Sample records for zr-fe alloy revision

  1. Mechanical properties of a Gum-type Ti-Nb-Zr-Fe-O alloy

    Nocivin, Anna; Cinca, Ion; Raducanu, Doina; Cojocaru, Vasile Danut; Popovici, Ion Alexandru


    A new Gum-type alloy (Ti-Nb-Zr-Fe-O) in which Fe is used instead of Ta was subjected to a particular thermomechanical processing scheme to assess whether its mechanical characteristics (fine β-grains with high strength and low modulus) render it suitable as a biomedical implant material. After a homogenization treatment followed by cold-rolling with 50% reduction, the specimens were subjected to one of three different recrystallization treatments at 1073, 1173, and 1273 K. The structural and mechanical properties of all of the treated specimens were analyzed. The mechanical characterization included tensile tests, microhardness determinations, and fractography by scanning electron microscopy. The possible deformation mechanisms were discussed using the \\overline {Bo} - \\overline {Md} diagram. By correlating all of the experimental results, we concluded that the most promising processing variant corresponds to recrystallization at 1073 K, which can provide suitable mechanical characteristics for this type of alloys: high yield and ultimate tensile strengths (1038 and 1083 MPa, respectively), a low modulus of elasticity (62 GPa), and fine crystalline grain size (approximately 50 μm).

  2. Iron atoms redistribution in oxide films of Zr-Fe, Zr-Fe-Cu alloys during corrosion in autoclave at 350°C

    Filippov, V.; Bateev, A.


    The data on changes of iron atoms state in the oxide films of binary Zr-1.24 mas.%Fe and ternary Zr-1.39 mas.%Fe-0.60 mas.%Cu zirconium alloys are obtained. Alloys are subjected to corrosion tests under autoclave conditions at 350°C temperature in a steam-water environment under pressure p = 16.8 MPa. In initial specimens of the alloys the iron atoms are in the form of intermetallic compounds. In oxide films the decomposition of intermetallic compounds and formation of new compounds occurs with structural phase distortion. In the oxide films metallic the metallic iron particles α-Fe, iron oxide in the form of hematite α-Fe2O3, solid solutions of iron ions in ZrO2 are formed. The phase composition of the oxide films depends on the alloy composition and changes during the growth process of the oxide film.

  3. Microstructures and hydrogen storage properties of ZrFe{sub 2.05−x}V{sub x} (x = 0.05–0.20) alloys with high dissociation pressures for hybrid hydrogen storage vessel application

    Jiang, Lijun, E-mail: [Institute of Energy Materials and Technology, General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China); Tu, Youlong; Tu, Hailing [Institute of Energy Materials and Technology, General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China); Chen, Liquan [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    Highlights: • The substitution of V for Fe in ZrFe{sub 2.05−x}V{sub x} alloys is studied. • The C15 lattice parameters and unit cell volumes increase with the increase in x. • The capacity of hydrogen storage of alloys increases with the increase in x. • The hysteresis factor of alloys decreases with the increase in x. • The substitution of V for Fe improves the activation and kinetics of alloys. - Abstract: The microstructures and the hydrogen absorption/desorption properties of ZrFe{sub 2.05−x}V{sub x} (x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) alloys have been studied by XRD, SEM/EDS, P-C isotherm and hydrogen absorption kinetics measurements. It is found that the C15 Laves phase is the dominant phase of the alloys and its lattice parameters and unit cell volumes increase with increase in the V substitution, but the C14 Laves minor phase appears when x is over 0.15. As the result, the capacity of hydrogen storage of the alloys increases and the hysteresis factor decreases with increase in the V concentration. The activation and hydrogen absorption kinetics of the alloys are also sufficiently improved by the substitution of V for Fe.

  4. Exchange coupling across quasi-amorphous Zr-Fe spacer

    Smardz, L. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan (Poland); Smardz, K. [Institute of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, M. Currie 5 Sq., 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Niedoba, H. [LMOV de l' Universite de Versailles, 45, av. Des Etas - Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)


    Fe/Zr/Fe trilayers with wedge-shaped Zr interlayer were prepared using UHV (5 x 10{sup -10} mbar) DC/RF magnetron sputtering. The planar growth and interface alloying of the Fe and Zr layers was confirmed in-situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For a Zr layer thickness (d{sub Zr}) from 1 to 3 nm we have observed patch domains characteristic for antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling. Results showed that the Fe sublayers are very weakly exchange coupled or decoupled for d{sub Zr}>3 nm. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. High energy Compton spectroscopy and electronic structure of Laves phase ZrFe2

    Bhatt, Samir; Kumar, Kishor; Arora, Gunjan; Bapna, Komal; Ahuja, B. L.


    We present the first-ever experimental Compton profile of Laves phase ZrFe2 using indigenous 20 Ci 137Cs Compton spectrometer. To annotate the experimental electron momentum density, we have calculated the theoretical Compton profiles using density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of Hartree-Fock and DFT within linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. The spin-polarized energy bands and density of states are computed using LCAO and full potential-linearized augmented plane wave methods. The revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional (for solids) based theoretical profile gives a marginally better agreement with the experimental profile as compared to other approximations considered in the present work. The Fermi surface topology of ZrFe2 is explained in terms of majority- and minority-spin energy bands.

  6. A Simple Kinetic Model of Zircaloy Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2} Precipitate Amorphization During Neutron Irradiation

    Taylor, D.F.; Peters, H.R.; Yang, W.J.S.


    At neutron flux levels typical for Zircaloy fuel cladding in commercial power reactors, there is insufficient thermal energy below about 600 K to maintain long-range order in hexagonal close packed (hcp) Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2} precipitates, and these Laves-phase intermetallics gradually become amorphous. The transformation is homogeneous with no change in composition at low temperatures, but above 500 K an amorphous zone containing only 10 at% Fe grows inward from the periphery as Fe moves outward to the adjacent alloy matrix. The shrinking central cores of Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2} precipitates in Zircaloy-4 remain crystalline, while in Zircaloy-2 these precipitates quickly undergo partial transformation and the low-Fe amorphous front advances into a random mixture of amorphous and crystalline regions, each with the original composition. Above 600 K, the Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2} precipitates tend to retain both their hcp structure and original chemical composition. These observations suggest that a dynamic competition between kinetic excitation to an amorphous state and thermal recrystallization makes some fraction of the Fe atoms available for flux-assisted diffusion to the alloy matrix by displacing them from hcp lattice positions into metastable, probably interstitial, sites. With one set of kinetic constants, a simple analytic representation of these processes accurately predicts precipitate amorphization as a function of neutron flux, temperature, and time for either Zircaloy-2 or -4. By implication, over the composition range of interest, hcp Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2} is most stable thermodynamically with about 33 at% Fe, typical of Zircaloy-2, but amorphous Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2} has the smallest activation energy for recrystallization with the slightly higher Fe content typical of Zircaloy-4.

  7. Ti-Cu-Zr-Fe-Nb ultrafine structure-dendrite composites with good mechanical properties and biocompatibility

    Guan Wang; Shujie Pang; Haifei Li; Min Zhang; Gang Zhou; Tao Zhang


    Ti-Cu-Zr-Fe-Nb ultrafine structure-dendrite composites were designed by inducing Nb and more Ti to a Ti-Cu-Zr-Fe glass-forming alloy composition and prepared by copper mold casting. The composite alloys consist ofβ-Ti dendrites and ultrafine-structured CuTi2 and CuTi phases as well as a trace amount of glassy phase. The volume fraction ofβ-Ti dendrites increases with the increase in content of Nb which acted as the β-Ti phase stabilizer in the alloys. The composites exhibit high compressive yield strength exceeding 1200 MPa, maximum strength around 1800 MPa and low Young's modulus around 48 GPa. The plasticity of the alloys is strongly influenced by the volume fraction and morphology of the dendriticβ-Ti phase, and the compressive plastic strain was enlarged from 5.9%for the 4 at%Nb alloy to 9.2%for the 8 at%Nb alloy. The preliminary cell culture experiment indicated good biocompatibility of the composite alloys free from highly toxic elements Ni and Be. These Ti-based composite alloys are promising to have potential structural and biomedical applications due to the combination of good mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

  8. Hydrogenation of nanocrystalline Zr-Fe-H powder

    Roupcova, P. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic) and Institute of Physics of Materials, AS CR, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail:; Schneeweiss, O. [Institute of Physics of Materials, AS CR, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Zhu, M. [Department of Mechano-Electrical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 Guangdong (China)


    Changes in the phase composition of nanocrystalline Zr-Fe powders prepared by spark synthesis were investigated in dependence of the heat treatment in vacuum and hydrogen atmosphere. Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements were applied for phase analysis. {alpha}-Fe, Fe embedded in ZrO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and iron oxides were found in the as-prepared powder. After annealing in hydrogen, {alpha}-Fe and ZrO{sub 2} dominate and minor Fe atoms embedded in ZrO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}Zr were detected. Zr-Fe phases were transformed gradually into the {alpha}-Fe and ZrO{sub 2} during the repeated annealing in vacuum and hydrogen. The ability of hydrogen absorption is decreasing with the annealing steps and is connected with the decrease of the Fe{sub 2}Zr phase content.

  9. Refining of Cd and Zn from interstitial impurities using distillation with a ZrFe getter filter

    Scherban’ A. P.


    Full Text Available Behavior of interstitial impurities in Cd and Zn is analysed in terms of thermodynamics. The authors consider reduction reactions of cadmium, zinc and carbon oxides, as well as zinc nitride with the getter material from the Zr-Fe alloy, depending on temperature and vacuum. Optimum initial temperature and vacuum conditions for the processes of deep refining of Cd and Zn from interstitial impurities has been developed. It has been shown experimentally that the proposed refining method provides a more effective cleaning of cadmium and zinc from the interstitial impurities than the distillation without a filter: the impurity content is reduced more than tenfold compared to the concentration in the input metal.

  10. Synthesis, properties and Moessbauer study of ZrFe{sub 2-x}Ni{sub x} hydrides (x = 0.2-0.8)

    Sivov, Roman B., E-mail: [Department of Material Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Zotov, Timur A., E-mail: [Chemistry Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Verbetsky, Victor N.; Filimonov, Dmitry S.; Pokholok, Konstantin V. [Chemistry Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)


    Research highlights: > ZrFe{sub 2-x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8) can accumulate up to 1.7-1.8 wt.% H{sub 2} at 295 K. > H{sub 2} desorption pressures at 295 K decreased from 325 (x = 0) to 115 atm (x = 0.8). > Isomer shifts (IS) remain constant with Ni content. > Absorption of H{sub 2} results in increase in IS and hyperfine fields for all samples. > Hydride decomposition process involves formation of intermediate hydride phase. - Abstract: Interaction of ZrFe{sub 2-x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8) pseudobinary intermetallic compounds with hydrogen was studied. It was found that these compounds can accumulate up to 1.7-1.8 wt.% H{sub 2} at room temperature. For all investigated ZrFe{sub 2-x}Ni{sub x}-H{sub 2} systems, thermodynamic functions of the {beta}-hydride {yields} {alpha}-solution phase transition and changes of metal matrix volume during formation of hydrides were calculated. It was shown that increase in Ni content leads to reduction of both desorption pressures and starting pressures of reaction with hydrogen in the first hydrogenation cycle compared to ZrFe{sub 2}. Moessbauer investigations, which have been carried out for all alloys as well as hydrides, revealed that Curie temperatures (T{sub c}) and average hyperfine fields (HF{sub av}) of initial alloys decrease with Ni content increase, while isomer shifts (IS) remain constant. Absorption of H{sub 2} results in significant increase in IS together with some increase in T{sub c} and HF{sub av} for all samples. The decomposition of the hydride phases to intermetallic phases while heating from 78 K to room temperature was found to be a two-step process involving formation of the hydride phases with intermediate hydrogen content.

  11. Electronic properties of Laves phase ZrFe{sub 2} using Compton spectroscopy

    Bhatt, Samir, E-mail:; Kumar, Kishor; Ahuja, B. L. [Department of Physics, University College of Science, ML Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001 (India); Dashora, Alpa [UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Vidyanagari, Santacruz(E), Mumbai-400098 (India)


    First-ever experimental Compton profile of Laves phase ZrFe{sub 2}, using indigenous 20 Ci {sup 137}Cs Compton spectrometer, is presented. To analyze the experimental electron momentum density, we have deduced the theoretical Compton profiles using density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of DFT and Hartree-Fock scheme within linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. The energy bands and density of states are also calculated using LCAO prescription. The theoretical profile based on local density approximation gives a better agreement with the experimental profile than other reported schemes. The present investigations validate the inclusion of correlation potential of Perdew-Zunger in predicting the electronic properties of ZrFe{sub 2}.

  12. Electronic properties of Laves phase ZrFe2 using Compton spectroscopy

    Bhatt, Samir; Kumar, Kishor; Dashora, Alpa; Ahuja, B. L.


    First-ever experimental Compton profile of Laves phase ZrFe2, using indigenous 20 Ci 137Cs Compton spectrometer, is presented. To analyze the experimental electron momentum density, we have deduced the theoretical Compton profiles using density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of DFT and Hartree-Fock scheme within linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. The energy bands and density of states are also calculated using LCAO prescription. The theoretical profile based on local density approximation gives a better agreement with the experimental profile than other reported schemes. The present investigations validate the inclusion of correlation potential of Perdew-Zunger in predicting the electronic properties of ZrFe2.

  13. 生物医用Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr-Fe合金在林格溶液中的腐蚀行为%Corrosion behavior of Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr-Fe alloy for biomedical applications in Ringer’s solution

    许艳飞; 肖逸锋; 易丹青; 刘会群; 吴靓; 文璟


    采用动电位极化方法研究Ti−25Nb−10Ta−1Zr−0.2Fe (质量分数,%)(TNTZF)合金37°C下在林格溶液中的抗腐蚀性能,并在同样的条件下用Ti−6Al−4V ELI(低间隙)合金做对比实验。结果表明:TNTZF比Ti−6Al−4V ELI合金表现出更高的腐蚀电位,更低的腐蚀电流密度,更加稳定的钝化电流密度和更宽的钝化区间,因此具有更加优越的抗腐蚀性能。除此之外,在Ti−6Al−4V ELI合金的表面钝化膜上观察到了点蚀现象,但是在TNTZF合金表面没有发现点蚀现象。XPS 分析结果表明:TNTZF 合金表面钝化膜由 TiO2基体以及 Nb2O5、NbO2、Ta2O5、ZrO2、TiO和Ti2O3等氧化物共同组成,从而使得钝化膜更加稳定且保护作用更强,因此TNTZF合金比Ti−6Al−4V ELI合金表现出更加优越的抗腐蚀性能。%The corrosion resistance of Ti−25Nb−10Ta−1Zr−0.2Fe (mass fraction, %) (TNTZF) alloy in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization measurement. Ti−6Al−4V ELI (Extra low interstitial) alloy was also investigated to make a comparison. The results show that TNTZF alloy has higher corrosion potential, lower corrosion current density, more stable passive current density and wider passive region compared with Ti–6Al–4V ELI alloy, which indicates that TNTZF alloy has better corrosion resistance. In addition, pitting corrosion is observed on the surface passive film of Ti–6Al–4V ELI alloy but is not found on that of TNTZF alloy. The XPS analysis results reveal that the passive film formed on TNTZF alloy is composed of Nb2O5, NbO2, Ta2O5, ZrO2, TiO and Ti2O3oxides in the matrix of TiO2, which makes the passive film more stable and protective than that formed on Ti−6Al−4V ELI alloy and contributes much to its superior corrosion resistance.

  14. Revised ANL-reported tensile data for V-Ti and V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    The tensile for all irradiated vanadium alloy samples and several unirradiated vanadium alloys tested at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been critically reviewed and revised, as necessary. The review and revision are based on re-analyzing the original load-displacement strip-chart recording using a methodology consistent with current ASTM standards. No significant difference has been found between the newly-revised and previously-reported values of yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). However, by correctly subtracting the non-gauge-length displacement and linear gauge-length displacement from the total cross-head displacement, the uniform elongation (UE) of the gauge length decreases by 4-9% strain and the total elongation (TE) of the gauge length decreases by 1-7% strain. These differences are more significant for lower-ductility irradiated alloys than for higher-ductility alloys.

  15. Review about laser nitriding of titanium alloys; Revision sobre nitruraciones laser de aleaciones de titanio

    Perez-Artieda, M.G.; Fernandez-Carrasquilla, J.


    A common technique used to improve the wear response of titanium alloys is to nitride the surface, using chemical or physical vapour deposition, ion implantation or surface remelting in a nitrogen atmosphere. In this revision nitriding systems with laser technology are studied, used in titanium alloys surface treatments.For high temperature, high strength applications, titanium based alloys are an attractive light-weight alternative to steel, due to their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. In applications that require good wear resistance, titanium alloys pose a problem due to their poor tribological characteristics.Titanium alloys used with a suitable nitriding treatment could allow the replacement of steel in different applications, obtaining weight savings in fabricated components. (Author). 68 refs.

  16. Initial stages of Zr-Fe-Si alloy formation on Zr(0001) surface

    Horáková, Kateřina; Cichoň, Stanislav; Lančok, Ján; Sajdl, Petr; Cháb, Vladimír


    We studied initial stages of Fe and Si atoms interaction with the Zr(0001) surface. Fe and Si were deposited in-situ on the clean Zr surface up to coverage of one monolayer. Chemical state of Zr as a function of annealing temperature and the surface composition was investigated. Characteristic (1×1) LEED (Low Energy Electron Diffraction) pattern of the clean Zr surface becomes significantly modified when Fe and Si are deposited and annealed at 400 °C. The arrangement of new spots of the pattern corresponds to the (2√3×2√3)R30° structure, stable up to annealing at 750 °C. Changes in the electronic structure were identified from the images of equi-energy cuts of the k-space covering the entire Brillouin zone. The results imply that hydrogen, typically present in the clean surface, was eliminated either by annealing or upon the deposition of Fe and Si.

  17. In Vitro Bioactivity Study of RGD-Coated Titanium Alloy Prothesis for Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Zhentao Man


    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty (THA is a common procedure for the treatment of end-stage hip joint disease, and the demand for revision THA will double by 2026. Ti6Al4V (Titanium, 6% Aluminum, and 4% Vanadium is a kind of alloy commonly used to make hip prothesis. To promote the osseointegration between the prothesis and host bone is very important for the revision THA. The peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD could increase cell attachment and has been used in the vascular tissue engineering. In this study, we combined the RGD with Ti6Al4V alloy using the covalent cross-linking method to fabricate the functional Ti6Al4V alloy (FTA. The distribution of RGD oligopeptide on the FTA was even and homogeneous. The FTA scaffolds could promote mouse osteoblasts adhesion and spreading. Furthermore, the result of RT-qPCR indicated that the FTA scaffolds were more beneficial to osteogenesis, which may be due to the improvement of osteoblast adhesion by the RGD oligopeptide coated on FTA. Overall, the FTA scaffolds developed herein pave the road for designing and building more efficient prothesis for osseointegration between the host bone and prothesis in revision THA.

  18. Prediction of magnetic moment collapse in ZrFe{sub 2} under hydrostatic pressure

    Zhang, Wenxu; Zhang, Wanli [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)


    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of ZrFe{sub 2} in the cubic Laves phase are investigated by calculations based on density functional theory. The magnetic moment decreases with the increase of the hydrostatic pressure in an unusual way: Two-step magnetic collapse is predicted. The first one is a continuous change from 1.53 μ{sub B}/Fe to 0.63 μ{sub B}/Fe at about 3.6 GPa, and the other is from 0.25 μ{sub B}/Fe to the nonmagnetic state at about 15 GPa in a first order manner under the local spin density approximation of the exchange correlation potential. A metastable state with intermediate spin moment about 0.15 μ{sub B}/Fe may exist before that. We understand this process by the changes of density of states during it. The magnetic moment decreases under the pressure in the vicinity of the experimental lattice constant with dlnm/dp=−0.038 GPa{sup −1}. The spontaneous volume magnetostriction is 3.6%, which is huge enough to find potential applications in magnetostriction actuators and sensors. We suggest that the Invar effect of this compound may be understood when considering the magnetic moment variation according to the magnetostrictive model of Invar.

  19. Characterization of Newly Synthesized ZrFe2O5 Nanomaterial and Investigations of Its Tremendous Photocatalytic Properties under Visible Light Irradiation

    Shaukat Ali Shahid; Ayman Nafady; Inam Ullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Imran Shakir; Farooq Anwar; Umer Rashid


    High functional ZrFe2O5 nanoparticles were synthesized using coprecipitation technique. The chemical composition of nanomaterials was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). To observe the morphology, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was utilized to appraise the structure of the synthesized material. The photocatalytic behavior of ZrFe2O5 nano-particles was investigated by measuring the degradation rate of toluidine blue O (TBO...

  20. Mössbauer study of oxide films of Fe-, Sn-, Cr- doped zirconium alloys during corrosion in autoclave

    Filippov, V. P.; Bateev, A. B.; Lauer, Yu. A.


    Mössbauer investigations were used to compare iron atom states in oxide films of binary Zr-Fe, ternary Zr-Fe-Cu and quaternary Zr-Fe-Cr-Sn alloys. Oxide films are received in an autoclave at a temperature of 350-360 °C and at pressure of 16.8 MPa. The corrosion process decomposes the intermetallic precipitates in alloys and forms metallic iron with inclusions of chromium atoms α-Fe(Cr), α-Fe(Cu), α-Fe 2O3 and Fe 3O4 compounds. Some iron ions are formed in divalent and in trivalent paramagnetic states. The additional doping influences on corrosion kinetics and concentration of iron compounds and phases formed in oxide films. It was shown the correlation between concentration of iron in different chemical states and corrosion resistance of alloys.

  1. Mössbauer study of oxide films of Fe-, Sn-, Cr- doped zirconium alloys during corrosion in autoclave

    Filippov, V. P., E-mail:; Bateev, A. B.; Lauer, Yu. A. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)


    Mössbauer investigations were used to compare iron atom states in oxide films of binary Zr-Fe, ternary Zr-Fe-Cu and quaternary Zr-Fe-Cr-Sn alloys. Oxide films are received in an autoclave at a temperature of 350–360 °C and at pressure of 16.8 MPa. The corrosion process decomposes the intermetallic precipitates in alloys and forms metallic iron with inclusions of chromium atoms α–Fe(Cr), α–Fe(Cu), α–Fe {sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe {sub 3}O{sub 4} compounds. Some iron ions are formed in divalent and in trivalent paramagnetic states. The additional doping influences on corrosion kinetics and concentration of iron compounds and phases formed in oxide films. It was shown the correlation between concentration of iron in different chemical states and corrosion resistance of alloys.

  2. Electrochemical properties of the passive film on bulk Zr-Fe-Cr intermetallic fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Bai, Yakui; Ling, Yunhan; Lai, Wensheng; Xing, Shupei; Ma, Wen


    Although Zr-based second phase particles (SPPs) are important factors influencing corrosion resistance of zircaloy cladding materials, the corrosion behavior of SPPs has not been investigated by means of electrochemical method so far. In order to clarify the role of SPPs commonly existed in zircaloy, bulk Zr-based intermetallics were firstly fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at temperatures 1373 K and an applied pressure of 60 MPa in this work. Both the natural passive film on surface and oxidation behavior of intermetallic has been investigated in this work. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that as-prepared intermetallic of crystal structure belongs to Laves phase with AB2 type. Electrochemical measurement of passive film on surface of bulk Zr-based intermetallic exhibited significant difference with that of zirconium. Potentiodynamic measurements results revealed that intermetallic exhibited higher corrosion potential and lower corrosion current density than that of pure zirconium, implying that Zr-based second phase will act as cathode when they are included in zirconium matrix. Meanwhile, significant improvement of Zr-Fe-Cr intermetallic on the water chemistry corrosion resistance was demonstrated comparing with Zr-Fe and Zr-Cr binary intermetallics.

  3. Characterization of Newly Synthesized ZrFe2O5 Nanomaterial and Investigations of Its Tremendous Photocatalytic Properties under Visible Light Irradiation

    Shaukat Ali Shahid


    Full Text Available High functional ZrFe2O5 nanoparticles were synthesized using coprecipitation technique. The chemical composition of nanomaterials was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX. To observe the morphology, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM was used. X-ray diffraction (XRD technique was utilized to appraise the structure of the synthesized material. The photocatalytic behavior of ZrFe2O5 nano-particles was investigated by measuring the degradation rate of toluidine blue O (TBO dye in aqueous solution in the presence of ZrFe2O5 nano-particles under visible light irradiation. A steady decrease in absorption peak under visible light irradiation was observed by increasing exposure time. The degradation efficiency was observed as 92% after 140 min of exposure to visible light. Besides, ZrFe2O5 nanophotocatalyst could be recovered and recycled easily. The rate of TBO and total organic carbon (TOC removal under visible light irradiation decreased by only 5% and 10%, respectively, after seven cycles of use, demonstrating the high photostability of the synthesized nano-photocatalyst material.

  4. Revised

    Johannsen, Vivian Kvist; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Riis-Nielsen, Torben;

    This report is a revised analysis of the Danish data on CO2 emissions from forest, afforestation and deforestation for the period 1990 - 2008 and a prognosis for the period until 2020. Revision have included measurements from 2009 in the estimations. The report is funded by the Ministry of Climate...

  5. Revised ANL-reported tensile data for unirradiated and irradiated (FFTF, HFIR) V-Ti and V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    The tensile data for all unirradiated and irradiated vanadium alloys samples tested at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been critically reviewed and, when necessary, revised. The review and revision are based on reanalyzing the original load-displacement strip chart recordings by a methodology consistent with current ASTM standards. For unirradiated alloys (162 samples), the revised values differ from the previous values as follows: {minus}11{+-}19 MPa ({minus}4{+-}6%) for yield strength (YS), {minus}3{+-}15 MPa ({minus}1{+-}3%) for ultimate tensile strength (UTS), {minus}5{+-}2% strain for uniform elongation (UE), and {minus}4{+-}2% strain for total elongation (TE). Of these changes, the decrease in {minus}1{+-}6 MPa (0{+-}1%) for UTS, {minus}5{+-}2% for UE, and {minus}4{+-}2% for TE. Of these changes, the decrease in UE values for alloys irradiated and tested at 400--435 C is the most significant. This decrease results from the proper subtraction of nongauge-length deformation from measured crosshead deformation. In previous analysis of the tensile curves, the nongauge-length deformation was not correctly determined and subtracted from the crosshead displacement. The previously reported and revised tensile values for unirradiated alloys (20--700 C) are tabulated in Appendix A. The revised tensile values for the FFTF-irradiated (400--600 C) and HFIR-irradiated (400 C) alloys are tabulated in Appendix B, along with the neutron damage and helium levels. Appendix C compares the revised values to the previously reported values for irradiated alloys. Appendix D contains previous and revised values for the tensile properties of unirradiated V-5Cr-5Ti (BL-63) alloy exposed to oxygen.

  6. The origin of high magnetic properties in (R,Zr)(Fe,Co)11.0-11.5Ti1.0-0.5Ny (y=1.0-1.4 for R=Nd, y=0 for R=Sm) compounds

    Kobayashi, K.; Suzuki, S.; Kuno, T.; Urushibata, K.; Sakuma, N.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Kato, A.; Manabe, A.


    Ten alloys and nitrogenated compounds of (R,Zr)(Fe,Co)11.0-11.5Ti1.0-0.5Ny (y=1.0-1.4 for R=Nd, y=0 for R=Sm) with a ThMn12-type structure were prepared. The average Fe-Fe interatomic distances, d(Fe-Fe), for Fe sites were calculated based on the reported atomic parameters. The hyperfine splittings (inner field (IF), in teslas) were measured by Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the IF increased with increasing d(Fe-Fe) for Fe sites, indicating a magneto-volume effect. The order of IF magnitude in Fe sites was Fe(8i)>Fe(8j)>Fe(8f) in all alloys. Co substitution for Fe sites, (Fe0.75Co0.25), increased the IF by 25% for the R=Nd alloy and 15% for the R=Sm alloy. Decreasing Ti content from -Ti1.0 to -Ti0.5, which increased the Fe and Co content, preserved the ThMn12 structure with Zr substitution for R(2a) sites, and caused a slight increase in the IF of 2% for the R=Nd alloy and 7% for the R=Sm alloy. Nitrogenation, where N was introduced into the 2b sites, also increased IF in R=Nd alloys, by 23% for the Co- and Zr-free alloys, NdFe11Ti1.0N1.5, and by 7% for the Co-containing, (Nd0.7Zr0.3) (Fe0.75Co0.25) 11.5Ti0.5N1.3 alloy. The IF values of the R=Nd alloys were slightly larger than those of the R=Sm alloys. In conclusion, the magneto-volume effect was clearly observed at the Fe sites, and Co substitution into Fe sites and nitrogenation (R=Nd alloys) compensated for the increased IF. Increasing the Fe and Co fractions also increased IF slightly.

  7. (Sm,Zr(Fe,Co11.0-11.5Ti1.0-0.5 compounds as new permanent magnet materials

    Tomoko Kuno


    Full Text Available We investigated (Sm,Zr(Fe,Co11.0-11.5Ti1.0-0.5 compounds as permanent magnet materials. Good magnetic properties were observed in (Sm0.8Zr0.2(Fe0.75Co0.2511.5Ti0.5 powder containing a limited amount of the α-(Fe, Co phase, including saturation polarization (Js of 1.63 T, an anisotropic field (Ha of 5.90 MA/m at room temperature, and a Curie temperature (Tc of about 880 K. Notably, Js and Ha remained above 1.5 T and 3.70 MA/m, respectively, even at 473 K. The high-temperature magnetic properties of (Sm0.8Zr0.2(Fe0.75Co0.2511.5Ti0.5 were superior to those of Nd2Fe14B.

  8. Creep-Fatigue Behavior of Alloy 617 at 850 and 950°C, Revision 2

    Carroll, L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carroll, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Alloy 617 is the leading candidate material for an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). To evaluate the behavior of this material in the expected service conditions, strain-controlled cyclic tests including hold times up to 9000 s at maximum tensile strain were conducted at 850 and 950 degrees C. At both temperatures, the fatigue resistance decreased when a hold time was added at peak tensile strain. The magnitude of this effect depended on the specific mechanisms and whether they resulted in a change in fracture mode from transgranular in pure fatigue to intergranular in creep-fatigue for a particular temperature and strain range combination. Increases in the tensile hold duration beyond an initial value were not detrimental to the creep-fatigue resistance at 950 degrees C but did continue to degrade the lifetimes at 850 degrees C.

  9. Continuous determination of the Zr-Fe-Y Content by EDTA titrimetry%EDTA滴定法连续测定锆-铁-钇含量

    袁履璀; 向斌; 赵娜


    In order to accurately measure the content of Zr, Fe and Y in the acidic solution which produced by recycling waste zirconium-yttrium ceramics, the influences of the iron ion masking agent including acetylacetone, triethanolamine, citric acid and the indicator such as arsenazo M hydrate, methyl thymol blue and xylenol orange on the determination results were investigated in this paper. Finally, a satisfactory result has been achieved by EDTA titrimetry when xylenol orange and hydroxylamine hydrochloride acted as the only indicator and reducing agent, respectively. The RSD was smaller than 2% .%探讨了准确测定废旧锆钇陶瓷回收时产生的酸性溶液中锆、铁、钇的含量时,乙酰丙酮、三乙醇胺和柠檬酸等铁离子掩蔽剂,以及偶氮砷Ⅲ、甲基百里酚蓝和二甲酚橙等指示剂对测定结果的影响,确定仅以二甲酚橙为指示剂,盐酸羟胺为还原剂,用EDTA滴定法连续测定了溶液中的锆、铁、钇含量,测定结果的RSD <2%.

  10. Statistical values of valence electron structure parameters applied to research on phase transition temperature and eutectoid reaction of titanium alloy


    Based on the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), the statisti- cal values of valence electron structure parameters SnA and SEA which can char- acterize the properties of alloy phases are calculated, and influences of alloying elements (e.g., V, Nb, Mo, Hf, Zr, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Si, and so on) on the phase transi- tion temperature and eutectoid reaction of titanium alloy are discussed with the statistical values of valence electron structure parameters. The research results agree well with real situations.

  11. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    Gdowski, G.E.


    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute {alpha} grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase ({alpha} and {beta}) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase {alpha} and near-{alpha} (Ti Gr 12) alloys.

  12. Alloy

    Cabeza, Sandra; Garcés, Gerardo; Pérez, Pablo; Adeva, Paloma


    The Mg98.5Gd1Zn0.5 alloy produced by a powder metallurgy route was studied and compared with the same alloy produced by extrusion of ingots. Atomized powders were cold compacted and extruded at 623 K and 673 K (350 °C and 400 °C). The microstructure of extruded materials was characterized by α-Mg grains, and Mg3Gd and 14H-LPSO particles located at grain boundaries. Grain size decreased from 6.8 μm in the extruded ingot, down to 1.6 μm for powders extruded at 623 K (350 °C). Grain refinement resulted in an increase in mechanical properties at room and high temperatures. Moreover, at high temperatures the PM alloy showed superplasticity at high strain rates, with elongations to failure up to 700 pct.

  13. Glass forming range of the Ti-Fe-Si amorphous alloys: An effective materials-design approach coupling CALPHAD and topological instability criterion

    Zhao, Guo-Hua; Mao, Huahai; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.


    A method of composition design for metallic glasses was proposed by using the Calculation of Phase Diagrams (CALPHAD) with the assistance of the topological instability criterion. This methodology was demonstrated in the quick and effective searching of glass-forming regions for Ti-Fe-Si and Ti-Zr-Fe-Si alloys containing no biologically toxic elements, e.g., Ni and Cu. In addition, the Ti-Fe-Si system may promote the glass formation owing to the existence of a deep eutectic at the Ti-rich corner. A self-consistent thermodynamic database was constructed based on the CALPHAD approach. The liquidus projection, isothermal sections, and the enthalpy of mixing were calculated by using the database. On the basis of these calculations coupling with the topological instability "lambda λ criterion," the potential glass-forming alloy compositions in a narrow region were suggested for experimental validation. Thereafter, the isothermal sections of the Ti-Zr-Fe-Si quaternary system were calculated at certain contents of Zr. The designed alloys were prepared by arc-melting and followed by melt-spinning to the ribbon shape. The experimental verifications matched reasonably well with the theoretical calculations. This work offers new insights for predicting glass-forming alloys based on thermodynamic arguments; it shall be of benefit for the exploration of new metallic glasses.

  14. Effect of microstructure and alloying elements distribution on welding quality of Zircaloy-4

    Ji, Pengbo; Du, Yanhua; Chi, Chunxia; Wang, Hongbo


    In order to understanding the appearance of the abnormal welding line during the CANDU fuel element end plug welding process, the analysis on the microstructure and the alloying elements distribution of three different batches of Zircaloy-4 rods, named as A753, B592 and C744, was carried out in the present study. The microstructure and localized composition of the alloys were studied by optical microscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that there was no obvious difference among the three specimens. However, it was found that there appeared etch pits in the middle area of A753 batch samples. And the grain size of welding qualified C744 batch sample was greater than the un-qualified samples of A753 and B592. According to HRTEM and EDS results, the second phase particles in the Zircaloy-4 were Zr(Fe, Cr)2 phase with the Hexagonal Close-Packed (HCP) structure. The matrix belonged to α-Zr phase with the Hexagonal Close-Packed (HCP) structure. The second phase particles distributed inside the grains and at the grain boundaries of the three batches of the alloys. The size of the second phase particles in qualified sample C744 was around 200nm with the elements of Zr, Fe and Cr. However the size of the second phase particles in the un-qualified samples B592 and A753 was about 100nm, in which the elements of Fe and Cr could not be detected or only trace amount of Fe could be detected for part of the second phase particles. Therefore it may be concluded that the grain size, the second phase size and composition are the main factors to affect the welding quality of the alloy.

  15. Physical properties of molten core materials: Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr alloys measured by electrostatic levitation

    Ohishi, Yuji; Kondo, Toshiki; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei T.; Watanabe, Yuki; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke


    It is important to understand the behaviors of molten core materials to investigate the progression of a core meltdown accident. In the early stages of bundle degradation, low-melting-temperature liquid phases are expected to form via the eutectic reaction between Zircaloy and stainless steel. The main component of Zircaloy is Zr and those of stainless steel are Fe, Ni, and Cr. Our group has previously reported physical property data such as viscosity, density, and surface tension for Zr-Fe liquid alloys using an electrostatic levitation technique. In this study, we report the viscosity, density, and surface tension of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys (Zr1-xNix (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr0.77Cr0.23) using the electrostatic levitation technique.

