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Sample records for zr-fe alloy revision

  1. Effects of Fe and Cr on corrosion behavior of ZrFeCr alloys in 500 oC steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Fan Hongyuan; Xiong Ji; Liu Hong; Miao Zhi; Ying Shihao; Yang Gang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: Amount and size of SPP will effect the corrosion resistance of Zr alloy at 500 o C/10.3 MPa. - Abstract: A study of the corrosion behaviors of ZrFeCr alloy and the influence of microstructure on corrosion resistance are described by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope in this paper. The results show that several ZrFeCr alloys exhibit protective behavior throughout the test and oxide growth is stable and protective. The best alloy has the composition Zr1.0Fe0.6Cr. Fitting of the weight gain curves for the protective oxide alloys in the region of protective behavior, it showed nearly cubic behavior for the most protective alloys. The Zr1.0Fe0.6Cr has the more laves Zr(Fe,Cr) 2 precipitate in matrix and it has the better corrosion resistance. The Zr0.2Fe0.1Cr has little precipitate, the biggest hydrogen absorption and the worst corrosion resistance. The number of precipitates and the amount of hydrogen absorption in Zr alloy plays an important role on corrosion resistance behaviors in 500 o C/10.3 MPa steam.

  2. Formation and stability of Fe-rich precipitates in dilute Zr(Fe) single-crystal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, H.; Hood, G.M.; Roy, J.A.; Schultz, R.J.

    1993-02-01

    The formation and stability of Fe-rich precipitates in two α-Zr(Fe) single-crystal alloys with nominal compositions (I, 50 ppma Fe, and II, 650 ppma Fe) have been investigated (the maximum solid solubility of Fe in α-Zr is 180 ppma - 800 C). Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to examine the characteristics of Fe-rich precipitates. SEM and TEM micrographs show that in as-grown alloy II, Zr 2 Fe precipitates are located at 'stringers'. Precipitates were not observed in as-grown alloy I. During annealing, below the solvus, Fe diffuses to the surfaces to form Zr 3 Fe precipitates in both alloys. The precipitates on the surfaces of alloy I tend to be star-like (0001) or pyramidal (1010), and their distribution is heterogeneous. Dissolution of Zr 3 Fe surface precipitates of alloy I (annealing above the solvus) leaves precipitate-like features on the surfaces. Zr 2 Fe precipitates in as-grown alloy II can be dissolved only by β-phase annealing. (Author) 8 figs., 18 refs

  3. A comparative study of laser beam welding and laser-MIG hybrid welding of Ti-Al-Zr-Fe titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruifeng; Li Zhuguo; Zhu Yanyan; Rong Lei

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Ti-Al-Zr-Fe titanium alloy sheets were welded by LBW and LAMIG methods. → LAMIG welded joints have better combination of strength and ductility. → LAMIG welding is proved to be feasible for the production of titanium sheet joints. - Abstract: Ti-Al-Zr-Fe titanium alloy sheets with thickness of 4 mm were welded using laser beam welding (LBW) and laser-MIG hybrid welding (LAMIG) methods. To investigate the influence of the methods difference on the joint properties, optical microscope observation, microhardness measurement and mechanical tests were conducted. Experimental results show that the sheets can be welded at a high speed of 1.8 m/min and power of 8 kW, with no defects such as, surface oxidation, porosity, cracks and lack of penetration in the welding seam. In addition, all tensile test specimens fractured at the parent metal. Compared with the LBW, the LAMIG welding method can produce joints with higher ductility, due to the improvement of seam formation and lower microhardness by employing a low strength TA-10 welding wire. It can be concluded that LAMIG is much more feasible for welding the Ti-Al-Zr-Fe titanium alloy sheets.

  4. Self-diffusion in Zr-Cr and Zr-Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R.V.; Tiwari, G.P.; Sharma, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Self-diffusion studies in a series of zirconium-rich alloys containing 2.05, 3.49, 4.08 and 7.86 at %Cr and 0.98, 1.35, 1.64, 3.54 and 6.37 at.%Fe have been carried out in the temperature range 1173-1518 K, using standard serial-sectioning technique. The temperature dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in all these alloys could be described by Arrhenius expressions of the type D = D 0 exp (- Q/RT). The data have been analysed on the basis of current concepts of alloy diffusion. An analysis based on the vacancy mechanism leads to negative values of the correlation factors. The possibility of interstitial-vacancy pair and ω-phase embryos being rate-controlling mechanisms is also discussed. (author)

  5. Initial stages of Zr-Fe-Si alloy formation on Zr(0001) surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáková, Kateřina; Cichoň, Stanislav; Lančok, Ján; Sajdl, P.; Cháb, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 657, Mar (2017), s. 28-34 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : leed crystallographic analysis * transition-metal alloys * zirconium * adsorption * oxidation * oxygen * segregation * kinetics * films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.062, year: 2016

  6. Stacking faults in Zr(Fe, Cr)2 Laves structured secondary phase particle in Zircaloy-4 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengze; Li, Geping; Yuan, Fusen; Han, Fuzhou; Zhang, Yingdong; Gu, Hengfei

    2018-02-01

    Stacking faults (SFs) in secondary phase particles (SPPs), which generally crystallize in the Laves phase in Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) alloy, have been frequently observed by researchers. However, few investigations on the nano-scale structure of SFs have been carried out. In the present study, an SF containing C14 structured SPP, which located at grain boundaries (GBs) in the α-Zr matrix, was chosen to be investigated, for its particular substructure as well as location, aiming to reveal the nature of the SFs in the SPPs in Zr-4 alloy. It was indicated that the SFs in the C14 structured SPP actually existed in the local C36 structured Laves phase, for their similarities in crystallography. The C14 → C36 phase transformation, which was driven by synchroshearing among the (0001) basal planes, was the formation mechanism of the SFs in the SPPs. By analyzing the strained regions near the SPP, a model for understanding the driving force of the synchroshear was proposed: the interaction between SPP and GB resulted in the Zener pinning effect, leading to the shearing parallel to the (0001) basal planes of the C14 structured SPP, and the synchroshear was therefore activated.

  7. Finding an Optimal Thermo-Mechanical Processing Scheme for a Gum-Type Ti-Nb-Zr-Fe-O Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocivin, Anna; Cojocaru, Vasile Danut; Raducanu, Doina; Cinca, Ion; Angelescu, Maria Lucia; Dan, Ioan; Serban, Nicolae; Cojocaru, Mirela

    2017-09-01

    A gum-type alloy was subjected to a thermo-mechanical processing scheme to establish a suitable process for obtaining superior structural and behavioural characteristics. Three processes were proposed: a homogenization treatment, a cold-rolling process and a solution treatment with three heating temperatures: 1073 K (800 °C), 1173 K (900 °C) and 1273 K (1000 °C). Results of all three proposed processes were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy imaging, to establish and compare the structural modifications. The behavioural status was completed with micro-hardness and tensile strength tests. The optimal results were obtained for solution treatment at 1073 K.

  8. TEM study on a new Zr-(Fe, Cu) phase in furnace-cooled Zr-1.0Sn-0.3Nb-0.3Fe-0.1Cu alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yushun; Qiu, Risheng; Luan, Baifeng; Hao, Longlong; Tan, Xinu; Tao, Boran; Zhao, Yifan; Li, Feitao; Liu, Qing

    2018-06-01

    A new Zr-(Fe, Cu) phase was found in furnace-cooled Zr-1.0Sn-0.3Nb-0.3Fe- 0.1Cu alloy and alloys aged at 580 °C for 10min, 2 h and 10 h. Electron diffraction experiment shows the crystal structure of this phase to be body-centered tetragonal with unit cell dimensions determined to be a = b = 6.49 Å, c = 5.37 Å. Its possible space groups have been discussed and the reason accounting for its formation is believed to be the addition of Cu according to the atom-level images. In addition, no crystal structural or chemical composition changes were observed throughout the aging process.

  9. Magnetic Compton scattering study of Laves phase ZrFe2 and Sc doped ZrFe2: Experiment and Green function based relativistic calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Samir; Mund, H. S.; Kumar, Kishor; Bapna, Komal; Dashora, Alpa; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Ahuja, B. L.

    2018-05-01

    Spin momentum densities of ferromagnetic ZrFe2 and Zr0.8Sc0.2Fe2 have been measured using magnetic Compton scattering with 182.65 keV circularly polarized synchrotron radiations. Site specific spin moments, which are responsible for the formation of total spin moment, have been deduced from Compton line shapes. At room temperature, the computed spin moment of ZrFe2 is found to be slightly higher than that of Sc doped ZrFe2 which is in consensus with the magnetization data. To compare the experimental data, we have also computed magnetic Compton profiles (MCPs), total and partial spin projected density of states (DOS) and the site specific spin moments using spin-polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. It is observed that the spin moment at Fe site is aligned antiparallel to that of Zr site in both ZrFe2 and Zr0.8Sc0.2Fe2. The MCP results when compared with vibrating sample magnetometer based magnetization data, show a very small contribution of orbital moment in the formation of total magnetic moments in both the compounds. The DOS of ferromagnetic ground state of ZrFe2 and Zr0.8Sc0.2Fe2 are interpreted on the basis of a covalent magnetic model beyond the Stoner rigid band model. It appears that on alloying between a magnetic and a non-magnetic partner (with low valence), a polarization develops on the non-magnetic atom which is anti-parallel to that of the magnetic atom.

  10. Zr-Fe-Sn Ternary System Phase Diagrams- New Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, N; Gomez, A; Arias, D

    2004-01-01

    New experimental results for the Zr-Fe-Sn ternary system are presented in this paper. The phases present and equilibrium relations for the 900 o C isothermal on the central zone of the Gibbs triangle are analysed. A set of ternary alloys was designed and obtained, and they were analysed by semi quantitative SEM- EDS, XRD, and metallographic samples. The resulting ternary phase diagrams are presented here (JCH)

  11. Influence of Ti in the β-Zr(Fe) phase stability at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, J.S.

    1980-12-01

    Investigations of the Fe-Ti-Zr alloy system with concentrations ranging from 1 at.% Ti to 20 at.% Ti and with a fixed concentration of 4 at.% Fe were performed using X-Ray diffraction, Mossbauer Spectroscopy and Optical and Electronic Metallographies. The alloys were melted in arc furnace in argon atmosphere and after being homogenized, they were quenched from the beta field into cold water in order to retain the high temperature β-Zr(Fe)-Ti phase. The obtained results show that the beta phase was partially retained until the concentration of 7 at.% Ti and was completely retained at the concentration equal to or higher than 8 at.% Ti. It is assumed in Moessbauer Spectroscopy a doublet for the beta phase and a singlet for the supersatured α'-Zr(Fe)-Ti phase resulting from the martensitic transformation. The relative amount of each phase detected by Moessbauer Spectroscopy was measured by the relative area of the each spectral line. The stability of the beta phase at room temperature was discussed in terms of short-range ordering caused by the Fe-Ti bonds. Some related properties were discussed through the changing of the lattice parameter, isomer shift and quadrupole splitting. (Author) [pt

  12. Characterization of oxidation products on a ZrFe2-type laves intermetallic exposed to 200degreeC steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Dietz, N.; Finnegan, N.

    2000-01-01

    The release of radioactive elements from the stainless steel-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) metal waste form will be governed by the corrosion behavior of ZrFe 2 -type intermetallics phases present in the alloy. In this article, oxidation products that formed on a ZrFe 2 -type intermetallic sample exposed to 200 C steam were characterized by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The data revealed two oxide layers on the sample surface: an outer crystalline iron-oxide layer and an inner amorphous zirconium-rich layer believed to be zirconium oxide. Thermodynamic considerations indicate that the zirconium-rich layer formed first. The iron-oxide layer appears to have resulted from the diffusion of iron through the zirconium-rich layer to the oxide-vapor interface

  13. Nuclear orientation of 9597Nb and 95Zr in ZrFe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.; Olsen, C.E.; Rosenblum, S.S.; Steyert, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    The angular distribution anisotropies of γ rays were measured following the decays of 95 , 97 Nb and 95 Zr oriented at low temperatures in the ferromagnetic Laves phase compound ZrFe 2 . The magnetic hyperfine field of Nb in ZrFe 2 was deduced to be 9.4+-1.6 T; that of Zr in ZrFe 2 was estimated to be 15+-4 T. The nuclear magnetic moment of 97 Nb was deduced to be μ = (7.5+-1.4) μ/subN/

  14. Experimental phases diagram Zr-Fe and Zr-Sn-Fe of the Fe rich zone at a temperature of 1100oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, N.; Jimenez, J.; Gomez, A; Granovsky, M.S

    2010-01-01

    Zr-based alloys are frequently used in the nuclear energy industry; among these are the Zr-based Zircaloys whose main alloys are Sn and Fe. In order to experimentally evaluate part of the diagram of the binary Zr-Fe phases and the ternary Zr-Sn-Fe in the Fe-rich zone, different binary alloys in the area closest to the composition of the ZrFe 2 and Zr 6 Fe 23 compounds were designed as well as a ternary alloy of Zr-Sn-Fe in the Fe-rich region of the ternary system. All the alloys underwent a two month heat treatment at a temperature of 1100 o C. Later the phases that were present were identified using different complementary techniques (mainly X-ray diffraction and microanalysis). The clear presence of the Zr 6 Fe 23 phase was not observed in any of the alloys. A new ternary phase consisting approximately of Zr 2 0Sn 14 Fe 66 was verified in the ternary alloy

  15. Refining of Cd and Zn from interstitial impurities using distillation with a ZrFe getter filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherban’ A. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of interstitial impurities in Cd and Zn is analysed in terms of thermodynamics. The authors consider reduction reactions of cadmium, zinc and carbon oxides, as well as zinc nitride with the getter material from the Zr-Fe alloy, depending on temperature and vacuum. Optimum initial temperature and vacuum conditions for the processes of deep refining of Cd and Zn from interstitial impurities has been developed. It has been shown experimentally that the proposed refining method provides a more effective cleaning of cadmium and zinc from the interstitial impurities than the distillation without a filter: the impurity content is reduced more than tenfold compared to the concentration in the input metal.

