑郁心理分析及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段艳萍; 冯莉娟; 丁小蓉; 杜燕

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background: The common mood reaction in breast cancer was depression and mental test by Zung's self evaluated depression scale showed that different degrees of depression existed in 100% patients, so, mental nursing was necessary.

  8. Older adults with poor self-rated memory have less depressive symptoms and better memory performance when perceived self-efficacy is high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Deirdre M; Dotson, Vonetta M; Fieo, Robert A; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Zahodne, Laura; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-07-01

    To investigate whether self-efficacy moderates the association between self-rated memory and depressive symptoms in a large sample of older adults. The influence of self-efficacy and depressive symptoms on memory performance was also examined in a subsample of individuals who reported poor memory. Non-demented participants (n = 3766) were selected from the 2012 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the 8-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A modified version of the Midlife Developmental Inventory Questionnaire was used as the measure of self-efficacy. Participants were asked to rate their memory presently on a five-point scale from Excellent (1) to Poor (5). Immediate memory and delayed memory (after a 5-min interval) were measured by the number of correct words recalled from a 10-item word list. Multiple regression analyses revealed that negative ratings of memory were significantly associated with greater levels of depressive symptoms, with this effect being greatest in those with low levels of self-efficacy. Additionally, greater self-efficacy was associated with optimal objective memory performances but only when depressive symptoms were low in individuals who reported poor memory function (n = 1196). Self-efficacy moderates the relationship between self-rated memory function and depressive symptoms. Higher self-efficacy may buffer against the impact of subjective memory difficulty on one's mood and thereby mitigating the effect of depressive symptoms on memory. Interventions should focus on increasing perceived self-efficacy in older adults reporting poor memory function to potentially minimize memory impairment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The validity of self-rating depression scales in patients with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Omerovic, Emina; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of depression in chronic pain patients by self-rating questionnaires developed and validated for use in normal and/or psychiatric populations is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) in a sample of ...... core of pain-related somatic symptoms. Careful consideration when interpreting questionnaire-derived scores of depression implemented in research and routine clinical care of patients with chronic pain is warranted.......BACKGROUND: Assessment of depression in chronic pain patients by self-rating questionnaires developed and validated for use in normal and/or psychiatric populations is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) in a sample...... and further aspects of validity, including fit of individual scale items to a unidimensional model indicating assessment of a single construct (depression), as a prerequisite for measurement. RESULTS: The Rasch analysis revealed substantial problems with the rating scale properties of the MDI and lack...

  10. Unmasking materialistic depression as a mental health problem: its effect on depression and materialism in an African-United States undergraduate sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azibo, Daudi Ajani ya

    2013-09-05

    Misdiagnosis of African-U.S. persons is argued to be a built-in characteristic of Western-based assessment requiring augmentation with culture-focused input where possible. Regarding depression, materialistic depression is explained as an African-centered African-U.S. culture-focused construct of masked depression. Materialistic depression symptomatology is presented. Materialism orientation is postulated to necessarily be associated with materialistic depression. 144 undergraduates, 37 male (25.7%) and 107 female (74.3%), average age of 21 completed the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale, the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90-R, the materialism subscale of the Cultural Misorientation Scale, and the Materialistic Depression Quiz. Contrasting high versus lower scoring MDQ groups on both depression scores produced reliable t-tests (pMaterialistic Depression Quiz, high scorers versus medium and low scorers had greater depression scores on two depression measures and greater materialism scores. Materialistic depression appears a masked form of depression not to be overlooked. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploration of construct validity of the Zung’s self-rating depression scale among adolescent students.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleima Cogollo; Carmen Elena Díaz; Adalberto Campo

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes: La escala de Zung para depresión se ha usado en varios estudios en adolescentes colombianos. No obstante, la validez de constructo de esta escala no se conoce en este grupo etáreo. Objetivo: Validar el constructo de la escala de Zung para depresión en adolescentes que asistían a un colegio ubicado en un estrato bajo de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia. Método: Un grupo de 408 estudiantes entre 13 y 17 años (promedio 14.7) diligenciaron en el aula de clase la escala de Zung para ...

  12. The roles of social support in helping chinese women with antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms cope with perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2014-10-01

    A community-based sample of 755 pregnant Chinese women were recruited to test the direct and moderating effects of social support in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal depressive or anxiety symptoms. The Social Support Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Edinburgh Depressive Postnatal Scale and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were used. Social support was found to have direct effects and moderating effects on the women's perceived stress on antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in multiple linear regression models. This knowledge of the separate effects of social support on behavioral health is important to psychiatric nurse in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep, quality of life and depression in women in breast cancer post-treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Rafihi-Ferreira, Renatha El; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira; Soares, Maria Rita Zoéga

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho investigou a qualidade de sono de mulheres com câncer de mama e suas relações com qualidade de vida e depressão. Cinqüenta mulheres com câncer de mama (grupo clínico) e cinqüenta controles responderam um questionário médico-demográfico e ao instrumento Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. O grupo clínico também respondeu aos instrumentos Quality of Life Cancer-Survivor e Brief Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Verificou-se que mulheres com câncer tinham significativamente mais queix...

  14. Prevalence of depression among health workers in Enugu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-11

    Nov 11, 2014 ... A structured self‑administered questionnaire including the Zung self‑rating depression scale was used to ... A feeling of sadness over family, living and working conditions was ... effects of depression in the Nigerian health work force are necessary. ... conflicts especially related to welfare of staff, conditions.

  15. Disagreement between self-reported and clinician-ascertained suicidal ideation and its correlation with depression and anxiety severity in patients with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Keming; Wu, Renrong; Wang, Zuowei; Ren, Ming; Kemp, David E; Chan, Philip K; Conroy, Carla M; Serrano, Mary Beth; Ganocy, Stephen J; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    To study the disagreement between self-reported suicidal ideation (SR-SI) and clinician-ascertained suicidal ideation (CA-SI) and its correlation with depression and anxiety severity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BPD). Routine clinical outpatients were diagnosed with the MINI-STEP-BD version. SR-SI was extracted from the 16 Item Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR-16) item 12. CA-SI was extracted from a modified Suicide Assessment module of the MINI. Depression and anxiety severity were measured with the QIDS-SR-16 and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Chi-square, Fisher exact, and bivariate linear logistic regression were used for analyses. Of 103 patients with MDD, 5.8% endorsed any CA-SI and 22.4% endorsed any SR-SI. Of the 147 patients with BPD, 18.4% endorsed any CA-SI and 35.9% endorsed any SR-SI. The agreement between any SR-SI and any CA-SI was 83.5% for MDD and 83.1% for BPD, with weighted Kappa of 0.30 and 0.43, respectively. QIDS-SR-16 score, female gender, and ≥4 year college education were associated with increased risk for disagreement, 15.44 ± 4.52 versus 18.39 ± 3.49 points (p = 0.0026), 67% versus 46% (p = 0.0783), and 61% versus 29% (p = 0.0096). The disagreement was positively correlated to depression severity in both MDD and BPD with a correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.40 and 0.79, respectively, but was only positively correlated to anxiety severity in BPD with a R(2) = 0.46. Self-reported questionnaire was more likely to reveal higher frequency and severity of SI than clinician-ascertained, suggesting that a combination of self-reported and clinical-ascertained suicidal risk assessment with measuring depression and anxiety severity may be necessary for suicide prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sono, qualidade de vida e depressão em mulheres no pós-tratamento de câncer de mama Sleep, quality of life and depression in women in breast cancer post-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renatha El Rafihi-Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investigou a qualidade de sono de mulheres com câncer de mama e suas relações com qualidade de vida e depressão. Cinqüenta mulheres com câncer de mama (grupo clínico e cinqüenta controles responderam um questionário médico-demográfico e ao instrumento Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. O grupo clínico também respondeu aos instrumentos Quality of Life Cancer-Survivor e Brief Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Verificou-se que mulheres com câncer tinham significativamente mais queixas de nictúria, calor e despertares noturnos. O grupo clínico com má qualidade do sono apresentou comprometimento na qualidade de vida e mais sintomas de depressão. Em geral, a qualidade de sono em mulheres com câncer de mama pode predizer a qualidade de vida e o bem estar psicológico.This study investigated the sleep quality of women with breast cancer and their relationship with quality of life and depression. Fifty women with breast cancer (clinical group and a control group of other 50 women without the disease answered a clinical-demographic questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The clinical group also completed the Quality of Life Cancer-Survivor and the Brief Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale questionnaires. It was found that women with breast cancer had significantly more complaints of nocturia, heat and nighttime awakenings. The clinical group with poor quality of sleep reported impaired quality of life and more symptoms of depression. In general terms, sleep quality in women with breast cancer can predict their quality of life and psychological well-being.

  17. Moderating role of self-efficacy on the associations of social support with depressive and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Xu, Neili; Wang, Lie

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is significantly associated with depression and anxiety. Social support and self-efficacy are the coping resources of psychological distress. However, little research is available on the interaction of social support and self-efficacy in RA patients. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and to examine whether or not self-efficacy moderates the associations of social support with depressive and anxiety symptoms in Chinese RA patients. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in northeast of China from December 2014 to January 2016. A total of 297 RA patients completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Self-Efficacy Scale. The associations of social support, self-efficacy and social support × self-efficacy interaction with depressive and anxiety symptoms were examined by hierarchical regression analysis. If the interaction was statistically significant, simple slope analysis was conducted. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 58.2%, while 47.5% RA patients had anxiety symptoms. Social support and social support × self-efficacy interaction were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Social support, self-efficacy and their interaction were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. The association between social support and depressive symptoms was gradually reduced in the low (1 standard deviation [SD] below the mean, B =-0.614, β =-0.876, P <0.001), mean ( B =-0.395, β =-0.563, P <0.001) and high (1 SD above the mean, B =-0.176, β =-0.251, P =0.002) groups of self-efficacy. For anxiety symptoms, the association was also gradually reduced in the low ( B =-0.527, β =-0.774, P <0.001), mean ( B =-0.288, β =-423, P <0.001) and high ( B =-0.049, β =-0.071, P =0.447) groups of self-efficacy. There was a high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms

  18. Discrepancies between self and observer ratings of depression. The relationship to demographic, clinical and personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, M W; Larsen, D K; Cox, B J

    2000-10-01

    The observer-rated Hamilton depression scale (HamD) and the self-report Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are among the most commonly used rating scales for depression, and both have well demonstrated reliability and validity. However, many depressed subjects have discrepant scores on these two assessment methods. The present study evaluated the ability of demographic, clinical and personality factors to account for the discrepancies observed between BDI and HamD ratings. The study group consisted of 94 SCID-diagnosed outpatients with a current major depressive disorder. Subjects were rated with the 21-item HamD and completed the BDI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Younger age, higher educational attainment, and depressive subtype (atypical, non-melancholic) were predictive of higher BDI scores relative to HamD observer ratings. In addition, high neuroticism, low extraversion and low agreeableness were associated with higher endorsement of depressive symptoms on the BDI relative to the HamD. In general, these predictive variables showed a greater ability to explain discrepancies between self and observer ratings of psychological symptoms of depression compared to somatic symptoms of depression. The study does not determine which aspects of neuroticism and extraversion contribute to the observed BDI/HamD discrepancies. Depression ratings obtained with the BDI and HamD are frequently discordant and a number of patient characteristics robustly predict the discrepancy between these two rating methods. The value of multi-modal assessment in the conduct of research on depressive disorders is re-affirmed.

  19. Anxiety and depression in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and their effect on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Jiang, Hong-Mei; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Song, Jun

    2015-04-14

    To explore the role of psychological factors in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and their effect on quality of life (QoL) of GERD patients. A total of 279 consecutive patients with typical symptoms and 100 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All of the participants were evaluated with the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS) and the SF-36 questionnaire. The scores for anxiety, depression and QoL of the two groups were analyzed. The correlation between psychological factors and QoL was also analyzed. Compared with healthy controls (34.70 ± 8.00), the scores of ZSAS in the non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) group (48.27 ± 10.34) and the reflux esophagitis (RE) group (45.38 ± 10.27) were significantly higher (P < 0.001). The mean ZSAS score of the NERD group was significantly higher than that of the RE group (P = 0.01). Compared with healthy controls (37.61 ± 8.44), the mean ZSDS scores were significantly higher in the NERD group (49.65 ± 11.09, P < 0.001) and the RE group (46.76 ± 11.83, P < 0.001). All dimensions of the SF-36 form were negatively correlated with the SAS and SDS scores in patients with NERD and RE (P < 0.05). According to the SF-36 form, vitality, mental health and social functioning were significantly correlated with symptoms of depression in patients with NERD and RE. General health was obviously affected by symptoms of depression in patients with NERD (P < 0.05). Anxiety and depression may play an important role in the occurrence of GERD and especially that of NERD. The QoL of patients with GERD is reduced by anxiety and depression.

  20. Self-rated health, multimorbidity and depression in Mexican older adults: Proposal and evaluation of a simple conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Vázquez, Eduardo; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Astudillo-Garcia, Claudia Iveth

    2017-04-01

    Self-rated health is an individual and subjective conceptualization involving the intersection of biological, social and psychological factors. It provides an invaluable and unique evaluation of a person's general health status. To propose and evaluate a simple conceptual model to understand self-rated health and its relationship to multimorbidity, disability and depressive symptoms in Mexican older adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a national representative sample of 8,874 adults of 60 years of age and older. Self-perception of a positive health status was determined according to a Likert-type scale based on the question: "What do you think is your current health status?" Intermediate variables included multimorbidity, disability and depressive symptoms, as well as dichotomous exogenous variables (sex, having a partner, participation in decision-making and poverty). The proposed conceptual model was validated using a general structural equation model with a logit link function for positive self-rated health. A direct association was found between multimorbidity and positive self-rated health (OR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.42-0.55), disability and positive self-rated health (OR=0.35; 95% CI: 0.30-0.40), depressive symptoms and positive self-rated health (OR=0.38; 95% CI: 0.34-0.43). The model also validated indirect associations between disability and depressive symptoms (OR=2.25; 95% CI: 2.01- 2.52), multimorbidity and depressive symptoms (OR=1.79; 95% CI: 1.61-2.00) and multimorbidity and disability (OR=1.98; 95% CI: 1.78-2.20). A parsimonious theoretical model was empirically evaluated, which enabled identifying direct and indirect associations with positive self-rated health.

  1. Prevalence of pre- and postpartum depression in Jamaican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Santosh

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal depression during pregnancy has been studied less than depression in postpartum period. The aims of this study were to find out the prevalence of prepartum and postpartum depression and the risk factors associated in a cohort of Afro-Jamaican pregnant women in Jamaica. Methods The Zung self-rating depression scale instrument was administered to 73 healthy pregnant women at 28 weeks gestation and at 6 weeks postpartum for quantitative measurement of depression. Blood samples were collected at 8, 28, 35 weeks gestation and at day 1 and 6 weeks postpartum to study the thyroid status. Results Study demonstrated depression prevalence rates of 56% and 34% during prepartum and postpartum period, respectively. 94% women suffering depression in both periods were single. There were significant variations in both FT3 and TT4 concentrations which increased from week 8 to week 28 prepartum (p th week (p 3, TT4 and TSH there were no significant between group differences in concentrations. The major determinants of postpartum depression were moderate and severe prepartum depression and change in TT4 hormone concentrations. Conclusion High prevalence of depression was found during pre- and postpartum periods. Single mothers, prepartum depression and changes in TT4 were factors found to be significantly associated with postpartum depression.

  2. Quality of life among post-menopausal women due to oxidative stress boosted by dysthymia and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Castrejón-Delgado, Lizett; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2017-01-03

    Menopause is the onset of aging in women. During this process, some women experience physical changes that may impact upon their psychological and social status, also affecting their quality of life. Furthermore, several psychological changes following menopause have been shown to act as pro-oxidant, but the association between the psychological status that modify the quality of life and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determinate the relationship between oxidative stress with psychological disturbances, low self-esteem, depressive mood and anxiety, and quality of life in the postmenopausal women. We carried out a cross-sectional study with101 premenopausal and 101 postmenopausal women from Mexico City. As markers of oxidative stress we measured plasma lipoperoxide levels, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and total antioxidant status. We calculate a stress score as global oxidative stress status, with cut-off values for each parameter; this score range from 0 to 6, representing the severity of markers modifications. All the women were rated using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales, and the WHO Quality of Life-brief. The postmenopausal women with low quality of life in the WHO Quality of Life-brief and their subscales had higher stress score compared with premenopausal women with high quality of life (p Life-brief scores (r = -0.266, p Life-brief, after adjusted for pro-oxidant factors. Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales scores also contribute to increase lipoperoxides levels, but not significant. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress is increased in postmenopausal women with psychological disturbances and low quality of life.

  3. The impact of borderline personality disorder and sub-threshold borderline personality disorder on the course of self-reported and clinician-rated depression in self-harming adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramleth, Ruth-Kari; Groholt, Berit; Diep, Lien M; Walby, Fredrik A; Mehlum, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Studies on adults suggest that the presence of comorbid depression and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is associated with an elevated risk of self-harming behaviours and that self-harming behaviours, when present, will have higher severity. This comorbidity, furthermore, complicates clinical assessments, which may be an obstacle to early identification and proper intervention. Adolescents who self-harm frequently report high levels of depressive symptoms, but this is often not reflected in the clinicians' assessment. BPD is still a controversial diagnosis in young people, and less is known about the clinical significance of comorbid BPD in adolescent populations.The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of BPD on the assessment and course of self-reported and clinician-rated depression in self-harming adolescents before and after a treatment period of 19 weeks. We hypothesized that, compared to adolescents without BPD, adolescents with BPD would self-report higher levels of depression at baseline, and that they would have less reduction in depressive symptoms. A total of 39 adolescents with depressive disorders and BPD-traits participating in a randomised controlled trial on treatment of self-harm with Dialectical Behaviour Therapy adapted for Adolescents or enhanced usual care were included. Adolescents with full-syndrome BPD ( n  = 10) were compared with adolescents with sub-threshold BPD ( n  = 29) with respect to their self-reported and clinician-rated depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and global level of functioning at baseline, and after 19 weeks of treatment (end of trial period). At baseline, adolescents with full-syndrome BPD self-reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation compared to adolescents with sub-threshold BPD, whereas the two groups were rated as equally depressed by the clinicians. At trial completion, all participants had a significant reduction in suicidal ideation

  4. Spirituality, depression and quality of life in medical students in KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narushni Pillay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of studies on spirituality demonstrate its positive association with mental health. Despite the increasing number of studies, there remains a dearth of studies emanating from African countries looking at the relationship between mental illness, quality of life and measures of spirituality. The present study evaluates the role of spirituality in relation to current depression and quality of life in medical students, who are known to be at high risk for depression. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of moderate and severe depressive symptoms in this population and explore potential correlations between spirituality, depression and quality of life. Methods: 230 medical students were surveyed at the University of KwaZulu-Natal Medical School, using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS, Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS, WHO Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL and a demographic data sheet. Results: There was a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in the medical students, with a significant proportion (15.6% showing evidence of severe depressive symptoms (indicating likely depressive illness. Those with a history of mental illness or of having attended traditional, complementary or alternate medical practitioners showed higher levels of depression. Lower spirituality was associated with non-adherence to a major religion and a history of mental illness. Quality of life was better in second and fifth year students and poorer in those with a history of mental illness. Conclusion: Medical students’ experiences of depression (most probably due to stress and its relationship with spirituality and quality of life merit further investigation with a view to establishing policy guidelines for dealing with this issue.

  5. Sono, qualidade de vida e depressão em mulheres no pós-tratamento de câncer de mama

    OpenAIRE

    Rafihi-Ferreira,Renatha El; Pires,Maria Laura Nogueira; Soares,Maria Rita Zoéga

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho investigou a qualidade de sono de mulheres com câncer de mama e suas relações com qualidade de vida e depressão. Cinqüenta mulheres com câncer de mama (grupo clínico) e cinqüenta controles responderam um questionário médico-demográfico e ao instrumento Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. O grupo clínico também respondeu aos instrumentos Quality of Life Cancer-Survivor e Brief Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Verificou-se que mulheres com câncer tinham significativamente mais queix...

  6. The Effects of Injury and Accidents on Self-rated Depression in Male Municipal Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between self-rated depression and experiences of injury and accidents in municipal firefighters. Methods A panel survey of 186 municipal firefighters measured with depressive symptoms according to the Beck's depression index (BDI) was conducted. The effects of job-related injuries and accidents were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires that were taken once in a 12-month period from 2005 to 2006. Firefighters were classified into the Depression Group or Control Group based on follow-up BDI results with a cutoff level that was set to having "over mild depression." Results The depression Group was comprised of 17 (9.1%) workers, including 9 firefighters who met had sufficient BDI scores twice in the 2-year test period and newly sufficient BDI scores in the follow-up test. A significantly higher number of subjects in the Depression Group experienced injuries and accidents in the 2-year test period as compared to the Control Group (15.4% vs. 1.5%, p=0.04). Firefighters who experienced injuries and accidents in the 2-year test period had a 7.4 times higher risk of being in the Depression Group than those who had not. As compared to accidents, near-miss accidents revealed stronger risks related to being classified as in the Depression group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 4.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-18.18 vs. Adjusted OR = 4.22, 95% CI = 1.08-16.58). Conclusion The above results suggest that we should establish an effective program to promote mental health for groups at high risk for self-rated depression, including persons who have experienced consecutive injuries and accidents as well as near-miss injuries. PMID:22953198

  7. Significance of periventricular hyperintensity in T2 weighted MRI on memory dysfunction and depression after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokura, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Yamashita, Kazuya; Koide, Hiromi

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effect of periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) in T2 weighted MRI on memory function and post-stroke depression in 159 patients with cerebrovacular disease. Memory function was assessed with Hasegawa's scale, and depressive state was estimated with Zung's self-rating depression scale. Patients showing diffusely distributed PVH had significantly low scores in memory function tests. Localized PVH around the anterior horns of the laterals ventricle was also associated with impaired memory function when the area of PVH was large. The incidence of post-stroke depression was high in patients with large PVH around the anterior horn in comparison with patients with PVH around the posterior horn. The severity of PVH around the posterior horn did not affect memory function and post-stroke depression. These findings suggest that memory dysfunction and post-stroke depression were accelerated by the diffusely or anteriorly distributed PVH. (author)

  8. Moderating role of self-efficacy on the associations of social support with depressive and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu L

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Li Liu,1 Neili Xu,2 Lie Wang1 1Department of Social Medicine, School of Public Health, China Medical University, 2Department of Rheumatology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is significantly associated with depression and anxiety. Social support and self-efficacy are the coping resources of psychological distress. However, little research is available on the interaction of social support and self-efficacy in RA patients. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and to examine whether or not self-efficacy moderates the associations of social support with depressive and anxiety symptoms in Chinese RA patients. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in northeast of China from December 2014 to January 2016. A total of 297 RA patients completed the Center for ­Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Self-Efficacy Scale. The associations of social support, self-efficacy and social support × self-efficacy interaction with depressive and anxiety symptoms were examined by hierarchical regression analysis. If the interaction was statistically significant, simple slope analysis was conducted. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 58.2%, while 47.5% RA patients had anxiety symptoms. Social support and social support × self-efficacy interaction were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Social support, self-efficacy and their interaction were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. The association between social support and depressive symptoms was gradually reduced in the low (1 standard deviation [SD] below the mean, B=–0.614, β=–0.876, P<0.001, mean (B=–0.395, β=–0.563, P<0.001 and high (1 SD above the mean, B=–0.176, β=–0.251, P=0.002 groups of self

  9. [Depression screening test for patients with metastatic gastric and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Kenji; Sugiyama, Akemi; Yuasa, Shu; Koga, Chiaki; Yamazaki, Emiko; Katayama, Yoshiko; Nagaoka, Masatoshi; Nagao, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of depression has been reported to be higher in cancer patients, especially those of advanced stage, compared to normal controls. However, depression is often under-recognized in clinical oncology settings. And this psychological problem is not routinely assessed even in patients with inoperable metastatic cancer who often have psychological disorders. Psychological distress including depression, is affected by physical, psychosocial, and clinical factors. In order to detect psychiatric problems at the early stage, we assessed the mental conditions of 47 inpatients with metastatic gastric and colorectal cancerusing the Japanese version of Zung's Self Rating Depression Scale(SDS)and analyzed the relationships between these factors and SDS scores. While SDS scores of our patients did not differ according to their gender, age, performance status (PS), ortypes of patients' character, they were significantly higher in Group B(cancer patients with palliative care alone), compared to Group A(those receiving chemotherapy)(pterminal stage, their scores were significantly increased, respectively(pterminally ill patients without any indication of chemotherapy.

  10. The influence of social capital on self-rated health and depression – The Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Sund

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the relationship between neighbourhood social capital and two health outcomes: selfrated health and depression. A total of 42,571 individuals aged 30–67 years participated in a cross-sectional total population health study in Nord-Trøndelag in 1995–1997 (HUNT II and were investigated using multilevel modelling. Aims were, first, to investigate potential area effects after accounting for the characteristics of individuals in the neighbourhoods (N = 155, and, second, to explore the relationships between contextual social capital (the level of trust at the neighbourhood level and the level of local organizational activity and the two health measures. Models with stepwise inclusion of individual level factors attenuated the ward level variance for both self-rated health (PCV: 41% and depression (PCV: 43%. The inclusion of the two contextual social capital items attenuated the ward level variance for both self-rated health and depression, however to varying degrees. At the individual level, contextual social capital was associated with both self-rated health and depression. Individuals living in wards with a low level of trust experienced an increased risk of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.13-1.63 for poor self-rated health compared to individuals in wards with a high level of trust. For depression, this effect was even stronger (OR 1.52, 1.23-1.87. The associations with the level of organizational activity were inconsistent and weaker for both health outcomes. It was concluded that geographical variations in self-rated health and depression are largely due to the socioeconomic characteristics of individuals. Nevertheless, contextual social capital, expressed as the level of trust, was found to be associated with depression and self-rated health at individual level.

  11. Research Paper Reliability of self report questionnaires for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scales used were: the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ), Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-esteem Questionnaire (SEQ), Harvard ... (HTQ) and Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS).

  12. Exploring the relationships among performance-based functional ability, self-rated disability, perceived instrumental support, and depression: a structural equation model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Joyce; Hutchinson, Susan R; Traxler, Karen

    2014-11-01

    Data from the Women's Health and Aging Study were used to test a model of factors explaining depressive symptomology. The primary purpose of the study was to explore the association between performance-based measures of functional ability and depression and to examine the role of self-rated physical difficulties and perceived instrumental support in mediating the relationship between performance-based functioning and depression. The inclusion of performance-based measures allows for the testing of functional ability as a clinical precursor to disability and depression: a critical, but rarely examined, association in the disablement process. Structural equation modeling supported the overall fit of the model and found an indirect relationship between performance-based functioning and depression, with perceived physical difficulties serving as a significant mediator. Our results highlight the complementary nature of performance-based and self-rated measures and the importance of including perception of self-rated physical difficulties when examining depression in older persons. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Assessment of Body perception, Psychological Distress, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... (MBSRQ), Zung Depression Rating Scale, and Zung Anxiety Rating Scale were ... KEYWORDS: Obesity, body perception, quality of life, obesity and depression, obesity, and ..... of mothers with language delayed children.

  14. Evidence of depression-associated circadian rhythm disruption and regret in prostate cancer patients after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Joanne; Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Christie, David

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between prostate cancer (PCa) patients' regret that their surgery harmed them, and their scores on the two key symptoms of major depressive disorder (depressed mood, anhedonia) and a symptom of melancholic depression (disruption to circadian rhythm). Forty PCa patients who had received surgery for their PCa completed a postal survey including background information, regret about surgery that 'did them a lot of harm' and three items drawn from the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale measuring depressed mood, anhedonia and circadian rhythm disruption. There were significant correlations between all three symptoms of depression (depressed mood, anhedonia, disruption to circadian rhythm) and between patients' regret that surgery did them a lot of harm and their circadian rhythm disruption, but not between depressed mood or anhedonia and regret about surgery doing harm. These findings suggest that PCa patients' post-surgery regrets about major harm may lead to a significant disruption in a central physiological function and raise the need to consider this side effect of surgery when planning supportive services for these men.

  15. Self-schema in irritable bowel syndrome and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, B B; Garfinkel, P E; Jeejeebhoy, K N; Scher, H; Shulhan, D; Di Gasbarro, I

    1990-01-01

    Some investigators have suggested that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) represents a physiologic expression of an affective disorder. This study investigated whether IBS patients differed in their self-schema from depressed patients. Self-schema refers to a cognitive framework of the individual's beliefs, attitudes, and self-perceptions which is stored in memory and which influences incoming information. The sample consisted of 21 IBS patients, 21 psychiatric outpatients with major depression (MD), and 19 normal controls. All groups were age matched. Subjects completed a structured psychiatric interview (Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) and a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), in addition to a test of self-schema, which involved rating and recall of a variety of "depressed" and "nondepressed" content adjectives. Consistent with previous work on self-schema, the MD group recalled significantly more depressed adjectives rated under the self-referent task than the Control group (p less than 0.05) and, also, the IBS group (p less than 0.05). Most striking was the finding that a subgroup of IBS patients who met criteria for MD (43% of the sample) recalled significantly more self-referent nondepressed words (and less self-referent depressed words) than the MD group (p less than 0.05). In other words, IBS patients with MD do not view themselves as depressed. These findings suggest that while some IBS and depressed psychiatric outpatients may share depressive symptoms, these groups can be differentiated by their self-schema.

  16. Associations between emotional intelligence, depression and suicide risk in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2014-04-01

    The most important factor which predisposes young people to suicide is depression, although protective factors such as self-esteem, emotional adaptation and social support may reduce the probability of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Several studies have indicated an elevated risk of suicide for health-related professions. Little is known, however, about the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and suicide risk among nursing students. The main goals were to determine the prevalence of suicide risk in a sample of nursing students, to examine the relationship between suicide risk and perceived emotional intelligence, depression, trait anxiety and self-esteem, and to identify any gender differences in relation to these variables. Cross-sectional study of nursing students (n=93) who completed self-report measures of perceived emotional intelligence (Trait Meta-Mood Scale, which evaluates three dimensions: emotional attention, clarity and repair), suicide risk (Plutchik Suicide Risk Scale), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale), depression (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) and anxiety (Trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Linear regression analysis confirmed that depression and emotional attention are significant predictors of suicidal ideation. Moreover, suicide risk showed a significant negative association with self-esteem and with emotional clarity and repair. Gender differences were only observed in relation to depression, on which women scored significantly higher. Overall, 14% of the students were considered to present a substantial suicide risk. The findings suggest that interventions to prevent suicidal ideation among nursing students should include strategies to detect mood disorders (especially depression) and to improve emotional coping skills. In line with previous research the results indicate that high scores on emotional attention are linked to heightened emotional susceptibility and an increased risk of

  17. Depressive features among adult patients receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV in Rustenburg district, SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bongongo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Globally, it is estimated that depressive features occur in 15 - 36% of people suffering from chronic diseases and 60% of people with HIV/AIDS. A high prevalence of mental disorders among HIV-infected individuals has been shown in South Africa and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Untreated depression leads to poor adherence to treatment and poor quality of life for patients with chronic diseases. Methods. Using the Zung self-rating scale, we screened for depressive features among adult patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART who attended primary healthcare facilities in the Rustenburg district of North West Province in South Africa during December 2009. Results. Among 117 participants, 81 (69.2 % had mild depressive features, 2 (1.7% had moderate depressive features, 1 (0.9 % had severe depressive features and 33 (28.2% did not have depressive features. Depressive features were more common in males (77.1% than in females (69.5%, and were most common in patients taking the combination of efavirenz, lamivudine and stavudine. Conclusion. Depressive features seem to be common among adult patients receiving HAART and attending primary healthcare facilities in the Rustenburg district.

  18. Effects of perceived job insecurity on depression, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health in Korea: a population-based panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Hong, Yun-Chul; Yook, Ji-Hoo; Kang, Mo-Yeol

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effects of job security on new development of depressive episode, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health. Data from the Korea Welfare Panel Study from 2012 to 2015 were analysed. A total of 2912 waged workers self-assessed their depressive episode, suicide ideation, and health annually by answering the questionnaire. Participants were divided into three groups according to the level of job security: high, intermediate and low. To evaluate the influence of job security, we performed survival analysis after stratification by gender with adjustment for covariates. The result was further stratified by whether the respondent was the head of household. After adjusting for covariates, men in low job security group showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for depression (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60), suicide ideation (HR 3.25, 95% CI 1.72-6.16), and decline in self-rated health (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.16-2.59). Women showed significantly higher HR of depression in the intermediate (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.87) and low (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.12-1.99) job security group. Male head of household with low job security showed significantly higher HR of depression, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health. Non-head-of-household women with intermediate and low job security showed higher risk of depression than those with high job security. We found that perceived job insecurity is associated with the new development of depressive episode, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health.

  19. Chilean experimental version of the State-Trait Depression Questionnaire (ST-DEP: Trait sub-scale (T-DEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vera-Villarroel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This instrumental study presents the first validity and reliability data for the Trait subscale (T-DEP of the Chilean experimental version of the State and Trait Depression Inventory (ST-DEP: Euthymia and Dysthymia. The data were obtained from a sample of 300 university students. The internal consistency values for the TDEP were high (.90. The test-retest values from eight weeks time interval (fifty six days were elevated (.78. A factorial analysis of the principal components revealed a principal factor for all of the constructed items in this experimental version of the TDEP. The last, promax rotation showed two clear main factors similar in size: negative affectivity (Dysthymia and positive affectivity (Euthymia. The convergent validity indexes for the Beck Depression Inventory and the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale, were also high, with indexes ranging from .64 to .71. The correlation between State- Trait Anxiety Inventory and the depression scales used in this study was high (between .63 and .78, once again indicating the usual overlapping between anxiety and depression seen in most depression inventories.

  20. Self-Help for Depression via E-mail: A Randomised Controlled Trial of Effects on Depression and Self-Help Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Morgan

    Full Text Available Self-help or self-management strategies are commonly used to deal with depression, but not all are thought to be helpful. A previous study found that sub-threshold depression symptoms were improved by an e-mail intervention that encouraged the use of evidence-based self-help strategies.To investigate whether these e-mails were effective for adults with a range of depression symptomatology including major depression.The study was a parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Adult participants with any level of depressive symptoms were recruited over the internet from the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and the United States. Participants were randomised to receive a series of e-mails either promoting the use of evidence-based self-help strategies or containing depression information as a control. E-mails were sent automatically twice a week for six weeks. Depression symptoms were assessed with the self-rated Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9.1736 participants with a wide range of symptom severity were recruited and assigned to active (n = 862 and control (n = 874 groups. However, there was a significant attrition rate, with 66.9% lost to follow-up at post-intervention. Both groups showed large improvements in depression symptoms overall, with no significant difference in improvement at the end of the study (mean difference in improvement 0.35 points, 95% CI: -0.57 to 1.28, d = 0.11, 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.27, although there was a small effect at the study mid-point. Results were similar for the sub-group of participants with major depression. The active group showed small to moderate improvements in self-help behaviour (d = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.56.These results suggest that the e-mails were able to increase participants' use of evidence-based self-help, but that this did not improve depression more than an attention control.NCT01399502.

  1. Exercise impact on depressed patients’ self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi-Nezhad, Mahdi

    . A sample of 96 Danish psychiatric patients completed the PSPP, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA). The Danish version of the PSPP showed high internal consistency and Applying the exploratory and confirmatory factor......The overall aim of the present thesis is to investigate the effects of aerobic, anaerobic and relaxation forms of exercise on physical self-perception and self-esteem of Danish epressed patients. This study was designed as part of a larger project called DEMO which was a parallel-group, randomised...... of the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP) in Danish depressed patients. We also tested the ability of the PSPP for discriminant validity when depression groups were compared with normal adults. The mediating role of self-esteem in physical self-perceptions and negative affect relationship were examined...

  2. The impact of child and family stressors on the self-rated health of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder: Associations with depressed mood over a 12-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Paul R

    2018-05-01

    Employing a cohort sequential design and multilevel modeling, the effects of child and family stressors and maternal depressed mood on the self-rated health of 110 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder were assessed over a 12-year period when children in the study were 7-19 years old. Findings indicate a significant decline in self-rated health over time. In addition, child and family stressors, as well as maternal depressed mood, exerted significant between-persons effects on self-rated health such that mothers who reported more stressors and depressed mood across the study period were less likely to rate themselves in better health across that period. In addition, a significant within-person relationship between maternal depressed mood and self-rated health was found, indicating that at times when mothers reported higher levels of depressed mood than usual (their personal average across the study), they were significantly less likely to report better self-rated health. Finally, maternal depressed mood partially mediated the between-persons effects of child and family stressors on self-rated health such that increased stressors led to increased maternal depressed mood which, in turn, led to poorer maternal self-rated health. Findings suggest that chronic stressors erode maternal health over time and that depression may be an important mechanism linking stressors to decreased maternal health.

  3. Factors related to depression and eating disorders: self-esteem, body image, and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, H J; Sellers, M I; Waligroski, K

    1993-06-01

    To test hypotheses that women suffering from some form of eating disorder would experience lower self-esteem and higher depression and that women with lower self-esteem and greater depression would rate their attractiveness lower and see themselves as heavier than less depressed individuals, 42 college undergraduate women were individually administered the Eating Disorders Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, and a Body Image/Attractiveness Perception Scale. A Pearson correlation indicated a substantial relation between scores on depression and scores on eating disorders, but nonsignificant values between self-esteem scores and scores on either eating disorders or on depression. Depression scores correlated significantly with rated body size, but not attractiveness, while self-esteem scores were significantly correlated with rated attractiveness, not body size. These results contradict literature on the relation between self-esteem and depression. Directions for additional research are discussed.

  4. Self-complexity, self-evaluation, and depression: an examination of form and content within the self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfolk, R L; Novalany, J; Gara, M A; Allen, L A; Polino, M

    1995-06-01

    Six studies examined the relationship between self-complexity and variables related to self-evaluation. Self-complexity was found to comprise two components: positive self-complexity and negative self-complexity. Positive self-complexity was sensitive to methodological factors, namely, variations in stimulus materials used for self-ratings. Negative self-complexity was relatively stable in the face of different rating stimuli and tasks and was related to trait measures of self-evaluation, psychic distress, and psychopathology. These findings were observed and replicated. Higher negative self-complexity was associated with increases in depression symptoms over time. Higher negative self-complexity also predicted a poorer prognosis and less complete recovery from depression in a clinical sample. Results are discussed in light of related research and possible social-cognitive mechanisms.

  5. Self-stigma in depressive patients: Association of cognitive schemata, depression, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotsu, Sakie; Horikawa, Naoshi

    2016-12-01

    Many empirical studies have indicated that various psychosocial and psychiatric variables are correlated with levels of self-stigma. Treatment methods for reducing self-stigma have been investigated in recent years, especially those examining the relationship between negative cognitive schemata and self-stigma. This study examined the relationship of self-stigma with cognitive schemata, depression, and self-esteem in depressive patients. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate three hypothetical models. Study participants were 110 patients with depression (54 men, 56 women; mean age=45.65years, SD=12.68; 83 diagnosed with mood disorders; 22 with neurotic, stress-related, or somatoform disorders; and 5 with other disorders) attending a psychiatric service. Outcomes were measured using the Japanese versions of the Devaluation-Discrimination Scale, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale. The analysis indicated a better fit of the model that assumed self-stigma as mediator, suggesting that cognitive schemata influence self-stigma, while self-stigma affects depression and self-esteem. The tested models using SEM indicated that (1) self-stigma has the potential to mediate the relationship between cognitive schemata and depression, and (2) depression and self-stigma have a similar influence on self-esteem. Although low self-esteem is considered one of the symptoms of depression, when we aim to recover self-esteem, we do not only observe improvement in depressive symptoms; thus, approaches that focus on the reduction of self-stigma are probably valid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [The relationship between mobbing and depression syndrome in the female working population of service industry: the problem statement and the prevention strategies in Sicilian environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, C; De Giovanni, L; Santoro, P E; Spataro, M

    2007-01-01

    The concept of "work" and the social interactions in the workplace contribute to develop the working satisfaction and the social and personal identity of the adult. The aim of the survey is that of checking up on the presence of a statistically significant relation between The Depression Syndrome and The Mobbing Phenomenon. It is necessary to understand and value if and how some of the employer's behaviours could have a heavy influence on the worker's psychophysical condition, up to causing a state of anxiety and depression. It has been used the now famous "LIPT" (Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror), elaborated by Leymann at the beginning of the 90's. It is a short anonymous questionnaire recognized all over Europe as a standard to confirm the Mobbing existence in organizational contexts. The current version of the questionnaire is called "LIPT EGE", a more suitable tool to check the seven parameters of the Mobbing determination, as well as the quantification of the consequent harm. Some scales for depressive symptoms evaluation have been added to the Mobbing questionnaire: The Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and The Depression Status Inventory (DSI) of Zung. The questionnaires are administered to 500 workers women in public and private corporation in Sicily, exactly in Siracusa and Catania provinces. 206 women aged 34-50 have answered the questionnaires. In addition to the age and the sex, the distinction variables of the examined people are the position in the firm, nationality, vocational qualification, and the yearly gross income. The research has begun in july and has continued on august 2006. Attention has been focused only on the administrative sectors. Through the chi2 test and the exact Fisher test, the dependence between the changeable presence of depression in the two questionnaires (Zung 1 and Zung 2) and every single variable of the questionnaire on the Mobbing has been pointed out. In particular, the results establish a connection between

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and suicidality in inpatients with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Glenys; Mills, Katherine; Murray, Robin; Teesson, Maree; Farrugia, Philippa

    2012-05-01

    The international literature suggests that traumatic events are common for patients with substance use disorders (SUDs), and are often associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric comorbidities. However, limited research has been conducted among Australian SUD patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of these disorders in a group of Australian patients admitted for detoxification. Data were collected from 253 inpatients using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the 10-item Trauma Screening Questionnaire, the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale and questions from the PsyCheck. Approximately 20% of inpatients experienced moderate to severe depressive symptoms, and 37% had a lifetime history of self-harm or attempted suicide. Approximately 80% of patients had experienced at least one traumatic event, most experiencing multiple traumas. The mean age of first trauma was 14years. Almost 45% of patients screened positive for current PTSD symptoms. Women were nine times more likely to have been raped and five times more likely to have been sexually molested than men. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater trauma exposure, younger age of first trauma, specific trauma types, moderate to severe depressive symptoms and a history of self-harm or attempted suicide. Despite their difficulties, patients with PTSD symptoms had high rates of retention in treatment. Patients entering treatment for SUDs should be assessed for PTSD, depression and suicidality. These conditions impact significantly on treatment outcomes, and require the development of appropriate treatment strategies. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Exploración de la validez de constructo de la escala de Zung para depresión en adolescentes escolarizados

    OpenAIRE

    Adalberto Campo; Carmen Elena Díaz; Zuleima Cogollo

    2006-01-01

    Antecedentes: La escala de Zung para depresión se ha usado en varios estudios en adolescentes colombianos. No obstante, la validez de constructo de esta escala no se conoce en este grupo etáreo. Objetivo: Validar el constructo de la escala de Zung para depresión en adolescentes que asistían a un colegio ubicado en un estrato bajo de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia. Método: Un grupo de 408 estudiantes entre 13 y 17 años (promedio 14.7) diligenciaron en el aula de clase la escala de Zung pa...

  9. Exploración de la validez de constructo de la escala de Zung para depresión en adolescentes escolarizados

    OpenAIRE

    Cogollo, Zuleima; Díaz, Carmen Elena; Campo, Adalberto

    2006-01-01

    Antecedentes: La escala de Zung para depresión se ha usado en varios estudios en adolescentes colombianos. No obstante, la validez de constructo de esta escala no se conoce en este grupo etáreo. Objetivo: Validar el constructo de la escala de Zung para depresión en adolescentes que asistían a un colegio ubicado en un estrato bajo de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia. Método: Un grupo de 408 estudiantes entre 13 y 17 años (promedio 14.7) diligenciaron en el aula de clase la escala de Zung para ...

  10. The Effect of Interpersonal Counseling for Subthreshold Depression in Undergraduates: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Yamamoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Subthreshold depression and poor stress coping strategies are major public health problems among undergraduates. Interpersonal counseling (IPC is a brief structured psychological intervention originally designed for use in primary care to treat depressive patients whose symptoms arose from current life stress. Objectives. This study examined the efficacy of IPC in treating subthreshold depression and coping strategies among undergraduates in school counseling. Materials and Methods. We carried out an exploratory randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of IPC with counseling as usual (CAU. Participants were 31 undergraduates exhibiting depression without a psychiatric diagnosis. Results. The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale total score decreased significantly in the IPC group (n=15; Z=-2.675, p=.007, but not in the CAU group (n=16. The task-oriented coping score of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations showed a tendency towards a greater increase in the IPC group than in the CAU group (t=1.919, df=29, p=.065. Conclusions. The IPC might be more useful for student counseling because it can teach realistic coping methods and reduce depressive symptoms in a short period. Further studies using more participants are required.

  11. Self-verification and depression among youth psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, T E; Katz, J; Lew, A S

    1997-11-01

    According to self-verification theory (e.g., W.B. Swann, 1983), people are motivated to preserve stable self-concepts by seeking self-confirming interpersonal responses, even if the responses are negative. In the current study of 72 youth psychiatric inpatients (36 boys; 36 girls; ages 7-17, M = 13.18; SD = 2.59), the authors provide the 1st test of self-verification theory among a youth sample. Participants completed self-report questionnaires on depression, self-esteem, anxiety, negative and positive affect, and interest in negative feedback from others. The authors made chart diagnoses available, and they collected peer rejection ratings. Consistent with hypotheses, the authors found that interest in negative feedback was associated with depression, was predictive of peer rejection (but only within relatively longer peer relationships), was more highly related to cognitive than emotional aspects of depression, and was specifically associated with depression, rather than being generally associated with emotional distress. The authors discuss implications for self-verification theory and for the phenomenology of youth depression.