  16. High temperature chemical reactivity in the system (U, Zr,Fe, O). A contribution to the study of zirconia as a ``core catcher``; Reactivite chimique a haute temperature dans le systeme (U, Zr, Fe, O) contribution a l`etude de la zircone comme recuperateur de ``corium``

    Maurizi, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 -Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees


    Within the framework of the improvement of nuclear reactor safety, a device to recover corium is proposed to be installed under the reactor vessel to limit the consequences of a core melting. According to our bibliographic study, stabilised zirconia seems to be the best refractory material to play this role and to support the physicochemical, mechanical and thermal requirements imposed to the corium catcher. The nature of the chemical interactions between zirconia and iron of high temperature were established and experimental data on the (U, Fe, Zr, O) quaternary system which stands for the corium were determined. First of all, the Knudsen effusion mass-spectrometric method was used to establish the liquidus position for a (U, Zr, O) alloy representative of the corium (U/Zr = 1,5) at 2000 deg C. The oxygen solubility limit in a (U, Zr, O) liquid alloy is about 7 atomic %. In oxidising conditions, the reaction between zirconia and iron leads to the formation of a stabilised zirconia-iron oxide solid solution. Up to 10 atomic % of iron can be incorporated in the structure, leading to the stabilisation of cubic zirconia and a modification of lattice constants. The valence and localisation of those iron measured as a function of time and temperature from 1500 to 2400 deg C, after high frequency inductive heating, both on laboratory materials are commercial bricks. The reaction rate is governed by an activation energy of about 80 kJ/mol. Our results demonstrate that stabilised zirconia is able to efficiently absorb oxidised iron. (author). 169 refs.

  17. Revising Translations

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne


    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable...

  18. Phase Structure and High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of Two-Phase Fe-25Al- xZr Alloys Compared to Three-Phase Fe-30Al- xZr Alloys

    Kejzlar, Pavel; Kratochvíl, Petr; Král, Robert; Vodičková, Věra


    The structure and high-temperature mechanical properties of Fe-30 at. pct Al and Fe-25 at. pct Al alloys with various Zr contents are compared. The scanning electron microscope images in chemical contrast mode (R-BSE) as well as EDS, EBSD, and X-ray diffraction were used to determine the structure and phase composition. The as-cast alloys (both Fe-30Al and Fe-25Al) were observed to be two-phase DO3/B2 + Laves phase λ 1 (Fe,Al)2Zr alloys with typical fine lamellar eutectic areas. During the heat treatment of the Fe-25Al alloys, their structure transformed from a DO3/B2 matrix with fine lamellar eutectic into λ 1 globular particles situated in a DO3/B2 matrix. The same structure of Fe-30Al alloys decomposed into three phases: λ 1 and τ 1 Zr(Fe,Al)12 particles in a DO3/B2 matrix. The hardening in both groups of alloys (Fe-25Al and Fe-30Al) due to the presence of Zr-containing λ 1 and τ 1 phases is compared.

  19. Revising Translations

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne


    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable......) way. Most respondents and interviewees are worried about increasing pressures on the translation market, which, combined with customers’ general lack of understanding of the translation process, mean that systematic, all-encompassing quality assurance is rarely financially viable....

  20. Revision Notes

    Matthewson, Siobhan; Debbadi, Margaret


    Revision Notes: CCEA ICT for GCSE has been written by experienced teachers and examiners so that you can be confident that it covers only the facts and ideas you will be expected to recall and use in the exam. - Essential facts are carefully organised to make revising easier. - Exams tips show you how to avoid losing marks and get the best grade. - Check your understanding questions support you in the run-up to the exams, with answers provided free online at This book will help you plan and pace your revision to suit your learning needs and can be integrated with other re

  1. Ethical Revision.

    Jackman, Mary Kathryn


    Discusses the dilemma of how to respond to student papers advancing morally repugnant positions. Advocates conceptualizing writing as an ethical act and connecting ethics and revision. Describes briefly how three such student papers were handled. (SR)

  2. Scar revision

    ... chap 21. Lorenz P, Bari AS. Scar prevention, treatment, and revision. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 16. Read More Contracture deformity Keloids Review Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  3. Admissible and Restrained Revision

    Booth, R; 10.1613/jair.1874


    As partial justification of their framework for iterated belief revision Darwiche and Pearl convincingly argued against Boutiliers natural revision and provided a prototypical revision operator that fits into their scheme. We show that the Darwiche-Pearl arguments lead naturally to the acceptance of a smaller class of operators which we refer to as admissible. Admissible revision ensures that the penultimate input is not ignored completely, thereby eliminating natural revision, but includes the Darwiche-Pearl operator, Nayaks lexicographic revision operator, and a newly introduced operator called restrained revision. We demonstrate that restrained revision is the most conservative of admissible revision operators, effecting as few changes as possible, while lexicographic revision is the least conservative, and point out that restrained revision can also be viewed as a composite operator, consisting of natural revision preceded by an application of a "backwards revision" operator previously studied by Papini. ...

  4. ACL Revision

    Costa-Paz, Matias; Dubois, Julieta Puig; Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Rasumoff, Alejandro; Yacuzzi, Carlos


    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a series of patients one year after an ACL revision with clinical evaluation and MRI, to consider their condition before returning to sports activities. Methods: A descriptive, prospective and longitudinal study was performed. A series of patients who underwent an ACL revision between March 2014 and March 2015 were evaluated after one year post surgery. They were evaluated using the Lysholm score, IKDC, Tegner, artrometry and MRI (3.0 t). A signal pattern and osteointegration was determined in the MRI. Graft signal intensity of the ACL graft using the signal/noise quotient value (SNQ) was also determined to evaluate the ligamentatization process state. Results: A total of 18 male patients were evaluated with a mean age of 31 years old.Average scores were: Lysholm 88 points, IKDC 80 points, Pre-surgical Tegner 9 points and postoperative 4 points. Artrhometry (KT1000) at 20 newtons showed a side to side difference of less than 3 mm in 88%. Only 44% of patients returned to their previous sport activity one year after revision.The MRI showed a heterogeneous signal in neoligaments in 34% of patients. SNQ showed graft integration in only 28%. Synovial fluid was found in bone-graft interphase in 44% of tunnels, inferring partial osteointegration. The heterogeneous signal was present in 50% of patients who did not return to the previous sport level activity. (Fisher statistics: p = 0.043) There were no meaningful differences in patients with auto or allografts. Conclusion: Although the clinical evaluation was satisfactory, only 44% of patients returned to the previous level of sport activity one year after the ACL surgery. The ligamentatization process was found in 28% of knees evaluated with MRI one year later. Partial osteointegration is inferred in 44%. Results showed a meaningful relation between the signal of neoligaments in the MRI and the return to sport activity in said series of patients. MRI is a useful tool

  5. Wetting behavior of alternative solder alloys

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.


    Recent economic and environmental issues have stimulated interest in solder alloys other than the traditional Sn-Pb eutectic or near eutectic composition. Preliminary evaluations suggest that several of these alloys approach the baseline properties (wetting, mechanical, thermal, and electrical) of the Sn-Pb solders. Final alloy acceptance will require major revisions to existing industrial and military soldering specifications. Bulk alloy and solder joint properties are consequently being investigated to validate their producibility and reliability. The work reported in this paper examines the wetting behavior of several of the more promising commercial alloys on copper substrates. Solder wettability was determined by the meniscometer and wetting balance techniques. The wetting results suggest that several of the alternative solders would satisfy pretinning and surface mount soldering applications. Their use on plated through hole technology might be more difficult since the alloys generally did not spread or flow as well as the 60Sn-40Pb solder.

  6. Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook. Volume 5. Supplement XI. Nonferrous Alloys


    356, A356 Dec 69 310O , AI-4.SCu-0.BAq-O.25Mn-0 .25Ti ................................................ KO-1 cast Jun 69 ALUMINUM ALLOYS...DECEMBER 1978 VOLUME 3 CONTENTS CODE DESIGNATION REVISED ALUMINUM ALLOYS; Cast (AIC) 3104 AI-SSi-l.3Cu-0 .5f1g...2048 1 Jun 27 ALUMINUM ALLOYS; Wrought, Not Heat Treatable (AIWN) 3301 A -7 .5 7-O . 25Cr

  7. Typical zirconium alloys microstructures in nuclear components; Typische Mikrostrukturen von Zirconiumlegierungen in Komponenten kerntechnischer Anlagen

    Flores, Alejandra Viviana; Gomez, Adrian Guillermo; Juarez, Gabriel Alejandro [Dept. de Tecnologia de Aleaciones de Circonio, CAE, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others


    The different microstructures typically found in nuclear components made of zirconium alloys are discussed in this paper. These include material in a variety of thermo-mechanical conditions, e. g., cold rolled, stress relieved, recrystallized, welded, biphasic, together with minority second phases belonging to the original material or incorporated due to in-service conditions. The anisotropic crystalline structure of zirconium is exploited in microscopical observations by means of polarizer filters that enhance the contrast between different grains, and greatly aid the identification in most microstructures. Most microstructural variations across a wide range of length-scales, such as those produced by welding processes, can be effectively resolved by traditional optical microscopy (OM). However, some finer microstructures like those found in CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor pressure tube material, or some minority second phase particles like the Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2} precipitates in Zircaloy-4 cannot be completely resolved by this technique. Thus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are required in such cases. For SEM observations we show the valuable issue of the scale in specific microstructural studies, which allows quantifying microstructural parameters using image analysis. For TEM observations, we have greatly benefited from the electron diffraction diagrams, which have allowed us to investigate the crystalline structure of irradiated second phase particles, which would remain unnoticed to both, OM or SEM observations.

  8. Loosening After Acetabular Revision

    Beckmann, Nicholas A.; Weiss, Stefan; Klotz, Matthias C.M.;


    The best method of revision acetabular arthroplasty remains unclear. Consequently, we reviewed the literature on the treatment of revision acetabular arthroplasty using revision rings (1541 cases; mean follow-up (FU) 5.7 years) and Trabecular Metal, or TM, implants (1959 cases; mean FU 3.7 years)...

  9. Aluminum alloy

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)


    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  10. 锆合金中第二相的研究%Study of Second Phase Particles in Zirconium Alloys

    刘文庆; 钟柳明; 彭剑超; 刘仁多; 姚美意; 周邦新


    Zirconium-based alloys with different Nb and Fe addition ratios were treated by β-quenching at 1050 ℃ for 0.5 h and the followed annealing at 560 ℃ for 10 h; then their microstructure and second phase particles (SPPs) were examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).Results show that with the increasing of Nb addition and the Nb/Fe ratios, SPPs Zr(Fe,Cr)2 with a hexagonal close packed (HCP) structure in Zircaly-4 transform to SPPs Zr(Nb,Fe,Cr)2 with a hexagonal close packed structure; meanwhile the Nb/Fe ratio of Zr(Nb,Fe,Cr)2 is increased too.SPPs βNb with a body center cubic structure could be observed besides HCP-Zr(Nb,Fe,Cr)2 precipitates when Nb contents and Nb/Fe ratios are high enough.%将几种Nb、Fe含量不同的锆合金样品在1050℃保温0.5h后水冷,在560℃回火10h,用带能谱分析(EDS)的透射电子显微镜研究它们的第二相粒子.结果显示:随着合金样品中Nb元素含量的提高及Nb/Fe比的增加,第二相从Zircaly-4合金中密排六方结构的Zr(Fe,Cr)2向密排六方的Zr(Nb,Fe,Cr)2转变,同时Zr(Nb,Fe,Cr)2中的Nb/Fe 比也在提高.当样品中Nb元素含量和Nb/Fe比提高到一定程度,除了生成密排六方结构的Zr(Nb,Fe,Cr)2,同时出现了体心立方结构的βNb.

  11. Weld Bead Size, Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Zirconium Alloys Joints Welded by Pulsed Laser Spot Welding

    Cai, Chuang; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang; Peng, Genchen; Wang, Xian


    Pulsed laser spot welding of intersection points of zirconium alloys straps was performed. Weld bead size, microstructure and the corrosion behavior of weld bead were investigated. With the increasing laser peak power or number of shots, the weld width of the beads increased, the protrusion decreased and the dimple increased with further increase in heat input. The fusion zone consisted of a mixture of αZr and residual βZr phases. After annealing treatment, βNb and Zr(Fe, Nb)2 second phase particles were precipitated inter- and intragranular of αZr grains adequately. The oxide thickness of annealed weld bead was about 3.90 μm, decreased by about 18.1% relative to the 4.76 μm of as-welded specimen corroded at 400 °C and 10.3 MPa for 20 days. The corrosion resistance of annealed specimen was better than that of as-welded specimen, since the second phase particles exerted better corrosion resistance, and the content of Nb in βZr and the fraction of βZr decreased after the annealing treatment.

  12. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    Kjer, Torben


    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...

  13. Stripping for Revision.

    Smith, Donna


    Describes a three-step process by which students are taught to revise their writing by listing each sentence on another paper, combining sentences by eliminating redundancy, reducing information to appositives, and reducing information to participles, as well as revising the reduced number of sentences by including verbals, action verbs,…

  14. Writing as Revision.

    Della-Piana, Gabriel M.; Endo, George T.

    This proposal for a longitudinal experimental study with a treatment intervention focuses on the process of writing as revision. Revision refers to the process which occurs prior to and throughout the writing of a work, rather than the final editing. According to this process, the writer goes through five stages: preconceptions concerning style…

  15. Letter of Map Revision

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  16. Katz's revisability paradox dissolved

    Tamminga, Allard; Verhaegh, Sander


    Quine's holistic empiricist account of scientific inquiry can be characterized by three constitutive principles: noncontradiction, universal revisability and pragmatic ordering. We show that these constitutive principles cannot be regarded as statements within a holistic empiricist's scientific theo

  17. Katz's revisability paradox dissolved

    Tamminga, Allard; Verhaegh, Sander


    Quine's holistic empiricist account of scientific inquiry can be characterized by three constitutive principles: noncontradiction, universal revisability and pragmatic ordering. We show that these constitutive principles cannot be regarded as statements within a holistic empiricist's scientific

  18. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  19. 铝合金7050-T7451高温高应变率本构方程及修正%Research and Revise on Constitutive Equation of 7050-T7451 Aluminum Alloy in High Strain Rate and High Temperature Condition

    滑勇之; 关立文; 刘辛军; 崔海龙


    通过分离式霍普金森压杆(SHPB)及准静态压缩实验研究铝合金7050-T7451高温高应变率下流变应力特征,利用准静态实验数据获得本构方程应变强化参数,利用SHPB实验数据获得室温下不同应变率(400~2500s-1)的应变率强化参数,以及应变率为2500s-1不同温度下(250~600℃)的热软化参数.利用不同幂次多项式对Johnson-Cook本构方程的热软化项拟合,最终选择五次多项式作为修正后本构方程热软化项.利用修正后本构方程对不同温度条件下应力应变曲线进行预测,实验数据与预测曲线表现出良好一致性.%The flow stress behavior of 7050-T7451 aluminum alloy at high temperature and high strain rate was investigated by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and quasi-static test system. The strain hardening parameters were obtained by the quasi-static test experiment data. The strain rate hardening parameter at various strain rates (400-2500S-1) and room temperature,and the thermal softening parameter at various temperatures where strain rate is 2500s-1 ,were obtained by the split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment data. A new thermal softening equation is proposed to revise the Johnson-Cook constitutive equation , where the a quintic polynomial equation is choosed as the new thermal softening equation. According to the comparison between predict curves and experiment curves of stress-strain at various temperatures, the modified constitutive equation can fit the experiment date well.

  20. Revising and editing for translators

    Mossop, Brian


    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...


    李强; 余康; 刘仁多; 梁雪; 姚美意; 周邦新


    研究了在Zr-4合金中添加2 wt% Cu的合金显微组织及其在500℃和10.3 MPa过热蒸汽中的耐腐蚀性能.结果表明,该合金经过热轧、冷轧以及经2h、580℃真空退火处理后,得到以α-Zr为基体的显微组织,合金中主要存在四方结构的Zr2Cu和密排六方结构的Zr(Fe,Cr,Cu)2第二相,Zr2Cu相有长度1~4 μm、厚度约1μm的片状和直径300~500 nm的球形两种形态,并且都会富集一定量的Fe元素.在10.3 MPa、500℃过热水蒸汽中,添加2 wt%Cu的Zr-4合金不发生疖状腐蚀,表明Cu是改善锆合金耐疖状腐蚀性能的有益元素.%The effects of the 2 wt% copper addition on microstnictures and the corrosion behaviors of Zircaloy-4 alloys in the 500? superheated steam of 10. 3 MPa were investigated. The main phase was a-Zr after hot rolled, cold rolled and subsequent vacuum annealing treatment (580? for 2 h). Furthermore, tetragonal-Zr2Cu and hexagonal-Zr( Fe,Cr,Cu)2 precipitates were observed by TEM. Enrichment of Fe element was found in lamellar (about 1 ~ 4 祄 and 1 祄 in length and thickness, respectively) and spherical (300 -500 nm in diameter) Zr2Cu phases. Nodular corrosion was not observed in Zr-4-2Cu after 500 h corrosion in 500? superheated steam of 10.3 MPa, indicating thai Cu was beneficial to improving the nodular corrosion resistance of Zircaloy alloy in the environment stated above.

  2. Revision without ordinals

    Rivello, Edoardo


    We show that Herzberger’s and Gupta’s revision theories of truth can be recast in purely inductive terms, without any appeal neither to the transfinite ordinal numbers nor to the axiom of Choice. The result is presented in an abstract and general setting, emphasising both its validity for a wide ran

  3. Revision of Oxandra (Annonaceae)

    Junikka, L.; Maas, P.J.M.; Maas-van de Kamer, H.; Westra, L.Y.Th.


    A taxonomic revision is given of the Neotropical genus Oxandra (Annonaceae). Within the genus 27 species are recognized, 4 of which are new to science. Most of the species are occurring in tropical South America, whereas a few (6) are found in Mexico and Central America and two in the West Indies

  4. Revision of Pachycentria (Melastomataceae)

    Clausing, Gudrun


    A revision of Pachycentria Blume, which includes the monotypic Pogonanthera Blume, is presented. Pachycentria comprises eight species and one subspecies. Two species, P. vogelkopensis and P. hanseniana, are newly described. The genus is distinguished from other genera in the Medinillinae by a small

  5. Revision of the Sarcospermataceae

    Lam, H.J.; Varossieau, W.W.


    The genus Sarcosperma was excluded from the Sapotaceae by the first-named writer in 1925, the group being considered as of family rank. In 1926 the same author published a concise and fragmentary revision of the monotypic order, in which two new Malaysian species were described. The continental spec

  6. Translating VDM to Alloy

    Lausdahl, Kenneth


    . Traditionally, theorem provers are used to prove that specifications are correct but this process is highly dependent on expert users. Alternatively, model finding has proved to be useful for validation of specifications. The Alloy Analyzer is an automated model finder for checking and visualising Alloy...... specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  7. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  8. Turbine Blade Alloy

    MacKay, Rebecca


    The High Speed Research Airfoil Alloy Program developed a fourth-generation alloy with up to an +85 F increase in creep rupture capability over current production airfoil alloys. Since improved strength is typically obtained when the limits of microstructural stability are exceeded slightly, it is not surprising that this alloy has a tendency to exhibit microstructural instabilities after high temperature exposures. This presentation will discuss recent results obtained on coated fourth-generation alloys for subsonic turbine blade applications under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. Progress made in reducing microstructural instabilities in these alloys will be presented. In addition, plans will be presented for advanced alloy development and for computational modeling, which will aid future alloy development efforts.

  9. F-Alloy: An Alloy Based Model Transformation Language

    Gammaitoni, Loïc; Kelsen, Pierre


    Model transformations are one of the core artifacts of a model-driven engineering approach. The relational logic language Alloy has been used in the past to verify properties of model transformations. In this paper we introduce the concept of functional Alloy modules. In essence a functional Alloy module can be viewed as an Alloy module representing a model transformation. We describe a sublanguage of Alloy called F-Alloy that allows the specification of functional Alloy modules. Module...


    Schonfeld, F.W.


    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  11. High strength alloys

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub


    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  12. High strength alloys

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX


    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  13. Revision Total Elbow Arthroplasty.

    Ramirez, Miguel A; Cheung, Emilie V; Murthi, Anand M


    Despite recent technologic advances, total elbow arthroplasty has complication rates higher than that of total joint arthroplasty in other joints. With new antirheumatic treatments, the population receiving total elbow arthroplasty has shifted from patients with rheumatoid arthritis to those with posttraumatic arthritis, further compounding the high complication rate. The most common reasons for revision include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, and component failure. Common mechanisms of total elbow arthroplasty failure include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, component failure, and instability. Tension band fixation, allograft struts with cerclage wire, and/or plate and screw constructs can be used for fracture stabilization.


    Yan Jia-an; Zhou Xunyu


    Continuous-time Markowitz's mean-variance efficient strategies are modified by parameterizing a critical quantity. It is shown that these parameterized Markowitz strategies could reach the original mean target with arbitrarily high probabilities. This, in turn, motivates the introduction of certain stopped strategies where stock holdings are liquidated whenever the parameterized Markowitz strategies reach the present value of the mean target. The risk aspect of the revised Markowitz strategies are examined via expected discounted loss from the initial budget. A new portfolio selection model is suggested based on the results of the paper.

  15. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)


    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  16. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    Frank E. Goodwin


    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  17. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    Frank E. Goodwin


    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  18. Infrared measurement and simulation of magnesium alloy welding temperature field

    LIU Liming; CHI Mingsheng; HUANG Ruisheng; SONG Gang; ZHOU Yang


    The welding temperature field of magnesium alloy AZ31 welded by TIG was measured with the uncooled infrared (IR) thermal imaging technology. The variables in the mathematic mode of welding temperature fields were revised by IR temperature data. Based on the results of simulation, the loss of temperature fields caused by arc interfered was compensated, and a whole temperature field was achieved, which provided a precise and powerful foundation for the investigation of microstructure of the joints.

  19. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.;

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  20. Emotion Processes in Knowledge Revision

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese


    In recent years, a number of insights have been gained into the cognitive processes that explain how individuals overcome misconceptions and revise their previously acquired incorrect knowledge. The current study complements this line of research by investigating the moment-by-moment emotion processes that occur during knowledge revision using a…

  1. Interior Design: Revision as Focus.

    Smede, Shelly D.


    Describes how the author teaches her eighth-grade students to revise their writing, providing "working revision days" in class, offering direction and structure, and thereby helping students learn how much impact going back to a piece of writing and making sweeping changes can have on the end result. (SR)

  2. Surgical scar revision: An overview

    Shilpa Garg


    Full Text Available Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods.

  3. Experimental partitioning of Zr, Ti, and Nb between silicate liquid and a complex noble metal alloy and the partitioning of Ti between perovskite and platinum metal

    Jurewicz, Stephen R.; Jones, John H.


    El Goresy et al.'s observation of Nb, Zr, and Ta in refractory platinum metal nuggets (RPMN's) from Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) in the Allende meteorite led them to propose that these lithophile elements alloyed in the metallic state with noble metals in the early solar nebula. However, Grossman pointed out that the thermodynamic stability of Zr in the oxide phase is vastly greater than metallic Zr at estimated solar nebula conditions. Jones and Burnett suggested this discrepancy may be explained by the very non-ideal behavior of some lithophile transition elements in noble metal solutions and/or intermetallic compounds. Subsequently, Fegley and Kornacki used thermodynamic data taken from the literature to predict the stability of several of these intermetallic compounds at estimated solar nebula conditions. Palme and Schmitt and Treiman et al. conducted experiments to quantify the partitioning behavior of certain lithophile elements between silicate liquid and Pt-metal. Although their results were somewhat variable, they did suggest that Zr partition coefficients were too small to explain the observed 'percent' levels in some RPMN's. Palme and Schmitt also observed large partition coefficients for Nb and Ta. No intermetallic phases were identified. Following the work of Treiman et al., Jurewicz and Jones performed experiments to examine Zr, Nb, and Ti partitioning near solar nebula conditions. Their results showed that Zr, Nb, and Ti all have an affinity for the platinum metal, with Nb and Ti having a very strong preference for the metal. The intermetallic phases (Zr,Fe)Pt3, (Nb,Fe)Pt3, and (Ti,Fe)Pt3 were identified. Curiously, although both experiments and calculations indicate that Ti should partition strongly into Pt-metal (possibly as TiPt3), no Ti has ever been observed in any RPMN's. Fegley and Kornacki also noticed this discrepancy and hypothesized that the Ti was stabilized in perovskite which is a common phase in Allende CAI's.

  4. Philippines revises power plans

    Hayes, D.


    Following an unexpected surge in electricity demand the Philippines has revised its medium term power development programme. The sharp increase in electricity consumption follows three years of slack demand due to civil disturbances before the end of the Macros administration and the election of Corazon Aquino as President in 1986. Originally, the Aquino government's medium term power development plans called for about 500MW of generating capacity to be installed between 1986 and 1992. The three proposed plants were scheduled for commissioning in 1991 and 1992. However, a spurt in power demand growth during the past nine months has caused concern among industrialists that power shortages could occur by the end of the decade. So additional capacity will be installed to prevent an anticipated shortfall in electricity supplies by the early 1990s.

  5. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    Tan, Xincai


    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  6. Fundamentals of radiation materials science metals and alloys

    Was, Gary S


    The revised second edition of this established text offers readers a significantly expanded introduction to the effects of radiation on metals and alloys. It describes the various processes that occur when energetic particles strike a solid, inducing changes to the physical and mechanical properties of the material. Specifically it covers particle interaction with the metals and alloys used in nuclear reactor cores and hence subject to intense radiation fields. It describes the basics of particle-atom interaction for a range of particle types, the amount and spatial extent of the resulting radiation damage, the physical effects of irradiation and the changes in mechanical behavior of irradiated metals and alloys. Updated throughout, some major enhancements for the new edition include improved treatment of low- and intermediate-energy elastic collisions and stopping power, expanded sections on molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methodologies describing collision cascade evolution, new treatment of t...


    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.


    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.


    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.


    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  9. A study on scar revision

    Ashutosh Talwar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Scars are psychologically distressing for the patients and have an impact on the quality of life and self esteem of the patients. Scar revision is an aesthetic skill which is mastered by plastic surgeons and encroached now by dermatosurgeons. Scars on the face are aesthetically unacceptable and various techniques have been improvised for making a scar aesthetically acceptable. Various types of techniques are used for scar revision like W plasty, Z plasty and VY plasty. Aims: To see the efficacy of various scar revision techniques including Z plasty, VY plasty and W plasty in 30 patients with disfiguring scars. Methods: We selected twenty patients of disfiguring scars for the study. The scars from various causes including trauma and burns were included in our study. Various techniques of scar revision include Z plasty, W plasty and VY plasty were performed according to the type and site of scar. Results: Male: female was 1.5: 1. The scar revision surgery yielded excellent results with minimal complications including haematoma formation, secondary infection and delayed healing seen in 5% patients each. Regarding the efficacy of scar revision, excellent improvement was seen in 60% patients, moderate improvement was seen in 30% patients and mild improvement was seen in 10% patients. Conclusions: Dermatologists can employ a number of surgical scar revision techniques. While some are better suited to treat specific types of scars, they can be used in combination with each other or with adjunctive therapies to achieve optimal results.

  10. Circumcision revision in male children

    Mohammed A. Al-Ghazo


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine indications for circumcision revision and to identify the specialty of the person who performed unsatisfactory primary circumcision. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors reviewed medical records of 52 cases that underwent circumcision revision over a 6-year period (1998 to 2004. Sleeve surgical technique was used for revision in patients with redundant foreskin or concealed penis, penoplasty for partial or complete degloving of the penis and meatotomy for external meatal stenosis. The mean age of children was 32 months (range 6 months to 9 years. RESULTS: Most of unsatisfactory primary circumcisions (86.7% were performed by laymen. All patients who underwent circumcision revision had good to excellent cosmetic results. CONCLUSION: Primary circumcision performed by laymen carry a high complication rate and serious complications may occur. A period of training and direct supervision by physicians is required before allowing laymen to perform circumcision independently.

  11. 170 - 174_Yarube_revised


    acquisition, organization, utilization, and revision of knowledge ... The test was originally developed for use in rats to overcome stress ..... insulin or insulin resistance is associated with memory ... cerebral atrophy and white matter changes.

  12. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    Conner, William V.


    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  13. [Pressure sore revision surgery].

    Dorsche, Karin Marion


    Pressure sores are a major problem for patients as well as society in general. Immobilised patients are especially at risk. This group of patients with pressure sores should be hospitalised to perform surgical revision of the wound and reconstruction using a flap. Such surgery demands extensive postoperative relief of the flap. The University Centre for Wound Healing at Odense University Hospital has tested the effects of a reduction of the formerly recommended relief period from three to two weeks. In this article we report results covering all patients who have undergone surgery and reconstruction of pressure sores during the period from 1st October 2001 to 1st November 2008. The results are divided into two periods: the period before and the period after the introduction of the reduced relief period. A total of 80 patients were included; 34 in the first period and 46 in the second period. We achieved a considerable reduction in median length of stay from 38 to 27 days with no increase in surgical or complication frequency. Furthermore, the share of fully healed remained unchanged. We believe that there is no risk in shortening the immobile postoperative relief phase following reconstruction of pressure wounds in immobilised patients.

  14. Revision du Genre Aseraggodes Kaup

    Chabanaud, P.


    Le présent travail comprend la définition du genre Aseraggodes Kaup et la revision, sous forme d'une clef dichotomique, de toutes les espèces qui le composent, revision établie d'après les types eux-mêmes de ces espèces. Ce genre Aseraggodes appartient à la famille des Soleidae et à la sousfamille

  15. A study on scar revision

    Ashutosh Talwar; Neerja Puri


    Introduction: Scars are psychologically distressing for the patients and have an impact on the quality of life and self esteem of the patients. Scar revision is an aesthetic skill which is mastered by plastic surgeons and encroached now by dermatosurgeons. Scars on the face are aesthetically unacceptable and various techniques have been improvised for making a scar aesthetically acceptable. Various types of techniques are used for scar revision like W plasty, Z plasty and VY plasty. Aims:...

  16. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.


    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  17. Revision of infected knee arthroplasties in Denmark

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Bagger, Jens;


    Background and purpose - The surgical treatment of periprosthetic knee infection is generally either a partial revision procedure (open debridement and exchange of the tibial insert) or a 2-stage exchange arthroplasty procedure. We describe the failure rates of these procedures on a nationwide...... prosthesis with a re-revision rate due to infection of 34%, as compared to 55% in revisions of a revision prosthesis (p = 0.05). The failure rate of the 2-stage revisions was 30%. Median time interval between stages was 84 (9-597) days. 117 (54%) of the 2-stage revisions were revisions of a primary...... prosthesis with a re-revision rate due to infection of 21%, as compared to 29% in revisions of a previously revised prosthesis (p = 0.1). Overall postoperative mortality was 0.6% in high-volume centers (> 30 procedures within 2 years) as opposed to 7% in the remaining centers (p = 0.003). Interpretation...

  18. Mg based alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    Ordonez, S. [Univ. de Santiago de Chile (Chile). Fac. de Ingenieria; Garcia, G.; Serafini, D.; San Martin, A.


    In the present work, we studied the production of magnesium alloys, of stoichiometry 2Mg + Ni, by mechanical alloying (MA) and the behavior of the alloys under hydrogen in a Sievert`s type apparatus. The elemental powders were milled under argon atmosphere in a Spex 8000 high energy ball mill. The milled materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Only minimum amounts of the Mg{sub 2}Ni intermetallic compound was obtained after 22 h of milling time. Most of the material was sticked to the inner surface of the container as well as to the milling balls. Powders milled only for 12 hours transforms to the intermetallic at around 433 K. Effects of the MA on the hydrogen absorption kinetics were also studied. (orig.) 10 refs.


    Veit, S.; Albert, D; Mergen, R.


    The wear properties of aluminium base alloys are relatively poor. Laser surface melting and alloying has proved successful in many alloy systems as a means of significantly improving the surface properties. The present work describes experiments designed to establish the scope of laser treatment of aluminium alloys. Aluminium does not absorb CO2 laser light as well as other metals which necessitated first a general study of absorption caotings. Aluminium alloys offer fewer opportunities than ...

  20. Analysis of niobium alloys.

    Ferraro, T A


    An ion-exchange method was applied to the analysis of synthetic mixtures representing various niobium-base alloys. The alloying elements which were separated and determined include vanadium, zirconium, hafnium, titanium, molybdenum, tungsten and tantalum. Mixtures containing zirconium or hafnium, tungsten, tantalum and niobium were separated by means of a single short column. Coupled columns were employed for the resolution of mixtures containing vanadium, zirconium or titanium, molybdenum, tungsten and niobium. The separation procedures and the methods employed for the determination of the alloying elements in their separate fractions are described.


    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.


    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  2. Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

  3. Nano-scale chemical evolution in a proton-and neutron-irradiated Zr alloy

    Harte, Allan; Topping, M.; Frankel, P.; Jädernäs, D.; Romero, J.; Hallstadius, L.; Darby, E. C.; Preuss, M.


    Proton-and neutron-irradiated Zircaloy-2 are compared in terms of the nano-scale chemical evolution within second phase particles (SPPs) Zr(Fe,Cr)2 and Zr2(Fe,Ni). This is accomplished through ultra-high spatial resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and the use of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic methods. Fe-depletion is observed from both SPP types after irradiation with both irradiative species, but is heterogeneous in the case of Zr(Fe,Cr)2, predominantly from the edge region, and homogeneously in the case of Zr2(Fe,Ni). Further, there is evidence of a delay in the dissolution of the Zr2(Fe,Ni) SPP with respect to the Zr(Fe,Cr)2. As such, SPP dissolution results in matrix supersaturation with solute under both irradiative species and proton irradiation is considered well suited to emulate the effects of neutron irradiation in this context. The mechanisms of solute redistribution processes from SPPs and the consequences for irradiation-induced growth phenomena are discussed.

  4. Alloy Selection System



    Software will Predict Corrosion Rates to Improve Productivity in the Chemical Industry. Many aspects of equipment design and operation are influenced by the choice of the alloys used to fabricate process equipment.

  5. Strength of Hard Alloys,

    Partial replacement of titanium carbide by tantalum carbide in three-phase WC-TiC-Co alloys tends to have a favorable effect on mechanical properties such as fatigue strength under bending and impact durability.

  6. First Everlasting Alloy



    There′s new alloy that apparently just won′t give up. When a pin was scraped along it the equivalent of one million times, the alloy-made of zirconium, palladium, and ruthenium—displayed no net loss of surface material. When astonished researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST) persevered with a five-million-cycle wear test, they got the same result.

  7. Machining of titanium alloys


    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  8. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing; Melucci, Massimo [Padua Univ., Padova (Italy). Dept. of Information Engineering; Frommholz, Ingo [Bedfordshire Univ. (United Kingdom); Arafat, Sachi (eds.) [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing Science


    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  9. Medical writing, revising and editing

    Pilegaard, Morten


    The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic...... form. Medical editing often takes the form of peer review and mainly addresses issues of contents and overall validity. Medical revision incorporates the checking of the macrostructure and the microstructure of the text, its language and style and its suitability for the target reader or client...

  10. Medical writing, revising and editing

    Pilegaard, Morten


    The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic...... form. Medical editing often takes the form of peer review and mainly addresses issues of contents and overall validity. Medical revision incorporates the checking of the macrostructure and the microstructure of the text, its language and style and its suitability for the target reader or client...

  11. Revising Nabokov Revising”

    Marie Bouchet


    Full Text Available Nabokov revised his works as he translated them and, on another plane, canon revisionism has been having its backlash and provoked other refracting waves. The purpose of the conference was to advance Nabokov studies through the discussion of how our view of Nabokov’s standing and his works today should be revised, especially after the publication of The Original of Laura. However the conference was not confined to just this theme, since “revising” is a word rich with implications. To borrow s...

  12. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  13. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  14. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  15. Revision of failed humeral head resurfacing arthroplasty

    Philipp N Streubel


    Conclusion: Outcomes of revision of HHR arthroplasty in this cohort did not improve upon those reported for revision of stemmed humeral implants. A comparative study would be required to allow for definitive conclusions to be made.

  16. A Practical Propositional Knowledge Base Revision Algorithm

    陶雪红; 孙伟; 等


    This paper gives an outline of knowledge base revision and some recently presented complexity results about propostitional knowledge base revision.Different methods for revising propositional knowledge base have been proposed recently by several researchers,but all methods are intractable in the general case.For practical application,this paper presents a revision method for special case,and gives its corresponding polynomial algorithm.