  16. Hydrogen storage study on Ti2CrV and ZrFe1.8V0.2 composite system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Kumar, A.; Pillai, C.G.S.; Sudarsan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Ti 2 CrV is reported to have one of the highest hydrogen storage capacities (more than 4 wt. %) among the bcc phase transition metal alloys. It has been found from the earlier study that Ti 2 CrV alloy shows quite good hydrogen absorption property but the desorption temperature is on the higher side. The in-situ temperature programmed desorption profile shows that the hydrogen desorption starts from 120℃ and the desorption peak comes at 180℃, which is slightly high for the vehicular application. On the other hand ZrFe 1.8 V 0.2 Laves phase alloy has low hydrogen absorption capacity, but at the room temperature it can desorp all its hydrogen. The pressure composition isotherm of ZrFe 1.8 V 0.2 alloy generated during the experiment shows the typical characteristics of the room temperature reversible hydride. The in-situ temperature programmed desorption shows that the hydride can desorb all the hydrogen below room temperature

  17. Intermetallic phases in the iron-rich region of the Zr-Fe phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granovsky, M.S. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales; Arias, D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales

    1996-04-01

    Intermetallic phases in the Fe-rich region of the Zr-Fe system are studied by X-ray diffraction and optical and electron microscopy. The chemical composition of each phase has been quantitatively measured in a electron microprobe. The stable phases found in this region are ZrFe{sub 2}, Zr{sub 6}Fe{sub 23} and ({alpha}Fe). ZrFe{sub 2} is identified as a cubic Laves type phase (C15) and the ZrFe{sub 2}/ZrFe{sub 2}+Zr{sub 6}Fe{sub 23} boundary composition is 73{+-}1 at.% Fe. Zr{sub 6}Fe{sub 23} is a cubic phase of the Th{sub 6}Mn{sub 23} type and its composition is 80.0{+-}1.5 at.% Fe. The eutectic L{r_reversible}Zr{sub 6}Fe{sub 23}+{tau}-Fe transformation temperature and composition are 1325 C and 91{+-}1 at.% Fe, respectively. The solubility of Zr in {tau}-Fe at 1012 C is 500{+-}50 appm and 1000{+-}100 appm close to the eutectic temperature. (orig.).

  18. Intermetallic phases in the iron-rich region of the Zr-Fe phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granovsky, M.S.; Arias, D.

    1996-01-01

    Intermetallic phases in the Fe-rich region of the Zr-Fe system are studied by X-ray diffraction and optical and electron microscopy. The chemical composition of each phase has been quantitatively measured in a electron microprobe. The stable phases found in this region are ZrFe 2 , Zr 6 Fe 23 and (αFe). ZrFe 2 is identified as a cubic Laves type phase (C15) and the ZrFe 2 /ZrFe 2 +Zr 6 Fe 23 boundary composition is 73±1 at.% Fe. Zr 6 Fe 23 is a cubic phase of the Th 6 Mn 23 type and its composition is 80.0±1.5 at.% Fe. The eutectic L↔Zr 6 Fe 23 +τ-Fe transformation temperature and composition are 1325 C and 91±1 at.% Fe, respectively. The solubility of Zr in τ-Fe at 1012 C is 500±50 appm and 1000±100 appm close to the eutectic temperature. (orig.)

  19. Phase formation in Zr/Fe multilayers during Kr ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, A. T.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed study has been conducted of the effect of Kr ion irradiation on phase formation in Zr-Fe metallic multilayers, using the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscopy (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory. Metallic multilayers were prepared with different overall compositions (near 50-50 and Fe-rich), and with different wavelengths (repetition thicknesses). These samples were irradiated with 300 keV Kr ions at various temperatures to investigate the final products, as well as the kinetics of phase formation. For the shorter wavelength samples, the final product was in all cases an amorphous Zr-Fe phase, in combination with Fe, while specially for the larger wavelength samples, in the Fe-rich samples the intermetallic compounds ZrFe 2 and Zr 3 Fe were formed in addition to the amorphous phase. The dose to full reaction decreases with temperature, and with wavelength in a manner consistent with a diffusion-controlled reaction

  20. Tuning ZrFe{sub 4}Si{sub 2} by Ge and Y substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Katharina [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Dresden (Germany); Mufti, Nandang; Bergmann, Christoph; Rosner, Helge; Geibel, Christoph [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Goltz, Til; Klauss, Hans-Henning [Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Dresden (Germany); Woike, Theo [Institute for Structural Physics, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The intermetallic compound series AFe{sub 4}X{sub 2} (A = Y, Lu, Zr; X = Si, Ge) presents a rare case of magnetic frustrated metallic systems. In particular ZrFe{sub 4}Si{sub 2} is of strong interest because our results indicate this system to be very close to a quantum critical point (QCP) where Fe magnetic order disappears. To get a deeper insight into its ground state, we performed a detailed study of Ge and Y substituted ZrFe{sub 4}Si{sub 2}. The isovalent substitution of Ge for Si induces a negative chemical pressure as Ge is larger than Si. As expected from this, the substitution results in the formation of a well-defined antiferromagnetic order with Neel temperatures increasing up to 25 K at 40 % Ge. This confirms ZrFe{sub 4}Si{sub 2} to be extremely close to the QCP, just on the magnetic side of it. With the second substitution series Y{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 4}Si{sub 2} we investigate the development from the highly reduced antiferromagnetic order in ZrFe{sub 4}Si{sub 2} towards the two magnetic transitions at 56 K and 76 K, which we see in YFe{sub 4}Si{sub 2}.

  1. Ion-beam mixing and solid-state reaction in Zr-Fe multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paesano, A. Jr.; Motta, A.T.; Birtcher, R.C.; Ryan, E.A.; Teixeira, S.R.; Bruckmann, M.E.; Amaral, L.

    1997-01-01

    Vapor-deposited Zr-Fe multilayered thin films with various wavelengths and of overall composition either 50% Fe or Fe-rich up to 57% Fe were either irradiated with 300 keV Kr ions at temperatures from 25 K to 623 K to fluences up to 2 x 10 16 cm -2 , or simply annealed at 773 K in-situ in the Intermediate Voltage Electron microscope At Argonne National Laboratory. Under irradiation, the final reaction product is the amorphous phase in all cases studied, but the dose to amorphization depends on the temperature and on the wavelength. In the purely thermal case (annealing at 773 K), the 50-50 composition produces the amorphous phase but for the Fe-rich multilayers the reaction products depend on the multilayer wavelength. For small wavelength, the amorphous phase is still formed, but at large wavelength the Zr-Fe crystalline intermetallic compounds appear. These results are discussed in terms of existing models of irradiation kinetics and phase selection during solid state reaction

  2. Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol with Recyclable Al-Zr@Fe Mixed Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jian; Li, Hu; Riisager, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A series of magnetic, acid/base bifunctional Al–Zr@Fe3O4 catalysts were successfully prepared by a facile coprecipitation method and utilized in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) of furfural to furfuryl alcohol with 2-propanol as hydrogen source. The physicochemical properties and morpho......A series of magnetic, acid/base bifunctional Al–Zr@Fe3O4 catalysts were successfully prepared by a facile coprecipitation method and utilized in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) of furfural to furfuryl alcohol with 2-propanol as hydrogen source. The physicochemical properties...... with a Al3+/Zr4+/Fe3O4 molar ratio of 21:9:3 was found to exhibit a high furfuryl alcohol yield of 90.5 % in the CTH from furfural at 180 °C after 4 h with a comparatively low activation energy of 45.3 kJ mol−1, as calculated from the Arrhenius equation. Moreover, leaching and recyclability tests confirmed...

  3. Revised ANL-reported tensile data for V-Ti and V-Cr-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    The tensile for all irradiated vanadium alloy samples and several unirradiated vanadium alloys tested at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been critically reviewed and revised, as necessary. The review and revision are based on re-analyzing the original load-displacement strip-chart recording using a methodology consistent with current ASTM standards. No significant difference has been found between the newly-revised and previously-reported values of yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). However, by correctly subtracting the non-gauge-length displacement and linear gauge-length displacement from the total cross-head displacement, the uniform elongation (UE) of the gauge length decreases by 4-9% strain and the total elongation (TE) of the gauge length decreases by 1-7% strain. These differences are more significant for lower-ductility irradiated alloys than for higher-ductility alloys

  4. Revised ANL-reported tensile data for V-Ti and V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The tensile for all irradiated vanadium alloy samples and several unirradiated vanadium alloys tested at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been critically reviewed and revised, as necessary. The review and revision are based on re-analyzing the original load-displacement strip-chart recording using a methodology consistent with current ASTM standards. No significant difference has been found between the newly-revised and previously-reported values of yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). However, by correctly subtracting the non-gauge-length displacement and linear gauge-length displacement from the total cross-head displacement, the uniform elongation (UE) of the gauge length decreases by 4-9% strain and the total elongation (TE) of the gauge length decreases by 1-7% strain. These differences are more significant for lower-ductility irradiated alloys than for higher-ductility alloys.

  5. Characterization of laves phases in the pseudobinary Zr Cr2-Zr Fe2 system by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, F.L. de; Badler, C.S.; Granovski, M.; Arias, D.

    1988-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy together with XRD and optical metallography were used to verify the two phase boundaries of the ZrCr 2 -ZrFe 2 pseudobinary phase diagram. Samples with adequate ternary and binary composition, treated at 1450 0 C, were studied. Experimental results indicate that in some cases the two phase boundaries should be modified. (author)

  6. Review about laser nitriding of titanium alloys; Revision sobre nitruraciones laser de aleaciones de titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Artieda, M.G.; Fernandez-Carrasquilla, J.

    2010-07-01

    A common technique used to improve the wear response of titanium alloys is to nitride the surface, using chemical or physical vapour deposition, ion implantation or surface remelting in a nitrogen atmosphere. In this revision nitriding systems with laser technology are studied, used in titanium alloys surface treatments.For high temperature, high strength applications, titanium based alloys are an attractive light-weight alternative to steel, due to their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. In applications that require good wear resistance, titanium alloys pose a problem due to their poor tribological characteristics.Titanium alloys used with a suitable nitriding treatment could allow the replacement of steel in different applications, obtaining weight savings in fabricated components. (Author). 68 refs.

  7. Mössbauer study of oxide films of Fe-, Sn-, Cr- doped zirconium alloys during corrosion in autoclave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, V. P., E-mail: vpfilippov@mephi.ru; Bateev, A. B.; Lauer, Yu. A. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Mössbauer investigations were used to compare iron atom states in oxide films of binary Zr-Fe, ternary Zr-Fe-Cu and quaternary Zr-Fe-Cr-Sn alloys. Oxide films are received in an autoclave at a temperature of 350–360 °C and at pressure of 16.8 MPa. The corrosion process decomposes the intermetallic precipitates in alloys and forms metallic iron with inclusions of chromium atoms α–Fe(Cr), α–Fe(Cu), α–Fe {sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe {sub 3}O{sub 4} compounds. Some iron ions are formed in divalent and in trivalent paramagnetic states. The additional doping influences on corrosion kinetics and concentration of iron compounds and phases formed in oxide films. It was shown the correlation between concentration of iron in different chemical states and corrosion resistance of alloys.