  12. Presence of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Affects the First Time Treatment Efficacy and Recurrence of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Sayyid, Zahra N; Ma, Xiulan; Wang, Tian; Dong, Yaodong

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the possible effects of anxiety and/or depression symptoms on the treatment outcomes and recurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). This is a retrospective study conducted at a single institution. 142 consecutive patients diagnosed with idiopathic BPPV at the Department of Otology in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between October 2016 and July 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. 127 patients were finally included in this study. Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to evaluate the presence of anxiety and/or depression, respectively, in our BPPV patients. A significant score (at or above 50 for SAS and 53 for SDS) represents the presence of clinically significant symptoms. Two-tailed Student's t -test, χ 2 test, and logistic regression analysis were used as appropriate. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of anxiety and/or depression symptoms in BPPV patients in the present study was 49.61%. The effectiveness of the first time canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM) was 70.08%. With weekly follow-up treatments of CRM, the success rate increased to 97.64% by 1 month. The total recurrence rate at 6-month follow-up post-cure was 14.17%. Holding all other variables constant, patients with psychiatric symptoms (Relative-risk ratio: 3.160; p  = 0.027) and patients with non-posterior semicircular canal (PSC) involvement (Relative-risk ratio: 7.828, p  = 0.013) were more likely to experience residual dizziness (RD) even after effective CRM treatment. Psychiatric symptoms (Relative-risk ratio: 6.543; p  = 0.001) and female gender (Relative-risk ratio: 4.563; p  = 0.010) are risk factors for the failure of first time CRM. In addition, BPPV patients with psychiatric symptoms (Odds ratio: 9.184, p  = 0.008) were significantly more likely to experience recurrences within the first 6 months after a successful

  13. Presence of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Affects the First Time Treatment Efficacy and Recurrence of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesTo investigate the possible effects of anxiety and/or depression symptoms on the treatment outcomes and recurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV.MethodsThis is a retrospective study conducted at a single institution. 142 consecutive patients diagnosed with idiopathic BPPV at the Department of Otology in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between October 2016 and July 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. 127 patients were finally included in this study. Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS and Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS were used to evaluate the presence of anxiety and/or depression, respectively, in our BPPV patients. A significant score (at or above 50 for SAS and 53 for SDS represents the presence of clinically significant symptoms. Two-tailed Student’s t-test, χ2 test, and logistic regression analysis were used as appropriate. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.ResultsThe prevalence of anxiety and/or depression symptoms in BPPV patients in the present study was 49.61%. The effectiveness of the first time canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM was 70.08%. With weekly follow-up treatments of CRM, the success rate increased to 97.64% by 1 month. The total recurrence rate at 6-month follow-up post-cure was 14.17%. Holding all other variables constant, patients with psychiatric symptoms (Relative-risk ratio: 3.160; p = 0.027 and patients with non-posterior semicircular canal (PSC involvement (Relative-risk ratio: 7.828, p = 0.013 were more likely to experience residual dizziness (RD even after effective CRM treatment. Psychiatric symptoms (Relative-risk ratio: 6.543; p = 0.001 and female gender (Relative-risk ratio: 4.563; p = 0.010 are risk factors for the failure of first time CRM. In addition, BPPV patients with psychiatric symptoms (Odds ratio: 9.184, p = 0.008 were significantly more likely to experience recurrences within the first 6

  14. Prevalence and incidence of depressive and anxious symptoms in couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment in an Italian infertility department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaffarino, Francesca; Baldini, Maria P; Scarduelli, Claudia; Bommarito, Francesca; Ambrosio, Stefania; D'Orsi, Cristiana; Torretta, Rossella; Bonizzoni, Micol; Ragni, Guido

    2011-10-01

    We have conducted a longitudinal observational study in order to evaluate the prevalence and the incidence of depressive and anxious symptoms in women and men seeking infertility treatment and to analyze associated factors or risk factors for these kinds of disorders. A total of 1000 consecutive couples that visited our center for the first time were asked to join this study. Depressive and anxious symptoms were assessed with self-rating Zung Depression Scale (ZDS) and Zung Anxiety Scale (ZAS) questionnaires. A second assessment was planned at the time of β HCG dosage (or at the moment of cycle suspension). A standard questionnaire was used to investigate socio-demographic information and the psychological aspects of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. The fertility history and outcome of IVF treatment were collected from patients' medical records. 14.7% of women had anxious symptoms and 17.9% depressive symptoms, whereas 4.5% of men had anxious symptoms and 6.9% depressive symptoms. Women with depressive and anxious symptoms were younger, more often had an anxious partner and had a longer history of infertility. Men with depressive and anxious symptoms more frequently had a temporary job, they had an anxious partner and they were more frequently at the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. The incidence of depressive and/or anxious symptoms was 18.5% in women and 7.4% in men. Age and previous IVF treatments seem not to be associated with incidence of depressive or anxious symptoms. Both the prevalence and incidence of depressive and/or anxious symptoms in couples undergoing IVF treatment were worthy of note and should not be underestimated. More attention must be paid to psychological aspects in young women and in couples with a long history of infertility or previous failure treatments. Having an anxious partner was associated with anxious and depressive symptoms. For this reason, both males and females might benefit from psychological

  15. Depressive self-presentation: beyond self-handicapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, G; Williams, J P

    1990-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the notion that depressives' responses would reflect a protective self-presentation style (Hill, Weary, & Williams, 1986), the underlying goal of which would be the avoidance of future performance demands and potential losses in self-esteem. In this study, depressed and nondepressed Ss were asked to perform a relatively simple visual-motor task. Half of the depressed and half of the nondepressed Ss were told that if they were successful at the task, they would be asked to perform a 2nd, similar task. The remaining Ss were given no such expectation of future performance. We predicted and found that depressed compared with nondepressed Ss strategically failed at the task when presented with the possibility of future performance and further losses in esteem. Moreover, this strategic failure was associated with some costs; depressed-future performance expectancy Ss experienced more discomfort or negative affect as a result of their performance. The relationship between this depressive self-presentation and self-handicapping strategies is discussed.

  16. Self-compassion in depression: associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse

    2013-09-01

    Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Self-Other Agreement and Metaperception Accuracy Across the Big Five: Examining the Roles of Depression and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Daniel; Roberts, John E

    2018-04-01

    The ability to judge other people's personality characteristics and to know how we are viewed by others are important aspects of social cognition. The present study tested the impact of depressive symptoms and low self-esteem on self-other agreement and the accuracy of metaperception (i.e., how we believe others view us) across the Big Five dimensions of personality. Participants who varied in depressive symptoms engaged in a 10-minute "getting to know you" interaction in dyads. Ratings on the Big Five personality dimensions, depression, and self-esteem were completed prior to the interaction. After the interaction, participants rated the personality of their partner and rated how they believed their partner would rate them (metaperception). Self-other agreement was only found on Extraversion, whereas there was significant meta-accuracy on Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion. Depressive symptoms and low self-esteem negatively biased metaperceptions of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism. Depression and low self-esteem function to negatively bias how we believe we are seen by others in new acquaintanceships and therefore may play an important role in the development of interpersonal relationships. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Impact of facial burns: relationship between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewerf, Cornelis Johannes; van Baar, Margriet Elisabeth; Middelkoop, Esther; van Loey, Nancy Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the role of self-reported facial scar severity as a possible influencing factor on self-esteem and depressive symptoms in patients with facial burns. A prospective multicentre cohort study with a 6 months follow-up was conducted including 132 patients with facial burns. Patients completed the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the relations between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity. The model showed that patient-rated facial scar severity was not predictive for self-esteem and depressive symptoms six months post-burn. There was, however, a significant relationship between early depressive symptoms and both patient-rated facial scar severity and subsequent self-esteem. The variables in the model accounted for 37% of the variance in depressive symptoms six months post-burn and the model provided a moderately well-fitting representation of the data. The study suggests that self-esteem and depressive symptoms were not affected by self-reported facial scar severity but that earlier depressive symptoms were indicative for a more severe self-reported facial scar rating. Therefore, routine psychological screening during hospitalisation is recommended in order to identify patients at risk and to optimise their treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Consistency of the Self-Schema in Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael J.; Mueller, John H.

    Depressed individuals may filter or distort environmental information in direct relationship to their self perceptions. To investigate the degree of uncertainty about oneself and others, as measured by consistent/inconsistent responses, 72 college students (32 depressed and 40 nondepressed) rated selected adjectives from the Derry and Kuiper…

  20. Depression following intracerebral hemorrhage and the evaluation of cerebral blood flow by single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masada, Tetsuya; Makabe, Tetsuo; Kunishio, Katsuzo; Matsumoto, Akira

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied patients who presented depression and apathy following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Twelve patients who were admitted in our hospital were divided into two groups according to the presence of post-stroke depression (PSD). Five patients with PSD are in group A, and another seven patients without PSD are in group B. Zung-self depression scale (SDS) and apathy scale were used for screening of depression and apathy. PSD was recognized in 5 (42%) of patients following ICH. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) suggested the reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the frontal lobe in all patients of the group A (100%), whereas only 29% of patients of the group B. The reduction of CBF in the frontal lobe might be involved in the mechanism of depression following ICH in subacute stage. (author)

  1. Dependency and self-criticism in treatments for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Harold; Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Dinger, Ulrike; Barrett, Marna S; Barber, Jacques P

    2016-07-01

    Dependency and self-criticism are vulnerability factors for depression. How these personality factors change with treatment for depression and how they relate to symptom change across different types of treatment require further research. In addition, cultural differences that interact with the dependency/self-criticism-depression relation remain underinvestigated. We randomly assigned 149 adults with major depression to receive active medication (MED; n = 50), supportive-expressive therapy (SET; n = 49), or placebo pill (PBO; n = 50). Participants completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976) before and after treatment and completed the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1967) throughout the course of treatment. Self-criticism as measured on the DEQ decreased with treatment similarly across conditions. DEQ Dependency decreased in MED but remained unchanged in SET and PBO. Higher initial dependency, but not higher initial self-criticism, predicted poor treatment response across conditions. Greater reduction in self-criticism was associated with greater reduction in depressive symptoms, but the effect was weaker for racial minorities (vs. White). Increase in connectedness, an adaptive form of dependency, was associated with symptom improvement in SET but not MED. Hence, different pathways of change seem to be implicated in the treatment of depression depending on culture and type of intervention. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The Direct/Indirect Association of ADHD/ODD Symptoms with Self-esteem, Self-perception, and Depression in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using structural equation modeling. Severe inattentive symptoms decreased self-esteem and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms affected self-perception for non-academic domains. Although these ADHD symptoms did not directly affect depressive symptoms, low self-esteem led to severe depression. ODD symptoms had a direct impact on depression without the mediating effects of self-esteem. These results indicated that inattentive symptoms had a negative impact on self-esteem and an indirect negative effect on depressive symptoms in adolescents, even if ADHD symptoms were subthreshold. Severe ODD symptoms can be directly associated with depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  3. Correlation and characteristics of self-rating and clinical rating of depression among alcoholics in the course of early abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Gajić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Depression is an alcoholism relapse risk factor, but frequently stays underdiagnosed among treated alcoholics. The correlation and characteristics of self-reported and clinically assessed depression in the course of early alcohol abstinence were explored. Methods. A total of 100 inpatient, primary male alcoholics (20-60 years diagnosed according to Classificaton of Mental and Behavioural Disorders (ICD-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV were recruited consecutively. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were scored on admission (T1, after 4 weeks (T2 and after 8 weeks (T3. Student's t-test, repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson's correlation between the scores were done (p < 0.05. Factor analyses of symptoms were performed. Results: On HDRS T1, T2, T3 90,7%, 39.5%, 17.4% alcoholics were depressive, respectively. The mean HDRS vs BDI scores on T1, T2 and T3 were 15.16 ± 6.34, 7.35 ± 4.18, 4.23 ± 2.93 vs 14.20 ± 9.56, 8.14 ± 7.35, 5.30 ± 4.94, respectively. Depression severity significantly lowered in the course of abstinence (ANOVA. The HRDS and BDI correlations on T1, T2 and T3 were significant (r1 = 0.763, r2 = 0.684, r3 = 0.613 respectively. Dysphoric mood, anxious, vegetative and cognitive HDRS subscales on T1, T2 and T3 were detected, but not BDI factors, thus BDI symptoms were analysed. Conclusions. The majority of alcoholics had depression on admission. A predominant mild-degree with a significant lowering of depression severity and positive significant correlations between HRDS and BDI scores in the course of abstinence were detected. The dysphoric mood on the HDRS sub-scale, and self-blame, anhedonia and guilt BDI symptoms were most prominent and persisted. The BDI could be a useful tool not only for routine screening and reassessment of depression, but also for exploring emotional content during early abstinence and planning tailored

  4. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Results: The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376. Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–3.14, p = 0.049, whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044. Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.77, p = 0.028. Conclusions: This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms.

  5. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24-83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376). Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, p = 0.049), whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044). Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.77, p = 0.028). This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Contingent self-esteem and vulnerability to depression: Academic contingent self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eSchöne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE predicts depressive symptoms, two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10–16 (N = 1888 in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1 gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and depressive symptoms and lower on self-esteem level than did boys, and aCSE and depressive symptoms decreased and self-esteem level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2 After controlling for self-esteem level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on depressive symptoms disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on depressive symptoms. (3 aCSE predicted depressive symptoms over and above self-esteem level.Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160 was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing depressive symptoms in the face of academic stress (daily hassles during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with

  7. Self-rated health, symptoms of depression and general symptoms at 3 and 12 months after a first-ever stroke: a municipality-based study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassler Ejda

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health is an important indicator of quality of life as well as a good predictor of future health. The purpose of the study was to follow up the self-rated health and the prevalence of symptoms of depression and general symptoms in a population of first-ever stroke patients 3 and 12 months after stroke. Methods All patients surviving their first-ever stroke and residing in Nacka municipality in Stockholm County Council were included using a multiple overlapping search strategy during an 18-month period (n = 187. Our study group comprised the 145 patients who survived the first 3 months after stroke. Three and 12 months after their stroke, the patients were assessed regarding self-rated health and general symptoms using parts of the Göteborg Quality of Life Instrument (GQLI, and regarding symptoms of depression using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS-S. Results Self-rated health was rated as very good or rather good by 62% at 3 months after stroke and by 78% at 12 months after stroke. More than half of the patients suffered from symptoms of depression, with no significant improvement at 12 months. The most common general symptoms at 3 months after stroke were fatigue, sadness, pain in the legs, dizziness and irritability. Fatigue and sadness were still common at 12 months. Twelve months after stroke the prevalences of crying easily, irritability, impaired concentration, nausea and loss of weight were significantly lower. Conclusion The majority of patients rated their health as rather good or very good at 3 and 12 months after stroke. However, the majority suffered from fatigue and from symptoms of depression after both 3 and 12 months. In continued care of stroke survivors, it is important to consider the fact that many patients who rate their health as good may nevertheless have symptoms of depression, and some of them may benefit from anti-depressive treatment.

  8. Social support and pregnancy: II. Its relationship with depressive symptoms among Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, K; Sugawara, M

    1998-02-01

    In a questionnaire survey among 1329 first-trimester pregnant women, both the husband support measures and unwanted pregnancy ('stressor' agent in pregnancy) showed significant effects on an elevated score of the cognitive disturbance subscale of the Zung's self-rating depression scale (SDS), while only unwanted pregnancies showed an effect on an elevated score of the dysphoric mood subscale of the SDS. However, no interaction was observed between the husband support measures and unwanted pregnancy, therefore the effect of the husband's social support on the cognitive disturbance score was not that of a buffer, but rather a main effector. Finally, multiple regression analyses showed that the dysphoric mood score was preceded by unwanted pregnancy, premenstrual irritability, public self-consciousness, and maternal overprotection; while the cognitive disturbance score was preceded by unwanted pregnancy, husband reduced 'given' and 'giving' support, maternal reduced care and overprotection, paternal reduced care, low annual income, low private self-consciousness, and smoking. These findings suggest that the husband's support for a pregnant woman is effective only in reducing cognitive symptoms, and that different symptomatic constellations have different sets of psychosocial correlates.

  9. [Cost-effectiveness of Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Telepsychiatry in Prison Inmates With Depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Valencia, Camilo; Benito-Devia, Alexis Vladimir; Vélez-Álvarez, Consuelo; Figueroa-Barrera, Mario; Franco-Idárraga, Sandra Milena

    Telepsychiatry is defined as the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in providing remote psychiatric services. Telepsychiatry is applied using two types of communication: synchronous (real time) and asynchronous (store and forward). To determine the cost-effectiveness of a synchronous and an asynchronous telepsychiatric model in prison inmate patients with symptoms of depression. A cost-effectiveness study was performed on a population consisting of 157 patients from the Establecimiento Penitenciario y Carcelario de Mediana Seguridad de Manizales, Colombia. The sample was determined by applying Zung self-administered surveys for depression (1965) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the latter being the tool used for the comparison. Initial Hamilton score, arrival time, duration of system downtime, and clinical effectiveness variables had normal distributions (P>.05). There were significant differences (P<.001) between care costs for the different models, showing that the mean cost of the asynchronous model is less than synchronous model, and making the asynchronous model more cost-effective. The asynchronous model is the most cost-effective model of telepsychiatry care for patients with depression admitted to a detention centre, according to the results of clinical effectiveness, cost measurement, and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. The Direct/Indirect Association of ADHD/ODD Symptoms with Self-esteem, Self-perception, and Depression in Early Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using structural equation modeling. Severe inattentive symptoms decreased self-esteem and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms affected self-perception for non-academic domains. Although these ADHD symptoms did not directly affect depressive symptoms, low self-esteem led to severe depression. ODD symptoms had a direct impact on depression without the mediating effects of self-esteem. These results indicated that inattentive symptoms had a negative impact on self-esteem and an indirect negative effect on depressive symptoms in adolescents, even if ADHD symptoms were subthreshold. Severe ODD symptoms can be directly associated with depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  11. The Direct/Indirect Association of ADHD/ODD Symptoms with Self-esteem, Self-perception, and Depression in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using structural equation modeling. Severe inattentive symptoms decreased self-esteem and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms affected self-perception for non-academic domains. Although these ADHD symptoms did not directly affect depressive symptoms, low self-esteem led to severe depression. ODD symptoms had a direct impact on depression without the mediating effects of self-esteem. These results indicated that inattentive symptoms had a negative impact on self-esteem and an indirect negative effect on depressive symptoms in adolescents, even if ADHD symptoms were subthreshold. Severe ODD symptoms can be directly associated with depressive symptoms during early adolescence. PMID:28824468

  12. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-07-08

    Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China. In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Elderly adults whose parents preferred positive and authoritative parenting styles had higher levels of mental resilience and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Elderly adults parented in the authoritarian style were found to have higher levels of depression and anxiety, with lower mental resilience. The findings of this study provide evidence related to successful ageing and coping with life pressures, and highlight the important effects of parenting on mental health. The results suggest that examination of the proximal determinants of successful ageing is not sufficient-distal factors may also contribute to the 'success' of ageing by modifying key psychological dispositions that promote adaptation to adversity.

  13. Assessment of Body perception, Psychological Distress, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... (MBSRQ), Zung Depression Rating Scale, and Zung Anxiety Rating Scale were applied to ... psychological distress, and subjective quality of life among obese and ... kg/m2, not receiving any medication, no special training .... Emotional role ..... Questionnaire (MBSRQ) showed positive improvement.

  14. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  15. Verbal responses, depressive symptoms, reminiscence functions and cognitive emotion regulation in older women receiving individual reminiscence therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Hao; Gong, Qiyong; Hu, Xiuying

    2018-07-01

    To examine the effectiveness of individual reminiscence therapy in community-dwelling older women with depressive symptoms and to explore the characteristics of participants' verbalisation in the process. Previous studies have found reminiscence was related to depression and anxiety. Although reminiscence therapy is widely used to reduce depression, little is known about how it works, and the content of verbalisations might provide one explanation. The study employed a one-group pretest-post-test design. Twenty-seven participants underwent 6-week interventions of individual reminiscence therapy at home that were conducted by one nurse and induced through seeing old photographs. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Reminiscence Functions Scale and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire were used to measure the emotional states, reminiscence functions and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Participants' verbalisations were categorised using the Client Behavior System. Reminiscence therapy relieved depression and anxiety. Both the reminiscence function and cognitive emotion regulation became more favourable after interventions. Furthermore, higher frequencies of recounting, cognitive-behavioural exploration and affective exploration were noted in the process. Participants with more severe depressive symptoms tended to display a higher frequency of affective exploration. The reduction in depression, self-negative reminiscence and negative-focused emotion regulation were respectively associated with verbalisations. Individual reminiscence therapy might relieve negative emotion and improve reminiscence function and cognitive emotion regulation. The participants' verbalisation is worthy of our attention, due to its correlation with the severity of depression and its mitigating effects on the depression, anxiety, self-negative reminiscence and negative-focused regulation in older women. The results contribute to our understanding of

  16. Depression in Intimate Partner Violence Victims in Slovenia: A Crippling Pattern of Factors Identified in Family Practice Attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Kopčavar Guček

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This multi-centre cross-sectional study explored associations between prevalence of depression and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV at any time in patients’ adult life in 471 participants of a previous IPV study. In 2016, 174 interviews were performed, using the Short Form Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire, the Zung Scale and questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to IPV. Family doctors reviewed patients’ medical charts for period from 2012 to 2016, using the Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List, for conditions which persisted for at least three years. Depression was found to be associated with any exposure to IPV in adult life and was more likely to affect women. In multivariable logistic regression modelling, factors associated with self-rated depression were identified (p < 0.05. Exposure to emotional and physical violence was identified as a risk factor in the first model, explaining 23% of the variance. The second model explained 66% of the variance; past divorce, dysfunctional family relationships and a history of incapacity to work increased the likelihood of depression in patients. Family doctors should consider IPV exposure when detecting depression, since lifetime IPV exposure was found to be 40.4% and 36.9% of depressed revealed it.

  17. Depression in Intimate Partner Violence Victims in Slovenia: A Crippling Pattern of Factors Identified in Family Practice Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guček, Nena Kopčavar; Selič, Polona

    2018-01-26

    This multi-centre cross-sectional study explored associations between prevalence of depression and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) at any time in patients' adult life in 471 participants of a previous IPV study. In 2016, 174 interviews were performed, using the Short Form Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire, the Zung Scale and questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to IPV. Family doctors reviewed patients' medical charts for period from 2012 to 2016, using the Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List, for conditions which persisted for at least three years. Depression was found to be associated with any exposure to IPV in adult life and was more likely to affect women. In multivariable logistic regression modelling, factors associated with self-rated depression were identified (p < 0.05). Exposure to emotional and physical violence was identified as a risk factor in the first model, explaining 23% of the variance. The second model explained 66% of the variance; past divorce, dysfunctional family relationships and a history of incapacity to work increased the likelihood of depression in patients. Family doctors should consider IPV exposure when detecting depression, since lifetime IPV exposure was found to be 40.4% and 36.9% of depressed revealed it.

  18. Contribution of Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem in Predicting Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996,Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985 and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 200 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years,selected from Agra city. The results of the research showed that there was significant positive relationship between self-esteem and collectiveself-esteem (p < .01, significant negative relationship between self-esteem and depression (p < .01. It was also found that collective self-esteemwas a significant predictor of depression. This research implies that an optimum level of self-esteem and high collective self-esteem not onlyprevents depression but also enhances the positive aspects of personality.

  19. Relationships between self-reported physical and mental health and intelligence performance across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, M; Nyquist, L

    1990-07-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven adults between 20 and 90 years of age were tested on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for their digit span memory (forward and backward), fluid intelligence (block design and digit symbol), and crystallized intelligence (vocabulary and information), as well as assessed for self-reported health (Cornell Medical Index, Zung Depression Scale, health habits, and self-ratings of physical and mental health). As expected, across the entire age range there was no correlation between age and digit span memory (r = .03), a strong negative correlation between age and fluid intelligence (r = -.78), and a modest positive correlation between age and crystallized intelligence (r = .27). In addition, older adults reported more physical (r = .36) and mental (r = .32) health problems than did younger adults. Of special interest was the finding that both self-reported physical and mental health accounted for significant variance in intelligence performance, particularly in older adults. Moreover, self-reported health accounted for a considerable portion of observed variance, even when age differences in self-reported health were statistically controlled.

  20. Self-rumination, self-reflection, and depression: self-rumination counteracts the adaptive effect of self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-03-01

    Self-focused attention has adaptive and maladaptive aspects: self-reflection and self-rumination [Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the Five-Factor Model of personality: distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 284-304]. Although reflection is thought to be associated with problem solving and the promotion of mental health, previous researches have shown that reflection does not always have an adaptive effect on depression. Authors have examined the causes behind this inconsistency by modeling the relationships among self-reflection, self-rumination, and depression. One hundred and eleven undergraduates (91 men and 20 women) participated in a two-time point assessment with a 3-week interval. Statistical analysis with structural equation modeling showed that self-reflection significantly predicted self-rumination, whereas self-rumination did not predict self-reflection. With regard to depression, self-reflection was associated with a lower level of depression; self-rumination, with a higher level of depression. The total effect of self-reflection on depression was almost zero. This result indicates that self-reflection per se has an adaptive effect, which is canceled out by the maladaptive effect of self-rumination, because reflectors are likely to ruminate and reflect simultaneously.

  1. Self-esteem level and stability, admission functional status, and depressive symptoms in acute inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Chad D; Sepehri, Arash; Evans, Clea C; Jabeen, Linsa N

    2009-11-01

    Explore the relationship of self-esteem level, self-esteem stability, and admission functional status on discharge depressive symptoms in acute stroke rehabilitation. One hundred twenty stroke survivors serially completed a measure of state self-esteem during inpatient rehabilitation and completed a measure of depressive symptoms at discharge. Functional status was rated at admission using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Regressions explored main effects and interactions of self-esteem level and stability and admission FIM self-care, mobility, and cognitive functioning on discharge depressive symptoms. After controlling for potential moderating variables, self-esteem level interacted with FIM self-care and cognitive functioning to predict discharge depressive symptoms, such that survivors with lower self-rated self-esteem and poorer functional status indicated higher levels of depressive symptoms. Self-esteem stability interacted with FIM mobility functioning, such that self-esteem instability in the presence of lower mobility functioning at admission was related to higher depressive symptoms at discharge. These results suggest that self-esteem variables may moderate the relationship between functional status and depressive symptoms. Self-esteem level and stability may differentially moderate functional domains, although this conclusion requires further empirical support.

  2. The Direct/Indirect Association of ADHD/ODD Symptoms with Self-esteem, Self-perception, and Depression in Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using...

  3. The Application Status of Psychological Scale for the Study of the Psychological Health of Ethnic Minority College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Can; Liu Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the numbers of college students who drop out of school due to mental disorders have increased dramatically. In recent years, reports on college students’ mental health crisis have drawn more and more public at-tention. Therefore, the mental health status of col-lege students is becoming a serious focus in the field of psychology. However,there are few studies on the mental health of ethnic minority college students. As a standardized practical screening instru-ment, the psychological assessment scale has be-come a widely used tool for many universities to e-valuate psychological problems. This paper intends to analyze the characteristics of the psychological scales commonly used in ethnic minority colleges, and clearly describe the status of its application. Through searching thefull-text database CNKI,we discovered that there are several tools concerning psychological scale that are used commonly in eth-nic minority colleges, including the Symptom Checklist 90 ( SCL - 90 ) , Zung Self - Rating Scales(SDS/SAS),Psychological Health Inventory ( PHI) ,Eysenck Personality Questionnaire( EPQ) , 16 PF Questionnaire ( 16 pf ) , and the College Students’Personality Health Questionnaire ( UPI ) . We did a comparative analysis on them as follows:1. The Symptom Checklist-90-R( SCL-90-R ) is a self -reporting psychometric question-naire published in 1975 . It is designed to evaluate a broad range of psychological problems and symp-toms of psychopathology. It is still one of the most widely used instruments in the investigation of the mental health of college students. 2. The Zung Self - Rating Depression Scale (SDS)and Zung Self -Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS) were designed by psychiatrist William W. K. Zung. The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scaleis used to as-sess the level of depression for patients diagnosed with depressive disorder. The Zung Self-Rating Anx-iety Scale was designed to assess a patient’s level of anxiety. Both of them are commonly used in

  4. Contribution of Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem in Predicting Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996),Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985) and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 2...

  5. Depression in Schizophrenia: Associations With Cognition, Functional Capacity, Everyday Functioning, and Self-Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip D; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Pinkham, Amy E; Depp, Colin A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-05-01

    Depressed mood has a complex relationship with self-evaluation of personal competence in multiple populations. The absence of depression may be associated with overestimation of abilities, while mild depression seems to lead to accurate self-assessment. Significant depression may lead to underestimation of functioning. In this study, we expand on our previous work by directly comparing the association between different levels of depression, everyday functioning, cognitive and functional capacity performance, and self-assessment of everyday functioning in a large (n = 406) sample of outpatients with schizophrenia. Participants with very low self-reported depression overestimated their everyday functioning compared with informant reports. Higher levels of depression were associated with more accurate self-assessment, but no subgroup of patients underestimated their functioning. Depressive symptom severity was associated with poorer informant-rated social functioning, but there were no differences in vocational functioning, everyday activities, cognitive performance, and functional capacity associated with the severity of self-reported depression. There was minimal evidence of impact of depression on most aspects of everyday functioning and objective test performance and a substantial relationship between depression and accuracy of self-assessment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Path model of antenatal stress and depressive symptoms among Chinese primipara in late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingtao; Zeng, Yingchun; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Ying; Li, Jie

    2016-07-21

    Antenatal maternal mental health problems have numerous consequences for the well-being of both mother and child. This study aimed to test and construct a pertinent model of antenatal depressive symptoms within the conceptual framework of a stress process model. This study utilized a cross-sectional study design. participants were adult women (18 years or older) having a healthy pregnancy, in their third trimester (the mean weeks gestation was 34.71). depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by Zung's Self-rating Depressive and Anxiety Scale, stress was measured by Pregnancy-related Pressure Scale, social support and coping strategies were measured by Social Support Rating Scale and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, respectively. path analysis was applied to examine the hypothesized causal paths between study variables. A total of 292 subjects were enrolled. The final testing model showed good fit, with normed χ (2) = 32.317, p = 0.061, CFI = 0.961, TLI = 0.917, IFI = 0.964, NFI = 0.900, RMSEA = 0.042. This path model supported the proposed model within the theoretical framework of the stress process model. Pregnancy-related stress, financial strain and active coping have both direct and indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Psychological preparedness for delivery, social support and anxiety levels have direct effects on antenatal depressive symptoms. Good preparedness for delivery could reduce depressive symptoms, while higher levels of anxiety could significantly increase depressive symptoms. Additionally, there were indirect effects of miscarriage history, irregular menstruation, partner relationship and passive coping with depressive symptoms. The empirical support from this study has enriched theories on the determinants of depressive symptoms among Chinese primipara, and could facilitate the formulation of appropriate interventions for reducing antenatal depressive symptoms, and enhancing the mental health of

  7. Determining optimal parameters of the self-referent encoding task: A large-scale examination of self-referent cognition and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainer-Best, Justin; Lee, Hae Yeon; Shumake, Jason D; Yeager, David S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2018-06-07

    Although the self-referent encoding task (SRET) is commonly used to measure self-referent cognition in depression, many different SRET metrics can be obtained. The current study used best subsets regression with cross-validation and independent test samples to identify the SRET metrics most reliably associated with depression symptoms in three large samples: a college student sample (n = 572), a sample of adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk (n = 293), and an adolescent sample from a school field study (n = 408). Across all 3 samples, SRET metrics associated most strongly with depression severity included number of words endorsed as self-descriptive and rate of accumulation of information required to decide whether adjectives were self-descriptive (i.e., drift rate). These metrics had strong intratask and split-half reliability and high test-retest reliability across a 1-week period. Recall of SRET stimuli and traditional reaction time (RT) metrics were not robustly associated with depression severity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert B.; Keith, Patricia M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-esteem discrepancies and depression in a long-term intimate relationship. Findings supported the hypothesis that depression is associated with discrepancies between married partners' self-appraisals, perceptions of spouse's appraisal, and spouse's actual appraisal. (Author/DB)

  9. [Mediation role of self-efficacy between social support and depression of only-child-lost people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Wang, Anni; Guo, Yufang; Yao, Shuyu; Luo, Yuanhui; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-07-28

    To investigate the relationship between social support and depression of only-child-lost (OCL) people, and the mediation role of self-efficacy in this relationship. 
 Methods: By stratified cluster sampling, 214 OCL people were enrolled, with 80 males and 134 females, ages from 49 to 83 years old. They were assessed by General Self-Efficacy Scale, Social Support Rating Scale, and Self-rating Depression Scale.
 Results: Univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in age groups (t=2.85, Psocial support scores. There was significant difference between the per capita monthly income and self-efficacy scores in QCL people (F=5.46, Psocial support were positively correlated (r=0.26, Psocial support (r=-0.59, Psocial support and depression.
 Conclusion: The person who is social support levels among QCL people. The person who has high per capita monthly income would have high self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is one of the direct prediction for depression, and plays an indirect role between social support and depression. Intervention of depression among OCL people could be applied to change their cognition, and to enhance their self-efficacy.

  10. Variability in Depressive Symptoms of Cognitive Deficit and Cognitive Bias During the First 2 Years After Diagnosis in Australian Men With Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Christie, David R H

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and contribution to total depression of the depressive symptoms of cognitive deficit and cognitive bias in prostate cancer (PCa) patients were compared from cohorts sampled during the first 2 years after diagnosis. Survey data were collected from 394 patients with PCa, including background information, treatments, and disease status, plus total scores of depression and scores for subscales of the depressive symptoms of cognitive bias and cognitive deficit via the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The sample was divided into eight 3-monthly time-since-diagnosis cohorts and according to depression severity. Mean scores for the depressive symptoms of cognitive deficit were significantly higher than those for cognitive bias for the whole sample, but the contribution of cognitive bias to total depression was stronger than that for cognitive deficit. When divided according to overall depression severity, patients with clinically significant depression showed reversed patterns of association between the two subsets of cognitive symptoms of depression and total depression compared with those patients who reported less severe depression. Differences in the incidence and contribution of these two different aspects of the cognitive symptoms of depression for patients with more severe depression argue for consideration of them when assessing and diagnosing depression in patients with PCa. Treatment requirements are also different between the two types of cognitive symptoms of depression, and several suggestions for matching treatment to illness via a personalized medicine approach are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Self-reassurance, not self-esteem, serves as a buffer between self-criticism and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocchi, Nicola; Dentale, Francesco; Gilbert, Paul

    2018-06-15

    Several studies suggest that self-criticism and self-reassurance operate through different mechanisms and might interact with each other. This study examined the hypothesis that self-reassurance serves as a buffer between self-criticism and depressive symptoms in a way that self-esteem, which is rooted in a different motivational system, may not. We hypothesized that self-criticism would be correlated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but that this association would be weaker at higher levels of self-reassurance abilities. We also hypothesized that self-esteem, a self-relating process based on feeling able and competent to achieve life goals, would not buffer the relationship between self-criticism and depression. Self-criticism, self-reassurance, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem were assessed in a sample of 419 participants (66% females; M age  = 33.40, SD = 11.13). At higher levels of self-reassurance, the relationship between self-criticism and depressive symptoms became non-significant, supporting the buffering hypothesis of self-reassurance. Despite the high correlation between self-esteem and self-reassurance, self-esteem did not moderate the relationship between self-criticism and depressive symptoms. Results support the growing evidence that not all positive self-relating processes exert the same protective function against psychopathological consequences of self-criticism. Implications for psychotherapy and the validity of using compassion-focused interventions with clients with self-critical issues are discussed. Self-reassurance and self-criticism are distinct processes and they should not be considered positive and negative variations of a single dimension Different types of positive self-relating do not show the same correlation with depressive symptoms. The ability to be self-reassuring protects against the psychopathological correlates of self-criticism while having high self-esteem does not. Compassion-focused interventions are

  12. Depression, Help-Seeking and Self-Recognition of Depression among Dominican, Ecuadorian and Colombian Immigrant Primary Care Patients in the Northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Caplan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Latinos, the largest minority group in the United States, experience mental health disparities, which include decreased access to care, lower quality of care and diminished treatment engagement. The purpose of this cross-sectional study of 177 Latino immigrants in primary care is to identify demographic factors, attitudes and beliefs, such as stigma, perceived stress, and ethnic identity that are associated with depression, help-seeking and self-recognition of depression. Results indicated that 45 participants (25% had depression by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 criteria. Factors most likely to be associated with depression were: poverty; difficulty in functioning; greater somatic symptoms, perceived stress and stigma; number of chronic illnesses; and poor or fair self-rated mental health. Fifty-four people endorsed help-seeking. Factors associated with help-seeking were: female gender, difficulty in functioning, greater somatic symptoms, severity of depression, having someone else tell you that you have an emotional problem, and poor or fair self-rated mental health. Factors most likely to be associated with self-recognition were the same, but also included greater perceived stress. This manuscript contributes to the literature by examining attitudinal factors that may be associated with depression, help-seeking and self-recognition among subethnic groups of Latinos that are underrepresented in research studies.

  13. [Predictors and longitudinal changes of depression and anxiety among medical college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Ji; Jang, Eun-Young; Park, Yong-Chon; Kim, Daeho

    2013-06-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to examine the change in depression and anxiety and their predictors over 1 year among premedical and medical students. We compared depression and anxiety from 2 waves and determined the predictive power of personality, narcissism, social comparison, and social reward value on them. Two hundred twenty-six students at a medical school in Seoul were divided into 4 groups according to academic year and completed a questionnaire at the end of 2010 and 2011. The questionnaire included the Zung Depression Scale; Zung Anxiety Scale; scales for social comparison, narcissism, and social reward value; and Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Among first- and second-year medical students, depression and anxiety increased significantly over the previous year. However, irrespective of academic year, depression increased significantly after 1 year. Also, social reward value had a moderating effect. Specifically, among students with low social reward value who entered their first year of medical school, the negative impact of the tendency toward depression and anxiety was amplified compared with older students. Because the predictors of mental health differ between groups, each group must receive specific, appropriate education. Also, because social reward value is important moderating factor of mental health, education and intervention programs that focus on social reward value are needed.

  14. Validez de la escala breve de Zung para tamizaje del episodio depresivo mayor en la población general de Bucaramanga, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Adalberto Campo; Luis Alfonso Díaz; Germán Eduardo Rueda

    2006-01-01

    Introducción. Las escalas breves para identificar trastornos depresivos conservan la utilidad de las escalas extensas como instrumentos para tamizaje. Sin embargo, no se cuenta con una escala de estas características validada en población general colombiana. Objetivo. Diseñar una escala abreviada de la escala de Zung para depresión para tamizaje de episodio depresivo mayor en adultos residentes en la comunidad general. Materiales y métodos. A partir de la aplicación de la escala de Zung...

  15. RELATIONSHIP OF SPIRITUAL-WELLBEING WITH ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aan Nuraeni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety and depression are problems faced by patients with chronic diseases such as patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. Both of these can also worsen the condition of CHD patients, thus needs to be prevented and handled. It is stated that spirituality can enhance constructive coping skills in patients with chronic diseases. But how it relates to anxiety and depression in patients with CHD in Indonesia was still unknown. Objective: The study purpose was to identify the relationship of spiritual wellbeing with the incidence of anxiety and depression in CHD patients. Methods: The research used descriptive correlative quantitative with cross sectional approach. The instruments used to measure the variabels were Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Inventory II, and Spirituality Index of Well-Being scale. Data were taken on 100 respondents within 3 months in outpatient cardiac unit with the consecutive sampling technique and analyzed by spearman correlation test. Results: The results showed mean of the anxiety; depression; and spiritual well-being respectively were 47.66; 43; and 60. Based on spearman test, spiritual wellbeing correlated with anxiety significantly p= 0.000(r=-0.371 and so was depression p= 0.000 (r=-0.571. Conclusions: There was a significant relationship between spiritual well-being with anxiety and depression with a negative correlation direction. The higher the spiritual well-being will be the lower the level of anxiety and depression. Thus nurses need to strengthen the spiritual aspects of CHD patients to prevent psychosocial problems.

  16. [Negative bias on self-referent processing in depression: focused on mood congruent effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Kyoko

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate negative bias on self-referent processing in depression, focused on the mood congruent effects in a natural depressed state and an experimentally induced transient depressed mood state. In Experiment 1, autobiographical memories and self-relevant ratings of personality trait words were examined in a natural depressed state or non-depressed state, which were measured by Beck Depression Inventory. Results revealed the mood congruent effects on both tasks. In Experiment 2, the same tasks as Experiment 1 were conducted in a transient depressed mood state or non-depressed mood state, which were induced through listening music. Unlike Experiment 1, there were no effects in both tasks, and a positive bias was observed in both mood states. It was suggested that transient mood state did not bias self-referent processing in depression, and Beck's schema hypothesis was supported.

  17. Self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when controlling for age, gender, functional disability, disease duration, anxiety and depression. One hundred eighty-four people with MS completed a sociodemographic questionnaire that included questions on employment status, the first item of the Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Functional disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. The probability of good self-rated health in employed persons was investigated using stepwise logistic regression analyses. Patients with MS who reported good self-rated health were 2.46 times more likely to be employed (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-5.59). Patients without anxiety were 2.64 times more likely to be employed (95%CI: 1.23-5.67). Patients with higher EDSS scores were 0.49 times less likely to be employed (95%CI: 0.33-0.70). Age, gender, disease duration and the presence of depression did not show an increased chance of patient employment. Patients with MS with good self-rated health are more likely to be employed, even after adjusting for age, gender, education, functional disability, disease duration, depression and anxiety. Dependent on the findings of longitudinal studies unravelling the relevant causal pahways, self-rated health might be used as a quick and cheap prognostic marker, which could warn about the possible loss of employment, or changes in functional disability.

  18. Depression, stress, emotional support, and self-esteem among baccalaureate nursing students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ratchneewan; Zeller, Richard; Srisaeng, Pakvilai; Yimmee, Suchawadee; Somchid, Sujidra; Sawatphanit, Wilaiphan

    2005-01-01

    Nursing students are valuable human resources. Detection of potential depression among nursing students is crucial since depression can lead to low productivity, minimized quality of life, and suicidal ideas. Identifying factors affecting depression among students can help nursing educators to find ways to decrease depression. The purpose of this study was to examine rates of depression and the associations between depression and stress, emotional support, and self-esteem among baccalaureate nursing students in Thailand. This correlational, cross-sectional study recruited 331 baccalaureate Thai nursing students. Students completed three instruments that had been translated into Thai: The Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Another instrument created in Thai was used to measure emotional support. Results revealed that, when using the standard definition, 50.1% of the students were depressed. Stress was positively related to depression, whereas emotional support and self-esteem were negatively related to depression.

  19. Self-Management Interventions to Prevent Depression in People with Mobility Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Driver

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This focused review reports on the impact of self-management interventions on depression in people with a mobility disability. Method There were two phases to the search including a comprehensive scoping review of the literature examining multiple secondary conditions impacted by self-management programs (Phase 1 and a focused review of the literature detailing the impact of self-management interventions on depression (Phase 2. CINAHL, PubMed, and PsyclNFO were searched for articles published between January 1988 through August 2014 and studies were screened by the first author based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results Twenty-five studies met criteria with results, demonstrating a mixed effect of self-management programs on depression. Sixteen studies included an intervention and control/comparison group, of which eight (50% had a significant effect on depression. A further nine studies did not include a control/comparison group and five found significant changes in depression and four found no change. Eighteen out of 25 studies (72% were rated as having moderate-to-high bias and nine different outcome measures were used across studies. Discussion Based on the mixed findings and varied approaches adopted for intervention and outcome assessment, future research should adopt a more rigorous methodological approach to examine self-management interventions on depression.

  20. [Assessment of psychological status of inpatients with head and neck cancer before surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Wang, B Q; Gao, T H; Tian, J

    2018-01-07

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and psychosocial characteristics in inpatients with head and neck cancer before surgery. Method: From September 2015 to December 2016, 237 consecutive inpatients with head and neck cancer who had been scheduled for surgery were prospectively enrolled in Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Shanxi Provincial Tumor Hospital. Mental health symptoms were systematically investigated using three psychological instruments: symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS). SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. And he results of SCL-90, SAS and SDS were compared with the Chinese norm. For all statistical analyses, a P value psychological status in inpatients with head and neck cancer before surgery. Identifying these patients using proper screening instrument is of great important clinical implications for the early detection, management, and reduction of the distress associated with head and neck cancer.

  1. A meta-analytic comparison of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as measures of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B C; Lambert, M J; Moran, P W; McCully, T; Smith, K C; Ellingson, A G

    1984-05-01

    Some clinicians have considered the Beck Depression Inventory, a self-rating scale, too reactive to patient halo effects and, therefore, a liberal measure of treatment outcome. On the other hand, interviewer-rating scales, like the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression have been viewed as more conservative measures of treatment gain. Studies which compared the Beck Depression Inventory to the Hamilton Rating Scale, as dependent measures, were reviewed for the purpose of determining if the scales provided comparable data for assessing treatment effects. The use of meta-analysis techniques resulted in a comparison of effect sizes which indicated that the Beck Depression Inventory was significantly less liberal than the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The implications of these results for selecting outcome measures and the application of meta-analysis techniques for comparing dependent measures are discussed.

  2. Validez de la escala breve de Zung para tamizaje del episodio depresivo mayor en la población general de Bucaramanga, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Campo, Adalberto; Díaz, Luis Alfonso; Rueda, Germán Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Introducción. Las escalas breves para identificar trastornos depresivos conservan la utilidad de las escalas extensas como instrumentos para tamizaje. Sin embargo, no se cuenta con una escala de estas características validada en población general colombiana. Objetivo. Diseñar una escala abreviada de la escala de Zung para depresión para tamizaje de episodio depresivo mayor en adultos residentes en la comunidad general. Materiales y métodos. A partir de la aplicación de la escala de Zung de ve...

  3. Effectiveness of self-help psychological interventions for treating and preventing postpartum depression: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ping-Zhen; Xue, Jiao-Mei; Yang, Bei; Li, Meng; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2018-04-04

    Previous studies have reported different effect sizes for self-help interventions designed to reduce postpartum depression symptoms; therefore, a comprehensive quantitative review of the research was required. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of self-help interventions designed to treat and prevent postpartum depression, and identified nine relevant randomized controlled trials. Differences in depressive symptoms between self-help interventions and control conditions, changes in depressive symptoms following self-help interventions, and differences in postintervention recovery and improvement rates between self-help interventions and control conditions were assessed in separate analyses. In treatment trials, depression scores continued to decrease from baseline to posttreatment and follow-up assessment in treatment subgroups. Changes in treatment subgroups' depression scores from baseline to postintervention assessment were greater relative to those observed in prevention subgroups. Self-help interventions produced larger overall effects on postpartum depression, relative to those observed in control conditions, in posttreatment (Hedges' g = 0.51) and follow-up (Hedges' g = 0.32) assessments; and self-help interventions were significantly more effective, relative to control conditions, in promoting recovery from postpartum depression. Effectiveness in preventing depression did not differ significantly between self-help interventions and control conditions.The findings suggested that self-help interventions designed to treat postpartum depression reduced levels of depressive symptoms effectively and decreased the risk of postpartum depression.

  4. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Lifetime Stressor Checklist-Revised in Psychiatric Outpatients with Anxiety or Depressive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kang Rok; Kim, Daeho; Jang, Eun Young; Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Seok Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic events and adverse stressful experiences are major etiological factors in a wide variety of physical and mental disorders. Developing psychological instruments that can be easily administered and that have good psychometric properties have become an integral part for research and practice. This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Lifetime Stressor Checklist-Revised (LSC-R) in a consecutive sample of psychiatric outpatients. The LSC-R is a 30-item self-reporting questionnaire examining lifetime traumatic and non-traumatic stressors. A final sample of 258 outpatients with anxiety or depressive disorders was recruited at the psychiatric department of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. Self-reported data included the Life Events Checklist (LEC), the Zung Self-Rating Depression and Anxiety Scales, and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, in addition to the LSC-R. A convenience sample of 50 college students completed the LSC-R on two occasions separated by a three week-interval for test-retest reliability. Mean kappa for temporal stability was high (κ=0.651) and Cronbach alpha was moderate (α=0.724). Convergent validity was excellent with corresponding items on the LEC. Concurrent validity was good for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that 11 factors explained 64.3 % of the total variance. This study demonstrated good psychometric properties of the Korean version of the LSC-R, further supporting its use in clinical research and practice with a Korean speaking population.

  5. Effects of exercise on physical self-concept, global self-esteem, and depression in women of low socioeconomic status with elevated depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Fabien D

    2014-08-01

    We examined the possible mediating role of physical self-perceptions, physical self-esteem, and global self-esteem in the relationships between exercise and depression in a group of socioeconomically disadvantaged women with elevated symptoms of depression. Forty-four female residents of a low-income housing complex were randomized into a 7-week-long exercise-training group or a wait-list group. Depression, physical self-perceptions and self-esteem were measured repeatedly. Significant changes were found for depression, self-esteem, physical self-worth, and self-perceived physical condition in the exercise-training group. Intent-to-treat analyses did not alter the results. Most of the reduction in depression occurred between Week 2 and Week 4 while initial improvement in physical self-worth and self-perceived physical condition was observed between baseline and Week 2. These variables can be seen as plausible mechanisms for effects of exercise on depression.

  6. An evaluation of the quick inventory of depressive symptomatology and the hamilton rating scale for depression: a sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression trial report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, A John; Bernstein, Ira H; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Carmody, Thomas J; Wisniewski, Stephen; Mundt, James C; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Biggs, Melanie M; Woo, Ada; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Fava, Maurizio

    2006-03-15

    Nine DSM-IV-TR criterion symptom domains are evaluated to diagnose major depressive disorder (MDD). The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) provides an efficient assessment of these domains and is available as a clinician rating (QIDS-C16), a self-report (QIDS-SR16), and in an automated, interactive voice response (IVR) (QIDS-IVR16) telephone system. This report compares the performance of these three versions of the QIDS and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17). Data were acquired at baseline and exit from the first treatment step (citalopram) in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial. Outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD who completed all four ratings within +/-2 days were identified from the first 1500 STAR*D subjects. Both item response theory and classical test theory analyses were conducted. The three methods for obtaining QIDS data produced consistent findings regarding relationships between the nine symptom domains and overall depression, demonstrating interchangeability among the three methods. The HRSD17, while generally satisfactory, rarely utilized the full range of item scores, and evidence suggested multidimensional measurement properties. In nonpsychotic MDD outpatients without overt cognitive impairment, clinician assessment of depression severity using either the QIDS-C16 or HRSD17 may be successfully replaced by either the self-report or IVR version of the QIDS.