  17. Soft tissue trauma and scar revision.

    Mobley, Steven R; Sjogren, Phayvanh P


    Numerous techniques and treatments have been described for scar revision, with most studies focusing on the adult population. A comprehensive review of the literature reveals a paucity of references related specifically to scar revision in children. This review describes the available modalities in pediatric facial scar revision. The authors have integrated current practices in soft tissue trauma and scar revision, including closure techniques and materials, topical therapy, steroid injection, cutaneous laser therapy, and tissue expanders.

  18. Correlation between diffusion barriers and alloying energy in binary alloys

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan;


    In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells.......In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells....

  19. Revised hypothesis and future perspectives

    Norsk, P; Drummer, C; Christensen, N J


    Results from space have been unexpected and not predictable from the results of ground-based simulations. Therefore, the concept of how weightlessness and gravity modulates the regulation of body fluids must be revised and a new simulation model developed. The main questions to ask in the future ...

  20. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  1. Revised Safety Code A2

    SC Secretariat


    Please note that the revised Safety Code A2 (Code A2 rev.) entitled "REPORTING OF ACCIDENTS AND NEAR MISSES" is available on the web at the following url: Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: SC Secretariat

  2. Revised Accounting for Business Combinations

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Key, Kimberly


    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (Revised 2007) Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects. This Statement…

  3. Ethical considerations in revision rhinoplasty.

    Wayne, Ivan


    The problems that arise when reviewing another surgeon's work, the financial aspects of revision surgery, and the controversies that present in marketing and advertising will be explored. The technological advances of computer imaging and the Internet have introduced new problems that require our additional consideration.

  4. Revision of Drymophloeus (Areceacea: Arecoideae)

    Zona, Scott


    A revision of the genus Drymophloeus (Arecaceae: Arecoideae: Ptychospermatinae) recognizes seven species, distributed from the Maluku Islands of Indonesia to Western Samoa. The history of the genus is reviewed. A key, species descriptions, a complete list of synonymy, a list of specimens examined, i

  5. A revision of Ichnocarpus (Apocynaceae)

    Middleton, D.J.


    The genus Ichnocarpus is revised. A total of 12 species are recognised, of which one new species is described. Three new combinations in Ichnocarpus and one in Anodendron are made. Micrechites and Lamechites are treated as synonyms of Ichnocarpus. Nomina nuda and species exclusae have been given as

  6. Curriculum revision and ICT integration

    Atanasova-Pacemska, Tatjana


    In this paper we will present the possibilities for revision and development of the curriculum of "Math Teaching Methods" related to Child-centered methodology and ICT integration. This paper is a result of the projects: "Teacher, Technology and young learners" and "Child-centered methodology" supported by USAID and World Learning.

  7. Effect of Annealing Temperatures on Corrosion Resistance of a Zr-0.85Sn-0.16Nb-0.38Fe-0.18Cr Alloy%退火温度对Zr-0.85Sn-0.16Nb-0.38Fe-0.18Cr合金耐腐蚀性能的影响

    姚美意; 张伟鹏; 周军; 周邦新; 李强


    为了研究退火温度对Zr-0.85Sn-0.16Nb-0.38Fe-0.18Cr合金耐腐蚀性能的影响,在740~820℃温度范围内改变冷轧前后的退火温度制备样品,通过静态高压釜腐蚀实验研究样品在360℃/18.6 MPa去离子水、400℃/10.3 MPa过热蒸汽和500℃/10.3 MPa过热蒸汽中的腐蚀行为;用透射电镜(TEM)和能谱仪(EDS)研究合金的显微组织,包括第二相的尺寸、成分与种类.研究结果表明,这种锆合金中的第二相为含少量Nb的密排六方结构的Zr(Fe,Cr,Nb)2,提高退火温度使第二相尺寸增大,第二相中的Nb含量降低;在740~800℃温度范围内改变退火温度,样品在上述中性水质中的耐腐蚀性能与常规工艺处理的相当,且都优于Zr-4合金,表明该合金的耐腐蚀性能对退火温度并不敏感.%To investigate the effect of annealing temperatures on the corrosion resistance of a Zr-0.85Sn-0.16Nb-0.38Fe-0.18Cr alloy, different annealing temperatures (740~820℃) before and after the final cold rolling were employed to prepare the specimens for corrosion tests. The specimens were corroded in deionized water at 360℃/18.6 MPa, in super heated steam at 400°C/10.3 MPa and at 500℃/10.3 MPa, respectively by autoclave test. The microstructure including the size and composition of second phase particles (SPPs) was examined by TEM and EDS. Results show that the SPPs in the Zr-0.85Sn-0.16Nb-0.38Fe-0.18Cr alloy are Zr(Fe,Cr,Nb)2 with a hep structure; With the increasing of annealing temperatures, the size of the SPPs increases and the Nb content in the SPPs decreases; Under the three test conditions, the specimens annealed at different temperatures between 740℃ and 800℃ are all with corrosion resistance behavior as good as the specimen prepared by conventional procedures, and their corrosion resistance is superior to Zircaloy-4. This indicates that the corrosion resistance of this alloy is insensitive to the annealing temperatures.


    Sampath Kumar Singh Katewad


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The main aims in doing surgery for chronic otitis media are: 1. Complete clearance of progressive disease from its site and form dry and well-epithelialised cavity. 2. Prevention of recurrent and residual cholesteatoma achieved by modifying the anatomy of tympanomastoid compartments. 3. Hearing improvement by reconstructing the ossicles and tympanic membrane. The main indication for revision surgery is failure to achieve above said aims by previous surgeon. The aim of our study was to identify the causes of recurrent disease and the factors that helps in chronic otitis media surgery to minimise the revisions & report the results of revision mastoidectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, thirty patients are selected and operated for revision mastoidectomy surgery at our institute during the period from May 2013 – Dec 2015. These cases were analysed retrospectively, patients who had discharging ear with the history of previous intact canal wall and canal down mastoidectomy surgeries were selected for this study. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS In this study, the common age group of patients who underwent revision surgery - 8-46 yrs. (mean 19 yrs.. Majority of patients are female, 16 cases (53.33%; and males 14 cases (46.66%. Revision mastoidectomies were applied to 12 cases (40% of previous canal wall up mastoidectomies and 18 cases (60% of prior canal down mastoidectomies. 60% of cases had residual/recurrent cholesteatoma which was the most common finding seen. While in 33.3% cases patient had only chronic granulations. The most frequent site of cholesteatoma was mastoid antrum/mastoid cavity seen in 73% followed by attic 42.3% and mesotympanum in 40% of cases. The common failure in primary surgery was inadequate clearance of diseased mastoid air cells - 48%, high facial bridge - 48%, stenotic meatoplasty - 40%, incomplete removal of buttress - 30%. Tympanic membrane perforation - 6.66% of cases with poor architecture of mastoidectomy

  9. Revising Psychiatry's Charter Document: "DSM-IV."

    McCarthy, Lucille Parkinson; Gerring, Joan Page


    Reports findings from a three-year study by a composition researcher and a psychiatrist of the revision of an important mental health book: "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders." Examines the revision using three methodologies. Concludes that the revision functions to achieve certain social and political effects. (HB)

  10. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty

    Salama, Amir; Stanley, David


    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery. PMID:27583011

  11. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    Laubenfels, de D.J.


    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana

  12. Impact toughness of laser alloyed aluminium AA1200 alloys

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB


    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4kW Nd:YAG laser and impact resistance of the alloys was investigated. The alloying powders were a mixture of Ni, Ti and SiC in different proportions. Surfaces reinforced...


    Berat Barıs BULDUM


    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  14. Effect of helium on tensile properties of vanadium alloys

    Chung, H.M.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    Tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat BL-47), 3Ti-1Si (BL-45), and V-5Ti (BL-46) alloys after irradiation in a conventional irradiation experiment and in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE) were reported previously. This paper presents revised tensile properties of these alloys, with a focus on the effects of dynamically generated helium of ductility and work-hardening capability at <500{degrees}C. After conventional irradiation (negligible helium generation) at {approx}427{degrees}C, a 30-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (BL-47) exhibited very low uniform elongation, manifesting a strong susceptibility to loss of work-hardening capability. In contrast, a 15-kg heat of V-3Ti-1Si (BL -45) exhibited relatively high uniform elongation ({approx}4%) during conventional irradiation at {approx}427{degrees}C, showing that the heat is resistant to loss of work-hardening capability.

  15. Selective dissolution in binary alloys

    McCall, Carol Rene

    Corrosion is an important issue in the design of engineering alloys. De-alloying is an aspect of alloy corrosion related to the selective dissolution of one or more of the components in an alloy. The work reported herein focuses on the topic of de-alloying specific to single-phase binary noble metal alloy systems. The alloy systems investigated were gold-silver and gold-copper. The onset of a bulk selective dissolution process is typically marked by a critical potential whereby the more reactive component in the alloy begins dissolving from the bulk, leading to the formation of a bi-continuous solid-void morphology. The critical potential was investigated for the entire composition range of gold-silver alloys. The results presented herein include the formulation of an expression for critical potential as a function of both alloy and electrolyte composition. Results of the first investigation of underpotential deposition (UPD) on alloys are also presented herein. These results were implemented as an analytical tool to provide quantitative measurements of the surface evolution of gold during de-alloying. The region below the critical potential was investigated in terms of the compositional evolution of the alloy surface. Below the critical potential, there is a competition between the dissolution of the more reactive alloying constituent (either silver or copper) and surface diffusion of gold that serves to cover dissolution sites and prevent bulk dissolution. By holding the potential at a prescribed value below the critical potential, a time-dependent gold enrichment occurs on the alloy surface leading to passivation. A theoretical model was developed to predict the surface enrichment of gold based on the assumption of layer-by-layer dissolution of the more reactive alloy constituent. The UPD measurements were used to measure the time-dependent surface gold concentration and the results agreed with the predictions of the theoretical model.

  16. Structural thermodynamics of alloys

    Manenc, Jack


    Technical progress has for a very long time been directly dependent on progress in metallurgy, which is itself connected with improvements in the technology of alloys. Metals are most frequently used in the form of alloys for several reasons: the quantity of pure metal in its native state in the earth's crust is very limited; pure metals must be extracted from ores which are themselves impure. Finally, the methods of treatment used lead more easily to alloys than to pure metals. The most typical case is that of iron, where a pure ore may be found, but which is the starting point for cast iron or steel, alloys of iron and carbon. In addition, the properties of alloys are in general superior to those of pure metals and modem metallurgy consists of controlling these properties so as to make them conform to the requirements of the design office. Whilst the engineer was formerly compelled to adapt his designs and constructions to the materials available, such as wood, stone, bronze, iron, cast iron and ordinary st...

  17. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    Strasser, Peter [Houston, TX; Koh, Shirlaine [Houston, TX; Mani, Prasanna [Houston, TX; Ratndeep, Srivastava [Houston, TX


    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  18. Shape Memory Alloys

    Deexith Reddy


    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are metals that "remember" their original shapes. SMAs are useful for such things as actuators which are materials that "change shape, stiffness, position, natural frequency, and other mechanical characteristics in response to temperature or electromagnetic fields" The potential uses for SMAs especially as actuators have broadened the spectrum of many scientific fields. The study of the history and development of SMAs can provide an insight into a material involved in cutting-edge technology. The diverse applications for these metals have made them increasingly important and visible to the world. This paper presents the working of shape memory alloys , the phenomenon of super-elasticity and applications of these alloys.

  19. Neutron absorbing alloy

    Hayashi, Masayuki


    The neutron absorbing alloy of the present invention comprises Ti or an alloy thereof as a mother material, to which from 2 to 40% by weight of Hf and Gd within a range of from 4 to 50% by weight in total are added respectively. Ti is excellent in specific strength, corrosion resistance and workability, and produces no noxious intermetallic compound with Hf and Gd. In addition, since the alloy can incorporate a great quantity of Hf and Gd, a neutron absorbing material having excellent neutron absorbing performance than usual and excellent in specific strength, corrosion resistance and workability can be manufactured conveniently and economically not by a special manufacturing method. (T.M.)

  20. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    ZHANG Ping-ze; XU Zhong; HE Zhi-yong; ZHANG Gao-hui


    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%.Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  1. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    ZHANGPing-ze; XUZhong; HEZhi-yong; ZHANGGao-hui


    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%. Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  2. Revision Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty.

    Cohen, Jacob T; Bates, Dwight D; Postma, Gregory N


    To evaluate the indications, results, and safety of revision Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty (GML). A retrospective chart review of 156 patients that underwent GML procedures between the years 1998-2002. Study population consisted of those patients who required revision surgery for any reason. Sixteen patients required 22 revision procedures. Indications for revision were divided into 2 groups, complications and glottal closure problems. Complications included extruded or displaced implants (n = 4). The most common glottal closure problem was undercorrection (n = 9). Others included anterior overcorrection (n = 1) and persistent posterior glottal gap (n = 2). Revision procedures included GML (n = 9), injection augmentation (n = 9), endoscopic implant removal (n = 2), and arytenoid adduction (n = 2). In patients with glottal closure problems, the GCI improved in all 10 and the voice rating scale improved in 9. Reasons for revision of GML are variable, the most common being undercorrection. A variety of safe, effective revision techniques are available with a high success rate.

  3. Pemilihan Bahan Alloy Untuk Konstruksi Gigitiruan

    Medila Dahlan


    Pada kedokteran gigi bahan alloy sangat banyak digunakan dalam segala bidang. Dalam pembuatan konstruksi gigitiman biasanya digunakan alloy emas, alloy kobalt kromium, alloy nikei kromium dan alloy stainless steel sebagai komponen gigitiman kerangka logam serta pembuatan mahkota dan jembatan. Pemilihan bahan alloy dapat dilakukan berdasarkan sifat yang dimiiiki oleh masing-masing bahan alloy sehingga akan didapat hasil konstmksi gigitiruan yang memuaskan. Pada pemakaiannya didaiam mulut...

  4. Strip Casting of High Performance Structural Alloys

    S S Park; J G Lee; Nack J Kim


    There exists a great need for the development of high performance alloys due to increasing demands for energy conservation and environmental protection. Application of strip casting shows a strong potential for the improvement of properties of existing alloys and also for the development of novel alloy systems with superior properties. The present paper reviews our Center's activities in the development of high performance alloys by strip casting. Examples include (1) Al alloys, (2) wrought Mg alloys, and (3) bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys.

  5. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L


    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of

  6. Belief Revision and Argumentation Theory

    Falappa, Marcelo Alejandro; Kern-Isberner, Gabriele; Simari, Guillermo Ricardo

    Belief revision is the process of changing beliefs to adapt the epistemic state of an agent to a new piece of information. The logical formalization of belief revision is a topic of research in philosophy, logic, and in computer science, in areas such as databases or artificial intelligence. On the other hand, argumentation is concerned primarily with the evaluation of claims based on premises in order to reach conclusions. Both provide basic and substantial techniques for the art of reasoning, as it is performed by human beings in everyday life situations and which goes far beyond logical deduction. Reasoning, in this sense, makes possible to deal successfully with problems in uncertain, dynamic environments and has been promoting the development of human societies.

  7. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: Classification revision

    Demosthenes Bouros MD, PhD, FCCP


    Full Text Available The American Thoracic Society (ATS, the European Respiratory Society (ERS and the Japan Respiratory Society (JRS are planning a revision of the 2002 ATS/ERS International Multidisciplinary Classification of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIPs1. In two years’ time it will be 10 years since its publication and with a view to publishing the revision after 10 years (i.e., in 2012, a steering committee has been established, which met in New Orleans during ATS congress in May 2010 and more recently in Barcelona during the ERS congress (Photo. The committee will meet again during the ATS and the ERS congresses that will be held in the next two years, with an additional meeting in Modena, Italy, in Αpril 2011.

  8. Revising Academic Library Governance Handbooks

    Jen Stevens


    Full Text Available Regardless of our status (tenure track, non-tenure track, staff, and/or union, academic librarians at colleges and universities may use a handbook or similar document as a framework for self-governance. These handbooks typically cover rank descriptions, promotion requirements, and grievance rights, among other topics. Unlike employee handbooks used in the corporate world, these documents may be written and maintained by academic librarians themselves1. In 2010, a group of academic librarians at George Mason University was charged with revising our Librarians’ Handbook. Given the dearth of literature about academic librarians’ handbooks and their revision, we anticipate our library colleagues in similar situations will benefit from our experience and recommendations.

  9. Clean Air Act. Revision 5


    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  10. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il


    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  11. Revision of hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    Wera, Glenn D; Gillespie, Robert J; Petty, Carter; Petersilge, William J; Kraay, Matthew J; Goldberg, Victor M


    Metal-on-metal (MOM) hip resurfacing has become an increasingly popular treatment for young, active patients with degenerative disease of the hip, as bearing surfaces with better wear properties are now available. One proposed advantage of resurfacing is its ability to be successfully revised to total hip arthroplasty (THA). In addition, radiographic parameters that may predict failure in hip resurfacing have yet to be clearly defined. Seven MOM resurfacing arthroplasties were converted to conventional THAs because of aseptic failure. Using Harris Hip Scores (HHS) and Short Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire scores, we compared the clinical outcomes of these patients with those of patients who underwent uncomplicated MOM hip resurfacing. In addition, all revisions were radiographically evaluated. Mean follow-up periods were 51 months (revision group) and 43 months (control group). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups' HHS or SF-12 scores. There was no dislocation or aseptic loosening after conversion of any resurfacing arthroplasty. Valgus neck-shaft angle (P hip resurfacing. Conversion of aseptic failure of hip resurfacing to conventional THA leads to clinical outcomes similar to those of patients who undergo uncomplicated hip resurfacing. The orientation of the femur and the components placed play a large role in implant survival in hip resurfacing. More work needs to be done to further elucidate these radiographic parameters.

  12. Pareto-optimal alloys

    Bligaard, Thomas; Johannesson, Gisli Holmar; Ruban, Andrei;


    and the cost. In this letter we present a database consisting of the lattice parameters, bulk moduli, and heats of formation for over 64 000 ordered metallic alloys, which has been established by direct first-principles density-functional-theory calculations. Furthermore, we use a concept from economic theory...

  13. Alloy catalyst material


    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...

  14. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)


    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  15. The in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application in A356 alloys


    This research has investigated the in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application to A356 alloys and wheels through the evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties, The results showed that stable titanium content can be obtained by adding a small quantity of TiO2 into electrolyte of pure aluminum. Under this approach, a greater than 95% absorptivity of titanium was achieved, and the microstructure of the specimens was changed to fine equiaxed grains from coarse columnar grains in the pure aluminum. In comparison with the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the corresponding microstructure in the testing A356 alloys and wheels was finer. Although the tensile strength was similar between the testing and the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the ductility of the former (testing) is superior to that of the later (tradition), leading to an excellent combination of strength and ductility from the testing alloys and wheels.

  16. The in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application in A356 alloys

    Zongxia LIU


    Full Text Available This research has investigated the in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application to A356 alloys and wheels through the evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties. The results showed that stable titanium content can be obtained by adding a small quantity of TiO2 into electrolyte of pure aluminum. Under this approach, a greater than 95% absorptivity of titanium was achieved, and the microstructure of the specimens was changed to fineequiaxed grains from coarse columnar grains in the pure aluminum. In comparison with the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the corresponding microstructure in the testing A356 alloys and wheels was finer. Although the tensile strength was similar between the testing and the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the ductility of the former (testing is superior to that of the later (tradition, leading to an excellent combination of strength and ductility from the testing alloys and wheels.

  17. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  18. My revision notes Edexcel GCSE computer science

    Cushing, Steve


    Unlock your full potential with this revision guide which focuses on the key content and skills you need to know. With My Revision Notes for AQA GCSE Computer Science, which perfectly matches the latest examined elements of the course, you can: - Take control of your revision: plan and focus on the areas you need to revise, with advice, summaries and notes from author Steve Cushing - Show you fully understand key topics by using specific strategies and theories to add depth to your knowledge of programming and computing issues and processes - Apply programming and com

  19. My revision notes AQA GCSE English Language

    Brindle, Keith


    Unlock your full potential with this revision guide for the new AQA GCSE English Language which focuses on the key content and skills you need to know. -Take control of your revision: plan and focus on the areas you need to revise. -Improve your exam skills with self-testing and exam-style questions. -Keep focused on what you need to know with Key Terms based around the exam questions. -Unpick each exam question with guidance on how to approach them and specific Revision Tasks

  20. Tungsten carbide laser alloying of a low alloyed steel

    Cojocaru, Mihai; Taca, Mihaela


    Laser alloying is a way to change the composition of metal surfaces in order to improve their corrosion-resistance, high-temperature strength and hardness. The results of a structural and phase analysis of a tungsten carbide based surface layer prepared by laser alloying of a low carbon steel substrate are presented. Structure, phase composition and microhardness of surface alloyed layers have been investigated. The surface of the samples exhibited a thin layer with a different chemical and phase composition. An increase in alloyed surface hardness and wear-resistance was observed.

  1. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.


    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  2. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)


    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  3. Revised

    Johannsen, Vivian Kvist; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Riis-Nielsen, Torben

    and Energy and the Ministry of Environment. The report is based on the data from the Danish National Forest Inventory (NFI), performed for the Ministry of Environment and the SINKS project in relation to Article 3.4 of the Kyoto protocol for the Ministry of Climate and Energy. Forest & Landscape, Copenhagen...

  4. Materials data handbook, Inconel alloy 718

    Sessler, J.; Weiss, V.


    Materials data handbook on Inconel alloy 718 includes data on the properties of the alloy at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures and other pertinent engineering information required for the design and fabrication of components and equipment utilizing this alloy.

  5. SINTERED REFRACTORY TUNGSTEN ALLOYS. Gesinterte hochschmelzende wolframlegierungen

    Kieffer, R.; Sedlatschek, K.; Braun, H.


    Dependence of the melting point of the refractory metals on their positions in the periodic system - alloys of tungsten with other refractory metals - sintering of the alloys - processing of the alloys - technological properties.

  6. High-temperature Titanium Alloys

    A.K. Gogia


    Full Text Available The development of high-temperature titanium alloys has contributed significantly to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero gas turbines. This paper presents anoverview on the development of high-temperature titanium alloys used in aero engines and potential futuristic materials based on titanium aluminides and composites. The role of alloychemistry, processing, and microstructure, in determining the mechanical properties of titanium alloys is discussed. While phase equilibria and microstructural stability consideration haverestricted the use of conventional titanium alloys up to about 600 "C, alloys based on TiPl (or,, E,AINb (0, TiAl (y, and titaniumltitanium aluminides-based composites offer a possibility ofquantum jump in the temperature capability of titanium alloys.

  7. Porosity of porous Al alloys


    Two porosity models of porous Al alloys with different pore types (ball and polygon shape) were established. The experimental results coincide well with theoretical computations. The porosity of Al alloys (Prc) consists of three parts, porosity caused by preform particles (Prp), additional porosity (Pra), and porosity caused by solidification shrinkage (Prs). Prp is the main part of Prc while Pra is the key for fabricating porous Al alloys successfully in spite of its little contribution to Prc.

  8. Multicomponent and High Entropy Alloys

    Brian Cantor


    Full Text Available This paper describes some underlying principles of multicomponent and high entropy alloys, and gives some examples of these materials. Different types of multicomponent alloy and different methods of accessing multicomponent phase space are discussed. The alloys were manufactured by conventional and high speed solidification techniques, and their macroscopic, microscopic and nanoscale structures were studied by optical, X-ray and electron microscope methods. They exhibit a variety of amorphous, quasicrystalline, dendritic and eutectic structures.

  9. Duct and cladding alloy

    Korenko, Michael K.


    An austenitic alloy having good thermal stability and resistance to sodium corrosion at C. consists essentially of 35-45% nickel 7.5-14% chromium 0.8-3.2% molybdenum 0.3-1.0% silicon 0.2-1.0% manganese 0-0.1% zirconium 2.0-3.5% titanium 1.0-2.0% aluminum 0.02-0.1% carbon 0-0.01% boron and the balance iron.

  10. Shape memory alloy actuator

    Varma, Venugopal K.


    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  11. Analysis of laser alloyed surfaces

    Jacobson, D.C.; Augustyniak, W.M.; Buene, L.; Draper, C.W.; Poate, J.M.


    Surface alloys of precious metals have many advantages over bulk alloys, the most obvious of which is cost reduction due to the reduced consumption of precious metal. There are several techniques for producing surface alloys. In this paper the laser irradiation technique is presented. The following lasers: CW CO/sub 2/, Q-switched Nd-YAG, frequency double Q-switched Nd-YAG, and pulsed ruby were used to irradiate and melt thin solid films of precious metals on metal substrates. This causes the surfaces to melt to a depth of approximately 10,000A. Alloying then takes place in the liquid phase where most metals are miscible. The high quench rates obtainable by this method of melting can result in the forming of metastable alloys. This melting and regrowth process is well understood and has been discussed in the literature over the last few years. This paper deals with two binary alloy systems, Au-Ni and Pd-Ti. Surface alloys of Au-Ni with a wide range of concentrations have been produced by laser irradiation of thin Au films on Ni. These films have been analyzed using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and channeling. Many thin film metals other than Au have also been successfully alloyed using these methods. An example of a potential application is the laser surface alloying of Pd to Ti for corrosion passivation.

  12. Aluminum alloy impact sparkling

    M. Dudyk


    Full Text Available The cast machine parts are widely used in many branches of industry. A very important issue is gaining the appropriate knowledge relating to the application of castings in places of explosion risks including but not limited to mining, chemical industry and rescue works. A possibility of explosion risks occurrence following the impact sparkling of the cast metal parts is still not solved problem in scientific research. In relation to this issue, in this article, the results of the study are presented, and relating to the tendency to impact sparkling of the aluminium alloys used in machine building. On the grounds of the results obtained, it was demonstrated that the registered impact sparkles bunches of feathers from the analyzed alloys: AlSi7Mg, (AK7; AlSi9Mg, (AK9; AlSi6Cu4, (AK64 and AlSi11, (AK11 show significant differences between each other. The quantitative analysis of the temperature distribution and nuclei surface area performed on the example of the alloy AK9 (subjected to defined period of corrosion allows for the statement that they are dangerous in conditions of explosion risk. Following this fact, designers and users of machine parts made from these materials should not use them in conditions where the explosive mixtures occur.

  13. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys

    Ueland, Stian M.; Chen, Ying; Schuh, Christopher A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit excellent shape memory properties in single crystalline form. However, when they are polycrystalline, their shape memory properties are severely compromised by brittle fracture arising from transformation strain incompatibility at grain boundaries and triple junctions. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys (oSMAs) are microstructurally designed SMA structures in which the total surface area exceeds the total grain boundary area, and triple junctions can even be completely absent. Here it is shown how an oligocrystalline structure provides a means of achieving single crystal-like SMA properties without being limited by constraints of single crystal processing. Additionally, the formation of oSMAs typically involves the reduction of the size scale of specimens, and sample size effects begin to emerge. Recent findings on a size effect on the martensitic transformation in oSMAs are compared and a new regime of heat transfer associated with the transformation heat evolution in these alloys is discussed. New results on unassisted two-way shape memory and the effect of loading rate in oSMAs are also reported. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Revision of the genus Endospermum Bth. (Euphorbiaceae)

    Schaeffer, J.


    The revision was undertaken because the latest monograph by Pax & Hoffmann, dating from 1912, did not provide a satisfactory key, and because since that time a very large amount of new material has been collected and several new species were described. In the present revision 12 species have been re

  15. Femoral revision surgery with impaction bone grafting

    B.L.E.F. ten Have (Bas); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); F.C. van Biezen (Frans); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)


    textabstractThe purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of revision of the femoral component of a total hip replacement using impaction bone grafting. Femoral revision with an impacted allograft was performed on 29 patients (31 hips). In all

  16. A taxonomic revision of Harpullia (Sapindaceae)

    Leenhouts, P.W.; Vente, Magda


    The present taxonomic revision of Harpullia was started by the second author as the main part of her work for a M. Sc. in biology at Leiden University. She concentrated on a revision of the species occurring in New Guinea, paid only a more superficial attention to the rest of the genus. The first

  17. Evaluating Writing: Effects of Feedback on Revision.

    Chaudron, Craig

    The effect of evaluation method on English as second language (ESL) learners' revisions of their compositions was investigated. Teacher comments, peer evaluations, and English-speaking peer reformulations were compared. Judges rated the revised compositions of 9 advanced and 14 intermediate college ESL students using the ESL Composition Profile.…

  18. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    Children Now, 2012


    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  19. Postoperative pain treatment' practice guideline revised

    Houweling, P.L.; Molag, M.L.; Boekel, R.L.M. van; Verbrugge, S.J.; Haelst, I.M. van; Hollmann, M.W.


    - On the initiative of the Dutch Association of Anaesthesiologists, a multidisciplinary workgroup has revised the 2003 practice guideline on 'Postoperative pain treatment' for adults and children.- The main reason for revision was the availability of new drugs and new methods of administration. The



    The XRD analysis indicates that the crystal structure and mechanical properties are sensitive to Sn concentration. ... composites and ceramics, are being explored for use as biomaterials ... ALLOY OF TI-MO-NB-SN ALLOY FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS ..... Almeida, C. A. “Least Square Unit Cell Refinement”. Program ...

  1. Radiation Effects in Refractory Alloys

    Zinkle, Steven J.; Wiffen, F. W.


    In order to achieve the required low reactor mass per unit electrical power for space reactors, refractory alloys are essential due to their high operating temperature capability that in turn enables high thermal conversion efficiencies. One of the key issues associated with refractory alloys is their performance in a neutron irradiation environment. The available radiation effects data are reviewed for alloys based on Mo, W, Re, Nb and Ta. The largest database is associated with Mo alloys, whereas Re, W and Ta alloys have the least available information. Particular attention is focused on Nb-1Zr, which is a proposed cladding and structural material for the reactor in the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) project. All of the refractory alloys exhibit qualitatively similar temperature-dependent behavior. At low temperatures up to ~0.3TM, where TM is the melting temperature, the dominant effect of radiation is to produce pronounced radiation hardening and concomitant loss of ductility. The radiation hardening also causes a dramatic decrease in the fracture toughness of the refractory alloys. These low temperature radiation effects occur at relatively low damage levels of ~0.1 displacement per atom, dpa (~2×1024 n/m2, E>0.1 MeV). As a consequence, operation at low temperatures in the presence of neutron irradiation must be avoided for all refractory alloys. At intermediate temperatures (0.3 to 0.6 TM), void swelling and irradiation creep are the dominant effects of irradiation. The amount of volumetric swelling associated with void formation in refractory alloys is generally within engineering design limits (>10 dpa). Very little experimental data exist on irradiation creep of refractory alloys, but data for other body centered cubic alloys suggest that the irradiation creep will produce negligible deformation for near-term space reactor applications.

  2. Properties of laser alloyed surface layers on magnesium base alloys

    Galun, R.; Weisheit, A.; Mordike, B.L. (Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Werkstofftechnik)


    The investigations have shown that laser surface alloying is a promising process to improve the wear and corrosion properties of magnesium base alloys without affecting the initial bulk properties like the low density. With an alloying element combination of aluminium and nickel the wear rate in the scratch test was reduced by 90% compared to untreated pure magnesium. Additionally the corrosion resistance was improved by laser alloying with this element combination. Because of distortion or crack formation in the case of large area treatments, the laser alloying should be limited to the treatment of smaller areas. In the near future this process could be an interesting alternative to surface coating or to a partially reinforcement with ceramic fibres or particles. (orig.)

  3. Radiological control manual. Revision 1

    Kloepping, R.


    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Radiological Control Manual (LBNL RCM) has been prepared to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements and interpretation of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is one methodology to implement the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. Information given in this manual is also intended to provide demonstration of compliance to specific requirements in 10 CFR 835. The LBNL RCM (Publication 3113) and LBNL Health and Safety Manual Publication-3000 form the technical basis for the LBNL RPP and will be revised as necessary to ensure that current requirements from Rules and Orders are represented. The LBNL RCM will form the standard for excellence in the implementation of the LBNL RPP.

  4. Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Lehnert B.


    Full Text Available The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by Dirac, as well as the rest mass of elementary particles predicted by Higgs in terms of spontaneous nonlinear symmetry breaking. It will here be put into doubt whether the approach by Higgs is the only theory which becomes necessary for explaining the particle rest masses. In addition, RQED theory leads to new results beyond those being available from the theories by Dirac, Higgs and the Standard Model, such as in applications to leptons and the photon.

  5. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.


    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  6. Electron Theory in Alloy Design

    Pettifor, DG


    Presents recent developments in electron theory which have impacted upon the search for novel alloys with improved mechanical or magnetic properties. The ten chapters outline the ability of electron theory to make quantitative predictions (such as heats of formation, planar fault energies, shear moduli and magnetic anisotropy), and to provide simplifying concepts for understanding trends in alloy behaviour.

  7. Mo-Si alloy development

    Liu, C.T.; Heatherly, L.; Wright, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The objective of this task is to develop new-generation corrosion-resistant Mo-Si intermetallic alloys as hot components in advanced fossil energy conversion and combustion systems. The initial effort is devoted to Mo{sub 5}-Si{sub 3}-base (MSB) alloys containing boron additions. Three MSB alloys based on Mo-10.5Si-1.1B (wt %), weighing 1500 g were prepared by hot pressing of elemental and alloy powders at temperatures to 1600{degrees}C in vacuum. Microporosities and glassy-phase (probably silicate phases) formations are identified as the major concerns for preparation of MSB alloys by powder metallurgy. Suggestions are made to alleviate the problems of material processing.

  8. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.; Farkas, D.; Labdon, M. B.; Nagaswami, N.; Pregger, B.


    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was determined. The following major elements were studied: (1) identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements; (2) development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients; (3) development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase change materials; and (4) identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. Several eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase change media.

  9. Wedlable nickel aluminide alloy

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)


    A Ni.sub.3 Al alloy with improved weldability is described. It contains about 6-12 wt % Al, about 6-12 wt % Cr, about 0-3 wt % Mo, about 1.5-6 wt % Zr, about 0-0.02 wt % B and at least one of about 0-0.15 wt % C, about 0-0.20 wt % Si, about 0-0.01 wt % S and about 0-0.30 wt % Fe with the balance being Ni.

  10. Galvanic cells including cobalt-chromium alloys.

    Gjerdet, N R


    Galvanic cells may be created when dentures made of cobalt-chromium alloys are placed on teeth with metallic restorations. The power of such cells was evaluated in an in vitro galvanic using amalgams, gold alloy, and nickel-chromium alloys. The amalgams and one of the nickel-chromium alloys revealed high corrosion currents when placed in contact with cobalt-chromium alloy, the conventional amalgam showing the highest values. The gold alloy and another nickel-chromium alloy exhibited low corrosion currents and they were noble with respect to cobalt-chromium.

  11. Dislocation following revision total hip arthroplasty.

    Gioe, Terence J


    Dislocation is a relatively common complication following revision total hip arthroplasty. Risk factors include surgical approach, gender, underlying diagnosis, comorbidities, surgical experience, and previous surgery; for later dislocations, risk factors include wear/deformation of polyethylene, trauma, and decreased muscle strength. Prevention and precaution are the watchwords for dislocations following revision total hip arthroplasty. For dislocations that do occur, treatment rests first on identifying the source of instability. Most dislocations can be managed by closed reduction. Constrained components may increase success rates, but only for appropriate indications. Prevention and treatment of dislocations following revision total hip arthroplasty are discussed in this article.

  12. About Alloying of Aluminum Alloys with Transition Metals

    Zakharov, V. V.


    An attempt is made to advance Elagin's principles of alloying of aluminum alloys with transition metals (TM) such as Mn, Cr, Zr, Ti, V with allowance for the ternary equilibrium and metastable Al - TM - TM phase diagrams. The key moments in the analysis of the phase diagrams are the curves (surfaces) of joint solubility of TM in aluminum, which bound the range of the aluminum solid solution. It is recommended to use combinations of such TM (two and more), the introduction of which into aluminum alloys widens the phase range of the aluminum solid solution.

  13. [Prosthetic dental alloys. 1].