  8. Characterization of Newly Synthesized ZrFe2O5 Nanomaterial and Investigations of Its Tremendous Photocatalytic Properties under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali Shahid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High functional ZrFe2O5 nanoparticles were synthesized using coprecipitation technique. The chemical composition of nanomaterials was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX. To observe the morphology, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM was used. X-ray diffraction (XRD technique was utilized to appraise the structure of the synthesized material. The photocatalytic behavior of ZrFe2O5 nano-particles was investigated by measuring the degradation rate of toluidine blue O (TBO dye in aqueous solution in the presence of ZrFe2O5 nano-particles under visible light irradiation. A steady decrease in absorption peak under visible light irradiation was observed by increasing exposure time. The degradation efficiency was observed as 92% after 140 min of exposure to visible light. Besides, ZrFe2O5 nanophotocatalyst could be recovered and recycled easily. The rate of TBO and total organic carbon (TOC removal under visible light irradiation decreased by only 5% and 10%, respectively, after seven cycles of use, demonstrating the high photostability of the synthesized nano-photocatalyst material.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis for molten stratification test MASCA with ionic liquid U-Zr-Fe-O-B-C-FPs database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Masanori; Tamura, Shigeyuki

    2007-01-01

    The molten corium stratification tested in the OECD MASCA project was analyzed with our thermo-dynamic database and the database was verified to be effective for the stratification analysis. The MASCA test shows that the molten corium can be stratified with the metal layer under the oxide when sub-oxidized corium including iron was retained in the lower head of the reactor vessel. This stratification is caused by the increased density of the metal layer attributed to a transfer of uranium metal that was reduced from uranium oxide by zirconium. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations with the database, which was developed for the corium U-Zr-Fe-O-B-C-FPs system using the ionic two-sublattice model for liquid, show quantitative agreements with the MASCA test, such as the composition of each layer, fission product (FP) partitioning between the layers and B 4 C effect on the stratification. (author)

  10. Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Vivian Kvist; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Riis-Nielsen, Torben

    This report is a revised analysis of the Danish data on CO2 emissions from forest, afforestation and deforestation for the period 1990 - 2008 and a prognosis for the period until 2020. Revision have included measurements from 2009 in the estimations. The report is funded by the Ministry of Climate...

  11. Revised ANL-reported tensile data for unirradiated and irradiated (FFTF, HFIR) V-Ti and V-Cr-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    The tensile data for all unirradiated and irradiated vanadium alloys samples tested at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been critically reviewed and, when necessary, revised. The review and revision are based on reanalyzing the original load-displacement strip chart recordings by a methodology consistent with current ASTM standards. For unirradiated alloys (162 samples), the revised values differ from the previous values as follows: -11±19 MPa (-4±6%) for yield strength (YS), -3±15 MPa (-1±3%) for ultimate tensile strength (UTS), -5±2% strain for uniform elongation (UE), and -4±2% strain for total elongation (TE). Of these changes, the decrease in -1±6 MPa (0±1%) for UTS, -5±2% for UE, and -4±2% for TE. Of these changes, the decrease in UE values for alloys irradiated and tested at 400--435 C is the most significant. This decrease results from the proper subtraction of nongauge-length deformation from measured crosshead deformation. In previous analysis of the tensile curves, the nongauge-length deformation was not correctly determined and subtracted from the crosshead displacement. The previously reported and revised tensile values for unirradiated alloys (20--700 C) are tabulated in Appendix A. The revised tensile values for the FFTF-irradiated (400--600 C) and HFIR-irradiated (400 C) alloys are tabulated in Appendix B, along with the neutron damage and helium levels. Appendix C compares the revised values to the previously reported values for irradiated alloys. Appendix D contains previous and revised values for the tensile properties of unirradiated V-5Cr-5Ti (BL-63) alloy exposed to oxygen

  12. (Sm,Zr(Fe,Co11.0-11.5Ti1.0-0.5 compounds as new permanent magnet materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kuno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated (Sm,Zr(Fe,Co11.0-11.5Ti1.0-0.5 compounds as permanent magnet materials. Good magnetic properties were observed in (Sm0.8Zr0.2(Fe0.75Co0.2511.5Ti0.5 powder containing a limited amount of the α-(Fe, Co phase, including saturation polarization (Js of 1.63 T, an anisotropic field (Ha of 5.90 MA/m at room temperature, and a Curie temperature (Tc of about 880 K. Notably, Js and Ha remained above 1.5 T and 3.70 MA/m, respectively, even at 473 K. The high-temperature magnetic properties of (Sm0.8Zr0.2(Fe0.75Co0.2511.5Ti0.5 were superior to those of Nd2Fe14B.

  13. The origin of high magnetic properties in (R,Zr)(Fe,Co)11.0–11.5Ti1.0–0.5Ny (y=1.0–1.4 for R=Nd, y=0 for R=Sm) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Suzuki, S.; Kuno, T.; Urushibata, K.; Sakuma, N.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Kato, A.; Manabe, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ten alloys and nitrogenated compounds of (R,Zr)(Fe,Co) 11.0–11.5 Ti 1.0–0.5 N y (y=1.0–1.4 for R=Nd, y=0 for R=Sm) with a ThMn 12 -type structure were prepared. The average Fe–Fe interatomic distances, d(Fe–Fe), for Fe sites were calculated based on the reported atomic parameters. The hyperfine splittings (inner field (IF), in teslas) were measured by Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the IF increased with increasing d(Fe–Fe) for Fe sites, indicating a magneto-volume effect. The order of IF magnitude in Fe sites was Fe(8i)>Fe(8j)>Fe(8f) in all alloys. Co substitution for Fe sites, (Fe 0.75 Co 0.25 ), increased the IF by 25% for the R=Nd alloy and 15% for the R=Sm alloy. Decreasing Ti content from −Ti 1.0 to −Ti 0.5 , which increased the Fe and Co content, preserved the ThMn 12 structure with Zr substitution for R(2a) sites, and caused a slight increase in the IF of 2% for the R=Nd alloy and 7% for the R=Sm alloy. Nitrogenation, where N was introduced into the 2b sites, also increased IF in R=Nd alloys, by 23% for the Co- and Zr-free alloys, NdFe 11 Ti 1.0 N 1.5 , and by 7% for the Co-containing, (Nd 0.7 Zr 0.3 ) (Fe 0.75 Co 0.25 ) 11.5 Ti 0.5 N 1.3 alloy. The IF values of the R=Nd alloys were slightly larger than those of the R=Sm alloys. In conclusion, the magneto-volume effect was clearly observed at the Fe sites, and Co substitution into Fe sites and nitrogenation (R=Nd alloys) compensated for the increased IF. Increasing the Fe and Co fractions also increased IF slightly. - Highlights: • Average distances of Fe–Fe (d(Fe–Fe)) were calculated using lattice constants. • Hyperfine fields (IF) in Fe sites were measured using Mössbauer spectroscopy. • Relationship between d(Fe–Fe) and IF at each Fe site was obtained. • Co substitution and N introduction effects on IF was also measured. • Magneto-volume effect is main reason of IF augmentation in Fe sites.

  14. Analysis of B4C influences on thermodynamic properties and phase separation of molten corium with ionic liquid U-Zr-Fe-O-B-C-FPs database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Masanori; Tamura, Shigeyuki; Saito, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Boron carbide influences on thermodynamic properties and phase separation of molten corium such as liquidus temperature were estimated with our U-Zr-Fe-O-B-C-FPs thermodynamic database. The liquidus temperature of the oxide for the typical corium was estimated to increase by a hundred degrees with B 4 C addition when the corium included up to 10 wt% Fe. On the other hand, the liquidus temperature was hardly changed when the corium included 50 wt% Fe. The interaction temperature between the steel and the corium with B 4 C was estimated at 1130 K. We define the interaction temperature as the lowest temperature where the solid Fe and the liquid phase of a corium are in equilibrium, at which interactions such as microstructure change of the vessel were observed in test studies. Although it is 180 K lower than that without B 4 C, the estimated temperature is still over 200 K higher than the criterion temperature where the vessel loses its structural strength, which has been used in the feasibility evaluation of the in-vessel retention. Other thermodynamic influences of B 4 C were also estimated as not having a negative impact on the in-vessel retention. (author)

  15. Creep-Fatigue Behavior of Alloy 617 at 850 and 950°C, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carroll, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Alloy 617 is the leading candidate material for an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). To evaluate the behavior of this material in the expected service conditions, strain-controlled cyclic tests including hold times up to 9000 s at maximum tensile strain were conducted at 850 and 950 degrees C. At both temperatures, the fatigue resistance decreased when a hold time was added at peak tensile strain. The magnitude of this effect depended on the specific mechanisms and whether they resulted in a change in fracture mode from transgranular in pure fatigue to intergranular in creep-fatigue for a particular temperature and strain range combination. Increases in the tensile hold duration beyond an initial value were not detrimental to the creep-fatigue resistance at 950 degrees C but did continue to degrade the lifetimes at 850 degrees C.

  16. Microstructural studies of suck cast (Zr-SS)-3 and 5 AI alloys for nuclear metallic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Das, N.; Sengupta, P.; Arya, A.; Dey, G.K.

    2015-01-01

    Management of radioactive metallic waste using 'alloy melting route' is currently being investigated. For disposal of Zr and SS base nuclear metallic wastes, Zr-stainless steel (SS) hybrid alloys are being considered as baseline alloys for developing metallic-waste-form (MWF) alloys. In this context Zr-16 wt. %55 has been selected for MWF alloy in our previous study. In present study, to include amorphous phase in this alloy, 3 and 5 wt. % Al has been added in order to improve desirable properties and useful features of MWF and the two alloys have been prepared by suck casting techniques. Microstructure of these alloys have been investigated by optical and electron microscopy which shows occurrence of two different phases, e.g. dark grey and white phases, in (Zr-16 SS)-3 Al and three different phases, e.g. grey, dark grey and white phases in (Zr-16 SS)-5 AI. Electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of these two alloy specimens revealed the occurrence of Zr (Fe, Cr, AI) (dark grey) and Zr 2 (Fe, Cr, AI) (white) phases in (Zr-16 SS)-3 Al whereas, Zr (Fe, Cr, AI) (dark grey), Zr 2 (Fe, Cr, AI) (grey) and Zr 3 (Fe, Cr, AI) (white) phases were found in (Zr-16 SS)-5 AI. In addition, presence of amorphous phase was indicated by XRD analysis that could be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of these two alloys. (author)

  17. The origin of high magnetic properties in (R,Zr)(Fe,Co){sub 11.0–11.5}Ti{sub 1.0–0.5}N{sub y} (y=1.0–1.4 for R=Nd, y=0 for R=Sm) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, K., E-mail: koba@ms.sist.ac.jp [Shizuoka Institute of Science and Technology, 2200-2 Toyosawa, Fukuroi, Shizuoka 437-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, S.; Kuno, T.; Urushibata, K. [Shizuoka Institute of Science and Technology, 2200-2 Toyosawa, Fukuroi, Shizuoka 437-8555 (Japan); Sakuma, N.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Kato, A. [Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Technology Reserch Association of Magnetic Materials fot High-efficiency Motors (Mag-HEM) Higashifuji-Branch, 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193, Japan. (Japan); Manabe, A. [Technology Reserch Association of Magnetic Materials fot High-efficiency Motors (Mag-HEM) Higashifuji-Branch, 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193, Japan. (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Ten alloys and nitrogenated compounds of (R,Zr)(Fe,Co){sub 11.0–11.5}Ti{sub 1.0–0.5}N{sub y} (y=1.0–1.4 for R=Nd, y=0 for R=Sm) with a ThMn{sub 12}-type structure were prepared. The average Fe–Fe interatomic distances, d(Fe–Fe), for Fe sites were calculated based on the reported atomic parameters. The hyperfine splittings (inner field (IF), in teslas) were measured by Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the IF increased with increasing d(Fe–Fe) for Fe sites, indicating a magneto-volume effect. The order of IF magnitude in Fe sites was Fe(8i)>Fe(8j)>Fe(8f) in all alloys. Co substitution for Fe sites, (Fe{sub 0.75}Co{sub 0.25}), increased the IF by 25% for the R=Nd alloy and 15% for the R=Sm alloy. Decreasing Ti content from −Ti{sub 1.0} to −Ti{sub 0.5}, which increased the Fe and Co content, preserved the ThMn{sub 12} structure with Zr substitution for R(2a) sites, and caused a slight increase in the IF of 2% for the R=Nd alloy and 7% for the R=Sm alloy. Nitrogenation, where N was introduced into the 2b sites, also increased IF in R=Nd alloys, by 23% for the Co- and Zr-free alloys, NdFe{sub 11}Ti{sub 1.0}N{sub 1.5}, and by 7% for the Co-containing, (Nd{sub 0.7}Zr{sub 0.3}) (Fe{sub 0.75}Co{sub 0.25}) {sub 11.5}Ti{sub 0.5}N{sub 1.3} alloy. The IF values of the R=Nd alloys were slightly larger than those of the R=Sm alloys. In conclusion, the magneto-volume effect was clearly observed at the Fe sites, and Co substitution into Fe sites and nitrogenation (R=Nd alloys) compensated for the increased IF. Increasing the Fe and Co fractions also increased IF slightly. - Highlights: • Average distances of Fe–Fe (d(Fe–Fe)) were calculated using lattice constants. • Hyperfine fields (IF) in Fe sites were measured using Mössbauer spectroscopy. • Relationship between d(Fe–Fe) and IF at each Fe site was obtained. • Co substitution and N introduction effects on IF was also measured. • Magneto-volume effect is main reason of IF augmentation in Fe sites.