  7. Pathways between self-esteem and depression in couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Galambos, Nancy L; Finn, Christine; Neyer, Franz J; Horne, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Guided by concepts from a relational developmental perspective, this study examined intra- and interpersonal associations between self-esteem and depressive symptoms in a sample of 1,407 couples surveyed annually across 6 years in the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relations and Family Dynamics (pairfam) study. Autoregressive cross-lagged model results demonstrated that self-esteem predicted future depressive symptoms for male partners at all times, replicating the vulnerability model for men (low self-esteem is a risk factor for future depression). Additionally, a cross-partner association emerged between symptoms of depression: Higher depressive symptoms in one partner were associated with higher levels of depression in the other partner one year later. Finally, supportive dyadic coping, the support that partners reported providing to one another in times of stress, was tested as a potential interpersonal mediator of pathways between self-esteem and depression. Female partners' higher initial levels of self-esteem predicted male partners' subsequent reports of increased supportive dyadic coping, which, in turn, predicted higher self-esteem and fewer symptoms of depression among female partners in the future. Male partners' initially higher symptoms of depression predicted less frequent supportive dyadic coping subsequently reported by female partners, which was associated with increased feelings of depression in the future. Couple relations represent an important contextual factor that may be implicated in the developmental pathways connecting self-esteem and symptoms of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The effect of self-transcendence on depression in cognitively intact nursing home patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, Gørill; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2012-01-01

    Aims. This study's aim was to test the effects of self-transcendence on depression among cognitively intact nursing home patients. Background. Depression is considered the most frequent mental disorder among the elderly population. Specifically, the depression rate among nursing home patients is three to four times higher than that among community-dwelling elderly. Therefore, finding new and alternative ways to prevent and decrease depression is of great importance for nursing home patients' well-being. Self-transcendence is related to spiritual as well as nonspiritual factors, and it is described as a correlate and resource for well-being among vulnerable populations and at the end of life. Methods. A two-factor construct of the self-transcendence scale (interpersonal and intrapersonal) and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was applied. A sample of 202 cognitively intact nursing home patients in central Norway was selected to respond to the questionnaires in 2008/2009. Results. A hypothesized SEM model demonstrated significant direct relationships and total effects of self-transcendence on depression. Conclusion and Implication for Practice. Facilitating patients' self-transcendence, both interpersonally and intrapersonally, might decrease depression among cognitively intact nursing home patients.

  9. Implicit but not explicit self-esteem predicts future depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Erik; De Raedt, Rudi; De Houwer, Jan

    2007-10-01

    To date, research on the predictive validity of implicit self-esteem for depressive relapse is very sparse. In the present study, we assessed implicit self-esteem using the Name Letter Preference Task and explicit self-esteem using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale in a group of currently depressed patients, formerly depressed individuals, and never depressed controls. In addition, we examined the predictive validity of explicit, implicit, and the interaction of explicit and implicit self-esteem in predicting future symptoms of depression in formerly depressed individuals and never depressed controls. The results showed that currently depressed individuals reported a lower explicit self-esteem as compared to formerly depressed individuals and never depressed controls. In line with previous research, all groups showed a positive implicit self-esteem not different from each other. Furthermore, after controlling for initial depressive symptomatology, implicit but not explicit self-esteem significantly predicted depressive symptoms at six months follow-up. Although implicit self-esteem assessed with the Name Letter Preference Test was not different between formerly depressed individuals and never depressed controls, the findings suggest it is an interesting variable in the study of vulnerability for depression relapse.

  10. Self-harming in depressed patients: pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Malhi, Gin; Mitchell, Philip; Kotze, Beth; Wilhelm, Kay; Parker, Kay

    2005-10-01

    As deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a common concomitant of depressive disorders, we undertook a study examining the relevance of possible determinants and correlates of DSH. Three separate samples of depressed outpatients were studied to determine consistency of identified factors across samples, with principal analyses involving gender, age and diagnosis-matched DSH and non-DSH subjects. Across the samples, some 20% of subjects admitted to episodes of DSH. Women reported higher rates and there was a consistent trend for higher rates in bipolar patients. Univariate analyses examined the relevance of several sociodemographic variables, illicit drug and alcohol use, past deprivational and abusive experiences, past suicidal attempts and disordered personality functioning. Multivariate analyses consistently identified previous suicide attempts and high 'acting out' behaviours across the three samples, suggesting the relevance of an externalizing response to stress and poor impulse control. Results assist the identification and management of depressed patients who are at greater risk of DSH behaviours.

  11. Factors associated with suicidal ideation in college students

    OpenAIRE

    Siabato Macias, Elsa Fernanda; Grupo de Investigación Clínica y Salud, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Salamanca Camargo, Yenny; Grupo de Investigación Clínica y Salud, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    2015-01-01

    Transactional descriptive non-experimental study aimed to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation in a sample of 258 collegestudents aged between 18 and 24 years old, belonging to a university located in the Boyacá state; through the Positive and Negative SuicideIdeation Inventory (PANSI), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), Emotional DependencyQuestionnaire (CDE), Stressful Life Events Scale (EEVA) and a socio-demographic questionnai...

  12. Comparación de algunas propiedades psicométricas de la escala de Zung para depresión con puntuaciones dicotómicas

    OpenAIRE

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2006-01-01

    Introducción: La curva receptor-operador (ROC) y el mejor punto de corte de las escalas para identificar síntomas pueden afectarse por la forma de puntuación. Objetivo: Comparar las ROC de la escala de Zung para depresión mayor, con diversas formas de puntuación. Método: Muestra de adultos de Bucaramanga, Colombia, que diligenció la escala de Zung y posteriormente entrevista estructurada para trastorno del eje I DSM-IV. Esta escala tiene respuesta tipo Likert (1-2-3-4). Se probaron 3 alternati...

  13. Functional social support, psychological capital, and depressive and anxiety symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS employed full-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Pang, Ran; Sun, Wei; Wu, Ming; Qu, Peng; Lu, Chunming; Wang, Lie

    2013-12-01

    Psychological distress (e.g., depression and anxiety) has been regarded as the main cause of leaving work for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in workplaces. This study aims to explore the associations of functional social support (FSS) and psychological capital (PC) with depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. This cross-sectional study was performed in Liaoning, China, during the period of December 2010-April 2011. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire, and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire were completed by PLWHA employed full-time. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed relationships between variables. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were performed to explore the mediating roles of PC and its components (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience). Of 320 participants surveyed, 66.3% had depressive symptoms, and 45.6% had anxiety symptoms. Significant negative associations of FSS and PC with depressive and anxiety symptoms were revealed. PC (a*b = -0.209, BCa 95% CI: -0.293, -0.137, p < 0.05), hope (a*b = -0.103, BCa 95% CI: -0.192, -0.034, p < 0.05), and optimism (a*b = -0.047, BCa 95% CI: -0.106, -0.008, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the association between FSS and depressive symptoms. PC (a*b = -0.151, BCa 95% CI: -0.224, -0.095, p < 0.05) and self-efficacy (a*b = -0.080, BCa 95% CI: -0.158, -0.012, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the FSS-anxiety symptoms association. FSS and PC could help reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. PC fully mediates the associations of FSS with depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition to enhancing FSS, PC development could be included in the prevention and treatment strategies for depressive and anxiety symptoms targeted at PLWHA employed full-time.

  14. Association Between Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms Is Stronger Among Black than White Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    Although poor self-esteem is a core component of depression, we still do not know if racial and ethnic groups differ in the magnitude of this link. This study compared Black and White older adults on the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms. With a cross-sectional design, this study enrolled 1493 older individuals (age 66 or more) from the 2001 Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationally representative study in the United States. Participants were either Blacks (n = 734) or Whites (n = 759). Depressive symptoms and self-esteem were measured using brief measures of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Demographics, socioeconomics, and self-rated health (SRH) were covariates and self-identified race was the moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Low self-esteem was associated with more depressive symptoms (B = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.15-0.28), above and beyond all covariates. We found a significant and positive interaction between race (Black) and poor self-esteem on depressive symptoms (B = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.17-0.36), suggesting a stronger association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms among Blacks compared to Whites. Although low self-esteem is associated with higher depressive symptoms in both Whites and Blacks (p self-esteem and high depressive symptoms are more closely associated among Blacks than Whites. It is not clear whether depression leaves a larger scar on self-esteem for Blacks, or Blacks are more vulnerable to the effect of low self-esteem on depression.

  15. Depression, distress and self-efficacy: The impact on diabetes self-care practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy Devarajooh

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, and people with diabetes have been reported to suffer from depression and diabetes distress which influences their self-efficacy in performing diabetes self-care practices. This interviewer administered, cross sectional study, conducted in the district of Hulu Selangor, Malaysia, involving 371 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes, recruited from 6 health clinics, aimed to examine a conceptual model regarding the association between depression, diabetes distress and self-efficacy with diabetes self-care practices using the partial least square approach of structural equation modeling. In this study, diabetes self-care practices were similar regardless of sex, age group, ethnicity, education level, diabetes complications or type of diabetes medication. This study found that self-efficacy had a direct effect on diabetes self-care practice (path coefficient = 0.438, p<0.001. Self-care was not directly affected by depression and diabetes distress, but indirectly by depression (path coefficient = -0.115, p<0.01 and diabetes distress (path coefficient = -0.122, p<0.001 via self-efficacy. In conclusion, to improve self-care practices, effort must be focused on enhancing self-efficacy levels, while not forgetting to deal with depression and diabetes distress, especially among those with poorer levels of self-efficacy.

  16. Asurvey on depression and its related factors in Nurses who work in Namazi Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jabbarnejad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsThe extensive domains of Nurses' activities and Nursing nature as interdisciplinary science can cause Work pressure and mood disturbance especially depression in Nurses. According to this fact that patient safety was correlated with work place situation and well being of health care providers, this study was aimed to determine Nurses' depression and its associated factors in Namazi Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.MethodsParticipants in this descriptive cross sectional study were 311 Nurses who work in Namazi Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In this research, the data collecting tools were Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and demographic information form. These data were analyzed by SPSS.win 11 software with using descriptive and inferential statistic such as Chi-square and one way ANOVA.ResultsFindings indicate that 41.2% of Nurses are normal and the others suffer from mild (42.4%, moderate (13.8% and severe depression(2.6%.Analyses using Chi-square showed that depression intensity of Nurses who work in emergency ward and critical care units were morethan depression level of the rest(P=0.001. Also, there was significant statistical relationship between depression severity and Nurses' satisfaction of their sleep (P=0.015.ConclusionCurrent Nursing work place situation can cause emotional strain and depression. Thus researchers suggest that Hospital Nurse Offices should be use the psychiatric mental health nurse for consult services and education to nurses about coping strategies and management ofdepressed mood.

  17. Depressive symptoms, self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy and self-compassion in people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, L S; Rivero-Mendez, M; Voss, J; Chen, W-T; Chaiphibalsarisdi, P; Iipinge, S; Johnson, M O; Portillo, C J; Corless, I B; Sullivan, K; Tyer-Viola, L; Kemppainen, J; Rose, C Dawson; Sefcik, E; Nokes, K; Phillips, J C; Kirksey, K; Nicholas, P K; Wantland, D; Holzemer, W L; Webel, A R; Brion, J M

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine differences in self-schemas between persons living with HIV/AIDS with and without depressive symptoms, and the degree to which these self-schemas predict depressive symptoms in this population. Self-schemas are beliefs about oneself and include self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy, and self-compassion. Beck's cognitive theory of depression guided the analysis of data from a sample of 1766 PLHIV from the USA and Puerto Rico. Sixty-five percent of the sample reported depressive symptoms. These symptoms were significantly (p ≤ 0.05), negatively correlated with age (r = -0.154), education (r = -0.106), work status (r = -0.132), income adequacy (r = -0.204, self-esteem (r = -0.617), HIV symptom self-efficacy (r = - 0.408), and self-kindness (r = - 0.284); they were significantly, positively correlated with gender (female/transgender) (r = 0.061), white or Hispanic race/ethnicity (r = 0.047) and self-judgment (r = 0.600). Fifty-one percent of the variance (F = 177.530 (df = 1524); p education, work status, income adequacy, self-esteem, HIV symptom self-efficacy, and self-judgment. The strongest predictor of depressive symptoms was self-judgment. Results lend support to Beck's theory that those with negative self-schemas are more vulnerable to depression and suggest that clinicians should evaluate PLHIV for negative self-schemas. Tailored interventions for the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV should be tested and future studies should evaluate whether alterations in negative self-schemas are the mechanism of action of these interventions and establish causality in the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV.

  18. [Diagnosis of depressive disorder and so-called exhaustion depression. Self-esteem--a central concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Friis, Johan

    2002-02-07

    Depressive disorders can be recognized by the loss of self-esteem; this contrasts with mourning and neurasthenic reactions, in which self-esteem remains intact. Just as depression can result from the gradual reduction and eventual loss of self-esteem, mourning and neurasthenic reactions can evolve into true depressive states. "Exhaustion depression", a new diagnostic category connected to "burnout" situations, should be applied only when criteria for depressive disorder are fulfilled, including loss of self-esteem. When these criteria are lacking we should refer only to an exhaustion state provoked by stress. Neurotic mechanisms may represent a special class of relevant stress factors, but are not seen in manifest neurasthenic reactions and exhaustion depression.

  19. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the controls were investigated cross-sectionally with life orientation test-revised (LOT-R, type D personality Scale-14 (DS14, family environment scale (FES, and Zung self-depression scale (SDS; respectively, all scales were administered in Chinese. Results. Chinese-depressed adolescents showed more cognitive distortion, type D personality, and adverse family environment than control groups. Furthermore, lower level of Optimism, negative affectivity, and poor family cohesion may increase the risk of depression in Chinese adolescents. Conclusions. Our study indicates that lower level of Optimism, Negative Affectivity, and poor Family Cohesion factors were implicated to contribute to depression in Chinese adolescents. Lower level of optimism and negative affectivity may be crucial associated factors of depression among these samples. our findings pointed to the importance of broad screening and intervention of vulnerable population.

  20. The association between anomalous self-experiences, self-esteem and depression in first episode schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Haug

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs aggregate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but the relationship between ASEs, and depression has been studied to a limited extent. Lower self-esteem has been shown to be associated with depression in early psychosis. Our hypothesis is that ASEs in early phases of schizophrenia are linked to lower levels of self-esteem, which in turn is associated with depression. Aim: The aim is to examine the relationship between ASEs, self-esteem and depression in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders.Method: ASEs were assessed in 55 patients with first-episode schizophrenia by means of the Examination of anomalous Self-Experience (EASE instrument. Assessment of depression was based on the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES. Symptom severity was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (SCI-PANSS. Substance misuse was measured with the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT, and alcohol use was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. Data on childhood adjustment were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS. Data on childhood trauma were collected using the Norwegian version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, short form (CTQ-SF. Results: Analyses detected a significant association between current depression and ASEs as measured by the EASE in women, but not in men. The effect of ASEs on depression appeared to be mediated by self-esteem. No other characteristics associated with depression influenced the relationship between depression, self-esteem and ASEs. Conclusion: Evaluating ASEs can assist clinicians in understanding patients’ experience of self-esteem and depressive symptoms. The complex interaction between ASEs, self-esteem, depression and suicidality could be a clinical target for the prevention of suicidality

  1. Shame and Depressive Symptoms: Self-compassion and Contingent Self-worth as Mediators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Carr, Erika R; Garcia-Williams, Amanda G; Siegelman, Asher E; Berke, Danielle; Niles-Carnes, Larisa V; Patterson, Bobbi; Watson-Singleton, Natalie N; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2018-02-27

    Research has identified the experience of shame as a relevant predictor of depressive symptoms. Building upon resilience theory, this is the first study to investigate if self-compassion and/or contingent self-worth (i.e., family support and God's love) mediate the link between shame and depressive symptoms. Participants were 109 African Americans, within the age range of 18 and 64, who sought service following a suicide attempt from a public hospital that serves mostly low-income patients. Findings suggest that shame was related to depressive symptoms through self-compassion but not through contingent self-worth, underscoring the significant role that self-compassion plays in ameliorating the aggravating effect of shame on depressive symptoms. Results highlight the value of incorporating self-compassion training into interventions for suicidal African Americans in an effort to reduce the impact of shame on their depressive symptoms and ultimately their suicidal behavior and as a result enhance their capacity for resilience.

  2. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in remitted depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, Danique; Vrijsen, Janna N; van Oostrom, Iris; Isaac, Linda; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction between ISE and ESE in a depression-vulnerable group (remitted depressed patients; RDs), compared to never-depressed controls (ND). Seventy-five RDs and 75 NDs participated in the study. To measure ESE, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Preference Task (NLPT) were used to assess ISE. RDs reported lower ESE than NDs. However, the two groups did not differ on ISE. RDs exhibited a damaged self-esteem or a low-congruent self-esteem, similar to what has been found in currently depressed patients. Moreover, damaged self-esteem was associated with residual depressive symptoms. The results need to be interpreted with care because the IAT and NLPT did not reveal the same associations with the clinical measures. Implicit and explicit self-esteem may be different constructs in depression and studying the combination is important. The present study provides evidence indicating that damaged self-esteem may be more detrimental than low congruent self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Implicit self-esteem in recurrently depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risch, A.K.; Bubal, A.; Birk, U.; Morina, N.; Steffens, M.C.; Stangier, U.

    2010-01-01

    Negative self-esteem is suggested to play an important role in the recurrence of depressive episodes. This study investigated whether repeated experiences of a negative view of the self within a recurrent course of depression might cause implicit self-esteem to be impaired and negative

  4. Reliability, validity and psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the Major Depression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiptsios I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Major Depression Inventory (MDI is a brief self-rating scale for the assessment of depression. It is reported to be valid because it is based on the universe of symptoms of DSM-IV and ICD-10 depression. The aim of the current preliminary study was to assess the reliability, validity and psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the MDI. Methods 30 depressed patients of mean age 23.41 (± 5.77 years, and 68 controls patients of mean age 25.08 (± 11.42 years, entered the study. In 18 of them, the instrument was re-applied 1–2 days later and the Translation and Back Translation made. Clinical diagnosis was reached with the use of the SCAN v.2.0 and the International Personality Disorders Examination (IPDE. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D and the Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS were applied for cross-validation purposes. Statistical analysis included ANOVA, the Spearman Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Principal Components Analysis and the calculation of Cronbach's α. Results Sensitivity and specificity were 0.86 and 0.94, respectively, at 26/27. Cronbach's α for the total scale was equal to 0.89. The Spearman's rho between MDI and CES-D was 0.86 and between MDI and ZDRS was 0.76. The factor analysis revealed two factors but the first accounted for 54% of variance while the second only for 9%. The test-retest reliability was excellent (Spearman's rho between 0.53 and 0.96 for individual items and 0.89 for total score. Conclusion The current study provided preliminary evidence concerning the reliability and validity of the Greek translation of the MDI. Its properties are similar to those reported in the international literature, but further research is necessary.

  5. Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that depressive disorders exist on a continuum, with subthreshold symptoms causing considerable population burden and increasing individual risk of developing major depressive disorder. An alternative strategy to professional treatment of subthreshold depression is population promotion of effective self-help interventions that can be easily applied by an individual without professional guidance. The evidence for self-help interventions for depressive symptoms is reviewed in the present work, with the aim of identifying promising interventions that could inform future health promotion campaigns or stimulate further research. Methods A literature search for randomised controlled trials investigating self-help interventions for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked. Studies were grouped into those involving participants with depressive disorders or a high level of depressive symptoms, or non-clinically depressed participants not selected for depression. A number of exclusion criteria were applied, including trials with small sample sizes and where the intervention was adjunctive to antidepressants or psychotherapy. Results The majority of interventions searched had no relevant evidence to review. Of the 38 interventions reviewed, the ones with the best evidence of efficacy in depressive disorders were S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, bibliotherapy, computerised interventions, distraction, relaxation training, exercise, pleasant activities, sleep deprivation, and light therapy. A number of other interventions showed promise but had received less research attention. Research in non-clinical samples indicated immediate beneficial effects on depressed mood for distraction, exercise, humour, music, negative air ionisation, and singing; while potential

  6. Interpersonal Problems and Their Relationship to Depression, Self-Esteem, and Malignant Self-Regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Lengu, Ketrin; Evich, Carly

    2016-12-01

    DSM-5 Section III recommends that level of personality functioning be assessed. This requires an assessment of self and other representations. Malignant self-regard (MSR) is a way of assessing the level of functioning of those with a masochistic, self-defeating, depressive, or vulnerably narcissistic personality. In Study 1, 840 undergraduates were assessed for MSR, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, anaclitic and introjective depression, and interpersonal problems. MSR, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anaclitic and introjective depression were correlated with multiple dimensions of interpersonal problems, and MSR predicted the most variance in interpersonal scales measuring social inhibition, nonassertion, over-accommodation, and excessive self-sacrifice. MSR, anaclitic, and introjective depression predicted unique variance in six of the eight domains of interpersonal problems assessed. In Study 2, 68 undergraduates were provided positive or negative feedback. Consistent with theory, MSR predicted unique variance in state anxiety but not state anger. Results support the validity of the MSR construct.

  7. The Anaclitic-Introjective Depression Assessment: Development and preliminary validity of an observer-rated measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Felicitas; Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter

    2018-03-01

    The two-configurations model developed by Blatt and colleagues offers a comprehensive conceptual and empirical framework for understanding depression. This model suggests that depressed patients struggle, at different developmental levels, with issues related to dependency (anaclitic issues) or self-definition (introjective issues), or a combination of both. This paper reports three studies on the development and preliminary validation of the Anaclitic-Introjective Depression Assessment, an observer-rated assessment tool of impairments in relatedness and self-definition in clinical depression based on the item pool of the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure. Study 1 describes the development of the measure using expert consensus rating and Q-methodology. Studies 2 and 3 report the assessment of its psychometric properties, preliminary reliability, and validity in a sample of 128 patients diagnosed with treatment-resistant depression. Four naturally occurring clusters of depressed patients were identified using Q-factor analysis, which, overall, showed meaningful and theoretically expected relationships with anaclitic/introjective prototypes as formulated by experts, as well as with clinical, social, occupational, global, and relational functioning. Taken together, findings reported in this paper provide preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the Anaclitic-Introjective Depression Assessment, an observer-rated measure that allows the detection of important nuanced differentiations between and within anaclitic and introjective depression. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder, self-reported diagnosed depression and current depressive symptoms among adults in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Buttery, Amanda K; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Hapke, Ulfert; Busch, Markus A

    2016-01-15

    While standardized diagnostic interviews using established criteria are the gold standard for assessing depression, less time consuming measures of depression and depressive symptoms are commonly used in large population health surveys. We examine the prevalence and health-related correlates of three depression measures among adults aged 18-79 years in Germany. Using cross-sectional data from the national German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (n=7987) and its mental health module (DEGS1-MH) (n=4483), we analysed prevalence and socio-demographic and health-related correlates of (a) major depressive disorder (MDD) established by Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) using DSM-IV-TR criteria (CIDI-MDD) in the last 12 months, (b) self-reported physician or psychotherapist diagnosed depression in the last 12 months, and (c) current depressive symptoms in the last two weeks (PHQ-9, score ≥10). Prevalence of 12-month CIDI-MDD was 4.2% in men and 9.9% in women. Prevalence of 12-month self-reported health professional-diagnosed depression was 3.8% and 8.1% and of current depressive symptoms 6.1% and 10.2% in men and women, respectively. Case-overlap between measures was only moderate (32-45%). In adjusted multivariable analyses, depression according to all three measures was associated with lower self-rated health, lower physical and social functioning, higher somatic comorbidity (except for women with 12-month CIDI-MDD), more sick leave and higher health service utilization. Persons with severe depression may be underrepresented. Associations between CIDI-MDD and correlates and overlap with other measures may be underestimated due to time lag between DEGS1 and DEGS1-MH. Prevalence and identified cases varied between these three depression measures, but all measures were consistently associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale in Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

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    Lei, Ming; Li, Chao; Xiao, Xiao; Qiu, Jiang; Dai, Yan; Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-07-01

    Resilience refers to the ability to effectively cope and positively adapt after adversity or trauma. This study investigated the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) for college students with Wenchuan earthquake exposure. A total of 888 Chinese college students with Wenchuan earthquake exposure completed a set of scales, including the RS, the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Self-rating Scale, the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale, the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale for Chinese. The internal consistency and concurrent validity were investigated. Sex and regional differences were also examined. The results of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 4-factor structure was suitable for both Chinese samples 1 and 2. The Cronbach α coefficient was .94 (P split-half reliability coefficient was .92 (P disorder (r = -0.21; P < .01), depression (r = -0.45; P < .01), anxiety(r = -0.34; P < .01), and neuroticism (r = -0.23; P < .01), and correlated positively with extraversion (r = 0.23; P < .01). Men showed higher resilience scores than women, and people living in the high earthquake-exposure areas reported higher level of resilience than those from low earthquake-exposure areas. The Chinese version of the RS was demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measurement in assessing resilience for Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive reactivity, self-depressed associations, and the recurrence of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgersma, Hermien J; de Jong, Peter J; van Rijsbergen, Gerard D; Kok, Gemma D; Burger, Huibert; van der Does, Willem; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Bockting, Claudi L H

    2015-09-01

    Mixed evidence exists regarding the role of cognitive reactivity (CR; cognitive responsivity to a negative mood) as a risk factor for recurrences of depression. One explanation for the mixed evidence may lie in the number of previous depressive episodes. Heightened CR may be especially relevant as a risk factor for the development of multiple depressive episodes and less so for a single depressive episode. In addition, it is theoretically plausible but not yet tested that the relationship between CR and number of episodes is moderated by the strength of automatic depression-related self-associations. To investigate (i) the strength of CR in remitted depressed individuals with a history of a single vs. multiple episodes, and (ii) the potentially moderating role of automatic negative self-associations in the relationship between the number of episodes and CR. Cross-sectional analysis of data obtained in a cohort study (Study 1) and during baseline assessments in two clinical trials (Study 2). Study 1 used data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and compared never-depressed participants (n=901) with remitted participants with either a single (n=336) or at least 2 previous episodes (n=273). Study 2 included only remitted participants with at least two previous episodes (n=273). The Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity Revised (LEIDS-R) was used to index CR and an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit self-associations. In Study 1, remitted depressed participants with multiple episodes had significantly higher CR than those with a single or no previous episode. The remitted individuals with multiple episodes of Study 2 had even higher CR scores than those of Study 1. Within the group of individuals with multiple episodes, CR was not heightened as a function of the number of episodes, even if individual differences in automatic negative self-associations were taken into account. The study employed a cross-sectional design, which

  11. The Role of Self-Esteem in Depression: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Sven; Goerigk, Stephan; Padberg, Frank; Nadjiri, Annekatrin; Übleis, Aline; Jobst, Andrea; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia; Falkai, Peter; Bühner, Markus; Naumann, Felix; Sarubin, Nina

    2018-04-25

    Based on the vulnerability model, several studies indicate that low self-esteem seems to contribute to depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to treat depressive symptoms in a cognitive behavioural group therapy, focusing on the enhancement of self-esteem, and to explore co-variation in depressive symptoms and the level of self-esteem. The Multidimensional Self-esteem Scale (MSWS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to 147 psychiatric in-patients with current depressive symptoms due to an affective disorder (major depression, bipolar I, dysthymia). Self-esteem was measured pre-treatment (t0) and post-treatment (t4, after 5 weeks of eight group sessions); the BDI was applied weekly. A linear mixed growth analysis was conducted to estimate the change in depressive symptoms including interactions with self-esteem. Within the 5 weeks of group therapy, depressive symptoms showed a linear decline, which was stronger for patients with higher gains in self-esteem between t0 and t4. Self-esteem at t0 was unrelated to the change in depression but predicted self-esteem at t4. Treating depressive symptoms in a cognitive behavioural group therapy in a naturalistic setting might have a positive effect on the process of recovery. Moreover, depressive symptoms and level of self-esteem seemed to co-vary.

  12. Trauma, depression, and resilience of earthquake/tsunami/nuclear disaster survivors of Hirono, Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukihara, Hiroko; Yamawaki, Niwako; Uchiyama, Kumi; Arai, Shoichi; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2014-07-01

    A mega-earthquake and tsunami struck the northeastern coast of Japan, and many survivors were forced to evacuate to temporary housing due to rising radiation levels. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and poor general health among survivors, to test the predictive roles of resilience on mental and physical health, and to examine the predictive sociodemographic factors on resilience. Two hundred and forty-one evacuees (men/women: 116/125) from Hirono, Fukushima participated in the study. They were asked to complete the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, and a demographic questionnaire. Among all participants, 53.5% exhibited the clinically concerning symptoms of PTSD, and among them 33.2% indicated clinical PTSD symptoms. Additionally, 66.8% reported symptoms of depression, and among them 33.2% showed mildly depressive symptoms, while 19.1% and 14.5% demonstrated moderate and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. Resilience was a significant buffer for depression, PTSD, and general health. Additionally, employment status, eating/exercise habits, and drinking habits predicted resilience. The results indicated that depression and PTSD are prevalent among the survivors of massive earthquakes, tsunamis, and accidents from nuclear power plants. However, the results also showed that some survivors managed to endure the traumatic events relatively well, and resilience was a significant protective factor in dealing with such events. Therefore, it is crucial to assist survivors in improving their resilience by providing job opportunities and encouraging a healthy lifestyle. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  13. The prevalence and impact of depression in self-referred clients attending an employee assistance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond W; Wolinsky, Debra; Kinsella, Cynthia; Woo, Cindy; Cayley, Paula M; Walker, Anne B

    2012-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of clients with depression attending an employee assistance program (EAP). Anonymized data were obtained from 10,794 consecutive clients, including 9105 employees, self-referred to PPC Canada, a large, external EAP. Assessment measures included the self-rated nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Clinical characteristics of depressed clients (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10) were compared with those of nondepressed clients. Thirty-seven percent of the employee sample met PHQ-9 criteria for clinically significant depression. Compared with clients without depression, they had significantly higher rates of anxiety, psychotropic medication use, problem substance use, global problems with functioning, absenteeism, impairment in work-related tasks, and low job satisfaction. A large proportion of EAP clients were clinically depressed with associated negative effects on personal and occupational functioning.

  14. Depressive Symptoms and Self-Esteem in White and Black Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam

    2018-06-11

    Background. Poor self-esteem is a core element of depression. According to recent research, some racial groups may vary in the magnitude of the link between depression and poor self-esteem. Using a national sample, we compared Black and White older Americans for the effect of baseline depressive symptoms on decline in self-esteem over time. Methods. This longitudinal study used data from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001⁻2004. The study followed 1493 older adults (734 Black and 759 White) 65 years or older for three years. Baseline depressive symptoms (CES-D), measured in 2001, was the independent variable. Self-esteem, measured at the end of the follow up, was the dependent variable. Covariates included baseline demographic characteristics (age and gender), socioeconomic factors (education, income, and marital status), health (self-rated health), and baseline self-esteem. Race/ethnicity was the moderator. Linear multi-variable regression models were used for data analyses. Results. In the pooled sample, higher depressive symptoms at baseline were predictive of a larger decline in self-esteem over time, net of covariates. We found a significant interaction between race/ethnicity and baseline depressive symptoms on self-esteem decline, suggesting a weaker effect for Blacks compared to Whites. In race/ethnicity-specific models, high depressive symptoms at baseline was predictive of a decline in self-esteem for Whites but not Blacks. Conclusion. Depressive symptoms may be a more salient contributor to self-esteem decline for White than Black older adults. This finding has implications for psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy of depression of racially diverse populations.

  15. Change in self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up after intensive multimodal psychotherapy for major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Ulrike; Ehrenthal, Johannes C; Nikendei, Christoph; Schauenburg, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Reduced self-esteem is a core symptom of depression, but few studies have investigated within-treatment change of self-esteem as a predictor of long-term outcome in depression. This study investigated change in self-esteem during 8 weeks of multimodal, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy for 40 depressed patients and tested whether it would predict outcome 6 months after termination. Data was drawn from a randomized clinical pilot trial on day-clinic versus inpatient psychotherapy for depression. Findings supported the association between change in self-esteem and follow-up depression severity, even when controlling for within-treatment symptom change. Change in self-esteem was not related to overall symptoms and interpersonal problems at follow-up. Thus, change in self-esteem may be an important variable in preventing relapse for depression. Self-esteem is related to depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems. Improvement of self-esteem during psychotherapy correlates with improvements of symptoms and interpersonal problems. Change of self-esteem during psychotherapy predicts depressive symptoms 6 months after termination of therapy. When treating depressed patients, psychotherapists should work towards an improvement of self-esteem in order to prevent relapse. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Depression among Collage Students; The Role of General Self-Efficacy and Perceived Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jalilian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder reported among college students. Evidence suggests that depression rate is especially high among medical students. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of general self-efficacy and social support with depression levels of university students.Materials & Methods: This was a descriptive analytic study carried out among 235 students in Hamadan University of medical sciences. Samples were classified with the appropriate assignment done and gathering information from standard questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory test & General Self Efficacy Scale & Perceived Social Support Scale. The data were analyzed by SPSS-13.Results: 37 percent of students showed different degrees of depression. A significant negative correlation was found among depression, self efficacy (P.value= 0.000, r= -0.581, and social support (P.value= 0.000, r= -0.617. Also the results showed that there was significant relationship between depression and student's dwelling (P<0.05.Conclusion: These findings also indicated the potential roles of social support in mediating depression. According to the results self efficacy strategies could improve the students' mental health.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:60-66

  17. Associations between quality of life, physical activity, worry, depression and insomnia: A cross-sectional designed study in healthy pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mourady

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (QOL is reported to be reduced during pregnancy. Associations between QOL, physical activity (PA, insomnia, depression and worry are insufficiently investigated among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate QOL and PA patterns among healthy pregnant women, and to examine how QOL might correlate to PA, sleep, worry and depression. This is an observational cross-sectional study, conducted among a convenient sample of 141 healthy pregnant women using five questionnaires: WHOQOL-brief (WHO quality of life questionnaire, brief version, ISI (Insomnia Severity Index, PSWQ (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, ZSRDS (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ. Pre-gestational BMI was inversely correlated to overall health while education was positively correlated to psychological health, social relationships and environment domains. Smoking before and during pregnancy significantly impacted the general health and psychological health. Total and light PA were positively correlated to psychological health and social relationships. Sports/exercise showed positive correlations with several QOL domains. Insomnia and depression were significantly associated with a decrease in all domains of QOL, while worries were associated with a decrease in physical, psychological and environmental domains. There were significant negative correlations between ZSRDS scores and total activity. PA, worries, depression and insomnia affected QOL during pregnancy. Furthermore, pregnant women presenting depression had a reduced total PA. Sleep and mental health as well as encouraging PA during pregnancy are necessary to improve the quality of life of pregnant women.

  18. A Study on Depression among Pre-University Students Kazeron City 1379-80

    OpenAIRE

    Davoud Shoja'ei-Zadeh; Hamid Reza Rassafiani

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The ultimate goal of this research is determining of depression prevalence and effective factors among boys of pre university level in Kazeron city. Materials & Methods: The present research is an analytical - descriptive and cross sectional study, which was done in February 2001. In order to achieve the goal, 240 pre university boys were selected through random classified sampling and the data gathered by questionnaires and Zung depression scale. Results: The results indic...

  19. Activation and Self-Efficacy in a Randomized Trial of a Depression Self-Care Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Lambert, Sylvie D; Cole, Martin G; Ciampi, Antonio; Strumpf, Erin; Freeman, Ellen E; Belzile, Eric

    2016-12-01

    In a sample of primary care participants with chronic physical conditions and comorbid depressive symptoms: to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of activation and self-efficacy with demographic, physical and mental health status, health behaviors, depression self-care, health care utilization, and use of self-care tools; and to examine the effects of a depression self-care coaching intervention on these two outcomes. Design/Study Setting. A secondary analysis of activation and self-efficacy data collected as part of a randomized trial to compare the effects of a telephone-based coached depression self-care intervention with a noncoached intervention. Activation (Patient Activation Measure) was measured at baseline and 6 months. Depression self-care self-efficacy was assessed at baseline, at 3 months, and at 6 months. In multivariable cross-sectional analyses (n = 215), activation and/or self-efficacy were associated with language, birthplace, better physical and mental health, individual exercise, specialist visits, and antidepressant nonuse. In longitudinal analyses (n = 158), an increase in activation was associated with increased medication adherence; an increase in self-efficacy was associated with use of cognitive self-care strategies and increases in social and solitary activities. There were significant improvements from baseline to 6 months in activation and self-efficacy scores both among coached and noncoached groups. The self-care coaching intervention did not affect 6-month activation or self-efficacy but was associated with quicker improvement in self-efficacy. Overall, the results for activation and self-efficacy were similar, although self-efficacy correlated more consistently than activation with depression-specific behaviors and was responsive to a depression self-care coaching intervention. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. Cross-sectional study of self-reported ADHD symptoms and psychological comorbidity among college students in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhambh, Ishani; Arun, Priti; Garg, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Cross-sectional study. A total of 237 students were recruited from various medical, engineering, and commerce and arts colleges of Chandigarh, India. They were administered the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale v1.1(ASRS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) to diagnose adult ADHD. To assess comorbidities; General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ); Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES);and questions on emotional stability, social problems, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) were administered on all participants. A total of 13 students (5.48%) fulfilled the criteria for adult ADHD. These students experienced significantly higher emotional instability and low self-esteem than those without ADHD (N = 224). The occurrence of psychological problems, depression, social problems, and substance abuse was comparable in students with and without ADHD. ADHD is prevalent among the college students studying in the most competitive institutes as well. Students with ADHD experience higher emotional instability and poor self-esteem than others. It has little effect on their psychological well-being and social adjustment. Prompt detection and management of ADHD in college students may help them deal with these problems effectively.

  1. Cross-sectional study of self-reported ADHD symptoms and psychological comorbidity among college students in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Jhambh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. Aims: To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 237 students were recruited from various medical, engineering, and commerce and arts colleges of Chandigarh, India. They were administered the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale v1.1(ASRS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS to diagnose adult ADHD. To assess comorbidities; General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ; Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS; Rosenberg′s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES;and questions on emotional stability, social problems, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis were administered on all participants. Results: A total of 13 students (5.48% fulfilled the criteria for adult ADHD. These students experienced significantly higher emotional instability and low self-esteem than those without ADHD (N = 224. The occurrence of psychological problems, depression, social problems, and substance abuse was comparable in students with and without ADHD. Conclusions: ADHD is prevalent among the college students studying in the most competitive institutes as well. Students with ADHD experience higher emotional instability and poor self-esteem than others. It has little effect on their psychological well-being and social adjustment. Prompt detection and management of ADHD in college students may help them deal with these problems effectively.

  2. Adaptive emotion regulation mediates the relationship between self-compassion and depression in individuals with unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Alice; Burger, Julian; Kirchner, Mareike; Berking, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    To identify the mechanisms involved in the association between self-compassion and depression, we examined whether adaptive emotion regulation would mediate the relationship between self-compassion and depression in individuals with unipolar depression. Furthermore, we explored which specific emotion regulation skills would be most important in this relationship. Sixty-nine individuals with unipolar depression were assessed with the Self-Compassion Scale and the Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire at baseline and with the Beck Depression Inventory-II 1 week later. The results showed that successful application of emotion regulation skills mediates the association between self-compassion and depression. Among eight specific emotion regulation skills, only the ability to tolerate negative emotions was identified as a significant mediator in the self-compassion-depression relationship. These findings provide preliminary evidence that systematically fostering self-compassion might help depressed individuals cope with their symptoms by enhancing their abilities to tolerate undesired emotions. Systematically fostering self-compassion through specific compassion-focused interventions might facilitate a reduction in depressive symptoms by improving the person's emotion regulation abilities, especially by improving his or her ability to tolerate negative emotions. Hence, compassion-focused interventions might be particularly promising in depressed patients with a tendency to avoid negative emotions and deficits in tolerating them. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Avatar-based depression self-management technology: promising approach to improve depressive symptoms among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Melissa D; Hickman, Ronald L; Clochesy, John; Buchner, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Major depressive disorder is prevalent among American young adults and predisposes young adults to serious impairments in psychosocial functioning. Without intervention, young adults with depressive symptoms are at high risk for worsening of depressive symptoms and developing major depressive disorder. Young adults are not routinely taught effective depression self management skills to reduce depressive symptoms and preempt future illness. This study reports initial results of a randomized controlled trial among young adults (18-25 years of age) with depressive symptoms who were exposed to an avatar-based depression self-management intervention, eSMART-MH. Participants completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks follow-up. Participants who received eSMART-MH had a significant reduction in depressive symptoms over 3 months, while individuals in the attention-control condition had no change in symptoms. In this study, eSMART-MH demonstrated initial efficacy and is a promising developmentally appropriate depression self-management intervention for young adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parental recall, attachment relating and self-attacking/self-reassurance: their relationship with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, C; Gilbert, P; Baldwin, M W; Baccus, J R; Palmer, M

    2006-09-01

    When things go wrong for people they can become self-critical or focus on positive, reassuring aspects of the self. This study explored the relationship between forms of self-criticism and self-reassurance, recall of parental experiences and attachment style in relation to depressed symptoms in students. A sample of 197 undergraduate students from the UK and Canada completed self-report questionnaires measuring recall of parental styles, attachment, forms of self-criticism, self-reassurance, and depression symptoms. Recall of parents as rejecting and overprotecting was significantly related to both inadequacy and self-hating self-criticism. In contrast, parental warmth was negatively correlated with these forms of self-criticism. In addition, when things go wrong for the person, recall of parental warmth was associated with the ability to be self-reassuring. A mediator analysis suggested that (I) the impact of recall of negative parenting on depression is mediated through the forms of self-criticism and (2) the effect of parental warmth on depression was mediated by the ability to be self-reassuring. The impacts of negative parenting styles may translate into vulnerabilities to depression via the way children (and later adults) develop their self-to-self relating (e.g. as self-critical versus self-reassuring). Hence, there is a need for further research on the link between attachment experiences, recall of parental rejection/warmth and their relationship to internal, self-evaluative and affect systems in creating vulnerabilities to psychopathology.

  5. Self-verification in clinical depression: the desire for negative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, R B; Josephs, R A; Swann, W B

    1996-08-01

    Do clinically depressed individuals seek favorable or unfavorable information about the self? Self-verification theory makes the counterintuitive prediction that depressed individuals solicit feedback that confirms their negative self-views. To test this prediction, participants were classified on the basis of a structured clinical interview and self-report measures into high-esteem, low self-esteem, and depressed groups. All participants were offered a choice between receiving favorable or unfavorable feedback; 82% of the depressed participants chose the unfavorable feedback, compared to 64% of the low self-esteem participants and 25% of the high self-esteem participants. Additional evidence indicated that depressed individuals also failed to exploit fully an opportunity to acquire favorable evaluations that were self-verifying. The authors discuss how seeking negative evaluations and failing to seek favorable evaluations may help maintain depression.

  6. The Association between Anomalous Self-experiences, Self-esteem and Depressive Symptoms in First Episode Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Elisabeth; Øie, Merete G; Andreassen, Ole A; Bratlien, Unni; Romm, Kristin L; Møller, Paul; Melle, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) aggregate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but the relationship between ASEs, and depression has been studied to a limited extent. Lower self-esteem has been shown to be associated with depression in early psychosis. Our hypothesis is that ASEs in early phases of schizophrenia are linked to lower levels of self-esteem, which in turn is associated with depression. Aim: The aim is to examine the relationship between ASEs, self-esteem and depression in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Method: ASEs were assessed in 55 patients with first-episode schizophrenia by means of the Examination of anomalous Self-Experience (EASE) instrument. Assessment of depression was based on the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Symptom severity was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (SCI-PANSS). Substance misuse was measured with the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT), and alcohol use was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). Data on childhood adjustment were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Data on childhood trauma were collected using the Norwegian version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, short form (CTQ-SF). Results: Analyses detected a significant association between current depression and ASEs as measured by the EASE in women, but not in men. The effect of ASEs on depression appeared to be mediated by self-esteem. No other characteristics associated with depression influenced the relationship between depression, self-esteem and ASEs. Conclusion: Evaluating ASEs can assist clinicians in understanding patients' experience of self-esteem and depressive symptoms. The complex interaction between ASEs, self-esteem, depression and suicidality could be a clinical target for the prevention of suicidality in this

  7. Investigation of depression in Greek patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekleiti, Maria; Sarafis, Pavlos; Saridi, Maria; Toska, Aikaterini; Melos, Chrysovaladis; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Tsironi, Maria

    2013-06-16

    Considerable studies directly connect the complications in diabetic patients, and especially peripheral neuropathy, with the emergence of depression. Neuropathetic pain may deteriorate the general health status of the diabetic patient and glycaemic regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the appearance and degree of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and its correlation with depression, with other parameters of the disease and also duration. 57 diabetic patients participated with diagnosed diabetic peripheral neuropathy (male n=27, female n= 30, mean of age 72.7±6.35 years). The first part of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and the Zung Depression Rating Scale were used as tools for our study. Data was analysed with the SPSS 18.0 statistic program. 57.9% of the patients were overweight, 35.1% were obese and only 7% were within normal weight range. The BMI findings between the two genders indicate that male participants are more often obese than females. Women surpassed men in the category of overweight patients (p depression, it derives that a high degree of diabetic neuropathy is related with high score of depression [F(3.160)=9.821, p=0.001]. Moderate and severe neuropathy was found with almost the same levels of depression. The correlation between diabetic neuropathy and depression is confirmed, while a very high depression rate was found in patients with severe neuropathy. The issue needs further study by using common instruments to obtain comparative results from the scientific community.

  8. Depression and self-esteem: rapid screening for depression in black, low literacy, hospitalized tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, M S; Wolmarans, L

    1992-11-01

    One hundred black hospitalized tuberculosis (TB) patients (75 males and 25 females) were interviewed to ascertain levels of depression and self-esteem. The standard of literacy for 65% of the sample was such that they were unable to complete a self-report inventory. Reliability (internal consistency) was good for the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI: r = 0.79), the 13-item shortened BDI (ABDI: r = 0.76) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE: r = 0.78). There was a significant positive relationship between the BDI and the ABDI (r = 0.92, P = 0.0001). The recommended ABDI cut-off scores established no depression for 32 patients, mild depression for 22 patients, moderate depression for 38 patients and severe depression for 8 patients. There were significant negative relationships between the BDI and the RSE (r = -0.54, P = 0.0001), and between the ABDI and the RSE (r = -0.56, P = 0.0001). Self-esteem scores dropped in accordance with category of depression, revealing that low self-esteem is a characteristic feature of depression. It was concluded that the ABDI was a reliable, rapid, initial screening device for depression in black persons with low literacy levels.

  9. Self- Perceived Stress in Relation to Anxiety, Depression and Health-related Quality of Life among Health Professions Students: A Cross-sectional Study from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racic, Maja; Todorovic, Radica; Ivkovic, Nedeljka; Masic, Srdjan; Joksimovic, Bojan; Kulic, Milan

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine self-perceived stress of health professions students at the Faculty of Medicine Foča, and to explore its association with anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life. The cross-sectional study enrolled 451 students at the Faculty of Medicine (medicine, dentistry, nursing and speech therapy). Survey instruments were distributed at the conclusion of the spring semester during the last required lecture for each year and study programme class. Perceived stress was assessed using the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale. The students were evaluated for symptoms of depression and anxiety, using Zung's self-assessment inventory for depression and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). European Quality of Life-5 dimensions were used for describing and evaluating health. Multivariate analyses were carried out using logistic regression to examine the relationship between the outcome variable and selected determinant factors. A high degree of stress was reported by 1.6% of students, while the majority of students had either moderate (70.6%) or low degree (27.5%) of stress. The significant independent factors associated with perceived stress were anxiety score (OR, 0.339; CI 95%, 0.276-0.403) and EQ-5D score (OR, 0.044; CI 95%, 0.033-0.085). A high degree of perceived stress (OR, 0.624; CI 95%, 0.507-0.704), the presence of depression (OR, 0.800; CI 95%, 0.513-1.087), and low quality of life were associated with anxiety (OR, 0.073; CI 95%, 0.018-0.128). Higher levels of perceived stress predispose health professions students for anxiety and lower quality of life. The study programme was not a significant determinant of perceived stress sore.