    Quintero Engelmbright, M A


    A wide variety of restoration materials for prosthetic odontology is now available to the dental surgeon, either of the covalent type (acrylic resins), metallic (alloys), ionic (porcelains), or a combination of them, as in the so-called composites, such as the composite resins, or as ceramics-metals mixtures. An example of the latter is a product called Miracle-Mix, a glass ionomere cement reinforced with an amalgam alloy. In those cases where the blend is done by a synterization process, the material is called Cermet. The above-listed alternatives clearly evidence day-to-day advances in odontology, with researchers and manufacturers engaged the world over in improving existing products or developing new ones to enrich the dentist's armamentarium. As a side effect of this constant renewal, those dentists who have failed to update their knowledge fall behind in their practice as they persist in using products they have known for years, and may be deceived by advertisements of too-often unreliable products. It is, therefore, important to be aware of available products and their latest improvements.

  14. [Prosthetic dental alloys (2)].

    Quintero Englembright, M A


    A wide variety of restoration materials for prosthetic odontology is now available to the dental surgeon, either of the covalent type (acrylic resins), metallic (alloys), ionic (porcelains), or a combination of them, as in the so-called composites, such as the composite resins, or as ceramics-metals mixtures. An example of the latter is a product called Miracle-Mix, a glass ionomere cement reinforced with an amalgam alloy. In those cases where the blend is done by a synterization process, the material is called Cermet. The above-listed alternatives clearly evidence day-to-day advances in odontology, with researchers and manufacturers engaged the world over in improving existing products or developing new ones to enrich the dentist's armamentarium. As a side effect of this constant renewal, those dentists who have failed to update their knowledge fall behind in their practice as they persist in using products they have known for years, and may be deceived by advertisements of too-often unreliable products. It is, therefore, important to be aware of available products and their latest improvements.

  15. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy


    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  16. Quantum Field Theory, Revised Edition

    Mandl, F.; Shaw, G.


    Quantum Field Theory Revised Edition F. Mandl and G. Shaw, Department of Theoretical Physics, The Schuster Laboratory, The University, Manchester, UK When this book first appeared in 1984, only a handful of W± and Z° bosons had been observed and the experimental investigation of high energy electro-weak interactions was in its infancy. Nowadays, W± bosons and especially Z° bosons can be produced by the thousand and the study of their properties is a precise science. We have revised the text of the later chapters to incorporate these developments and discuss their implications. We have also taken this opportunity to update the references throughout and to make some improvements in the treatment of dimen-sional regularization. Finally, we have corrected some minor errors and are grateful to various people for pointing these out. This book is designed as a short and simple introduction to quantum field theory for students beginning research in theoretical and experimental physics. The three main objectives are to explain the basic physics and formalism of quantum field theory, to make the reader fully proficient in theory calculations using Feynman diagrams, and to introduce the reader to gauge theories, which play such a central role in elementary particle physics. The theory is applied to quantum electrodynamics (QED), where quantum field theory had its early triumphs, and to weak interactions where the standard electro-weak theory has had many impressive successes. The treatment is based on the canonical quantization method, because readers will be familiar with this, because it brings out lucidly the connection between invariance and conservation laws, and because it leads directly to the Feynman diagram techniques which are so important in many branches of physics. In order to help inexperienced research students grasp the meaning of the theory and learn to handle it confidently, the mathematical formalism is developed from first principles, its physical

  17. Mechanically Alloyed High Entropy Composite

    Popescu, G.; Adrian, M. M.; Csaki, I.; Popescu, C. A.; Mitrică, D.; Vasile, S.; Carcea, I.


    In the last years high entropy alloys have been investigated due to their high hardness, high temperature stability and unusual properties that make these alloys to have significant interest. In comparison with traditional alloys that are based on two or three major elements, this new generation alloys consists at least of 5 principal elements, with the concentration between 5 and 35 at.%. The present paper reports synthesis of high entropy alloys (HEA) and high entropy composites (HEC) synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA). The equiatomic AlCrFeNiMn matrix was used for creating the HEA matrix, starting from elemental powders and as reinforcing material for composites was used pure graphite. The mechanical alloying process was carried out at different duration, in a high energy planetary ball mill, under argon atmosphere. The elemental powders alloying began after '5 hours of milling and was complete after 40 hours. The mechanical alloyed matrix and composite was pressed and heat treated under argon protection. The elemental powers were investigated for physical - technological properties, and by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Phase pressing operation was realized with a hydraulic press and the applied pressure was progressive. The sintering process was carried out at 850°C for 2 h. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the MA process resulted in solid solutions formation and also revealed body- centred cubic (BCC) and face-centred cubic (FCC) structures with average grain size around 40 nm. In addition, nanoscale particles were highlighted by scanning electron microscopy, as well as the homogeneity of the chemical composition of the matrix and composite that was confirmed by EDX microanalysis. It was noted that HEA matrix and HEA composites were processed with a high degree of compaction and with a quite large capacity of mixed powder densification (around 70%).



    Peer revision,a supplementary strategy to teacher revisionof writing in L2 classroom,makes passive receivers of teacherrevision become active revisers,enabling students to involve inmore motivated language learning.Benefits of peer revision andits implications for teacher and student roles are discussed.Thisarticle also tentatively analyzes ways of preparing students foreffective peer revision.

  19. A Comparative Study of Three Revision Methods in EFL Writing

    Srichanyachon, Napaporn


    In an attempt to explore effective instruction in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) setting, this study investigated language errors identified by students and teachers in three different revision stages: self-revision, peer revision, and teacher revision. It gave the focus to the effects of the three different methods on learners' writing…

  20. Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual. Revision 1

    None, None


    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, “Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,” Revision 0 issued in October 2009. Brief Description of Revision: A minor revision to correct oversights made during revision to incorporate the 10 CFR 835 Update; and for use as a reference document for Tenant Organization Radiological Protection Programs.

  1. Nanostructure evolution of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels: Revised Object kinetic Monte Carlo model

    Chiapetto, M.; Messina, L.; Becquart, C. S.; Olsson, P.; Malerba, L.


    This work presents a revised set of parameters to be used in an Object kinetic Monte Carlo model to simulate the microstructure evolution under neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steels at the operational temperature of light water reactors (∼300 °C). Within a "grey-alloy" approach, a more physical description than in a previous work is used to translate the effect of Mn and Ni solute atoms on the defect cluster diffusivity reduction. The slowing down of self-interstitial clusters, due to the interaction between solutes and crowdions in Fe is now parameterized using binding energies from the latest DFT calculations and the solute concentration in the matrix from atom-probe experiments. The mobility of vacancy clusters in the presence of Mn and Ni solute atoms was also modified on the basis of recent DFT results, thereby removing some previous approximations. The same set of parameters was seen to predict the correct microstructure evolution for two different types of alloys, under very different irradiation conditions: an Fe-C-MnNi model alloy, neutron irradiated at a relatively high flux, and a high-Mn, high-Ni RPV steel from the Swedish Ringhals reactor surveillance program. In both cases, the predicted self-interstitial loop density matches the experimental solute cluster density, further corroborating the surmise that the MnNi-rich nanofeatures form by solute enrichment of immobilized small interstitial loops, which are invisible to the electron microscope.

  2. Strategies for Revision Total Ankle Replacement

    Thomas S. Roukis, DPM, PhD, FACFAS


    Full Text Available As the frequency of primary total ankle replacement (TAR continues to build, revision will become more commonplace. At present there are no “standard principles” associated with revision TAR. What is clear is that the current approaches are technically complex, fraught with complications and no one approach represents the only answer. Exchange of TAR metallic components to the same system standard or dedicated revision components are viable options with limited occurrence of complications. Explantation and conversion to custom-design long stemmed components has limited availability. Explantation and conversion to another TAR system is high-risk and has strong potential for complications. The use of metal reinforced polymethylmethacrylate cement augmentation of failed TAR systems and tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis should be reserved for very select situations where other options are not possible. There is a real need for long-term survivorship following revision TAR and future efforts ought to be directed in this area.

  3. Parker River NWR : Revised Hunting Plan

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains revisions to the 1978 Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Hunt Management Plan. Refuge hunters must obtain a permit to use the hunting...

  4. Revising incompletely specified convex probabilistic belief bases

    Rens, G


    Full Text Available International Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning (NMR), 22-24 April 2016, Cape Town, South Africa Revising Incompletely Specified Convex Probabilistic Belief Bases Gavin Rens CAIR_, University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Mathematics, Statistics...

  5. FFTF operations procedures preparation guide. Revision 2


    The Guide is intended to provide guidelines for the initial preparation of FFTF Operating Procedures. The Procedures Preparation Guide was developed from the plan presented and approved in the FFTF Reactor Plant Procedures Plan, PC-1, Revision 3.

  6. The revision of classical stock model

    YE Bai-qing; WANG Hong-li


    On the basis of the analysis of classical stock model, according to th e limitation of the model, the article puts forward the revision of classical mo del and enforces the applicability of the stock model.

  7. 2013 FEMA Letter of Map Revision

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  8. Taxonomic revision of the genus Acanthephippium (Orchidaceae)

    Thomas, S.A.


    This is a revision of the genus Acanthephippium Blume. Eleven species are recognised. Seven names are here for the first time reduced to synonymy (A. lycaste, A. odoratum, A. papuanum, A. pictum, A. simplex, A. sinense, and A. thailandicum).

  9. Suggested revision for west mexican archeological sequences.

    Long, S V; Taylor, R E


    A review of the radiocarbon dates and published and unpublished archeological data from the West Mexican states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima has resulted in a revised tentative chronology for West Mexico.

  10. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    ... a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment When the skin is injured from a cut or tear the body heals by forming scar tissue. The appearance of the scar can range from ...

  11. Revised Total Coliform Webinar for Primacy Agencies

    This webinar was created to assist Primacy Agencies in the implementation of the Revised Total Coliform Rule. It provides an overview of the requirements in the rule and implementation guidance for Primacy Agencies.

  12. Revised Total Coliform Rule Lab Sampling Form

    This form should be completed when a water system collects any required Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) samples. It should also be used when collecting “Special” non-compliance samples for the RTCR.

  13. The revision of classical stock model

    叶柏青; 王洪利


    On the basis of the analysis of classical stock model, according to the limitation of the model, the article puts forward the revision of classical model and enforces the applicability of the stock model.

  14. Modeling dissolution in aluminum alloys

    Durbin, Tracie Lee


    Aluminum and its alloys are used in many aspects of modern life, from soda cans and household foil to the automobiles and aircraft in which we travel. Aluminum alloy systems are characterized by good workability that enables these alloys to be economically rolled, extruded, or forged into useful shapes. Mechanical properties such as strength are altered significantly with cold working, annealing, precipitation-hardening, and/or heat-treatments. Heat-treatable aluminum alloys contain one or more soluble constituents such as copper, lithium, magnesium, silicon and zinc that individually, or with other elements, can form phases that strengthen the alloy. Microstructure development is highly dependent on all of the processing steps the alloy experiences. Ultimately, the macroscopic properties of the alloy depend strongly on the microstructure. Therefore, a quantitative understanding of the microstructural changes that occur during thermal and mechanical processing is fundamental to predicting alloy properties. In particular, the microstructure becomes more homogeneous and secondary phases are dissolved during thermal treatments. Robust physical models for the kinetics of particle dissolution are necessary to predict the most efficient thermal treatment. A general dissolution model for multi-component alloys has been developed using the front-tracking method to study the dissolution of precipitates in an aluminum alloy matrix. This technique is applicable to any alloy system, provided thermodynamic and diffusion data are available. Treatment of the precipitate interface is explored using two techniques: the immersed-boundary method and a new technique, termed here the "sharp-interface" method. The sharp-interface technique is based on a variation of the ghost fluid method and eliminates the need for corrective source terms in the characteristic equations. In addition, the sharp-interface method is shown to predict the dissolution behavior of precipitates in aluminum

  15. Rapidly solidified aluminum alloy powder

    Cho, S.S.; Chun, B.S.; Won, C.W.; Lee, B.S.; Kim, H.K.; Ryu, M. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Antolovich, S.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)


    Miniaturization and weight reduction are becoming increasingly important in the fabrication of vehicles. In particular, aluminum-silicon alloys are the logical choice for automotive parts such as pistons and cylinders liners because of their excellent wear resistance and low coefficient of thermal expansion. However, it is difficult to produce aluminum-silicon alloys with silicon contents greater than 20 wt% via ingot metallurgy, because strength is drastically reduced by the coarsening of primary silicon particles. This article describes an investigation of rapid solidification powder metallurgy techniques developed in an effort to prevent coarsening of the primary silicon particles in aluminum-silicon alloys.

  16. Photon Physics of Revised Electromagnetics

    Lehnert B.


    Full Text Available Conventional theory, as based on Maxwell’s equations and associated quantum electrodynamical concepts in the vacuum, includes the condition of zero electric field divergence. In applications to models of the individual photon and to dense light beams such a theory exhibits several discrepancies from experimental evidence. These include the absence of angular momentum (spin, and the lack of spatially limited geometry in the directions transverse to that of the propagation. The present revised theory includes on the other hand a nonzero electric field divergence, and this changes the field equations substantially. It results in an extended quantum electrodynamical approach, leading to nonzero spin and spatially limited geometry for photon models and light beams. The photon models thereby behave as an entirety, having both particle and wave properties and possessing wave-packet solutions which are reconcilable with the photoelectric effect, and with the dot-shaped marks and interference patterns on a screen by individual photons in a two-slit experiment.

  17. HLW system plan - revision 2


    The projected ability of the Tank Farm to support DWPF startup and continued operation has diminished somewhat since revision 1 of this Plan. The 13 month delay in DWPF startup, which actually helps the Tank Farm condition in the near term, was more than offset by the 9 month delay in ITP startup, the delay in the Evaporator startups and the reduction to Waste Removal funding. This Plan does, however, describe a viable operating strategy for the success of the HLW System and Mission, albeit with less contingency and operating flexibility than in the past. HLWM has focused resources from within the division on five near term programs: The three evaporator restarts, DWPF melter heatup and completion of the ITP outage. The 1H Evaporator was restarted 12/28/93 after a 9 month shutdown for an extensive Conduct of Operations upgrade. The 2F and 2H Evaporators are scheduled to restart 3/94 and 4/94, respectively. The RHLWE startup remains 11/17/97.

  18. Revision of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae

    Michael Sharkey


    Full Text Available The species of the two genera of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae are revised. Thirteen species are recognized, of which five are new and eight were previously described: Khoikhoia anthelion Sharkey, sp. n., K. lission Mason, 1984, K. oligospilos Sharkey, sp. n., K. semiadusta Mason, 1983, K. solata Mason, 1983, K. townesi Mason, 1983, K. turneri Mason, 1984, Sania browni Sharkey, sp. n., S. capensis Mason, 1983, S. henryi Mason, 1983, S. marjoriae Mason, 1983, S. masneri Sharkey, sp. n., and S. masoni Sharkey, sp. n.. All are from the Cape Region of South Africa, and all but one species are confined to the western Cape. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to electronic interactive keys and to distribution maps are also included. Based on phylogenetic position and morphological characters, speculations on life history are made, and it is suggested that some species may be parasitoids of wood- or stem-boring Lepidoptera. The DELTA data matrix and images for the key are available at 10.3897/; Intkey files are available at 10.3897/; Lucid files in LIF and SDD format are available at doi:10.3897/ and doi:10.3897/ Publishing of DELTA raw data will facilitate future workers to edit keys and to add newly discovered taxa.

  19. Revision total knee arthroplasty using a custom tantalum implant in a patient following multiple failed revisions.

    McNamara, Colin A; Gösthe, Raúl G; Patel, Preetesh D; Sanders, Kristopher C; Huaman, Gustavo; Suarez, Juan C


    The number of revision total knee arthroplasty procedures performed annually is increasing and, subsequently, so is the number of patients presenting following a failed revision. Rerevising a total knee arthroplasty after one or more failed revision procedures presents many challenges, including diminished bone stock for prosthetic fixation. "Off the shelf" implants may not offer the best alternative for reconstruction. We present the case of a 55-year-old patient who required a rerevision total knee arthroplasty following multiple failed revisions with severe femoral and tibia bone loss. We describe a novel technique we employed to improve component fixation within the compromised bone stock.

  20. Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The...

  1. Alloy design for intrinsically ductile refractory high-entropy alloys

    Sheikh, Saad; Shafeie, Samrand; Hu, Qiang; Ahlström, Johan; Persson, Christer; Veselý, Jaroslav; Zýka, Jiří; Klement, Uta; Guo, Sheng


    Refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs), comprising group IV (Ti, Zr, Hf), V (V, Nb, Ta), and VI (Cr, Mo, W) refractory elements, can be potentially new generation high-temperature materials. However, most existing RHEAs lack room-temperature ductility, similar to conventional refractory metals and alloys. Here, we propose an alloy design strategy to intrinsically ductilize RHEAs based on the electron theory and more specifically to decrease the number of valence electrons through controlled alloying. A new ductile RHEA, Hf0.5Nb0.5Ta0.5Ti1.5Zr, was developed as a proof of concept, with a fracture stress of close to 1 GPa and an elongation of near 20%. The findings here will shed light on the development of ductile RHEAs for ultrahigh-temperature applications in aerospace and power-generation industries.

  2. Study and revise for ASA-level

    James, David


    Enable students to achieve their best grade in AS/A-level English Literature with this year-round course companion; designed to instil in-depth textual understanding as students read, analyse and revise Atonement throughout the course. This Study and Revise guide: - Increases students' knowledge of Atonement as they progress through the detailed commentary and contextual information written by experienced teachers and examiners - Develops understanding of characterisation, themes, form, structure and language, equipping students with a rich bank of textual examp

  3. Revised data taking schedule with ion beams

    Gazdzicki, Marek; Aduszkiewicz, A; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brzychczyk, J; Bubak, A; Bunyatov, S A; Choi, K U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Cleymans, J; Derkach, D A; Diakonos, F; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Feofilov, G A; Fodor, Z; Ferrero, A; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Grzeszczuk, A; Guber, F; Hasegawa, T; Haungs, A; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kisiel, J; Kobayashi, T; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kolevatov, R S; Kondratiev, V P; Kowalski, S; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Laszlo, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Majka, Z; I Malakhov, A; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mijakowski, P; Mitrovski, M; Montaruli, T; Mrówczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nikolic, V; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Röhrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovskii, A; Sakashita, K; Schuster, T; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shibata, M; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Szuba, M; Tada, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Zipper, W; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC


    This document presents the revised data taking schedule of NA61 with ion beams. The revision takes into account limitations due to the new LHC schedule as well as final results concerning the physics performance with secondary ion beams. It is proposed to take data with primary Ar and Xe beams in 2012 and 2014, respectively, and to test and use for physics a secondary B beam from primary Pb beam fragmentation in 2010, 2011 and 2013.

  4. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    Almeida, A.


    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable highstrength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO2 laser. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloys, over the last years.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la aleación superficial mediante láser de aluminio con metales de transición. El cromo y el molibdeno son particularmente interesantes porque producen aleaciones de alta resistencia y por el bajo coeficiente de difusión y solución sólida en aluminio. Para producir estas aleaciones se ha seguido un procedimiento desarrollado en dos partes. En primer lugar, el material se alea usando una baja velocidad de procesado y en segundo lugar la estructura se modifica mediante un refinamiento posterior. Este procedimiento se ha empleado en la producción de aleaciones Al-Cr, Al-Mo y Al-Nb mediante aleación con láser de CO2 de polvos de Cr, Mo o Nb en aluminio y la aleación 7175. Este trabajo es una revisión del desarrollado en el Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa en los últimos años.

  5. Revision of the DELFIC Particle Activity Module

    Hooper, David A [ORNL; Jodoin, Vincent J [ORNL


    The Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) was originally released in 1968 as a tool for modeling fallout patterns and for predicting exposure rates. Despite the continual advancement of knowledge of fission yields, decay behavior of fission products, and biological dosimetry, the decay data and logic of DELFIC have remained mostly unchanged since inception. Additionally, previous code revisions caused a loss of conservation of radioactive nuclides. In this report, a new revision of the decay database and the Particle Activity Module is introduced and explained. The database upgrades discussed are replacement of the fission yields with ENDF/B-VII data as formatted in the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code, revised decay constants, revised exposure rate multipliers, revised decay modes and branching ratios, and revised boiling point data. Included decay logic upgrades represent a correction of a flaw in the treatment of the fission yields, extension of the logic to include more complex decay modes, conservation of nuclides (including stable nuclides) at all times, and conversion of key variables to double precision for nuclide conservation. Finally, recommended future work is discussed with an emphasis on completion of the overall radiation physics upgrade, particularly for dosimetry, induced activity, decay of the actinides, and fractionation.

  6. Metallic alloy stability studies

    Firth, G. C.


    The dimensional stability of candidate cryogenic wind tunnel model materials was investigated. Flat specimens of candidate materials were fabricated and cryo-cycled to assess relative dimensional stability. Existing 2-dimensional airfoil models as well as models in various stages of manufacture were also cryo-cycled. The tests indicate that 18 Ni maraging steel offers the greatest dimensional stability and that PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel is the most stable of the stainless steels. Dimensional stability is influenced primarily by metallurgical transformations (austenitic to martensitic) and manufacturing-induced stresses. These factors can be minimized by utilization of stable alloys, refinement of existing manufacturing techniques, and incorporation of new manufacturing technologies.

  7. Lead telluride alloy thermoelectrics

    Aaron D. LaLonde


    Full Text Available The opportunity to use solid-state thermoelectrics for waste heat recovery has reinvigorated the field of thermoelectrics in tackling the challenges of energy sustainability. While thermoelectric generators have decades of proven reliability in space, from the 1960s to the present, terrestrial uses have so far been limited to niche applications on Earth because of a relatively low material efficiency. Lead telluride alloys were some of the first materials investigated and commercialized for generators but their full potential for thermoelectrics has only recently been revealed to be far greater than commonly believed. By reviewing some of the past and present successes of PbTe as a thermoelectric material we identify the issues for achieving maximum performance and successful band structure engineering strategies for further improvements that can be applied to other thermoelectric materials systems.

  8. Emissivity measurements on aeronautical alloys

    Campo, L. del, E-mail: leire.del-campo@cnrs-orleans.f [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Perez-Saez, R.B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.e [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Gonzalez-Fernandez, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Esquisabel, X.; Fernandez, I. [Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Planta de Zamudio, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Gonzalez-Martin, P. [Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Parque empresarial San Fernando, Avda. Castilla 2, 28830 San Fernando de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Tello, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)


    The emissivity of three Ni and Co based aeronautical alloys is analyzed in this paper. These alloys are employed in high temperature environments whenever good corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance and high strength are essential. Thus, apart from the aeronautical industry, these alloys are also used in other technological applications, as for example, aerospace, nuclear reactors, and tooling. The results in this paper extend the emissivity data for these alloys available in the literature. Emissivity dependence on the radiation wavelength (2-22 {mu}m), sample temperature (200-650 {sup o}C) and emission angle (0-85{sup o}) has been investigated. In addition, the effect of surface finish and oxidation has also been taken into consideration. The data in this paper have several applications, as temperature measurement of a target by pyrometry, low observability of airplanes and thermal radiation heat transfer simulation in airplane nozzles or furnaces.

  9. 76 FR 33879 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Endangered Status, Revised Critical...


    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Endangered Status, Revised Critical Habitat Designation... and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX18 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... the currently endangered plant taxon, Monardella linoides ssp. viminea, in which the subspecies...

  10. Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys

    Liu, C.T.


    This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

  11. New concepts in revision total knee arthroplasty.

    Vince, Kelly G; Droll, Kurt; Chivas, Dan


    Revision knee arthroplasty should be regarded as a discipline separate from primary surgery. A disciplined approach to diagnosis is mandatory in which the following categories for failure are useful: (a) sepsis, (b) extensor mechanism rupture, (c) stiffness, (d) instability, (e) periprosthetic fracture, (f) aseptic loosening and osteolysis, (g) patellar complications and malrotation, (h) component breakage, and (i) no diagnosis. In the event of no coherent explanation for pain and disability, the possibilities of chronic regional pain syndrome, hip or spine pathology, and inability of current technology to meet patient expectations should be considered and revision surgery should be avoided. Revision arthroplasty cannot be performed as if it were a primary procedure and indeed will be eight (or more) different surgeries depending on the cause of failure. Though perhaps counterintuitive, there is a logical rationale and empirical evidence to support complete revision in virtually every case. In general, revision implant systems are required. The early dependence on the "joint line" is inadequate, failing as it does to recognize that the level of the articulation is a three-dimensional concept and not simply a "line." The key to revision surgery technique is that the flexion gap is determined by femoral component size and the extension gap by proximal distal component position. Accordingly, a general technical pathway of three steps can be recommended: 1) tibial platform; 2) stabilization of the knee in flexion with (a) femoral component rotation and (b) size selected with evaluation of (c) patellar height as an indication of "joint line" in flexion only; and 3) stabilization of the knee in extension, an automatic step. Stem extensions improve fixation and, if they engage the diaphysis, may be used as a guide for positioning. Porous metals designed as augments for bone defects may prove more important as "modular fixation interfaces." It is postulated that with the

  12. Unforced Revision in Processing Relative Clause Association Ambiguity in Japanese: Evidence Against Revision as Last Resort.

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; Arai, Manabu; Hirose, Yuki


    The current study tackles a long standing question of whether comprehenders perform structural revision when it is not forced by grammar or not. Using an eye-tracking reading paradigm, we addressed this issue by making use of global structural ambiguity in Japanese. Our results show that comprehenders initially associate a relative clause with the first potential head noun and that they revise this analysis when the second noun is lexico-semantically possible as the relative clause head, but do not when it is impossible. The results are incompatible with the Revision as Last Resort hypothesis. Instead, they support the parsing with unforced revision that is immediately sensitive to lexical properties. We argue that our results cannot be accounted for by serial modular processing models but that they can be explained by ranked-parallel interactive processing models. Furthermore, we propose that head-finality is a key factor involved in the availability of unforced revision.

  13. Magnesium-based biodegradable alloys: Degradation, application, and alloying elements.

    Pogorielov, Maksym; Husak, Eugenia; Solodivnik, Alexandr; Zhdanov, Sergii


    In recent years, the paradigm about the metal with improved corrosion resistance for application in surgery and orthopedy was broken. The new class of biodegradable metal emerges as an alternative for biomedical implants. These metals corrode gradually with an appropriate host response and release of corrosion products. And it is absolutely necessary to use essential metals metabolized by hosting organism with local and general nontoxic effect. Magnesium serves this aim best; it plays the essential role in body metabolism and should be completely excreted within a few days after degradation. This review summarizes data from Mg discovery and its first experimental and clinical application of modern concept of Mg alloy development. We focused on biodegradable metal application in general surgery and orthopedic practice and showed the advantages and disadvantages Mg alloys offer. We focused on methods of in vitro and in vivo investigation of degradable Mg alloys and correlation between these methods. Based on the observed data, a better way for new alloy pre-clinical investigation is suggested. This review analyzes possible alloying elements that improve corrosion rate, mechanical properties, and gives the appropriate host response.

  14. Kinetics of aluminum lithium alloys

    Pletcher, Ben A.


    Aluminum lithium alloys are increasingly used in aerospace for their high strength-to-weight ratio. Additions of lithium, up to 4.2 wt% decrease the alloy density while increasing the modulus and yield strength. The metastable, second phase Al3Li or delta' is intriguing, as it remains spherical and coherent with the matrix phase, alpha, well into the overaged condition. Small interfacial strain energy allows these precipitates to remain spherical for volume fractions (VV ) of delta' less than 0.3, making this alloy system ideal for investigation of late-stage coarsening phenomena. Experimental characterization of three binary Al-Li alloys are presented as a critical test of diffusion screening theory and multi-particle diffusion simulations. Quantitative transmission electron microscopy is used to image the precipitates directly using the centered dark-field technique. Images are analyzed autonomously within a novel Matlab function that determines the center and size of each precipitate. Particle size distribution, particle growth kinetics, and maximum particle size are used to track the precipitate growth and correlate with the predictions of screening theory and multi-particle diffusion simulations. This project is the first extensive study of Al-Li alloys, in over 25 years, applying modern transmission electron microscopy and image analysis techniques. Previous studies sampled but a single alloy composition, and measured far fewer precipitates. This study investigates 3 alloys with volume fractions of the delta precipitates, VV =0.1-0.27, aged at 225C for 1 to 10 days. More than 1000 precipitates were sampled per aging time, creating more statistically significant data. Experimental results are used to test the predictions based on diffusion screening theory and multi-particle aging simulations. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check

  15. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.


    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum on hardness of molybdenum. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary molybdenum alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to molybdenum, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons that molybdenum failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and molybdenum.

  16. Alloys developed for high temperature applications

    Basuki, Eddy Agus; Prajitno, Djoko Hadi; Muhammad, Fadhli


    Alloys used for high temperatures applications require combinations of mechanical strength, microstructural stability and corrosion/oxidation resistance. Nickel base superalloys have been traditionally the prime materials utilized for hot section components of aircraft turbine engines. Nevertheless, due to their limited melting temperatures, alloys based on intermetallic compounds, such as TiAl base alloys, have emerged as high temperature materials and intensively developed with the main aim to replace nickel based superalloys. For applications in steam power plants operated at lower temperatures, ferritic high temperature alloys still attract high attention, and therefore, development of these alloys is in progress. This paper highlights the important metallurgical parameters of high temperature alloys and describes few efforts in the development of Fe-Ni-Al based alloys containing B2-(Fe,Ni)Al precipitates, oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) ferritic steels and titanium aluminide based alloys include important protection system of aluminide coatings.

  17. Hanford Site technical baseline database. Revision 1

    Porter, P.E.


    This report lists the Hanford specific files (Table 1) that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. Table 2 includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 0 of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. This information is being managed and maintained on the Hanford RDD-100 System, which uses the capabilities of RDD-100, a systems engineering software system of Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC). This revision of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database uses RDD-100 version (see Table 3). Directories reflect those controlled by the Hanford RDD-100 System Administrator. Table 4 provides information regarding the platform. A cassette tape containing the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database is available.

  18. Effects of various Mg-Sr master alloys on microstructural refinement of ZK60 magnesium alloy


    The effects of various Mg-Sr master alloys (conventional as-cast, rapidly-solidified, rolled and solutionized) on microstructural refinement of ZK60 magnesium alloy were investigated. The results indicate that the refinement efficiency of various Mg-Sr master alloys in ZK60 alloy is different. The rolled Mg-Sr master alloy is found to have relatively higher refinement efficiency than the conventional as-cast, solutionized and rapidly-solidified Mg-Sr master alloys. After being treated with the rolled Mg-Sr master alloy, the ZK60 alloy obtains the minimum average grain size of 33 μm. The difference of various Mg-Sr master alloys in refinement efficiency might be related to the initial microstructure change of various Mg-Sr master alloys.

  19. Laser cladding of titanium alloy coating on titanium aluminide alloy substrate

    徐子文; 黄正; 阮中健


    A new diffusion bonding technique combined with laser cladding process was developed to join TiAl alloy to itself and Ti-alloys. In order to enhance the weldability of TiAl alloys, Ti-alloy coatings were fabricated by laser cladding on the TiAl alloy. Ti powder and shaped Ti-alloy were respectively used as laser cladding materials. The materials characterization was carried out by OM, SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. The results show that the laser cladding process with shaped Ti-alloy remedy the problems present in the conventional process with powder, such as impurities, cracks and pores. The diffusion bonding of TiAl alloy with Ti-alloy coating to itself and Ti-alloy was carried out with a Gleeble 1500 thermal simulator. The sound bonds of TiAl/TiAl, TiAl/Ti were obtained at a lower temperature and with shorter time.

  20. Shape memory alloys. Ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy films.

    Chluba, Christoph; Ge, Wenwei; Lima de Miranda, Rodrigo; Strobel, Julian; Kienle, Lorenz; Quandt, Eckhard; Wuttig, Manfred


    Functional shape memory alloys need to operate reversibly and repeatedly. Quantitative measures of reversibility include the relative volume change of the participating phases and compatibility matrices for twinning. But no similar argument is known for repeatability. This is especially crucial for many future applications, such as artificial heart valves or elastocaloric cooling, in which more than 10 million transformation cycles will be required. We report on the discovery of an ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy film system based on TiNiCu that allows at least 10 million transformation cycles. We found that these films contain Ti2Cu precipitates embedded in the base alloy that serve as sentinels to ensure complete and reproducible transformation in the course of each memory cycle. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Shape memory alloy flexures

    Bellouard, Yves; Clavel, Reymond


    Flexures are used in precision engineering where highly accurate, wear-free, smooth and repeatable motion is desired. Flexures are based on deformation of material to achieve a motion between elastically joined parts. They are used in a variety of precision mechanisms such as high-resolution balances or high accuracy optical positioning stages. Shape memory alloys (SMA) are an attractive option in designing flexures. Superelastic flexures can withstand larger deformations for the same weight as a conventional flexure. In addition, the damping properties of SMA, controllable through the phase transformation, offer new design opportunities for adaptive compliant mechanisms. The martensitic phase transformation can also be used to shift the natural frequency of flexures adding useful functionalities such as vibration rejection. This paper presents design principles of SMA flexures based on non-linear beam theory. Results show a good agreement between measured and predicted data. In addition, experimental results on phase transformation effects on damping behavior are also presented. Both, natural-frequency shift and increased damping were observed in bulk-micro machined flexures using the R-phase transformation. These results demonstrate the feasibility of natural-frequency-tunable flexures.

  2. Zinc alloy enhances strength and creep resistance

    Machler, M. [Fisher Gauge Ltd., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Fishercast Div.


    A family of high-performance ternary zinc-copper-aluminum alloys has been developed that provides higher strength, hardness, and creep resistance than the traditional zinc-aluminum alloys Zamak 3, Zamak 5, and ZA-8. Designated ACuZinc, mechanical properties comparable to those of more expensive materials make it suitable for high-load applications and those at elevated temperatures. This article describes the alloy`s composition, properties, and historical development.

  3. Thermomechanical behavior of comercial yellow gold alloy

    Miloš G. Djordjević


    Full Text Available With the development of science and technology, in the late 19th century, began the research and application of new alloys for making jewelry. By adding different amounts of Cu and Ag alloy of Au, as well as adding some new elements (Zn, alloys were obtained with different color spectrum (from red to yellow and different technological and metallurgical characteristics. This paper aims to show thermomechanical behavior of commercial yellow Au alloys for making jewelry.

  4. Oxidation of low cobalt alloys

    Barrett, C. A.


    Four high temperature alloys: U-700, Mar M-247, Waspaloy and PM/HIP U-700 were modified with various cobalt levels ranging from 0 percent to their nominal commercial levels. The alloys were then tested in cyclic oxidation in static air at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1150 C at times from 500 to 100 1 hour cycles. Specific weight change with time and X-ray diffraction analyses of the oxidized samples were used to evaluate the alloys. The alloys tend to be either Al2O3/aluminate spinel or Cr2O3/chromite spinel formers depending on the Cr/Al ratio in the alloy. Waspaloy with a ratio of 15:1 is a strong Cr2O3 former while this U-700 with a ratio of 3.33:1 tends to form mostly Cr2O3 while Mar M-247 with a ratio of 1.53:1 is a strong Al2O3 former. The best cyclic oxidation resistance is associated with the Al2O3 formers. The cobalt levels appear to have little effect on the oxidation resistance of the Al2O3/aluminate spinel formers while any tendency to form Cr2O3 is accelerated with increased cobalt levels and leads to increased oxidation attack.

  5. Plan-Belief Revision in Jason

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen


    When information is shared between agents of unknown reliability, it is possible that their belief bases become inconsistent. In such cases, the belief base must be revised to restore consistency, so that the agent is able to reason. In some cases the inconsistent information may be due to use of...... of incorrect plans. We extend work by Alechina et al. to revise belief bases in which plans can be dynamically added and removed. We present an implementation of the algorithm in the AgentSpeak implementation Jason....


    TUTKUN, Ömer Faruk


    In this study, the main purpose is to present the main frame of revised version in 2001 of Bloom's taxonomy that has been accepted extensively in our country since 1956 as well as around the world. In accordance with this purpose, in the study, answers have been searched to these questions: 1- The rise of the original Bloom's taxonomy and what are the key features of? 2- What are the reasons for renewal of original taxonomy? 3- What kind of arrangements has been made in revised taxonomy? 4- W...

  7. Misassigned natural products and their revised structures.

    Yoo, Hye-Dong; Nam, Sang-Jip; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Min-Sun


    Natural products are a major pipeline for drug development and are responsible for more than 50 % of drugs on the market. NMR is a fundamental and powerful tool for the structure determination of natural products. It is essential to provide unambiguous chemical structure information on natural products in drug development research, including the structure-activity relationship, derivatization and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies. Advancement of NMR instruments has made it possible to deal with nanomole-scale natural products for structure elucidation, but misinterpretation of NMR spectra still occurs. We review 21 natural products with revised chemical structures and the methods used for those revisions.