  18. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1997-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute {alpha} grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase ({alpha} and {beta}) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase {alpha} and near-{alpha} (Ti Gr 12) alloys.

  19. Investigations of chemical reactions between U-Zr alloy and FBR cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2005-07-01

    U-Pu-Zr alloys are candidate materials for commercial FBR fuel. However, informations about chemical reactions with cladding materials developed by JNC for commercial FBR have not been well obtained. In this work, the reaction zones formed in four diffusion couples U-10wt.%Zr/PNC-FMS, U-10wt.%Zr/9Cr-ODS, U-10wt.%Zr/12Cr-ODS, and U-10wt.%Zr/Fe at about 1013K have been examined and following results were obtained. 1) At about 1013K, in the U-10wt.%Zr/Fe couple, the liquid phase zones were obtained. In the other couples U-10wt.%Zr/PNC-FMS, U-10wt.%Zr/9Cr-ODS and U-10wt.%Zr/12Cr-ODS, no liquid phase zones were obtained. The obtained chemical reaction zones in the later 3 couples were similar to the reported ones obtained in U-Zr/Fe couples without liquid phase formation. In comparison with the reaction zones obtained in the U-10wt.%Zr/Fe couple, the reaction zones inside cladding materials obtained in the PNC-FMS, 9Cr-ODS, and 12Cr-ODS couples were thin. 2) From the investigations of relationship between the obtained depths of the chemical reaction zones inside cladding materials and composition of the cladding materials, it was considered that the depth of chemical reaction zone would depend on the Cr content of the cladding materials and the depth would decrease with increasing Cr content, resulting in prevention of liquid phase formation. 3) From the investigations of the mechanisms of chemical reactions between U-Pu-Zr/cladding materials, it was considered that the same effect of Cr obtained in the U-Zr/cladding materials would be expected in U-Pu-Zr/cladding materials. Those seemed to indicate that the threshold temperatures of liquid phase formation for U-Pu-Zr/PNC-FMS, U-Pu-Zr/9Cr-ODS, and U-Pu-Zr/12Cr-ODS might be higher than that for U-Pu-Zr/Fe. (author)

  20. High temperature chemical reactivity in the system (U, Zr,Fe, O). A contribution to the study of zirconia as a ''core catcher''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurizi, A.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the improvement of nuclear reactor safety, a device to recover corium is proposed to be installed under the reactor vessel to limit the consequences of a core melting. According to our bibliographic study, stabilised zirconia seems to be the best refractory material to play this role and to support the physicochemical, mechanical and thermal requirements imposed to the corium catcher. The nature of the chemical interactions between zirconia and iron of high temperature were established and experimental data on the (U, Fe, Zr, O) quaternary system which stands for the corium were determined. First of all, the Knudsen effusion mass-spectrometric method was used to establish the liquidus position for a (U, Zr, O) alloy representative of the corium (U/Zr = 1,5) at 2000 deg C. The oxygen solubility limit in a (U, Zr, O) liquid alloy is about 7 atomic %. In oxidising conditions, the reaction between zirconia and iron leads to the formation of a stabilised zirconia-iron oxide solid solution. Up to 10 atomic % of iron can be incorporated in the structure, leading to the stabilisation of cubic zirconia and a modification of lattice constants. The valence and localisation of those iron measured as a function of time and temperature from 1500 to 2400 deg C, after high frequency inductive heating, both on laboratory materials are commercial bricks. The reaction rate is governed by an activation energy of about 80 kJ/mol. Our results demonstrate that stabilised zirconia is able to efficiently absorb oxidised iron. (author)

  1. Laves intermetallics in stainless steel-zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D.P.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Laves intermetallics have a significant effect on properties of metal waste forms being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. These waste forms are stainless steel-zirconium alloys that will contain radioactive metal isotopes isolated from spent nuclear fuel by electrometallurgical treatment. The baseline waste form composition for stainless steel-clad fuels is stainless steel-15 wt.% zirconium (SS-15Zr). This article presents results of neutron diffraction measurements, heat-treatment studies and mechanical testing on SS-15Zr alloys. The Laves intermetallics in these alloys, labeled Zr(Fe,Cr,Ni) 2+x , have both C36 and C15 crystal structures. A fraction of these intermetallics transform into (Fe,Cr,Ni) 23 Zr 6 during high-temperature annealing; the authors have proposed a mechanism for this transformation. The SS-15Zr alloys show virtually no elongation in uniaxial tension, but exhibit good strength and ductility in compression tests. This article also presents neutron diffraction and microstructural data for a stainless steel-42 wt.% zirconium (SS-42Zr) alloy

  2. Development of new zirconium alloys for PWR fuel rod claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenjin; Zhou Bangxin; Miao Zhi; Li Cong; Jiang Hongman; Yu Xiaowei; Jiang Yourong; Huang Qiang; Gou Yuan; Huang Decheng

    2001-01-01

    An advanced zirconium alloys containing Sn, Nb, Fe and Cr have been developed. The relationships between manufacturing, microstructure and corrosion performance for the new alloys have been studied. The effects of both heat treatment and chemistry on corrosion behavior were assessed by autoclave tests in lithia water at 633 K and high-temperature steam at 773 K. Analytical electron microscopy demonstrated that the best out-of-pile corrosion performance was obtained for microstructure containing a fine and uniform distribution of β-Nb and Zr(Fe, Nb) 2 particles. Autoclave testing in LiOH solution indicated that two kinds of alloys (N18, N36) showed the lower corrosion rate than the reference Zr-4 tested, and especially, the corrosion resistance in superheated steam at 773 K was much better. Moreover, the mechanical properties were superior to Zr-4. And the hydrogen absorption data for all of alloys from corrosion reactions under various corrosion conditions showed a linear increase with the oxide thickness

  3. High temperature chemical reactivity in the system (U, Zr,Fe, O). A contribution to the study of zirconia as a ``core catcher``; Reactivite chimique a haute temperature dans le systeme (U, Zr, Fe, O) contribution a l`etude de la zircone comme recuperateur de ``corium``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurizi, A [CEA Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 -Gif-sur-Yvette (France); [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees

    1996-12-11

    Within the framework of the improvement of nuclear reactor safety, a device to recover corium is proposed to be installed under the reactor vessel to limit the consequences of a core melting. According to our bibliographic study, stabilised zirconia seems to be the best refractory material to play this role and to support the physicochemical, mechanical and thermal requirements imposed to the corium catcher. The nature of the chemical interactions between zirconia and iron of high temperature were established and experimental data on the (U, Fe, Zr, O) quaternary system which stands for the corium were determined. First of all, the Knudsen effusion mass-spectrometric method was used to establish the liquidus position for a (U, Zr, O) alloy representative of the corium (U/Zr = 1,5) at 2000 deg C. The oxygen solubility limit in a (U, Zr, O) liquid alloy is about 7 atomic %. In oxidising conditions, the reaction between zirconia and iron leads to the formation of a stabilised zirconia-iron oxide solid solution. Up to 10 atomic % of iron can be incorporated in the structure, leading to the stabilisation of cubic zirconia and a modification of lattice constants. The valence and localisation of those iron measured as a function of time and temperature from 1500 to 2400 deg C, after high frequency inductive heating, both on laboratory materials are commercial bricks. The reaction rate is governed by an activation energy of about 80 kJ/mol. Our results demonstrate that stabilised zirconia is able to efficiently absorb oxidised iron. (author). 169 refs.

  4. Magnetic properties of amorphous alloys of Fe with La, Lu, Y, and Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiman, N.; Kazama, N.

    1979-01-01

    In order to study the systematics of the Fe-Fe exchange in amorphous rare-earth--Fe alloys, without the complications associated with the magnetic characteristics of the rare-earth elements, amorphous films of Fe alloyed with La, Lu, Y, and Zr have been prepared with a wide range of Fe concentrations. Magnetization and Moessbauer-effect measurements were made. The magnetic properties of the alloys depended critically on the choice of rare earth (or rare-earth-like element). YFe and LuFe alloys were found to have spin-glass characteristics while LaFe and ZrFe alloys were found to be ferromagnetic, but with evidence that exchange fluctuations were nearly as large as the average exchange. Thus the nature of the Fe-Fe exchange interaction depends critically upon the species of the rare earth. The most important parameter in determining the magnetic behavior of these alloys appears to be the size of the rare-earth atom, with large rare-earth atoms resulting in a smaller ratio of exchange fluctuations to exchange. The same dependence of the magnetic properties upon rare-earth size appears to be important in the case of magnetic-rare-earth atoms; however, the effect of rare-earth--Fe exchange also becomes important and these effects are discussed

  5. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  6. CALPHAD simulation of the Mg–(Mn, Zr)–Fe system and experimental comparison with as-cast alloy microstructures as relevant to impurity driven corrosion of Mg-alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandel, D.S., E-mail: darren.gandel@monash.edu [CAST Cooperative Research Centre (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Easton, M.A. [CAST Cooperative Research Centre (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Gibson, M.A. [CAST Cooperative Research Centre (Australia); CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Birbilis, N. [CAST Cooperative Research Centre (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-02-14

    Four Mg alloys with variations in the ratio of Mn, Zr and Fe additions were cast and their microstructures analysed via electron microscopy. Thermodynamic calculations of the expected phases using PANDAT were evaluated with actual as-cast microstructures. Some of the as-cast alloys did appear to form phases similar to those anticipated from the PANDAT calculations. Furthermore, there was a new Mn–Fe particle interaction observed that was not predicted, but which is posited to be responsible for the increase in corrosion resistance among Mn containing Mg alloys with Fe impurities. The experimental work herein has been shown to be invaluable in the understanding of this practically important system with sparingly soluble Fe and its potential influence on the corrosion of Mg alloys. - Highlights: • Alloy microstructure of the Mg-(Mn,Zr, Fe) system was analysed and reported. • CALPHAD analysis was used in conjunction with traditional SEM analysis techniques in this study. • A proposed Mn–Fe interaction within Mg has been observed for the first time. • Experimental validation of calculated phases is required to understand the effect of Mn and Zr on Mg.

  7. Physical properties of molten core materials: Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr alloys measured by electrostatic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Yuji, E-mail: ohishi@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Kondo, Toshiki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Ishikawa, Takehiko [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); SOKEN-DAI (Graduate University for Advanced Studies) (Japan); Okada, Junpei T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University (Japan); Watanabe, Yuki [Advanced Engineering Services Co. Ltd. (Japan); Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Yamanaka, Shinsuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    It is important to understand the behaviors of molten core materials to investigate the progression of a core meltdown accident. In the early stages of bundle degradation, low-melting-temperature liquid phases are expected to form via the eutectic reaction between Zircaloy and stainless steel. The main component of Zircaloy is Zr and those of stainless steel are Fe, Ni, and Cr. Our group has previously reported physical property data such as viscosity, density, and surface tension for Zr-Fe liquid alloys using an electrostatic levitation technique. In this study, we report the viscosity, density, and surface tension of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys (Zr{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr{sub 0.77}Cr{sub 0.23}) using the electrostatic levitation technique. - Highlights: • The physical properties of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys have been measured Zr{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr{sub 77}Cr{sub 23}. • The measurement was conducted using the electrostatic levitation technique. • The density, viscosity, and surface tension of each liquid alloy were measured.

  8. Physical properties of molten core materials: Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr alloys measured by electrostatic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yuji; Kondo, Toshiki; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei T.; Watanabe, Yuki; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    It is important to understand the behaviors of molten core materials to investigate the progression of a core meltdown accident. In the early stages of bundle degradation, low-melting-temperature liquid phases are expected to form via the eutectic reaction between Zircaloy and stainless steel. The main component of Zircaloy is Zr and those of stainless steel are Fe, Ni, and Cr. Our group has previously reported physical property data such as viscosity, density, and surface tension for Zr-Fe liquid alloys using an electrostatic levitation technique. In this study, we report the viscosity, density, and surface tension of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys (Zr 1-x Ni x (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr 0.77 Cr 0.23 ) using the electrostatic levitation technique. - Highlights: • The physical properties of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys have been measured Zr 1-x Ni x (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr 77 Cr 23 . • The measurement was conducted using the electrostatic levitation technique. • The density, viscosity, and surface tension of each liquid alloy were measured.