  10. Depressive Symptoms and Conversational Self-Focus in Adolescents’ Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents’ friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes. PMID:25640911

  11. Discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem and their relationship to symptoms of depression and mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Bentall, Richard P

    2014-09-01

    Self-esteem is a key feature of bipolar symptomatology. However, so far no study has examined the interaction between explicit and implicit self-esteem in individuals vulnerable to bipolar disorder. Cross-sectional design was employed. Thirty children of parents with bipolar disorder and 30 offspring of control parents completed Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Bech-Rafaelson Mania Scale, the Self-esteem Rating Scale and the Implicit Association Test. No differences between groups were revealed in levels of explicit or implicit self-esteem. However, bipolar offspring showed increased levels of symptoms of depression and mania. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were associated with low explicit self-esteem, whilst symptoms of mania were associated with low implicit self-esteem. When self-esteem discrepancies were examined, damaged self-esteem (i.e., low explicit but high implicit self-esteem) was associated with depression, whilst no associations between mania and self-esteem discrepancies were found. Not only explicit, but also implicit self-esteem, and the interactions between the two are of relevance in bipolar symptoms. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Explicit as well as implicit SE, and particularly their relationship, are relevant for mental health. Fluctuations in implicit SE may serve as an early indicator for risk of bipolarity. Psychotherapeutic approaches may be more suitable for one kind of SE challenge than the other. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Depression and Self-Esteem in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripković, Ingrid; Roje, Romilda; Krnić, Silvana; Nazor, Mirjana; Karin, Željka; Čapkun, Vesna

    2015-06-01

    Depression prevalence has increased in the last few decades, affecting younger age groups. The aim of this research was to determine the range of depression and low self-esteem in elementary school children in the city of Split. Testing was carried out at school and the sample comprised 1,549 children (714 boys and 832 girls, aged 13). Two psychological instruments were used: the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) and the Children and Adolescent Depression Scale (SDD). The average value of scores obtained by SEI test was 17.8 for all tested children. No statistically significant difference was found be-tween boys and girls. It was found that 11.9% of children showed signs of clinically significant depression, and 16.2% showed signs of depression. Statistically significant association between low self-esteem and clinically significant depression was found. No statistically significant difference among boys and girls according to dimension of cognitive depression was found, whereas statistically significant level of emotional depression was higher in girls than boys. It was found that both dimensions of depression decreased proportionally with the increase of SEI test score values: cognitive and emotional dimension of depression. The results of this study show that it is necessary to provide early detection of emotional difficulties in order to prevent serious mental disorders. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  13. Correation between rumination and reflection in self-focus, and self-efficacy, self-esteem and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hiromi; Kodama, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    The relationships of rumination and reflection with self-focus, se1f-efficacy, self-esteem and depression, as well as gender differences in these relationships were investigated. Results indicated that women ruminated more than men and that men reflected more than women. Moreover, reflection had a negative effect on depression in men, whereas it had no effect on depression in women. Previous research has suggested that reflection does not have an effect in alleviating depression. Results of t...

  14. Burn-related factors affecting anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M; Khadilkar, N; De Sousa, A

    2017-03-31

    Burns are physically, psychologically and economically challenging injuries, and the factors leading to them are many and under-studied. The aim of the current study was to assess level of anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients, and look at various burn-related variables that affect them. This cross-sectional study included 100 patients with burn injuries admitted to a tertiary care private hospital in an urban metropolis in India. The patients were assessed for anxiety, depression and self-esteem using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, Hamilton depression rating scale and Rosenberg self-esteem scale respectively. Assessment was carried out within 2-8 weeks of injury following medical stabilization. The data was tabulated and statistically analyzed. The study sample was predominantly male (54%), married (69%), with a mean age of 34.1 ± 10.8 years. Accidental burns (94%) were the most common modality of injury. The majority (46%) suffered burns involving 20-59% total body surface area (TBSA), and facial burns were present (57%). No significant association was found between TBSA and anxiety, depression or self-esteem, and the same was true for facial burns. Deep burns, however, were significantly associated with anxiety (p=0.03) and depression (p=0.0002). High rates of anxiety and depression are associated with burn injuries and related to burn depth. Adjustment and recovery in these patients depends on various other factors like the patient's psychological status, nature/extent of the injury and ensuing medical care. Further research is warranted to reveal the magnitude and predictors of psychological problems in burn patients.

  15. Self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression as predictors of poststroke self-care among underserved ethnic minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. Robertson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Underserved ethnic minorities have multiple chronic disease risk factors, including tobacco, alcohol and substance use, which contribute to increased incidence of stroke. Self-efficacy (self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression may directly and indirectly influence engagement in post stroke self-care behaviors. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression, on tobacco, alcohol and substance use in a sample of largely ethnic minority, underserved stroke survivors (n=52. Participants previously recruited for a culturally tailored secondary stroke prevention self-care intervention were included. The treatment group received three stroke self-care sessions. The usual care group completed assessments only. Both groups were included in these analyses. Main outcome measures included tobacco, alcohol and substance use. Self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression were also assessed. Logistic regression analyses, using self-efficacy, religious practice and depression as the referents, were used to predict binary outcomes of tobacco, alcohol and substance use at 4-weeks post-stroke. Higher depression and self-care self-efficacy were associated with reduced odds of smoking and substance use. Greater participation in religious activities was associated with lower odds of alcohol use. We can conclude that incorporating depression treatment and techniques to increase self-care self-efficacy, and encouraging religious participation may help to improve stroke self-care behaviors for underserved and low socioeconomic status individuals. Results are discussed in the context of stroke self-management.

  16. Explicit self-esteem mediates the relationship between implicit self-esteem and memory biases in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Vázquez, Carmelo; Valiente, Carmen

    2016-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between explicit and implicit self-esteem and self-referent memory biases in depression. We specifically tested the hypothesis that implicit self-esteem would influence depression-related memory biases via its association with explicit self-esteem. Self-esteem was assessed in patients with a current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; n=38) and in a control group of participants who had never experienced depression (ND; n=40) by using explicit (Rosenberg Self-esteem Questionnaire) and implicit (Go/No-go Association Task) measures. A self-referent processing task of negative and positive adjectives was used to assess memory bias. Our analyses revealed that participants diagnosed with MDD showed lower levels of both explicit and implicit self-esteem in comparison to ND participants. MDD compared to ND participants also recalled a greater number of depressed self-referent adjectives and lower recall of positive self-referent information. Mediation analyses showed an indirect effect of explicit self-esteem on the relationship between implicit self-esteem and depression-related memory biases in the MDD group. These findings suggest an association between implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression that may result in negative cognitive processing, as reflected by self-referent memory biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-transcendence and depression in middle-age adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermann, C R; Reed, P G

    2001-11-01

    Self-transcendence has been found to be an important correlate of mental health in older adults and adults facing the end of life. This study extends current theory by examining the relationship of transcendence and other transcendence variables to depression in middle-age adults (N = 133). Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and measures of parenting, acceptance and spirituality were administered. Findings indicating significant inverse correlations between self-transcendence and depression, as well as between other measures of transcendence and depression support Reed's (1991b) theory. Multiple regression analysis indicated that acceptance may be another significant correlate of depression. Significant gender differences and age-related patterns of increased levels of self-transcendence were found. Study results illuminate the need to continue research into developmentally based transcendence variables related to various experiences of health and well-being across the life span.

  18. Life stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression in women after cancer: The mediating effect of stress appraisal and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Porter-Steele, Janine; Ng, Shu-Kay; Turner, Jane; McGuire, Amanda; McDonald, Nicole; Balaam, Sarah; Yates, Patsy; McCarthy, Alexandra; Anderson, Debra

    2018-04-06

    This paper examines the direct and intermediary relationships between life stress, stress appraisal, and resilience, and increased anxiety and depressive symptoms in Australian women after cancer treatment. Data examined from 278 women aged 18 years and older previously treated for breast, gynaecological, or blood cancer, participating in the Australian Women's Wellness after Cancer Program. Serial mediation models interrogated the effect of stressful life events (List of Threatening Experiences-Modified) mediated by appraisal and coping (Perceived Stress Scale and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), on symptoms of anxiety and depression (Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Over one-quarter (30.2%) of participants reported 1 or more stressful life events, other than their cancer, in the previous 6 months. Results indicate that perceived stress fully mediated the relationships between life stress, anxiety (indirect effect = 0.09, Bias-corrected bootstrap 95% CI 0.02-0.18, Percent mediation = 0.51), and depressive symptoms (indirect effect = 0.11, Bias-corrected bootstrap 95% CI 0.02-0.23, Percent mediation = 0.71) and accounted for more than half of the relationship between predictor and outcome. Findings indicate that stress appraisal mediated the relationship between past life stressors and anxiety and depressive symptoms. This analysis also highlights the need to consider wellness within a broader care context to identify potentially vulnerable patients to possibly avert future health concerns. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Exposure to stress across the life course and its association with anxiety and depressive symptoms: Results from the Australian Women's Wellness After Cancer Program (WWACP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; McCarthy, Alexandra; McGuire, Amanda; Porter-Steele, Janine; Balaam, Sarah; Ware, Robert S; Anderson, Debra

    2017-11-01

    Earlier life stressors can increase the risk of persistent anxiety and depressive symptoms in women after cancer, though our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited. In this study, we tested alternative life course models to determine which best described associations between exposure to stressors in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and self-reported health in women previously treated for breast, gynaecological, and blood cancer. Data were drawn from 351 Australian women within 2 years of completing active cancer treatment who were participating in the Women's Wellness After Cancer Program (WWACP) randomised controlled trial. A model-building framework compared "accumulative risk" and "sensitive period" stress exposure hypotheses with the saturated model to determine best fit. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Participants with the greatest number of stressful life events (SLEs) reported higher anxiety scores and more depressive symptoms. Alternative life course models for psychological distress (measured through the CES-D and SAS) and stress were compared with the saturated model (i.e., the accumulative risk). The more restrictive "sensitive period" models were the best fit for depressive symptoms though none was significantly better than another. In contrast, an "early sensitive" model provided the best fit for anxiety data. Anxiety scores were higher in women with early life stressors. This study highlights the need for whole-of-life supportive care approaches for women previously treated for cancer, which should include targeted strategies for effective management of stress, anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Self-care and depression in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Nicole; Löwe, Bernd; Wild, Beate; Schellberg, Dieter; Zugck, Christian; Remppis, Andrew; Katus, Hugo A; Haass, Markus; Rauch, Bernhard; Jünger, Jana; Herzog, Wolfgang; Müller-Tasch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Although chronic heart failure (CHF) is often complicated by comorbid depression and poor self-care, little is known about their specific association in patients with CHF. To investigate self-care behavior among patients with CHF with different degrees of depression severity. A total of 287 patients with documented CHF, New York Heart Association functional class II to IV, completed the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) IV served as the criterion standard for the presence of a depressive disorder. Analyses of covariance and linear regression analyses revealed that patients with CHF with minor depression reported significantly lower levels of self-care than patients with major depression (P = .003) and nondepressed patients (P = .014). In addition to minor depression, age (P < or = .001), multimorbidity (P = .01), left ventricular ejection fraction (P = .001), and family status (P = .01) were determinants of self-care. Our results demonstrate that patients with CHF with minor depression and not major depression are at higher risk for poor self-care and its resulting consequences, such as symptom deterioration and frequent hospitalization.

  1. Depression and its Correlation with Self-esteem and Social Support among Iranian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rezaei Ardani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Considering the effects of the level of social support and self-esteem as risk factors in the onset and continuation of depression, the purpose of the current study (in addition to studying the demographic items of depression was to investigate the correlation between depression and level of social support and self-esteem in Iranian university students studying non medical majors. "nMethod: The study was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research carried out on the students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. Self administered questionnaires on socio-demographic information (age, gender, marital status, and educational level, Eysenk self-esteem scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Cassidy social support scale were randomly given out to students who were selected by multi stage randomized sampling. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 14 using the χ2-test. "nResults: 1200 students responded to the anonymous questionnaires. A total of 57.2% of the participants had depression (36.3% mild, 14.4% moderate and 6.5% severe. Depression was significantly higher in males, singles and in 25-29-year-old students. Results showed that 9.4%, 18.3% and 72.3% of the participants reported low, moderate and high levels of social support respectively. 1.8% and 6.3% of the participants reported low and moderate levels of self-esteem respectively; while 91.9% reported high levels of self-esteem. "nConclusion: Depression has a higher rate in non-medical university students of Iran than general population. Levels of social support and self-esteem were negatively associated with frequency of depression.

  2. Evaluation of Depression Associated With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Maxillofacial Injuries-A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Vatsala; Panneerselvam, Elavenil; Chellappazham, Saravanan; Balasubramaniam, Sasikala; Raja V B, Krishnakumar

    2018-06-01

    Maxillofacial injuries can result in psychological derangement, leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by continual re-experiencing of any traumatic event in addition to numerous systemic complications. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence and severity of "PTSD-related depression" in patients with maxillofacial injuries and to identify the risk factors involved. This prospective study involved 88 patients with maxillofacial trauma who had only cosmetic deficits (group A), only functional deficits (group B), or cosmetic and functional deficits (group C). The psychological status of all patients was assessed before and after surgery using Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale. Remission time also was analyzed. Data were analyzed with SPSS 22.0 using parametric methods. Comparison of mean values among groups was performed using 1-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey honest significance difference post hoc tests for multiple pairwise comparisons. To compare proportions, the χ 2 test was applied. The number of patients in groups A, B, and C was 11, 34 and 43, respectively. In the immediate post-trauma stage, all patients in group A showed severe depression; the percentages of patients with severe depression in groups B and C were 8.8 and 81.4%, respectively, which was statistically relevant. Depression scores of patients of all groups decreased gradually in the postsurgical phase. Patients with cosmetic defects consistently recorded higher depression scores at all intervals. The time taken for recovery from depression (remission time) was shorter for patients with only functional deficits (group B). Patients with maxillofacial injuries are prone to PTSD-related depression from functional and cosmetic deficits. The objectives of trauma management must be aimed at restoring pre-trauma form and function of the maxillofacial skeleton and the patient's psychological status. Copyright © 2018 American Association of

  3. Mood-Reactive Self-Esteem and Depression Vulnerability: Person-Specific Symptom Dynamics via Smart Phone Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Peter C.; Fisher, Aaron J.; Beevers, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling) required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants’ smartphones to collect multiple daily ratings of sadness and self-esteem over three weeks, in the real world. We then applied dynamic factor modeling to explore theoretically driven hypotheses about the temporal dependency of self-esteem on sadness (i.e., mood-reactive self-esteem) and its relationship to indices of depression vulnerability both contemporaneously (e.g., rumination, sad mood persistence) and prospectively (e.g., future symptomatology). In sum, individuals who demonstrated mood-reactive self-esteem reported higher levels of rumination at baseline, more persistent sad mood over three weeks, and increased depression symptoms at the end of three weeks above and beyond a trait-like index of self-esteem. The integration of smartphone assessment and person-specific analytics employed in this study offers an exiting new avenue to advance the study and treatment of depression. PMID:26131724

  4. Mood-Reactive Self-Esteem and Depression Vulnerability: Person-Specific Symptom Dynamics via Smart Phone Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C Clasen

    Full Text Available Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants' smartphones to collect multiple daily ratings of sadness and self-esteem over three weeks, in the real world. We then applied dynamic factor modeling to explore theoretically driven hypotheses about the temporal dependency of self-esteem on sadness (i.e., mood-reactive self-esteem and its relationship to indices of depression vulnerability both contemporaneously (e.g., rumination, sad mood persistence and prospectively (e.g., future symptomatology. In sum, individuals who demonstrated mood-reactive self-esteem reported higher levels of rumination at baseline, more persistent sad mood over three weeks, and increased depression symptoms at the end of three weeks above and beyond a trait-like index of self-esteem. The integration of smartphone assessment and person-specific analytics employed in this study offers an exiting new avenue to advance the study and treatment of depression.

  5. Mood-Reactive Self-Esteem and Depression Vulnerability: Person-Specific Symptom Dynamics via Smart Phone Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Peter C; Fisher, Aaron J; Beevers, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling) required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants' smartphones to collect multiple daily ratings of sadness and self-esteem over three weeks, in the real world. We then applied dynamic factor modeling to explore theoretically driven hypotheses about the temporal dependency of self-esteem on sadness (i.e., mood-reactive self-esteem) and its relationship to indices of depression vulnerability both contemporaneously (e.g., rumination, sad mood persistence) and prospectively (e.g., future symptomatology). In sum, individuals who demonstrated mood-reactive self-esteem reported higher levels of rumination at baseline, more persistent sad mood over three weeks, and increased depression symptoms at the end of three weeks above and beyond a trait-like index of self-esteem. The integration of smartphone assessment and person-specific analytics employed in this study offers an exiting new avenue to advance the study and treatment of depression.

  6. Rozpoznawanie depresji u pacjentów z chorobą Parkinsona za pomocą różnorodnych narzędzi diagnostycznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pękala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Choroba Parkinsona to zaburzenie neurodegeneratywne, którego głównymi objawami są te z zakresu motoryki i tzw. pozamotoryczne. Obie grupy symptomów w znaczący sposób wpływają na poczucie jakości życia chorego. Zaburzenia pozamotoryczne często bywają pomijane, niewłaściwie diagnozowane i źle leczone, co prowadzi do komplikacji w leczeniu, gorszego funkcjonowania pacjentów i ich opiekunów. Jednym ze współwystępujących zaburzeń jest depresja. Dużo jej objawów pojawia się również w chorobie Parkinsona, co stawia przed klinicystą czy badaczem i używanymi przez nich narzędziami dodatkowe wymagania. Istnieje wiele skal klinicznych i kwestionariuszy samoopisowych z powodzeniem wykorzystywanych w przesiewie, rozpoznaniu czy sprawdzaniu postępów terapii depresji. Należą do nich: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Inventory of Depressive Symptoms – Self-Rated (IDS-SR, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-Part I, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, Cornell Scale for the Assessment of Depression in Dementia (CSDD, Inventory of Depressive Symptoms – Clinician (IDS-C, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Z rozpoznawaniem depresji towarzyszącej chorobie Parkinsona najlepiej radzą sobie skale kliniczne, szczególnie skala Hamiltona oraz Montgomery–Åsberg. Ich przydatność i skuteczność jest duża zarówno w badaniach przesiewowych czy badaniu nasilenia objawów, jak i w stawianiu diagnozy. Podobne cechy ma kwestionariusz Becka. Nieco mniej badań w tym zakresie przeprowadzono na Inventory of Depressive Symptoms – Clinician, choć jest to narzędzie obiecujące. Wersja kwestionariuszowa tego narzędzia, Inventory of Depressive Symptoms – Self-Rated, nie

  7. Influence of mobbing (workplace bullying) on depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study among employees working with people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Ferraz, H; Gil-Monte, P R; Olivares-Faúndez, V E

    2015-01-01

    The problem of mobbing has attracted a great deal of attention over the past few years. This concern has increased the study of the phenomena, which has resulted in many scientific publications. Mobbing has been characterised as an emerging risk at work. The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyse the influence of mobbing on depressive symptoms in a sample of employees working with people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sample consisted of 372 Spanish employees working with people with ID at 61 job centres in the Valencian Community (Spain). Seventy-nine (21.2%) participants were men, and 293 were (78.8%) women. Mobbing was evaluated by the Mobbing-UNIPSICO scale, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale. Using analyses of variance (anova), we tested the differences in depressive symptoms according to the mobbing criteria indicated by Leymann, that is, frequency and duration at Time 1 and Time 2. Employees who met the mobbing criteria: frequency (at least once a week) and duration (at least 6 months) at the two study times presented significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than employees who met mobbing criteria at Time 1, but did not meet any criteria for mobbing at Time 2, and employees who did not meet any criteria for mobbing at Time 1 or Time 2. We conclude that permanence of mobbing from Time 1 to Time 2 increases depressive symptoms. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The effectiveness of beauty care on self-rated health among community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hisashi; Inomata, Takashi; Otsuka, Rika; Sugiyama, Yoichi; Hirano, Hirohiko; Obuchi, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance and improvement of self-rated health is important for prolonging healthy life expectancy in a well-aged society. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of beauty care on self-rated health among community-dwelling older people through a quasi- randomized controlled trial by propensity score matching (PSM). One hundred twelve community-dwelling older people who were recruited from the local community, participated in a beauty care program that consisted of two training sessions per month for 3 months and daily enforcement of facial skin care (intervention group). Seven hundred fifty-nine participants who received a comprehensive geriatric assessment were treated as a control group. Sex, age, BMI, lifestyle habits, hand grip strength, walking speed, skeletal muscle mass, bone density, medical history and life function (Kihon Checklist) were matched by the PSM method. We compared the subjects' self-rated health, depressive mood status (self-rating depression scale: SDS), and the frequency of going outdoors in the intervention and control groups before and after intervention. The improvements of SDS were significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group. The self-rated health and the frequency of going outdoors were maintained in the intervention group but were significantly decreased in the control group. We conclude that beauty care is effective for maintaining and improving the self-rated health and depression status of community-dwelling older people and that it may help prolong healthy life expectancy.

  9. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Marackova, Marketa; Grambal, Ales; Slepecky, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Self-stigma is a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patients' lives and have a negative impact on their quality of life (QoL). This study explored the association between self-stigma, QoL, demographic data, and the severity of symptoms in patients with depressive disorder. Patients who met the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, research criteria for depressive disorder were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All outpatients completed the following measurements: the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, demographic questionnaire, and the objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression-Severity scales that measure the severity of disorder. A total of 81 depressive disorder patients (with persistent affective disorder - dysthymia, major depressive disorder, or recurrent depressive disorder) and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Compared with the healthy control group, a lower QoL was observed in patients with depressive disorder. The level of self-stigma correlated positively with total symptom severity score and negatively with QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the overall rating of objective symptom severity and score of self-stigma were significantly associated with QoL. This study suggests a lower QoL in patients with depressive disorder in comparison with healthy controls and a negative impact of self-stigma level on QoL in patients suffering from depressive disorders.

  11. Low self-esteem prospectively predicts depression in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Roberts, Brent W

    2008-09-01

    Low self-esteem and depression are strongly correlated in cross-sectional studies, yet little is known about their prospective effects on each other. The vulnerability model hypothesizes that low self-esteem serves as a risk factor for depression, whereas the scar model hypothesizes that low self-esteem is an outcome, not a cause, of depression. To test these models, the authors used 2 large longitudinal data sets, each with 4 repeated assessments between the ages of 15 and 21 years and 18 and 21 years, respectively. Cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that low self-esteem predicted subsequent levels of depression, but depression did not predict subsequent levels of self-esteem. These findings held for both men and women and after controlling for content overlap between the self-esteem and depression scales. Thus, the results supported the vulnerability model, but not the scar model, of self-esteem and depression.

  12. Self-statements, locus of control, and depression in predicting self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, V D; Holliman, W B; Madonna, S

    1995-06-01

    The contributions of frequency of positive and negative self-statements and their ratio, locus of control, and depression in prediction of self-esteem were examined. Volunteers were 145 college students (100 women and 45 men) who were administered the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory-Adult Form, Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. Intercorrelations suggested significant relationships among variables. The magnitude of the relationship was strongest between the frequency of negative self-statements and self-esteem. These results are consistent with and lend further support to prior studies of Kendall, et al. and Schwartz and Michaelson.

  13. Neural correlates of self-perceptions in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Colcombe, Stan; Henderson, Sarah E; Alonso, Carmen M; Milham, Michael P; Gabbay, Vilma

    2016-06-01

    Alteration in self-perception is a salient feature in major depression. Hyperactivity of anterior cortical midline regions has been implicated in this phenomenon in depressed adults. Here, we extend this work to depressed adolescents during a developmental time when neuronal circuitry underlying the sense of self matures by using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and connectivity analyses. Twenty-three depressed adolescents and 18 healthy controls (HC) viewed positive and negative trait words in a scanner and judged whether each word described them ('self' condition) or was a good trait to have ('general' condition). Self-perception scores were based on participants' endorsements of positive and negative traits during the fMRI task. Depressed adolescents exhibited more negative self-perceptions than HC. Both groups activated cortical midline regions in response to self-judgments compared to general-judgments. However, depressed adolescents recruited the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus more for positive self-judgments. Additionally, local connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex was reduced during self-reflection in depressed adolescents. Our findings highlight differences in self-referential processing network function between depressed and healthy adolescents and support the need for further investigation of brain mechanisms associated with the self, as they may be paramount to understanding the etiology and development of major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Pontos de vista e conhecimentos dos sinais indicativos de depressão entre acadêmicos de enfermagem Puntos de vista y conocimientos de los signos indicativos de depresión entre estudiantes de enfermeria Undergraduate nursing students' knowledge and viewpoints on depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Regina Ferreira Furegato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar pontos de vista, conhecimento e sinais de depressão entre graduandos de Enfermagem. Quatro instru-mentos foram utilizados para a coleta dos dados: A - Pontos de Vista Sobre Depressão; B - Conhecimento Sobre Depressão; C - Inventário de Beck; D - Escala de Zung. A análise quantitativa descritiva somou-se às reflexões qualitativas. Os alunos demonstraram que têm interesse e freqüentaram cursos de saúde mental; 65,4% tiveram altos escores de acordo com os pontos de vista 61,5% e têm ótimo conhecimento sobre depressão. Nas duas escalas de depressão verificou-se a existência de depressão moderada em um aluno. Nas respostas individuais, observa-se a falta de experiência dos alunos, preconceitos e informações equivocadas.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar puntos de vista, conocimiento y signos de depresión entre estudiantes de Enfermería. Fueron utilizados cuatro instrumentos para la recolección de los datos: A - Puntos de Vista Sobre Depresión; B - Conocimiento Sobre Depre-sión; C - Inventario de Beck; D - Escala de Zung. El análisis cuantitativo descriptivo se sumó a las reflexiones cualitativas. Los alumnos demostraron que tienen interés y frecuentaron cursos de salud mental; 65.4% tuvieron altos escores de acuerdo con los puntos de vista esperados de depresión; 61.5% tienen óptimo conocimiento sobre el tema. En las dos escalas de depresión se verificó la existencia de depresión moderada en un alumno. En las respuestas individuales, se observa falta de experiencia de los alumnos, prejuicios e informaciones equivocadas.This study aimed at identifying viewpoints, knowledge and indicative signs of depression among nursing students. Four instruments were used for data collection: A - Viewpoints on Depression; B - Knowledge on Depression; C - Beck's Inventory and D - Zung's Scale. The descriptive quantitative analysis added to qualitative reflections. Students showed that they were

  15. Self-esteem in depression and anxiety : low, unstable, and discrepant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the role of low self-esteem in depression and anxiety disorders. Low self-esteem could be both a cause and a consequence of depression and anxiety. Moreover, residual low self-esteem in people who have recovered from depression and/or anxiety might set them at risk for recurrence.

  16. Encoding Personal Adjectives: The Effects of Depression on Self-Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Nicholas A.; Derry, Paul A.

    A central tenet of a self-schema model for depression is the idea that severity of depression is a crucial determinant of the content and cohesiveness of the depressive's self-schema. Consistent with predictions generated form this model, sample nondepressives displayed superior recall for self-referenced, nondepressed-content adjectives. Recall…

  17. Neural correlates of self-perceptions in adolescents with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailyn A.L. Bradley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alteration in self-perception is a salient feature in major depression. Hyperactivity of anterior cortical midline regions has been implicated in this phenomenon in depressed adults. Here, we extend this work to depressed adolescents during a developmental time when neuronal circuitry underlying the sense of self matures by using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and connectivity analyses. Twenty-three depressed adolescents and 18 healthy controls (HC viewed positive and negative trait words in a scanner and judged whether each word described them (‘self’ condition or was a good trait to have (‘general’ condition. Self-perception scores were based on participants’ endorsements of positive and negative traits during the fMRI task. Depressed adolescents exhibited more negative self-perceptions than HC. Both groups activated cortical midline regions in response to self-judgments compared to general-judgments. However, depressed adolescents recruited the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus more for positive self-judgments. Additionally, local connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex was reduced during self-reflection in depressed adolescents. Our findings highlight differences in self-referential processing network function between depressed and healthy adolescents and support the need for further investigation of brain mechanisms associated with the self, as they may be paramount to understanding the etiology and development of major depressive disorder.

  18. Are self-report scales as effective as clinician rating scales in measuring treatment response in routine clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Walsh, Emily; Friedman, Michael; Boerescu, Daniela A; Attiullah, Naureen

    2018-01-01

    Recent treatment guidelines have suggested that outcome should be measured in routine clinical practice. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we compared three self-report scales of depressive symptoms and the two most widely used clinician administered scales in treatment studies in their sensitivity to change and evaluation of treatment response in depressed patients treated in routine practice. At baseline and 4-month follow-up 153 depressed outpatients with DSM-IV MDD completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-report version (QIDS-SR), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The patients were rated on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). On each scale treatment response was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in scores from baseline. While there were some differences in the percentage of patients considered to be responders on the different scales, a large effect size was found for each scale, with little variability amongst the scales. The level of agreement between the three self-report scales and the clinician rating scales was approximately the same LIMITATIONS: The present study was conducted in a single clinical practice in which the majority of the patients were white, female, and had health insurance. When measuring outcome in clinical practice the magnitude of change in depressive symptoms is as great on self-report scales as on clinician rating scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in remitted depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, D.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Oostrom, I.I. van; Isaac, L.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the

  20. Developmental trajectories and longitudinal mediation effects of self-esteem, peer attachment, child maltreatment and depression on early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Soyoung; Lee, Yanghee

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the developmental trajectories of peer attachment, self-esteem, depression, and child maltreatment, and to understand the longitudinal mediation effects that peer attachment and self-esteem have on the influence of perceived abuse on early adolescent depression. This study uses Year 1 to Year 5 data of the 4th grader panel of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (KYPS) and utilizes a multivariate latent growth model to analyze the main variables in the applicable data between 5th (i.e., Year 2) and 8th (i.e., Year 5) grades. The results indicate that from the 5th to the 8th grade, the degree of abuse and depression increases while self-esteem gradually decreases with slowly lowering peer attachment. A significant distribution of the initial values and the rate of change were present for all main variables of the study, confirming individual differences in time wise changes. Further, more exposure to abuse correlated with a decrease in self-esteem, while an increase in self-esteem greatly reduced depression. The initial value of self-esteem showed a partial mediation effect, whereas the rate of change indicated a full mediation effect with a significant longitudinal mediation effect. More experience of abuse during early adolescence indicated a lower degree of peer attachment, and a higher peer attachment was related to decreased depression. A significant partial mediation effect was present for both the initial value and the rate of change of peer attachment, and a longitudinal mediation effect was present. This study confirmed that self-esteem in early adolescents is an important protective factor that can greatly reduce the degree of depression, and suggests continuous interventions conducted to increase self-esteem in adolescence. Furthermore, by determining that peer attachment decreases the degree of depression in children at risk, the study emphasizes the healing aspect of adolescent peer attachment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  1. Survey of breast implant patients: characteristics, depression rate, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaaji, Amin; Bjertness, Cecilie Bergsmark; Nordahl, Cathrine; Olafsen, Kjell

    2013-02-01

    Quality of life (QOL) among breast augmentation patients is a growing research area, with newly worrisome data on psychological health in this group. The authors investigate characteristics of breast implant patients, including motivations for surgery, depression rate, effect of surgery on daily activity and work activity, and overall psychosocial and cosmetic changes through a self-reported survey. Of 121 consecutive breast augmentation patients treated by the senior author (AK) between 2005 and 2008, a total of 93 patients were reachable via e-mail and were sent a 47-question survey, which they could return anonymously. Answers were processed by QuestBack mail system (QuestBack AS, Oslo, Norway) and sent to the authors as diagrams and figures, rather than as raw data. The response rate for this survey was 67%. Average follow-up was 2.8 years. For 65%, the motivation for surgery was cosmetic; 48% replied it was for emotional reasons (reduced self-esteem), 22% for intimate reasons, and 10% for physical reasons. Before the operation, 6% of respondents reported diagnosed depression. The postoperative changes were equal between improved and worsened depression. In 27%, the operation increased motivation for daily activities; 73% felt like a "whole" person, and 26% experienced improvement in social skills. In terms of the cosmetic result, 93% were satisfied or very satisfied. However, 27% indicated they were unsatisfied or very unsatisfied with skin sensation. Although in some cases depression increased postoperatively, the depression rate in our study was still lower than the published range in the general population in Norway. Breast enlargement increased motivation to perform daily activities in our patients. The procedure improved QOL in both psychosocial and cosmetic aspects. However, the relatively high percentage of patients who experienced reduced breast skin sensitivity postoperatively can represent a challenge for the surgeon. Multicenter/clinic studies are

  2. Depression signs, Teasing and Low Self-esteem in Female Obese Adolescents: a clinical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Maria Merlo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the study identifies the presence of the signs of depression, teasing and self-esteem in obese female adolescents compared to a control group. Methods: the studied group consisted of female subjects (N= 106 obese adolescents and 106 control group aged from 12 to 18. In the study, the subjects were administered measures of body image, Montgomery Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS, Scale of perceived Teasing, Self-Liking (SL and Self-competence (SC to appraise self-esteem. Results: the comparative assessment highlighted that obese adolescents are significantly depressed. Regarding the teasing, the adolescents were affected from a physical viewpoint. A significant difference also emerged in relation to self-esteem. Conclusion: the emotional consequences should be carefully weighed  in consideration of the possible psychopathologies that may arise, i.e. mood signs. In relation to the signs, the prevention  with psychological interventions is important for eating disorders and  improve psychosocial health.

  3. Do bonding and bridging social capital affect self-rated health, depressive mood and cognitive decline in older Japanese? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Matsuo, Eri; Nofuji, Yu; Shimizu, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    Little is known regarding the longitudinal effects of bonding and bridging social capital on health. This study examined the longitudinal associations of bonding and bridging social capital with self-rated health, depressive mood, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older Japanese. Data analyzed in this study were from the 2010 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) Hatoyama Cohort Study. Bonding social capital was assessed by individual perception of homogeneity of the neighborhood (the level of homogeneity among neighbors) and of networks (the amount of homogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Bridging social capital was assessed by individual perception of heterogeneity of networks (the amount of heterogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the effects of baseline social capital on poor health outcome at follow-up by logistic regression analysis. In total, 681 people completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean age of participants was 71.8 ± 5.1 years, and 57.9% were male. After adjusting for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidity, functional capacity, baseline score of each outcome, and other bonding/bridging social capital, stronger perceived neighborhood homogeneity was inversely associated with poor self-rated health (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30-1.00) and depressive mood assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.99). When participants who reported a depressive mood at baseline were excluded, stronger perceived heterogeneous network was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.87). Neither bonding nor bridging social capital was significantly associated with cognitive decline assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, bonding and bridging social capital affect health in different ways, but they both have

  4. Interpersonal problems, dependency, and self-criticism in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Ulrike; Barrett, Marna S; Zimmermann, Johannes; Schauenburg, Henning; Wright, Aidan G C; Renner, Fritz; Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Barber, Jacques P

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present research was the examination of overlap between 2 research traditions on interpersonal personality traits in major depression. We hypothesized that Blatt's (2004) dimensions of depressive experiences around the dimensions of relatedness (i.e., dependency) and self-definition (i.e., self-criticism) are associated with specific interpersonal problems according to the interpersonal circumplex model (Leary, 1957). In addition, we examined correlations of interpersonal characteristics with depression severity. Analyses were conducted on 283 patients with major depressive disorder combined from 2 samples. Of the patients, 151 participated in a randomized controlled trial in the United States, and 132 patients were recruited in an inpatient unit in Germany. Patients completed measures of symptomatic distress, interpersonal problems, and depressive experiences. Dependency was associated with more interpersonal problems related to low dominance and high affiliation, while self-criticism was associated with more interpersonal problems related to low affiliation. These associations were independent of depression severity. Self-criticism showed high overlap with cognitive symptoms of depression. The findings support the interpersonal nature of Blatt's dimensions of depressive experiences. Self-criticism is associated with being too distant or cold toward others as well as greater depression severity, but is not related to the dimension of dominance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Depression Screening Using Daily Mental-Health Ratings from a Smartphone Application for Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junetae; Lim, Sanghee; Min, Yul Ha; Shin, Yong-Wook; Lee, Byungtae; Sohn, Guiyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Lee, Jae-Ho; Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, Jong Won

    2016-08-04

    Mobile mental-health trackers are mobile phone apps that gather self-reported mental-health ratings from users. They have received great attention from clinicians as tools to screen for depression in individual patients. While several apps that ask simple questions using face emoticons have been developed, there has been no study examining the validity of their screening performance. In this study, we (1) evaluate the potential of a mobile mental-health tracker that uses three daily mental-health ratings (sleep satisfaction, mood, and anxiety) as indicators for depression, (2) discuss three approaches to data processing (ratio, average, and frequency) for generating indicator variables, and (3) examine the impact of adherence on reporting using a mobile mental-health tracker and accuracy in depression screening. We analyzed 5792 sets of daily mental-health ratings collected from 78 breast cancer patients over a 48-week period. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as the measure of true depression status, we conducted a random-effect logistic panel regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate the screening performance of the mobile mental-health tracker. In addition, we classified patients into two subgroups based on their adherence level (higher adherence and lower adherence) using a k-means clustering algorithm and compared the screening accuracy between the two groups. With the ratio approach, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.8012, indicating that the performance of depression screening using daily mental-health ratings gathered via mobile mental-health trackers is comparable to the results of PHQ-9 tests. Also, the AUC is significantly higher (P=.002) for the higher adherence group (AUC=0.8524) than for the lower adherence group (AUC=0.7234). This result shows that adherence to self-reporting is associated with a higher accuracy of depression screening. Our results support the potential of a mobile mental

  6. Depression and anxiety in patients with coronary artery disease, measured by means of self-report measures and clinician-rated instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moryś, Joanna M; Bellwon, Jerzy; Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Gruchała, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The presence of depression symptomatology significantly deteriorates the prognosis for the patient. There are many instruments developed to measure depression and anxiety in clinical trials; however, the suitability of the specific scale for screening these disorders in cardiovascular patients is debatable. The aim of current study is to verify which of the major assessment instruments is the most relevant for the screening evaluation of depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular system diseases. The sample studied consisted of 120 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). They did not display serious psychiatric or somatic disorders. To assess depressive and anxiety symptoms we used self-reporting measures (BDI-II, HADS, SSAI/STAI, and PHQ), the results of which were compared to results obtained on the basis of a clinician-rating instrument (HRSD). We found that depressive symptoms assessed on the basis of HRSD, BDI-II, and PHQ-9 were equivalent in results, while the results obtained in HADS-D were significantly lower. Anxiety symptoms were found at approximate levels in HADS, SSAI, and GAD-7. The assessment of somatic symptoms in patients with CAD indicates that 87.5% of the subjects reported somatic symptoms of various intensity. Screening assessment of depression in patients with CAD gives different results depending on the tool used. We found that HADS significantly underestimates the percentage of patients with symptoms of depression in patients with CAD. Assessing anxiety symptoms with the aid of HADS gave outcomes close to the results gained by use of other tools.

  7. Locus of control, optimism, and recollections of depression and self-reported cognitive functioning following treatment for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carlene; Giles, Kristy; Nettelbeck, Ted; Hutchinson, Amanda

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of disposition (locus of control, optimism, and depression) on recollections of cognitive functioning following cancer treatment. Participants were survivors of colorectal cancer (n = 88) and their spouses (n = 40). Survivors retrospectively rated their cognitive functioning and depression, as experienced following treatment and currently rated their dispositions for optimism and locus of control. Survivors' spouses likewise provided their recollections of survivors' cognitive functioning and depression at time following treatment. Correlations between survivors' and spouses' ratings for cognitive functioning were statistically significant but not for depression. Results supported validity of survivors' longer term retrospective reports. Although internal locus of control correlated positively with retrospectively self-reported cognitive functioning, and negatively with retrospectively self-reported depression, moderated hierarchical multiple regression found independent contribution of internal locus of control was limited to predicting quality of life; and that, among variables tested, depression correlated strongest with cognitive functioning. Neither internal locus of control nor optimism in colorectal cancer survivors influences correlation between cognition and depression. Health care providers should note individual differences in responses to treatment and be alert to the impact of depression on perceived everyday functioning. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Mood self-assessment in bipolar disorder: a comparison between patients in mania, depression, and euthymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Assis da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that mood self-assessment is more severely impaired in patients with bipolar disorder in a manic episode than in depression. OBJECTIVES: To investigate variations in mood self-assessment in relation to current affective state in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder. METHODS: A total of 165 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I or type II had their affective state assessed using the Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. In addition, participants completed a self-report visual analog mood scale (VAMS. Patients were divided into three groups (euthymia, mania, and depression and compared with regard to VAMS results. RESULTS: Manic patients rated their mood similarly to patients in euthymia in 14 out of 16 items in the VAMS. By contrast, depressed patients rated only two items similarly to euthymic patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with bipolar disorder in mania, but not those in depression, poorly evaluate their affective state, reinforcing the occurrence of insight impairment in the manic syndrome.

  9. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia K; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Mitchell, Karen J; Levin, Yael

    2009-12-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural activity associated with self-reflection in depressed [current major depressive episode (MDE)] and healthy control participants, focusing on medial cortex areas previously shown to be associated with self-reflection. Both the MDE and healthy control groups showed greater activity in anterior medial cortex (medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus) when cued to think about hopes and aspirations compared with duties and obligations, and greater activity in posterior medial cortex (precuneus, posterior cingulate) when cued to think about duties and obligations (Experiment 1). However, the MDE group showed less activity than controls in the same area of medial frontal cortex when self-referential cues were more ambiguous with respect to valence (Experiment 2), and less deactivation in a non-self-referential condition in both experiments. Furthermore, individual differences in rumination were positively correlated with activity in both anterior and posterior medial cortex during non-self-referential conditions. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation of anterior and posterior medial cortex depending on the focus of self-relevant thought. They also provide neural evidence consistent with behavioral findings that depression is associated with disruption of positively valenced thoughts in response to ambiguous cues, and difficulty disengaging from self-reflection when it is appropriate to do so.

  10. [Suicidal ideation, self-directed violence and depression among Chilean school adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroilhet, Sergio; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Guajardo, Viviana; Martínez, Vania; Vöhringer, Paul; Araya, Ricardo; Rojas, Graciela

    2012-07-01

    Suicidal behaviors and depression are prevalent phenomena among adolescents, and are considered a public health problem. To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors and the relationship between both phenomena, in a representative sample of students from ninth grade in Santiago, Chile. We recruited a probability sample of 2,597 adolescents who answered a questionnaire with questions about suicidal behavior and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). The lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and planning was 21 and 14%, respectively. The prevalence for the past two weeks was 6.7 and 4.4% for suicidal ideation and planning, respectively. Autolytic behaviors, once in lifetime and in the past week were referred by 26 and 4% of respondents, respectively. In one third of these, self-harm coincided with recent suicide ideation or planning. All levels of suicidal behavior were more frequently reported by women. Clinically significant depressive symptoms were present in 23.5% of adolescents. Females doubled male rates. Severe depressive symptoms were present in 9.4% of the sample. A higher level of suicidal behavior correlated with more severe forms of depression. Sixty percent of adolescents who reported recent self-harm, had clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Two thirds of them had severe symptoms. Suicidal behavior in Chilean adolescents is prevalent, and there is an association between this behavior and the level of depression. The school is a good place to identify and develop preventive measures for teenagers.

  11. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Gonzales Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. Method: correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population was composed of adult inpatients with cardiovascular diseases. A non-probabilistic consecutive sample was composed of 120 patients. Variables of interest were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Resilience Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: anxiety and depression symptoms were present in 32.5% and 17.5% of the patients, respectively, and were associated with the female sex (p = 0.002; p = 0.022. Manifestations of depression were associated with the presence of comorbidities (p = 0.020. More resilient patients did not present depression symptoms (p < 0.001 and anxious women were more resilient (p = 0.042. The highest scores regarding self-esteem were present in patients with anxiety and depression. Men presented higher resilience and lower self-esteem compared to women. Conclusion: patients with anxiety and depression were less resilient but presented higher self-esteem.

  12. Rating scales in general practice depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Paykel, Eugene; Sireling, Lester

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to investigate to what extent the Clinical Interview for Depression (CID) used in the general practice setting covers clinically valid subscales (depression, anxiety, and apathy) which can measure outcome of antidepressant therapy as well as identifying subsyndromes...... within major depressive disorder. The CID was compared to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17). METHODS: 146 patients from a previous study in general practice with the CID were investigated. The item response theory model established by Rasch was used to investigate the scalability (a scale...... (approximately 20%) had an atypical depression. LIMITATIONS: The samples were derived from a single study and were all rated by a single rater. CONCLUSION: The CID contains subscales of depression, anxiety, and apathy with an acceptable scalability for use in general practice. A subsyndrome of atypical...

  13. Changes of explicitly and implicitly measured self-esteem in the treatment of major depression: evidence for implicit self-esteem compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Ingo; Geiser, Franziska; Alfter, Susanne; Mierke, Jan; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Kleiman, Alexandra; Koch, Anne Sarah; Conrad, Rupert

    2015-04-01

    Self-esteem has been claimed to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of depression. Whereas explicit self-esteem is usually reduced in depressed individuals, studies on implicitly measured self-esteem in depression exhibit a more heterogeneous pattern of results, and the role of implicit self-esteem in depression is still ambiguous. Previous research on implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) revealed that implicit self-esteem can mirror processes of self-esteem compensation under conditions that threaten self-esteem. We assume that depressed individuals experience a permanent threat to their selves resulting in enduring processes of ISEC. We hypothesize that ISEC as measured by implicit self-esteem will decrease when individuals recover from depression. 45 patients with major depression received an integrative in-patient treatment in the Psychosomatic University Hospital Bonn, Germany. Depression was measured by the depression score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). Self-esteem was assessed explicitly using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and implicitly by the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Test (NLT). As expected for a successful treatment of depression, depression scores declined during the eight weeks of treatment and explicit self-esteem rose. In line with our hypothesis, both measures of implicit self-esteem decreased, indicating reduced processes of ISEC. It still remains unclear, under which conditions there is an overlap of measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. The results lend support to the concept of ISEC and demonstrate the relevance of implicit self-esteem and self-esteem compensation for the understanding of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holubova M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Michaela Holubova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Background: Self-stigma is a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patients’ lives and have a negative impact on their quality of life (QoL. This study explored the association between self-stigma, QoL, demographic data, and the severity of symptoms in patients with depressive disorder. Patients and methods: Patients who met the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, research criteria for depressive disorder were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All outpatients completed the following measurements: the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, demographic questionnaire, and the objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression-Severity scales that measure the severity of disorder. A total of 81 depressive disorder patients (with persistent affective disorder – dysthymia, major depressive disorder, or recurrent depressive disorder and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Results: Compared with the healthy control group, a lower QoL was observed in patients with depressive disorder. The level of self-stigma correlated positively with total symptom severity score and negatively with QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the overall rating of objective symptom severity and score of self-stigma were significantly associated with QoL. Conclusion: This study suggests a lower QoL in patients with depressive disorder in comparison with healthy controls and a negative impact of

  15. Association of depression with social support and self-esteem among HIV positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Vinita; Unnikrishnan, B; Hegde, Supriya; Ramapuram, John T; Rao, S; Achappa, B; Madi, D; Kotian, M S

    2011-12-01

    Depression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positives has implications such as poor drug compliance, lower quality of life, faster progression to full blown Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and higher mortality. To assess depression, social support and self-esteem in HIV positives and to find out the association of depression with social support and self-esteem among HIV positive patients. Kasturba Medical College (KMC) Hospital, a tertiary care hospital, Mangalore, India and cross-sectional design. Study constituted of 105 HIV positive subjects; depression was assessed using BDI (Beck depression inventory), social support was assessed using Lubben social network scale and self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Kappa statistics was used to measure the agreement of depression assessed by BDI with clinical diagnosis of depression. Logistic regression analyses were done to find out predictors of depression among HIV positives. All analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. Depression was found to be present in 43.8% of HIV positives. Among the study subjects, 10.5% had high risk for isolation and low self-esteem was found only among 5.7%. In univariate analysis both gender and self-esteem were significantly associated with depression whereas in multivariate analysis only self-esteem was found to be significantly associated with depression. The present study shows a high prevalence of depression in HIV positive patients along with the importance of self-esteem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of self-rated health on cognitive performance in community dwelling elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelicic, M; Kempen, GIJM

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported health on. cognitive function in community dwelling elderly (N = 4,528). Research participants were divided into four groups with regard to self-rated health. Statistically controlling for the effects of depression, age, and

  17. Body Image Self-Discrepancy and Depressive Symptoms Among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; Maximova, Katerina; Henderson, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether body image self-discrepancy was a correlate of depressive symptoms among 556 early adolescents (45% girls; M age  = 11.65, SD = .94 years). Participants completed self-report measures of their self-perceived actual and ideal body shapes and depressive symptoms. Sex-stratified polynomial regressions were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and (1) agreement (i.e., similar actual and ideal body shapes); (2) discrepancy (i.e., different actual and ideal body shapes); (3) direction of discrepancy (i.e., actual > ideal or actual self-perceptions are). For both sexes, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the direction of the discrepancy was such that participants perceived their actual body was larger than their ideal body. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the degree of the discrepancy between actual and ideal body shape perceptions was larger. Based on these findings, body image self-discrepancy may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms among early adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-Referential Processing, Rumination, and Cortical Midline Structures in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Ayna Baladi; Fossati, Philippe; Lemogne, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Major depression is associated with a bias toward negative emotional processing and increased self-focus, i.e., the process by which one engages in self-referential processing. The increased self-focus in depression is suggested to be of a persistent, repetitive and self-critical nature, and is conceptualized as ruminative brooding. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential processing has been previously emphasized in acute major depression. There is increasing evidence that self-referential processing as well as the cortical midline structures play a major role in the development, course, and treatment response of major depressive disorder. However, the links between self-referential processing, rumination, and the cortical midline structures in depression are still poorly understood. Here, we reviewed brain imaging studies in depressed patients and healthy subjects that have examined these links. Self-referential processing in major depression seems associated with abnormally increased activity of the anterior cortical midline structures. Abnormal interactions between the lateralized task-positive network, and the midline cortical structures of the default mode network, as well as the emotional response network, may underlie the pervasiveness of ruminative brooding. Furthermore, targeting this maladaptive form of rumination and its underlying neural correlates may be key for effective treatment. PMID:24124416

  19. Self-referential processing, rumination, and cortical midline structures in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayna Baladi Nejad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is associated with a bias towards negative emotional processing and increased self-focus, i.e. the process by which one engages in self-referential processing. The increased self-focus in depression is suggested to be of a persistent, repetitive and self-critical nature and is conceptualised as ruminative brooding. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential processing has been previously emphasised in acute major depression. There is increasing evidence that self-referential processing as well as the cortical midline structures play a major role in the development, course and treatment response of major depressive disorder. However, the links between self-referential processing, rumination, and the cortical midline structures in depression are still poorly understood. Here, we reviewed brain imaging studies in depressed patients and healthy subjects that have examined these links. The literature suggests that self-referential processing in major depression is associated with increased activity of the anterior cortical midline structures. Abnormal interactions between the lateralised task-positive network, and the midline cortical structures of the default mode network, as well as the emotional response network, may underlie the pervasiveness of ruminative brooding. Furthermore, targeting this maladaptive form of rumination and its underlying neural correlates may be key for effective treatment.