  8. An Operational Approach to Belief Revision

    张玉平; 李未


    A deduction system,called RE-proof system,is constructed for generating the revisions of first order belief sets.When a belief set is rejected by a given fact,all maximal subsets of the belief set consistent with the fact can be deduced from the proof system.The soundness and completeness of the RE-proof system are proved,which imply that there exists a resolution method to decide whether a revision retains a maximal subset of a belief set.

  9. A programmable approach to revising knowledge bases

    LUAN Shangmin; DAI Guozhong; LI Wei


    This paper presents a programmable approach to revising knowledge bases consisting of clauses. Some theorems and lemmas are shown in order to give procedures for generating maximally consistent subsets. Then a complete procedure and an incomplete procedure for generating the maximal consistent subsets are presented, and the correctness of the procedures is also shown. Furthermore, a way to implement knowledge base revision is presented, and a prototype system is introduced. Compared with related works, the main characteristic of our approach is that the approach can be implemented by a computer program.

  10. Resource description and access 2013 revision


    This e-book contains the 2013 Revision of RDA: Resource Description and Access, and includes the July 2013 Update. This e-book offers links within the RDA text and the capability of running rudimentary searches of RDA, but please note that this e-book does not have the full range of content or functionality provided by the subscription product RDA Toolkit. Included: A full accumulation of RDA- the revision contains a full set of all current RDA instructions. It replaces the previous version of RDA Print as opposed to being an update packet to that version. RDA has gone through many changes sin

  11. Improved thermal treatment of aluminum alloy 7075

    Cocks, F. H.


    Newly developed tempering treatment considerably increases the corrosion resistance of 7075-T6 alloy and concomitantly preserves its yield strength. The results of tests on samples of the alloy subjected to the above treatments show that when the overaging period is 12 hours /at 325 degrees F/, the alloy exhibits a yield strength of 73,000 psi.

  12. Impact toughness of laser surface alloyed Aluminium

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB


    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4kW Nd:YAG laser and the impact resistance of the alloys was investigated. The alloying powders were a mixture of Ni, Ti and SiC in different proportions. Surfaces reinforced...

  13. Corrosion Behaviour of New Zr Alloys

    Tolksdorf, E.


    Corrosion studies have indicated that the most promising replacements for Zicaloy-2 are ZrCrFe, ZrVFe and probably ZrNbTa, provided they are in their optimized condition. These alloys are conventionally manufactured alloys. An internally oxidized ZrMgO alloy is even superior, from the corrosion...

  14. Joint Line Reconstruction in Navigated Total Knee Arthroplasty Revision


    Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty Because of; Loosening; Instability; Impingement; or Other Reasons Accepted as Indications for TKA Exchange.; The Focus is to Determine the Precision of Joint Line Restoration in Navigated vs. Conventional Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty

  15. Organisation of a local revision course for postgraduate examinations.

    Sharif, K; Weaver, J; Afnan, M; Newton, J

    Revision courses for postgraduate examinations are usually held at central teaching hospitals. The ingredients for these courses, however, are available at most local hospitals. This article describes the practicalities of organising a successful local revision course for postgraduate examinations.

  16. Revised Total Coliform Rule Assessments and Corrective Actions

    EPA has developed the Revised Total Coliform Rule Assessment and Corrective Actions Guidance Manual for public water systems (e.g., owners and operators) to assist in complying with the requirements of the Revised Total Coliform Rule.

  17. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard


    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... is revising its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to a standard... and Explanation of Revisions to the Acetylene Standard IV. Procedural Determinations A....

  18. Current research situation of titanium alloys in China


    Titanium and its alloys possess excellent comprehensive properties, and they are widely used in many fields. China pays great attentions to the research on new titanium alloys. This paper mainly reviews the research on new Ti alloys in China, for example, high strength and high toughness Ti alloys, burn resistant Tialloys, high temperature Ti alloys, low cost Ti alloys and so on.New basic theories on Ti alloys developed in China in recent years are also reviewed.


    Shor, R.S.; Vogler, S.


    A process is described for dissolving binary zirconium-uranium alloys where the uranium content is about 2%. In prior dissolution procedures for these alloys, an oxidizing agent was added to prevent the precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride. In the present method complete dissolution is accomplished without the use of the oxidizing agent by using only the stoichiometric amount or slight excess of HF required by the zirconium. The concentration of the acid may range from 2M to 10M and the dissolution is advatageously carried out at a temperature of 80 deg C.

  20. High strength, tough alloy steel

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.


    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range ( C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  1. Alloy 718 for Oilfield Applications

    deBarbadillo, John J.; Mannan, Sarwan K.


    Alloy 718 (UNS N07718) was developed for use in aircraft gas turbine engines, but its unique combination of room-temperature strength and aqueous corrosion resistance made it a candidate for oilfield fasteners, valves, drill tools, and completion equipment. As well environments became more severe, stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement failures in production equipment drove the evolution of the composition and microstructure that distinguish today's oilfield-grade 718 from aerospace grades. This paper reviews the development of the grade and its applications and describes some of its unique characteristics, testing, and manufacturing methods as well as newer alloys designed for high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) conditions.

  2. Bulk nano-crystalline alloys

    T.-S. Chin; Lin, C. Y.; Lee, M.C.; R.T. Huang; S. M. Huang


    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Fe–B–Y–Nb–Cu, 2 mm in diameter, were successfully annealed to become bulk nano-crystalline alloys (BNCAs) with α-Fe crystallite 11–13 nm in size. A ‘crystallization-and-stop’ model was proposed to explain this behavior. Following this model, alloy-design criteria were elucidated and confirmed successful on another Fe-based BMG Fe–B–Si–Nb–Cu, 1 mm in diameter, with crystallite sizes 10–40 nm. It was concluded that BNCAs can be designed in general by the proposed cr...

  3. Revisions Policy for Official Statistics; A Matter of Governance

    Carol S Carson; Sarmad Khawaja; Thomas K. Morrison


    This paper proposes a set of good practices for the revision of macroeconomic data. The authors argue that revisions are a routine part of disseminating quality data. Revisions are made not just to correct errors but also to incorporate better source data, update base periods, and make other improvements. It is argued, using country examples and views from policymakers and other users, that national statistical agencies should have explicit revisions policies.

  4. Revised Law Provides Better Protection for Minor Citizens



    @@ On December 29, 2006, the revised Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Minors(hereinafter referred to as "the revised Law" for short) was approved at the 25th meeting of the Tenth National People's Congress (NPC), China's highest legislature. The revised Law is to become effective on June 1, 2007. Revision of the Law, which was adopted in 1991, took three years to complete, during which period a dozen drafts were produced.

  5. My revision notes AQA A-level physics

    Gibbs, Keith


    With My Revision Notes: AQA A Level Physics you can:- Manage your own revision with step-by-step support from experienced teacher and examiner Keith Gibbs- Apply biological terms accurately with the help of definitions and key words- Plan and pace your revision with the revision planner- Test understanding with questions throughout the book- Get exam ready with last minute quick quizzes available on the Hodder Education website

  6. The learning curve in revision cholesteatoma surgery.

    Stankovic, Milan


    To review the results of revision surgery for cholesteatoma. Retrospective review of patient's records. Tertiary referral center. A retrospective study of patients operated for acquired middle ear cholesteatoma during the period 1990-2002 was performed. A total of 758 patients were divided into two groups according to surgical experience, and followed during short-term and long-term period. The cholesteatoma was divided according to location, age of patients, status of auditory ossicles, and bilaterality of disease. The patients were treated with single canal wall up or wall down, according to the propagation of disease and condition of middle ear. The indications for the reoperations were: recurrent or residual cholesteatoma, resuppuration, and AB gap more than 20 dB. Type of surgical therapy, localization of cholesteatoma, age of patients, revisions, bilaterality of disease, damage of auditory ossicles and learning curve were analyzed. The number of revision operations was reduced in the second period (from totally 24.3% to 16.4%). Closed technique gave a significantly lower rate of failure. For attic cholesteatoma, adults, bilateral disease, and ossicular damage the rate of revisions was significantly lower with surgical experience. Surgical experience was important for reduction of reoperation rate for attic and sinus cholesteatoma, adults, bilateral cholesteatoma, and when closed technique is used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Revised Reynolds Stress and Triple Product Models

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lillard, Randolph P.


    Revised versions of Lag methodology Reynolds-stress and triple product models are applied to accepted test cases to assess the improvement, or lack thereof, in the prediction capability of the models. The Bachalo-Johnson bump flow is shown as an example for this abstract submission.

  8. Revised Safety Instruction 4 (IS4 REV.)


    Please note that the revised safety instruction 4 (IS4 REV.) entitled 'Safety Inspections' is available on the web at the following url: Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC unit secretariat, e-mail: SC Secretariat

  9. Revised definitions of women's sexual dysfunction

    Basson, Rosemary; Leiblum, Sandra; Brotto, Lori; Derogatis, Leonard; Fourcroy, Jean; Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin; Graziottin, Alessandra; Heiman, Julia R.; Laan, Ellen; Meston, Cindy; Schover, Leslie; van Lankveld, Jacques; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar


    Introduction. Existing definitions of women's sexual disorders are based mainly on genitally focused events in a linear sequence model (desire, arousal and orgasm). Aim. To revise definitions based on an alternative model reflecting women's reasons/incentives for sexual activity beyond any initial a

  10. Revision of South African pavement design method

    Kannemeyer, L


    Full Text Available an improved mechanistic-empirical design method has been developed, based on the latest available local and international research and design trends. The process followed during revision as well as some of the key outcomes of this process are presented...

  11. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.


    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  12. Audience and Revision: Middle Schoolers "Slam" Poetry.

    Jester, Judith


    Describes organizing a poetry "slam" (a contest in which people read their original poems and listeners cast votes for their favorites) involving 200 eighth graders from two different schools. Discusses how this experience made vivid for students the need to write for an audience and to revise. (SR)

  13. 36 CFR 219.9 - Revision.


    ... Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning The Framework for Planning § 219.9 Revision. (a) Application... is a review of the overall management of a unit of the National Forest System and an opportunity...

  14. Rhinoplasty for the multiply revised nose.

    Foda, Hossam M T


    To evaluate the problems encountered on revising a multiply operated nose and the methods used in correcting such problems. The study included 50 cases presenting for revision rhinoplasty after having had 2 or more previous rhinoplasties. An external rhinoplasty approach was used in all cases. Simultaneous septal surgery was done whenever indicated. All cases were followed for a mean period of 32 months (range, 1.5-8 years). Evaluation of the surgical result depended on clinical examination, comparison of pre- and postoperative photographs, and degree of patients' satisfaction with their aesthetic and functional outcome. Functionally, 68% suffered nasal obstruction that was mainly caused by septal deviations and nasal valve problems. Aesthetically, the most common deformities of the upper two thirds of the nose included pollybeak (64%), dorsal irregularities (54%), dorsal saddle (44%), and open roof deformity (42%), whereas the deformities of lower third included depressed tip (68%), tip contour irregularities (60%), and overrotated tip (42%). Nasal grafting was necessary in all cases; usually more than 1 type of graft was used in each case. Postoperatively, 79% of the patients, with preoperative nasal obstruction, reported improved breathing; 84% were satisfied with their aesthetic result; and only 8 cases (16%) requested further revision to correct minor deformities. Revision of a multiply operated nose is a complex and technically demanding task, yet, in a good percentage of cases, aesthetic as well as functional improvement are still possible.

  15. Revised Recommendation Concerning Technical and Vocational Education.

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The UNESCO (United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) revised recommendation setting forth general principles, goals, and guidelines concerning technical and vocational education (adopted by the General Conference at its 18th session in Paris, 19 November 1974) is presented under the following headings: (1) Technical and…

  16. Notes on the revised standard edition.

    Solms, Mark


    On the eve of the publication of the Revised Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (24 volumes) and The Complete Neuroscientific Works of Sigmund Freud (4 volumes), the editor of these works describes the policies he followed in succeeding James Strachey, and reflects on the experience of doing so.

  17. A taxonomic revision of the Hypnodendraceae (Musci)

    Touw, A.


    A revision is made of the genera Hypnodendron and Braithwaitea. Mniodendron and Sciadocladus are reduced to Hypnodendron, Limbella is excluded from the Hypnodendraceae, and Dendro-Hypnum is considered to be not validly published. Hypnodendron rigidum Mitt. is transferred to Pterobryella. The species

  18. A revision of the genus Podococcus

    Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Sunderland, T.


    A taxonomic revision of the palm genus Podococcus (Arecaceae) is presented. Two species are recognised: P. barteri, a species relatively widespread in a coastal band from Nigeria to the D. R. Congo and P. acaulis, a species previously considered conspecific to P. barteri, almost exclusively confined

  19. Revision der Gattung Orophea Blume (Annonaceae)

    Keßler, P.J.A.


    The genus Orophea Blume (Annonaceae: Saccopetaleae) has been revised with the following main results: — The genus in the circumscription of most authors is not monophyletic, but biphyletic. The genus Mezzettiopsis Ridley has to be reinstated. — Pseuduvaria, Mitrephora, Petalolophus, Oreomitra, Schef

  20. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget...

  1. Dworkin's prudent insurance ideal: two revisions

    Kurtulmuş, Ahmet Faik; Kurtulmus, Ahmet Faik


    This article offers two revisions to Dworkin’s ‘prudent insurance ideal’, which aims to account for justice in the distribution of healthcare so that (a) it can deal with market failures in healthcare and (b) when applied to unjust societies it addresses health problems caused by injustice in a fair manner.

  2. Revision of the genus Phaeanthus (Annonaceae)

    Mols, J.B.; Keßler, P.J.A.


    A revision of the genus Phaeanthus Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) is presented. The genus comprises 8 species. A key to the fruiting and/or flowering specimens of the genus is included. The genus consists of shrubs to small-sized trees from Malesia and Vietnam. It is characterised by sepals and

  3. EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) Standards Handbook. Revision 4,


    Regulations arc prepared EMC November 1982 3-2 STANDARDS HANDBOOK REVISION DATE SECTION-PAGE by VDE Standards Committees (VDE Normen Ausschuss). Individual...regulation has a well- % publicized review that is coordinated with the German Standards Institute (Deutches Institute fuer Normen , DIN) and the German

  4. A taxonomic revision of the Hypnodendraceae (Musci)

    Touw, A.


    A revision is made of the genera Hypnodendron and Braithwaitea. Mniodendron and Sciadocladus are reduced to Hypnodendron, Limbella is excluded from the Hypnodendraceae, and Dendro-Hypnum is considered to be not validly published. Hypnodendron rigidum Mitt. is transferred to Pterobryella. The species

  5. Fast-track revision knee arthroplasty

    Husted, Henrik; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Kristensen, Billy B;


    Abstract Background and purpose Fast-track surgery has reduced the length of hospital stay (LOS), morbidity, and convalescence in primary hip and knee arthroplasty (TKA). We assessed whether patients undergoing revision TKA for non-septic indications might also benefit from fast-track surgery...


    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.


    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  7. Alloy softening in binary iron solid solutions

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.


    An investigation was conducted to determine softening and hardening behavior in 19 binary iron-alloy systems. Microhardness tests were conducted at four temperatures in the range 77 to 411 K. Alloy softening was exhibited by 17 of the 19 alloy systems. Alloy softening observed in 15 of the alloy systems was attributed to an intrinsic mechanism, believed to be lowering of the Peierls (lattice friction) stress. Softening and hardening rates could be correlated with the atomic radius ratio of solute to iron. Softening observed in two other systems was attributed to an extrinsic mechanism, believed to be associated with scavenging of interstitial impurities.

  8. Surface Tension Calculation of Undercooled Alloys


    Based on the Butler equation and extrapolated thermodynamic data of undercooled alloys from those of liquid stable alloys, a method for surface tension calculation of undercooled alloys is proposed. The surface tensions of liquid stable and undercooled Ni-Cu (xNi=0.42) and Ni-Fe (xNi=0.3 and 0.7) alloys are calculated using STCBE (Surface Tension Calculation based on Butler Equation) program. The agreement between calculated values and experimental data is good enough, and the temperature dependence of the surface tension can be reasonable down to 150-200 K under the liquid temperature of the alloys.

  9. An introduction to surface alloying of metals

    Hosmani, Santosh S; Goyal, Rajendra Kumar


    An Introduction to Surface Alloying of Metals aims to serve as a primer to the basic aspects of surface alloying of metals. The book serves to elucidate fundamentals of surface modification and their engineering applications. The book starts with basics of surface alloying and goes on to cover key surface alloying methods, such as carburizing, nitriding, chromizing, duplex treatment, and the characterization of surface layers. The book will prove useful to students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, as also to researchers and practitioners looking for a quick introduction to surface alloying.

  10. 77 FR 13393 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Endangered Status, Revised Critical...


    ... morphological and ecological description and diminished range. We also present our revised designation of... reference Monardella viminea as M. linoides ssp. viminea, and may include statements or data referring...

  11. Outcome, revision rate and indication for revision following resurfacing hemiarthroplasty for osteoarthritis of the shoulder

    Rasmussen, J V; Polk, A; Sorensen, A K


    In this study, we evaluated patient-reported outcomes, the rate of revision and the indications for revision following resurfacing hemiarthroplasty of the shoulder in patients with osteoarthritis. All patients with osteoarthritis who underwent primary resurfacing hemiarthroplasty and reported...... to the Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry (DSR), between January 2006 and December 2010 were included. There were 772 patients (837 arthroplasties) in the study. The Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder (WOOS) index was used to evaluate patient-reported outcome 12 months (10 to 14) post......-operatively. The rates of revision were calculated from the revisions reported to the DSR up to December 2011 and by checking deaths with the Danish National Register of Persons. A complete questionnaire was returned by 688 patients (82.2%). The mean WOOS was 67 (0 to 100). A total of 63 hemiarthroplasties (7...

  12. 78 FR 44596 - Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park


    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notification of Boundary Revision. SUMMARY: The boundary of Yosemite National Park is... boundary of Yosemite National Park. DATES: The effective date of this boundary revision is July 24,...

  13. 77 FR 4910 - Editorial Revisions to the Commission's Rules


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2, 15 and 18 Editorial Revisions to the Commission's Rules AGENCY: Federal..., editorial revisions to the Commission's rules. These revisions are made to delete certain rule provisions... . Summary of the Order 1. In this Order, the Commission makes a number of non-substantive, editorial...

  14. Assessing the Impact of Peer Revision on L2 Writing.

    Villamil, Olga S.; de Guerrero, Maria C. M.


    A study investigated the impact of peer revision on writers' final drafts in two rhetorical modes, narration and persuasion, among 14 Spanish-speaking college students of English-as-a-Second-Language. Results revealed 74% of revisions made in peer sessions were incorporated into final drafts, and writers made many further self-revisions,…

  15. Integrating Relational Reasoning and Knowledge Revision during Reading

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese; Van Boekel, Martin; O'Brien, Edward J.


    Our goal in this theoretical contribution is to connect research on knowledge revision and relational reasoning. To achieve this goal, first, we review the "knowledge revision components framework" (KReC) that provides an account of knowledge revision processes, specifically as they unfold during reading of texts. Second, we review a…

  16. Uncovering Substance: Teaching Revision in High School Classrooms

    Early, Jessica Singer; Saidy, Christina


    This article shares the process and outcomes from a three-day revision workshop designed and implemented in a diverse high school language arts classroom. The revision workshop included: direct instruction, self-reflection, and peer feedback to provide struggling writers with opportunities to take part in substantive revision. The authors examine…

  17. Rewriting: What Do Deaf Students Do When They Revise?

    Gormley, Kathleen A.; Sarachan-Deily, Ann Beth

    The study investigated revision skills of 20 deaf secondary students (10 good writers and 10 poor writers). Students were asked to write and then revise their draft. Feature analytical rating was completed on each S's draft and revision, with scoring performed on content, linguistic considerations, and surface mechanics (spelling, punctuation,…

  18. MRI-compatible Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy for vascular stents: Electrochemical corrosion behavior in simulated plasma solution.

    Li, Hui-Zhe; Zhao, Xu; Xu, Jian


    Using revised simulated body fluid (r-SBF), the electrochemical corrosion behavior of an Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy for MRI compatible vascular stents was characterized in vitro. As indicated by XPS analysis, the surface passive oxide film of approximately 1.3nm thickness was identified as a mixture of Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and ZrO2 after immersion in the r-SBF. The Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy manifests a low corrosion rate and high polarization resistance similar to pure Nb and Ta, as shown by the potentiodynamic polarization curves and EIS. Unlike 316L stainless steel and the L605 Co-Cr alloy, no localized corrosion has been detected. Semiconducting property of passive film on the Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy was identified as the n-type, with growth mechanism of high-field controlled growth. The excellent corrosion resistance in simulated human blood enviroment renders the Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy promising as stent candidate material.

  19. Microstructure and property characterization of a modified zinc-base alloy and comparison with bearing alloys

    Prasad, B. K.; Patwardhan, A. K.; Yegneswaran, A. H.


    The microstructure and physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of a modified zinc-base alloy have been characterized. In order to assess its utility as a bearing alloy, its properties have also been compared with those of a similarly processed conventional zinc-base alloy and a leaded-tin bronze (conforming to ZA27 and SAE 660 specifications, respectively) used for bearing applications. The modified zinc-base alloy shows promise in terms of better elevated-temperature strength and wear response at higher sliding speeds relative to the conventional zinc-base alloy. Interestingly, the wear behavior (especially the seizure pressure) of the modified alloy was also comparable to that of the bronze specimens at the maximum sliding speed, and was superior at the minimum sliding speed. The modified alloy also attained lower density and better hardness. Alloy behavior has been linked to the nature and type of the alloy microconstituents.

  20. Belief revision and way-finding.

    Bucher, Leandra; Röser, Florian; Nejasmic, Jelica; Hamburger, Kai


    Belief revision is required when veridical information surfaces that contradicts what was previously thought to be the case. In way-finding, belief revision frequently occurs, for example, when the travelled route has led one astray, instead of to one's chosen destination. In past cognitive research, the topics of belief revision and way-finding have been treated in isolation. Here, we introduce an approach for linking the two fields and assess belief revision as it occurs in the process of way-finding. We report the results of two experiments that put participants in (virtual) situations where elements of a previously learned route description do not match the actual environment (thereby requiring the revision of a previously held belief). Experiment 1 puts participants in a highly artificial virtual environment where the landmarks to be used in navigation have a low degree of semantic salience (houses of various color). Experiment 2 puts subjects in a photorealistic environment where the objects to be used in navigation are well-known landmarks (such as the Eiffel Tower) and thus have a high degree of semantic salience. In both experiments, participants are confronted with T-junctions, where a landmark that was expected to indicate the correct route is discovered to be in an unexpected location. The results of the experiments show that a participant's choice of route, in such cases, is affected by differences in the structure of the relevant initial instruction. More precisely, the route chosen by participants is affected by whether the relevant landmark was described as being on the same side of the path as they were instructed to turn (congruent case) or as located on the opposite side of the path as they were instructed to turn (incongruent case).

  1. Applications of shape memory alloys in Japan

    Asai, M.; Suzuki, Y. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). R and D Labs.


    In Japan, a first application of shape memory TiNi alloy was a moving flap in an air-conditioner which was developed as sensing function of shape memory alloy at Matsushista Electric Industrial Co. Then, shape memory utilized in a coffee maker, an electric rice-cooker, a thermal mixing valve and etc. were commercialized in Japan. And brassiere wires, a guide wire for medical treatment, an antenna for portable telephone and others were commercialized utilizing superelasticity. At the same time with these commercial products, there was not only progress in fabrication technology to effect accurate transformation temperature, but also the discovery of small hysteresis alloy such as R-phase or TiNiCu alloy and low transformation temperature alloy such as TiNiFe, TiNiV and TiNiCo alloys. Therefore the shape memory alloy market has expanded widely to electric appliances, automobile, residence, medical care and otherfield today. (orig.)

  2. High Damping Alloys and Their Application

    Fuxing Yin


    Damping alloys show prospective applications in the elimination of unwanted vibrations and acoustic noise. The basic definitions and characterization methods of damping capacity are reviewed in this paper. Several physical mechanisms controlled by the alloy microstructure are responsible for the damping behavior in the damping alloys. Composite, dislocation, ferromagnetic and planar defect types are commonly classified for the alloys, which show the different damping behavior against temperature, frequency of vibration,amplitude of vibration and damping modes. Development of practically applicable damping alloys requires the higher mechanical properties and adequate workability, besides the high damping capacity. A new Mn-Cu damping alloy, named as M2052 alloy, is recently developed with possible industrial applications.

  3. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22

    Rebak, R B; Payer, J H


    Alloy 22 (N06022) was designed to stand the most aggressive industrial applications, including both reducing and oxidizing acids. Even in the most aggressive environments, if the temperature is lower than 150 F (66 C) Alloy 22 would remain in the passive state having particularly low corrosion rates. In multi-ionic solutions that may simulate the behavior of concentrated ground water, even at near boiling temperatures, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 is only a few nanometers per year because the alloy is in the complete passive state. The corrosion rate of passive Alloy 22 decreases as the time increases. Immersion corrosion testing also show that the newer generation of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may offer a better corrosion resistance than Alloy 22 only in some highly aggressive conditions such as in hot acids.

  4. Paracrystalline property of high-entropy alloys

    Shaoqing Wang


    Full Text Available Atomic structure models of six-component high-entropy alloys with body-centered cubic structure are successfully built according to the principle of maximum entropy for the first time. The lattice distortion parameters g of seven typical high-entropy alloys are calculated. From the optimized lattice configuration of high-entropy alloys, we show that these alloys are ideal three-dimensional paracrystals. The formation mechanism, structural feature, mechanical property, and application prospect of high-entropy alloys are discussed in comparison with the traditional alloys. The novel properties of body-centered cubic high-entropy alloys are attributed to the failure of dislocation deformation mechanism and the difficulty of directed particle diffusion.

  5. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22

    R.B. Rebak; J.H. Payer


    Alloy 22 (NO6022) was designed to stand the most aggressive industrial applications, including both reducing and oxidizing acids. Even in the most aggressive environments, if the temperature is lower than 150 F (66 C) Alloy 22 would remain in the passive state having particularly low corrosion rates. In multi-ionic solutions that may simulate the behavior of concentrated ground water, even at near boiling temperatures, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 is only a few nano-meters per year because the alloy is in the complete passive state. The corrosion rate of passive Alloy 22 decreases as the time increases. Immersion corrosion testing also show that the newer generation of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may offer a better corrosion resistance than Alloy 22 only in some highly aggressive conditions such as in hot acids.

  6. 30 CFR 285.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision?


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision? (a) You must...

  7. Nickel, cobalt, and their alloys


    This book is a comprehensive guide to the compositions, properties, processing, performance, and applications of nickel, cobalt, and their alloys. It includes all of the essential information contained in the ASM Handbook series, as well as new or updated coverage in many areas in the nickel, cobalt, and related industries.

  8. Hydrostatic extrusion of magnesium alloys

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bohlen, J.


    This chapter deals with the capabilities and limitations of the hydrostatic extrusion process for the manufacturing of magnesium alloy sections. Firstly, the process basics for the hydrostatic extrusion of materials in general and of magnesium in particular are introduced. Next, some recent research

  9. Gold color in dental alloys.

    Cameron, T


    This article will help the dental laboratory with alloy selection by exploring how the relationship among color, ductility and strength applies to gold and how color can be quantified. Because higher quality materials translate into higher profits, upselling to the dentist and patient is also discussed.

  10. Ultrasonic processing of aluminum alloys

    Zhang, L.


    The research in ultrasonic processing for metallurgical application shows a promising influence on improving casting properties of aluminium alloys. The principle of ultrasonic processing is introduction of acoustic waves with a frequency higher than 17 kHz into liquid metal. Several promising

  11. Superb nanocrystalline alloys for plating


    @@ With high rigidity and antiwear performance,nanocrystalline metals and their alloys can find wide applications in surface protection.However, the existence of grain boundaries often leads to erosive micro-batteries which accelerate the process of corrosion.Therefore, it has already become a key issue for surface engineering researchers to find nano materials with higher lubricating, anticorrosion and antiwear capacities.

  12. Microstructure and thermal stability of mechanically alloyed Al3Ti/Al alloy

    林建国; 魏浩岩; 黄正


    The microstructure stability of Al3Ti/Al alloy prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) was investigated in the simulating environment in which they may be used. The results show that the MA alloy possesses fine microstructure (the grain size is about 0.5  μm). After cycling loaded followed by heat exposure at 350  ℃ for 24  h, no microstructure coarsening of the alloy occurred, which means that the Al3Ti/Al alloy behaves good microstructure stability at high temperature. The compression yield strength of the alloy reaches up to 247  MPa at 350  ℃.

  13. [Revision arthroplasty of the ankle joint].

    Hintermann, B; Barg, A; Knupp, M


    In the last 20 years total ankle replacement has become a viable alternative to arthrodesis for end-stage osteoarthritis of the ankle. Numerous ankle prosthesis designs have appeared on the market in the past and attracted by the encouraging intermediate results reported in the literature, many surgeons have started to perform this procedure. With increased availability on the market the indications for total ankle replacement have also increased in recent years. In particular, total ankle replacement may now be considered even in younger patients. Therefore, despite progress in total ankle arthroplasty the number of failures may increase. Up to now, arthrodesis was considered to be the gold standard for salvage of failed ankle prostheses. Because of extensive bone loss on the talar side, in most instances tibiocalcaneal fusion is the only reliable solution. An alternative to such extended hindfoot fusions would be revision arthroplasty. To date, however, there are no reported results of revision arthroplasty for salvage of a failed ankle replacement.Based on our experience prosthetic components with a flat undersurface are most likely to be able to find solid support on remaining bone stock. The first 83 cases (79 patients, 46 males, 33 females, average age 58.9 years, range 30.6-80.7 years) with a average follow-up of 5.4 years (range 2-11 years) showed excellent to good results in 69 cases (83%), a satisfactory result in 12 cases (15%) and a fair result in 2 cases (2%) and 47 patients (56%) were pain free. Primary loosening was noted in three cases and of these two cases were successfully revised by another total ankle replacement and in one case with arthrodesis. Another case with hematogenous infection was also revised by arthrodesis. At the last follow-up control two components were considered to be loose and the overall loosening rate was thus 6%.This series has proven that revision arthroplasty can be a promising option for patients with failed total

  14. Method of producing superplastic alloys and superplastic alloys produced by the method

    Troeger, Lillianne P. (Inventor); Starke, Jr., Edgar A. (Inventor); Crooks, Roy (Inventor)


    A method for producing new superplastic alloys by inducing in an alloy the formation of precipitates having a sufficient size and homogeneous distribution that a sufficiently refined grain structure to produce superplasticity is obtained after subsequent PSN processing. An age-hardenable alloy having at least one dispersoid phase is selected for processing. The alloy is solution heat-treated and cooled to form a supersaturated solid solution. The alloy is plastically deformed sufficiently to form a high-energy defect structure useful for the subsequent heterogeneous nucleation of precipitates. The alloy is then aged, preferably by a multi-stage low and high temperature process, and precipitates are formed at the defect sites. The alloy then is subjected to a PSN process comprising plastically deforming the alloy to provide sufficient strain energy in the alloy to ensure recrystallization, and statically recrystallizing the alloy. A grain structure exhibiting new, fine, equiaxed and uniform grains is produced in the alloy. An exemplary 6xxx alloy of the type capable of being produced by the present invention, and which is useful for aerospace, automotive and other applications, is disclosed and claimed. The process is also suitable for processing any age-hardenable aluminum or other alloy.


    A. G. Slutsky


    Full Text Available Motor is one of most important part of automobile determine its economical effectiveness of usage. On the other hand, sleeves, pistons and rings are crucible parts as they determine the service life of a motor. These parts are producing in big scale – dozens of millions pieces. Increase of cylinder sleeves physical-mechanical properties results in prolongation of motor service life and improvement of motor’s characteristics. Nowadays low alloyed cast irons with perlite structure are used to manufacture motor’s sleeves. For alloying purposes such traditional elements as Cr, Ni, Cu, and V are applied. But it is interesting to use molybdenum for cast iron alloying. It is known that alloying of alloys allows considerable increasing of consumption properties of castings. But in spite of advantages of alloys alloying the increase of molybdenum containing iron-carbon alloys production is restricted by economical reasons – high cost of alloying additions. Expenditures on alloying additions can be reduced by the application cheap secondary alloys in the charge. So, the present paper is devoted to investigation of alloying peculiarities during the treatment of ferrous alloys with molybdenum applying different initial materials.

  16. A (Nd, Zr(Fe, Co11.5Ti0.5Nx compound as a permanent magnet material

    S. Suzuki


    Full Text Available We studied NdFe11TiNx compounds as permanent magnet materials. The (Nd0.7,Zr0.3(Fe0.75Co0.2511.5Ti0.5N0.52 powder that contained a limited amount of the α-(Fe, Co phase shows fairly good magnetic properties, such as a saturation polarization (Js of 1.68 T and an anisotropic field (Ha of 2.88 (Law of approach to saturation – 4.0 MA/m (Intersection of magnetization curves. Both properties are comparable to those of the Nd2Fe14B phase.

  17. Hydrogen ingress into copper-nickel alloys

    Pound, B.G. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Materials Research Center)


    Hydrogen (H) ingress into two copper (Cu)-nickel (Ni) alloys -- a commercial 77% Cu-15% Ni alloy (aged) and alloy K-500 (UNS N05500, aged and unaged) --- was studied using a technique referred to as hydrogen ingress analysis by potentiostatic pulsing (HIAPP). Anodic current transients obtained for these alloys in an acetate buffer (1 mol/L acetic acid + 1 mol/L sodium acetate [NaAc]) were analyzed using a diffusion-trapping model to determine trapping constants and H entry fluxes. A small increase was observed in the irreversible trapping constant for alloy K-500 with aging. Trapping constants of the aged alloys were similar within the limits of uncertainty, but H entry flux for the 77% Cu alloy was lower than that for aged or unaged alloy K-500. The lower flux may have accounted at least partly, for the Cu alloy's higher resistance to H embrittlement. Trap densities were consistent qualitatively with levels of sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) in the two alloys. This finding supported an assumption that S and P provided the primary irreversible traps.

  18. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas


    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  19. Guidance document for revision of DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program. Revision 1

    Kudera, D.E.; McMurtrey, C.D.; Meagher, B.G.


    This document provides guidance for the revision of DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management.`` Technical Working Groups have been established and are responsible for writing the revised order. The Technical Working Groups will use this document as a reference for polices and procedures that have been established for the revision process. The overall intent of this guidance is to outline how the order will be revised and how the revision process will be managed. In addition, this document outlines technical issues considered for inclusion by a Department of Energy Steering Committee.

  20. Bicyclic graphs with maximal revised Szeged index

    Li, Xueliang


    The revised Szeged index $Sz^*(G)$ is defined as $Sz^*(G)=\\sum_{e=uv \\in E}(n_u(e)+ n_0(e)/2)(n_v(e)+ n_0(e)/2),$ where $n_u(e)$ and $n_v(e)$ are, respectively, the number of vertices of $G$ lying closer to vertex $u$ than to vertex $v$ and the number of vertices of $G$ lying closer to vertex $v$ than to vertex $u$, and $n_0(e)$ is the number of vertices equidistant to $u$ and $v$. Hansen used the AutoGraphiX and made the following conjecture about the revised Szeged index for a connected bicyclic graph $G$ of order $n \\geq 6$:

  1. Revision of the genus Calpurnia (Sophoreae: Leguminosae

    A. J. Beaumont


    Full Text Available Taxa recognised in this revision are:  Calpurnia aurea (Aiton Benth. subsp.  aurea; C.  aurea (Aiton Benth. subsp.  indica Brummitt; C. floribunda Harv ; C. glabrata Brummitt; C. intrusa (R.Br in W.T.Aiton E.Mey.; C. reflexus A.J.Beaumont sp nov.;  C. sericea Harv. and  C. woodii Schinz. A putative hybrid between  C. sericea and  C. woodii is recorded. With the exception of C aurea, all species are restricted to southern Africa.  C. reflexus is possibly extinct, and C.  woodii is considered rare. Characters examined in this revision are habitat, habit, vestiture, leaf morphology and anatomy; floral, pollen, fruit and seed morphology and anatomy; and seedling morphology. Illustrations and a key to taxa are provided.

  2. Revision of ISO 15859 Aerospace Fluid Standards

    Greene, Benjamin; McClure, Mark B.