  9. A mechanism for the hydrogen uptake process in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen uptake data for thin Zircaloy-2 specimens in steam at 300-400 C have been analysed to show that there is a decrease in the rate of uptake with respect to the rate of oxidation when the terminal solid solubility (TSS) of hydrogen in the metal is exceeded. In order for TSS to be reached during pre-transition oxidation a very thin 0.125 mm Zircaloy sheet was used. The specimens had been pickled initially removing all Zr 2 (Fe/Ni) particles from the initial surfaces, yet the initial hydrogen uptake rates were still much higher than for Zircaloy-4 or a binary Zr/Fe alloy that did not contain phases that dissolve readily during pickling. Cathodic polarisation at room temperature in CuSO 4 solution showed that small cracks or pores formed the cathodic sites in pre-transition oxide films. Some were at pits resulting from the initial dissolution of the Zr 2 (Fe/Ni) phase; others were not; none were at the remaining intermetallics in the original surface. These small cracks are thought to provide the ingress routes for hydrogen. A microscopic steam starvation process at the bottoms of these small cracks or pores, leading to the accumulation of hydrogen adjacent to the oxide/metal interface, and causing breakdown of the passive oxide forming at the bottom of the flaw, is thought to provide the mechanism for the hydrogen uptake process during both pre-transition and post-transition oxidation. (orig.)

  10. Glass formation and crystallization in Zr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G. K.

    2011-01-01

    Metallic glasses have come in to prominence in recent times because their nanocrystalline atomic arrangement imparts many useful and unusual properties to these metallic solids. Though these have been produced for the last four decades, the necessity of rapid solidification at cooling rates of 10 5 K/sec or higher for their production, have restricted their geometry to thin ribbons and prevented their application to many areas despite their excellent properties. It has been shown in recent investigations that, many Zr base multicomponent alloys can be obtained in glassy state by cooling at much lower rate typically 10 2 to 10 3 K/sec. This has enabled production of these alloys in the glassy stat in bulk. By now, bulk metallic glasses have been produced in Mg, Ln, Zr, Fe, Pd-Cu, Pd-Fe, Ti and Ni- based alloys. Production of these glasses in bulk has opened avenue for their application in many areas where their excellent mechanical properties an corrosion resistance can be exploited. The transformation of the amorphous phase in these alloys to one or more crystalline phases, is an interesting phase transformation and can lead to formation of crystals in a variety of morphologies and a wide range of crystal sizes, including nanometer size crystals or nanocrystals. The bulk amorphous alloys exhibit higher fracture stress, combined with higher hardness and lower young's modulus than those of any crystalline alloy. The Zr- and Ti-based bulk amorphous alloy exhibit high bending and flexural strength values which are typically 2.0 to 2.5 time higher than those for crystalline counterparts. The composites of bulk metallic glass containing crystalline phases have been found to have special properties. This has been demonstrated in the case of composites of bulk metallic glass and tungsten wires wit the glass forming the matrix. Such a composite has a very high impact strength and is especially suitable for application as an armour penetrator in various types of shells used

  11. Curie temperature study of {Y(Fe_{1-\\it x} {Co_{\\it x})_2}} and {Zr(Fe_{1-\\it x} {Co_{\\it x})_2}} systems using mean field theory and Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, Bartosz; Marciniak, Wojciech; Werwiński, Mirosław

    2018-05-01

    Cubic Laves phases including , , , and are considered as promising candidates for application in hydrogen storage and magnetic refrigeration. While and are ferromagnets, alloying with Co decreases magnetic moments and Curie temperatures (T C) of pseudobinary and systems, leading to the paramagnetic states of and . The following study focuses on the investigation of Curie temperature of the and system from first principles. To do it, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and the mean field theory (MFT) based on the disordered local moments (DLM) calculations are used. The DLM-MFT results agree qualitatively with the experimental data from the literature and preserve the characteristic features of dependencies for both and . However, we have encountered complications in the Co-rich regions due to failure of the local density approximation (LDA) in describing the Co magnetic moment in the DLM state. The analysis of Fe–Fe exchange couplings for and phases indicates that the nearest-neighbor interactions play the main role in the formation of .

  12. Influence of sintering time on distribution of alloying elements composition in Zircaloy pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigit; Muchlis B; Widjaksana; Eric, J.; Suryana, RA; Gunawan

    1996-01-01

    Influence of sintering time on distribution of alloying elements composition in zircaloy pellet has been studied. Zircaloy pellets were obtained by pressing of Zr, Fe, Cr and Sn powders mixture in adequate composition of zircaloy-4, than the green pellets were sintered at 1100 o C for 1 - 3 hours. The alloying elements (Fe, Cr and Sn) composition in zircaloy pellets as sintering product were determined by Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analyser (SEM-EDAX). The experiments showed that there was an accumulation of Sn in a site of the zircaloy green pellet of 17.46 %, but after sintering process, the Sn was distributed everywhere. The influence of sintering time up to 1 hour showed a decreasing Sn composition from 9 % to 2 % which then relatively constant, while for Fe and Cr its decreasing was relatively small, i.e. : 1.86 % to 0.6 % and 1.04 % to 0.17 % respectively. The sintering process revealed no clear grain boundaries and powder homogenization did not complete. Observation on metallographic photos showed that this condition was in initial stage of sintering process where there was a complex phenomenon i.e.: no powder homogenization in green pellet or initial heating rate was extremely quick

  13. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  14. Experimental study of the zirconium alloy oxidation under high pressure of steam and modelling of the mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dali, Yacoub

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion of the cladding materials used for the fuel rods is one of the limiting factor of their lifetime in light water reactors. In this field, the aim of the nuclear industry is today to increase the time and the number of cycles and to submit the claddings in zirconium alloys to higher corrosive conditions. In this way, new alloys devoted to replace the standard Zircaloy-4, for instance Nb containing alloys, have been recently developed and licensed and show better corrosion resistance. A better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms of the zirconium alloys is necessary to predict the corrosion behaviour of these materials. In this work, the oxidation rate of model alloys of two metallurgic families has been studied in steam in a pressure range between 100 milli-bars and 100 bars. The Zircaloy type alloys contain as alloying elements oxygen and/or tin and/or iron and chromium. For the Zr-Nb family, three niobium contents have been studied, respectively 0.2, 0.4 and 1 weight percent of niobium. Our objectives were to understand the variations of the reactivity between the low pressure and the high pressure range, in quantifying the dependency of the corrosion rate with the steam pressure and the alloying element concentrations. The segregation process of the niobium at the surface has also been studied on the Zr-Nb alloys. During this work, a magnetic suspension thermo-balance has been developed and used to follow in-situ the corrosion rate at high pressure of water vapour. The oxide layers have been characterized by many techniques, macro and micro-photo-electrochemistry, XRD, FEG-SEM, XPS, HR-TEM and SIMS. For the Zircaloy type alloys, we have confirmed the major role of the intermetallic precipitates Zr(Fe,Cr) 2 on the corrosion resistance. Unlike the standard Zircaloy-4, for which the oxidation rate does not depend on the pressure of the water vapour and is thus limited by the vacancy diffusion in the oxide layer, we have shown that the rate of the

  15. Influence of alloying and secondary annealing on anneal hardening ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Influence of alloying and secondary annealing on anneal hardening effect at sintered copper alloys. SVETLANA NESTOROVIC. Technical Faculty Bor, University of Belgrade, Bor, Yugoslavia. MS received 11 February 2004; revised 29 October 2004. Abstract. This paper reports results of investigation carried out on sintered ...

  16. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  17. Nonswelling alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-12-23

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses.

  18. Nonswelling alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses

  19. Loosening After Acetabular Revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Nicholas A.; Weiss, Stefan; Klotz, Matthias C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The best method of revision acetabular arthroplasty remains unclear. Consequently, we reviewed the literature on the treatment of revision acetabular arthroplasty using revision rings (1541 cases; mean follow-up (FU) 5.7 years) and Trabecular Metal, or TM, implants (1959 cases; mean FU 3.7 years...

  20. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...... thermoelastic coefficients and age hardenable low expansion alloys....

  1. Superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to superconductors having high critical currents. The superconductor described comprises an alloy consisting of a matrix of a Type II superconductor which is a homogeneous mixture of 50 to 95 at.% Pb and 5 to 40 at.%Bi and/or 10 to 50 at.%In. Dispersed in the matrix is a material to provide pinning centres comprising from 0.01% to 20% by volume of the alloy; this material is a stable discontinuous phase of discrete crystalline particles of Cu, Mn, Te, Se, Ni, Ca, Cr, Ce, Ge or La, either in the form of the element or a compound with a component of the matrix. These particles should have an average diameter of not more than 2μ. A method for making this alloy is described. (U.K.)

  2. Waterside corrosion of zirconium alloys in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Technically the study of corrosion of zirconium alloys in nuclear power reactors is a very active field and both experimental work and understanding of the mechanisms involved are going through rapid changes. As a result, the lifetime of any publication in this area is short. Because of this it has been decided to revise IAEA-TECDOC-684 - Corrosion of Zirconium Alloys in Nuclear Power Plants - published in 1993. This updated, revised and enlarged version includes major changes to incorporate some of the comments received about the first version. Since this review deals exclusively with the corrosion of zirconium and zirconium based alloys in water, and another separate publication is planned to deal with the fuel-side corrosion of zirconium based fuel cladding alloys, i.e. stress corrosion cracking, it was decided to change the original title to Waterside Corrosion of Zirconium Alloys in Nuclear Power Plants. The rapid changes in the field have again necessitated a cut-off date for incorporating new data. This edition incorporates data up to the end of 1995; including results presented at the 11 International Symposium on Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in September 1995. The revised format of the review now includes: Introductory chapters on basic zirconium metallurgy and oxidation theory; A revised chapter discussing the present extent of our knowledge of the corrosion mechanism based on laboratory experiments; a separate and revised chapter discussing hydrogen uptake; a completely reorganized chapter summarizing the phenomenological observations of zirconium alloy corrosion in reactors; a new chapter on modelling in-reactor corrosion; a revised chapter devoted exclusively to the manner in which irradiation might influence the corrosion process; finally, a summary of our present understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating in reactor

  3. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  4. Alternative Zr alloys with irradiation resistant precipitates for high burnup BWR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzarolli, F.; Ruhmann, H.; Van Swan, L.

    2002-01-01

    In the core of BWRs, the second-phase particles (SPP) of Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4, the Zr(FeCr) 2 and the Zr 2 (FeNi) phase, release Fe and dissolve. The degree of dissolution depends on initial size and fluence. These SPP, however, are important for the corrosion behavior of Zircaloy. Zircaloy shows an increase of corrosion at a certain burnup, depending on the initial SPP size and fast neutron fluence. Only Zr alloys with irradiation resistant SPP avoid this type of increased corrosion completely. Two types of irradiation resistant materials were considered. One is a Zr-Sn-Fe alloy containing the Zr 3 Fe phase, which is irradiation resistant under BWR conditions. The other material is a Zr-Sn-Nb alloy containing the irradiation resistant β-Nb phase. In-BWR tests have shown that a Sn content of >0.8% is mandatory to minimize the nodular corrosion. Two prototypes of irradiation resistant alloys, Zr1.3Sn0.25-0.3 Fe and Zr1Sn2-3Nb, were irradiated in a BWR for 1372 days to a fast fluence of 9 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E > 1 MeV). These irradiation tests showed that Zr1.3Sn0.25-0.3 Fe has a little lower resistance against nodular corrosion than optimized LTP (Low Temperature Process) Zircaloy-2/4 and revealed that Zr1Sn2-3Nb is superior to LTP Zircaloy-2/4 with respect to nodular and shadow corrosion resistance. The BWR corrosion resistance of Zr1Sn2-3Nb depends on heat treatment. The lowest corrosion was observed with material fabricated completely in the α-range, but also material manufactured in the lower (α+β)-range exhibits low corrosion. Material fabricated in the upper (α+β)-range showed a somewhat higher corrosion, a corrosion behavior similar to LTP Zircaloy-2/4. As far as final annealing is concerned, a long time annealing at 540 deg C is superior to a standard recrystallization treatment (e.g., at 580 deg C), which still leads to a corrosion behavior that is better than stress relieved Zr1Sn2-3Nb. Zr1Sn2-3Nb is resistant to shadow corrosion, when fabricated