  20. Prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with social support and other related factors among adolescents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Yi-Feng; Bi, Linda; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Hu, Cai-Yun; Gong, Feng-Feng; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2016-10-01

    A cross-sectional study design was applied amongst a random sample (n = 10158) of Chinese adolescents. Self-completed questionnaires, including demographic characteristics, Internet use situation, Youth Internet Addiction Test, Youth Social Support Rating Scale and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale were utilized to examine the study objectives. Among the study population, the prevalence rate of Internet addiction was 10.4%, with 1038 (10.2%) moderately and 21 (0.2%) severely addicted to the Internet. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that a variety of related factors have significant effects on Internet addiction (parental control, per capita annual household income, academic performance, the access to Internet, online activities). The correlation coefficients showed that Internet addiction was negatively correlated with social support and positively associated with depression. Social support had a significant negative predictive effect on Internet addiction. The mediating effect of depression between social support and Internet addiction was remarkable. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sintomatología depresiva y problemas relacionados al consumo de alcohol durante la formación académica de estudiantes de medicina Depressive symptomatology and alcohol-related problems during the academic training of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Valle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la frecuencia de sintomatología depresiva (SDe y problemas relacionados al consumo de alcohol (PRCA durante la formación académica de estudiantes de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, se realizó un estudio transversal en estos estudiantes, del primero a sexto año. Usando la escala de depresión de Zung, para evaluar SDe, y el cuestionario CAGE, para evaluar PRCA, se encontró que el 23,3% de los encuestados presentó SDe y el 7,3%, PRCA. Se encontró, así mismo que la frecuencia de SDe y PRCA fue mayor en los estudiantes de los primeros años de estudios. Se recomienda que hay necesidad de actuar en la prevención y detección de estas entidades desde los primeros años de formación académica de estudiantes de MedicinaIn order to evaluate the frequency of depressive symptomatology (DS and alcohol-related problems (ARP during the academic training of medical students from Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from first to sixth year of career. The Zung Self-Rating depression scale was used to evaluate DS and the CAGE questionnaire to evaluate ARP. 23.3% of participants had DS, and 7.3% had ARP. We found that the frequency of DS and ARP was higher among students in the first years of career. We recommend it is necessary to take action in the prevention and detection of these disorders from the first years of training of medical students

  2. A Study on Depression among Pre-University Students Kazeron City 1379-80

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    Davoud Shoja'ei-Zadeh

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ultimate goal of this research is determining of depression prevalence and effective factors among boys of pre university level in Kazeron city. Materials & Methods: The present research is an analytical - descriptive and cross sectional study, which was done in February 2001. In order to achieve the goal, 240 pre university boys were selected through random classified sampling and the data gathered by questionnaires and Zung depression scale. Results: The results indicate that 42.9 percent of students suffered from depression. The rate of depression among the students is as follows: low depression 28.8%, medium depression 9.6% high depression 3.3%, and profound depression 1.3%. The statistical test, such as X2 and X2 for trend has been used. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between depression and family financial status, parents’ relations, talking about problems with others, anxiety about joining to military services, anxiety for entering to university, treatment of teachers and principals and educational level of mothers. With respect to the above mentioned variables and using a logistic regression model the following results achieved: Four variables had increasing effect on depression incidence: family financial status, parents’ relations, talking about problems with others and anxiety about going to military duty. Conclusion: The advantage of the above model is not only to identify the effectiveness of the variables in depression but also by understanding of the students it is likely to prevent depression incidence.

  3. Self-esteem and depression: ten year follow-up of mothers and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L; Warner, V; Wickramaratne, P; Weissman, M

    1999-01-01

    The association between maternal bonding style, offspring low self-esteem and offspring depression status was assessed by maternal depression status. Sixty mothers and 137 offspring were independently assessed over the course of a ten year follow-up study. Assessments included the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-LA), Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS), the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Among daughters of mothers with a history of depression, maternal affectionless-control was associated with daughter low self-esteem which was associated with daughter depression at ten year follow-up. Among daughters of mothers without a history of depression, maternal affectionless-control was not associated with daughter low self-esteem, which was not associated with daughter depression at ten year follow-up but which was associated with a history of childhood depression. None of these associations were found to be significant among sons. As self-esteem was not measured at ten year follow-up, among offspring the stability of self-esteem could not be assessed, nor could the association between adult self-esteem and adult depression. Clinical presentation of low self-esteem in girls should be assessed in the context of maternal depression status.

  4. Medical students and stigma of depression. Part 2. Self-stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalska, Julia; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Szczygieł, Marta; Łojko, Dorota

    2017-06-18

    Up to 30% of medical students suffer from depression. They have better access to healthcare, but still receive appropriate treatment less frequently than people with depression in the general population. Most of them do not seek medical help as depression is perceived as a stigmatizing disorder, which leads to self-stigma and hampers early diagnosis and treatment. Thus, self-stigma means less effective therapy, unfavorable prognosis and relapses. According to the literature, self-stigma results in lowered self-esteem and is a major obstacle in the performance of social roles at work and in personal life. Stigmatization and self-stigma of depression among medical students are also associated with effects in their later professional life: they can lead to long-term consequences in the process of treating their patients in the future. Currently there are no unequivocal research results indicating the most effective ways of reducing stigmatization and self-stigma. It is necessary to educate about the symptoms and treatment of depression and to implement diverse intervention techniques to change behaviors and attitudes as early as possible.

  5. Contingent self-esteem and vulnerability to depression: academic contingent self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Claudia; Tandler, Sarah S; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE) predicts depressive symptoms (DS), two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem (SE) level, and DS in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10-16 (N = 1888) in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, SE level, and DS as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1) gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and DS and lower on SE level than did boys, and aCSE and DS decreased and SE level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2) After controlling for SE level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on DS disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on DS. (3) aCSE predicted DS over and above SE level. Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160) was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing DS in the face of academic stress (daily hassles) during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with corresponding hassles to predict increases in DS. High levels of academic stress led to increases in DS only among students who strongly based their SE on academic competence

  6. Contingent self-esteem and vulnerability to depression: academic contingent self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms in students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Claudia; Tandler, Sarah S.; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE) predicts depressive symptoms (DS), two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem (SE) level, and DS in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10–16 (N = 1888) in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, SE level, and DS as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1) gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and DS and lower on SE level than did boys, and aCSE and DS decreased and SE level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2) After controlling for SE level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on DS disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on DS. (3) aCSE predicted DS over and above SE level. Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160) was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing DS in the face of academic stress (daily hassles) during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with corresponding hassles to predict increases in DS. High levels of academic stress led to increases in DS only among students who strongly based their SE on academic competence

  7. Self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived parenting and family climate; and depression in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J M; Paull, J C

    1995-07-01

    This study examined associations among self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived unfavorable Parental Rearing Style (perceived PRS) and unfavorable family climate in the family of origin; and depression in undergraduates still in frequent contact with their families (N = 186). Unfavorable perceived PRS and family climate were construed as "affectionless control," in which parents and family provide little affection, but excessive control. Constructs were measured by the Self-Esteem Inventory, the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory, the Family Environment Scale, and the Beck Inventory. Perceived "affectionless control" in both PRS and family climate accounted for about 13% of the variance in self-esteem, self-efficacy, and depression. Neither introversion nor depression mediated the relation between family socialization and self-esteem.

  8. Depressive symptoms are independently associated with pain perception in Colombians with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Lynn Rogers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and reported pain in Colombians with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. Methods: One hundred and three RA patients [85% from the lowest socio-economic strata (SES in the country] recruited from outpatient centers in Neiva, Colombia were administered the Disease Activity Scale (DAS , which included a Visual Analog Scale (VAS arthritis pain/activity rating, Zung Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12, and Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90R. Major Results: VAS pain was not associated with socio-demographic or medical factors, but was negatively associated with ISEL tangible subscale (r=-0.22, p< 0.01; r=0.28, p

  9. Self-complexity as a cognitive buffer against stress-related illness and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, P W

    1987-04-01

    This prospective study tested the self-complexity buffering hypothesis that greater self-complexity moderates the adverse impact of stress on depression and illness. This hypothesis follows from a model that assumes self-knowledge is represented in terms of multiple self-aspects. As defined in this model, greater self-complexity involves representing the self in terms of a greater number of cognitive self-aspects and maintaining greater distinctions among self-aspects. Subjects completed measures of stressful events, self-complexity, depression, and illness in two sessions separated by 2 weeks. A multiple regression analysis used depression and illness at Time 2 as outcomes, stressful life events and self-complexity at Time 1 as predictors, and depression and illness at Time 1 as control variables. The Stress X Self-Complexity interaction provided strong support for the buffering hypothesis. Subjects higher in self-complexity were less prone to depression, perceived stress, physical symptoms, and occurrence of the flu and other illnesses following high levels of stressful events. These results suggest that vulnerability to stress-related depression and illness is due, in part, to differences in cognitive representations of the self.

  10. Evaluation of self-esteem and depression symptoms in depressed and nondepressed subjects treated with onabotulinumtoxinA for glabellar lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Brum, Cristiano; Siega, Carolina; Schilling-Souza, Juliana; Dal'Forno, Taciana; Heckmann, Marc; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

    2013-07-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection has become the most popular cosmetic nonsurgical procedure, and it has been suggested that BoNT-A injections may improve emotional states when frown lines are treated. To evaluate symptoms of depression and self-esteem before and after onabotulinumtoxinA (ONA) injections in the glabella in subjects with and without depression. Twenty-five subjects with depression were allocated into one group and 25 subjects without depression were matched to those according to demographic characteristics. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were used to assess depression symptoms and self-esteem, respectively. Patients were assessed up to 12 weeks after the intervention. Patients with depression had significant improvement in depression symptoms after ONA injections. The maximum effect occurred within the first 8 weeks after treatment. A significant reduction from baseline in BDI score and significant improvement in self-esteem were also observed in patients with depression. This research presents new data regarding BoNT-A as a potential treatment to improve depression symptoms in patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Self-esteem scores alone cannot explain the improvement in depression symptoms. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The relationship between self-esteem and depression in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheslow, D; Hassink, S; Wallace, W; DeLancey, E

    1993-10-29

    It has been suggested that obese children have increased problems with self-esteem and depression when compared to the normal pediatric population. Fifty-one consecutive patients enrolled in a hospital based weight management program received the CDI and the PHSCS as part of their initial evaluation. There were 24 males and 27 females with ages ranging from 5-17 years and BMI (kg/m2) of 22-63 (mean 33.3). Results of the CDI were classified into three groups. Children with CDI scores greater than 13 were classified as depressed (n = 16). Scores between 9 and 12 were considered borderline depression (n = 11). Scores less than 9 were considered normal (n = 24). The children in the depressed and borderline groups were significantly different from the children in the normal group in their level of self-esteem. As depression increased, self-esteem decreased, indicating an inverse relationship between self-esteem and depression. Depressed and borderline depressed children were also more anxious (i.e., nervous, worried) and had more perceived behavior problems (increased frequency of punishment, difficulty obeying orders) than the normal group. They also had fewer interests in school and felt their physical appearance was not acceptable. The depressed group's scores were significantly lower on the happiness and popularity scales of the PHSCS than the normal group. Scores on the CDI did not correlate with age, race, sex, Tanner stage, socioeconomic status, or body mass index. In this study obese pediatric patients showed significant depression and lowered self-esteem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Self-Efficacy and Postpartum Depression Teaching Behaviors of Hospital-Based Perinatal Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Foltz, Melissa Pinto; Scheetz, James; Myers, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Based upon the Self-Efficacy Theory, this study examined the relationship between self-efficacy, self-efficacy-related variables, and postpartum depression teaching behaviors of hospital-based perinatal nurses. Findings revealed that teaching new mothers about postpartum depression is related to a perinatal nurse's self-efficacy in postpartum-depression teaching, self-esteem, and the following self-efficacy-related variables: social persuasion (supervisor's expectations for teaching); mastery...

  13. Depression, self-esteem, diabetes care and self-care behaviors among middle-aged and older Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz

    2014-07-01

    Examine the associations of depression and self-esteem on self-care activities and care received among Mexicans with diabetes. Using data from the Mexican Nutrition and Health Survey 2012, logistic regression models were fit to test the associations between each self-care activity and diabetes care, and self-esteem and depression. People with low self-esteem were less likely to follow a diet, but no other associations were found. Contrary to what was expected, there were no relationships between depression and quality of care received or self-care behaviors. Current findings support the importance of looking at mental health and emotional state among older adults with diabetes. Future studies should explore the relationship between different psychological barriers to proper diabetes management. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Depression, self-esteem, diabetes care and self-care behaviors among middle-aged and older Mexicans☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz

    2016-01-01

    Aims Examine the associations of depression and self-esteem on self-care activities and care received among Mexicans with diabetes. Methods Using data from the Mexican Nutrition and Health Survey 2012, logistic regression models were fit to test the associations between each self-care activity and diabetes care, and self-esteem and depression. Results People with low self-esteem were less likely to follow a diet, but no other associations were found. Contrary to what was expected, there were no relationships between depression and quality of care received or self-care behaviors. Conclusion Current findings support the importance of looking at mental health and emotional state among older adults with diabetes. Future studies should explore the relationship between different psychological barriers to proper diabetes management. PMID:24846446

  15. Effect of population outcrossing rate on inbreeding depression in Pinus contorta var. murrayana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank C. Sorensen

    2001-01-01

    Seft and cross families from three populatons (A, low-density, ecologically marginal site for lodgepole pine, and B + C, normal sites) were cultured in a common outdoor nursery for 2 yrs. Previous results results had shown higher natural selfing rates and lower inbreeding depression in embryo survival in A than in B + C. In the nursery test, selfing decreased means of...

  16. Proximal predictors of depressive symptomatology: perceived losses in self-worth and interpersonal domains and introjective and anaclitic mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Zuroff, David C

    2010-01-01

    Although much research has demonstrated a relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms, relatively little research has examined the mechanisms that may mediate this relationship. The theories of Blatt (1974), Bowlby (1980), and Gilbert (1992) each propose proximal predictors of depression. In accordance with these theories, this study examined the relationships among perceived losses in self-worth and interpersonal relationships, anaclitic (dependent) and introjective (self-critical) mood states, and depressive symptoms following a significant negative life event. A sample of 172 undergraduate students completed measures of depressive symptoms and depressive vulnerability factors and retrospectively described the worst period of their lives. They also rated the extent to which the events surrounding this worst period affected their self-worth and their relationships with close others. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the effect of a perceived loss of self-worth on depressive symptoms was fully mediated by both introjective and anaclitic mood states, whereas the effect of a perceived loss of interpersonal relationships on depressive symptoms was fully mediated by an anaclitic mood state. Additionally, perceived losses of self-worth showed a stronger effect on introjective mood in highly self-critical individuals. Findings highlight the importance of perceived losses in both self-worth and interpersonal domains in response to adverse life events and suggest pathways through which perceived losses may affect depressive symptoms.

  17. Comprehensive self-control training benefits depressed college students: A six-month randomized controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueling; Zhao, Jiubo; Chen, Yu; Zu, Simeng; Zhao, Jingbo

    2018-01-15

    Depressive disorder was associated with dysfunctional self-regulation. The current study attempted to design and test a comprehensive self-control training (CSCT) program with an overall emphasis on behaviral activation in depressed Chinese college students. Participants included 74 students who had diagnosed with major depression, they were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: intervention group (n=37), and control group (n=37). The intervention participants received an eight-week CSCT and four-month follow-up consolidation program, as compared to the control group who received only pre-post-and-follow-up measurements. All participants measured Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ⅱ) and Self-control Scale (SCS) at three time points: baseline, post-training, and four-month follow-up. The dropout rates were 6 (8.1%) in the intervention group and 3 (4.1%) in the control group at the end of six-month intervention. The general linear model repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that comparing with the control group, the intervention group participants had more increase in their trait self-control score, at the meantime, their depressive symptoms had significantly improved. Univariate and logistic regression analyses revealed that participants with milder baseline depressive symptoms were more likely to benefit from CSCT interventions; depression improvement was also associated with the number of sessions attended. The main limitation was related to the small sample size which consisted of college students who were relatively young and well educated. The current study demonstrates that CSCT program could temporarily enhance self-control capacity as well as improve depressive symptoms; participants who are mildly to moderately depressed, and who could adhere to the training protocol are more likely to benefit from the intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of contingent self-esteem on depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Chad E; Hirsch, Jameson K; Nelson, Lyndsay A; Nsamenang, Sheri A

    2014-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem, or self-worth hinged upon successfully meeting standards or attaining goals, requires continual maintenance and validation. Despite the inherent instability that accompanies contingent self-esteem, relatively little is known about how it relates to markers of mental health. A sample of 371 college students completed measures of self-esteem, contingent self-esteem, suicidal behaviors, and depression. Individuals with fragile low self-esteem, described as highly contingent, reported greater depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Among those with secure high self-esteem, or high yet noncontingent, depression and suicide risk were markedly lower. Therapeutically promoting positive but noncontingent self-worth may reduce poor mental health outcomes.

  19. Negative self-schemas and the onset of depression in women: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jon; Lewis, Glyn; Araya, Ricardo; Wolke, Dieter

    2005-04-01

    Beck's cognitive theory of depression has received little empirical support. To test whether those with negative self-schemas were at risk of onset of depression. Data were collected by postal questionnaire from 12,003 women recruited during early pregnancy; questionnaires included measures of depressive symptoms and negative self-schemas. Regular questionnaires were sent during pregnancy and following childbirth. Of 8540 women not depressed when recruited, 8.6% (95% CI 8.0-9.2) became depressed 14 weeks later. Those in the highest tertile for negative self-schema score were more likely to become depressed than those in the lowest tertile (odds ratio 3.04, 95% CI 2.48-3.73). The association remained after adjustment for baseline depressive symptoms and previous depression (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.27-2.02) and was of similar magnitude for onset 3 years later. Holding a negative self-schema is an independent risk factor for the onset of depression in women. This finding supports a key element of Beck's cognitive theory. Understanding more about how negative self-schemas arise should help inform preventive policies.

  20. When friends make you blue: the role of friendship contingent self-esteem in predicting self-esteem and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, M Janelle; Acitelli, Linda K; Steinberg, Lynne

    2010-03-01

    This research examines the role of friendship contingent self-esteem (FCSE), or self-esteem that is dependent on the quality of one's friendships, in predicting depressive symptoms. In Study 1, the authors developed a measure of FCSE. Both FCSE and others' approval correlated with self-esteem and depressive symptoms, but when entered simultaneously in a regression equation, only FCSE significantly predicted self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Study 2 showed that dependency and close friendship competence predicted depressive symptoms only for those high in FCSE. In Study 3, a diary study, FCSE predicted self-esteem instability. Self-esteem instability, in turn, predicted depressive symptoms. Furthermore, a three-way interaction of rumination, FCSE, and the valence of the event predicted momentary self-esteem. Findings are discussed with regard to the importance of considering FCSE when investigating interpersonal risk for depression.

  1. Activation and Self-Efficacy in a Randomized Trial of a Depression Self-Care Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Lambert, Sylvie D.; Cole, Martin G.; Ciampi, Antonio; Strumpf, Erin; Freeman, Ellen E.; Belzile, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In a sample of primary care participants with chronic physical conditions and comorbid depressive symptoms: to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of activation and self-efficacy with demographic, physical and mental health status, health behaviors, depression self-care, health care utilization, and use of…

  2. Predicting changes in quality of life and emotional distress in Chinese patients with lung, gastric, and colon-rectal cancer diagnoses: the role of psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Qiu, Hong Zhong; Li, Peng Fei; Liang, Mu Zi; Zhu, Yun Fei; Zeng, Zhen; Hu, Guang Yun; Wang, Shu Ni; Quan, Xiao Ming

    2017-06-01

    Patients with cancer often experience considerable emotional distress, which decreases their quality of life (QOL). Resilience is defined as the psychological characteristics that promote positive adaptation in the face of stress and adversity; however, the relationships among QOL, resilience, and emotional distress in patients with cancer, especially Chinese patients with cancer, are under-researched in the literature. Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 items, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were applied in this study. Univariate correlated analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to test the associations among resilience, emotional distress, and QOL with a sample of 276 participants. A Sobel test was conducted to determine whether the indirect effect of resilience was significant. The mean ratings of QOL (59.2), resilience (20.8), anxiety (43.1), and depression (47.7) were reported. The correlations between resilience and QOL in patients with lung cancer were significantly increased compared with patients with gastric or colorectal cancer (Spearman coefficient squares of 0.284, 0.189, and 0.227, respectively). The highest quartile of the resilience level was associated with a 64% (odds ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.75, P = .006), 70% (odds ratio = 0.30, 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.63), and 90% (odds ratio = 0.10, 95% confidence interval = 0.04-0.26, P patients with cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Predictors of personal, perceived and self-stigma towards anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby Grant, J; Bruce, C P; Batterham, P J

    2016-06-01

    Stigma towards individuals experiencing a mental illness is associated with a range of negative psychological, social and financial outcomes. Factors associated with stigma remain unclear; the relationship between stigma and various personal factors may depend on both the type of disorder being stigmatised and what type of stigma is assessed. Different forms of stigma include personal stigma (negative attitudes towards others), perceived stigma (perceived attitudes of others) and self-stigma (self-attribution of others' negative attitudes). Three hundred and fifty university students and members of the general public completed an online survey assessing contact with and knowledge of both depression and anxiety, age, gender, current depression and anxiety symptoms, and personal, perceived and self-stigma for both depression and anxiety. Greater contact with, and knowledge of that illness predicted lower personal stigma for both anxiety and depression. Participants with greater levels of current depression symptomatology and females, reported higher perceived stigma towards depression. Males reported higher personal stigma for anxiety. For both anxiety and depression, higher current symptomatology was associated with greater levels of self-stigma towards the illness. Findings confirm the role of contact and knowledge in personal stigma for both disorders, consistent with previous findings. This finding also supports evidence that interventions addressing these factors are associated with a decline in personal stigma. However, lack of relationship between contact with, and knowledge of a mental illness and perceived and self-stigma for either depression or anxiety suggests that these factors may not play a major role in perceived or self-stigma. The identification of symptomatology as a key factor associated with self-stigma for both anxiety and depression is significant, and has implications for community-wide interventions aiming to increase help-seeking behaviour

  4. The relationship between self-report of depression and media usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Martin; Stern, Daniel B; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Sang; Carey, Jim; Humphreys, Ashlee A; Mulhern, Frank; Calder, Bobby; Schultz, Don; Rudick, Charles N; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD), which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS) database (N = 19,776 subjects). We further assessed the relationship of demographic variables to this association. These analyses found that SRD rates were in the range of published rates of clinically diagnosed major depression. It found that those who tended to use more media also tended to be more depressed, and that segmentation of SRD subjects was weighted toward internet and television usage, which was not the case with non-SRD subjects, who were segmented along social media use. This study found that those who have suffered either economic or physical life setbacks are orders of magnitude more likely to be depressed, even without disproportionately high levels of media use. However, among those that have suffered major life setbacks, high media users-particularly television watchers-were even more likely to report experiencing depression, which suggests that these effects were not just due to individuals having more time for media consumption. These findings provide an example of how Big Data can be used for medical and mental health research, helping to elucidate issues not traditionally tested in the fields of psychiatry or experimental psychology.

  5. Asociación entre síntomas depresivos y consumo abusivo de alcohol en estudiantes de Bucaramanga, Colombia Association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse among students from Bucaramanga, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Existe una asociación significativa entre síntomas depresivos y consumo abusivo de alcohol en adolescentes; sin embargo, ésta no ha sido investigada en estudiantes colombianos. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la asociación entre síntomas depresivos y consumo abusivo de alcohol en estudiantes de educación media vocacional de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Una encuesta anónima que incluía la escala para depresión de Zung, la escala para alcoholismo de CAGE y el cuestionario VESPA fue diligenciada por una muestra aleatoria de 560 estudiantes entre 15 y 19 años de edad. La fuerza de asociación se estableció con un modelo de regresión logística. La prevalencia de síntomas depresivos con importancia clínica fue 39,5% y la prevalencia de consumo abusivo de alcohol fue 5,7%. Se encontró una asociación entre síntomas depresivos (RP = 3,33; IC95%: 1,41-7,83, percepción de pobre rendimiento académico (RP = 2,50; IC95%: 1,16-5,37 y fumar cigarrillos (RP = 2,47; IC95%: 1,13-5,40 con consumo abusivo de alcohol. Se concluye que existe una asociación importante entre síntomas depresivos con importancia clínica y consumo abusivo de alcohol. Es necesaria la identificación temprana de depresión y el consumo abusivo de alcohol en adolescentes.Various studies have reported an important association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse. However, the topic had not been investigated in Colombian students. This study focused on the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse among high school students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A self-reported anonymous questionnaire was answered by 560 15-19-year-olds. The survey included the Zung Self-Reported Depression Scale, CAGE Questionnaire for Alcohol Use, and VESPA questionnaire (Epidemiological Surveillance of Psychoactive Drugs. Logistic regression was used to establish associations. Prevalence was 5.7% for alcohol dependence and 39.5% for depressive symptoms. Associations

  6. [Poor self-esteem is correlated with suicide intent, independently from the severity of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, C; Vera, L; Gorwood, P

    2018-04-01

    Suicide is a major Public Health concern, and low self-esteem might represent a major risk factor. Our main objective was to assess the correlation between self-esteem and suicide intent. More specifically, we aimed to examine the relationship between the different dimensions of self-esteem (total, general, familial, professional and social) and suicide intent. We also sought the role of depression in the relationship of self-esteem to suicide intent. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a suicide prevention department at the CMME (Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France). We included patients aged 15 and older and admitted for suicide attempt over a 3-year period from January 2008 to December 2010. Self-esteem was assessed with the Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) scale that takes into account several domains of self-esteem. Subjects scoring over 5 points on the lie scale were excluded. Our primary endpoint was the correlation between self-esteem and suicide intent. Our secondary endpoint was the same correlation adjusted for depression severity (using the Hamilton scale). Suicide intent was estimated using Beck's Suicide Intentionality Scale (SIS). We examined the Pearson's correlation coefficients between self-esteem and suicide intent. These analyses were adjusted for the severity of depressive symptoms assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items). Overall, 132 patients were included. Suicide intent was correlated with total self-esteem (r=-0.227, P=0.009), social self-esteem (r=-0.331, Pself-esteem (r=-0.260, P=0.003). These results remained significant after adjusting for the level of depression for total score (r=-0.181, P=0.038), and the social (r=-0.282, P=0.001) and familial (r=-0.237, P=0.006) dimensions. Self-esteem (and especially social and familial dimensions) is likely to be associated with suicide intent, at least in part independently of the severity of depression, in a population of subjects

  7. UNDERSTANDING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN ATTACHMENT TRAUMA AND MATERNAL SELF-EFFICACY IN DEPRESSED MOTHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Natalie; Reisz, Samantha; Jacobvitz, Deborah; George, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy predicts sensitive and responsive caregiving. Low maternal self-efficacy is associated with a higher incidence of postpartum depression. Maternal self-efficacy and postpartum depression can both be buffered by social support. Maternal self-efficacy and postpartum depression have both been linked independently, albeit in separate studies, to the experience of violent trauma, childhood maltreatment, and spousal abuse. This study proposed a model in which postpartum depression mediates the relation between attachment trauma and maternal self-efficacy, with emotional support as a moderator. Participants were 278 first-time mothers of infants under 14 months. Cross-sectional data were collected online. Mothers completed questionnaires on attachment trauma, maternal self-efficacy, postpartum depression, and emotional support. A moderated mediation model was tested in a structural equation modeling framework using Mplus' estimate of indirect effects. Postpartum depression fully mediated the relation between trauma and maternal self-efficacy. Emotional support moderated only the pathway between postpartum depression and maternal self-efficacy. Attachment trauma's implications for maternal self-efficacy should be understood in the context of overall mental health. Mothers at the greatest risk for low maternal self-efficacy related to attachment trauma also are those suffering from postpartum depression. Emotional support buffered mothers from postpartum depression, though, which has implications for intervention and future research. © 2017 The Authors. Infant Mental Health Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Family Interdependence, Spiritual Perspective, Self-Transcendence, and Depression Among Korean College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk-Sun; Hayward, R David; Gil, Minji

    2017-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms that might account for the effects of spirituality and self-transcendence on Korean college students' depression among 197 Korean fathers, mothers, and children. A structural equation analysis indicated that spiritual perspective related to lower depression through the mediating pathway of self-transcendence for individuals. Mothers' spiritual perspective and self-transcendence related to their children's depression through the mediating pathway of their own depression, but the same was not true for fathers. Findings help explicate the intergenerational transmission of depression and important predictors of depression related to spirituality.

  9. Low and decreasing self-esteem during adolescence predict adult depression two decades later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Andrea E; Allemand, Mathias; Robins, Richard W; Fend, Helmut A

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies revealed that low self-esteem is prospectively associated with depression. However, self-esteem has been shown to change over time. We thus hypothesized that not only level but also change in self-esteem affect depression. Using data from a 23-year longitudinal study (N = 1,527), we therefore examined the prospective effects of global and domain-specific self-esteem (physical attractiveness, academic competence) level and change on depressive symptoms 2 decades later. Self-esteem was assessed annually from age 12 to 16, and depression was assessed at age 16 and 35. Results from latent growth curve analyses demonstrated that both level and change in self-esteem served as predictors for adult depression. Individuals who entered adolescence with low self-esteem, and/or whose self-esteem declined further during the adolescent years, were more likely to exhibit symptoms of depression 2 decades later as adults; this pattern held both for global and domain-specific self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of adolescent self-esteem development for mental health outcomes in adulthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Körner

    Full Text Available Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b, has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404. The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  11. Self-transcendence and depression among AIDS Memorial Quilt panel makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausch, Kurt D; Amer, Kim

    2007-06-01

    Self-transcendence is a process that can help individuals reestablish well-being after experiencing a significant, life-altering event. In this study, we sought to identify the relationship between self-transcendence and depression in individuals who lost loved ones to HIV/AIDS and to describe and compare self-transcendence, self-transcendence variables of acceptance and spirituality, and depression among bereaved individuals who created AIDS Memorial Quilt panels with those who did not. The findings support Reed's self-transcendence theory, with inverse correlations between self-transcendence and depression obtained from both the total group and the panel makers. Significant differences were also found between certain self-transcendence variables and depression among the study participants related to gender and ethnicity. In addition, thematic analysis of panel maker interviews revealed five themes: Quilt panel making provides validation, Quilt panel making creates a living memory, liberating acceptance of loss, community of survivors, and connection to a higher power. These findings assist in understanding the complexities of the grief process and support the usefulness of Quilt panel making as an intervention for coping with grief related to HIV/AIDS.

  12. Gender differences in patients with dizziness and unsteadiness regarding self-perceived disability, anxiety, depression, and its associations

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    Kurre Annette

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that anxiety and depression influence the level of disability experienced by persons with vertigo, dizziness or unsteadiness. Because higher prevalence rates of disabling dizziness have been found in women and some studies reported a higher level of psychiatric distress in female patients our primary aim was to explore whether women and men with vertigo, dizziness or unsteadiness differ regarding self-perceived disability, anxiety and depression. Secondly we planned to investigate the associations between disabling dizziness and anxiety and depression. Method Patients were recruited from a tertiary centre for vertigo and balance disorders. Participants rated their global disability as mild, moderate or severe. They filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the two subscales of the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. The HADS was analysed 1 by calculating the median values, 2 by estimating the prevalence rates of abnormal anxiety/depression based on recommended cut-off criteria. Mann-Whitney U-tests, Chi-square statistics and odds ratios (OR were calculated to compare the observations in both genders. Significance values were adjusted with respect to multiple comparisons. Results Two-hundred and two patients (124 women mean age (standard deviation of 49.7 (13.5 years participated. Both genders did not differ significantly in the mean level of self-perceived disability, anxiety, depression and symptom severity. There was a tendency of a higher prevalence of abnormal anxiety and depression in men (23.7%; 28.9% compared to women (14.5%; 15.3%. Patients with abnormal depression felt themselves 2.75 (95% CI: 1.31-5.78 times more severely disabled by dizziness and unsteadiness than patients without depression. In men the OR was 8.2 (2.35-28.4. In women chi-square statistic was not significant. The ORs (95% CI of abnormal anxiety and severe disability were 4.2 (1.9-8.9 in the whole sample, 8.7 (2.5-30.3 in men

  13. Association between N-terminal proB-type Natriuretic Peptide and Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ren; Jiao Jia; Jian Sa; Li-Xia Qiu; Yue-Hua Cui; Yue-An Zhang; Hong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background:While depression and certain cardiac biomarkers are associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI),the relationship between them remains largely unexplored.We examined the association between depressive symptoms and biomarkers in patients with AMI.Methods:We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 103 patients with AMI between March 2013 and September 2014.The levels of depression,N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP),and troponin I (TnI) were measured at baseline.The patients were divided into two groups:those with depressive symptoms and those without depressive symptoms according to Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) score.Baseline comparisons between two groups were made using Student's t-test for continuous variables,Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables,and Wilcoxon test for variables in skewed distribution.Binomial logistic regression and multivariate linear regression were performed to assess the association between depressive symptoms and biomarkers while adjusting for demographic and clinical variables.Results:Patients with depressive symptoms had significantly higher NT-proBNP levels as compared to patients without depressive symptoms (1135.0 [131.5,2474.0] vs.384.0 [133.0,990.0],Z =-2.470,P =0.013).Depressive symptoms were associated with higher NT-proBNP levels (odds ratio [OR] =2.348,95% CI:1.344 to 4.103,P =0.003) and higher body mass index (OR =1.169,95% confidence interval [CI]:1.016 to 1.345,P =0.029).The total SDS score was associated with the NT-proBNP level (β =0.327,95% CI:1.674 to 6.119,P =0.001) after multivariable adjustment.In particular,NT-proBNP was associated with three of the depressive dimensions,including core depression (β =0.299,95% CI:0.551 to 2.428,P =0.002),cognitive depression (β =0.320,95% CI:0.476 to 1.811,P=0.001),and somatic depression (β =0.333,95% CI:0.240 to 0.847,P =0.001).Neither the overall depressive symptomatology nor the individual

  14. [The effect of self-reflection on depression mediated by hardiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Miho; Hattori, Yosuke; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that two types of private self-consciousness result in opposing effects on depression; one of which is self-rumination, which leads to maladaptive effect, and the other is self-reflection, which leads to an adaptive effect. Although a number of studies have examined the mechanism of the maladaptive effect of self-rumination, only a few studies have examined the mechanism of the adaptive effect of self-reflection. The present study examined the process of how self-reflection affected depression adaptively, Based on the previous findings, we proposed a hypothetical model assuming that hardiness acts as a mediator of self-reflection. To test the validity of the model, structural equation modeling analysis was performed with the cross-sectional data of 155 undergraduate students. The results. suggest that the hypothetical model is valid. According to the present results and previous findings, it is suggested that self-reflection is associated with low levels of depression and mediated by "rich commitment", one component of hardiness.

  15. Positive Psychology for Overcoming Symptoms of Depression: A Pilot Study Exploring the Efficacy of a Positive Psychology Self-Help Book versus a CBT Self-Help Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Katie

    2018-04-25

    Depression is an extremely common mental health disorder, with prevalence rates rising. Low-intensity interventions are frequently used to help meet the demand for treatment. Bibliotherapy, for example, is often prescribed via books on prescription schemes (for example 'Reading Well' in England) to those with mild to moderate symptomology. Bibliotherapy can effectively reduce symptoms of depression (Naylor et al., 2010). However, the majority of self-help books are based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which may not be suitable for all patients. Research supports the use of positive psychology interventions for the reduction of depression symptoms (Bolier et al., 2013) and as such self-help books from this perspective should be empirically tested. This study aimed to test the efficacy of 'Positive Psychology for Overcoming Depression' (Akhtar, 2012), a self-help book for depression that is based on the principles of positive psychology, in comparison with a CBT self-help book that is currently prescribed in England as part of the Reading Well books on prescription scheme. Participants (n = 115) who were not receiving treatment, but had symptoms of depression, read the positive psychology or the CBT self-help book for 8 weeks. Depression and well-being were measured at baseline, post-test and 1-month follow-up. Results suggest that both groups experienced a reduction in depression and an increase in well-being, with no differences noted between the two books. Future directions are discussed in terms of dissemination, to those with mild to moderate symptoms of depression, via books on prescription schemes.

  16. The Relationship Between Self-Concept with Depression Degree in Hypertensive Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharuddin Baharuddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In hypertensive patients, a negative self-concept (body-image, self- ideal, self-esteem, self-role and self-identity will trigger a depression. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between self-concept with the degree of depression in hypertensive patients at the Masalle Community Health Center, Masalle Sub District, Enrekang District. The subjects of this cross sectional study were 71 hypertensive patients selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected through questionnaire, then analyzed descriptively in the form of frequency and percentage, then continued with Chi square test, and ended with multiple linear regression test. The results of data analysis show that body-image and self-esteem is associated with the degree of depression in hypertensive patients.

  17. Dependency and self-criticism in post-partum depression and anxiety: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegen, Nicole; Luyten, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the role of self-criticism and dependency in inpatient post-partum depressed women (n = 55) and non-depressed controls (n = 37) as well as the relationship between both personality dimensions and severity of depression and anxiety. As expected, mothers with post-partum depression showed not only increased levels of depression but also anxiety compared with non-depressed mothers. Furthermore, they had significantly higher levels of self-criticism, but not of dependency. In the post-partum depressed mothers, both personality dimensions were positively associated with severity of depression. However, in non-depressed mothers, self-criticism was positively associated with depression, while there was an inverse relationship between dependency and severity of depression. In both samples, self-criticism, but not dependency, was related to state anxiety. The cross-sectional nature of this study limits the ability to draw causal conclusions. The study was based on self-report and conducted in relatively small samples.

  18. Problematic eating behaviors in adolescents with low self-esteem and elevated depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Elizabeth A; Gamboz, Julie; Johnson, Jeffrey G

    2008-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that low self-esteem may be an important risk factor for the development of eating disorders. Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationships between low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and eating disorders in adolescents. The present study investigated whether low self-esteem was associated with depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors. Measures of low self-esteem and problematic eating behaviors were administered to a sample of 197 adolescent primary-care patients. Depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors were assessed ten months later. Youths with low self-esteem were at greater risk for high levels of depressive symptoms and eating disorder symptoms. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the association of low self-esteem with problematic eating behaviors.

  19. Factors associated with self-rated health in older people living in institutions

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    Pastor-Barriuso Roberto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although self-rated health has been extensively studied in community older people, its determinants have seldom been investigated in institutional settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to describe the physical, mental, and social factors associated with self-rated health in nursing homes and other geriatric facilities. Methods A representative sample of 800 subjects 65 years of age and older living in 19 public and 30 private institutions of Madrid was randomly selected through stratified cluster sampling. Residents, caregivers, physicians, and nurses were interviewed by trained geriatricians using standardized instruments to assess self-rated health, chronic illnesses, functional capacity, cognitive status, depressive symptoms, vision and hearing problems, and social support. Results Of the 669 interviewed residents (response rate 84%, 55% rated their health as good or very good. There was no association with sex or age. Residents in private facilities and those who completed primary education had significantly better health perception. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for worse health perception was 1.18 (1.07–1.28 for each additional chronic condition, 2.37 (1.38–4.06 when comparing residents with moderate dependency to those functionally independent, and 10.45 (5.84–18.68 when comparing residents with moderate/severe depressive symptoms to those without symptoms. Visual problems were also associated with worse health perception. Similar results were obtained in subgroup analyses, except for inconsistencies in cognitively impaired individuals. Conclusion Chronic conditions, functional status, depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors were the main determinants of perceived health among Spanish institutionalized elderly persons. Doubts remain about the proper assessment of subjective health in residents with altered cognition.

  20. Real-time self-regulation of emotion networks in patients with depression.

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    David E J Linden

    Full Text Available Many patients show no or incomplete responses to current pharmacological or psychological therapies for depression. Here we explored the feasibility of a new brain self-regulation technique that integrates psychological and neurobiological approaches through neurofeedback with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. In a proof-of-concept study, eight patients with depression learned to upregulate brain areas involved in the generation of positive emotions (such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and insula during four neurofeedback sessions. Their clinical symptoms, as assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS, improved significantly. A control group that underwent a training procedure with the same cognitive strategies but without neurofeedback did not improve clinically. Randomised blinded clinical trials are now needed to exclude possible placebo effects and to determine whether fMRI-based neurofeedback might become a useful adjunct to current therapies for depression.

  1. Genetically reduced FAAH activity may be a risk for the development of anxiety and depression in persons with repetitive childhood trauma.

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    Lazary, Judit; Eszlari, Nora; Juhasz, Gabriella; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors are addressed for promising anxiolytics, but human studies on genetically reduced FAAH activity, stress and affective phenotypes are scarce. We investigated the effect of a functional polymorphism of FAAH (FAAH C385A or rs324420; low FAAH activity and high anandamide concentration are associated with the A allele) together with childhood adversity on the anxious and depressive phenotypes in 858 subjects from the general population. Phenotypes were measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), the depression and anxiety subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-DEP, BSI-ANX) and the State-Trait Anxiety scales (STAI-S, STAI-T). Childhood Adversity Questionnaire (CHA) was used to assess early life traumas. Frequency of the A allele was greater among subjects with high ZSDS scores compared to the CC genotype. Furthermore, FAAH C385A and the CHA have shown a robust gene-environment interaction, namely, significantly higher anxiety and depression scores were exhibited by individuals carrying the A allele if they had high CHA scores compared to CC carriers. These data provided preliminary evidence that genetically reduced FAAH activity and repetitive stress in the childhood are associated with increased vulnerability for anxiety and depression in later life. Our results together with earlier experimental data suggest that permanently elevated anandamide level together with early life stress may cause a lifelong damage on stress response probably via the downregulation of CB1R during the neurodevelopment in the brain. It may also point to pharmacogenomic consequences, namely ineffectiveness or adverse effects of FAAH inhibitors in this subpopulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between self-report of depression and media usage

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    Martin eBlock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD, which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS database (N=19,776 subjects. We further assessed the relationship of demographic variables to this association. These analyses found that SRD rates were in the range of published rates of clinically diagnosed major depression. It found that those who tended to use more media also tended to be more depressed, and that segmentation of SRD subjects was weighted toward internet and television usage, which was not the case with non-SRD subjects, who were segmented along social media use. This study found that those who have suffered either economic or physical life setbacks are orders of magnitude more likely to be depressed, even without disproportionately high levels of media use. However, among those that have suffered major life setbacks, high media users – particularly television watchers – were even more likely to report experiencing depression, which suggests that these effects were not just due to individuals having more time for media consumption. These findings provide an example of how Big Data can be used for medical and mental health research, helping to elucidate issues not traditionally tested in the fields of psychiatry or experimental psychology.

  3. Gender differences in predictors of self-rated health in Armenia: a population-based study of an economy in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirchyan, Anahit; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Thompson, Michael E

    2012-11-14

    Self-rated health is a widely used health outcome measure that strongly correlates with physical and mental health status and predicts mortality. This study identified the set of predictors of fair/poor self-rated health in adult female and male populations of Armenia during a period of long-lasting socio-economic transition to a market economy. Differences in self-rated health were analyzed along three dimensions: socioeconomic, behavioral/attitudinal, and psychosocial. The study utilized data from a 2006 nationwide household health survey that used a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling with a combination of interviewer-administered and self-administered surveys. Both female and male representatives of a household aged 18 and over completed the self-administered survey. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) for fair/poor self-rated health were calculated for different sets of variables and logistic regression models fitted separately for women and men to identify the determinants of fair/poor self-rated health. Overall, 2310 women and 462 men participated in the survey. The rate of fair/poor self-rated health was 61.8% among women and 59.7% among men. For women, the set of independent predictors of fair/poor self-rated health included age, unemployment, poverty, low affordability of healthcare, depression, and weak social support. For men, the set included age, lower education, depression, weak social support, and drinking alcohol less than once a week. For both genders, depression and weak social support demonstrated the strongest independent association with fair/poor self-rated health. The prevalence of fair/poor self-rated health was similar among men and women in this study, but the sets of independent predictors of perceived health differed somewhat, possibly, reflecting lifestyle differences between men and women in Armenia. Nevertheless, psychosocial variables were the strongest predictors of fair/poor self-rated health for both genders

  4. Gender differences in predictors of self-rated health in Armenia: a population-based study of an economy in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirchyan Anahit

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Self-rated health is a widely used health outcome measure that strongly correlates with physical and mental health status and predicts mortality. This study identified the set of predictors of fair/poor self-rated health in adult female and male populations of Armenia during a period of long-lasting socio-economic transition to a market economy. Methods Differences in self-rated health were analyzed along three dimensions: socioeconomic, behavioral/attitudinal, and psychosocial. The study utilized data from a 2006 nationwide household health survey that used a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling with a combination of interviewer-administered and self-administered surveys. Both female and male representatives of a household aged 18 and over completed the self-administered survey. Multivariate odds ratios (OR for fair/poor self-rated health were calculated for different sets of variables and logistic regression models fitted separately for women and men to identify the determinants of fair/poor self-rated health. Results Overall, 2310 women and 462 men participated in the survey. The rate of fair/poor self-rated health was 61.8% among women and 59.7% among men. For women, the set of independent predictors of fair/poor self-rated health included age, unemployment, poverty, low affordability of healthcare, depression, and weak social support. For men, the set included age, lower education, depression, weak social support, and drinking alcohol less than once a week. For both genders, depression and weak social support demonstrated the strongest independent association with fair/poor self-rated health. Conclusions The prevalence of fair/poor self-rated health was similar among men and women in this study, but the sets of independent predictors of perceived health differed somewhat, possibly, reflecting lifestyle differences between men and women in Armenia. Nevertheless, psychosocial variables were the

  5. Sexual self-schema and depressive symptoms after prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Carpenter, Kristen M

    2015-04-01

    The years following prostate cancer treatment are characterized by changes in sexual functioning and risk for depressive symptoms. Sexual self-schema (SSS) is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self that are associated with sexual behavior, affect, and the processing of sexually relevant information. This study tested if men's SSS moderates the impact of sexual morbidity on depressive symptoms. Men (N = 66) treated for localized prostate cancer in the preceding 2 years were assessed at T1 and 4 months later (T2). Questionnaires included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Sexual Self-schema Scale for Men, Sexual Experience Scale, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. Regressions controlled for age, sexual activity, and T1 depressive symptoms revealed no significant effect of SSS on depressive symptoms; however, better sexual functioning was related to fewer depressive symptoms (B = -0.25, p < 0.05). Results showed significant interactions between SSS and sexual outcomes. Among men with high SSS, poor sexual functioning was associated with increased depressive symptoms; loss of sexual function was particularly distressing. There was no significant effect of sexual functioning. Among men with high SSS, there was an inverse relationship between sexual engagement and depressive symptoms. Among men with lower SSS, greater frequency of sexual behavior was associated with increased depressive symptoms. SSS may be an important individual difference in determining the impact of sexual morbidity on psychological adjustment. Men high on SSS are more vulnerable to psychological consequences of lower sexual functioning and less engagement in sexual activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Gender Differences in Rating Stressful Events, Depression, and Depressive Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Claudia J.; Lustman, Patrick J.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Life Stress Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire to 140 students. Results showed significant sex differences. Men reported more stressful life change, but women rated the impact of stressors more severely and had higher depression. Men exhibited greater distortions in cognitive…

  7. Self-esteem stability and depressive symptoms in acute stroke rehabilitation: methodological and conceptual expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Chad D; Evans, Clea C; Sepehri, Arash; Jabeen, Linsa N; Gayden, Monee

    2009-08-01

    Explore the relationship of self-esteem level, self-esteem stability, and other moderating variables with depressive symptoms in acute stroke rehabilitation. One hundred twenty participants completed measures of state self-esteem, perceived recovery, hospitalization-based hassles, impairment-related distress, and tendency to overgeneralize negative self-connotations of bad events. Self-report of depressive symptoms was collected at admission and on discharge. Four regression analyses explored the relationship of self-esteem level and stability and each of 4 moderating variables (perceived recovery, hassles, impairment-related distress, and overgeneralization) with depressive symptoms at discharge. Analyses indicated significant 3-way interactions in the 4 regression models. In general, individuals with unstable high self-esteem endorsed greater depressive symptoms under conditions of vulnerability (e.g., lower perceived recovery) than did individuals with stable high self-esteem. Under conditions of vulnerability, participants with stable low self-esteem indicated the highest levels of depressive symptoms. Self-esteem level and stability interact with psychological, environmental, and stroke-specific variables to predict depressive symptoms at discharge from stroke rehabilitation. This suggests the viability of self-esteem stability in exploring depressive symptoms in this setting and the complexity of emotional adjustment early after stroke. (c) 2009 APA

  8. A clinically useful self-report measure of the DSM-5 mixed features specifier of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Martinez, Jennifer H

    2014-10-01

    To acknowledge the clinical significance of manic features in depressed patients, DSM-5 included criteria for a mixed features specifier for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we modified our previously published depression scale to include a subscale assessing the DSM-5 mixed features specifier. More than 1100 psychiatric outpatients with MDD or bipolar disorder completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) supplemented with questions for the DSM-5 mixed features specifier (CUDOS-M). To examine discriminant and convergent validity the patients were rated on clinician severity indices of depression, anxiety, agitation, and irritability. Discriminant and convergent validity was further examined in a subset of patients who completed other self-report symptom severity scales. Test-retest reliability was examined in a subset who completed the CUDOS-M twice. We compared CUDOS-M scores in patients with MDD, bipolar depression, and hypomania. The CUDOS-M subscale had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, was more highly correlated with another self-report measure of mania than with measures of depression, anxiety, substance use problems, eating disorders, and anger, and was more highly correlated with clinician severity ratings of agitation and irritability than anxiety and depression. CUDOS-M scores were significantly higher in hypomanic patients than depressed patients, and patients with bipolar depression than patients with MDD. The study was cross-sectional, thus we did not examine whether the CUDOS-M detects emerging mixed symptoms when depressed patients are followed over time. Also, while we examined the correlation between the CUDOS-M and clinician ratings of agitation and irritability, we did not examine the association with a clinician measure of manic symptomatology such as the Young Mania Rating Scale In the

  9. Ecological correlates of depression and self-esteem in rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Guo, Shenyang

    2014-10-01

    The current study examines individual-, social-, and school-level characteristics influencing symptoms of depression and self-esteem among a large sample (N = 4,321) of U.S. youth living in two rural counties in the South. Survey data for this sample of middle-school students (Grade 6 to Grade 8) were part of the Rural Adaptation Project. Data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. Results show that being female, having a low income, and having negative relationships with parents and peers are risk factors that increase the probability of reporting high levels of depressive symptoms and low levels of self-esteem. In contrast, supportive relationships with parents and peers, high religious orientation, ethnic identity, and school satisfaction increased the probability of reporting low levels of depressive symptoms and high levels of self-esteem. There were few school-level characteristics associated with levels of depressive symptoms and self-esteem. Implications are discussed.