    A detailed review of ISO 15859 "Space Systems - Fluid Characteristics, Sampling and Test Methods" was performed An approach to revising Parts 1-9 and 11-13 was developed and concurred by the NASA Technical Standards Program Office. The approach was to align them with the highest level source documents, and not to program-specific requirements. The updated documents were prepared and presented.

  3. Revised Safety Instruction 41 (IS41 REV.)

    SC Secretariat


    Please note that the Revised Safety Instruction No. 41 (IS41 REV.), entitled 'The use of plastic and other non-metallic materials at CERN with respect to fire safety and radiation resistance' is available on the web at the following url: Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: SC Secretariat

  4. Clinical Outcomes Following Revision Anterior Shoulder Stabilization

    Frank, Rachel M.; Mellano, Chris; Shin, Jason J.; Feldheim, Terrence F.; Mascarenhas, Randhir; Yanke, Adam Blair; Cole, Brian J.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Verma, Nikhil N.


    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes following revision anterior shoulder stabilization performed either via all-arthroscopic soft tissue repair or via Latarjet coracoid transfer. Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 91 shoulders undergoing revision anterior shoulder stabilization was performed. All patients underwent prior soft tissue stabilization; those with prior open bone grafting procedures were excluded. For patients with 25% glenoid bone loss, Latarjet was performed (n=28). Patients were queried regarding recurrent instability (subluxation or dislocation). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using validated patient reported outcome questionnaires including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI). Results: A total of 63 shoulders in 62 patients (46 males, 16 females) with an average age of 23.2 ± 6.9 years were included in the revision arthroscopy group. At an average follow-up of 46.9 ± 16.8 months (range, 15 to 78), the mean WOSI score was 80.1 (range, 15.0 to 100), and there were significant improvements (pLatarjet group. Thirteen (46%) had more than one previous stabilization attempt. ), the average WOSI score was 71.9, and there were significant improvements (pLatarjet. Conclusion: Both arthroscopic revision stabilization and Latarjet coracoid transfer result in satisfactory outcomes in patients who have failed previous arthroscopic capsulolabral repair. Recurrent instability rates were higher in the all-arthroscopic group (19% versus 7%). Longer-term studies are required to determine whether similar results are maintained over time, and to provide guidance on focused clinical indications for this challenging patient population.

  5. Heel pain-plantar fasciitis: revision 2014.

    Martin, Robroy L; Davenport, Todd E; Reischl, Stephen F; McPoil, Thomas G; Matheson, James W; Wukich, Dane K; McDonough, Christine M


    The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has an ongoing effort to create evidence-based practice guidelines for orthopaedic physical therapy management of patients with musculoskeletal impairments described in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The purpose of these revised clinical practice guidelines is to review recent peer-reviewed literature and make recommendations related to nonarthritic heel pain.

  6. Facial nerve schwannoma in revision stapedotomy surgery.

    Schmerber, Sébastien; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre


    We describe a male patient who presented a progressive conductive unilateral hearing loss 20 years after otosclerosis surgery. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggested a facial schwannoma in its tympanic segment. At the time of revision surgery, a facial schwannoma was found to originate at the tympanic segment, pushing the prosthesis out of the oval window fenestration. The Teflon-piston was repositioned with difficulties in the central platinotomy, and the facial schwannoma was left intact.

  7. A revision of Rhynchoglossum (Gesneriaceae in Malesia

    Abdulrokhman Kartonegoro


    Full Text Available The genus Rhynchoglossum in Malesia has been revised. Five species are included: R. borneense, R. capsulare, R. klugioides, R. obliquum and R. spumosum. Rhynchoglossum obliquum is a widespread and common species while the other four are endemic to Malesia. Morphological descriptions, nomenclature, distribution, ecological information and notes are provided for all species. An identification key and a list of examined specimens are included.

  8. Benchmarking i eksternt regnskab og revision

    Thinggaard, Frank; Kiertzner, Lars


    løbende i en benchmarking-proces. Dette kapitel vil bredt undersøge, hvor man med nogen ret kan få benchmarking-begrebet knyttet til eksternt regnskab og revision. Afsnit 7.1 beskæftiger sig med det eksterne årsregnskab, mens afsnit 7.2 tager fat i revisionsområdet. Det sidste afsnit i kapitlet opsummerer...... betragtningerne om benchmarking i forbindelse med begge områder....

  9. Food miles to assess sustainability: A revision

    VAN PASSEL, Steven


    Sustainability assessment is an essential process in our aim to reach a more sustainable production and consumption pattern. This research revises the food miles concept as a guiding tool to assess sustainability. Food miles measure the distance that food travels from where it is grown or raised to where it is consumed. Three different concepts to assess sustainability are described: (i) food miles, (ii) enhanced food miles, (iii) food chain sustainability. An illustrative case study shows th...

  10. An electrochemical investigation of mechanical alloying of MgNi-based hydrogen storage alloys

    Jiang, Jian-Jun; Gasik, Michael

    The electrochemical properties of amorphous MgNi-based hydrogen storage alloys synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) were evaluated. The results show that these amorphous Mg 50Ni 50 alloys exhibit a higher discharge capacity and relatively good rate capacity at a suitable grinding time while their cycle life is very poor. In order to improve the cycle life, the surface of the amorphous Mg 50Ni 50 alloy was coated with Ti, Al and Zr in Spex 8000 mill/mixer and the coating effects were further investigated. Based on experimental results, two kinds of MgNi-based amorphous alloys are designed by substituting part of Mg in MgNi-based alloys by suitable elements. These alloys are then composed of four components. Thus, the cycle life of electrodes consisting of these quaternary amorphous alloys is greatly improved.

  11. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by Al-Ti-C-Y master alloy

    XU Chunxiang; LU Binfeng; L(U) Zhengling; LIANG Wei


    Al-Ti-C-Y master alloy was prepared by combining SHS technique and melting-casting method. The microstructure of master alloy and its grain-refining effect on AZ31 alloy were investigated by means of OM, XRD, SEM and EDS. Experimental results indicated that the prepared master alloy consisted of α-Al, TiAl3, TiC and Al3Y phases, and exhibited good grain-refining performance of AZ31 alloy. Morphology of α-Mg changed from coarse dendritic to fine equiaxed and the average grain size of α-Mg matrix reduced from the original 580 to 170 μm after adding 1.0 wt.% master alloy. The grain refining efficiency of Al-Ti-C-Y master alloy on AZ31 alloy was mainly attributed to heterogeneous nucleation of TiC particles and grain growth restriction of Al-Y compound or TiC at grain boundaries.

  12. Micro-Structures of Hard Coatings Deposited on Titanium Alloys by Laser Alloying Technique

    Li, Wei; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Weng, Fei


    This work is based on micro-structural performance of the Ti-B4C-C laser alloying coatings on Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The test results indicated that laser alloying of the Ti-B4C-C pre-placed powders on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate can form the ceramics reinforced hard alloying coatings, which increased the micro-hardness and wear resistance of substrate. The test result also indicated that the TiB phase was produced in alloying coating, which corresponded to its (101) crystal plane. In addition, yttria has a refining effect on micro-structures of the laser alloying coating, and its refinement mechanism was analyzed. This research provided essential experimental and theoretical basis to promote the applications of the laser alloying technique in manufacturing and repairing of the aerospace parts.

  13. Status of Testing and Characterization of CMS Alloy 617 and Alloy 230

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Battiste, Rick [ORNL; Terry, Totemeier [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Denis, Clark [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)


    Status and progress in testing and characterizing CMS Alloy 617 and Alloy 230 tasks in FY06 at ORNL and INL are described. ORNL research has focused on CMS Alloy 617 development and creep and tensile properties of both alloys. In addition to refurbishing facilities to conduct tests, a significant amount of creep and tensile data on Alloy 230, worth several years of research funds and time, has been located and collected from private enterprise. INL research has focused on the creep-fatigue behavior of standard chemistry Alloy 617 base metal and fusion weldments. Creep-fatigue tests have been performed in air, vacuum, and purified Ar environments at 800 and 1000 C. Initial characterization and high-temperature joining work has also been performed on Alloy 230 and CCA Alloy 617 in preparation for creep-fatigue testing.

  14. Perioperative complications in revision hip surgery.

    Thomasson, E; Guingand, O; Terracher, R; Mazel, C


    Revision hip surgery now constitutes 10-30% of all joint procedures. The morbidity and associated with this demanding operation are not well established. The goal of this paper is to determine these rates and to identify some predictive factors. The complication rate ranges from 31,5 to more than 77% in the literature. Life threatening complications represent 1,8 to 8% of these, leading to death in about 1,6%. ASA score and age above 75 appear to be correlated with medical complications. The injection rate varies from 1 to 5,8%, and may be as high as 14% in cases with a past history of infection. Heterotopic ossification occurred in 13 to 65%, reaching severity in 3,3 to 8,3%. Surgical complications include dislocation and femoral injuries. Dislocations occur in almost 10%, leading to revision in1-4,2%. Age and the number of previous surgical operations appear to be significant risk factors. Femoral injuries (perforations or femoral fractures) occur in 6-37%, especially in impaction grafting technique and when uncemented implants are used. Age over 75 years and femoral defects appear to be significant risk factors for femoral fractures. The rate of complications in revision hip surgery continues to be high, but successful clinical outcome can be attained even in elderly patients. Attentive preoperative exams, good prevention of technical pitfalls, the experience of the surgeon and the use of specific tools may decrease these complications and make this demanding procedure safer.

  15. New Dental Alloys with Special Consumer Properties



    The purpose of the investigation was to create a new gold alloy of yellow for casting the frames of metal-ceramic dentures.The yellow color corresponds to the consumer and aesthetic needs of some patients,because it is a sign of the metal,which is noble and innocuous.The main alloying elements of the majority of gold alloys for metal-ceramics are platinum and palladium,which increase the strength characteristics.Copper,tin,and other precious metals and base metals are also introduced in these alloys.At the same time,it is necessary to ensure the correspondence of the properties of the alloy with those of the ceramics applied onto the metal frame.For this purpose,the thermal expansion coefficient of the alloy (TEC) should be in a range of 13.5~14.5 × 10-6 K-1 when heated from 20 to 600 ℃.The two-component alloys,alloying of gold with platinum and palladium results in a decrease in the TEC,and the introduction of copper,silver,and tin,increases it.Multidirectional influence of the alloying elements is a factor in achieving compliance of the TEC with the given values of the alloy.In multicomponent systems,however,the mutual influence of individual components on the properties of the alloy is unpredictable.This also applies to the color characteristics of the alloys,which vary in the direction of reducing the yellowness with increasing concentration of platinum and palladium,while other elements may have the opposite effect on the results.Yellowness index (YI),calculated according to the results of spectrophotometric studies,has been chosen as an objective indicator of color.In this study,the requirement for YI was given not less than 25; the color of such alloys can be called light yellow.All the alloys investigated contained 85% (by weight)of gold.Therefore,higher corrosion resistance and biological inertness of a finished dental products were ensured.Among the alloys that met the yellowness/TEC requirements,two alloys have been selected that were "most yellow

  16. First principles theory of disordered alloys and alloy phase stability

    Stocks, G.M.; Nicholson, D.M.C.; Shelton, W.A. [and others


    These lecture notes review the LDA-KKR-CPA method for treating the electronic structure and energetics of random alloys and the MF-CF and GPM theories of ordering and phase stability built on the LDA- KKR-CPA description of the disordered phase. Section 2 lays out the basic LDA-KKR-CPA theory of random alloys and some applications. Section 3 reviews the progress made in understanding specific ordering phenomena in binary solid solutions base on the MF-CF and GPM theories of ordering and phase stability. Examples are Fermi surface nesting, band filling, off diagonal randomness, charge transfer, size difference or local strain fluctuations, magnetic effects; in each case, an attempt is made to link the ordering and the underlying electronic structure of the disordered phase. Section 4 reviews calculations of electronic structure of {beta}-phase Ni{sub c}Al{sub 1-c} alloys using a version of the LDA-KKR-CPA codes generalized to complex lattices.

  17. Effects of segregation of primary alloying elements on the creep response in magnesium alloys

    Huang, Y.D.; Dieringa, H.; Hort, N.


    The segregation of primary alloying elements deteriorates the high temperature creep resistance of magnesium alloys. Annealing at high temperatures alleviating their segregations can improve the creep resistance. Present investigation on the effect of segregation of primary alloying elements...... on the creep response may provide some useful information about how to improve the creep resistance of magnesium alloys in the future. (c) 2008 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. The Influence of Novel Alloying Additions on the Performance of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B


    alloys are based on a rather small group of alloying elements, there are often limited differences between them in properties (strength, corrosion ...Research Laboratory (ARL). Initially, the discussions focused on ways to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium ( Mg ) alloys to increase the...elements display little tendency to alter precipitates or otherwise adversely influence the corrosion performance of the base alloy . Based on these

  19. Theory of Random Anisotropic Magnetic Alloys

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    A mean-field-crystal-field theory is developed for random, multicomponent, anisotropic magnetic alloys. It is specially applicable to rare-earth alloys. A discussion is given of multicritical points and phase transitions between various states characterized by order parameters with different...... spatial directions or different ordering wave vectors. Theoretical predictions based on known parameters for the phase diagrams and magnetic moments for the binary rare-earth alloys of Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, Tb-Tm, Nd-Pr, and pure double-hcp Nd agree qualitatively with the experimental observations....... Quantitative agreement can be obtained by increasing the interaction between different alloy elements, in particular for alloys with very different axial anisotropy, e.g., Tb-Tm. A model system consisting of a singlet-singlet and singlet-doublet alloy is discussed in detail. A simple procedure to include...

  20. Magnetic Characteristics of Two Metglas Alloys

    Blatnik, Marie; SNS nEDM Collaboration


    Magnetic shielding is gaining greater significance as precision experiments become more sensitive, such as for the Spallation Neutron Source nEDM [neutron electric dipole moment] measurement. Targeting a sensitivity of 10-28 e-cm, the SNS nEDM collaboration minimizes magnetic shield gradients and magnetic noise with a superconducting lead shield and several shield layers that include using a Metglas layer as a primary component. Metglas is a thin ribbon of proprietary engineered alloy that comes in many varieties. One alloy with high (as cast) permeability is Metglas alloy 2705M, which is primarily composed of Cobalt. However, this alloy will activate under neutron radiation and is therefore unsuitable. However, another high-performance Metglas alloy, 2826 MB, contains only trace amounts of Cobalt. A study of the shielding characteristics of the two alloys was performed, paying close attention to field oscillation frequency and magnitude.

  1. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    Pryds, Nini


    The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio...... and a low glass transition temperature. The alloys were prepared by using a relatively simple technique, i.e. rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The essential structural changes that are achieved by going from the amorphous to the crystalline state through the supercooled liquid state...... are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  2. Bonding theory for metals and alloys

    Wang, Frederick E


    Bonding Theory for Metals and Alloys exhorts the potential existence of covalent bonding in metals and alloys. Through the recognition of the covalent bond in coexistence with the 'free' electron band, the book describes and demonstrates how the many experimental observations on metals and alloys can all be reconciled. Subsequently, it shows how the individual view of metals and alloys by physicists, chemists and metallurgists can be unified. The physical phenomena of metals and alloys covered in this book are: Miscibility Gap between two liquid metals; Phase Equilibrium Diagrams; Phenomenon of Melting. Superconductivity; Nitinol; A Metal-Alloy with Memory; Mechanical Properties; Liquid Metal Embrittlement; Superplasticity; Corrosion; The author introduces a new theory based on 'Covalon' conduction, which forms the basis for a new approach to the theory of superconductivity. This new approach not only explains the many observations made on the phenomenon of superconductivity but also makes predictions that ha...

  3. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy.

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi


    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at -150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries.

  4. Recrystallization of Al-Sc alloys

    Drits, M.E.; Toropova, L.S.; Bykov, Yu.G.; Ber, L.B.

    Scandium effect on the temperature range of aluminium recrystallization was investigated. Al-Sc alloys were studied under cold rolled and hot pressed conditions. It is found that the temperature range of Al-Sc alloy recrystallization depends on ScAl/sub 3/ particle dispersion during recrystallization heats. During heating in quenched alloys at 200-300 deg C decomposition occurs which prevents recrystallization, In the alloys with scandium contents less 0.2% decomposition and recrystallization processes pass simultaneously. In quenched alloys with scandium contents over 0.2% and in aged alloys the initiation and subsequent development of recrystallization are determined by the processes of coalescence and solution of ScAl/sub 3/ phase particles.

  5. Biocorrosion study of titanium-nickel alloys.

    Chern Lin, J H; Lo, S J; Ju, C P


    The present study provides results of the corrosion behaviour in Hank's physiological solution and some other properties of three Ti-Ni alloys with 18, 25 and 28.4 wt% Ni, respectively. Results indicate that alpha-titanium and Ti2Ni were the two major phases in all three Ti-Ni alloys. The relative amount of the Ti2Ni phase increased with additional Ni content. Hardness of the Ti-Ni alloys also increased with added nickel content, ranging from 310 to 390 VHN, similar to the hardness of enamel. Melting temperatures of the Ti-Ni alloys were all lower than that of pure titanium by least 600 degrees C. The three Ti-Ni alloys behaved almost identically when potentiodynamically polarized in Hank's solution at 37 degrees C. The critical anodic current densities of the alloys were nearly 30 microA/cm2 and the breakdown potentials were all above 1100 mV (SCE).

  6. Kinetics and Structure of Refractory Compounds and AlloysObtained by Mechanical Alloying


    Refractory compounds are material with interesting properties for structural applications. However, the processing of such material is a great challenge because of their high melting temperature and limited ductility. Mechanical alloying is a novel technique of producing refractory compounds with specific properties. Kinetical and structural peculiarities of refractory compounds and alloys obtained by mechanical alloying are discussed.

  7. Spark alloying of VK8 and T15K6 hard alloys

    Kuptsov, S. G.; Fominykh, M. V.; Mukhinov, D. V.; Magomedova, R. S.; Nikonenko, E. A.; Pleshchev, V. P.


    A method is developed to restore the service properties of VK hard alloy plates using preliminary carburizing followed by spark alloying with a VT1-0 alloy. The phase composition is studied as a function of the spark treatment time.

  8. Alloying Solid Solution Strengthening of Fe-Ga Alloys: A First-Principle Study


    effect from alloying additions of Nb, Mo, V, Cr and Co in cubic solid solution of Fe-Ga alloys. Mayer bond order "BO" values were used to evaluate the...that transition metal Nb achieves the best strengthening effect in Fe-Ga alloys. The solid solution strengthening follows a trend from larger to

  9. High toughness-high strength iron alloy

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R. (Inventor)


    An iron alloy is provided which exhibits strength and toughness characteristics at cryogenic temperatures. The alloy consists essentially of about 10 to 16 percent by weight nickel, about 0.1 to 1.0 percent by weight aluminum, and 0 to about 3 percent by weight copper, with the balance being essentially iron. The iron alloy is produced by a process which includes cold rolling at room temperature and subsequent heat treatment.

  10. The Fatigue of Powder Metallurgy Alloys.


    v1o -2- MATERIALS AND TESTS Table 1 provides a complete listing of the alloys studied in this program together with their chemical compositions ...use can minimize material waste and minimize machining costs. In addition there is the potential for the development of more fine-grained and...out under fully reversed loading conditions in the high cycle range with smooth specimens. X7090 and X7091 are P/M alloys, 7075 is an ingot alloy

  11. Aspects of precipitation in alloy Inconel 718

    Azadian, Saied


    A study was made of the microstructure of the Ni-base alloy Inconel 718 with emphasis on the precipitation and stability of intermetallic phases as affected by heat treatments. In addition the effect of the precipitation on selected mechanical properties namely hardness, creep notch sensitivity and hot ductlity were investigated. The materials studied were a spray-formed version and three wrought versions of the alloy. The spray-formed version of the alloy was of interest since it exhibited a...

  12. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.


    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  13. The oxidation and corrosion of ODS alloys

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.


    The oxidation and hot corrosion of high temperature oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are reviewed. The environmental resistance of such alloys are classified by oxide growth rate, oxide volatility, oxide spalling, and hot corrosion limitations. Also discussed are environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. It is concluded that ODS NiCrAl and FeCrAl alloys are highly oxidation and corrosion resistant and can probably be used uncoated.

  14. Oxidation And Hot Corrosion Of ODS Alloy

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.


    Report reviews oxidation and hot corrosion of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys, intended for use at high temperatures. Classifies environmental resistances of such alloys by rates of growth of oxides, volatilities of oxides, spalling of oxides, and limitations imposed by hot corrosion. Also discusses environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. Concludes ODS NICrAl and FeCrAl alloys highly resistant to oxidation and corrosion and can be used uncoated.

  15. Alloy nanoparticle synthesis using ionizing radiation

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Powers, Dana A.; Zhang, Zhenyuan


    A method of forming stable nanoparticles comprising substantially uniform alloys of metals. A high dose of ionizing radiation is used to generate high concentrations of solvated electrons and optionally radical reducing species that rapidly reduce a mixture of metal ion source species to form alloy nanoparticles. The method can make uniform alloy nanoparticles from normally immiscible metals by overcoming the thermodynamic limitations that would preferentially produce core-shell nanoparticles.

  16. Cobalt-Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study


    are presented in Section 5. 2. Materials and methods The composition of the cobalt -base alloy (CBA) is presented in Table 1. The production of this... Cobalt -Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study by William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 A reprint...21005-5069 ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 Cobalt -Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery Weapons and Materials

  17. Deformation Driven Alloying and Transformation


    Rolling, Acta Materiala (08 2014) Zhe Wang , John H Perepezko, David Larson, David Reinhard. Mixing Behaviors in Cu/Ni and Ni/V Multilayers Cold Rolling, Journal of Alloys and Compounds (07 2014) Zhe Wang , John H. Perepezko. Deformation-Induced Nanoscale Mixing Reactions in Cu/Ni...FTE Equivalent: Total Number: Discipline Zhe Wang 0.50 0.50 1 Names of Post Doctorates Names of Faculty Supported Names of Under Graduate students

  18. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    Moiseyev, Valentin N


    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  19. New aluminium alloys with high lithium content

    Schemme, K.; Velten, B.


    Since the early 80's there have been made great efforts to replace the high strength aluminium alloys for the aircraft and space industry by a new generation of aluminium-lithium alloys. The attractivity of this kind of alloys could be increased by a further reduction of their density, caused by an increasing lithium content (/ge/ 5 wt.% Li). Therefore binary high-lithium containing alloys with low density are produced and metallografically investigated. A survey of their strength and wear behavior is given by using tensile tests and pin abrasing tests. (orig.).

  20. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian


    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  1. Ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy films

    Chluba, C; Ge, W; Lima de Miranda, R; Strobel, J; Kienle, L; Quandt, E; Wuttig, M


    Functional shape memory alloys need to operate reversibly and repeatedly. Quantitative measures of reversibility include the relative volume change of the participating phases and compatibility matrices for twinning...

  2. Design, Selection and Application of High Efficient Complex Alloys


    The design, selection and application principles of complex alloys according to the requirements of making low-alloy steels are di scussed. The designed complex alloys containing calcium, barium, magne sium, strontium, rare earth elements, etc. should not only be able to deoxidize, desulphurize and refine liquid steel, but also alloy it. Th e application principles of alloys are as follows: using Si-Mn or Si-M n-Al alloys for pre-deoxidizing, Si-Al-Ba or Si-Al-Ca-Ba alloys for fi nal deoxidizing and Si-Ca-Ba-Mg(Sr) alloys for refining.

  3. Nanodispersed boriding of titanium alloy

    Kateryna O. Kostyk


    Full Text Available The problem of improving the operational reliability of machines is becoming increasingly important due to the increased mechanical, thermal and other loads on the details. There are many surface hardening methods for machines parts which breakdown begins with surface corruption. The most promising methods are chemo-thermal treatment. Aim: The aim of this work is to study the impact of boriding on the structure and properties of titanium alloy. Materials and Methods: The material of this study is VT3-1 titanium alloy. The boriding were conducted using nanodispersed powder blend based on boric substances. Results: It is established that boriding of paste compounds allows obtaining the surface hardness within 30...29 GPa and with declining to 27...26 GPa in layer to the transition zone (with total thickness up to 110 μm owing to changes of the layer phase composition where Ti2B, TiB, TiB2 titanium borides are formed. The increasing of chemical-thermal treatment time from 15 minutes to 2 hours leads to thickening of the borated layer (30...110 µm and transition zone (30...190 µm. Conclusions: Due to usage of nanodispersed boric powder, the boriding duration is decreasing in 2...3 times. This allows saving time and electric energy. The developed optimal mode of boriding the VT3-1 titanium alloy allows obtaining the required operational characteristics and to combine the saturation of the surface layer with atomic boron and hardening.

  4. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  5. Microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy.

    Yang, S S; Chen, C Y; Wei, C B; Lin, Y T


    Several microbes were isolated from the contaminated fuel-oil in Taiwan and the microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy A356-T6 was tested by MIL-STD-810E test method. Penicillium sp. AM-F5 and Cladosporium resinac ATCC 22712 had significant adsorption and pitting on the surface of aluminum alloy, Pseudomonas acruginosa AM-B5 had weak adsorption and some precipitation in the bottom, and Candida sp. AM-Y1 had the less adsorption and few cavities formation on the surface. pH of the aqueous phase decreased 0.3 to 0.7 unit for 4 months of incubation. The corrosion of aluminum alloy was very significant in the cultures of Penicillium sp. AM-F2, Penicillium sp. AM-F5 and C. resinac ATCC 22712. The major metabolites in the aqueous phase with the inoculation of C. resinac were citric acid and oxalic acid, while succinic acid and fumaric acid were the minors.

  6. Report on FY15 alloy 617 code rules development

    Sham, Sam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, Robert I [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hollinger, Greg [Becht Engineering Co., Inc., Liberty Corner, NJ (United States); Pease, Derrick [Becht Engineering Co., Inc., Liberty Corner, NJ (United States); Carter, Peter [Stress Engineering Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Pu, Chao [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wang, Yanli [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Due to its strength at very high temperatures, up to 950°C (1742°F), Alloy 617 is the reference construction material for structural components that operate at or near the outlet temperature of the very high temperature gas-cooled reactors. However, the current rules in the ASME Section III, Division 5 Subsection HB, Subpart B for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 650°C (1200°F) (Corum and Brass, Proceedings of ASME 1991 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, PVP-Vol. 215, p.147, ASME, NY, 1991). The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, 650°C (1200°F), is well below the temperature range of interest for this material for the high temperature gas-cooled reactors and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactors. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis requiring sophisticated material models that have not yet been formulated and verified. To address these issues, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) analysis methods applicable to very high temperatures. The proposed rules for strain limits and creep-fatigue evaluation were initially documented in the technical literature (Carter, Jetter and Sham, Proceedings of ASME 2012 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, papers PVP 2012 28082 and PVP 2012 28083, ASME, NY, 2012), and have been recently revised to incorporate comments and simplify their application. Background documents have been developed for these two code cases to support the ASME Code committee approval process. These background documents for the EPP strain limits and creep-fatigue code cases are documented in this report.

  7. A Single Counterexample Leads to Moral Belief Revision.

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek; Hummel, John


    What kind of evidence will lead people to revise their moral beliefs? Moral beliefs are often strongly held convictions, and existing research has shown that morality is rooted in emotion and socialization rather than deliberative reasoning. In addition, more general issues-such as confirmation bias-further impede coherent belief revision. Here, we explored a unique means for inducing belief revision. In two experiments, participants considered a moral dilemma in which an overwhelming majority of people judged that it was inappropriate to take action to maximize utility. Their judgments contradicted a utilitarian principle they otherwise strongly endorsed. Exposure to this scenario led participants to revise their belief in the utilitarian principle, and this revision persisted over several hours. This method provides a new avenue for inducing belief revision.

  8. Data set for diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys from first-principles

    Bi-Cheng Zhou


    Full Text Available Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in Mg are critical for the development of new Mg alloys for lightweight applications. Here we present the data set of the temperature-dependent dilute tracer diffusion coefficients for 47 substitutional alloying elements in hexagonal closed packed (hcp Mg calculated from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT by combining transition state theory and an 8-frequency model. Benchmark for the DFT calculations and systematic comparison with experimental diffusion data are also presented. The data set refers to “Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys: A comprehensive first-principles study” by Zhou et al. [1].

  9. The Properties of 7xxx Series Alloys Formed by Alloying Additions

    Kwak Z.


    Full Text Available Currently there is a constant development in the field of aluminium alloys engineering. This results from, i.a., better understanding of the mechanisms that direct strengthening of these alloys and the role of microalloying. Now it is microalloying in aluminum alloys that is receiving a lot of attention. It affects substantially the macro- and microstructure and kinetics of phase transformation influencing the properties during production and its exploitation. 7xxx series aluminum alloys, based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system, are high-strength alloys, moreover, the presence of Zr and Sr further increases their strength and improves resistance to cracking.

  10. Influence of alloy ingredients on mechanical properties of ternary boride hard alloy clad materials

    LIU Fu-tian; SONG Shi-xue; YANG Jun-ru; HUANG Wei-ling; HUANG Chuan-zhen; CHENG Xin; LI Zhao-qian


    Using Mo, B-Fe alloy and Fe powders as raw materials, and adding C, Cr and Ni ingredients, respectively, or C, Cr and Ni mixed powders, ternary boride hard alloy clad materials was prepared on Q235 steel substrate by means of in-situ reaction and vacuum liquid phase sintering technology. The influence of alloy ingredients on the mechanical properties of ternary boride hard alloy clad materials was investigated. The results indicate that a mixture of 0.8% C, 5% Cr and 2% Ni ingredients gives a ternary boride hard alloy clad material with optimal mechanical properties, such as high transverse rupture strength, high hardness and good wear resistance.

  11. Belief Revision in the GOAL Agent Programming Language

    Spurkeland, Johannes Svante; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen


    Agents in a multiagent system may in many cases find themselves in situations where inconsistencies arise. In order to properly deal with these, a good belief revision procedure is required. This paper illustrates the usefulness of such a procedure: a certain belief revision algorithm is consider...... in order to deal with inconsistencies and, particularly, the issue of inconsistencies, and belief revision is examined in relation to the GOAL agent programming language....

  12. Development of Nanoporous Ni-Sn Alloy and Application for Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol

    Rodiansono Rodiansono


    Full Text Available A very simple synthetic procedure was developed for the preparation of Ni-Sn alloy catalysts that were utilised for chemoselective hydrogenation of furfural, producing furfuryl alcohol almost exclusively. The mixture of nickel nanoparticles supported on aluminium hydroxide (R-Ni/AlOH and a solution containing tin was treated under hydrothermal condition, producing the as prepared nickel-tin alloy supported on aluminium hydroxide (Ni-Sn/AlOH. H2 treatment at range of temperature of 673-873 K for 1.5 h to the as prepared Ni-Sn/AlOH produced nanoporous Ni-Sn alloy catalysts. XRD patterns and SEM images revealed that the formation of Ni-Sn alloy of Ni3Sn and Ni3Sn2 phases and the transformation of crystalline gibbsite and bayerite into amorphous alumina were clearly observed after H2 treatment at 873 K. The formation of the Ni-Sn alloy may have played a key role in the enhancement of the chemoselectivity. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 1st September 2013; Revised: 26th November 2013; Accepted: 7th December 2013[How to Cite: Rodiansono, R., Hara, T., Ichikuni, N., Shimazu, S. (2014. Development of Nanoporous Ni-Sn Alloy and Application for Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 53-59. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5529.53-59][Permalink/DOI:

  13. In vivo electrochemical corrosion study of a CoCrMo biomedical alloy in human synovial fluids.

    Igual Munoz, A; Schwiesau, J; Jolles, B M; Mischler, S


    The present study was initiated with the aim to assess the in vivo electrochemical corrosion behaviour of CoCrMo biomedical alloys in human synovial fluids in an attempt to identify possible patient or pathology specific effects. For this, electrochemical measurements (open circuit potential OCP, polarization resistance Rp, potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS) were carried out on fluids extracted from patients with different articular pathologies and prosthesis revisions. Those electrochemical measurements could be carried out with outstanding precision and signal stability. The results show that the corrosion behaviour of CoCrMo alloy in synovial fluids not only depends on material reactivity but also on the specific reactions of synovial fluid components, most likely involving reactive oxygen species. In some patients the latter were found to determine the whole cathodic and anodic electrochemical response. Depending on patients, corrosion rates varied significantly between 50 and 750 mg dm(-2)year(-1).

  14. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.


    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  15. Grain refinement of 7075Al alloy microstructures by inoculation with Al-Ti-B master alloy

    Hotea, V.; Juhasz, J.; Cadar, F.


    This paper aims to bring some clarification on grain refinement and modification of high strength alloys used in aerospace technique. In this work it was taken into account 7075 Al alloy, and the melt treatment was carried out by placing in the form of master alloy wire ternary AlTiB the casting trough at 730°C. The morphology of the resulting microstructures was characterized by optical microscopy. Micrographs unfinished and finished with pre-alloy containing ternary Al5Ti1B evidence fine crystals, crystal containing no columnar structure and highlights the size of the dendrites, and intermetallic phases occurring at grain boundaries in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. It has been found that these intermetallic compounds are MgZn2 type. AlTiB master alloys finishing ensures a fine eutectic structure, which determines the properties of hardware and improving the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys used in aeronautical engineering.

  16. Is Peer Review Training Effective in Iranian EFL Students’ Revision?

    Hadiseh Esmaeeli


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of peer review training on the Iranian EFL students’ subsequent revision in an advanced writing class in Larestan Islamic Azad University. After 12 weeks class demonstration, teacher-reviewer conferences with 20 male and female students, the students’ first drafts, revisions, and reviewers’ comments were collected and compared the comments before and after peer review training. The findings revealed that the students incorporated significantly more comments into subsequent revisions after peer review training. Therefore, peer review training had a positive effect on the students’ subsequent revisions.

  17. Creative revision - From rough draft to published paper

    Buehler, M. F.


    The process of revising a technical or scientific paper can be performed more efficiently by the people involved (author, co-author, supervisor, editor) when the revision is controlled by breaking it into a series of steps. The revision process recommended here is based on the levels-of-edit concept that resulted from a study of the technical editorial function at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology. Types of revision discussed are Substantive, Policy, Language, Mechanical Style, Format, Integrity, and Copy Clarification.

  18. Estudios ornitologicos urbanos en Colombia: revision de literatura

    Delgado-V., Carlos A; Correa-H., Juana C


    Este articulo examina la informacion que se ha producido en revistas arbitradas sobre las aves de las ciudades colombianas, complementando un articulo de revision Latinoamericano publicado recientemente...

  19. My revision notes AQA GCSE computer science computing fundamentals

    Cushing, Steve


    Unlock your full potential with this revision guide which focuses on the key content and skills you need to know. With My Revision Notes for AQA GCSE Computer Science, which perfectly matches the latest examined elements of the course, you can:. - Take control of your revision: plan and focus on the areas you need to revise, with advice, summaries and notes from author Steve Cushing. - Show you fully understand key topics by using specific strategies and theories to add depth to your knowledge of programming and computing issues and processes. - Apply programming and computing terms accurately

  20. Revised numerical wrapper for PIES code

    Raburn, Daniel; Reiman, Allan; Monticello, Donald


    A revised external numerical wrapper has been developed for the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver (PIES code), which is capable of calculating 3D MHD equilibria with islands. The numerical wrapper has been demonstrated to greatly improve the rate of convergence in numerous cases corresponding to equilibria in the TFTR device where magnetic islands are present. The numerical wrapper makes use of a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver along with adaptive preconditioning and a sophisticated subspace-restricted Levenberg-Marquardt backtracking algorithm. The details of the numerical wrapper and several sample results are presented.

  1. Financial Wealth Distribution in Revised Financial Accounts

    Václav Rybáček


    Full Text Available Financial statistics undergo dynamic evolution as apparent consequence of their rising importance. Structureof assets, source of fi nancing, price changes or net fi nancial position, all these indicators can detect oncomingfi nancial instability. Financial statistics as a logical extension of the national accounts provide such information.Th e aim of the following text is to present fi nancial statistics, relation between particular accounts, the impact of extraordinary revision carried out in 2011, and also to analyse current wealth distribution as described by fi nancial statistics.

  2. Revision of the family Nothybidae (Diptera: Schizophora).

    Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S A


    The family Nothybidae (Diptera: Schizophora) is revised. The family consists of 11 species in the single genus Nothybus Rondani, which occurs in Papua New Guinea, Nepal and much of the Oriental Region. Three species are described as new: N. absens spec. nov. (China), N. cataractus spec. nov. (Laos, Thailand) and N. procerus spec. nov. (India). Nothybus longithorax Rondani, 1875 is treated as a junior synonym of N. longicollis (Walker, 1856). Nothybus decorus Meijere, 1924 syn. nov. is included as a junior synonym of N. lineifer Enderlein, 1922.