  5. Development of an ion-beam sputtering system for depositing thin films and multilayers of alloys and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, Ajay; Phase, D.M.; Chaudhari, S.M.; Dasannacharya, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    An ion-beam sputtering (IBS) system has been designed and developed for preparing thin films and multilayers of various elements, alloys and compounds. The ion source used is a 3 cm diameter, hot-cathode Kaufman type 1.5 kV ion source. The system has been successfully tested with the deposition of various materials, and the deposition parameters were optimised for achieving good quality of thin films and multilayers. A systematic illustration of the versatility of the system to produce a variety of structures is done by depositing thin film of pure iron, an alloy film of Fe-Zr, a compound thin film of FeN, a multilayer of Fe-Ag and an isotopic multilayer of 57 FeZr/FeZr. Microstructural measurements on these films using X-ray and neutron reflectivity, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction are presented and discussed to reveal the quality of the microstructures obtained with the system. It is found that in general, the surface roughnesses of the film deposited by IBS are significantly smaller as compared to those for films deposited by e-beam evaporation. Further, the grain size of the IBS crystalline films is significantly refined as compared to the films deposited by e-beam evaporation. Grain refinement may be one of the reasons for reduced surface roughness. In the case of amorphous films, the roughness of the films does not increase appreciably beyond that of the substrate even after depositing thicknesses of several hundred angstroms

  6. Bibliocable. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    This selective, annotated bibliography is a revision of the original published in 1972 (ED 071 402). Some 104 books, articles, and reports included here deal with access, applications, franchising, regulation, technology, and other aspects of cable television. The listings are of two types in each category. First are revisions of the original…

  7. Nano-scale chemical evolution in a proton-and neutron-irradiated Zr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harte, Allan, E-mail: allan.harte@manchester.ac.uk [The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Topping, M.; Frankel, P. [The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jädernäs, D. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE 611 82, Nyköping (Sweden); Romero, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Columbia, SC (United States); Hallstadius, L. [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, SE 72163 Västerås (Sweden); Darby, E.C. [Rolls Royce Plc., Nuclear Materials, Derby (United Kingdom); Preuss, M. [The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Proton-and neutron-irradiated Zircaloy-2 are compared in terms of the nano-scale chemical evolution within second phase particles (SPPs) Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2} and Zr{sub 2}(Fe,Ni). This is accomplished through ultra-high spatial resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and the use of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic methods. Fe-depletion is observed from both SPP types after irradiation with both irradiative species, but is heterogeneous in the case of Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2}, predominantly from the edge region, and homogeneously in the case of Zr{sub 2}(Fe,Ni). Further, there is evidence of a delay in the dissolution of the Zr{sub 2}(Fe,Ni) SPP with respect to the Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2}. As such, SPP dissolution results in matrix supersaturation with solute under both irradiative species and proton irradiation is considered well suited to emulate the effects of neutron irradiation in this context. The mechanisms of solute redistribution processes from SPPs and the consequences for irradiation-induced growth phenomena are discussed. - Highlights: •Protons emulate the effects of neutron irradiation in the evolution of chemistry and morphology of second phase particles. •Detailed energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals heterogeneity in Zr-Fe-Cr SPPs both before and after irradiation. •Zr-Fe-Ni SPPs are delayed in irradiation-induced dissolution due to their better self-solubility with respect to Zr-Fe-Cr.

  8. Publishing and Revising Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editors and Webmasters can publish content without going through a workflow. Publishing times and dates can be set, and multiple pages can be published in bulk. Making an edit to published content created a revision.

  9. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  10. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  11. Acetabular Cup Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ho

    2017-09-01

    The use of acetabular cup revision arthroplasty is on the rise as demands for total hip arthroplasty, improved life expectancies, and the need for individual activity increase. For an acetabular cup revision to be successful, the cup should gain stable fixation within the remaining supportive bone of the acetabulum. Since the patient's remaining supportive acetabular bone stock plays an important role in the success of revision, accurate classification of the degree of acetabular bone defect is necessary. The Paprosky classification system is most commonly used when determining the location and degree of acetabular bone loss. Common treatment options include: acetabular liner exchange, high hip center, oblong cup, trabecular metal cup with augment, bipolar cup, bulk structural graft, cemented cup, uncemented cup including jumbo cup, acetabular reinforcement device (cage), trabecular metal cup cage. The optimal treatment option is dependent upon the degree of the discontinuity, the amount of available bone stock and the likelihood of achieving stable fixation upon supportive host bone. To achieve successful acetabular cup revision, accurate evaluation of bone defect preoperatively and intraoperatively, proper choice of method of acetabular revision according to the evaluation of acetabular bone deficiency, proper technique to get primary stability of implant such as precise grafting technique, and stable fixation of implant are mandatory.

  12. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  13. Revision of Pachycentria (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausing, Gudrun

    2000-01-01

    A revision of Pachycentria Blume, which includes the monotypic Pogonanthera Blume, is presented. Pachycentria comprises eight species and one subspecies. Two species, P. vogelkopensis and P. hanseniana, are newly described. The genus is distinguished from other genera in the Medinillinae by a small

  14. Revision of Oxandra (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junikka, L.; Maas, P.J.M.; Maas-van de Kamer, H.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomic revision is given of the Neotropical genus Oxandra (Annonaceae). Within the genus 27 species are recognized, 4 of which are new to science. Most of the species are occurring in tropical South America, whereas a few (6) are found in Mexico and Central America and two in the West Indies

  15. Revision without ordinals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivello, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    We show that Herzberger’s and Gupta’s revision theories of truth can be recast in purely inductive terms, without any appeal neither to the transfinite ordinal numbers nor to the axiom of Choice. The result is presented in an abstract and general setting, emphasising both its validity for a wide

  16. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  17. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  18. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  19. Electronic structure of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenreich, H.; Schwartz, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    The description of electronic properties of binary substitutional alloys within the single particle approximation is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on a didactic exposition of the equilibrium properties of the transport and magnetic properties of such alloys. Topics covered include: multiple scattering theory; the single band alloy; formal extensions of the theory; the alloy potential; realistic model state densities; the s-d model; and the muffin tin model. 43 figures, 3 tables, 151 references

  20. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  1. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  2. The effects of hydroxyapatite coating and bone allograft on fixation of loaded experimental primary and revision implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søballe, Kjeld; Mouzin, Olivier R G; Kidder, Louis A

    2003-01-01

    We used our established experimental model of revision joint replacement to examine the roles of hydroxyapatite coating and bone graft in improving the fixation of revision implants. The revision protocol uses the Søballe micromotion device in a preliminary 8-week period of implant instability...... a titanium alloy (Ti) or a hydroxyapatite (HA) 6.0 mm plasma-sprayed implant, in the presence or absence of allograft packed into the initial 0.75 mm peri-implant gap. The contralateral limb is subjected to primary surgery with the same implant configuration, and serves as control. 8 implants were included...

  3. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  4. Emotion Processes in Knowledge Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a number of insights have been gained into the cognitive processes that explain how individuals overcome misconceptions and revise their previously acquired incorrect knowledge. The current study complements this line of research by investigating the moment-by-moment emotion processes that occur during knowledge revision using a…

  5. Low activation ferritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  6. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  7. Philippines revises power plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.

    1988-02-01

    Following an unexpected surge in electricity demand the Philippines has revised its medium term power development programme. The sharp increase in electricity consumption follows three years of slack demand due to civil disturbances before the end of the Macros administration and the election of Corazon Aquino as President in 1986. Originally, the Aquino government's medium term power development plans called for about 500MW of generating capacity to be installed between 1986 and 1992. The three proposed plants were scheduled for commissioning in 1991 and 1992. However, a spurt in power demand growth during the past nine months has caused concern among industrialists that power shortages could occur by the end of the decade. So additional capacity will be installed to prevent an anticipated shortfall in electricity supplies by the early 1990s.

  8. Revised SRAC code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Ishiguro, Yukio; Kaneko, Kunio; Ido, Masaru.

    1986-09-01

    Since the publication of JAERI-1285 in 1983 for the preliminary version of the SRAC code system, a number of additions and modifications to the functions have been made to establish an overall neutronics code system. Major points are (1) addition of JENDL-2 version of data library, (2) a direct treatment of doubly heterogeneous effect on resonance absorption, (3) a generalized Dancoff factor, (4) a cell calculation based on the fixed boundary source problem, (5) the corresponding edit required for experimental analysis and reactor design, (6) a perturbation theory calculation for reactivity change, (7) an auxiliary code for core burnup and fuel management, etc. This report is a revision of the users manual which consists of the general description, input data requirements and their explanation, detailed information on usage, mathematics, contents of libraries and sample I/O. (author)

  9. Microcomputers and the Improvement of Revision Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses use of word processing software as an effective tool in writing and revision instruction, and describes the role of the teacher. Examples of exercises that encourage revision and of software designed to teach effective revision skills are reviewed. (MBR)

  10. Advances in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagle, S.R.; Wood, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    As described above, new developments in the aerospace market are focusing on higher temperature alloys for jet engine components and higher strength/toughness alloys for airframe applications. Conventional alloys for engines have reached their maximum useful temperature of about 1000 F (540 C) because of oxidation resistance requirements. IMI 834 and Ti-1100 advanced alloys show some improvement, however, the major improvement appears to be in gamma titanium aluminides which could extend the maximum usage temperature to about 1500 F (815 C). This puts titanium alloys in a competitive position to replace nickel-base superalloys. Advanced airframe alloys such as Ti-6-22-22S, Beta C TM , Ti-15-333 and Ti-10-2-3 with higher strength than conventional Ti-6-4 are being utilized in significantly greater quantities, both in military and commercial applications. These alloys offer improved strength with little or no sacrifice in toughness and improved formability, in some cases. Advanced industrial alloys are being developed for improved corrosion resistance in more reducing and higher temperature environments such as those encountered in sour gas wells. Efforts are focused on small precious metal additions to optimize corrosion performance for specific applications at a modest increase in cost. As these applications develop, the usage of titanium alloys for industrial markets should steadily increase to approach that for aerospace applications. (orig.)

  11. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM) alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable high-strength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO 2 laser . This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloy, over the last years. (Author) 16 refs

  12. Low cycle fatigue of Alloy 690 and welds in a simulated PWR primary water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jongdae; Cho, Pyungyeon; Jang, Changheui [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Pyungyeon [Khalifa Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kim, Tae Soon; Lee, Yong Sung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In this study, environmental fatigue tests for these materials were performed and the new prediction model of fatigue life of Alloy 690 and weld in primary water condition was proposed. To evaluate the fatigue life of Alloy 690 and 52M in a PWR environment, low cycle fatigue tests were performed and revised fatigue life prediction models and environmental factor were proposed. With the revised Fen model for Alloy 690 and 52M, the reliability of the fatigue life prediction has been improved. The reduction of low cycle fatigue life of metallic materials in the primary coolant water environments has been the subject of debate between the utility and regulator since 1980s. It became the significant licensing problem since the issue of RG-1.207 by U. S. NRC. The statistical model for the environmental factor, Fen, specified in RG-1.207 was based on the extensive test results accumulated by the ANL and Japanese national program. Of the materials, the limited fatigue life data of Ni-Cr-Fe alloys were used to develop the Fen for the alloys. Furthermore, test data for Alloy 690 and its weld are limited. Considering that Alloy 690 will be extensively used in the new nuclear power plants, additional effort to validate or improve current Fen model is required.

  13. Fundamentals of radiation materials science metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Was, Gary S

    2017-01-01

    The revised second edition of this established text offers readers a significantly expanded introduction to the effects of radiation on metals and alloys. It describes the various processes that occur when energetic particles strike a solid, inducing changes to the physical and mechanical properties of the material. Specifically it covers particle interaction with the metals and alloys used in nuclear reactor cores and hence subject to intense radiation fields. It describes the basics of particle-atom interaction for a range of particle types, the amount and spatial extent of the resulting radiation damage, the physical effects of irradiation and the changes in mechanical behavior of irradiated metals and alloys. Updated throughout, some major enhancements for the new edition include improved treatment of low- and intermediate-energy elastic collisions and stopping power, expanded sections on molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methodologies describing collision cascade evolution, new treatment of t...

  14. A study on scar revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Talwar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Scars are psychologically distressing for the patients and have an impact on the quality of life and self esteem of the patients. Scar revision is an aesthetic skill which is mastered by plastic surgeons and encroached now by dermatosurgeons. Scars on the face are aesthetically unacceptable and various techniques have been improvised for making a scar aesthetically acceptable. Various types of techniques are used for scar revision like W plasty, Z plasty and VY plasty. Aims: To see the efficacy of various scar revision techniques including Z plasty, VY plasty and W plasty in 30 patients with disfiguring scars. Methods: We selected twenty patients of disfiguring scars for the study. The scars from various causes including trauma and burns were included in our study. Various techniques of scar revision include Z plasty, W plasty and VY plasty were performed according to the type and site of scar. Results: Male: female was 1.5: 1. The scar revision surgery yielded excellent results with minimal complications including haematoma formation, secondary infection and delayed healing seen in 5% patients each. Regarding the efficacy of scar revision, excellent improvement was seen in 60% patients, moderate improvement was seen in 30% patients and mild improvement was seen in 10% patients. Conclusions: Dermatologists can employ a number of surgical scar revision techniques. While some are better suited to treat specific types of scars, they can be used in combination with each other or with adjunctive therapies to achieve optimal results.