  10. What constitutes vulnerable self-esteem? Comparing the prospective effects of low, unstable, and contingent self-esteem on depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich; Meier, Laurenz L

    2014-11-01

    A growing body of longitudinal studies suggests that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. However, it is unclear whether other characteristics of self-esteem, besides its level, explain incremental or even greater variance in subsequent depression. We examined the prospective effects of self-esteem level, instability (i.e., the degree of variability in self-esteem across short periods), and contingency (i.e., the degree to which self-esteem fluctuates in response to self-relevant events) on depressive symptoms in 1 overarching model, using data from 2 longitudinal studies. In Study 1, 372 adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 months, including 40 daily diary assessments at Wave 1. In Study 2, 235 young adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 weeks, including about 6 daily diary assessments at each wave. Self-esteem contingency was measured by self-report and by a statistical index based on the diary data (capturing event-related fluctuations in self-esteem). In both studies self-esteem level, but not self-esteem contingency, predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. Self-esteem instability predicted subsequent depressive symptoms in Study 2 only, with a smaller effect size than self-esteem level. Also, level, instability, and contingency of self-esteem did not interact in the prediction of depressive symptoms. Moreover, the effect of self-esteem level held when controlling for neuroticism and for all other Big Five personality traits. Thus, the findings provide converging evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem level, tentative evidence for a smaller vulnerability effect of self-esteem instability, and no evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem contingency.

  11. Genetic risk of major depressive disorder: the moderating and mediating effects of neuroticism and psychological resilience on clinical and self-reported depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrady, L B; Adams, M J; Chan, S W Y; Ritchie, S J; McIntosh, A M

    2017-11-29

    Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for depression correlate with depression status and chronicity, and provide causal anchors to identify depressive mechanisms. Neuroticism is phenotypically and genetically positively associated with depression, whereas psychological resilience demonstrates negative phenotypic associations. Whether increased neuroticism and reduced resilience are downstream mediators of genetic risk for depression, and whether they contribute independently to risk remains unknown. Moderating and mediating relationships between depression PRS, neuroticism, resilience and both clinical and self-reported depression were examined in a large, population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (N = 4166), using linear regression and structural equation modelling. Neuroticism and resilience were measured by the Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form Revised and the Brief Resilience Scale, respectively. PRS for depression was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression. No interaction was found between PRS and neuroticism, or between PRS and resilience. Neuroticism was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression, whereas resilience was associated with reduced risk. Structural equation modelling suggested the association between PRS and self-reported and clinical depression was mediated by neuroticism (43-57%), while resilience mediated the association in the opposite direction (37-40%). For both self-reported and clinical diagnoses, the genetic risk for depression was independently mediated by neuroticism and resilience. Findings suggest polygenic risk for depression increases vulnerability for self-reported and clinical depression through independent effects on increased neuroticism and reduced psychological resilience. In addition, two partially independent mechanisms - neuroticism and resilience - may form part of the pathway of vulnerability to depression.

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Image in Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Survivors

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    Birol Baytan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: With increasing survival rates in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, the long-term side effects of treatment have become important. Our aim was to investigate health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, and self-image among ALL survivors. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients diagnosed with ALL and their siblings were enrolled. The Kovacs Children’s Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM were used for collecting data. ANOVA tests were used to determine if there were any significant differences between groups. Results: ALL survivors had higher depression, more anxiety symptoms, lower quality of life, and more negative self-image when compared to their siblings. Conclusion: Continuous diagnostic and interventional mental health services might be necessary for possible emotional side effects of treatment during and after the treatment. Rehabilitation and followup programs should be implemented for children during and after treatment for ALL.

  13. Depression, self-esteem and anger expression patterns of Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, N H; Sok, S R

    2014-03-01

    According to previous studies, nursing students' anger expression patterns, depression and self-esteem significantly affected the physical and mental well-being of patients. It is of utmost importance that the relationship among them is thoroughly investigated in this study. The purpose of this study was to examine the degrees of anger expression patterns, depression and self-esteem of Korean nursing students and to examine the correlations among them. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The subjects consisted of 320 Korean nursing students at colleges in S and G city, Korea. The measurements were based on the Korean standard STAXI (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory), SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revision) and SLCS-R (Self-Liking/Self-Competence Scale-Revised Version). In the analysis of the degrees of variances, the subjects showed lower anger repression, anger expression, control of anger and depression. The degree of self-esteem revealed a higher than the median value. There were significant correlations among anger expression patterns (anger repression, anger expression and anger control), depression and self-esteem. The study limitations were the degree of representativeness of the setting and sample, and its generalizability. Based on the findings of this study, interventions are needed for Korean nursing students in order to promote anger management and improved self-esteem. The development of an anger control programme for nursing students should focus on lowering depression and enhancing self-esteem. One of the policy issues focused on providing anger management programmes for lowering depression and enhancing self-esteem. This study will enable nursing students to recognize the importance of controlling their anger, enhancing their self-esteem, establishing positive emotions and improving their overall well-being as future professional nurses. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Assessment of Depression in Dementia Patients: Association of Caregiver Mood with Depression Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teri, Linda; Truax, Paula

    1994-01-01

    Primary caregivers (n=41) of memory-impaired patients rated a standardized stimulus of depression and their actual patient. They were able to correctly identify depression in both. Further, their mood was unassociated with video ratings and only moderately associated with patient ratings. The findings support reliance on caregiver input.…

  15. Relationship of Internet addiction with self-esteem and depression in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrainian, S A; Alizadeh, K Haji; Raeisoon, M R; Gorji, O Hashemi; Khazaee, A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of self-esteem and depression with Internet addiction in university students. The present descriptive-analytic correlation study involved 408 students (150 female and 258 male) who had been selected by means of a cluster sampling method from among all the students studying in Birjand Islamic Azad University. Students were evaluated through the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Cooper Smith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and Internet Addiction Test (IAT). The results indicated that 40.7% of the students had Internet addiction. A significant correlation emerged between depression, self-esteem and Internet addiction. Regression analysis indicated that depression and self-esteem were able to predict the variance of Internet addiction to some extent. It may be important to evaluate self-esteem and depression in people with Internet addiction. These variables should be targeted for effective cognitive behavioral therapy in people with Internet addiction.

  16. The Effect of Paroxetine on Depressive Symptom with Somatic Disease and Change of Platelet 5-HT Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑凯; 史庭慧; 刘晓晴

    2003-01-01

    To study the effect of paroxetine on depressive symptom accompanying somatic disease and the value of platelet 5-HT concentration in the diagnosis of depression, 30 patients with depressive symptom were treated with paroxetine. All patients were evaluated on Zung and HAMD scale and assayed of platelet 5-HT concentration before and after treatment. It was found that patients had a lower level of platelet 5-HT concentration than healthy people (P<0. 01). After six weeks of treatment, depressive and somatic symptoms were both improved (P<0. 01) and platelet 5-HT concentration was even lower (P>0. 05). It was suggested that paroxetine was a good antidepressant and platelet 5-HT concentration was useful in the screening of depression.

  17. The History and Timing of Depression Onset as Predictors of Young-Adult Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Donald A.; Ueno, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The three main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood; (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and young adult self-esteem; and (3) help rule out the alternative interpretation that the relationship between major depression and self-esteem is due to state dependence bias stemming from recent depressive symptoms and stressful life events. To address these objectives we use data from a two-wave panel study based on a community sample of young adults in Miami-Dade County, Florida (n = 1,197). Results indicated a history of major depression during sensitive periods of social development is associated with negative changes in self-esteem over a two-year period during the transition to young adulthood. Among those with a history of depression, earlier onset was more problematic than later onset for young adult self-esteem, although the difference disappeared once the level of self-esteem two years prior was controlled. The linkages between the history and timing of depression onset with self-esteem were observed net of recent depressive symptoms and stressful life events, and thus robust to an alternative interpretation of state dependence. The findings support the argument that major depression, especially if it develops earlier during child-adolescent development, has negative consequences for one’s self-esteem. PMID:21860585

  18. Validación de la Escala de Depresión de Zung en Personas con VIH

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera I, Blanca M; Corrales R, Andrés E; Cáceres R, Óscar; Pina L, Julio A

    2007-01-01

    Se describen las propiedades psicométricas de la escala de depresión de Zung, que fue administrada a 62 personas con VIH que al momento del estudio eran vistos en el Centro Ambulatorio para la Prevención y Atención a VIH/SIDA e ITS en la ciudad de Hermosillo, México. La edad promedio de los participantes fue de 37,02 años, de los cuales 59,7% eran personas del sexo masculino y 40,3% del sexo femenino. Para la evaluación de las propiedades psicométricas de la escala se utilizaron en orden suce...

  19. Body Weight, Self-Esteem, and Depression in Korean Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Kyeha

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether body mass index (BMI) and perception of a body weight problem predict level of self esteem and depression in Korean female adolescents. Results showed that perception of a weight problem, but not BMI, contributed significantly to the prediction of level of self esteem and depression. (BF)

  20. A clinically useful self-report measure of the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Walsh, Emily; Rosenstein, Lia

    2014-06-01

    To acknowledge the clinical significance of anxiety in depressed patients, DSM-5 included criteria for an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we modified our previously published depression scale to include a subscale assessing the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier. From December 1995 to August 2013, 773 psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) supplemented with questions for the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier (CUDOS-A). To examine discriminant and convergent validity, the patients were rated on clinician severity indices of depression, anxiety, and irritability. Discriminant and convergent validity was further examined in a subset of patients who completed other self-report symptom severity scales. Test-retest reliability was examined in a subset who completed the CUDOS-A twice. We compared patients who did and did not meet the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier on indices of psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The CUDOS-A subscale had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability; was more highly correlated with other self-report measures of anxiety than with measures of depression, substance use problems, eating disorders, and anger; and was more highly correlated with clinician severity ratings of anxiety than depression and irritability. CUDOS-A scores were significantly higher in depressed outpatients with a current anxiety disorder than in depressed patients without a comorbid anxiety disorder (P depressive disorder. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Longitudinal network structure of depression symptoms and self-efficacy in low-income mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Schwartz, Todd A; Beeber, Linda; Fried, Eiko I

    2018-01-01

    Maternal depression was recently conceptualized as a network of interacting symptoms. Prior studies have shown that low self-efficacy, as an index of maternal functioning, is one important source of stress that worsens depression. We have limited information, however, on the specific relationships between depression symptoms and self-efficacy. In this study, we used regularized partial correlation networks to explore the multivariate relationships between maternal depression symptoms and self-efficacy over time. Depressed mothers (n = 306) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale at four time points, between four and eight weeks apart. We estimated (a) the network structure of the 20 CES-D depression symptoms and self-efficacy for each time point, (b) determined the centrality or structural importance of all variables, and (c) tested whether the network structure changed over time. In the resulting networks, self-efficacy was mostly negatively connected with depression symptoms. The strongest relationships among depression symptoms were 'lonely-sleep difficulties' and 'inability to get going-crying'. 'Feeling disliked' and 'concentration difficulty' were the two most central symptoms. In comparing the network structures, we found that the network structures were moderately stable over time. This is the first study to investigate the network structure and their temporal stability of maternal depression symptoms and self-efficacy in low-income depressed mothers. We discuss how these findings might help future research to identify clinically relevant symptom-to-symptom relationships that could drive maternal depression processes, and potentially inform tailored interventions. We share data and analytical code, making our results fully reproducible.

  2. The Effectiveness of Psychological Services of Rehabilitation Period on Addictions’ Negative Self Concept, Anxiety, Depression and Self Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Bavi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Psychological services of rehabilitation period on negative self concept, anxiety, depression and self esteem of T.C. addicts of Ahwaz city in 1386-1387. Method: The research design was semi experimental namely: pretest-posttest with one group. Population was all self reported addicts that accepted in Ahwaz T.C. center for 4 months period. The sample was 50 addicts who were selected by available sampling. Before psychological services pre test was administered. The questionnaires were administered in this research were Rogers's self concept, Cattle’s anxiety, Beck's depression and Copper Smith's self esteem questionnaire. Results: the results showed that the psychological services were effective on reduction of addicts’ negative self concept, depression, and anxiety also, on increasing of their self esteem. Conclusion: The results showed that participation of T.C. and using of psychological services can be affected on reduction of negative self concept, depression, and anxiety also, on increasing of self esteem.

  3. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals with and without suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Erik; De Raedt, Rudi; Dereu, Mieke; Van den Abbeele, Dirk

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we have further explored implicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals. Since suicidal ideation is associated with lower self-esteem in depressed individuals, we measured both implicit and explicit self-esteem in a population of currently depressed (CD) individuals, with and without suicidal ideation (SI), and in a group of non-depressed controls (ND). The results indicate that only CD individuals with SI show a discrepancy between their implicit and explicit self-esteem: that is, they exhibit high implicit and low explicit self-esteem. CD individuals without SI exhibit both low implicit and low explicit self-esteem; and ND controls exhibit both normal implicit and normal explicit self-esteem. These results provide new insights in the study of implicit self-esteem and the combination of implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression.

  4. CAREGIVER'S DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND YOUNG CHILDREN'S SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT DELAYS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN POOR RURAL AREAS OF CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qianwei; Zhang, Cuihong; Zhang, Jingxu; Luo, Shusheng; Wang, Xiaoli

    2018-03-01

    Poverty and its associated factors put people at risk for depression. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms (DS) of primary caregivers and socioemotional development (SED) delays of young children in poor rural areas of China, and to explore the association between them. Cross-sectional data of 2,664 children aged 3 to 35 months and their primary caregivers were used for analysis. Characteristics of the child, caregiver, and family were collected through face-to-face caregiver interviews. DS were assessed by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (W.W. Zung, 1965, as cited in World Health Organization, ), and SED was evaluated by the Ages and Stage Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (J. Squires, D. Bricker, & L. Potter, 1997). The χ 2 test, stratification analysis, and logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association. Among the caregivers, 40.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] [38.4, 42.1]), reported DS. Caregivers who were male, older and ethnic minorities as well as had a low level of education, a low family income, or more children were more likely to have DS. Of the children, 24.4% (95% CI [22.8, 26.0]) were recognized with SED delays. Older children displayed more delays than did younger children, but no significant differences between males and females were found. SED delays were significantly associated with mother outmigrating, male caregivers, older age, ethnic minorities, and low education or families with a single parent, low-income, and having more children. Caregivers having DS, odds ratio (OR) = 2.40, 95% CI [1.99, 2.88], was a significant predictor of increased odds of SED delays; other factors were single-parent family, OR = 1.99, 95% CI [1.37, 2.89], inadequate care, OR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.30, 2.21], physical punishment, OR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.33, 1.95], ethnic minorities, OR = 1.41, 95% CI [1.17, 1.71], and child age in months, OR = 1.03, 95% CI [1.02, 1.04], according to the logistic regression

  5. An Analysis of Depression, Self-Harm, and Suicidal Ideation Content on Tumblr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Connolly, Sarah; Rosas, Carlos; Bharadwaj, Meghana; Grucza, Richard; Bierut, Laura J

    2017-01-01

    Social networking about depression can be indicative of self-reported depression and/or can normalize risk behaviors such as self-harm and suicidal ideation. To gain a better understanding of the depression, self-harm, and suicidal content that is being shared on Tumblr. From April 16 to May 10, 2014, 17 popular depression-related Tumblr accounts were monitored for new posts and engagement with other Tumblr users. A total of 3,360 posts were randomly selected from all historical posts from these accounts and coded based on themes ascertained by the research team. The 17 Tumblr accounts posted a median number of 185 posts (range = 0-2,954). Content was engaged with (i.e., re-blogged or liked) a median number of 1,677,362 times (range = 0-122,186,504). Of the 3,360 randomly selected posts, 2,739 (82%) were related to depression, suicide, or self-harm. Common themes were self-loathing (412, 15%), loneliness/feeling unloved (405, 15%), self-harm (407, 15%), and suicide (372, 14%). This study takes an important first step at better understanding the displayed depression-related references on Tumblr. The findings signal a need for suicide prevention efforts to intervene on Tumblr and use this platform in a strategic way, given the depression and suicidal content that was readily observed on Tumblr.

  6. Refining the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression: Disentangling the effects of genuine self-esteem and narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Meier, Laurenz L; Conger, Rand D

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression, which states that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. The goal of the present research was to refine the vulnerability model, by testing whether the self-esteem effect is truly due to a lack of genuine self-esteem or due to a lack of narcissistic self-enhancement. For the analyses, we used data from 6 longitudinal studies consisting of 2,717 individuals. In each study, we tested the prospective effects of self-esteem and narcissism on depression both separately for each construct and mutually controlling the constructs for each other (i.e., a strategy that informs about effects of genuine self-esteem and pure narcissism), and then meta-analytically aggregated the findings. The results indicated that the effect of low self-esteem holds when narcissism is controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.26, controlled effect = -.27). In contrast, the effect of narcissism was close to zero when self-esteem was controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.06, controlled effect = .01). Moreover, the analyses suggested that the self-esteem effect is linear across the continuum from low to high self-esteem (i.e., the effect was not weaker at very high levels of self-esteem). Finally, self-esteem and narcissism did not interact in their effect on depression; that is, individuals with high self-esteem have a lower risk for developing depression, regardless of whether or not they are narcissistic. The findings have significant theoretical implications because they strengthen the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N

    1994-06-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control.

  8. Depression is associated with sexual risk among men who have sex with men, but is mediated by cognitive escape and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvy, Lisa M; McKirnan, David J; Mansergh, Gordon; Koblin, Beryl; Colfax, Grant N; Flores, Stephen A; Hudson, Sharon

    2011-08-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) show high rates of HIV infection, and higher rates of depression than non-MSM. We examined the association between depression and sexual risk among "high risk" MSM. Evidence has been mixed regarding the link between depression and risky sex, although researchers have rarely considered the role of psychosocial vulnerabilities such as self-efficacy for sexual safety or "escape" coping styles. In a national sample (N = 1,540) of HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM who reported unprotected sex and drug use with sex partners, we found evidence that depression is related to HIV transmission risk. Self-efficacy for sexual safety and cognitive escape mediated the link between depression and risk behavior, suggesting that psychosocial vulnerability plays an important role in the association of depression with sexual risk. These findings may help us construct more accurate theories regarding depression and sexual behavior, and may inform the design of sexual safety interventions.

  9. Relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating: mediating role of self-esteem and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechan, Inge; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating behavior is mediated through self-esteem and depression. If the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating can be explained by self-esteem and depression, treatment may benefit from focusing more on self-esteem and depression than body dissatisfaction. We also hypothesized body image importance to be associated with lower self-esteem, stronger symptoms of depression, and more disordered eating. The results showed that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disorder eating was completely mediated, whereas the effect of body image importance was partly mediated. Both self-esteem and depression were significant mediators. Body image importance and self-esteem had a direct effect on restrained eating and compensatory behavior. Depression had a direct effect on binge eating. This effect was significantly stronger among women. Depression also had a direct effect on restrained eating. This effect was positive among women, but negative among men. The results support emotion regulation and cognitive behavioral theories of eating disorders, indicating that self-esteem and depression are the most proximal factors, whereas the effect of body dissatisfaction is indirect. The results point out the importance of distinguishing between different symptoms of bulimia. Depression may cause binge eating, but compensatory behavior depends on self-esteem and body image importance. The results suggest that women may turn to both binge eating and restrained eating to escape awareness of negative emotions, whereas men focus on eating to a lesser extent than women. Existing treatment focuses on eating behavior first and mechanisms such as self-esteem and depression second. The results from this study suggest that an earlier focus on self-esteem and depression may be warranted in the treatment of disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Does Low Self-Esteem Predict Depression and Anxiety? A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Low self-esteem and depression are strongly related, but there is not yet consistent evidence on the nature of the relation. Whereas the vulnerability model states that low self-esteem contributes to depression, the scar model states that depression erodes self-esteem. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the models are specific for depression or…

  11. The efficacy of antidepressants on overall well-being and self-reported depression symptom severity in youth: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmans, Glen I; Gerwig, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of the efficacy of second-generation antidepressants for youth have concluded that such drugs possess a statistically significant advantage over placebo in terms of clinician-rated depressive symptoms. However, no meta-analysis has included measures of quality of life, global mental health, self-esteem, or autonomy. Further, prior meta-analyses have not included self-reports of depressive symptoms. Studies were selected through searching Medline, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials databases as well as GlaxoSmithKline's online trial registry. We included self-reports of depressive symptoms and pooled measures of quality of life, global mental health, self-esteem, and autonomous functioning as a proxy for overall well-being. We found a nonsignificant difference between second-generation antidepressants and placebo in terms of self-reported depressive symptoms (k = 6 trials, g = 0.06, p = 0.36). Further, pooled across measures of quality of life, global mental health, self-esteem, and autonomy, antidepressants yielded no significant advantage over placebo (k = 3 trials, g = 0.11, p = 0.13). Though limited by a small number of trials, our analyses suggest that antidepressants offer little to no benefit in improving overall well-being among depressed children and adolescents. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Depressão e auto-estima entre acadêmicos de enfermagem Depression and self-esteem among nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Regina Ferreira Furegato

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Há evidências sobre o aumento dos casos de depressão e suas conseqüências na vida das pessoas. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo objetivou conhecer sinais indicativos de depressão e níveis de auto-estima entre acadêmicos de enfermagem, correlacionando esses indicadores. METODOLOGIA: aplicou-se 2 escalas de avaliação (depressão e auto-estima, auto-respondidas por 242 alunos do 1º, 2º e 3º anos de enfermagem que concordaram em participar. RESULTADOS: Idade entre 17 e 44 anos, sendo 40% acima dos 25, 4,4% não solteiros e 4,9% homens, indicando mudança no perfil dos alunos. Encontrou-se 80,8% de alunos sem depressão sendo que todos com altos níveis de estima pessoal (17% estavam neste grupo. Os demais (80,4% tinham níveis médios de auto-estima. A porcentagem de disforia (10,3% e de depressão moderada e grave (6,7% bem como os níveis de auto-estima condizem com os índices referidos na literatura. CONCLUSÕES: a freqüência de depressão entre estudantes está em níveis esperados, porém níveis de estima pessoal estão abaixo.BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence about the increasing incidence of depression and the consequences in people's lives. OBJECTIVE: This study aymed to describe and correlate depression symptoms and self-esteem levels among nursing students. METHODS: 242 first, second and third-year nursing students agreed to participate and answered two depression scales and one self-esteem assessment instrument. RESULTS: Participants were between 17 and 44 years old; 40% were older than 25; 4.4% were not single and 4.9% were men. These results indicate that the students' profile is changing. 80.8% of students did not present any signs of depression and all students with high self-esteem scores belonged to this group. The remaining (80.4% presented average self-esteem levels. Levels of dysphoria (10.3%, moderate and severe depression (6.7% and low and average self-esteem correspond to results mentioned in literature

  13. Negative self-schema: the effects of induced depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, L J; Teasdale, J D; Broadbent, D E

    1988-05-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall paradigm, previously used as a measure of negative self-schema in depressed patients (Derry & Kuiper, 1981), was administered to normal subjects in whom depressed or neutral mood had been induced. Subjects in whom depressed mood was induced showed a pattern of recall similar to that previously found for depressed patients, suggesting (1) that at least some of the effects observed in depressed patients were a function of transient mood state, rather than persistent characteristics, and (2) that these effects of depressed mood also occur in individuals who have not been selected for vulnerability to clinical depression.

  14. Patients with depressive disorder, their co-morbidity, visiting rate and disability in relation to self-evaluation of physical and mental health: a cross-sectional study in family practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaroos Heidi-Ingrid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of depression among primary care patients has increased the need for more research in this field. The objectives of our study were to analyse how depressed patients evaluate their health; which co-morbid diseases are associated with depression; how depression influences the patients' consultation rate in family practice (FP; how disability is associated with depression; and how depression influences the patients' working ability. Methods A cross-sectional study, part of the PREDICT study. The study group was formed of 1094 consecutive patients from 23 FPs across Estonia, aged 18–75 years, attending a FP to consult the family doctor (FD. Occurrence of major depression during six months was estimated using the Depression Section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The medical records of all patients were analysed concerning co-morbid diseases, number of visits to the FD, and disability. Every patient filled in questionnaires to assess health-related risk factors for depression, and the SF-12 Health Survey to assess functioning and the perception of health. Results Depression was found in 230 (21% of the patients. Depressed patients reported less accomplishment owing to emotional problems (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.18–2.72, being less careful as usual (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.26–2.60, and having pain that extremely interfered with their normal work (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.33–4.70 in comparison with non-depressed patients. Also depressed patients were more days on sick-leave (OR 1.00; 95% CI 1.00–1.01 than non-depressed patients. However, analysis of the medical records did not indicate that depressed patients consulted the FD more or had more co-morbid diagnoses than the non-depressed patients. Conclusion Depressed patients may have low self-reported functioning due to emotional problems, pain, and their working ability may have decreased; however, the patients of both groups have an equal number of co

  15. Relationship Between the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Anxiety/Somatization Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Clark, Heather; McGonigal, Patrick; Harris, Lauren; Guzman Holst, Carolina; Martin, Jacob

    2018-02-01

    We examined the association between the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) approach to classifying depressed patients into anxious and nonanxious subgroups and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) anxious distress specifier subtyping. Two hundred two depressed patients were interviewed with semistructured diagnostic interviews. Patients were rated on the 17-item HAMD and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and completed the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale. Both approaches toward identifying anxiety in depressed patients resulted in most of the patients meeting the anxiety subtype. Both subtyping methods were significantly correlated with clinician-rated and self-report measures of anxiety, and scores on the anxiety scales were higher in the patients who met the anxious subtype. However, DSM-5 anxious distress subtyping was only marginally associated with the HAMD anxiety/somatization factor subtyping approach (k = 0.21), and dimensional scores were only moderately correlated (r = 0.50). These findings indicate that the DSM-5 and HAMD approaches toward identifying an anxious subtype of depression are not interchangeable.

  16. Mothers' and fathers' ratings of family relationship quality: associations with preadolescent and adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H; Stewart, Lindsay M; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The sample included families of 147 preadolescents and adolescents (56.6 % female; 89.8 % Caucasian), 11-18 years old (M = 13.64, SD = 1.98) assigned a principal diagnosis of an anxiety or depressive disorder. When controlling for age and concurrent anxiety symptoms, regression analyses revealed that for boys, both father- and mother-rated family cohesion predicted depressive symptoms. For girls, mother-rated family expressiveness and conflict predicted depressive symptoms. Youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly associated with any family relationship variables, controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that parent-rated family relationship factors may be more related to youth depressive than anxiety symptoms in this clinical sample. In addition, family cohesion, as perceived by parents, may be more related to boys' depression, whereas expressiveness and conflict (as rated by mothers) may be more related to girls' depression. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  17. Parental bonding and self-esteem as predictors of severe depressive symptoms: a 10-year follow-up study of Norwegian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotmol, Kjersti S; Ekeberg, Øivind; Finset, Arnstein; Gude, Tore; Moum, Torbjørn; Vaglum, Per; Tyssen, Reidar

    2010-01-01

    Elevated rates of suicide and depression among physicians have been reported. The associations between perceived parental bonding and depressive symptoms have yet to be studied longitudinally in this occupational group. In a nationwide cohort, we sought to study parental bonding as a predictor for severe depressive symptoms and to determine whether self-esteem mediates this relationship. After graduation (T1), medical students (N = 631) were followed-up after 1 (T2), 4 (T3), and 10 (T4) years. There were no gender differences in mean depressive scores. Female physicians reported higher levels of care from their mothers (p self-esteem for both sexes.

  18. Child maltreatment and adult depressive symptoms: Roles of self-compassion and gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglu; Chi, Peilian; Lin, Xiuyun; Du, Hongfei

    2018-06-01

    Child maltreatment, including abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual) and neglect (physical and emotional), is positively associated with depressive symptoms in adulthood. However, most studies have been conducted within a psychopathological framework and focused on underlying dysfunctional processes (e.g., insecure attachment styles, maladaptive schemas, and negative attribution styles). Protective factors that affect the relationship between child maltreatment and adult depressive symptoms are underexplored. Guided by emotion regulation theory and the perspective of positive psychology, we examined the roles of self-compassion and gratitude as protective factors in the relationship between child maltreatment and adult depressive symptoms in a sample of 358 college students. Results showed that psychological maltreatment (emotional abuse and emotional neglect) was associated with adult depressive symptoms through decreased self-compassion. Neglect (emotional neglect and physical neglect) and sexual abuse were associated with adult depressive symptoms through decreased gratitude. There was no association between physical abuse and depressive symptoms through either self-compassion or gratitude. Our findings suggest that clinical practices focusing on self-compassion and gratitude might help prevent the development of adult depressive symptoms among clients with a history of maltreatment in childhood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-reported versus informant-reported depressive symptoms in adults with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileviciute, I; Hartley, S L

    2015-02-01

    Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of depression among adults with mild ID varies based on socio-demographic characteristics. We compared findings from two self-reported questionnaires, the Self-Reported Depression Questionnaire (SRDQ) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS), to that of an informant questionnaire of depressive symptoms, the Glasgow Depression Scale--Caregiver Supplement (CGDS), in 80 adults with mild ID. We also examined the association between age, sex, IQ and the presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder and frequency of affective, cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms in our sample of adults with mild ID. Adults with mild ID self-reported a higher frequency of affective and cognitive depressive symptoms than staff reported on the informant measure. Staff reported a higher frequency of somatic symptoms than adults with mild ID on one of the self-reported questionnaires (GDS) and a similar frequency on the other self-reported questionnaire (SRDQ). Important differences were found in the types of depressive symptoms based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. Informant questionnaires offer valuable information, but assessment should include self-reported questionnaires as these questionnaires add unique information about internalised experiences (affective and cognitive symptoms) of adults with mild ID that may not be apparent to caregivers. Health care providers should be made aware of the important differences in the presentation of depressive based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  20. The Effects of Depression on Personality Judgments about One's Self and Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Nicholas A.; And Others

    Depressed individuals seem to believe that they are qualitatively inferior; they tend to misinterpret and exaggerate losses and overgeneralize the meaning of self-relevant information. The way in which information about the self is processed by depressed individuals, in particular, the differences in self-schema content (the constellation of…

  1. Validity of LIDAS (LIfetime Depression Assessment Self-report): a self-report online assessment of lifetime major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, M; Middeldorp, C M; de Geus, E J C; Lau, H M; Sinke, M; van Nieuwenhuizen, B; Smit, J H; Boomsma, D I; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of valid, brief instruments for the assessment of lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) that can be used in, for example, large-scale genomics, imaging or biomarker studies on depression. We developed the LIfetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), which assesses lifetime MDD diagnosis according to DSM criteria, and is largely based on the widely used Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Here, we tested the feasibility and determined the sensitivity and specificity for measuring lifetime MDD with this new questionnaire, with a regular CIDI as reference. Sensitivity and specificity analyses of the online lifetime MDD questionnaire were performed in adults with (n = 177) and without (n = 87) lifetime MDD according to regular index CIDIs, selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Feasibility was tested in an additional non-selective, population-based sample of NTR participants (n = 245). Of the 753 invited persons, 509 (68%) completed the LIDAS, of which 419 (82%) did this online. User-friendliness of the instrument was rated high. Median completion time was 6.2 min. Sensitivity and specificity for lifetime MDD were 85% [95% confidence interval (CI) 80-91%] and 80% (95% CI 72-89%), respectively. This LIDAS instrument gave a lifetime MDD prevalence of 20.8% in the population-based sample. Measuring lifetime MDD with an online instrument was feasible. Sensitivity and specificity were adequate. The instrument gave a prevalence of lifetime MDD in line with reported population prevalences. LIDAS is a promising tool for rapid determination of lifetime MDD status in large samples, such as needed for genomics studies.

  2. Self-rated health of primary care house officers and its relationship to psychological and spiritual well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Caroline V

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The stress associated with residency training may place house officers at risk for poorer health. We sought to determine the level of self-reported health among resident physicians and to ascertain factors that are associated with their reported health. Methods A questionnaire was administered to house officers in 4 residency programs at a large Midwestern medical center. Self-rated health was determined by using a health rating scale (ranging from 0 = death to 100 = perfect health and a Likert scale (ranging from "poor" health to "excellent" health. Independent variables included demographics, residency program type, post-graduate year level, current rotation, depressive symptoms, religious affiliation, religiosity, religious coping, and spirituality. Results We collected data from 227 subjects (92% response rate. The overall mean (SD health rating score was 87 (10; range, 40–100, with only 4 (2% subjects reporting a score of 100; on the Likert scale, only 88 (39% reported excellent health. Lower health rating scores were significantly associated (P Conclusion Residents' self-rated health was poorer than might be expected in a cohort of relatively young physicians and was related to program type, depressive symptoms, and spiritual well-being. Future studies should examine whether treating depressive symptoms and attending to spiritual needs can improve the overall health and well-being of primary care house officers.

  3. Longitudinal pathways of sexual victimization, sexual self-esteem, and depression in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a longitudinal analysis of the links between sexual assault victimization, depression, and sexual self-esteem by examining their cross-lagged paths among both men and women. Male and female college students (N = 2,425) in Germany participated in the study that comprised 3 data waves in their first, second, and third year of university, separated by 12-month intervals. Sexual assault victimization was assessed at Time 1 (T1) since the age of 14 and at Time 2 (T2) and Time 3 (T3) for the last 12 months. Depression and sexual self-esteem were measured at each wave. Random-intercept cross-lagged panel analyses, controlling for individual differences in depression and sexual self-esteem, showed that sexual assault at T1 predicted depression and lower sexual self-esteem at T2, and depression and lower self-esteem at T2 predicted sexual assault victimization at T3. In addition, significant paths were found from T1 depression to T2 sexual assault victimization and from T2 sexual assault victimization to depression at T3. Sexual victimization at T1 was indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3 via depression at T2. Both depression and sexual self-esteem at T1 were indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3. The paths did not differ significantly between men and women. Sexual assault victimization was shown to be a risk factor for both depression as a general mental health indicator and lowered sexual self-esteem as a specific outcome in the domain of sexuality. Moreover, depression and sexual self-esteem increased the vulnerability for sexual assault victimization, which has implications for prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Older persons' lived experiences of depression and self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Anne Lise; Lyberg, Anne; Lassenius, Erna; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Berggren, Ingela

    2013-10-01

    Mental ill-health, such as depression in the elderly, is a complex issue that is influenced by the life-world perspective of older persons. Their self-management ability should be strengthened based on an understanding of their situation, perspectives, and vulnerability. The aim of this study was to explore and increase understanding of old persons' lived experiences of depression and self-management using an interpretative explorative design. Understanding was developed by means of hermeneutic interpretation. One theme, Relationships and Togetherness, and four subthemes, A Sense of Carrying a Shoulder Bag, Walking on Eggshells, Holding the Reins, and Estrangement--a Loss of Togetherness, emerged. A collaborative approach can be important for empowering older persons through self-development and management. Although the findings of the present study cannot be considered conclusive or definitive, they nevertheless contribute new knowledge of older persons' lived experiences of depression in everyday life.

  5. Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression scale for detection of depression in nursing home residents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Teerenstra, S.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test the accuracy of the Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression (NORD) scale, a new short scale for screening of depression in nursing home (NH) residents with and without dementia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study with 103 residents with dementia (N = 19 depressed) and

  6. Current Parental Depression and Offspring Perceived Self-Competence: A Quasi-Experimental Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, E. L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52%) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins (CoT) designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended-family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression. PMID:22692226

  7. Current parental depression and offspring perceived self-competence: a quasi-experimental examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Singh, Amber L; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, E L; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2012-09-01

    A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52 %) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression.

  8. Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Relationship Quality: Associations with Preadolescent and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in a Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H.; Stewart, Lindsay M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The…

  9. Self-worth therapy for depressive symptoms in older nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yun-Fang; Wong, Thomas K S; Tsai, Hsiu-Hsin; Ku, Yan-Chiou

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to report the effects of self-worth therapy on depressive symptoms of older nursing home residents. Depression in older people has become a serious healthcare issue worldwide. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been shown to have inconsistent effects, and drug treatment can have important side-effects. A quasi-experimental design was used. Older people were sampled by convenience from residents of a nursing home in northern Taiwan between 2005 and 2006. To be included in the study participants had to: (i) have no severe cognitive deficits; (ii) test positive for depressive status and (iii) take the same anti-depressant medication in the previous 3 months and throughout the study. Participants in the experimental group (n = 31) received 30 minutes of one-to-one self-worth therapy on 1 day a week for 4 weeks. Control group participants (n = 32) received no therapy, but were individually visited by the same research assistant, who chatted with them for 30 minutes on 1 day/week for 4 weeks. Depressive status, cognitive status and functional status were measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention and 2 months later. Data were analysed by mean, standard deviations, t-test, chi-squared test and univariate anova. Self-worth therapy immediately decreased depressive symptoms relative to baseline, but not relative to control treatment. However, 2 months later, depressive symptoms were statistically significantly reduced relative to control. Self-worth therapy is an easily-administered, effective, non-pharmacological treatment with potential for decreasing depressive symptoms in older nursing home residents.

  10. Correlation of neuropathic pain with depression disorder and anxiety disorder%神经病理性疼痛与抑郁和焦虑精神症状的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪雪珺; 杜冬萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of neuropathic pain with depression disorder and anxiety disorder. Methods Thirty-six patients who were initially diagnosed as neuropathic pain were included ( case group), and were treated with amitriptyline, opioids and nerve block in necessities. Assessment with visual analogue scale (VAS), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) was performed before treatment and 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment. Besides, 15 healthy volunteers were served as controls, and assessment with SAS and SDS was conducted. Results The duration of neuropathic pain of all patients in case group was more than 3 months. The degree of pain was positively related to the prevalences of depression disorder and anxiety disorder in case group (P < 0. 01), and the prevalences of depression disorder and anxiety disorder in case group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P < 0. 01). Two weeks and 4 weeks after treatment in case group, the pain was effectively relieved ( P < 0. 05) , the degree of pain was also positively related to the prevalences of depression disorder and anxiety disorder (P <0.05), and the prevalences of depression disorder and anxiety disorder were also significantly higher than those in control group (P <0. 05) . Conclusion Patients with neuropathic pain are usually found to experience anxiety disorder and depression disorder. With the relief of pain, anxiety disorder and depression disorder may be relieved, but can not be completely eliminated.%目的 探讨神经病理性疼痛与焦虑和抑郁精神症状之间的相关性.方法 选择神经病理性疼痛初诊患者36例(病例组),根据病情需要分别采用阿米替林、阿片类药物和神经阻滞药物进行镇痛治疗,治疗前进行视觉模拟疼痛评分(VAS)、Zung焦虑评分(SAS)和Zung抑郁评分(SDS),治疗后2和4周再进行SAS和SDS评分.同时选15

  11. Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression scale for detection of depression in nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.; Teerenstra, S.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to test the accuracy of the Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression (NORD) scale, a new short scale for screening of depression in nursing home (NH) residents with and without dementia. Methods This cross-sectional study with 103 residents with dementia (N = 19 depressed) and 72

  12. The effect of aerobic exercise on self-esteem and depressive and anxiety symptoms among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, M L; Katch, V L; Roth, R S; Garcia, A W; Portner, T I; Glickman, S G; Haslanger, S; Wilkins, E G

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic exercise on depressive and anxiety symptoms and self-esteem of breast cancer survivors. Experimental, crossover. Midwestern university town. Twenty-four breast cancer survivors (mean time following surgery 41.8 months; ranging from 1 to 99 months) recruited via mail and cancer support groups. The mean age of the sample was 48.9 years. Subjects were assigned randomly into exercise (EX), exercise-plus-behavior modification (EX + BM), and control groups. EX and EX + BM groups exercised aerobically four days/week at > or = 60% of age-predicted maximum heart rate for 10 weeks. Data were collected pretest, post-test, and crossover (12 weeks following post-test). Because pretest or post-test scores showed no statistical differences between EX and EX + BM groups, data were combined to form one group. Aerobic exercise (four days/ week; 30-40 minutes/session), depression, (Beck Depression inventory), anxiety (Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory). Pre- to post-test analyses revealed that women who exercised had significantly less depression and state and trait anxiety over time compared to controls. After the crossover, the control group demonstrated comparable improvements in both depressive and state anxiety scores. Self-esteem did not change significantly. Subjects who received exercise recommendations from their physicians exercised significantly more than subjects who received no recommendation. Mild to moderate aerobic exercise may be of therapeutic value to breast cancer survivors with respect to depressive and anxiety symptoms but not to self-esteem. A physician's recommendation to exercise appears to be an important factor in a patient's exercise adherence. To Improve depressive and anxiety symptoms following breast cancer surgery, healthcare professionals should consider recommending mild to moderate exercise.

  13. Unexplained somatic symptoms during major depression: prevalence and clinical impact in a national sample of Italian psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugi, Giulio; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Carbonato, Paolo; Mencacci, Claudio; Muscettola, Giovanni; Pani, Luca; Torta, Riccardo; Vampini, Claudio; Fornaro, Michele; Parazzini, Fabio; Dumitriu, Arina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and impact of unexplained somatic symptoms during major depression. A total of 560 consecutive outpatients with a major depressive episode according to the DSM-IV (text revision) were evaluated in 30 psychiatric facilities throughout Italy. 'Unexplained' somatic symptoms were evaluated using the 30-item Somatic Symptoms Checklist (SSCL-30). Somatic symptoms were considered explained if they were best accounted for as coming from a concomitant physical illness or side effects. Patients evaluated their own mood symptomatology using the Zung questionnaires for depression and anxiety and the Hypomania Checklist-32. According to the SSCL-30, only 90 subjects (16.1%) had no unexplained somatic symptoms, while 231 (41.3%) had 1-5 unexplained symptoms and 239 (42.7%) had more than 5. Asthenia was the most commonly observed unexplained somatic symptom (53% of patients). Unexplained somatic symptoms were more common in females and among those suffering from major depression and depression not otherwise specified rather than in patients with recurrent major depression and bipolar disorders. No relationship between unexplained somatic symptoms and hypomanic features was observed. The presence of a large number of unexplained somatic symptoms is associated with more severe depression and higher rates of misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Perceptions of self-stigma and its correlates among older adults with depression: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Perla; Stein-Shvachman, Ifat; Heinik, Jeremia

    2009-12-01

    Depression is common in old age and is often associated with stigma. However, to date, little is known about self-stigma (internalization of stigmatic beliefs) in depressed older people despite its importance and consequences. The aim of this study was to examine self-stigma and its correlates in depressed older people. Phone interviews were conducted with 54 persons diagnosed with major depression (78% female, average age = 74) from a psychogeriatric clinic in the central area of Israel. Self-stigma was assessed using an adapted version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Health (ISMI) scale. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Self-esteem was measured using Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale. Information regarding sociodemographic and psychiatric health characteristics was also collected. Self-stigma was relatively moderate with 10% to 20% of the participants reporting self-stigma. Those who reported higher levels of self-stigma were younger than those who did not report it. Income and education were lower in persons who reported high levels of stigmatization. Persons who reported stigmatization scored higher on the GDS and reported lower self-esteem than those without stigmatization. This study represents an effort to examine the correlates of self-stigma in depressed older people. Since self-stigma exists among older adults, further studies are required to extend this body of knowledge.

  15. Longitudinal study of perinatal maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-06-01

    to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the

  16. [Self-Stigma of Depression Scale SSDS - Evaluation of the German Version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Anna Christin; Mnich, Eva E; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2017-05-12

    Objectives A better understanding of self-stigma facilitates the development and evaluation of anti-stigma measures. In this study, the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS) is applied for the first time in Germany. The focus lies on feasibility and psychometric characteristics of the scale. Methods Data stem from a representative population survey in Germany (N = 2,013). The 16 items of the original SSDS are used to assess anticipated self-stigma in case of depression. Main component analysis is applied to analyze the factor structure. Results The original version of the SDSS could not be replicated in the German sample. Instead of four, three factors emerged in the German version. They are similar to three subscales of the original SSDS: "social inadequacy", "help-seeking inhibition" and "self-blame". The internal reliability of the total scale as well as of the first two subscales is acceptable. Conclusion SSDS is a multidimensional construct and can serve as an important instrument in research regarding self-stigma of depression in Germany. A further development of the German scale is recommended in order to gain greater insight into the nature of (anticipated) depression self-stigma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Treinamento de clínicos para o diagnóstico e tratamento da depressão An educational training program for physicians for diagnosis and treatment of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willians Valentini

    2004-08-01

    -se necessário testar melhores métodos de treinamento dos clínicos brasileiros no manejo desta.OBJECTIVE: The American Regional Office of the WHO has launched a major initiative to reduce the prevalence of affective disorders region-wide that includes focusing on the primary health care system. This study evaluated the results of an educational training program for Brazilian primary care physicians that measured changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practice. METHODS: A total of 17 primary care physicians and 1,224 patients participated in the study. Physician's knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practice were assessed one-month prior and one-month following the training program. In addition, the patients that visited the clinic during a typical week completed depression symptom self-ratings, including the Zung and a DSM-IV/ICD-10 major depression checklist at both times. RESULTS: The training program showed limited benefits in this small sample of physicians. The program was unable to demonstrate benefit in improving knowledge about depression and in changing disorder-related attitudes. There were no changes in the diagnostic rates of major depression. There was some evidence to support improvement in psychopharmacological management. The physicians seemed more confident in treating patients, as there was a reduction of referrals to the specialists. Lack of statistical power prevented the latter two findings from reaching statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of primary care physicians is a central component of any initiative to reduce the treatment gap and lag of depression. However, more effective methods of training Brazilian primary care physicians in the management of major depression need to be tested.