  3. Cambridge IGCSE mathematics study and revision guide

    Seager, Brian; Matthews, Jean


    Providing guidance that helps students practice and troubleshoot their exam technique,these books send them into their exam with the confidence to aim for the best grades.- Enables students to avoid common misconceptions and mistakes by highlighting them throughout- Builds students' skills constructing and writing answers as they progress through a range of practice questions- Allows students to mark their own responses and easily identify areas for improvement using the answers in the back of the book- Helps students target their revision and focus on impo

  4. The thesaurus review, renaissance, and revision

    Roe, Sandra K


    Use this single source to uncover the origin and development of the thesaurus! The Thesaurus: Review, Renaissance, and Revision examines the historical development of the thesaurus and the standards employed for thesaurus construction. This book provides both the history of thesauri and tutorials on usage to increase your understanding of thesaurus creation, use, and evaluation. This reference tool offers essential information on thesauri in the digital environment, including Web sites, databases, and software. For 50 years, the thesaurus has been a core reference book; The Thesaurus: Review,

  5. Revising in two languages: A multidimensional comparison of online writing revisions in L1 en FL

    M. Stevenson; R. Schoonen; K. de Glopper


    It has frequently been claimed that, in foreign language writing, attention to linguistic processes inhibits attention available for higher level conceptual processing [e.g., Chenoweth & Hayes, 2001; Whalen & Ménard, 1995]. This study examines this hypothesis for foreign language revision processes

  6. Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.

    Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

    Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

  7. Unforced Revision in Processing Relative Clause Association Ambiguity in Japanese: Evidence against Revision as Last Resort

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; Arai, Manabu; Hirose, Yuki


    The current study tackles a long standing question of whether comprehenders perform structural revision when it is not forced by grammar or not. Using an eye-tracking reading paradigm, we addressed this issue by making use of global structural ambiguity in Japanese. Our results show that comprehenders initially associate a relative clause with the…

  8. Design and characterisation of a new duplex surface system based on S-phase hardening and carbon-based coating for ASTM F1537 Co-Cr-Mo alloy

    Luo, Xia; Li, Xiaoying


    Co-Cr-Mo alloys are one of the most widely used metallic biomaterials for metal-on-metal joint prostheses. However, concerns over increased revision rates mainly due to nano-sized wear debris have been raised. This study was aimed at enhancing the friction, wear and load-bearing properties of Co-Cr-Mo alloys by developing a new duplex surface system combining super hard and wear-resistant S-phase layer with self-lubricating, low-friction carbon-based coating. To this end, ASTM


    McCuaig, F.D.; Misch, R.D.


    A brazing alloy can be used for bonding zirconium and its alloys to other metals, ceramics, and cermets, and consists of 6 to 9 wt.% Ni, 6 to 9 wn~.% Cr, Mo, or W, 0 to 7.5 wt.% Fe, and the balance Zr.

  10. Zirconium alloys produced by recycling zircaloy tunings

    Gamba, N.S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catálisis y Petroquímica, INCAPE (FIQ, UNL–CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Carbajal-Ramos, I.A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA e Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Ulla, M.A.; Pierini, B.T. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catálisis y Petroquímica, INCAPE (FIQ, UNL–CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Gennari, F.C., E-mail: [Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA e Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)


    Highlights: •Zr–Ti alloys were successfully produced by two-step procedure. •Zircaloy tunings were used as a valuable source of Zr. •Zircaloy tunings and Ti powders was milled under hydrogen to produce hydride powders. •Hydride powders were decomposed by heating at 900 °C to synthesize the Zr-based alloy. •The procedure could be extended to the production of other Zr-based alloys. -- Abstract: Zircaloy chips were recycled to successfully produce Zr–Ti alloys with bcc structure and different compositions. The procedure developed involves two steps. First, the reactive mechanical alloying (RMA) of the zircaloy tunings and Ti powders was performed to produce metal hydride powders, with a high refinement of the microstructure and a Zr–Ti homogeneous composition. Second, the metal hydride powders were thermally decomposed by heating up to 900 °C to synthesize the Zr-based alloy with a selected composition. The change in the nature of the powders from ductile to brittle during milling avoids both cold working phenomena between the metals and the use of a control agent. A minimum milling time is necessary to produce the solid solution with the selected composition. The microstructure and structure of the final alloys obtained was studied. The present procedure could be extended to the production of Zr-based alloys with the addition of other metals different from Ti.

  11. Measurement of oxide adherence to PFM alloys.

    Mackert, J R; Parry, E E; Hashinger, D T; Fairhurst, C W


    A method has been reported for evaluating adherence of an oxide to its substrate metal to a maximum value of about 40 MPa. Oxidized alloy plates were cemented between two aluminum cylinders with a high-strength cyanoacrylate cement and loaded in tension until failure occurred either at the oxide/metal interface, within the oxide layer, or in the cement itself. Significant differences were found among the oxide adherence values obtained from different PFM alloys. The oxides formed on five of the alloys exhibited adherence strengths in excess of the published value for cohesive strength of dental opaque porcelain, indicating that they possess sufficient adherence to act as the transition zone between the porcelain and the alloy. In addition, a correspondence was found between the quality of porcelain bond for a given alloy and its oxide adherence strength. These results remove the principal objection to the oxide-layer theory of porcelain bonding in dental alloy systems and emphasize the importance of oxide adherence in the establishment of a bond. It is therefore suggested that future work devoted to porcelain-metal bonding should seek to elucidate the mechanism of oxide adherence to PFM alloys and explore the development of new alloys which form adherent oxides.

  12. Progress in High-Entropy Alloys

    Gao, Michael C


    Strictly speaking, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) refer to single-phase, solid-solution alloys with multiprincipal elements in an equal or a near-equal molar ratio whose configurational entropy is tremendously high. This special topic was organized to reflect the focus and diversity of HEA research topics in the community.




    Neutron diffraction measurements have been made on liquid Cs-Pb alloys at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. Equiatomic CsPb has been shown in previous work to be a Zintl alloy with well-defined Cs4Pb4 structural units, explaining the anomalously high electrical resistivity and specific heat observe

  14. Castable nickel aluminide alloys for structural applications

    Liu, Chain T.


    The specification discloses nickel aluminide alloys which include as a component from about 0.5 to about 4 at. % of one or more of the elements selected from the group consisting of molybdenum or niobium to substantially improve the mechanical properties of the alloys in the cast condition.

  15. Design optimization of shape memory alloy structures

    Langelaar, M.


    This thesis explores the possibilities of design optimization techniques for designing shape memory alloy structures. Shape memory alloys are materials which, after deformation, can recover their initial shape when heated. This effect can be used for actuation. Emerging applications for shape memory

  16. Design optimization of shape memory alloy structures

    Langelaar, M.


    This thesis explores the possibilities of design optimization techniques for designing shape memory alloy structures. Shape memory alloys are materials which, after deformation, can recover their initial shape when heated. This effect can be used for actuation. Emerging applications for shape memory

  17. Ti-Pt Alloys form mechanical milling

    Nxumalo, S


    Full Text Available orthorhombic structure at a temperature of approximately 1000oC. The martensite phase results in shape memory effect being observed in this alloy at this temperature. Other alloys such as TiNi and TiPd have also been investigated for the martensitic...

  18. Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys

    FU Zhi-hong; HE Di-qiu; WANG Hong


    Friction stir welding(FSW), a new solid-state welding technology invited in the early 1990s,enables us weld aluminum alloys and titanium alloys etc. The processing of FSW, the microstructure in FSW alloysand the factors influencing weld quality are introduced. The complex factors affecting the properties are researched.

  19. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    Pityana, SL


    Full Text Available analysed by menas of X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that when alloying with Fe-rich mixtures, the thin surface layers contained a number of cracks in the heat affected zones (HAZ). Alloying with Ni...

  20. Trends of Chinese RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys


    @@ Ⅰ . Status of Chinese RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys 1. R εt D of RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys in China AB5 hydrogen storage materials, taking rare earth mischmetals as raw materials, developed rapidly in China in recent years. Today, different countries attach importance to the development and application of the new environmental protection reproducible power sources.

  1. Alloys of clathrate allotropes for rechargeable batteries

    Chan, Candace K; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai S


    The present disclosure is directed at an electrode for a battery wherein the electrode comprises clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin. In method form, the present disclosure is directed at methods of forming clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin which methods lead to the formation of empty cage structures suitable for use as electrodes in rechargeable type batteries.

  2. Electroplating Zn-Al Alloy Technology


    The method of controlling separating anode and separating power source was used to perform orthogonal optimization for the parameters in electroplating Zn-Al alloy.The electroplating Zn-Al alloy technology was decided, in which the content of Al is about 12%-15%.

  3. Thermally activated martensite formation in ferrous alloys

    Villa, Matteo; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    Magnetometry was applied to investigate the formation of α/α´martensite in 13ferrous alloys during immersion in boiling nitrogen and during re-heating to room temperature at controlled heating rates in the range 0.0083-0.83 K s-1. Data showsthat in 3 of the alloys, those that form {5 5 7}γ...

  4. Corrosion resistance improvement of titanium base alloys

    Popa, Mihai V.; Vasilescu, Ecaterina; Drob, Paula; Vasilescu, Cora; Drob, Silviu I., E-mail: [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' Ilie Murgulescu' , Bucharest (Romania); Mareci, Daniel [Technical University ' Gh. Asachi' , Iasi (Romania); Rosca, Julia C. Mirza [Las Palmas de Gran Canaria University, Tafira (Spain). Mechanical Engineering Dept.


    The corrosion resistance of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy in comparison with ternary Ti-6Al-4V alloy in Ringer-Brown solution and artificial Carter-Brugirard saliva of different pH values was studied. In Ringer-Brown solution, the new alloy presented an improvement of all electrochemical parameters due to the alloying with Zr; also, impedance spectra revealed better protective properties of its passive layer. In Carter-Brugirard artificial saliva, an increase of the passive film thickness was proved. Fluoride ions had a slight negative influence on the corrosion and ion release rates, without to affect the very good stability of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy. (author)

  5. [Use of titanium alloys for medical instruments].

    Feofilov, R N; Chirkov, V K; Levin, M V


    On the ground of an analysis into properties of titanium and its alloys the fields of their possible utilization for making various medical instruments are proposed. Because of their insufficient hardness and wear-resistance the titanium alloys cannot be recommended for making medical instruments with thin cutting edges. For the reasons of their insufficient strength, low wear-resistance and substandard modulus of elasticity, it is inexpedient to use titanium alloys in making many types of clamping medical instruments. Nor is it advisable to employ titanium alloys in handles of the instruments, for this may lead to a contact corrosion of their working parts. The use of titanium alloys is recommended for making bone-joining members, retracting medical instruments, of the spatula and speculum types, some kinds of non-magnetic pincers and ultrasonic medical instruments.

  6. Corrosion resistance improvement of titanium base alloys

    Mihai V. Popa


    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy in comparison with ternary Ti-6Al-4V alloy in Ringer-Brown solution and artificial Carter-Brugirard saliva of different pH values was studied. In Ringer-Brown solution, the new alloy presented an improvement of all electrochemical parameters due to the alloying with Zr; also, impedance spectra revealed better protective properties of its passive layer. In Carter-Brugirard artificial saliva, an increase of the passive film thickness was proved. Fluoride ions had a slight negative influence on the corrosion and ion release rates, without to affect the very good stability of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy.

  7. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    N Eswara Prasad; A A Gokhale; P Rama Rao


    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has been developed of the microstructure-based micromechanisms of strengthening, of fatigue and fracture as well as of anisotropy in mechanical properties. However, these alloys have not yet greatly displaced the conventionally used denser Al alloys on account of their poorer ductility, fracture toughness and low cycle fatigue resistance. This review aims to summarise the work pertaining to study of structure and mechanical properties with a view to indicate the directions that have been and can be pursued to overcome property limitations.

  8. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)


    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  9. Rapidly solidified ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Craciunescu, C. M.; Ercuta, A.; Mitelea, I.; Valeanu, M.; Teodorescu, V. S.; Lupu, N.; Chiriac, H.


    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys have been manufactured by various techniques involving rapid solidification. Bulk alloys have been obtained by extracting the melted alloy in especially designed copper molds; glass coated wires have been obtained by drawing the melt from glass recipients followed by water cooling and ribbons have been fabricated by melt-spinning. Microstructural observations show particular solidification aspects of fractured areas, while ferromagnetic behavior has been detected in glass coated wires obtained by rapid solidification. The martensitic microstructure was observed on Co-Ni-Ga rapid solidified bulk alloys and Fe-Pd ribbons. The memory effect was detected using a Vibran system that allows the detection of the phase transition for the ribbons and by visual observation for other specimens. The conclusions of the observations are related to the comparison between the ferromagnetic behaviors of shape memory alloys solidified using different techniques.

  10. Long - range foundry Al composite alloys

    A. D. Mekhtiev


    Full Text Available The technology of obtaining nanostructural composite aluminum alloys consists in the plasma injection of refractory nanometric particles with simultaneous two-plane magnetic dynamic mixing of the melt. Particularly important in obtaining composite aluminum matrix alloys is the provision of the introduced particles wettability with the matrix melt for forming stable adhesive bonds. Nanostructured powder components can be considered not only to be a starting product for producing nanostructural composite aluminum alloys but as an independent commerce product. Nanostructural composite metal matrix alloys make one of the most prospective structural materials of the future, and liquid-phase technologies of their obtaining are the most competitive in producing products of nanostructural composite aluminum alloys in the industrial scale.

  11. Concepts in surface alloying of metals

    Santosh S. Hosmani


    Full Text Available Surface alloying is widely used method in industries to improve the surface properties of metals/alloys. Significance of the various surface engineering techniques to improve the properties of engineering components in various applications, for example, automobile industries, has grown substantially over the many years. The current paper is focused on the fundamental scientific aspects of the surface alloying of metals. Widely used surface alloying elements involved are interstitial elements such as nitrogen, carbon, and substitutional element, chromium. This topic is interdisciplinary in nature and various science and engineering streams can work together for the further development in this topic. This paper has attempted to cover the essential concepts of surface alloying along with some of the interesting results in this research area.

  12. Superior hydrogen storage in high entropy alloys

    Sahlberg, Martin; Karlsson, Dennis; Zlotea, Claudia; Jansson, Ulf


    Metal hydrides (MHx) provide a promising solution for the requirement to store large amounts of hydrogen in a future hydrogen-based energy system. This requires the design of alloys which allow for a very high H/M ratio. Transition metal hydrides typically have a maximum H/M ratio of 2 and higher ratios can only be obtained in alloys based on rare-earth elements. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, that a high entropy alloy of TiVZrNbHf can absorb much higher amounts of hydrogen than its constituents and reach an H/M ratio of 2.5. We propose that the large hydrogen-storage capacity is due to the lattice strain in the alloy that makes it favourable to absorb hydrogen in both tetrahedral and octahedral interstitial sites. This observation suggests that high entropy alloys have future potential for use as hydrogen storage materials.

  13. Multiscale Characterization of Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloys

    Gall, Keith

    Shape memory alloys were characterized by a variety of methods to investigate the relationship between microstructural phase transformation, macroscale deformation due to mechanical loading, material geometry, and initial material state. The major portion of the work is application of digital image correlation at several length scales to SMAs under mechanical loading. In addition, the connection between electrical resistance, stress, and strain was studied in NiTi wires. Finally, a new processing method was investigated to develop porous NiTi samples, which can be examined under DIC in future work. The phase transformation temperatures of a Nickel-Titanium based shape memory alloy (SMA) were initially evaluated under stress-free conditions by the differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) technique. Results show that the phase transformation temperature is significantly higher for transition from de-twinned martensite to austenite than from twinned martensite or R phase to austenite. To further examine transformation temperatures as a function of initial state a tensile test apparatus with in-situ electrical resistance (ER) measurements was used to evaluate the transformation properties of SMAs at a variety of stress levels and initial compositions. The results show that stress has a significant influence on the transformation of detwinned martensite, but a small influence on R phase and twinned martensite transformations. Electrical resistance changes linearly with strain during the transformations from both kinds of martensite to austenite. The linearity between ER and strain during the transformation from de-twinned martensite to austenite is not affected by the stress, facilitating application to control algorithms. A revised phase diagram is drawn to express these results. To better understand the nature of the local and global strain fields that accompany phase transformation in shape memory alloys (SMAs), here we use high resolution imaging together with image

  14. A Way to Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Lehnert B.


    Full Text Available In conventional theoretical physics and its Standard Model the guiding principle is that the equations are symmetrical. This limitation leads to a number of difficulties, because it does not permit masses for leptons and quarks, the electron tends to “explode” un- der the action of its self-charge, a corresponding photon model has no spin, and such a model cannot account for the “needle radiation” proposed by Einstein and observed in the photoelectric e ff ect and in two-slit experiments. This paper summarizes a revised Lorentz and gauge invariant quantum electrodynamic theory based on a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum and characterized by linear intrinsic broken symmetry. It thus provides an alternative to the Higgs concept of nonlinear spontaneous broken sym- metry, for solving the difficulties of the Standard Model. New results are obtained, such as nonzero and finite lepton rest masses, a point-charge-like behavior of the electron due to a revised renormalization procedure, a magnetic volume force which counteracts the electrostatic eigen-force of the electron, a nonzero spin of the photon and of light beams, needle radiation, and an improved understanding of the photoelectric effect, two-slit ex- periments, electron-positron pair formation, and cork-screw-shaped light beams.

  15. Curriculum revision: product innovation for quality outcomes.

    Thomas, Georgianna; Carroll, V Susan


    The education of any professional discipline rests on a curricular foundation that reflects the discipline's theory and knowledge bases, practice patterns, and unique skills. In addition, professional health care education must respond to and reflect changes in technology, societal definitions of health and wellness, and broad social issues such as access to care, health care funding, and changing patient demographics. These issues are interwoven with efforts to also provide high-quality education with positive learning outcomes. In this article, the authors describe a school of nursing's efforts to revise its curriculum to reflect a professional shift in focus to community-based nursing practice and the goals of the federal health goals outlined in Healthy People 2010. The revision also served as the starting point for a change in the process through which the college will seek accreditation in the future; this process-Academic Quality Improvement Program-requires institutions of higher learning to use a continuous quality model as its base.

  16. Three Principles to REVISE People's Unethical Behavior.

    Ayal, Shahar; Gino, Francesca; Barkan, Rachel; Ariely, Dan


    Dishonesty and unethical behavior are widespread in the public and private sectors and cause immense annual losses. For instance, estimates of U.S. annual losses indicate $1 trillion paid in bribes, $270 billion lost due to unreported income, and $42 billion lost in retail due to shoplifting and employee theft. In this article, we draw on insights from the growing fields of moral psychology and behavioral ethics to present a three-principle framework we call REVISE. This framework classifies forces that affect dishonesty into three main categories and then redirects those forces to encourage moral behavior. The first principle, reminding, emphasizes the effectiveness of subtle cues that increase the salience of morality and decrease people's ability to justify dishonesty. The second principle, visibility, aims to restrict anonymity, prompt peer monitoring, and elicit responsible norms. The third principle, self-engagement, increases people's motivation to maintain a positive self-perception as a moral person and helps bridge the gap between moral values and actual behavior. The REVISE framework can guide the design of policy interventions to defeat dishonesty.

  17. [Revision of the drinking water regulations].

    Hauswirth, S


    The revision the Drinking Water Regulations will come into effect on 01.11.2011. Surveillance authorities and owners of drinking water supply systems had hoped for simplifications and reductions because of the new arrangements. According to the official statement for the revision the legislature intended to create more clarity, consider new scientific findings, to change regulations that have not been proved to close regulatory gaps, to deregulate and to increase the high quality standards. A detailed examination of the regulation text, however, raises doubts. The new classification of water supply systems requires different modalities of registration, water analyses and official observation, which will complicate the work of the authorities. In particular, the implementation of requirements of registration and examination for the owners of commercial and publicly-operated large hot-water systems in accordance with DVGW Worksheet W 551 requires more effort. According to the estimated 30 000 cases of legionellosis in Germany the need for a check of such systems for Legionella, however, is not called into question. Furthermore, the development of sampling plans and the monitoring of mobile water supply systems requires more work for the health authorities.

  18. Extended porous femoral stems in hip revisions.

    Pablo Bruno


    Full Text Available Introduction: The porous coated cylindrical  stem are one of the most popular option in the set of hip revison surgery. The poupose of this study is present the clinical and radiographic results of a group of patients treated with this stem. Material and Methods: Between 1997 and 2010, we retrospectively evaluated 150 stem in 148 patients. The indication for revisión was aseptic loosening in 88 cases (58.6%, septic loosening in 41 cases (27.3%, periprosthetic fracture in 14 cases (9.3%, failed hip ostesynthesis in 4 cases (2.6% and stem fracture in 3 cases (2%. We followed the patient on average for 7.7 years. Results: We achived bone-ingrowth fixation in 135 patients (90 %,,  fibrous tissue fixation in 12 (8% and unstable fixation in 3 (2 %. The mean Harris hip score improved to 92 points at last follow-up. Three stem were revised (2%. One patient had revisión becouse of stem loosening. The other two becouse of deep infection required a 2 staged revision.  Three patient (2% had dislocation and was treated succesfully with closed reduction. Conclusion:  The porous coated cylindrical stem is a predictable technique with excellent survival rates  in  the set of  revisión hip surgery.

  19. Revisions to the JDL data fusion model

    Steinberg, Alan N.; Bowman, Christopher L.; White, Franklin E.


    The Data Fusion Model maintained by the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) Data Fusion Group is the most widely-used method for categorizing data fusion-related functions. This paper discusses the current effort to revise the expand this model to facilitate the cost-effective development, acquisition, integration and operation of multi- sensor/multi-source systems. Data fusion involves combining information - in the broadest sense - to estimate or predict the state of some aspect of the universe. These may be represented in terms of attributive and relational states. If the job is to estimate the state of a people, it can be useful to include consideration of informational and perceptual states in addition to the physical state. Developing cost-effective multi-source information systems requires a method for specifying data fusion processing and control functions, interfaces, and associate databases. The lack of common engineering standards for data fusion systems has been a major impediment to integration and re-use of available technology: current developments do not lend themselves to objective evaluation, comparison or re-use. This paper reports on proposed revisions and expansions of the JDL Data FUsion model to remedy some of these deficiencies. This involves broadening the functional model and related taxonomy beyond the original military focus, and integrating the Data Fusion Tree Architecture model for system description, design and development.

  20. The JFK Coma Recovery Scale--Revised.

    Kalmar, Kathleen; Giacino, Joseph T


    The JFK Coma Recovery Scale (CRS) was developed to help characterise and monitor patients functioning at Rancho Levels I-IV and has been used widely in both clinical and research settings within the US and Europe. The CRS was recently revised to address a number of concerns emanating from our own clinical experience with the scale, feedback from users and researchers as well as the results of Rasch analyses. Additionally, the CRS did not include all of the behavioural criteria necessary to diagnose the minimally conscious state (MCS), thereby limiting diagnostic utility. The revised JFK Coma Recovery Scale (CRS-R) includes addition of new items, merging of items found to be statistically similar, deletion or modification of items showing poor fit with the scale's underlying construct, renaming of items, more stringent scoring criteria, and quantification of elicited behaviours to improve accuracy of rating. Psychometric properties of the CRS-R appear to meet standards for measurement and evaluation tools for use in clinical and research settings, and diagnostic application suggests that the scale is capable of discriminating patients in the minimally conscious state from those in the vegetative state.

  1. Venous Thromboembolic Disease in Revision vs Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Boylan, Matthew R; Perfetti, Dean C; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Delanois, Ronald E; Paulino, Carl B; Mont, Michael A


    Venous thromboembolic disease (VTED) is a serious complication of primary and revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the incidence and risk of VTED for revision compared with primary TKA cases have not been well-described. We identified 225,584 TKAs (208,954 primaries, 16,630 revisions) in the 2003-2012 Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database. Odds ratios (ORs) expressed the risk of VTED for revision vs primary TKA, and models were adjusted for age, gender, race, and Charlson comorbidity scores. Outcome analyses were further stratified into deep venous thromboses (DVTs) and pulmonary emboli (PEs). The incidence of VTED within 30 days was 2.24% for primary and 1.84% for revision. In multivariable-adjusted regression, the OR of VTED within 30 days for revision compared with primary was 0.81 (95% confidence interval = 0.72-0.91; P < .001). The incidence of VTED within 90 days was 2.42% for primary and 2.13% for revision (P = .022), with a multivariable-adjusted OR of 0.87 (95% confidence interval = 0.78-0.97; P = .010) for revision compared with primary. The association was stronger for PE (OR = 0.63; P < .001) than DVT (OR = 0.87; P = .035) at 30 days, and significant for PE (OR = 0.69; P < .001), but not DVT (OR = 0.94; P = .284) at 90 days. In a large statewide database, the risk of VTED was lower for revision TKA compared with primary TKA. The reasons for this observation are not known, but might be related to aggressive prophylactic management of patients undergoing revision procedures. Future studies should attempt to clarify differences in patient selection and management for primary vs revision procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Superconductivity in Metals and Alloys


    sintered material (Reed, Gatos , LaFleur, and Roddy, 1962). It has great importance for any materials work, since generalizations based only on stoichio...1961),Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 597. Goodman, B. B., (1962) IBM J. Research and Development 6, 63. Gor’kov, L. P., (1960), Soy . Phys. JETP 10, 998...34Superconductivity in Metals and Alloys-Technical Documentary Report No. ASD-TDR-62-269, Contract No. AF 33(616)-640 5. Reed, T. B., Gatos , H. C., LaFleur, W. j


    Z.Yaug; J.P.Li; J.X.Zhang; G.W.Lorimer; J.Robson


    The current research and development of magnesium alloys is summarized. Several aspects of magnesium alloys are described: cast Mg alloy, wrought Mg alloy, and novel processing. The subjects are discussed individually and recommendations for further study arc listed in the final section.

  4. Phase transformations during sintering of mechanically alloyed TiPt

    Nxumalo, S


    Full Text Available A TiPt alloy was produced by mechanically alloying the desired quantities of titanium and platinum. The resultant TiPt alloy powder was cold pressed to produce green bodies. Several sintering conditions were used to sinter this alloy...

  5. Process Simulation and Modeling for Advanced Intermetallic Alloys.


    34Microstructure-Property Correlation in TiAl-Base Alloys", in Microstructure/ Proverty Relationships in Titanium Aluminides and Alloys eds. Y-W. Kim and...Gamma Titanium Aluminide Alloy", in Microstructure/ Proverty Relationships in Titanium Aluminides and Alloys eds. Y-W. Kim and R.R. Boyer, The

  6. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration.

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.


    Determination of the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. A modified microhardness test unit permitted hardness determinations at homologous temperatures ranging from 0.02 to 0.15, where alloy softening normally occurs in bcc alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s + d electrons compared to Mo while those elements having an equal number or fewer s + d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. The magnitude of the softening and the amount of solute element at the hardness minimum diminished rapidly with increasing test temperature. At solute concentrations where alloy softening was observed, the temperature sensitivity of hardness was lowered. For solute elements having an excess of s + d electrons or fewer s + d electrons than Mo, alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s + d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  7. Nucleation promotion of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder alloys via micro alloying

    Mao, Jie

    Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) alloy system is widely accepted as a viable Pb-free alternative to Sn-Pb alloys for microelectronics packaging applications. Compared with its Pb-containing predecessor SAC alloys tend to have coarse grain structure, which is believed to be caused by high undercooling prior to nucleation. This work explores the possibility of modifying the nucleation process and reducing the undercooling of SAC alloys via introducing minor alloying elements. The mechanisms through which effective alloying elements influenced the nucleation process of SAC alloys are investigated with microstructural and chemical analyses. Minor alloying elements (Mn and Zn) are found promoting beta-Sn nucleation and reducing the undercooling of SAC. Manganese promotes beta-Sn primary phase nucleation through the formation of MnSn2 intermetallic compound. Experimental results in this work support the claim by previous researchers that zinc promotes beta-Sn primary phase nucleation through the formation of zinc oxide. In addition to nucleation, this work also assesses the microstructural impact of minor elements on Sn-Ag-Cu based alloys. Methods have been developed to quantify and compare microstructural impacts of minor elements and efficiently study their partitioning behaviors. LA-ICPMS was introduced to SAC alloy application to efficiently study partitioning behaviors of minor elements.

  8. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    Koss, D. A.


    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the

  9. Analytical chemistry methods for metallic core components: Revision March 1985


    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of alloys used to fabricate core components. These alloys are 302, 308, 316, 316-Ti, and 321 stainless steels and 600 and 718 Inconels and they may include other 300-series stainless steels.

  10. Photonic crystal digital alloys and their band structure properties.

    Lee, Jeongkug; Kim, Dong-Uk; Jeon, Heonsu


    We investigated semi-disordered photonic crystals (PCs), digital alloys, and made thorough comparisons with their counterparts, random alloys. A set of diamond lattice PC digital alloys operating in a microwave regime were prepared by alternately stacking two kinds of sub-PC systems composed of alumina and silica spheres of the same size. Measured transmission spectra as well as calculated band structures revealed that when the digital alloy period is short, band-gaps of the digital alloys are practically the same as those of the random alloys. This study indicates that the concept of digital alloys holds for photons in PCs as well.

  11. 78 FR 9016 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Massachusetts; Revisions to Fossil...


    ...; Revisions to Fossil Fuel Utilization and Source Registration Regulations and Boiler Industrial Standards... revisions add new monitoring, inspection, maintenance and testing requirements for certain fossil fuel... approval of the state's revised fossil fuel utilization facility regulation, source registration...

  12. Proposal for revision of ISO 4377: Flat-V weirs

    Kalkwijk, J.P.T.; Lianxiang, W.


    In ISO/TC 113/SC 2/308 it was suggested that ISO 4377 could be significantly simplified as far as the calculation of discharge was involved. The proposal for revision is based upon this suggestion. The revision is fully based upon the material given in ISO 4377. In that respect no changes have been

  13. Text Revision in Deaf and Hearing Bilingual Students

    Teruggi, Lilia A.; Gutiérrez-Cáceres, Rafaela


    In this study we explored the revision process and strategies implemented by deaf and hearing students who attend the same bilingual school context (LIS and Italian). For that we analysed and compared the types and quality of revisions made by deaf and hearing participants to their first draft of a narrative text ("Frog, Where Are You?")…

  14. Blog-Based Peer Response for L2 Writing Revision

    Pham, Vu Phi Ho; Usaha, Siriluck


    Few studies have been conducted to see how blog-based peer response helps students to improve their writing revisions. The present study investigates peer comments made through blogs, the nature of the comments and their areas of focus, and the ratios of students incorporating suggestions made through blog-based comments into revisions of their…

  15. Using a Local Area Network to Teach Computer Revision Skills.

    Thompson, Diane P.


    Describes the use of a local area network and video switching equipment in teaching revision skills on computer. Explains that reading stories from texts, rewriting them from differing character viewpoints, and editing them as a group exposed students to a variety of writing problems and stimulated various revision strategies. (SG)

  16. 75 FR 57956 - Draft Revision of the Federalwide Assurance


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Draft Revision of the Federalwide Assurance AGENCY: Department of Health and Human... Assistant Secretary for Health, is announcing the availability of the draft revised Federalwide Assurance (FWA) form and Terms of Assurance, and is seeking comment on these draft documents. OHRP is...

  17. Promoting Revision through Blogging in a Second Grade Classroom

    Young, Chase; Stover, Katie


    This study helped the researchers to determine if blogging as a revision strategy in a second grade classroom was beneficial. Nineteen second grade students wrote expository essays and made revisions and edits based on peer feedback in a blogging environment. Six elementary school teachers independently rated the students' writing samples using…

  18. The New & Revised Consumer Price Indexes. ERS Information Aid.

    Kowalski, Joan P. Sullivan; Porwoll, Paul J.

    The purpose of this Information Aid is to alert school officials to changes and revisions in the Consumer Price Index (CPI), to familiarize them with differences between the former CPI and the new and revised indexes, to demonstrate how the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) computes changes in the CPI, to indicate appropriate uses of the CPI,…

  19. Initiating Curriculum Revision: Exploring the Practices of Educational Developers

    O'Neill, Geraldine


    Curriculum revision is an important part of academic work. Despite theoretical literature on curriculum development and design, there is a scarcity of literature available for either academic staff or novice educational developers on the initiation of this curriculum revision process. This study, therefore, set out to explore the practices of…

  20. Blog-Based Peer Response for L2 Writing Revision

    Pham, Vu Phi Ho; Usaha, Siriluck


    Few studies have been conducted to see how blog-based peer response helps students to improve their writing revisions. The present study investigates peer comments made through blogs, the nature of the comments and their areas of focus, and the ratios of students incorporating suggestions made through blog-based comments into revisions of their…

  1. Propositional Dynamic Logic as a Logic of Belief Revision

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); Y. Wang (Yanjing)


    htmlabstractThis paper shows how propositional dynamic logic (PDL) can be interpreted as a logic for multi-agent belief revision. For that we revise and extend the logic of communication and change (LCC) of [9]. Like LCC, our logic uses PDL as a base epistemic language. Unlike LCC, we start out from

  2. 78 FR 19416 - Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment


    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 1 RIN 0651-AC84 Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is revising the rules of practice to implement...

  3. 78 FR 16184 - Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements


    ... 98th percentile form averaged over three years and a level of 100 parts per billion (ppb), reflecting... 53 ppb. As part of the NAAQS rulemaking, the EPA promulgated revisions to requirements for minimum... groups and one citizen supporting the proposed revisions to the schedule for implementing near-road NO 2...

  4. Revisions of endoprosthetic reconstructions after limb salvage in musculoskeletal oncology

    Renard, AJS; Veth, RPH; Schreuder, HWB; van Horn, J; Keller, A; Schraffordt Koops, H.


    Of 91 limb-salvage procedures using prosthetic reconstructions because of primary or metastatic bone and soft-tissue tumors 26 revisions were performed in 16 patients. Revision was due to polyethylene wear (9 cases), aseptic loosening (8 cases), recurrent hip dislocation (3 cases), prosthetic stem f

  5. Modeling data revisions : Measurement error and dynamics of "true" values

    Jacobs, Jan P. A. M.; van Norden, Simon


    Policy makers must base their decisions on preliminary and partially revised data of varying reliability. Realistic modeling of data revisions is required to guide decision makers in their assessment of current and future conditions. This paper provides a new framework with which to model data revis

  6. A revision of the Pliocene and Quaternary Lutrinae from Europe

    Willemsen, G.F.


    In this paper, a revision of the Pliocene and Quaternary Lutrinae from Europe is presented. Such a revision, including fossil material, has not been published since the work of Pohle (1919). Three tribes within the Lutrinae are recognized: the Lutrini, the Aonyxini and the Enhydrini. The latter comp

  7. 75 FR 62459 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Unalakleet, AK


    ... for air traffic management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations. DATES: Effective 0901 UTC... Federal Register to revise Class E airspace at Unalakleet, AK (75 FR 32865). Interested parties were... amendments to existing SIAPs require that the orientation and dimensions of Class E airspace be revised...

  8. 76 FR 1440 - Notice of Revised Child Outcomes Framework


    ..., renamed The Head Start Child Development and Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Notice of Revised Child Outcomes Framework AGENCY: Office of Head Start (OHS), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Revised Child Outcomes Framework. SUMMARY...

  9. 75 FR 17253 - Revisions to the General Conformity Regulations


    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 51 and 93 Revisions to the General Conformity Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 51 and 93 RIN 2060-AH93 Revisions to the General Conformity Regulations AGENCY... or Federal implementation plan (SIP, TIP, or FIP) for attaining clean air (``General...

  10. Modeling data revisions : Measurement error and dynamics of "true" values

    Jacobs, Jan P. A. M.; van Norden, Simon


    Policy makers must base their decisions on preliminary and partially revised data of varying reliability. Realistic modeling of data revisions is required to guide decision makers in their assessment of current and future conditions. This paper provides a new framework with which to model data revis

  11. Inferential revision in narrative texts: An ERP study.

    Pérez, Ana; Cain, Kate; Castellanos, María C; Bajo, Teresa


    We evaluated the process of inferential revision during text comprehension in adults. Participants with high or low working memory read short texts, in which the introduction supported two plausible concepts (e.g., 'guitar/violin'), although one was more probable ('guitar'). There were three possible continuations: a neutral sentence, which did not refer back to either concept; a no-revise sentence, which referred to a general property consistent with either concept (e.g., '…beautiful curved body'); and a revise sentence, which referred to a property that was consistent with only the less likely concept (e.g., '…matching bow'). Readers took longer to read the sentence in the revise condition, indicating that they were able to evaluate their comprehension and detect a mismatch. In a final sentence, a target noun referred to the alternative concept supported in the revise condition (e.g., 'violin'). ERPs indicated that both working memory groups were able to evaluate their comprehension of the text (P3a), but only high working memory readers were able to revise their initial incorrect interpretation (P3b) and integrate the new information (N400) when reading the revise sentence. Low working memory readers had difficulties inhibiting the no-longer-relevant interpretation and thus failed to revise their situation model, and they experienced problems integrating semantically related information into an accurate memory representation.