  15. High temperature niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    Niobium alloys are currently being used in various high temperature applications such as rocket propulsion, turbine engines and lighting systems. This paper presents an overview of the various commercial niobium alloys, including basic manufacturing processes, properties and applications. Current activities for new applications include powder metallurgy, coating development and fabrication of advanced porous structures for lithium cooled heat pipes

  16. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  17. Thermofluency in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco M, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented about the theoretical and experimental results obtained at present in thermofluency under radiation in zirconium alloys. The phenomenon of thermofluency is presented in a general form, underlining the thermofluency at high temperature because this phenomenon is similar to the thermofluency under radiation, which ocurrs in zirconium alloys into the operating reactor. (author)

  18. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  19. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  20. Neutron-absorbing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoi, K.I.; Arabei, L.B.; Gryaznov, G.M.; Levi, L.I.; Lunin, G.L.; Kozhukhov, V.M.; Markov, J.M.; Fedotov, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the production of an alloy consiting of 1 to 20% In, 0.5 to 15% Sm, and from 3 to 18% Hf, the balance being Ni. Such alloys show a good absorption capacity for thermal and intermediate neutrons, good neutron capture efficiency, and good corrosion resistance, and find application in nuclear reactor automatic control and safety systems. The Hf provides for the maintenance of a reasonably high order of neutron capture efficiency throughout the lifetime of a reactor. The alloys are formed in a vacuum furnace operating with an inert gas atmosphere at 280 to 300 mm.Hg. They have a corrosion resistance from 3 to 3.5 times that of the Ag-based alloys commonly employed, and a neutron capture efficiency about twice that of the Ag alloys. Castability and structural strength are good. (U.K.)

  1. Revision of ASCE 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.A.; Murray, R.C.; Short, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The original version of ASCE Standard 4, ''Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures'' was published in September 1986. It is ASCE policy to update its standards on a five year interval and the Working Group on Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures was reconvened to formulate the revisions. The goal in updating the standard is to make sure that it is still relevant and that it incorporates the state of the practice in seismic engineering or, in some cases, where it has been demonstrated that state-of-the-art improvements need to be made to standard practice; new improvements are included. The contents of the new standard cover the same areas as the original version, with some additions. The contents are as follows: Input - response spectra and time histories; modeling of structures; analysis of structures; soil-structure interaction; input for subsystem analysis; special structures - buried pipes and conduits, earth-retaining walls, above-ground vertical tanks, raceways, and base-isolated structures; and an appendix providing seismic probabilistic risk assessment and margin assessment

  2. Contact activation: a revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, A H

    1997-07-01

    In conclusion, a revised view of the contact system has been presented. This system has little to do with the initiation of hemostasis. Like lupus anticoagulants, deficiencies of contact proteins give prolonged APTTs but may be risk factors for thrombosis. BK from kininogens is a potent modulator of vascular biology inducing vasodilation, tissue plasminogen activator release, and prostacyclin liberation. Kininogens, themselves, are selective inhibitors of alpha-thrombin-induced platelet activation preventing alpha-thrombin from cleaving the cloned thrombin receptor after arginine41. Kininogens' alpha-thrombin inhibitory activity exists in intact kininogens, BK, and all of BK's breakdown products. HK also is the pivotal protein for contact protein assembly on endothelium. It is the receptor for prekallikrein which when bound to HK becomes activated to kallikrein by an endothelial cell enzyme system independent of activated forms of plasma factor XII. Prekallikrein activation on endothelial cells results in kinetically favorable single chain urokinase and plasminogen activation. Thus the "physiologic, negatively charged surface" for contact system activation is really the assembly of these proteins on cell membranes and activation by membrane-associated enzymes.

  3. Circumcision revision in male children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Ghazo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine indications for circumcision revision and to identify the specialty of the person who performed unsatisfactory primary circumcision. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors reviewed medical records of 52 cases that underwent circumcision revision over a 6-year period (1998 to 2004. Sleeve surgical technique was used for revision in patients with redundant foreskin or concealed penis, penoplasty for partial or complete degloving of the penis and meatotomy for external meatal stenosis. The mean age of children was 32 months (range 6 months to 9 years. RESULTS: Most of unsatisfactory primary circumcisions (86.7% were performed by laymen. All patients who underwent circumcision revision had good to excellent cosmetic results. CONCLUSION: Primary circumcision performed by laymen carry a high complication rate and serious complications may occur. A period of training and direct supervision by physicians is required before allowing laymen to perform circumcision independently.

  4. EPR first responders revision test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this revision test evaluates the acquired knowledge in case of radiological emergency confront. Actions to be taken in relation to people, equipment and the environment. Doses, radioactive sources, pollution

  5. Corporate Author Entries. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1986-05-01

    This reference authority has been created and is maintained to provide standard forms for recording the names of organizations consistently in bibliographic citations. This revision includes approximately 42,000 entries established since 1973

  6. Alloying principles for magnesium base heat resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Oreshkina, A.A.; Nikitina, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Some binary systems of magnesium-base alloys in which solid solutions are formed, are considered for prospecting heat resistant alloys. It is shown that elements having essential solubility in solid magnesium strongly decreasing with temperature should be used for alloying maqnesium base alloys with high strength properties at increased temperatures. The strengthening phases in these alloys should comprise essential quantity of magnesium and be rather refractory

  7. Physical metallurgy of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Researches in electric, magnetic, thermophysical properties of titanium alloys in the wide range of temperatures (from helium upto elevated one), as well as stability of phases in alloys of different types are generalized. Fundamental description of physical properties of binary model alloys is given. Acoustic emission, shape memory and Bauschinger effects, pseudoelasticity, aging and other aspects of physical metallurgy of titanium alloys are considered

  8. Technetium and technetium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijdo, W.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the results of a literature survey on technetium and technetium alloys. The literature has been searched through 1993. The survey was focused on technetium and (binary cubic) technetium alloys, but other important information on technetium has not been omitted from this survey. This report has been written with the aim to collect more information about phase systems which could be of importance in the transmutation process by neutrons of technetium. With the information presented in this report, it should be possible to select a suitable technetium alloy for further investigation regarding to the transmutation process. (orig.)

  9. Changes in phase composition of Zr-Fe-V getter after hydriding and vacuum dehydriding cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roupcová, Pavla; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 492, č. 1-2 (2010), s. 160-165 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0512; GA ČR GP106/09/P556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Hydrogen storage materials * Non-evaporable getter * X-ray diffraction * Mössbauer spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2010

  10. Positrons in amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Pierre.

    1981-07-01

    Positron annihilation techniques give interesting informations about ''empty spaces'' in amorphous alloys. The results of an extensive research work on the properties of either pre-existing or irradiation induced ''empty spaces'' in four amorphous alloys are presented. The pre-existing empty spaces appear to be small vacancy-like defects. The irradiation induced defects are ''close pairs'' with widely distributed configurations. There is a strong interaction between vacancy like and interstitial like components. A model is proposed, which explains the radiation resistance mechanism of the amorphous alloys. An extensive joint research work to study four amorphous alloys, Fe 80 B 20 ,Fe 40 Ni 40 P 14 B 6 , Cu 50 Ti 50 , Pd 80 Si 20 , is summarized

  11. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  12. Characteristics of mechanical alloying of Zn-Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Perez Hernandez, A.; Lee, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three pure elemental powder mixtures of Zn-22%Al-18%Cu, Zn-5%Al-11%Cu, and Zn-27%Al-3%Cu (in wt.%) were mechanically alloyed by steel-ball milling processing. The mechanical alloying characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was explored that mechanical alloying started with the formation of phases from pure elemental powders, and this was followed by mechanical milling-induced phase transformation. During mechanical alloying, phases stable at the higher temperatures formed at the near room temperature of milling. Nano-structure Zn-Al-based alloys were produced by mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  13. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  14. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  15. Electroplating technologies of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Seung Ho; Jeong, Hyun Kyu; Hwnag, Sung Sik; Seo, Yong Chil; Kim, Dong Jin; Seo, Moo Hong

    2001-12-01

    In localization of electrosleeving technique, there are some problems like the following articles. Firstly, Patents published by OHT have claimed Ni-P, Ni-B alloy plating and Mo, Mn Cr, W, Co as a pinning agent. Secondly, alloy platings have many restrictions. There are some method to get alloy plating in spite of the various restrictions. If current density increase above limiting current density in one of the metals, both of the metals discharge at the same time. The addition of surface active agent(sufactant) in the plating solution is one of the methods to get alloy plating. Alloy plating using pulse current easily controls chemical composition and structure of deposit. Ni-Fe alloy plating is known to exhibit anomalous type of plating behavior in which deposition of the less noble metal is favoured. Presence of hypophohphite ion can control the iron codeposition by changing the deposition mechanism. Hypophohphite suppresses the deposition of Fe and also promotes Ni. Composite plating will be considered to improve the strength at the high temperature. Addition of particle size of 10δ400μm makes residual stress compressive in plate layer and suppress the grain growth rate at the high temperature. Addition of particle makes suface roughness high and fracture stress low at high temperature. But, selection of the kinds of particle and control of additives amount overcome the problems above

  16. The effects of hydroxyapatite coating and bone allograft on fixation of loaded experimental primary and revision implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søballe, Kjeld; Mouzin, Olivier R G; Kidder, Louis A; Overgaard, Søren; Bechtold, Joan E

    2003-06-01

    We used our established experimental model of revision joint replacement to examine the roles of hydroxyapatite coating and bone graft in improving the fixation of revision implants. The revision protocol uses the Søballe micromotion device in a preliminary 8-week period of implant instability for the presence of particulate polyethylene. During this procedure, a sclerotic endosteal bone rim forms, and a dense fibrous membrane is engendered, having macrophages with ingested polyethylene and high levels of inflammatory cytokines. At the time of revision after 8 weeks, the cavity is revised with either a titanium alloy (Ti) or a hydroxyapatite (HA) 6.0 mm plasma-sprayed implant, in the presence or absence of allograft packed into the initial 0.75 mm peri-implant gap. The contralateral limb is subjected to primary surgery with the same implant configuration, and serves as control. 8 implants were included in each of the 8 treatment groups (total 64 implants in 32 dogs). The observation period was 4 weeks after revision. Outcome measures are based on histomorphometry and mechanical pushout properties. The revision setting was always inferior to its primary counterpart. Bone graft improved the revision fixation in all treatment groups, as also did the HA coating. The sole exception was revision-grafted HA implants, which reached the same fixation as primary Ti and HA grafted implants. The revision, which was less active in general, seems to need the dual stimulation of bone graft and HA implant surface, to obtain the same level of fixation associated with primary implants. Our findings suggest that the combination of HA implant and bone graft may be of benefit in the clinical revision implant setting.

  17. Revised licensee event report system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.; Poore, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    Licensee Event Reports (LERs) provide the basis for evaluating and assessing operating experience information from nuclear power plants. The reporting requirements for submitting LERs to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have been revised. Effective Jan. 1, 1984, all events were to be submitted in accordance with 10 CFR 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Report NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System-Description of System and Guidelines for Reporting, describes the guidelines on reportability of events. This article summarizes the reporting requirements as presented in NUREG-1022, high-lights differences in data reported between the revised and previous LER systems, and presents results from a preliminary assessment of LERs submitted under the revised LER reporting system

  18. Texture in low-alloyed uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sariel, J.

    1982-08-01

    The dependence of the preferred orientation of cast and heat-treated polycrystalline adjusted uranium and uranium -0.1 w/o chromium alloys on the production process was studied. The importance of obtaining material free of preferred orientation is explained, and a survey of the regular methods to determine preferred orientation is given. Dilatometry, tensile testing and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the extent of the directionality of these alloys. Data processing showed that these methods are insufficient in a case of a material without any plastic forming, because of unreproducibility of results. Two parameters are defined from the results of Schlz's method diffraction test. These parameters are shown theoretically and experimentally (by extreme-case samples) to give the deviation from isotropy. Application of these parameters to the examined samples showes that cast material has preferred orientation, though it is not systematic. This preferred orientation was reduced by adequate heat treatments

  19. WC-3015 alloy (high-temperature alloy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    WC-3015 Nb alloy containing 28 to 30 Hf, 1 to 2 Zr, 13 to 16 W, 0 to 4 Ta, 0 to 5 Ti, 0.07 to 0.33 C, less than or equal to 0.02 N, less than or equal to 0.03 O, less than or equal to 0.001 H was developed for use at high temperature in oxidizing environments. Its composition can be tailored to meet specific requirements. When WC-3015 is exposed to O at elevated temperature, Hf and Nb oxidized preferentially and HfO 2 dissolves in Nb 2 O 5 to form 6HfO-Nb 2 O 5 . This complex oxide has a tight cubic lattice which resists the diffusion of O into the substrate. During 24-h exposure to air at 2400 0 F, the alloy oxidizes to a depth of approximately 0.035 in. with a surface recession of 0 to 0.004 in. Oxidation resistance of WC-3015 welds and base material can be further enhanced greatly by applying silicide coatings. WC-3015 alloy can be machined by conventional and electrical-discharge methods. It can be hot worked readily by extrusion, forging or rolling. Cold working can be used at room or elevated temperature. It can be welded by the electron-beam or Tig processes. Physical constants, typical mechanical properties at 75 to 2400 0 F, and effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile and stress-rupture properties of the alloy are tabulated

  20. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing; Melucci, Massimo [Padua Univ., Padova (Italy). Dept. of Information Engineering; Frommholz, Ingo [Bedfordshire Univ. (United Kingdom); Arafat, Sachi (eds.) [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing Science

    2011-07-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  1. HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies

  2. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Arafat, Sachi

    2011-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  3. Medical writing, revising and editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic...... form. Medical editing often takes the form of peer review and mainly addresses issues of contents and overall validity. Medical revision incorporates the checking of the macrostructure and the microstructure of the text, its language and style and its suitability for the target reader or client...