  18. Evolutionary implications of a high selfing rate in the freshwater snail Lymnaea truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouvé, S; Degen, L; Renaud, F; Goudet, J

    2003-10-01

    Self-compatible hermaphroditic organisms that mix self-fertilization and outcrossing are of great interest for investigating the evolution of mating systems. We investigate the evolution of selfing in Lymnaea truncatula, a self-compatible hermaphroditic freshwater snail. We first analyze the consequences of selfing in terms of genetic variability within and among populations and then investigate how these consequences along with the species ecology (harshness of the habitat and parasitism) might govern the evolution of selfing. Snails from 13 localities (classified as temporary or permanent depending on their water availability) were sampled in western Switzerland and genotyped for seven microsatellite loci. F(IS) (estimated on adults) and progeny array analyses (on hatchlings) provided similar selfing rate estimates of 80%. Populations presented a low polymorphism and were highly differentiated (F(ST) = 0.58). Although the reproductive assurance hypothesis would predict higher selfing rate in temporary populations, no difference in selfing level was observed between temporary and permanent populations. However, allelic richness and gene diversity declined in temporary habitats, presumably reflecting drift. Infection levels varied but were not simply related to either estimated population selfing rate or to differences in heterozygosity. These findings and the similar selfing rates estimated for hatchlings and adults suggest that within-population inbreeding depression is low in L. truncatula.

  19. Rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with ADHD and associations with internalizing symptoms and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Mehari, Krista R; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of the present study were to: (1) describe rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, (2) evaluate the association between types of peer victimization (i.e., physical, relational, and reputational) and internalizing problems (i.e., anxiety, depression, and self-esteem), and (3) examine whether associations between victimization and internalizing problems differ for males or females. Participants were 131 middle-school students (ages 11-15 years, 73 % male, 76 % White) diagnosed with ADHD who completed ratings of victimization, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Over half of the participants (57 %) reported experiencing at least one victimization behavior at a rate of once per week or more, with higher rates of relational victimization (51 %) than reputational victimization (17 %) or physical victimization (14 %). Males reported experiencing more physical victimization than females, but males and females did not differ in rates of relational or reputational victimization. Whereas relational and physical victimization were both uniquely associated with greater anxiety for both males and females, relational victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem for males but not females. These findings indicate that young adolescents with ADHD frequently experience peer victimization and that the association between victimization and internalizing problems among young adolescents with ADHD differs as a result of victimization type, internalizing domain, and sex.

  20. Behavior change through automated e-mails: mediation analysis of self-help strategy use for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy J; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate whether automated e-mails promoting effective self-help strategies for depressive symptoms were effective in changing self-help behavior, and whether this improved depression outcomes. 568 adults with sub-threshold depression participated in a randomized controlled trial and provided complete data. A series of 12 e-mails promoting the use of evidence-based self-help strategies was compared with e-mails providing non-directive depression information. Depression symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) and use of self-help strategies was assessed at baseline and post-intervention. We hypothesized that those receiving the self-help e-mails would increase their use of evidence-based self-help and this would be associated with improvements in depression. Mediation analyses were conducted using a non-parametric bootstrapping procedure. Total use of the self-help strategies promoted in the e-mails significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms (B = -0.75, SE = 0.16, 95% CI: -1.06 to -0.48). The direct effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms was much smaller and not significant when the mediation path was included. The majority of the individual strategies also had a significant indirect effect on depressive symptoms. In adults with sub-threshold depression, automated e-mails based on behavior change principles can successfully increase use of self-help strategies, leading to a reduction in depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cue self-relevance affects autobiographical memory specificity in individuals with a history of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Catherine; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Mark, J; Williams, G

    2007-04-01

    Previously depressed and never-depressed individuals identified personal characteristics (self-guides) defining their ideal, ought, and feared selves. One week later they completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). For each participant the number of AMT cues that reflected self-guide content was determined to produce an index of AMT cue self-relevance. Individuals who had never been depressed showed no significant relationship between cue self-relevance and specificity. In contrast, in previously depressed participants there was a highly significant negative correlation between cue self-relevance and specificity--the greater the number of AMT cues that reflected self-guide content, the fewer specific memories participants recalled. It is suggested that in individuals with a history of depression, cues reflecting self-guide content are more likely to prompt a shift to processing of information within the long-term self (Conway, Singer, & Tagini, 2004), increasing the likelihood that self-related semantic information will be provided in response to cues on the autobiographical memory test.

  2. The combined effects of self-referent information processing and ruminative responses on adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Stephanie Winkeljohn; Pössel, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Adolescents who develop depression have worse interpersonal and affective experiences and are more likely to develop substance problems and/or suicidal ideation compared to adolescents who do not develop depression. This study examined the combined effects of negative self-referent information processing and rumination (i.e., brooding and reflection) on adolescent depressive symptoms. It was hypothesized that the interaction of negative self-referent information processing and brooding would significantly predict depressive symptoms, while the interaction of negative self-referent information processing and reflection would not predict depressive symptoms. Adolescents (n = 92; 13-15 years; 34.7% female) participated in a 6-month longitudinal study. Self-report instruments measured depressive symptoms and rumination; a cognitive task measured information processing. Path modelling in Amos 19.0 analyzed the data. The interaction of negative information processing and brooding significantly predicted an increase in depressive symptoms 6 months later. The interaction of negative information processing and reflection did not significantly predict depression, however, the model not meet a priori standards to accept the null hypothesis. Results suggest clinicians working with adolescents at-risk for depression should consider focusing on the reduction of brooding and negative information processing to reduce long-term depressive symptoms.

  3. Structured reminiscence: an intervention to decrease depression and increase self-transcendence in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Cynthia Kellam; Kirk, Edythe

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of group reminiscing on depression and self-transcendence of older women residing in an assisted living facility in southeast Texas. There were two major objectives for this study. One objective was to determine if depression decreased in older women after structured reminiscence group sessions held twice weekly for a six-week period. A second objective was to determine if self-transcendence increased after structured reminiscence group sessions held twice weekly for a six-week period. Reminiscence has been studied to determine its impact on a variety of conditions including but not limited to depression, self-esteem, fatigue, isolation, socialization, well-being, language acquisition and cognitive functioning. This review of research specifically focused on reminiscence, depression, self-transcendence and older people. Two groups were assessed at baseline, three and six weeks to answer the research questions. A sample of 24 women between the ages of 72 and 96 years were randomly assigned to either a reminiscence (experimental) group or the activity (control) group of the facility. Pearson's r was used to determine the magnitude of the relationship between subjects' responses on the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Self-Transcendence Scale. A mixed design analysis of variance (anova) was used to determine if there was a difference between the experimental and control groups on scores of the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Self-Transcendence Scale at baseline, three and six weeks. Data revealed a non-significant decrease in depression and increase in self-transcendence in the reminiscence group at the completion of six weeks, indicating a trend toward a positive result with reminiscence group sessions. The study also revealed an inverse relationship between depression and self-transcendence. These findings underscore the importance of screening older people for depression. One of the primary modalities used for

  4. Self-Esteem, Social Phobia and Depression Status in Patients with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Ayşe; Gökçe, Gökçen; Büyükburgaz, Ülkü; Selekler, Macit; KOMŞUOğLU, Sezer

    2013-12-01

    The increased risk for psychiatric disorders in epilepsy can be related to a number of clinical, psychosocial and biological factors. Due to the unpredictability of seizures and the possibility that they may occur at any time and in any place, patients with epilepsy may develop social phobia and may have feelings of worthlessness and stigma. These factors decrease their psychosocial function, self-efficacy, and quality of life and even increase the suicide rate. Considering the above-mentioned scientific data, the present study was designed to investigate phobia, self-esteem and depression status in patients with epilepsy. One hundred thirty-two patients (aged 21-52 years) and age- and gender-matched control group of 61 subjects (aged 25-60 years) were included in this study. All patients in both groups were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean ages of the patient group and the healthy controls were 29.66±11.3 and 32.16±7.99, respectively. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in terms of age and sex (p>0.05). BDI, LSAS and CSEI scores in the patient group were statistically significantly different than in the control group (pself-esteem and depression are important comorbid conditions in epileptic patients. Psychiatric disorders are usually underrecognized and undertreated in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, it is very important to identify and treat the psychiatric comorbid conditions in epilepsy because of their significant burden on patients' quality of life.

  5. Prevalence of depression and low self-esteem among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of depression and low self-esteem among medical students in the ... and predisposes students to a range of negative psychological reactions. ... Anxiety and Stress Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, to investigate the ...

  6. Depression and medication adherence among older Korean patients with hypertension: Mediating role of self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Jung; Won, Mi Hwa

    2017-06-01

    Many studies have reported the negative effects of depression on adherence to antihypertensive medication. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying this relationship in elderly patients with hypertension. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between depression and medication adherence among older patients with hypertension. The data were collected from October to December 2014. A total of 255 older patients with hypertension were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale, and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis and the Sobel test were used to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between depression and medication adherence. Depression and self-efficacy were statistically significant predictors of medication adherence in older patients with hypertension. Self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between depression and medication adherence. Interventions targeting self-efficacy could increase the confidence of patients in their ability to actively take their medicines. Moreover, health care providers should be aware of the importance of early detection of depression in older patients with hypertension. Future studies with longitudinal data are warranted to clarify the multidirectional relationships between depression, self-efficacy, and medication adherence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Self-efficacy: a mediator of smoking behavior and depression among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a growing problem among adolescents. This correlational study tested theoretical relationships between the dependent variable (smoking behavior) and the independent variables (depression and smoking resistance self-efficacy) in a convenience sample of 364 college students ages 18 to 21 years recruited from a large urban public college. An a priori mediational model tested the role of smoking resistance self-efficacy as a mediator in the relationship between smoking behavior and depression. Findings showed there was a statistically significant positive relationship between depression and smoking behavior (r = 0.122, p = 0.01). There was a statistically significant negative relationship between smoking resistance self-efficacy and smoking behavior (r = -0.744, p = 0.01). Additionally, smoking resistance self-efficacy was a mediator of the relationship between depression and smoking behavior (beta = -0.757, p = 0.001). This study identifies a need for further theory-driven study of the relation of adolescent depression and smoking behavior. The findings of this study have implications for nursing interventions targeted to both current smokers and smoking initiation prevention programs.

  8. The Effect of Education to Reduce Depression Rate in Women With a History of Tubal Ligation Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Etefagh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mental disorders such as depression are the most common complications after tubal ligation surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of training to reduce depression rate in woman who had undergone tubectomy. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 80 women (40 in each of the control and intervention groups who had undergone tubectomy in Kaboudar-Ahang Health Centers. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire containing demographic characteristics and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28.The educational plan set was performed during four educational sessions face-to-face and in-group for the individuals. The data was gathered before and two months after the training in the two groups. Data was analyzed by Pearson correlation test, independent T-test and ANCOVA using SPSS-18 software. Results: Educational Program had an impact to reduce depression rate in women in the intervention group, which was statically meaningful (p< 0.05. The mean score of depression was 29.85 before the training and 15.23 after it. Depression was associated with literacy and job status. More educated women had a lower rate of depression and depression in unemployed women was also higher. Conclusion: Result of the present study demonstrated the importance of education to improve mental health in women with a history of tubectomy.

  9. Depression and reduced heart rate variability after cardiac surgery: the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Elisabetta; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Favretto, Giuseppe; Gasparotto, Renata; Palomba, Daniela

    2014-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), as an index of autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning, is reduced by depression after cardiac surgery, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood. Poor emotion regulation as a core symptom of depression has also been associated with altered ANS functioning. The present study aimed to examine whether emotion dysregulation could be a mediator of the depression-reduced HRV relationship observed after cardiac surgery. Self-reported emotion regulation and four-minute HRV were measured in 25 depressed and 43 nondepressed patients after cardiac surgery. Mediation analysis was conducted to evaluate emotion regulation as a mediator of the depression-reduced HRV relationship. Compared to nondepressed patients, those with depression showed lower standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (pbehavior partially mediated the effect of depression on LF n.u. and HF n.u. Results confirmed previous findings showing that depression is associated with reduced HRV, especially a reduced vagal tone and a sympathovagal imbalance, after cardiac surgery. This study also provides preliminary evidence that increased trait levels of suppression of emotion-expressive behavior may mediate the depression-related sympathovagal imbalance after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Depression and Self-Concept: Personality Traits or Coping Styles in Reaction to School Retention of Hispanic Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Robles-Piña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether depression and self-concept could be construed as personality characteristics and/or coping styles in reaction to school retention or being held back a grade. The participants in this study were 156 urban Hispanic adolescents, ages 12–18, and of these, 51 or 33% had been retained in school. Students who had been retained reported a lower self-concept score, higher GPA, and higher rates of depression, and they were more likely to be male than students who had not been retained. The findings of this study indicated that self-concept was a personality characteristic that, due to its malleability, is also a coping style in regards to retention with this Hispanic adolescent population.

  11. The relationships among gratitude, self-esteem, depression, and suicidal ideation among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Che

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among gratitude, self-esteem, depression, and suicidal ideation. In total, 814 undergraduate participants (259 males and 555 females with mean age of 20.13 years) completed four inventories measuring the variables of interest. Analyses of structural equation modeling found that gratitude had direct effects on individuals' self-esteem, depression, and suicidal ideation. In addition, gratitude had indirect effects on individuals' suicidal ideation via self-esteem and depression, and self-esteem had direct effects on individuals' depression. These results support the proposed model of suicidal ideation and contribute to the understanding of how gratitude influences individuals' suicidal ideation via psychological and physical variables. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of Self-esteem, Optimism, and Perceived Control on Depressive Symptoms in Stroke Survivor-Spouse Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Misook L; Bakas, Tamilyn; Plue, Laura D; Williams, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in stroke survivors and their family caregivers. Given the interdependent relationship between the members of dyads in poststroke management, improving depressive symptoms in dyads may depend on their partner's characteristics. Self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control, all known to be associated with depressive symptoms in an individual, may also contribute to their partner's depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study is to examine actor and partner effects of self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control on depression in stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers. A total of 112 ischemic stroke survivors (78% white, 34% women; mean age, 62.5 ± 12.3 years) and their spouses (mean age, 60.6 ± 12.9 years) completed surveys in which depressive symptoms, self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Revised Life Orientation Test, and the Sense of Control Scale. Multilevel modeling, actor-partner interdependence model regression was used to determine influences on depressive symptoms within the dyad. Individuals with lower self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Stroke survivors whose spouses had lower levels of self-esteem (B = -0.338, P self-esteem (B = -0.047, P = .036) also had higher levels of depressive symptoms. We found significant partner effects of self-esteem on depression for both members and partner effect of optimism on patient's depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that further research is needed to determine if dyadic interventions may help to improve self-esteem, optimism, and depressive symptoms in both patients and their caregivers.

  13. Current Parental Depression and Offspring Perceived Self-Competence: A Quasi-Experimental Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Class, Quetzal A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, E. L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2012-01-01

    A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52%) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-c...

  14. Depressive Symptoms and Deliberate Self-Harm in a Community Sample of Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars-Gunnar Lundh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between depressive symptoms and deliberate self-harm were studied by means of a 2-wave longitudinal design in a community sample of 1052 young adolescents, with longitudinal data for 83.6% of the sample. Evidence was found for a bidirectional relationship in girls, with depressive symptoms being a risk factor for increased self-harm one year later and self-harm a risk factor for increased depressive symptoms. Cluster analysis of profiles of depressive symptoms led to the identification of two clusters with clear depressive profiles (one severe, the other mild/moderate which were both characterized by an overrepresentation of girls and elevated levels of self-harm. Clusters with more circumscribed problems were also identified; of these, significantly increased levels of self-harm were found in a cluster characterized by negative self-image and in a cluster characterized by dysphoric relations to parents. It is suggested that self-harm serves more to regulate negative self-related feelings than sadness.

  15. Exercise effects on depressive symptoms and self-worth in overweight children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen H; Davis, Catherine L; Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Waller, Jennifer L

    2009-10-01

    To test the dose-response effects of an exercise program on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. Overweight, sedentary children (N = 207, 7-11 years, 58% male, 59% Black) were randomly assigned to low or high dose (20 or 40 min/day) aerobic exercise programs (13 +/- 1.6 weeks), or control group. Children completed the Reynolds Child Depression Scale and Self-Perception Profile for Children at baseline and posttest. A dose-response benefit of exercise was detected for depressive symptoms. A race x group interaction showed only White children's global self-worth (GSW) improved. There was some evidence that increased self-worth mediated the effect on depressive symptoms. This study shows dose-response benefits of exercise on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. However, Blacks did not show increased GSW in response to the intervention. Results provide some support for mediation of the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms via self-worth.

  16. Exercise Effects on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Worth in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen H.; Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Waller, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the dose–response effects of an exercise program on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. Method Overweight, sedentary children (N = 207, 7–11 years, 58% male, 59% Black) were randomly assigned to low or high dose (20 or 40 min/day) aerobic exercise programs (13 ± 1.6 weeks), or control group. Children completed the Reynolds Child Depression Scale and Self-Perception Profile for Children at baseline and posttest. Results A dose–response benefit of exercise was detected for depressive symptoms. A race × group interaction showed only White children's global self-worth (GSW) improved. There was some evidence that increased self-worth mediated the effect on depressive symptoms. Conclusions This study shows dose–response benefits of exercise on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. However, Blacks did not show increased GSW in response to the intervention. Results provide some support for mediation of the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms via self-worth. PMID:19223278

  17. Depression and its association with self-esteem, family, peer and school factors in a population of 9586 adolescents in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huang-Chi; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chin-Hung; Huang, Chi-Fen; Liu, Shu-Chun; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the prevalence of depression and its association with self-esteem, family, peer and school factors in a large-scale representative Taiwanese adolescent population. A total of 12,210 adolescent students were recruited into the present study. Subjects with a score >28 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale were defined as having significant depression; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Adolescent Family and Social Life Questionnaire and Family C-APGAR Index were applied to assess subjects' self-esteem, family, peer and school factors. The association between depression and correlates were examined on t-test and chi(2) test. The significant factors were further included in logistic regression analysis. Among 9586 participants (response rate: 86.3%), the prevalence of depression was 12.3%. The risk factors associated with depression in univariate analysis included female gender, older age, residency in urban areas, lower self-esteem, disruptive parental marriage, low family income, family conflict, poorer family function, less satisfaction with peer relationships, less connectedness to school, and poor academic performance. After adjusting the effects of sex, age and location, only subjects with lower self-esteem, higher family conflict, poorer family function, lower rank and decreased satisfaction in their peer group, and less connectedness to school were prone to depression on logistic regression. The prevalence of depression is high in Taiwanese adolescents, and the multiple factors of family, peer, school and individuals are associated with adolescent depression. The factors identified in the present study may be helpful when designing and implementing preventive intervention programs.

  18. Psychological well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS under the new epidemic characteristics in China and the risk factors: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wu, Ming; Qu, Peng; Lu, Chunming; Wang, Lie

    2014-11-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in China is growing and the main transmission mode has changed from contaminated blood products to sexual contact. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of anxiety (SAS; Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale) and depression (CES-D; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) under the new epidemic characteristics and to examine associated factors. The sample size (N=800) was calculated on the basis of the lowest prevalence of psychological disorders among PLWHA and was enlarged taking into consideration a loss of response. Participants were sampled randomly among all PLWHA registered in Liaoning Province. Questionnaires pertaining to the SAS, CES-D, and related factors were distributed between December 2010 and April 2011; 772 effective responses were received. The prevalence of anxiety (SAS ≥40) and depression (CES-D ≥16) were 49.0% and 73.1%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that SAS was associated with self-rated health, condom use at the last sexual contact, perceived social support, alcohol consumption, and transmission; CES-D was associated with self-rated health, perceived social support, job, and sex. PLWHA under the new epidemic characteristics in China suffer from serious psychological problems. To improve their psychological well-being, efforts should be focused on improving perceptions of their health condition and increasing perceived social support.

  19. Inbreeding depression in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae, a species with a plastic self-incompatibility response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keser Lidewij H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solanum carolinense (horsenettle is a highly successful weed with a gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI system. Previous studies reveal that the strength of SI in S. carolinense is a plastic trait, associated with particular S-alleles. The importance of this variation in self-fertility on the ability of horsenettle to found and establish new populations will depend, to a large extent, on the magnitude of inbreeding depression. We performed a series of greenhouse and field experiments to determine the magnitude of inbreeding depression in S. carolinense, whether inbreeding depression varies by family, and whether the estimates of inbreeding depression vary under field and greenhouse conditions. We performed a series of controlled self- and cross-pollinations on 16 genets collected from a large population in Pennsylvania to obtain progeny with different levels of inbreeding. We grew the selfed and outcrossed progeny in the greenhouse and under field conditions and recorded various measures of growth and reproductive output. Results In the greenhouse study we found (1 a reduction in flower, fruit and seed production per fruit in inbred (selfed progeny when compared to outbred (outcrossed progeny; (2 a reduction in growth of resprouts obtained from rhizome cuttings of selfed progeny; and (3 an increase in the ability to self-fertilize in the selfed progeny. In the field, we found that (1 outcrossed progeny produced more leaves than their selfed siblings; (2 herbivory seems to add little to inbreeding depression; and (3 outcrossed plants grew faster and were able to set more fruits than selfed plants. Conclusion Solanum carolinense experiences low levels of inbreeding depression under greenhouse conditions and slightly more inbreeding depression under our field conditions. The combined effects of low levels of inbreeding depression and plasticity in the strength of SI suggest that the production of selfed progeny may play an

  20. The relationship between language use and depression: illuminating the importance of self-reflection, self-rumination, and the need for absolute truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Ömer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to provide additional knowledge about the mediatory processes through which language relates to depression. Although previous research gave clear evidence that language is closely related to depression, the research on intervening variables in the relationship has been limited. The present investigation tested a structural equation model in which self-concept clarity and self-consciousness mediated the relationship between personal perceptions of language and depression. Since "the need for absolute truth" construct has been shown to be important in providing greater consistency in estimates of the relationships among the variables, it has been added to the model as a control variable. The results supported the model and showed that personal perceptions of language predicted self-concept clarity, which in turn predicted the participants' self-reflection and self-rumination. Self-reflection and self-rumination, in turn, predicted depression.

  1. Depressive symptomatology in hospitalised children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rangaka

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the extent and nature of depressive symptoms exhibited by black South African children during hospitalisation for orthopaedic procedures. Social factors associated with the risk for depression, in response to hospitalisation, were also examined. Pre- and post-test assessments were conducted on a sample of 30 children aged between 6 and 12 years. The assessment entailed a structured interview, together with the following psychometric instruments: A Global Mood Scale, a Depressive Symptoms Checklist, a Hospital Fears Rating Scale and a Self Report Depression Rating Scale. A large proportion of the children were rated by ward sisters as showing high levels of depressive symptomatology two weeks after admission to hospital. As expected, discrepancies were found between adult and child self-ratings of depression. The results of this study indicate that hospitalisation for orthopaedic child patients is associated with the development of depressive symptomatology. It is suggested that emphasis be placed on the development of supportive programmes and procedures aimed at maximising children's coping responses to hospitalisation, particularly for children who find themselves Isolated from their communities and families, as a result of both centralised health services and poor socio-economic conditions.

  2. Verbal learning in marijuana users seeking treatment: a comparison between depressed and non-depressed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebke, Patrick V; Vadhan, Nehal P; Brooks, Daniel J; Levin, Frances R

    2014-07-01

    Both individuals with marijuana use and depressive disorders exhibit verbal learning and memory decrements. This study investigated the interaction between marijuana dependence and depression on learning and memory performance. The California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) was administered to depressed (n = 71) and non-depressed (n = 131) near-daily marijuana users. The severity of depressive symptoms was measured by the self-rated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Multivariate analyses of covariance statistics (MANCOVA) were employed to analyze group differences in cognitive performance. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relative associations between marijuana use, depression and CVLT-II performance. Findings from each group were compared to published normative data. Although both groups exhibited decreased CVLT-II performance relative to the test's normative sample (p marijuana-dependent subjects with a depressive disorder did not perform differently than marijuana-dependent subjects without a depressive disorder (p > 0.05). Further, poorer CVLT-II performance was modestly associated with increased self-reported daily amount of marijuana use (corrected p depressive symptoms (corrected p > 0.002). These findings suggest an inverse association between marijuana use and verbal learning function, but not between depression and verbal learning function in regular marijuana users.

  3. Stuttering Thoughts: Negative Self-Referent Thinking Is Less Sensitive to Aversive Outcomes in People with Higher Levels of Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yudai; Takano, Keisuke; Boddez, Yannick; Raes, Filip; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Learning theories of depression have proposed that depressive cognitions, such as negative thoughts with reference to oneself, can develop through a reinforcement learning mechanism. This negative self-reference is considered to be positively reinforced by rewarding experiences such as genuine support from others after negative self-disclosure, and negatively reinforced by avoidance of potential aversive situations. The learning account additionally predicts that negative self-reference would be maintained by an inability to adjust one's behavior when negative self-reference no longer leads to such reward. To test this prediction, we designed an adapted version of the reversal-learning task. In this task, participants were reinforced to choose and engage in either negative or positive self-reference by probabilistic economic reward and punishment. Although participants were initially trained to choose negative self-reference, the stimulus-reward contingencies were reversed to prompt a shift toward positive self-reference (Study 1) and a further shift toward negative self-reference (Study 2). Model-based computational analyses showed that depressive symptoms were associated with a low learning rate of negative self-reference, indicating a high level of reward expectancy for negative self-reference even after the contingency reversal. Furthermore, the difficulty in updating outcome predictions of negative self-reference was significantly associated with the extent to which one possesses negative self-images. These results suggest that difficulty in adjusting action-outcome estimates for negative self-reference increases the chance to be faced with negative aspects of self, which may result in depressive symptoms.

  4. Stuttering Thoughts: Negative Self-Referent Thinking Is Less Sensitive to Aversive Outcomes in People with Higher Levels of Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudai Iijima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning theories of depression have proposed that depressive cognitions, such as negative thoughts with reference to oneself, can develop through a reinforcement learning mechanism. This negative self-reference is considered to be positively reinforced by rewarding experiences such as genuine support from others after negative self-disclosure, and negatively reinforced by avoidance of potential aversive situations. The learning account additionally predicts that negative self-reference would be maintained by an inability to adjust one’s behavior when negative self-reference no longer leads to such reward. To test this prediction, we designed an adapted version of the reversal-learning task. In this task, participants were reinforced to choose and engage in either negative or positive self-reference by probabilistic economic reward and punishment. Although participants were initially trained to choose negative self-reference, the stimulus-reward contingencies were reversed to prompt a shift toward positive self-reference (Study 1 and a further shift toward negative self-reference (Study 2. Model-based computational analyses showed that depressive symptoms were associated with a low learning rate of negative self-reference, indicating a high level of reward expectancy for negative self-reference even after the contingency reversal. Furthermore, the difficulty in updating outcome predictions of negative self-reference was significantly associated with the extent to which one possesses negative self-images. These results suggest that difficulty in adjusting action-outcome estimates for negative self-reference increases the chance to be faced with negative aspects of self, which may result in depressive symptoms.

  5. Risk perception, self-efficacy, trust for physician, depression, and behavior modification in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hissei; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Hayashi, Shin-U; Goto, Atsushi; Izumi, Kazuo; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated the associations of risk perception, self-efficacy, and trust with two health promotion behaviors (food habits and exercise) and depressive mood. Diabetic patients aged between 40 and 64 ( n = 1195) were included in the analyses. Risk perception worsened behavioral changes in terms of food habits and depression, whereas self-efficacy and trust improved food habits, exercise, and depression; trust improved exercise and depression. In conclusion, self-efficacy and trust appear to be more beneficial than risk perception for positive behavioral changes and for improving depression in diabetic patients. However, their influence on behavioral changes may be different according to the types of behaviors.

  6. Adverse parenting is associated with blunted salivary cortisol awakening response and altered expression of glucocorticoid receptor β and β2-adrenergic receptor mRNAs in leukocytes in Japanese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tomoko; Kuwano, Yuki; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Kinuyo; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Rokutan, Kazuhito; Nishida, Kensei

    2017-03-01

    Adverse parenting is associated with an increased risk for the development of mood and behavioral disorders. In this study, we assessed the perceived parental bonding of 232 medical students using the parental bonding instrument (PBI) and extracted 22 students who reported their parents' rearing attitudes as affectionless control (LOW; low care, high overprotection). Using the 28-item general health questionnaire, the Zung self-rating depression scale (Zung-SDS), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), and the Spielberger state-trait-anxiety-inventory (STAI), physical and mental state of the LOW students were compared with those of 30 students who reported their parental bonding as optimal (OPT; high care and low overprotection). These questionnaire measurements demonstrated significantly higher anxiety and depressive mood in the LOW students versus the OPT students. Compared with the OPT students, the LOW students also exhibited a significantly reduced salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) without changes across the rest of the diurnal salivary cortisol profile. Among glucocorticoid-related genes examined (GR, ADRB2, IκBα, IL10, IL1R2, IL1RN, MR, MC2R, TGFB1, TGFB2 and FASLG), real-time reverse transcription-PCR showed that the LOW students significantly increased expression of a dominant negative glucocorticoid receptor β (GRβ) mRNA and decreased β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) mRNA levels in circulating leukocytes. These results suggest that negative perception of parents' child-rearing attitudes may be associated with anxiety and depressive mood and altered glucocorticoid signaling even in healthy young adults.

  7. Self-Verification and Depressive Symptoms in Marriage and Courtship: A Multiple Pathway Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jennifer; Beach, Steven R. H.

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether self-verifying feedback may lead to decreased depressive symptoms. Results, based on 138 married women and 258 dating women, showed full mediational effects in the married sample and partial effects in the dating sample. Findings suggest that partner self-verifying feedback may intensify the effect of self-esteem on depression.…

  8. The impact of a multidimensional exercise program on self-reported anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Julie; Rørth, Mikael; Stelter, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91...... patients receiving chemotherapy, between 18 and 65 years old, completed a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Questionnaire (HADS; response rate 91%, adherence rate 78%). Anxiety (p depression (p = 0.042) was significantly reduced. The mean +/- SD of the change was -1.14 +/- 2.91 for anxiety...... and -0.44 +/- 2.77 for depression. Improvements in fitness were correlated with improvements in depression, chi2(1) = 3.966, p = 0.046, but not with improvements in anxiety, chi2(1) = 0.540, p = 0.462. The research suggests that exercise intervention may have a beneficial impact on psychological distress...

  9. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Isabela Gonzales; Bertolli, Eduarda Dos Santos; Paiva, Luciana; Rossi, Lidia Aparecida; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Pompeo, Daniele Alcalá

    2016-11-28

    to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population was composed of adult inpatients with cardiovascular diseases. A non-probabilistic consecutive sample was composed of 120 patients. Variables of interest were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Resilience Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. anxiety and depression symptoms were present in 32.5% and 17.5% of the patients, respectively, and were associated with the female sex (p = 0.002; p = 0.022). Manifestations of depression were associated with the presence of comorbidities (p = 0.020). More resilient patients did not present depression symptoms (p self-esteem were present in patients with anxiety and depression. Men presented higher resilience and lower self-esteem compared to women. patients with anxiety and depression were less resilient but presented higher self-esteem. analisar as relações entre os sintomas ansiosos e depressivos, resiliência e autoestima com as características sociodemográficas e clínicas; correlacionar resiliência e autoestima com a idade e o tempo da doença; analisar associações entre ansiedade e depressão com as medidas de resiliência e autoestima em indivíduos com doenças cardiovasculares. estudo correlacional, realizado em Hospital de Ensino de grande porte do interior do Estado de São Paulo. A população era constituída por pacientes adultos internados com doenças cardiovasculares. Uma amostra consecutiva e não probabilística foi constituída por 120 pacientes. As variáveis de interesse foram avaliadas

  10. Depressive symptoms in university freshmen : Longitudinal relations with contingent self-esteem and level of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, S.; Duriez, B.; Luykx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Colpin, H.; Soenens, B.; Verschueren, K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested longitudinal relations between depressive symptoms and two aspects of self-esteem in university freshmen: (1) students’ level of self-esteem, and (2) the degree to which students’ self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular standards (i.e., contingent self-esteem). Using

  11. Rate of Forgetting in Dementia and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert P.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined patients (N=14) with mild Alzheimer's dementia (DAT), patients with major depression (N=10), and normal control subjects (N=14), for rate of forgetting. Suggests that some form of deficient consolidation contributes to memory loss in DAT but not in depression. Implicates the disruption of different psychobiological mechanisms in these…

  12. The impact of chronic physical illness, maternal depressive symptoms, family functioning, and self-esteem on symptoms of anxiety and depression in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends earlier research identifying an increased risk of anxiety among children with chronic physical illness (CwCPI) by examining a more complete model that explains how physical illness leads to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. We tested a stress-generation model linking chronic physical illness to symptoms of anxiety and depression in a population-based sample of children aged 10 to 15 years. We hypothesized that having a chronic physical illness would be associated with more symptoms of anxiety and depression, increased levels of maternal depressive symptoms, more family dysfunction, and lower self-esteem; and, that maternal depressive symptoms, family dysfunction, and child self-esteem would mediate the influence of chronic physical illness on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 10,646). Mediating processes were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Childhood chronic physical illness was associated with increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression, β = 0.20, p self-esteem, and in turn, increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression. CwCPI are at-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Some of this elevated risk appears to work through family processes and child self-esteem. This study supports the use of family-centered care approaches among CwCPI to minimize burden on families and promote healthy psychological development for children.

  13. Patients with OCD report lower quality of life after controlling for expert-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangard, Leila; Fadaei, Vahid; Sajadi, Arezoo; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Matinnia, Nasrin; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Lang, Undine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-12-02

    One to three percent of the adult population suffers from obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Previous studies have also shown that, compared to controls, patients with OCD report a lower QoL. The latter is associated with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality of life of OCD patients with that of healthy controls, while introducing expert-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety as covariates. Gender was also taken into account as an additional associated factor. A total of 100 patients diagnosed with OCD (mean age: 32 years; 64% females) and healthy 100 controls (mean age: 31 years; 59% females; no discernible psychiatric disorder) took part in the present cross-sectional study. All participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics and dimensions of QoL. Experts rated participants' symptoms of OCD (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale) and depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). Compared to healthy controls, patients with OCD reported a lower QoL, and had higher symptoms of depression and anxiety. This pattern was particularly pronounced among female patients with OCD. QoL was lower in patients with OCD, even when controlling for depression and anxiety. Results from binary logistic regressions showed that female gender, low QoL and higher symptoms of OCD, depression and anxiety together predicted status as patient with OCD. Compared to healthy controls, patients with OCD have a poorer quality of life and this is independent of depression or anxiety, and is particularly pronounced among female patients. Thus, treatment of OCD might take into account patients' comorbidities and gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases 1

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Isabela Gonzales; Bertolli, Eduarda dos Santos; Paiva, Luciana; Rossi, Lidia Aparecida; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Pompeo, Daniele Alcal?

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. Method: correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paul...

  15. Inbreeding depression in selfs of redwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Libby; B. G. McCutchan; C. I. Millar

    1981-01-01

    Given the polyploid chromosome constitution of Sequoia sempervirens, there was reason to question whether it would exhibit inbreeding depression. Preliminary results from studies of self and related outcross families are reported as a guide to the selection of trees for redwood seed orchards and breeding-orchards. The data indicate that, compared to...

  16. Preschool attachment, self-esteem and the development of preadolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Vanessa; Moss, Ellen; Cyr, Chantal; Pascuzzo, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between preschool attachment patterns, the development of anxiety and depression at preadolescence and the mediational role of self-esteem. Child-mother attachment classifications of 68 children (33 girls) were assessed between 3-4 years of age (M = 3.7 years, SD = 4.4 months) using the Separation-Reunion Procedure. At age 11-12 (M = 11.7 years, SD = 4.3 months), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Dominic Interactive Questionnaire), and self-esteem (Self-Perception Profile for Children) were also evaluated. Preadolescents who had shown disorganized attachment at preschool age scored higher on both anxiety and depression and lower on self-esteem than those who had shown secure and insecure-organized attachment strategies. Self-esteem was a partial mediator of the association between preschool disorganization and symptoms of preadolescent depression, but the model was not supported for anxiety. These findings support the idea that early attachment and self-esteem should be central themes in prevention programs with young children.

  17. Sexual Self-concept and Its Relationship to Depression, Stress and Anxiety in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh; Rafiei, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Women in menopause have the more mood swings than before menopause. At the same time seem to sexual self-concept and sexual aspects of self-knowledge has a great impact on their mental health. This study aimed to investigate the sexual self-concept and its relationship to depression, stress and anxiety in postmenopausal women's. In this descriptive correlation research, 300 of postmenopausal women referred to healthcare and medical treatment centers in Abadeh city were selected by convenience sampling method. The information in this study was collected by using questionnaires of multidimensional sexual self-concept and depression anxiety stress scale 21 (DASS-21). For data analysis, SPSS/17 software was used. The results showed the mean score positive sexual self-concept was 41.03 ± 8.66 and the average score of negative sexual self in women's was 110.32 ± 43.05. As well as scores of depression, stress, and anxiety, 35.67%, 32.33% and 37.67% respectively were in severe level. Positive and negative sexual self-concept scores with scores of stress, anxiety, and depression, of post-menopausal women in the confidence of 0.01, is significantly correlated ( P stress, anxiety, and depression in severe level and also a significant correlation between increased stress, anxiety and depression with negative and weak self-concept of women's, it is necessary to devote more careful attention to mental health issues of women's and have appropriate interventions.

  18. High Beck Depression Inventory 21 scores in adolescents without depression are associated with negative self-image and immature defense style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma M; Haravuori, Henna; Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Lindberg, Nina; Kettunen, Kirsi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2018-05-01

    Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used in assessing adolescents' psychological wellbeing, but occasionally the result diverges from diagnostics. Our aim was to identify factors associated with discrepancies between BDI scores and diagnostic assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients and general population. The study comprised 206 inpatients (13-17 years old) and 203 age and gender matched non-referred adolescents. Study subjects filled self-reports on depression symptoms (BDI-21), alcohol use (AUDIT), defense styles (DSQ-40) and self-image (OSIQ-R), and on background information and adverse life events. Diagnostics was based on K-SADS-PL interview, and/or clinical interview and clinical records when available. We compared subjects who scored in BDI-21 either 0-15 points or 16-63 points firstly among subjects without current unipolar depression (n = 284), secondly among those with unipolar depression (n = 105). High BDI-21 scores in subjects without depression diagnosis (n = 48) were associated with female sex, adverse life events, parents' psychiatric problems, higher comorbidity, higher AUDIT scores, worse self-image and more immature defense styles. Low BDI-21 scores among subjects with depression diagnosis (n = 23) were associated with male sex, more positive self-image and less immature defense style. In conclusion, high BDI-21 scores in the absence of depression may reflect a broad range of challenges in an adolescent's psychological development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety following two different psychomotor therapy programs in nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jan; Van de Vliet, Peter; Van Coppenolle, Herman; David, Ans; Peuskens, Joseph; Pieters, Guido; Knapen, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety after participation in one of two 16-week psychomotor therapy programs for nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients. The second objective was to study the relationship between changes in these variables. One hundred and ninety-nine inpatients were randomly assigned to either a personalized psychomotor fitness program, consisting of aerobic exercise and weight training, or a general program of psychomotor therapy, consisting of different forms of physical exercises and relaxation training. Physical self-concept was evaluated using the Dutch version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile at baseline, after 8 weeks, and after completion of the 16-week interventions. At the same time points, additional variables of global self-esteem, depression and anxiety were assessed by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. After 16 weeks, both groups showed significant improvements in all outcome measures (p values ranged from 0.01 to self-esteem and decreased depression and anxiety levels (p self-esteem, depression and anxiety supports the potential role of the physical self-concept in the recovery process of depressed and anxious psychiatric inpatients. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Self-compassion moderates the perfectionism and depression link in both adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Madeleine; Yap, Keong; Scott, Nicole; Einstein, Danielle A; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Psychological practitioners often seek to directly change the form or frequency of clients' maladaptive perfectionist thoughts, because such thoughts predict future depression. Indirect strategies, such as self-compassion interventions, that seek to change clients' relationships to difficult thoughts, rather than trying to change the thoughts directly could be just as effective. This study aimed to investigate whether self-compassion moderated, or weakened, the relationship between high perfectionism and high depression symptoms in both adolescence and adulthood. The present study utilised anonymous self-report questionnaires to assess maladaptive perfectionism, depression, and self-compassion across two samples covering much of the lifespan. Questionnaires were administered in a high school setting for the adolescent sample (Study 1, Mage = 14.1 years, n = 541), and advertised through university and widely online to attract a convenience sample of adults (Study 2, Mage = 25.22 years, n = 515). Moderation analyses revealed that self-compassion reduced the strength of relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and depression in our adolescent Study 1 (β = -.15, p < .001, R2 = .021.) and our adult study 2 (β = -.14, p < .001, R2 = .020). Cross-sectional self-reported data restricts the application of causal conclusions and also relies on accurate self-awareness and willingness to respond to questionnaire openly. The replication of this finding in two samples and across different age-appropriate measures suggests that self-compassion does moderate the link between perfectionism and depression. Self-compassion interventions may be a useful way to undermine the effects of maladaptive perfectionism, but future experimental or intervention research is needed to fully assess this important possibility.

  1. The Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS): development and psychometric evaluation of a new instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Lisa J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F

    2010-12-01

    Self-stigma may feature strongly and be detrimental for people with depression, but the understanding of its nature and prevalence is limited by the lack of psychometrically-validated measures. This study aimed to develop and validate a measure of self-stigma about depression. Items assessing self-stigma were developed from focus group discussions, and were tested and refined over three studies using surveys of 408 university students, 330 members of a depression Internet network, and 1312 members of the general Australian public. Evaluation involved item-level and bivariate analyses, and factor analytic procedures. Items performed consistently across the three surveys. The resulting Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS) comprised 16 items representing subscales of Shame, Self-Blame, Social Inadequacy, and Help-Seeking Inhibition. Construct validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. The SSDS distinguishes self-stigma from perceptions of stigma by others, yields in-depth information about self-stigma of depression, and possesses good psychometric properties. It is a promising tool for the measurement of self-stigma and is likely to be useful in further understanding self-stigma and evaluating stigma interventions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between Big five personality and depressive symptoms among Chinese unemployed population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yao, Lutian; Liu, Li; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wu, Hui; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie

    2014-03-03

    Besides the rapid growth of economy, unemployment becomes a severe socio-economic problem in China. The huge population base in China makes the unemployed population a tremendously huge number. However, health status of unemployed population was ignored and few studies were conducted to describe the depressive symptoms of unemployed individuals in China. This study aims to examine the relationship between Big five personality and depressive symptoms and the mediating role of self-efficacy in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of July to September 2011. Questionnaires consisting of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE), as well as demographic factors, were used to collect information of unemployed population. A total of 1,832 individuals (effective response rate: 73.28%) became our subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of self-efficacy. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 67.7% among Chinese unemployed individuals. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness were all negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas neuroticism was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The proportion of mediating effect of self-efficacy in the relationship between extraversion/agreeableness/conscientiousness/neuroticism and depressive symptoms was 25.42%, 10.91%, 32.21% and 36.44%, respectively. Self-efficacy is a mediator in the relationship between extraversion/agreeableness/conscientiousness/neuroticism and depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between Big five personality and depressive symptoms among Chinese unemployed individuals. Interventions that focus on both individuals' personality and self-efficacy may be most successful to reduce depressive symptoms of unemployed

  3. Religious and spiritual beliefs, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazisis, Georgios; Nicolaou, Panagiotis; Tsiga, Evangelia; Christoforou, Theodora; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina

    2014-06-01

    Research of the role of religious belief and/or spirituality has been conducted on a wide range of health-related topics, across many disciplines, and in many countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between religious beliefs, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression in nursing students in Cyprus. One hundred and twenty-three nursing students were asked to complete a survey consisting of four self-report questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, The Royal Free Interview for Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale). The lowest levels of depression were observed in the third and fourth study year. Normal self-esteem levels were found in the majority of the students (71.3%) and most of them perceived current stress at mild levels. No significant differences on the basis of sex were observed. The vast majority (98.2%) of the students stated a strong religious and/or a spiritual belief that was strongly positively correlated with increased self-esteem and negatively correlated with depression, current stress, and stress as personality trait. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Depressive symptoms, perceived stress, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations: Predict fitness among adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Heather; Heenan, Adam; Sweet, Shane; Goldfield, Gary S; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Sigal, Ronald J

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to test if outcome expectancy mediated the relationship between fitness and self-efficacy, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms.Adolescents with obesity ( n = 228) completed measures of perceived stress and depressive symptoms at baseline, self-efficacy and outcome expectancy at baseline and 3 months, and fitness at baseline and 6 months. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Results showed that self-efficacy was positively associated with fitness via outcome expectancies. For females, fewer depressive symptoms were linked to fitness via self-efficacy and outcome expectancies. Exercise interventions that enhance exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and reduce depressive symptoms may increase fitness.

  5. Egotism among the Depressed: When Self-Protection Becomes Self-Handicapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Snyder, Mel L.

    The reluctance of depressed people to try hard may result not from their low expectancy for success, as Learned Helplessness Theory suggests, but rather from egotistic motivation to preserve whatever self-esteem they still have. Two studies were conducted using a paradigm which permitted a direct comparison of Learned Helplessness Theory and…

  6. Variability of individual genetic load: consequences for the detection of inbreeding depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoux, Gwendal; Huot de Longchamp, Priscille; Fady, Bruno; Klein, Etienne K

    2012-03-01

    Inbreeding depression is a key factor affecting the persistence of natural populations, particularly when they are fragmented. In species with mixed mating systems, inbreeding depression can be estimated at the population level by regressing the average progeny fitness by the selfing rate of their mothers. We applied this method using simulated populations to investigate how population genetic parameters can affect the detection power of inbreeding depression. We simulated individual selfing rates and genetic loads from which we computed fitness values. The regression method yielded high statistical power, inbreeding depression being detected as significant (5 % level) in 92 % of the simulations. High individual variation in selfing rate and high mean genetic load led to better detection of inbreeding depression while high among-individual variation in genetic load made it more difficult to detect inbreeding depression. For a constant sampling effort, increasing the number of progenies while decreasing the number of individuals per progeny enhanced the detection power of inbreeding depression. We discuss the implication of among-mother variability of genetic load and selfing rate on inbreeding depression studies.

  7. What to do about depression? Self-help recommendations of the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Anita; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias

    2012-07-01

    While help-seeking and treatment preferences for depression have been assessed in a number of population studies, little is known about the public's self-help beliefs. To explore public beliefs about self-help actions to be taken in case of depression. In spring 2009, a population-based survey was conducted by telephone in the city of Vienna. A fully structured interview was carried out, which began with the presentation of a vignette describing a case of depression. Subsequently, respondents were asked to indicate to what extent they would recommend various self-help actions. Among the self-help options proposed, confiding in a close friend or someone in the family were most frequently recommended. Apart from that, a variety of interpersonal actions (socializing with others, joining a self-help group), psychological methods (thinking positively), lifestyle changes (engaging in sport, listening to music, going on vacation, reading a good book) and dietary methods (eating healthy food) were endorsed by over half of respondents. While women were more ready to recommend self-help actions, the better educated were less enthusiastic about them. As only some of the self-help measures endorsed by the public are evidence based, more research is needed before promulgating their use.

  8. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Black American Men: Moderated-Mediation Effects of Ethnicity and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; N'cho, Hammad S; Green, Carlton E; Jernigan, Maryam M; Helms, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n = 1201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n = 545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men.