  12. China Revises Its Oil Resources Rules for Foreign Cooperation

    Sun Xiujuan


    @@ The State Council has recently revised two regulations concerning recovery of oil and gas resources to relax the restrictions on foreign companies.The revised regulations are "The Rules of the People's Republic of China for Cooperative Recovery of Onshore Petroleum Resources" and "The Rules of the People's Republic of China for Cooperative Recovery of Offshore Petroleum Resources".

  13. Merlin C. Wittrock and the Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy

    Krathwohl, David R.; Anderson, Lorin W.


    Merl Wittrock, a cognitive psychologist who had proposed a generative model of learning, was an essential member of the group that over a period of 5 years revised the "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," originally published in 1956. This article describes the development of that 2001 revision (Anderson and Krathwohl, Editors) and Merl's…

  14. Evaluation and Revision of an Introduction to Experiential Rotations Course

    Dy, Eliza A.; Nisly, Sarah A.


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the perceived student value of topics taught in Butler University's Introduction to Experiential Rotations (RX500) course, implement course revisions to address any perceived weaknesses, and to reassess the course following implementation of those course revisions. Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience…

  15. Proposal for revision of ISO 4377: Flat-V weirs

    Kalkwijk, J.P.T.; Lianxiang, W.


    In ISO/TC 113/SC 2/308 it was suggested that ISO 4377 could be significantly simplified as far as the calculation of discharge was involved. The proposal for revision is based upon this suggestion. The revision is fully based upon the material given in ISO 4377. In that respect no changes have been

  16. Setting Writing Revision Goals after Assessment for Learning

    Huang, Shu-Chen


    This study examined the effects of goal setting for revision in an EFL writing classroom where principles of assessment "for" learning (AfL) were followed. Following draft writing, instruction, and assessment, college freshmen were put into control, goal, and goal+ groups. Before students started to revise their drafts, individuals in…

  17. 78 FR 27408 - Revised OIG's Provider Self-Disclosure Protocol


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Revised OIG's Provider Self-Disclosure Protocol AGENCY... the updated Provider Self-Disclosure Protocol (the SDP), originally published in the Federal Register... Letters. OIG has posted the full revision of the SDP on its Web site:

  18. Belief Revision and Verisimilitude Based on Preference and Truth Orderings

    Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.; Zwart, Sjoerd D.


    In this rather technical paper we establish a useful combination of belief revision and verisimilitude according to which better theories provide better predictions, and revising with more verisimilar data results in theories that are closer to the truth. Moreover, this paper presents two alternativ

  19. Revision of Alyxia (Apocynaceae). Part 2: Pacific Islands and Australia

    Middleton, David J.


    The genus Alyxia is revised for Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean as the second and final part of a complete revision of the genus. 39 species are recognised for this area of which three are new to science, two are new combinations and one is a new name. 14 species are found in Australi

  20. Revised SWAT. The integrated burnup calculation code system

    Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki [Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kiyosumi, Takehide [The Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    SWAT is an integrated burnup code system developed for analysis of post irradiation examination, transmutation of radioactive waste, and burnup credit problem. This report shows an outline and a user's manual of revised SWAT. This revised SWAT includes expansion of functions, increasing supported machines, and correction of several bugs reported from users of previous SWAT. (author)

  1. The reliability of the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised

    Vollema, MG; Ormel, J


    We investigated the reliability of the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R). The original interview (SIS) was developed by Kendler, We revised the SIS, primarily by standardizing the rating procedures. Operational definitions and explicit criteria for rating were given. We introduced

  2. The Effects of Online Feedback Training on Students' Text Revision

    Yang, Yu-Fen; Meng, Wen-Ting


    Oftentimes, college students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) provide their peers with incorrect and misleading feedback during text revision. To improve the effectiveness of peer feedback, this study examined the degree to which online feedback training impacted EFL college students' text revisions. A sample of 50 college students…

  3. 77 FR 13969 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard


    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... date of its direct final rule that revises the Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating the... that revised the Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to the Compressed...

  4. 76 FR 75840 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard


    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... rulemaking, the Agency is proposing to revise its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a... Companion Proposed Rule C. Request for Comment III. Summary and Explanation of Revisions to the...

  5. Is Peer Review Training Effective in Iranian EFL Students' Revision?

    Esmaeeli, Hadiseh; Abasi, Maasumeh; Soori, Afshin


    This study aims to investigate the effect of peer review training on the Iranian EFL students' subsequent revision in an advanced writing class in Larestan Islamic Azad University. After 12 weeks class demonstration, teacher-reviewer conferences with 20 male and female students, the students' first drafts, revisions, and reviewers' comments were…

  6. An Alternate to Cobalt-Base Hardfacing Alloys

    Hickl, Anthony J.


    The price of cobalt has risen dramatically in the last few years, and supply has often been uncertain. The most popular hardfacing alloys contain substantial amounts of cobalt, and have thus been especially affected by these factors. The present study has developed a new hardfacing alloy, HAYNES Alloy No. 716, with lower cobalt content, to replace the most popular alloy, HAYNES STELLITE Alloy No. 6 which is cobalt based. The alloy design which led to the development of the new alloy is discussed, and properties are compared with Alloy No. 6. Hardness at room temperature and elevated temperatures, weldability, and corrosion and abrasion resistance of the new alloy compare favorably with Alloy No. 6.

  7. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Nickel Alloys - A Review

    Rebak, R


    Nickel can dissolve a large amount of alloying elements while still maintaining its austenitic structure. That is, nickel based alloys can be tailored for specific applications. The family of nickel alloys is large, from high temperature alloys (HTA) to corrosion resistant alloys (CRA). In general, CRA are less susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) than stainless steels. The environments where nickel alloys suffer EAC are limited and generally avoidable by design. These environments include wet hydrofluoric acid and hot concentrated alkalis. Not all nickel alloys are equally susceptible to cracking in these environments. For example, commercially pure nickel is less susceptible to EAC in hot concentrated alkalis than nickel alloyed with chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo). The susceptibility of nickel alloys to EAC is discussed by family of alloys.

  8. Predictors of Revision Surgery After Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Yabroudi, Mohammad A.; Björnsson, Haukur; Lynch, Andrew D.; Muller, Bart; Samuelsson, Kristian; Tarabichi, Majd; Karlsson, Jón; Fu, Freddie H.; Harner, Christopher D.; Irrgang, James J.


    Background: Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery occurs in 5% to 15% of individuals undergoing ACL reconstruction. Identifying predictors for revision ACL surgery is of essence in the pursuit of creating adequate prevention programs and to identify individuals at risk for reinjury and revision. Purpose: To determine predictors of revision ACL surgery after failed primary ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 251 participants (mean age ± SD, 26.1 ± 9.9 years) who had undergone primary ACL reconstruction 1 to 5 years earlier completed a comprehensive survey to determine predictors of revision ACL surgery at a mean 3.4 ± 1.3 years after the primary ACL reconstruction. Potential predictors that were assessed included subject characteristics (age at the time of surgery, time from injury to surgery, sex, body mass index, preinjury activity level, return to sport status), details of the initial injury (mechanism; concomitant injury to other ligaments, menisci, and cartilage), surgical details of the primary reconstruction (Lachman and pivot shift tests under anesthesia, graft type, femoral drilling technique, reconstruction technique), and postoperative course (length of rehabilitation, complications). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors that predicted the need for revision ACL surgery. Results: Overall, 21 (8.4%) subjects underwent revision ACL surgery. Univariate analysis showed that younger age at the time of surgery (P = .003), participation in sports at a competitive level (P = .023), and double-bundle ACL reconstruction (P = .024) predicted increased risk of revision ACL surgery. Allograft reconstructions also demonstrated a trend toward greater risk of revision ACL surgery (P = .076). No other variables were significantly associated with revision ACL surgery. Multivariate analysis revealed that revision ACL surgery was

  9. Fostering revision of argumentative writing through structured peer assessment.

    Tsai, Ya-Chin; Chuang, Min-Tun


    This quasi-experimental study investigated the effect of structured peer assessment on revision of an argumentative writing. Two intact classes (N = 22, 26) were randomly assigned to be the trained and control groups. The latter received no facilitative resources, while the former participated in structured peer assessment based on Calibrated Peer Review, a web-based program purposefully designed for students to receive peer-assessment training, assess their peers' writing, and make written commentary online. At the end of the treatment, both groups revised their writing. The trained group revised their writing more extensively, outperforming the control group on frequency and type of revision, as well as the holistic quality of argumentative writing. After structured peer assessment, participants of the trained group became critical of their own work and invested more effort in spontaneous revision to produce higher-quality argumentative writing.

  10. Extensively Coated Cementless Femoral Components in Revision Hip Arthroplasty.

    Greidanus, Nelson; Antoniou, John; Paprosky, Wayne


    A septic loosening and osteolysis can compromise the available host bone in patients requiring revision hip arthroplasty. Secure fixation of revision femoral components may not be possible if reliant only on proximal femoral bone for biologic fixation or cement interdigitation. The challenge for the revision arthroplasty surgeon is to find the best method to secure the implant in a femur with deficient bone proximally that will provide stability for load bearing and motion. In addition to providing stability, the implant must be durable and maintain long-term fixation. With over 16 years of experience with fully porous coated femoral revision implants, we have found that maximizing prosthetic-bone fit in the proximal femoral diaphyseal bone provides reliable long-term fixation in the majority of femoral revision cases.

  11. Risk Factors for Early Revision after Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Dy, Christopher J.; Bozic, Kevin J.; Pan, Ting Jung; Wright, Timothy M.; Padgett, Douglas E.; Lyman, Stephen


    Objective Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with increased cost, morbidity, and technical challenge compared to primary THA. A better understanding of the risk factors for early revision is needed to inform strategies to optimize patient outcomes. Methods 207,256 patients who underwent primary THA between 1997–2005 in California and New York were identified from statewide databases. Unique patient identifiers were used to identify early revision THA (400 THA annually (p<0.001). Conclusion A number of identifiable factors, including younger age, Medicaid, and low hospital volume increase the risk of undergoing early revision THA. Patient-level characteristics distinctly affect the risk of revision within 10 years, particularly if due to infection. Our findings reinforce the need for continued investigation of the predictors of early failure following THA. PMID:24285406

  12. Early morbidity after aseptic revision hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    Lindberg-Larsen, M.; Hansen, Torben Bæk


    aseptic revision THRs from 1st October 2009 to 30th September 2011 using the Danish National Patient Registry, with additional information from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry. There were 1553 procedures (1490 patients) performed in 40 centres and we divided them into total revisions, acetabular...... component revisions, femoral stem revisions and partial revisions. The mean age of the patients was 70.4 years (25 to 98) and the median hospital stay was five days (interquartile range 3 to 7). Within 90 days of surgery, the readmission rate was 18.3%, mortality rate 1.4%, re-operation rate 6.......1%, dislocation rate 7.0% and infection rate 3.0%. There were no differences in these outcomes between high- and low-volume centres. Of all readmissions, 255 (63.9%) were due to 'surgical' complications versus 144 (36.1%) 'medical' complications. Importantly, we found no differences in early morbidity across...

  13. Surgical Revision after Sacroiliac Joint Fixation or Fusion

    Holt, Timothy


    Background Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of SIJ dysfunction. Multiple devices are available to perform SIJ fixation or fusion. Surgical revision rates after these procedures have not been directly compared. Methods We retrospectively identified all patients in our practice who underwent SIJ fixation or fusion between 2003 and 2015. Using both chart review and focused contact with individual patients, we determined the likelihood of surgical revision. Revision rates were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results Thirty-eight patients underwent SIJ fixation with screws and 274 patients underwent SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants. Four-year cumulative revision rates were 30.8% for fixation and 5.7% for fusion. Conclusions In our study, SIJ fixation with screws had a much higher revision rate compared to SIJ fusion with triangular titanium implants designed for bone adherence.

  14. Revising probability estimates: Why increasing likelihood means increasing impact.

    Maglio, Sam J; Polman, Evan


    Forecasted probabilities rarely stay the same for long. Instead, they are subject to constant revision-moving upward or downward, uncertain events become more or less likely. Yet little is known about how people interpret probability estimates beyond static snapshots, like a 30% chance of rain. Here, we consider the cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences of revisions to probability forecasts. Stemming from a lay belief that revisions signal the emergence of a trend, we find in 10 studies (comprising uncertain events such as weather, climate change, sex, sports, and wine) that upward changes to event-probability (e.g., increasing from 20% to 30%) cause events to feel less remote than downward changes (e.g., decreasing from 40% to 30%), and subsequently change people's behavior regarding those events despite the revised event-probabilities being the same. Our research sheds light on how revising the probabilities for future events changes how people manage those uncertain events. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Density and Structure Analysis of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG


    Density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys was measured in the temperature range of 1773~1873 K with a sessile drop method.The density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys trends to decrease with increasing temperature. The density and molar volume of the alloys trend to increase with increasing W concentration in the alloys. The calculation result shows an ideal mixing of Ni-W alloys.

  16. Indium Helps Strengthen Al/Cu/Li Alloy

    Blackburn, Linda B.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.


    Experiments on Al/Cu/Li alloys focus specifically on strengthening effects of minor additions of In and Cd. Indium-bearing alloy combines low density with ability to achieve high strength through heat treatment alone. Tensile tests on peak-aged specimens indicated that alloy achieved yield strength approximately 15 percent higher than baseline alloy. Alloy highly suitable for processing to produce parts of nearly net shape, with particular applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles.

  17. Thermal aging effects in refractory metal alloys

    Stephens, Joseph R.


    The alloys of niobium and tantalum are attractive from a strength and compatibility viewpoint for high operating temperatures required in materials for fuel cladding, liquid metal transfer, and heat pipe applications in space power systems that will supply from 100 kWe to multi-megawatts for advanced space systems. To meet the system requirements, operating temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1600 K have been proposed. Expected lives of these space power systems are from 7 to 10 yr. A program is conducted at NASA Lewis to determine the effects of long-term, high-temperature exposure on the microstructural stability of several commercial tantalum and niobium alloys. Variables studied in the investigation include alloy composition, pre-age annealing temperature, aging time, temperature, and environment (lithium or vacuum), welding, and hydrogen doping. Alloys are investigated by means of cryogenic bend tests and tensile tests. Results show that the combination of tungsten and hafnium or zirconium found in commercial alloys such as T-111 and Cb-752 can lead to aging embrittlement and increased susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of ternary and more complex alloys. Modification of alloy composition helps to eliminate the embrittlement problem.

  18. Aeronautical requirements for Inconel 718 alloy

    Elefterie, C. F.; Guragata, C.; Bran, D.; Ghiban, B.


    The project goal is to present the requirements imposed by aviation components made from super alloys based on Nickel. A significant portion of fasteners, locking lugs, blade retainers and inserts are manufactured from Alloy 718. The thesis describes environmental factors (corrosion), conditions of external aggression (salt air, intense heat, heavy industrial pollution, high condensation, high pressure), mechanical characteristics (tensile strength, yield strength and fatigue resistance) and loadings (tensions, compression loads) that must be satisfied simultaneously by Ni-based super alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Titanium alloys, Aluminum alloys). For this alloy the requirements are strength durability, damage tolerance, fail safety and so on. The corrosion can be an issue, but the fatigue under high-magnitude cyclic tensile loading it’s what limits the lifetime of the airframe. Also, the excellent malleability and weldability characteristics of the 718 system make the material physical properties tolerant of manufacturing processes. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  19. Surface modification of Ti alloy by electro-explosive alloying and electron-beam treatment

    Gromov, Victor, E-mail:; Kobzareva, Tatiana, E-mail:; Budovskikh, Evgeniy, E-mail:; Baschenko, Lyudmila, E-mail: [Siberian State Industrial University, 42, Kirov Str., Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yuryi, E-mail: [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 4, Akademicheskii Av. Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 30, Lenina Av. Tomsk, 634034 (Russian Federation)


    By methods of modern physical metallurgy the analysis of structure phase states of titanium alloy VT6 is carried out after electric explosion alloying with boron carbide and subsequent irradiation by pulsed electron beam. The formation of an electro-explosive alloying zone of a thickness up to 50 µm, having a gradient structure, characterized by decrease in the concentration of carbon and boron with increasing distance to the treatable surface has been revealed. Subsequent electron-beam treatment of alloying zone leads to smoothing of the alloying area surface and is accompanied by the multilayer structure formation at the depth of 30 µm with alternating layers with different alloying degrees having the structure of submicro - and nanoscale level.

  20. Surface modification of Ti alloy by electro-explosive alloying and electron-beam treatment

    Gromov, Victor; Kobzareva, Tatiana; Ivanov, Yuryi; Budovskikh, Evgeniy; Baschenko, Lyudmila


    By methods of modern physical metallurgy the analysis of structure phase states of titanium alloy VT6 is carried out after electric explosion alloying with boron carbide and subsequent irradiation by pulsed electron beam. The formation of an electro-explosive alloying zone of a thickness up to 50 µm, having a gradient structure, characterized by decrease in the concentration of carbon and boron with increasing distance to the treatable surface has been revealed. Subsequent electron-beam treatment of alloying zone leads to smoothing of the alloying area surface and is accompanied by the multilayer structure formation at the depth of 30 µm with alternating layers with different alloying degrees having the structure of submicro - and nanoscale level.

  1. Preparation of casting alloy ZL101 with coarse aluminum-silicon alloy

    YOU Jing; WANG Yao-wu; FENG Nai-xiang; YANG Ming-sheng


    The coarse Al-Si alloy produced by carbothermal reduction of aluminous ore contains 55% Al, 25% Si and some impurities. The main impurities are slag and iron. The process of manufacturing casting Al-Si alloy ZL101 with the coarse Al-Si alloy was studied. The phase constitution and microstructure of the coarse Al-Si alloy, slag and ZL101 were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the content of silicon and iron in the casting alloy reduces with the increase of the dosage of purificant and manganese, but increases with the rise of filtering temperature. It is found that casting Al-Si alloy conforming to industrial standard can be produced after refining by using purificant, and removing iron by using manganese and added magnesium.

  2. Fabrication of high strength conductivity submicroncrystalline Cu-5 % Cr alloy by mechanical alloying


    Cu-5%Cr alloy bulk material with submicron grains were fabricated by mechanical alloying and subsequanthot hydrostatic extruaion. The micrestructure, mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the alloy were experimentally investigated, and the influence of the extrusion temperature on its microstructure and properties was made clear.Also, the strengthening mechanism of the alloy was diacussed. It was revealed that the microstructure of the alloy is veryfine, with an average grain size being about 100 ~ 120nm, and thus possesses significant fine-grain strengthening effect,leading to very high mechanical strength of 800 ~ 1 000 MPa. Meanwhile, the alloy also possesses quite good electricalconductivity and moderate tensile elongation, with the former in the range of 55% ~ 70%(IACS) and the latter about5 % respectively.

  3. Development of environmentally friendly cast alloys and composites. High zinc Al-base cast alloys

    W.K. Krajewski


    Full Text Available This work is devoted to grain refinement of the foundry Al-20 wt% Zn (AlZn20 alloy, aiming at improving ductility of the sand-cast alloy The melted alloy was inoculated using traditional AlTi5B1 (TiBAl and AlTi3C0.15 (TiCAl master alloys and newly introduced (Zn,Al-Ti3 one. The performed structural examinations showed out significant increasing of the grain population of the inoculated alloy and plas-ticity increase represented by elongation. The high damping properties of the initial alloy, measured using an ultrasonic Olympus Epoch XT device, are basicly preserved after inoculation. Also tensile strength preserves its good values, while elongation shows an increase – which are beneficials of the employed grain-refining process.

  4. Alloying element's substitution in titanium alloy with improved oxidation resistance and enhanced magnetic properties

    Yu, Ang-Yang; Wei, Hua; Hu, Qing-Miao; Yang, Rui


    First-principles method is used to characterize segregation and magnetic properties of alloyed Ti/TiO2interface. We calculate the segregation energy of the doped Ti/TiO2 interface to investigate alloying atom's distribution. The oxidation resistance of Ti/TiO2 interface is enhanced by elements Fe and Ni but reduced by element Co. Magnetism could be produced by alloying elements such as Co, Fe and Ni in the bulk of titanium and the surface of Ti at Ti/TiO2 interface. The presence of these alloying elements could transform the non-magnetic titanium alloys into magnetic systems. We have also calculated the temperature dependence of magnetic permeability for the doped and pure Ti/TiO2 interfaces. Alloying effects on the Curie temperature of the Ti/TiO2 interface have been elaborated.

  5. Effects of alloying side B on Ti-based AB2 hydrogen storage alloys

    王家淳; 于荣海; 刘庆


    Ti-based AB2-type hydrogen storage alloys are a group of promising materials, which will probably replace the prevalent rare earth-based AB5-type alloys and be adopted as the main cathode materials of nickelmetal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries in the near future. Alloying in side B is a major way to improve the performance of Ti-based AB2-type alloys. Based on recent studies, the effects of alloying elements in side B upon the performance of Ti-based AB2 -type hydrogen storage alloys are systematically reviewed here. These performances are divided into two categories, namely PCI characteristics, including hydrogen storage capacity (HSC), plateau pressure (PP), pressure hysteresis (PH) and pressure plateau sloping (PPS) , and electrochemical properties, including discharge capacity (DC), activation property (AP), cycling stability (CS) and high-rate dischargeability (HRD). Furthermore, the existing problems in these investigations and some suggestions for future research are proposed.

  6. Fatigue Characteristics of Selected Light Metal Alloys

    Cieśla M.


    Full Text Available The paper addresses results of fatigue testing of light metal alloys used in the automotive as well as aerospace and aviation industries, among others. The material subject to testing comprised hot-worked rods made of the AZ31 alloy, the Ti-6Al-4V two-phase titanium alloy and the 2017A (T451 aluminium alloy. Both low- and high-cycle fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature on the cycle asymmetry ratio of R=-1. The low-cycle fatigue tests were performed using the MTS-810 machine on two levels of total strain, i.e.Δεc= 1.0% and 1.2%. The high-cycle fatigue tests, on the other hand, were performed using a machine from VEB Werkstoffprufmaschinen-Leipzig under conditions of rotary bending. Based on the results thus obtained, one could develop fatigue life characteristics of the materials examined (expressed as the number of cycles until failure of sample Nf as well as characteristics of cyclic material strain σa=f(N under the conditions of low-cycle fatigue testing. The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was found to be characterised by the highest value of fatigue life Nf, both in lowand high-cycle tests. The lowest fatigue life, on the other hand, was established for the aluminium alloys examined. Under the high-cycle fatigue tests, the life of the 2017A aluminium and the AZ31 magnesium alloy studied was determined by the value of stress amplitude σa. With the stress exceeding 150 MPa, it was the aluminium alloy which displayed higher fatigue life, whereas the magnesium alloy proved better on lower stress.

  7. Electroplated solder alloys for flip chip interconnections

    Annala, P.; Kaitila, J.; Salonen, J.


    Flip chip mounting of bare dice is gaining widespread use in microelectronics packaging. The main drivers for this technology are high packaging density, improved performance at high frequency, low parasitic effects and potentially high reliability and low cost. Many companies have made significant efforts to develop a technology for bump processing, bare die testing and underfill encapsulation to gain the benefit of all potential advantages. We have focussed on low cost bumping of fully processed silicon wafers to develop a flexible scheme for various reflow requirements. The bumping process is based on galvanic plating from an alloy solution or, alternatively, from several elemental plating baths. Sputtered Mo/Cu or Cr/Cu is used as a wettable base for electroplating. Excess base metal is removed by using the bumps as an etching mask. Variation of the alloy composition or the layer structure, allows the adjustment of the bump reflow temperature for the specific requirements of the assembly. Using binary tin-lead and ternary tin-lead-bismuth alloys, reflow temperatures from 100 °C (bismuth rich alloys) to above 300 °C (lead rich alloys) can be covered. The influence of the plating current density on the final alloy composition has been established by ion beam analysis of the plated layers and a series of reflow experiments. To control the plating uniformity and the alloy composition, a new cup plating system has been built with a random flow pattern and continuous adjustment of the current density. A well-controlled reflow of the bumps has been achieved in hot glycerol up to the eutectic point of tin-lead alloys. For high temperature alloys, high molecular weight organic liquids have been used. A tensile pull strength of 20 g per bump and resistance of 5 mΩ per bump have been measured for typical eutectic tin-lead bumps of 100 μm in diameter.

  8. Engineering drawing field verification program. Revision 3

    Ulk, P.F.


    Safe, efficient operation of waste tank farm facilities is dependent in part upon the availability of accurate, up-to-date plant drawings. Accurate plant drawings are also required in support of facility upgrades and future engineering remediation projects. This supporting document establishes the procedure for performing a visual field verification of engineering drawings, the degree of visual observation being performed and documenting the results. A copy of the drawing attesting to the degree of visual observation will be paginated into the released Engineering Change Notice (ECN) documenting the field verification for future retrieval and reference. All waste tank farm essential and support drawings within the scope of this program will be converted from manual to computer aided drafting (CAD) drawings. A permanent reference to the field verification status will be placed along the right border of the CAD-converted drawing, referencing the revision level, at which the visual verification was performed and documented.

  9. The Kerr-Schild ansatz revised

    Bini, Donato; Kerr, Roy P


    Kerr-Schild metrics have been introduced as a linear superposition of the flat spacetime metric and a squared null vector field, say $\\boldsymbol{k}$, multiplied by some scalar function, say $H$. The basic assumption which led to Kerr solution was that $\\boldsymbol{k}$ be both geodesic and shearfree. This condition is relaxed here and Kerr-Schild ansatz is revised by treating Kerr-Schild metrics as {\\it exact linear perturbations} of Minkowski spacetime. The scalar function $H$ is taken as the perturbing function, so that Einstein's field equations are solved order by order in powers of $H$. It turns out that the congruence must be geodesic and shearfree as a consequence of third and second order equations, leading to an alternative derivation of Kerr solution.

  10. Waste Management Program management plan. Revision 1



    As the prime contractor to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) provides comprehensive waste management services to all contractors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) through the Waste Management (WM) Program. This Program Management Plan (PMP) provides an overview of the Waste Management Program objectives, organization and management practices, and scope of work. This document will be reviewed at least annually and updated as needed to address revisions to the Waste Management`s objectives, organization and management practices, and scope of work. Waste Management Program is managed by LMITCO Waste Operations Directorate. The Waste Management Program manages transuranic, low-level, mixed low-level, hazardous, special-case, and industrial wastes generated at or transported to the INEEL.

  11. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov


    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  12. Revision of monotypic genus Llavea (Cryptogrammoideae: Pteridaceae

    Mónica Palacios-Rios


    Full Text Available Llavea Lag. is a genus of Cryptogrammoideae (Pteridaceae, whose only species is distributed from southern United States and Mexico to Guatemala and Costa Rica, although it lives mainly in Mesoamerica, inhabiting preferably calcicolous habitats associated with forests and mountains. The genus is easily recognized by the presence of fertile leaves hemi-dimorphic, with the fertile apical portion with longer and narrower segments than the sterile ones, with strongly revolute margin, and rhizome scales bicolorous, shiny, and black. This paper presents a revision of the genus, nomenclatural issues are resolved, and and palynological morphological diversity are reviewed, as well as its distribution, phenology, ecology, and applications, based on field and herbarium specimens studies. In addition, two names related to Llavea, Allosorus karwinskii Kunze and Ceratodactylis osmundioides J. Sm., were lectotypified.

  13. A Revised Collection of Sunspot Group Numbers

    Vaquero, J M; Carrasco, V M S; Clette, F; Lefèvre, L; Gallego, M C; Arlt, R; Aparicio, A J P; Richard, J -G; Howe, R


    We describe a revised collection of the number of sunspot groups from 1610 to the present. This new collection is based on the work of Hoyt and Schatten (Solar Phys. 179, 189, 1998). The main changes are the elimination of a considerable number of observations during the Maunder Minimum (hereafter, MM) and the inclusion of several long series of observations. Numerous minor changes are also described. Moreover, we have calculated the active-day percentage during the MM from this new collection as a reliable index of the solar activity. Thus, the level of solar activity obtained in this work is greater than the level obtained using the original Hoyt and Schatten data, although it remains compatible with a grand minimum of solar activity. The new collection is available in digital format.

  14. Local public document room directory. Revision 7



    This directory (NUREG/BR-0088, Revision 7) lists local public document rooms (LPDRs) for commercial nuclear power plants with operating or possession-only licenses or under construction, plus the LPDRs for potential high-level radioactive waste repository sites, gaseous diffusion plants, certain fuel cycle facilities, certain low-level waste disposal facilities, and any temporary LPDRs established for the duration of licensing proceedings. In some instances, the LPDR libraries maintain document collections for more than one licensed facility. The library staff members listed are the persons most familiar with the LPDR collections. Reference librarians in the NRC Headquarters Public Document Room (PDR) are also available to assist the public in locating NRC documents.

  15. Revision of the afrotropical oberthuerellinae (cynipoidea, liopteridae).

    Buffington, Matthew L; van Noort, Simon


    The Afrotropical Oberthuerellinae are revised, and new dichotomous and multi-entry keys to the species of Oberthuerella, Tessmannella, and Xenocynips are provided. All previously described species in these genera are redescribed; descriptions are augmented by color images of the holotype for each species. The following 11 species are described as new: Oberthuerella cyclopia Buffington & van Noort; Oberthuerella eschara Buffington & van Noort; Oberthuerella kibalensis van Noort & Buffington; Oberthuerella pardolatus Buffington & van Noort; Oberthuerella sharkeyi Buffington & van Noort; Oberthuerella simba Buffington & van Noort; Tessmannella copelandi Buffington & van Noort; Tessmannella kiplingi Buffington & van Noort; Tessmannella roberti Buffington & van Noort; Xenocynips rhothion Buffington & van Noort; and Xenocynips ronquisti Buffington & van Noort. We provide identification keys to the genera and species occurring in the Afrotropical region. Online dichotomous and interactive Lucid keys to genera and species are available at

  16. Digital dream analysis: a revised method.

    Bulkeley, Kelly


    This article demonstrates the use of a digital word search method designed to provide greater accuracy, objectivity, and speed in the study of dreams. A revised template of 40 word search categories, built into the website of the Sleep and Dream Database (SDDb), is applied to four "classic" sets of dreams: The male and female "Norm" dreams of Hall and Van de Castle (1966), the "Engine Man" dreams discussed by Hobson (1988), and the "Barb Sanders Baseline 250" dreams examined by Domhoff (2003). A word search analysis of these original dream reports shows that a digital approach can accurately identify many of the same distinctive patterns of content found by previous investigators using much more laborious and time-consuming methods. The results of this study emphasize the compatibility of word search technologies with traditional approaches to dream content analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The revised solar array synthesis computer program


    The Revised Solar Array Synthesis Computer Program is described. It is a general-purpose program which computes solar array output characteristics while accounting for the effects of temperature, incidence angle, charged-particle irradiation, and other degradation effects on various solar array configurations in either circular or elliptical orbits. Array configurations may consist of up to 75 solar cell panels arranged in any series-parallel combination not exceeding three series-connected panels in a parallel string and no more than 25 parallel strings in an array. Up to 100 separate solar array current-voltage characteristics, corresponding to 100 equal-time increments during the sunlight illuminated portion of an orbit or any 100 user-specified combinations of incidence angle and temperature, can be computed and printed out during one complete computer execution. Individual panel incidence angles may be computed and printed out at the user's option.

  18. Challenges and Demands on Automated Software Revision

    Bonakdarpour, Borzoo; Kulkarni, Sandeep S.


    In the past three decades, automated program verification has undoubtedly been one of the most successful contributions of formal methods to software development. However, when verification of a program against a logical specification discovers bugs in the program, manual manipulation of the program is needed in order to repair it. Thus, in the face of existence of numerous unverified and un- certified legacy software in virtually any organization, tools that enable engineers to automatically verify and subsequently fix existing programs are highly desirable. In addition, since requirements of software systems often evolve during the software life cycle, the issue of incomplete specification has become a customary fact in many design and development teams. Thus, automated techniques that revise existing programs according to new specifications are of great assistance to designers, developers, and maintenance engineers. As a result, incorporating program synthesis techniques where an algorithm generates a program, that is correct-by-construction, seems to be a necessity. The notion of manual program repair described above turns out to be even more complex when programs are integrated with large collections of sensors and actuators in hostile physical environments in the so-called cyber-physical systems. When such systems are safety/mission- critical (e.g., in avionics systems), it is essential that the system reacts to physical events such as faults, delays, signals, attacks, etc, so that the system specification is not violated. In fact, since it is impossible to anticipate all possible such physical events at design time, it is highly desirable to have automated techniques that revise programs with respect to newly identified physical events according to the system specification.


    G. M. Kavalersky


    Full Text Available In recent years, there is a trend of increasing demand for revision hip arthroplasty. Among these patients there are many with complex acetabular defects, including patients with pelvic discontinuity. To ensure stability for revised acetabular components in such cases becomes a challenging or unachievable task. Such defects give indications for printing customized tri-flange acetabular component. The authors analysed own experience of creating and applying custom made acetabular components in 3 patients with complex acetabular defects. Material and methods. Among the patients there were 2 women and 1 man. Average age was 60,3±19,4 years (38 to 78 years. Two patients had III B defects with pelvic discontinuity and one patient had III A defect by Paprosky classification. As the first step, the authors in collaboration with engineers printed a plaster full size pelvic 3D model, as the second step a customized tri-flange acetabular component was designed and printed. Harris Hip Score was evaluated preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Results. Average follow-up period was 5,3±2,5 months (3 to 8 months. The authors observed no cases of implant loosening, dislocation or deep periprosthetic infection. Average Harris Hip Score before surgery was 27,13 and after surgery – 74,1 indicating a significant improvement in 3 months postoperatively. Conclusion. Indications for use of individual acetabular components in reported patients correspond to indications formulated by Berasi et al. The authors obtained encouraging early follow-up outcomes that correspond to data of other authors. In one patient certain difficulties were reported due to insufficient pelvic distraction. Component’s flanges prevented achieving adequate pelvic distraction. Nevertheless, good primary stability was achieved. Modern software and 3D metal printers can significantly reduce the production cost of customized acetabular components. Application of this technology can be

  20. Revision of Failed Artroscopic Bankart Repairs

    Muiño, José María Silberberg; Gimenez, Martín Alejandro; Salvucci, Mauro Gabriel Maroa; Ferro, Diego; Rullan, Ramón Muiña


    Objectives: To present our functional outcomes from patients treated arthroscopically for a failed Bankart repair, using suture anchors and capsulolabral tissue only. Methods: Series of 22 patients presented with a recurrence of instability after a previous stabilization surgery (3 Latarjet, Bankart 19). We treated them by a an all-arthroscopic procedure, avoiding bone grafts, when glenoid track was found to be enough to proceed. The failure was associated with trauma in 11 patients, a non-anatomic repair in 6 patients, capsular laxity in 4 patients and a non-union of the coracoid graft in 1 patient. Revision surgery included: Bankart repair with anchors in 17 cases, a posterior-inferior capsulo-labral plication in one case, and 5 remplissages. In 4 cases subscapularis augmentation was used because of poor capsular quality. Screw removal was necessary when treating the non-union case. Patients were followed-up by a minimum of 23 months (range 23-26), and evaluated by the UCLA Test, SS test and Rowe score. Results: Thirteen patients had an excellent result, 6 good, 2 satisfactory and one bad result, according to UCLA score. The mean Rowe score was 90.4, at final follow up. The Simple Shoulder Test went from an 8 preoperative to an 11 postoperative, mean scores. 19 of 22 patients returned to the same level of activity prior to the injury. Complications: recurrence in 2 cases, subluxation in 2 and one shoulder stiffness that required an arthrolysis. Conclusion: An arthroscopic revision surgery, after a failed Bankart repair, presents satisfactory results in selected patients. Arthroscopic vision allows a correct diagnosis of injuries as possible causes of failure and subsequent treatment.