  9. Low self-esteem is a risk factor for depressive symptoms from young adulthood to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2009-08-01

    Data from two large longitudinal studies were used to analyze reciprocal relations between self-esteem and depressive symptoms across the adult life span. Study 1 included 1,685 participants aged 18 to 96 years assessed 4 times over a 9-year period. Study 2 included 2,479 participants aged 18 to 88 years assessed 3 times over a 4-year period. In both studies, cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that low self-esteem predicted subsequent depressive symptoms, but depressive symptoms did not predict subsequent levels of self-esteem. This pattern of results replicated across all age groups, for both affective-cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression, and after controlling for content overlap between the self-esteem and depression scales. The results suggest that low self-esteem operates as a risk factor for depressive symptoms at all phases of the adult life span.

  10. The self-reported Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale is a useful evaluative tool in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantino Bruno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Patient-reported Outcomes (PROs as secondary endpoints in the development of new antidepressants has grown in recent years. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item, patient-administered version of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S. Methods Data from a multicentre, double-blind, 8-week, randomised controlled trial of 278 outpatients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder were used to evaluate the validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of the MADRS-S using psychometric methods. A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve was plotted to identify the most appropriate threshold to define perceived remission. Results No missing values were found at the item level, indicating good acceptability of the scale. The construct validity was satisfactory: all items contributed to a common underlying concept, as expected. The correlation between MADRS-S and physicians' MADRS was moderate (r = 0.54, p Conclusion Taking account of patient's perceptions of the severity of their own symptoms along with the psychometric properties of the MADRS-S enable its use for evaluative purposes in the development of new antidepressant drugs.

  11. Suicidal ideation and attempts in adolescents: associations with depression and six domains of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Lauren G; Flisher, Alan J; Lombard, Carl

    2004-12-01

    This study aimed to disentangle the influence of depression and self-esteem on suicidal behaviour in adolescence. Grades 8 and 11 students in Cape Town, South Africa (n = 939) completed questionnaires assessing suicidal ideation and behaviour, depression, and self-esteem with respect to family, peers, school, sports/athletics, body image and global self-worth. Data were analysed using a series of multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for gender, grade, race and the sampling strategy. Results indicated that depression and low self-esteem in the family context were independently associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Moreover, low family self-esteem significantly differentiated suicide attempters from ideators. Screening for depression and low self-esteem in the family context is discussed as a possible strategy for helping to identify adolescents at risk for suicide attempts.

  12. Psychotherapy of Depression: A Self-Confirmation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Concepts of self-confirmation, interpersonal diagnosis, and prototype construction are used to integrate research and clinical findings concerning depression. Various theoretical accounts and bodies of data that fit within this integrative conceptual framework are examined, and implications for psychotherapy are discussed. (SLD)

  13. Personality predispositions to depression in children of affectively-ill parents: the buffering role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, John R Z; Fishman, Michael B; Cohen, Joseph R; Young, Jami F

    2012-01-01

    A major theory of personality predispositions to depression posits that individuals who possess high levels of self-criticism and/or dependency are vulnerable to developing depression following negative life events. The goal of the current study was to test this theory of personality predispositions and the self-esteem buffering hypothesis in a sample of youth using an idiographic approach, a high-risk sample, and a multiwave longitudinal design. One hundred forty children aged 6 to 14 completed measures of dependency, self-criticism, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Over the course of the following year, 8 follow-up assessments were conducted 6 weeks apart during which all children were administered measures assessing depressive symptoms and the occurrence of negative events. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that higher levels of dependency were associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms following negative events among children possessing low, but not high, self-esteem. In contrast, self-criticism was not associated with changes in depressive symptoms over time regardless of children's levels of stress and/or self-esteem.

  14. Implicit and explicit self-esteem as concurrent predictors of suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Daan H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether explicit and implicit self-esteem, the interaction between these two constructs, and their discrepancy are associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the Name Letter Task to measure implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to assess explicit self-esteem. The results indicated that explicit but not implicit self-esteem was negatively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. The interaction of implicit and explicit self-esteem was associated with suicidal ideation, indicating that participants with high implicit self-esteem combined with a low explicit self-esteem showed more suicidal ideation. Furthermore, the size of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem was positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, results showed that the direction of the discrepancy is an important: damaged self-esteem (high implicit self-esteem combined with low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness, while defensive or fragile self-esteem (high explicit and low implicit self-esteem) was not. Together, these findings provide new insights into the relationship of implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Family functioning mediates the association between parental depression and low self-esteem in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Susann; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Knappe, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    The negative impact of parental depression on offsprings' development has been repeatedly documented. There is however little research on the potential pathways contributing to this association. The present study examined the relationship between parental depressive disorders, family functioning and adolescents' self-esteem. A community-based sample of 1040 participants aged 14-17 years and their parents was assessed including direct and indirect information on parental psychopathology based on the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). Family functioning and youth self-esteem were assessed by self-report questionnaires using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD) in parents and the "Aussagen-Liste zum Selbstwertgefühl" in adolescents. Findings from multiple regression analyses indicated positive associations between parental depressive disorders and dimensions of dysfunctional family functioning as well as between dysfunctional familial affective involvement and youth's positive self-esteem. The relationship between parental depression and self-esteem was partly mediated by familial affective involvement. Associations may be underestimated, since incidence for depressive disorders spans to the third decade of life. Consensus diagnoses for parental depressive disorders were based on direct and indirect information for maximum use of available data, neglecting familial load, chronicity of parental depressive disorders or comorbid conditions. Thus, specificity of the findings for the family transmission of depressive disorders remains yet to be determined. Findings contribute to understanding of the pathways on how parental depression impairs offsprings' view of themselves, and to consider family functioning as a possible target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Moderated Mediation Effect of Self-esteem on the Relationship Between Parenting Stress and Depression According to Employment Status in Married Women: A Longitudinal Study Utilizing Data from Panel Study on Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong-Won; Kim, Ju Hee

    2017-06-01

    This study was to examined the moderated mediation effect of self-esteem on the relationship between parenting stress and depression among married women with children using longitudinal data from the 3rd to 6th Panel Studies on Korean. The data from the Panel Study of Korean Children (Korea Institute of Child Care and Education) was collected as part of a longitudinal inquiry of babies born in 2008, their parents and their community environments. Only the data collected from the married women over the age of 20 who participated in the maternal survey was used for this study. The initial level of married women's parenting stress affects the initial level and the rate of change in self-esteem; the initial level of self-esteem, the initial level and rate of change in depression; and the initial level of parenting stress, the initial level of depression. However, the impact of the rate of change in parenting stress on that of self-esteem was significant only in employed women while the impact of the rate of change in self-esteem on that of depression was significant only in unemployed women. It is necessary to manage parenting stress among married women through various programs and education that increase self-esteem in order to reduce their level of depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The History and Timing of Depression Onset as Predictors of Young Adult Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayman, Mathew D.; Lloyd, Donald A.; Ueno, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The 3 main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood, (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and young adult…

  18. Associations between depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, eating styles, exercise and body mass index in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clum, Gretchen A; Rice, Janet C; Broussard, Marsha; Johnson, Carolyn C; Webber, Larry S

    2014-08-01

    This article explores cross-sectional associations between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in women working in schools in the Greater New Orleans area. Self-efficacy for eating and exercise, eating styles, and exercise are examined as potential pathways. This is a secondary data analysis of 743 women who were participating in a workplace wellness randomized controlled trial to address environmental factors influencing eating and exercise behaviors using baseline data prior to the intervention. BMI was the primary outcome examined. Path analysis suggested that increased depressive symptoms were associated with increased BMI in women. Indirect effects of depressive symptoms on BMI were found for increased healthy eating self-efficacy, increased emotional eating, and decreased exercise self-efficacy. The association between greater healthy eating self efficacy and BMI was unexpected, and may indicate a suppressor effect of eating self-efficacy in the relationship between depressive symptoms and BMI in women. The findings suggest the importance of depressive symptoms to BMI in women. Targets for interventions to reduce BMI include targeting depressive symptoms and related sequelae including self-efficacy for exercise, and emotional eating. Further investigation of eating self-efficacy and BMI are recommended with particular attention to both efficacy for health eating and avoidance of unhealthy foods.

  19. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students as well as those with high vs. low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression—depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815

  20. Anger suppression, interdependent self-construal, and depression among Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Park, Irene J K

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression-depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students, as well as those with high versus low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression-depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Internet addiction and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Effects of anxiety, depression and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Özlem; Demirci, Esra Özdemir

    2018-06-01

    Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. Behavioral disinhibition, poor neurocognitive skills and immediate reward preference in children with ADHD have been suggested as risk factors for Internet addiction (IA). The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the relationship between IA and depression, anxiety, and self-esteem in adolescents with ADHD, and to identify the features of Internet use that predict IA. We studied 111 patients with ADHD aged 12-18 years, and 108 healthy controls. The ADHD patients and controls were asked to complete a sociodemographic data form, the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), Children's Depression Inventory, Childhood Screening Scale for Anxiety in Children, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. IAS total score in the adolescents with ADHD was significantly higher than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the ADHD group depression scale score was significantly higher, and self-esteem score significantly lower (P self-esteem score. The relationship between IA scale score and depression, anxiety and self-esteem scale scores were similar in the ADHD and the control group. In addition, IAS subscale and total scores were significantly higher in the ADHD group than the control group, even after controlling for the effects of self-esteem, depression and anxiety scores. Thus, ADHD is thought to be an independent risk factor for depression, anxiety and self-esteem, and, hence, for IA. © 2018 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Codependents of Recovering Addicts: Exploring Their Level of Depression and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIMEE ROSE A. ARGUELLES – MANDA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a family disease. It causes members of a family to develop coping methods that help them interact with one another. This descriptive study explored the relationship between level of depression and self-esteem of 30 codependents of recovering addicts. Respondents are mostly in their midlife, married, and college graduate females who were spouses or wives of recovering addicts. Majority of them experience low levels of depression while only minimal are clinically depressed. As for self esteem, half of the respondents had moderately low levels while the other half had either mildly low or severely low levels. Results show there is no significant relationship between the level of depression and self esteem of codependents of recovering addicts and that depression doesn’t really equate into a low level of self esteem. This research recommends that a more in-depth research be done to explore more contributing factors on the level of selfesteem of Codependents including a comparative study on those who have dependents still in active addiction. Aside from this, institutions involved such as schools, counselors and rehabilitation centers educate families and children of codependents at a young age about addiction as a disease and use the findings of this study to come up with more supportive programs for the family

  3. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Relations among Perceived Stress, Coping, and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem as a moderator of the influence of perceived stress and coping on symptoms of depression in a sample of 713 college students. The results suggest that self-esteem may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms in college students through interactions with perceived stress and coping. If an…

  4. Self-compassion moderates the perfectionism and depression link in both adolescence and adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Ferrari

    Full Text Available Psychological practitioners often seek to directly change the form or frequency of clients' maladaptive perfectionist thoughts, because such thoughts predict future depression. Indirect strategies, such as self-compassion interventions, that seek to change clients' relationships to difficult thoughts, rather than trying to change the thoughts directly could be just as effective. This study aimed to investigate whether self-compassion moderated, or weakened, the relationship between high perfectionism and high depression symptoms in both adolescence and adulthood.The present study utilised anonymous self-report questionnaires to assess maladaptive perfectionism, depression, and self-compassion across two samples covering much of the lifespan. Questionnaires were administered in a high school setting for the adolescent sample (Study 1, Mage = 14.1 years, n = 541, and advertised through university and widely online to attract a convenience sample of adults (Study 2, Mage = 25.22 years, n = 515.Moderation analyses revealed that self-compassion reduced the strength of relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and depression in our adolescent Study 1 (β = -.15, p < .001, R2 = .021. and our adult study 2 (β = -.14, p < .001, R2 = .020.Cross-sectional self-reported data restricts the application of causal conclusions and also relies on accurate self-awareness and willingness to respond to questionnaire openly.The replication of this finding in two samples and across different age-appropriate measures suggests that self-compassion does moderate the link between perfectionism and depression. Self-compassion interventions may be a useful way to undermine the effects of maladaptive perfectionism, but future experimental or intervention research is needed to fully assess this important possibility.

  5. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms in school-aged Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Ponniah, Kathryn; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fung, Daniel; Woo, Bernardine

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have examined anxiety and depression experiences of primary (middle) school-aged children from ethnically diverse backgrounds, and most have relied on parents or others as informants. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms in Singaporean primary school-aged children. Age, gender, and ethnic differences and interactions were explored as well as similarities and differences between Singaporean children and US norms. A large representative community sample of 1655 8- to 12-year-old Singaporean children (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as part of a larger epidemiological study of mental health in Singaporean children. Rates of clinically elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were 9.3% and 16.9% on the MASC and the CDI, respectively. Separation and social anxieties were most common. Evidence of a gender difference in levels of emotional symptoms was most evident in Indian children, with girls reporting more symptoms than boys. The relationship between age and internalizing problems was weak. A substantial minority of primary school-aged Singaporean children reported elevated anxious and depressive symptoms. Better understanding of the factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of these problems can help the development of culture-specific interventions and facilitate the planning of community-tailored services and initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Disentangling the effects of low self-esteem and stressful events on depression: findings from three longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Meier, Laurenz L

    2009-08-01

    Diathesis-stress models of depression suggest that low self-esteem and stressful events jointly influence the development of depressive affect. More specifically, the self-esteem buffering hypothesis states that, in the face of challenging life circumstances, individuals with low self-esteem are prone to depression because they lack sufficient coping resources, whereas those with high self-esteem are able to cope effectively and consequently avoid spiraling downward into depression. The authors used data from 3 longitudinal studies of adolescents and young adults, who were assessed 4 times over a 3-year period (Study 1; N = 359), 3 times over a 6-week period (Study 2; N = 249), and 4 times over a 6-year period (Study 3; N = 2,403). In all 3 studies, low self-esteem and stressful events independently predicted subsequent depression but did not interact in the prediction. Thus, the results did not support the self-esteem buffering hypothesis but suggest that low self-esteem and stressful events operate as independent risk factors for depression. In addition, the authors found evidence in all 3 studies that depression, but not low self-esteem, is reciprocally related to stressful events, suggesting that individuals high in depression are more inclined to subsequently experience stressful events.

  7. Hope, social support, and depression among Hong Kong youth: personal and relational self-esteem as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chu, Samuel K W

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that depression is negatively associated with hope and social support. However, little research has been undertaken to investigate the theoretical mechanisms underlying the connections among hope, social support, and depression. This study examined how two types of self-esteem (personal and relational) would mediate the relationship of hope and social support to depression among 384 Hong Kong adolescents (age: 12-18 years; M = 14, SD = 1.19). Participants reported their levels of hope, social support, personal self-esteem, relational self-esteem, and depressive mood. Results of the path analysis showed that both personal and relational self-esteem mediated the associations of hope and social support with depression. Hope and social support were associated with higher levels of personal and relational self-esteem, which were in turn related to decreased levels of depression. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  8. Stressors and Caregivers' Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-Solving Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K; Erlen, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simultaneously multiple mediators between caregiver stressors and depression. Results indicate that self-efficacy mediated the pathway from daily hassles to depression. Findings point to the importance of improving self-efficacy in psychosocial interventions for caregivers of older adults with memory loss.

  9. Self-reported Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Older Chinese Adults in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lydia W; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Discrimination is part of life for many Americans, especially ethnic minorities. Focusing on older Chinese Americans, this study examines the association between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms and identifies subgroups that are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of data collected from adults (age 60+ years) of Chinese origin residing in the Greater Chicago area (N = 3,004). Self-reported discrimination was assessed by the Experiences of Discrimination instrument and was dichotomized (yes vs no). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression of self-reported discrimination and negative binominal regression of depressive symptoms were conducted. About 21.5% of the sample reported having experienced discrimination. The odds of reporting discrimination are higher for those who are younger, have higher education and income, are more acculturated, have been in the United States longer, live outside Chinatown, and have higher levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness. Self-reported discrimination is significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, migration-related variables, and personality factors. Findings suggest a robust relationship between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms in older Chinese Americans. They further suggest that the relatively advantaged groups-younger, higher socioeconomic status, more acculturated, and living outside Chinatown-are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Self-Care, Sense Of Coherence And Depression In Patients Hospitalized For Decompensated Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Martinelli Pelegrino Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the self-care behaviors according to gender, the symptoms of depression and sense of coherence and compare the measurements of depression and sense of coherence according to gender. METHOD A correlational, cross-sectional study that investigated 132 patients with decompensated heart failure (HF. Data were collected through interviews and consultation to medical records, and analyzed using the chi-square and the Student's t tests with significance level of 0.05. Participants were 75 men and 57 women, aged 63.2 years on average (SD = 13.8. RESULTS No differences in self-care behavior by gender were found, except for rest after physical activity (p = 0.017. Patients who practiced physical activity showed fewer symptoms of depression (p<0.001. There were no differences in sense of coherence according to self-care behavior and gender. Women had more symptoms of depression than men (p = 0.002. CONCLUSION Special attention should be given to women with HF considering self-care and depressive symptoms.

  11. Depression, Hopelessness, and Self-Esteem: Accounting for Suicidality in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Galit A.; Overholser, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Depressed adolescents who had never attempted suicide were compared to depressed adolescents who had attempted suicide. Results showed suicidal adolescents experienced significantly greater depression and hopelessness than did nonsuicidal adolescents. However, suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents reported similar low levels of self esteem.…

  12. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced exhaustion disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Ake; Asberg, Marie

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale's psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0-54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Does Kindness Matter? Diabetes, Depression, and Self-Compassion: A Selective Review and Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Anna M; Consedine, Nathan S; Johnson, Malcolm H

    2015-11-01

    Depression and severe psychological distress are frequently comorbid with diabetes and are associated with reduced adherence to medication and healthy lifestyle regimens, poorer glycemic control, and increased complications. The mixed success of existing treatments for depression in diabetes patients suggests a need for supplementary approaches to this common problem. This article reviews recent evidence for the benefits of self-compassion in chronically ill patients, suggesting its utility as a clinical tool for improving self-care, depression, and glycemic control in diabetes. Possible physical and psychological pathways by which self-compassion may promote better outcomes in diabetes patients are considered, with particular attention given to reductions in negative self-judgment and improved motivation to undertake self-care.

  14. Is negative self-referent bias an endophenotype for depression? An fMRI study of emotional self-referent words in twins at high vs. low risk of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, K W; Larsen, J E; Harmer, C J; Siebner, H R; Kessing, L V; Macoveanu, J; Vinberg, M

    2018-01-15

    Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of self-referent emotional words seem to be trait-marks of depression. However, it is unclear whether these neurocognitive changes are present in unaffected first-degree relatives and constitute an illness endophenotype. Fifty-three healthy, never-depressed monozygotic or dizygotic twins with a co-twin history of depression (high-risk group: n = 26) or no first-degree family history of depression (low-risk group: n = 27) underwent neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) as part of a follow-up cohort study. Participants performed a self-referent emotional word categorisation task and free word recall task followed by a recognition task during fMRI. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing mood, personality traits and coping strategies. High-risk and low-risk twins (age, mean ± SD: 40 ± 11) were well-balanced for demographic variables, mood, coping and neuroticism. High-risk twins showed lower accuracy during self-referent categorisation of emotional words independent of valence and more false recollections of negative words than low-risk twins during free recall. Functional MRI yielded no differences between high-risk and low-risk twins in retrieval-specific neural activity for positive or negative words or during the recognition of negative versus positive words within the hippocampus or prefrontal cortex. The subtle display of negative recall bias is consistent with the hypothesis that self-referent negative memory bias is an endophenotype for depression. High-risk twins' lower categorisation accuracy adds to the evidence for valence-independent cognitive deficits in individuals at familial risk for depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-statements, self-esteem, and locus of control in discriminating college students' scores on the Beck Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, S; Philpot, V D

    1996-04-01

    To study the use of the ratio of positive to negative self-statements, locus of control, and self-esteem in discriminating between scores on the Beck Depression Inventory 145 undergraduate college students were administered the Beck Depression Inventory, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory-Adult Form, and the Rotter Locus of Control scale in their classrooms. A stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that five variables combined to yield a statistically significant discrimination among low, middle, and high scores on the Beck Depression Inventory. The classification analysis indicated that 77.1% (n = 111) of the undergraduate students were correctly classified; 93.2% (82 of 88) were correctly classified as low scorers and 73.3% (18 of 46) were correctly classified as high scorers.

  16. Is low self-esteem a risk factor for depression among adolescents? an analytical study with interventional component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi P, Rajamanickam Rajkumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self – esteem is an important factor for helping persons deal with life stressors. It is an important determinant of psychological well-being that is particularly problematic during an adolescent life stage. Low self-esteem might contribute to depression through both interpersonal and intrapersonal pathways. Many theories of depression postulate that low self esteem is a defining feature of depression. Aims: Self-esteem in adolescents has been associated with a number of risk and protective factors in previous studies. This study examined the relationship between low self esteem and depression among adolescents. Methods: This study used a case control (retrospective design. Samples of 1120 adolescents, aged 14-17 years were selected for the study. Screening was done by using MINI-KID and the level of depression was assessed by using Beck depression inventory. Self esteem was measured by Rosenberg self esteem scale. Odds Ratio and Multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the relation between self-esteem and socio-demographic variables. Results: The odds ratio analysis revealed that adolescents who had low self esteem found to have 3.7 times (95% CI=1.9-6.9 and p- value 0.001 more risk of developing depression than the adolescents who had high self esteem. Conclusions: The findings implied that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression among adolescents. Adolescents with low self esteem have to be identified earlier and prompt interventions will prevent future psychiatric illnesses. As an intervention towards the educational component pamphlet was distributed to the adolescents, parents and teachers. A concept programme called “Self Esteem Education & Development – SEED” programme, is planned for, from High school level.

  17. Anxiety, affect, self-esteem, and stress: mediation and moderation effects on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  18. Co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence: differential links with implicit and explicit self-esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, P J; Sportel, B E; de Hullu, E; Nauta, M H

    2012-03-01

    Social anxiety and depression often co-occur. As low self-esteem has been identified as a risk factor for both types of symptoms, it may help to explain their co-morbidity. Current dual process models of psychopathology differentiate between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Explicit self-esteem would reflect deliberate self-evaluative processes whereas implicit self-esteem would reflect simple associations in memory. Previous research suggests that low explicit self-esteem is involved in both social anxiety and depression whereas low implicit self-esteem is only involved in social anxiety. We tested whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression can indeed be explained by low explicit self-esteem, whereas low implicit self-esteem is only involved in social anxiety. Adolescents during the first stage of secondary education (n=1806) completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) to measure symptoms of social anxiety and depression, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) to index explicit self-esteem and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit self-esteem. There was a strong association between symptoms of depression and social anxiety that could be largely explained by participants' explicit self-esteem. Only for girls did implicit self-esteem and the interaction between implicit and explicit self-esteem show small cumulative predictive validity for social anxiety, indicating that the association between low implicit self-esteem and social anxiety was most evident for girls with relatively low explicit self-esteem. Implicit self-esteem showed no significant predictive validity for depressive symptoms. The findings support the view that both shared and differential self-evaluative processes are involved in depression and social anxiety.

  19. Prevalence rates for depression by industry: a claims database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulsin, Lawson; Alterman, Toni; Timothy Bushnell, P; Li, Jia; Shen, Rui

    2014-11-01

    To estimate and interpret differences in depression prevalence rates among industries, using a large, group medical claims database. Depression cases were identified by ICD-9 diagnosis code in a population of 214,413 individuals employed during 2002-2005 by employers based in western Pennsylvania. Data were provided by Highmark, Inc. (Pittsburgh and Camp Hill, PA). Rates were adjusted for age, gender, and employee share of health care costs. National industry measures of psychological distress, work stress, and physical activity at work were also compiled from other data sources. Rates for clinical depression in 55 industries ranged from 6.9 to 16.2 %, (population rate = 10.45 %). Industries with the highest rates tended to be those which, on the national level, require frequent or difficult interactions with the public or clients, and have high levels of stress and low levels of physical activity. Additional research is needed to help identify industries with relatively high rates of depression in other regions and on the national level, and to determine whether these differences are due in part to specific work stress exposures and physical inactivity at work. Claims database analyses may provide a cost-effective way to identify priorities for depression treatment and prevention in the workplace.

  20. Prevalence rates for depression by industry: a claims database analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Toni; Bushnell, P. Timothy; Li, Jia; Shen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate and interpret differences in depression prevalence rates among industries, using a large, group medical claims database. Methods Depression cases were identified by ICD-9 diagnosis code in a population of 214,413 individuals employed during 2002–2005 by employers based in western Pennsylvania. Data were provided by Highmark, Inc. (Pittsburgh and Camp Hill, PA). Rates were adjusted for age, gender, and employee share of health care costs. National industry measures of psychological distress, work stress, and physical activity at work were also compiled from other data sources. Results Rates for clinical depression in 55 industries ranged from 6.9 to 16.2 %, (population rate = 10.45 %). Industries with the highest rates tended to be those which, on the national level, require frequent or difficult interactions with the public or clients, and have high levels of stress and low levels of physical activity. Conclusions Additional research is needed to help identify industries with relatively high rates of depression in other regions and on the national level, and to determine whether these differences are due in part to specific work stress exposures and physical inactivity at work. Clinical significance Claims database analyses may provide a cost-effective way to identify priorities for depression treatment and prevention in the workplace. PMID:24907896

  1. Gifted and Non-Gifted Lebanese Adolescents: Gender Differences in Self-Concept, Self-Esteem and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in self-concept, self-esteem, and depression among gifted (n = 68) and non-gifted (n = 174) adolescents in Lebanon. Participants were 242 adolescents (110 males and 132 females), with a mean age of 13.9 years. Four measures were used: DISCOVER assessment, Piers-Harris 2 self-concept…

  2. The Effect of Race on Self-Esteem and Depression in Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Patricia D.; And Others

    This study examined relationships between self-esteem, depression, and race in 70 learning disabled high school students (39 white and 31 black). Subjects were administered the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory and the Children's Depression Inventory. Statistical analysis indicated a significant sex by race interaction. Both white females and…

  3. Exploring the relationship between physical health, depressive symptoms, and depression diagnoses in Hispanic dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciare, Michael A; Gray, Heather; Azar, Armin; Jimenez, Daniel; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-reported physical health, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of depression diagnosis in Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Participants were 89 Hispanic female dementia caregivers. This study used a cross-sectional design. Baseline depression and physical health data were collected from participants enrolled in the 'Reducing Stress in Hispanic Anglo Dementia Caregivers' study sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Physical health was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), a one-item self-report health rating, body mass index, and the presence or history of self-reported physical illness. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The occurrence of depression diagnosis was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which indices of physical health and depressive symptoms accounted for variance in participants' depressive symptoms and depressive diagnoses. Self-reported indices of health (e.g., SF-36) accounted for a significant portion of variance in both CES-D scores and SCID diagnoses. Caregivers who reported worsened health tended to report increased symptoms of depression on the CES-D and increased likelihood of an SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Self-reported health indices are helpful in identifying Hispanic dementia caregivers at risk for clinical levels of depression.

  4. Behavioral problem trajectories and self-esteem changes in relation with adolescent depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cherry Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2018-07-01

    Prospectively childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem are associated with depression. However, these mental health changes over time have never been examined. This study assessed the association of childhood behavioral trajectories and self-esteem changes over time with adolescent depressive symptoms. Parent-reported Rutter behavioral assessments and self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories (SEI) were obtained via record linkage from the Student Health Service, Department of Health (Hong Kong), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depressive symptom scores were obtained via active follow-up of the Hong Kong's Children of 1997" Chinese birth cohort. Partitional clustering was used to generate homogenous trajectories between ~ 7 and ~ 11 years for Rutter scores. Changes in low self-esteem between ~ 10 and ~ 12 years were obtained from the SEI. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate their associations with depressive symptom scores at ~ 13 years. Four trajectories/groups (stable low, declining, rising, and stable high) of Rutter score and self-esteem groups were created. The stable low behavioral trajectory was associated with the fewest depressive symptoms while the stable high trajectory had 1.23 more depressive symptoms [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 1.61] than the stable low trajectory. Consistently low self-esteem (stable low) was associated with 2.96 more depressive symptoms (95% CI 2.35-3.57) compared to consistently high self-esteem (stable high). Sustained or worsening childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem were precursors of adolescent depressive symptoms, and as such could be an early indicator of the need for intervention.

  5. Depression recognition and capacity for self-report among ethnically diverse nursing homes residents: Evidence of disparities in screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Audrey; Reinhardt, Joann P; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie M; Silver, Stephanie; Burack, Orah; Eimicke, Joseph P; Cimarolli, Verena; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2017-12-01

    To examine agreement between Minimum Data Set clinician ratings and researcher assessments of depression among ethnically diverse nursing home residents using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Although depression is common among nursing homes residents, its recognition remains a challenge. Observational baseline data from a longitudinal intervention study. Sample of 155 residents from 12 long-term care units in one US facility; 50 were interviewed in Spanish. Convergence between clinician and researcher ratings was examined for (i) self-report capacity, (ii) suicidal ideation, (iii) at least moderate depression, (iv) Patient Health Questionnaire severity scores. Experiences by clinical raters using the depression assessment were analysed. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to examine concordance and Cohen's kappa to examine agreement between clinicians and researchers. Moderate agreement (κ = 0.52) was observed in determination of capacity and poor to fair agreement in reporting suicidal ideation (κ = 0.10-0.37) across time intervals. Poor agreement was observed in classification of at least moderate depression (κ = -0.02 to 0.24), lower than the maximum kappa obtainable (0.58-0.85). Eight assessors indicated problems assessing Spanish-speaking residents. Among Spanish speakers, researchers identified 16% with Patient Health Questionnaire scores of 10 or greater, and 14% with thoughts of self-harm whilst clinicians identified 6% and 0%, respectively. This study advances the field of depression recognition in long-term care by identification of possible challenges in assessing Spanish speakers. Use of the Patient Health Questionnaire requires further investigation, particularly among non-English speakers. Depression screening for ethnically diverse nursing home residents is required, as underreporting of depression and suicidal ideation among Spanish speakers may result in lack of depression recognition and referral for evaluation and

  6. Associations between self-esteem, anxiety and depression and metacognitive awareness or metacognitive knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, Clélia; Prouteau, Antoinette; Verdoux, Hélène

    2015-12-15

    This study explored in a non-clinical sample the associations between self-esteem, anxiety and depression symptoms and metacognitive awareness or metacognitive knowledge. Higher metacognitive awareness scores measured during the neuropsychological tasks were positively associated with higher depression scores in the social cognition test. Metacognitive knowledge score measured independently of ongoing neuropsychological tasks was positively associated with lower self-esteem, higher anxiety (state or trait) and depression scores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stressors and Caregivers’ Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-solving Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K.; Erlen, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem-solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simultaneously multiple mediators between caregiver stressors and depression. Results indicate that self-efficacy mediated the pathway from daily hassles to depression. Findings point to the importance of improving self-efficacy in psychosocial interventions for caregivers of older adults with memory loss. PMID:26317766

  8. Aging perceptions and self-efficacy mediate the association between personality traits and depressive symptoms in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, D M; Dotson, V M; Fieo, R A

    2017-12-01

    Personality traits have been shown to be predictors of depressive symptoms in late life. Thus, we examined whether other more modifiable sources of individual differences such as self-efficacy and self-perceptions of aging would mediate the association between personality traits and depressive symptoms in older adults. Data were obtained from 3,507 older adult participants who took part in the 2012 Health and Retirement Study. The "Big Five" personality traits, self-efficacy, aging perceptions, and depressive symptoms were assessed. Mediation analyses tested the hypothesis that self-efficacy and aging perceptions would mediate the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms. All five personality traits were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Neuroticism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and had the greatest effect compared with the other personality traits. There was a significant indirect effect of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness on depressive symptoms (including both mediators). The mediating effect of aging perceptions on the relationship between neuroticism and depressive symptoms was the strongest compared with self-efficacy, accounting for approximately 80% of the total indirect effect. Our results provide support for interventions aimed at improving self-perceptions related to efficacy and aging in order to reduce depressive symptoms in older adults. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Depression-Proneness: Closing the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaulay, Marci; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines gender differences in body image and its relationship to depression-proneness and self-esteem. Findings indicate a preoccupation with body weight and appearance for both men and women, and a relationship between body satisfaction and depression-proneness. (FMW)

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial of SuperBetter, a Smartphone-Based/Internet-Based Self-Help Tool to Reduce Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke, Ann Marie; Jaffee, Sara R; Riffle, Olivia M; McGonigal, Jane; Broome, Rose; Maxwell, Bez

    2015-06-01

    Technological advances have sparked the development of computer- and smartphone-based self-help programs for depressed people, but these programs' efficacy is uncertain. This randomized controlled trial evaluated an intervention called SuperBetter (SB), which is accessed via smartphone and/or the SB Web site. Online, we recruited 283 adult iPhone(®) (Apple, Cupertino, CA) users with significant depression symptoms according to the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression questionnaire (CES-D). They were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) a version of SB using cognitive-behavioral therapy and positive psychotherapy strategies to target depression (CBT-PPT SB); (b) a general SB version focused on self-esteem and acceptance (General SB); or (c) a waiting list control group (WL). The two SB groups were instructed to use SB for 10 minutes daily for 1 month. All participants completed psychological distress and well-being measures online every 2 weeks through follow-up. An intent-to-treat analysis was conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. As hypothesized, SB participants achieved greater reductions in CES-D scores than WL participants by posttest (Cohen's d=0.67) and by follow-up (d=1.05). Contrary to prediction, CBT-PPT SB did not perform better than General SB; both versions of SB were more effective than the WL control. Differences between SB versions favored General SB but were not statistically significant. These large effect sizes should be interpreted cautiously in light of high attrition rates and the motivated, self-selected sample. Nonetheless, smartphone-based/Internet-based self-help may play an important role in treating depression.

  11. Determinants of suicidal ideation in gynecological cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G X; Yan, P P; Yan, C L; Fu, B; Zhu, S J; Zhou, L Q; Huang, X; Wang, Y; Lei, J

    2016-01-01

    Gynecological cancer survivors are at increased risk of psychological problems including suicide risk. Suicidal ideation, which was thought to be precursor to suicide attempts, has not been well studied. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, and determinants of suicidal ideation for women with gynecological cancer, and then to assess the effect of coping style and social support on suicidal ideation. Patients with cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancers seen at Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital from September 2012 to June 2013 were consecutively recruited and were asked to complete the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, Suicidal Ideation of Self-rating Scale, Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire and Social Support Rating Scale. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship among coping style, social support, depression symptoms and suicidal ideation. A total of 579 (579/623, 93.0%) gynecological cancer patients were enrolled in this study and completed all investigations between September 2012 and June 2013. Among them, 105 (18.1%) patients reported suicidal ideation, with the highest rate in patients with ovarian cancer (30.16%). Suicidal ideation was associated with depression symptoms, care providers, chemotherapy history and acceptance-resignation. Path analysis showed that the acceptance-resignation affected suicidal ideation directly as well as mediated by social support and depression symptoms, while confrontation and avoidance affected suicidal ideation entirely through social support and depression symptoms. Suicidal ideation is high among patients with gynecological cancer, especially among ovarian cancer patients. Coping strategies such as confrontation and avoidance, and social support may be helpful for preventing suicidal ideation among them. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. State self-esteem ratings in women with bulimia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Karen A; Jimerson, David C; Heatherton, Todd F; Metzger, Eran D; Wolfe, Barbara E

    2008-03-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is associated with low self-esteem. This study was designed to assess whether low self-esteem persists in nondepressed individuals who have recovered from BN (BN-R). Study groups included BN (n = 22), BN-R (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 42). Participants were medication-free, and none met criteria for current major depression. Assessment instruments included the State Self-Esteem Scale (SSES), a self-rating scale designed to measure state-related changes in self-esteem. Consistent with previous reports, SSES scores for BN were lower than for controls (p p p p low self-esteem following recovery from BN. Follow-up studies are needed to assess whether low self-esteem contributes to recurrent dieting and risk for relapse.

  13. The self-management of longer-term depression: learning from the patient, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Eleni; Cook, Sarah; Thake, Anna; Foster, Alexis; Shaw, Sue; Hutten, Rebecca; Parry, Glenys; Ricketts, Tom

    2015-07-24

    Depression is a common mental health condition now viewed as chronic or long-term. More than 50 % of people will have at least one further episode of depression after their first, and therefore it requires long-term management. However, little is known about the effectiveness of self-management in depression, in particular from the patients' perspective. This study aimed to understand how people with longer-term depression manage the condition, how services can best support self-management and whether the principles and concepts of the recovery approach would be advantageous. Semi-structured in depth interviews were carried out with 21 participants, recruited from a range of sources using maximum variation sampling. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used by a diverse team comprised of service users, practitioners and academics. Four super-ordinate themes were found: experience of depression, the self, the wider environment, self-management strategies. Within these, several prominent sub-themes emerged of importance to the participants. These included how aspects of themselves such as hope, confidence and motivation could be powerful agents; and how engaging in a wide range of chosen activities could contribute to their emotional, mental, physical, social, spiritual and creative wellbeing. Services in general were not perceived to be useful in specifically facilitating self-management. Increased choice and control were needed and a greater emphasis on an individualised holistic model. Improved information was needed about how to develop strategies and locate resources, especially during the first episode of depression. These concepts echoed those of the recovery approach, which could therefore be seen as valuable in aiding the self-management of depression.

  14. Dissociable self effects for emotion regulation: a study of Chinese major depressive outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Feng, Zhengzhi; Zhou, Daiquan; Lei, Xu; Liao, Tongquan; Zhang, Li; Ji, Bing; Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Reappraisal is an adaptive emotion regulation strategy while the role of self-perspective in reappraisal process of depressed patients is largely unknown in terms of goals (valence/arousal) and tactics (detachment/immersion). In this study, 12 depressed individuals and 15 controls were scanned with MRI during which they either attend naturally to emotional stimuli, or adopt detachment/immersion strategy. Behaviorally, no group differences in self-reported emotion regulation effectiveness were found. In addition, we observed that (1) patients were less able to downregulate amygdala activation with recruitment of more dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when adopting detachment strategy regardless of valence, and this preserved ability to regulate emotion was inversely associated with severity of symptoms; (2) patients had deficits in upregulating amygdala activation when adopting immersion strategy, with less inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activation and strengthening coupling of dlPFC and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) with amygdala; (3) comparison between groups yielded that patients showed stronger vmPFC activation under either self-detached or self-immersed condition. In conclusion, impaired modulatory effects of amygdala in depressed patients are compensated with strengthening cognitive control resources, with dissociable effects for different self-perspectives in reappraisal. These results may help clarify the role of self-perspective underlying reappraisal in major depression.

  15. Dissociable Self Effects for Emotion Regulation: A Study of Chinese Major Depressive Outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reappraisal is an adaptive emotion regulation strategy while the role of self-perspective in reappraisal process of depressed patients is largely unknown in terms of goals (valence/arousal and tactics (detachment/immersion. In this study, 12 depressed individuals and 15 controls were scanned with MRI during which they either attend naturally to emotional stimuli, or adopt detachment/immersion strategy. Behaviorally, no group differences in self-reported emotion regulation effectiveness were found. In addition, we observed that (1 patients were less able to downregulate amygdala activation with recruitment of more dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC when adopting detachment strategy regardless of valence, and this preserved ability to regulate emotion was inversely associated with severity of symptoms; (2 patients had deficits in upregulating amygdala activation when adopting immersion strategy, with less inferior frontal gyrus (IFG activation and strengthening coupling of dlPFC and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC with amygdala; (3 comparison between groups yielded that patients showed stronger vmPFC activation under either self-detached or self-immersed condition. In conclusion, impaired modulatory effects of amygdala in depressed patients are compensated with strengthening cognitive control resources, with dissociable effects for different self-perspectives in reappraisal. These results may help clarify the role of self-perspective underlying reappraisal in major depression.

  16. Onset timing, thoughts of self-harm, and diagnoses in postpartum women with screen-positive depression findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Katherine L; Sit, Dorothy K Y; McShea, Mary C; Rizzo, David M; Zoretich, Rebecca A; Hughes, Carolyn L; Eng, Heather F; Luther, James F; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Costantino, Michelle L; Confer, Andrea L; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Famy, Christopher S; Hanusa, Barbara H

    2013-05-01

    The period prevalence of depression among women is 21.9% during the first postpartum year; however, questions remain about the value of screening for depression. To screen for depression in postpartum women and evaluate positive screen findings to determine the timing of episode onset, rate and intensity of self-harm ideation, and primary and secondary DSM-IV disorders to inform treatment and policy decisions. Sequential case series of women who recently gave birth. Urban academic women's hospital. During the maternity hospitalization, women were offered screening at 4 to 6 weeks post partum by telephone. Screen-positive women were invited to undergo psychiatric evaluations in their homes. A positive screen finding was an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 10 or higher. Self-harm ideation was assessed on EPDS item 10: "The thought of harming myself has occurred to me" (yes, quite often; sometimes; hardly ever; never). Screen-positive women underwent evaluation with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I primary and secondary diagnoses. Ten thousand mothers underwent screening, with positive findings in 1396 (14.0%); of these, 826 (59.2%) completed the home visits and 147 (10.5%) completed a telephone diagnostic interview. Screen-positive women were more likely to be younger, African American, publicly insured, single, and less well educated. More episodes began post partum (40.1%), followed by during pregnancy (33.4%) and before pregnancy (26.5%). In this population, 19.3% had self-harm ideation. All mothers with the highest intensity of self-harm ideation were identified with the EPDS score of 10 or higher. The most common primary diagnoses were unipolar depressive disorders (68.5%), and almost two-thirds had comorbid anxiety disorders. A striking 22.6% had bipolar disorders. The most common diagnosis in screen-positive women was major depressive disorder with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder. Strategies to differentiate

  17. Onset Timing, Thoughts of Self-harm, and Diagnoses in Postpartum Women With Screen-Positive Depression Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Katherine L.; Sit, Dorothy K. Y.; McShea, Mary C.; Rizzo, David M.; Zoretich, Rebecca A.; Hughes, Carolyn L.; Eng, Heather F.; Luther, James F.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Costantino, Michelle L.; Confer, Andrea L.; Moses-Kolko, Eyclie L.; Famy, Christopher S.; Hanusa, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The period prevalence of depression among women is 21.9% during the first postpartum year; however, questions remain about the value of screening for depression. Objectives To screen for depression in postpartum women and evaluate positive screen findings to determine the timing of episode onset, rate and intensity of self-harm ideation, and primary and secondary DSM-IV disorders to inform treatment and policy decisions. Design Sequential case series of women who recently gave birth. Setting Urban academic women’s hospital. Participants During the maternity hospitalization, women were offered screening at 4 to 6 weeks post parturn by telephone. Screen-positive women were invited to undergo psychiatric evaluations in their homes. Main Outcomes and Measures A positive screen finding was an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 10 or higher. Self-harm ideation was assessed on EPDS item 10: “The thought of harming myself has occurred to me” (yes, quite often; sometimes; hardly ever; never). Screen-positive women underwent evaluation with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I primary and secondary diagnoses. Results Ten thousand mothers underwent screening, with positive findings in 1396 (14.0%); of these, 826 (59.2%) completed the home visits and 147 (10.5%) completed a telephone diagnostic interview. Screen-positive women were more likely to be younger, African American, publicly insured, single, and less well educated. More episodes began post partum (40.1%), followed by during pregnancy (33.4%) and before pregnancy (26.5%). In this population, 19.3% had self-harm ideation. All mothers with the highest intensity of self-harm ideation were identified with the EPDS score of 10 or higher. The most common primary diagnoses were unipolar depressive disorders (68.5%), and almost two-thirds had co-morbid anxiety disorders. A striking 22.6% had bipolar disorders. Conclusions and Relevance The most common diagnosis in screen

  18. Rumination and Avoidance as Mediators of the Relationship Between Self-Compassion and Depression in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Start, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background This study sought to investigate the mediating effects of rumination and cognitivebehavioural avoidance in the relationship between self-compassion and depression amongst adolescents. Method Ninety nonclinical adolescents completed self-report measures of self-compassion, depressive symptomatology, rumination (reflection and brooding subtypes) and cognitive-behavioural avoidance. Results Results showed that for the relationship between self-compassion and...

  19. Self-Report of Depressive Symptoms in Low Back Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisson, James; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents two studies designed to examine the self-report of depressive symptoms in low back pain patients (N=134). Both studies found that patients were more likely to report somatic than cognitive symptoms of depression. Patients with multiple physical findings were not more likely to report somatic symptoms than patients with few physical…

  20. The value of an implicit self-associative measure specific to core beliefs of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Roefs, A.; Arntz, A.; van Teeseling, H.C.; Peeters, F.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives The present study examined differences in explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem between depressed patients and healthy controls using an indirect measurement procedure especially adapted to measure self-esteem aspects of core beliefs of depression. Furthermore, we

  1. The value of an implicit self-associative measure specific to core beliefs of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Roefs, A.; Arntz, A.; van Teeseling, H.C.; Peeters, F.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: The present study examined differences in explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem between depressed patients and healthy controls using an indirect measurement procedure especially adapted to measure self-esteem aspects of core beliefs of depression. Furthermore, we

  2. Psychometric Study of the Depression, Anxiety and family Dysfunction Scales in Students at Universidad Industrial de Santander

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez Molina, Alimar; Caballero Badillo, María Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this research is to study the psychometric properties of Zung's and Apgar's Questionnaires for Depression and Anxiety, applied by the División de Bienestar Universitario de la UIS (DBU, for its Spanish acronym), a division in charge of students' welfare at UIS. The questionnaires were applied as part of a comprehensive assessment of admitted students, oriented to an early diagnosis of risk factors that may influence their academic performance. The sample consisted of a gro...

  3. Self-concept and self-esteem after acquired brain injury: a control group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie; Kelly, Amber; Couchman, Grace

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the multidimensional self-concept, global self-esteem and psychological adjustment of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared with healthy controls. Group comparison on self-report questionnaires. Forty-one individuals who had sustained a TBI were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of 41 trauma-free control participants on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (second edition) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Participants with TBI rated significantly lower mean levels of global self-esteem and self-concept on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Tennessee Self Concept Scale than the control group. Survivors of TBI rated themselves more poorly on a range of self-dimensions, including social, family, academic/work and personal self-concept compared to controls. They also reported higher mean levels of depression and anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall self-concept was most strongly associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Self-concept may be lowered following TBI and is associated with negative emotional consequences. Clinicians may improve the emotional adjustment of survivors of TBI by considering particular dimensions of self-concept for intervention focus.

  4. Care burden and its predictive factors in parents of newly diagnosed children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in academic hospitals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingting; Shen, Nanping; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Min; Xie, Anwei; Howell, Doris; Yuan, Changrong

    2017-12-01

    Caring for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a distressing experience for parents without medical training. The experience can lead to parents' care burden. This study explored care burden among parents of children with ALL and its related factors. A total of 130 parents were surveyed with the Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI), Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS), Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), and a study specific demographic information questionnaire. Independent-samples T test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and multivariate linear regression analysis (stepwise method), and binomial logistic regression were used in data analysis. The mean score of parents' care burden overall was 37.74 ± 16.57, 17 (13.08%) had little or no burden, 57 (43.85%) had mild-to-moderate burden, 44 (33.84%) had moderate-to-severe burden, and 12 (9.23%) had severe burden. Regression analyses indicated daily care time, anxiety, general health, average monthly family income, social support, and number of co-caregivers were factors associated with care burden. These variables accounted for 51% of the variance in care burden. Other demographic information of parents and children, depression, and other dimensions of SF-36 were not related to care burden. The severe burden level was associated the increase risk of emotional distress compared with little or no burden group (OR = 37.500, 95% CI = 4.515-311.348, P = 0.001). The results indicated that care burden in parents of children newly diagnosed with ALL is high. Parents with lower levels of care burden tend to have less daily care time, more co-caregivers, higher income, less anxiety, better general health, and social support. Strategies are needed to help reduce parents' care burden.

  5. Internet Addiction and Relationships with Insomnia, Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Self-Esteem in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Farah; Halawi, Ghinwa; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Karam, Latife; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2) Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem. Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21), and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81-19.79%) and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003), with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%). Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value anxiety, depression, stress, and self-esteem.

  6. Anxiety, affect, self-esteem, and stress: mediation and moderation effects on depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Nima

    Full Text Available Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression.Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113 completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses.The results indicated that (i anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression.The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  7. Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Methods Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. Main Findings The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. Conclusion The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators. PMID:24039896

  8. Rumination mediates the prospective effect of low self-esteem on depression: a five-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Farah; Orth, Ulrich; Meier, Laurenz L

    2012-06-01

    Previous research supports the vulnerabil