  4. Revising Nabokov Revising”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouchet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nabokov revised his works as he translated them and, on another plane, canon revisionism has been having its backlash and provoked other refracting waves. The purpose of the conference was to advance Nabokov studies through the discussion of how our view of Nabokov’s standing and his works today should be revised, especially after the publication of The Original of Laura. However the conference was not confined to just this theme, since “revising” is a word rich with implications. To borrow s...

  5. Aluminum fin-stock alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.M.; Mutasher, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have long been used in the production of heat exchanger fins. The comparative properties of the different alloys used for this purpose has not been an issue in the past, because of the significant thickness of the finstock material. However, in order to make fins lighter in weight, there is a growing demand for thinner finstock materials, which has emphasized the need for improved mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The objective of this project is to determine the effect of iron, silicon and manganese percentage increment on the required mechanical properties for this application by analyzing four different aluminum alloys. The four selected aluminum alloys are 1100, 8011, 8079 and 8150, which are wrought non-heat treatable alloys with different amount of the above elements. Aluminum alloy 1100 serve as a control specimen, as it is commercially pure aluminum. The study also reports the effect of different annealing cycles on the mechanical properties of the selected alloys. Metallographic examination was also preformed to study the effect of annealing on the precipitate phases and the distribution of these phases for each alloy. The microstructure analysis of the aluminum alloys studied indicates that the precipitated phase in the case of aluminum alloys 1100 and 8079 is beta-FeAI3, while in 8011 it is a-alfa AIFeSi, and the aluminum alloy 8150 contains AI6(Mn,Fe) phase. The comparison of aluminum alloys 8011 and 8079 with aluminum alloy 1100 show that the addition of iron and silicon improves the percent elongation and reduces strength. The manganese addition increases the stability of mechanical properties along the annealing range as shown by the comparison of aluminum alloy 8150 with aluminum alloy 1100. Alloy 8150 show superior properties over the other alloys due to the reaction of iron and manganese, resulting in a preferable response to thermal treatment and improved mechanical properties. (author)

  6. Correlation between diffusion barriers and alloying energy in binary alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells.......In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells....

  7. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-02-01

    In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  9. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2004-01-01

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  10. Concise revision of the Sarcospermataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.; Royen, van P.

    1952-01-01

    After the senior writer, together with W. W. Varossieau, had published a revision of this monogeneric family (Blumea III, 1938—’39 and IV, 1941), some more material has been examined by us and, moreover, some new species have been described. Thanks to the courtesy of Prof. F. Gagnepain of Paris, and

  11. Guidelines for Curriculum Development. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, K.; And Others

    The curriculum development process explained in this booklet was first implemented at College of the Redwoods in May 1986 and then revised in June 1989. First, information on the college's Curriculum Committee is provided, indicating that the committee was formed to plan credit/non-credit courses; evaluate and approve additions, modifications, or…

  12. Revised Accounting for Business Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Key, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (Revised 2007) Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects. This Statement…

  13. How Adults Learn. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, J. R.

    The book's emphasis is on learning during the years of adulthood and examines present-day practice of adult education for practitioners. This revised edition brings up to date advances in such areas of learning as controversial theory; the effects of environment; sensory processes; intellectual capacities; motivation and attitude; transactional…

  14. A revision of the Paronychiinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaudhri, Mohammad Nazeer

    1968-01-01

    This study was undertaken, in April 1964, at the suggestion of Prof. Dr. J. Lanjouw. The need for such a revision, was, however, stressed by the authors of the subtribe, viz. PAX et K. HOFFMANN, who, while delimiting these genera, remarked that the Systematics of both the (main) genera of this

  15. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  16. [Revised practice guideline 'Anaemia in midwifery practice'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, M.; Jans, S.M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The practice guideline of the Royal Dutch Organization of Midwives 'Anaemia in primary care midwifery practice' published in 2000, has recently been revised. The revised guideline takes physiological haemodilution during pregnancy into consideration and provides gestation specific reference values

  17. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  18. 75 FR 60485 - NRC Enforcement Policy Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2008-0497] NRC Enforcement Policy Revision AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy statement. SUMMARY: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is publishing a major revision to its Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy) to...

  19. Structural thermodynamics of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Manenc, Jack

    1973-01-01

    Technical progress has for a very long time been directly dependent on progress in metallurgy, which is itself connected with improvements in the technology of alloys. Metals are most frequently used in the form of alloys for several reasons: the quantity of pure metal in its native state in the earth's crust is very limited; pure metals must be extracted from ores which are themselves impure. Finally, the methods of treatment used lead more easily to alloys than to pure metals. The most typical case is that of iron, where a pure ore may be found, but which is the starting point for cast iron or steel, alloys of iron and carbon. In addition, the properties of alloys are in general superior to those of pure metals and modem metallurgy consists of controlling these properties so as to make them conform to the requirements of the design office. Whilst the engineer was formerly compelled to adapt his designs and constructions to the materials available, such as wood, stone, bronze, iron, cast iron and ordinary st...

  20. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Peter [Houston, TX; Koh, Shirlaine [Houston, TX; Mani, Prasanna [Houston, TX; Ratndeep, Srivastava [Houston, TX

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  1. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery.

  2. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana

  3. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form prescribed...

  4. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions § 3015.115 Budget revisions. (a) Nonconstruction projects. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  5. 48 CFR 15.307 - Proposal revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 15.307 Proposal revisions. (a) If an... allow proposal revisions to clarify and document understandings reached during negotiations. At the... submit a final proposal revision. The contracting officer is required to establish a common cut-off date...

  6. Welding of refractory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessmann, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    This review primarily summarizes welding evaluations supported by NASA-Lewis Research Center in the 1960s. A literature search run in preparation for this review indicates that more recent work is modest by comparison. Hence, this review restates these accomplishments briefly and addresses opportunities which have evolved in welding technology (such as lasers) in the intervening decade. Emphasis in this review is given to tantalum- and niobium-base alloys. Considerable work was also done to assure that a consistent comparison was made with tungsten. A wide variety of candidate alloys derived primarily from developments directed at aircraft propulsion applications were available. Early efforts by NASA were directed at screening studies to select promising structural alloys for the space power application. This objective required fine tuning of welding procedures, e.g., the demonstration of stringent standards for control of welding atmosphere to assure good corrosion resistance in liquid alkali metals. 16 figures, 6 tables

  7. Alloys under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Bellon, P.; Soisson, F.

    1997-01-01

    During the last two decades, some effort has been devoted to establishing a phenomenology for alloys under irradiation. Theoretically, the effects of the defect supersaturation, sustained defect fluxes and ballistic mixing on solid solubility under irradiation can now be formulated in a unified manner, at least for the most simple cases: coherent phase transformations and nearest-neighbor ballistic jumps. Even under such restrictive conditions, several intriguing features documented experimentally can be rationalized, sometimes in a quantitative manner and simple qualitative rules for alloy stability as a function of irradiation conditions can be formulated. A quasi-thermodynamic formalism can be proposed for alloys under irradiation. However, this point of view has limits illustrated by recent computer simulations. (orig.)

  8. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  9. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, G.W.; Davis, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500 0 C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150 0 C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement

  10. Effect of helium on tensile properties of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat BL-47), 3Ti-1Si (BL-45), and V-5Ti (BL-46) alloys after irradiation in a conventional irradiation experiment and in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE) were reported previously. This paper presents revised tensile properties of these alloys, with a focus on the effects of dynamically generated helium of ductility and work-hardening capability at <500{degrees}C. After conventional irradiation (negligible helium generation) at {approx}427{degrees}C, a 30-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (BL-47) exhibited very low uniform elongation, manifesting a strong susceptibility to loss of work-hardening capability. In contrast, a 15-kg heat of V-3Ti-1Si (BL -45) exhibited relatively high uniform elongation ({approx}4%) during conventional irradiation at {approx}427{degrees}C, showing that the heat is resistant to loss of work-hardening capability.

  11. Silumins alloy crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research, by ATD method, of hypo-, near- and hyperutectic silumins crystallization containing the following alloying additives: Mg, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo, W, V. It has been shown that, depending on their concentration may crystallize pre-eutectic or eutectic multicomponent phases containing these alloy additives. It has been revealed that any subsequent crystallizable phase nucleate and grows near the liquid/former crystallized phase interface. In multiphases compound also falls the silicon, resulting in a reduction in its quantity and the fragmentation in the eutectic mixture. As a result, it gets a high hardness of silumins in terms of 110-220HB.

  12. Shape memory effect alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, S.

    1992-01-01

    Although the pseudo- or super-elasticity phenomena and the shape memory effect were known since the 1940's, the enormous curiosity and the great interest to their practical applications emerged with the development of the NITINOL alloy (Nickel-Titanium Naval Ordance Laboratory) by the NASA during the 1960's. This fact marked the appearance of a new class of materials, popularly known as shape memory effect alloys (SMEA). The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art of the development and applications for the SMEA. (E.O.)

  13. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of

  14. Galvanic corrosion in odontological alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesgo, O.; Bianchi, G.L.; Duffo, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Galvanic corrosion can occur when different alloys are placed in direct contact within the oral cavity or within tissues. Concern has been expressed associated with the coupling of selected restorative materials as well as implant material with various alloys used for restorative procedures. This could be critical if the crown or bridge had subgingival finish line with a metallic zone in contact with the tissue, and the implant was made in titanium alloy. The present work shows the results of galvanic coupling studies done on implants of titanium alloy connected to nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys. (Author)

  15. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  16. Fracture of Shape Memory Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Shuichi; Otsuka, Kazuhiro

    1981-01-01

    The initiation and the propagation of cracks during both quenching and deformation in polycrystalline Cu-Al-Ni alloys have been investigated under various conditions. The fracture surfaces of Ti-Ni and Cu-Al-Ni alloys were also observed by a scanning electron microscope. From these results, it was concluded that the brittleness of Cu-Al-Ni alloy and other β phase alloys are due to large elastic anisotropy and large grain sizes, while that the large ductility in Ti-Ni alloy being due to the sm...

  17. ASSET guidelines. Revised 1991 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The present publication is an updated version of the IAEA Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team (ASSET) Guidelines, IAEA-TECDOC-573, published in 1990. Sections 5 and 6 include revised definitions and investigation guidelines for identification of both direct and root causes. These revisions were recommended by a Consultants Meeting held in Vienna on 3-7 December 1990. This guidance is not intended to infringe an expert's prerogative to investigate additional items. Its main purpose is to provide a basic structure and ensure consistency in the assessments. Use of the ASSET guidelines should also facilitate comparison between the observations made in different nuclear power plants and harmonize the reporting of generic ASSET results. The guidelines should always be used with a critical attitude and a view to possible improvements

  18. Trust Revision for Conflicting Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    strategy is to first revise a priori trust assignments as a function of the degree of conflict, before the evidence is fused. This paper focuses on the...practical trust transitivity seems to be idiosyncratic for humans and animals, with no true analogue among non- living forms (and in the physical world ...visiting a foreign country Alice is looking for a restaurant where the locals go, because she would like to avoid places overrun by tourists. She meets a

  19. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  20. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  1. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Makino, Akihiro; Mizushima, Takao

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  2. Titanium and zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard Legry, G.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium and zirconium pure and base alloys are protected by an oxide film with anionic vacancies which gives a very good resistance to corrosion in oxidizing medium, in some ph ranges. Results of pitting and crevice corrosion are given for Cl - , Br - , I - ions concentration with temperature and ph dependence, also with oxygenated ions effect. (A.B.). 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  4. Magnesium secondary alloys: Alloy design for magnesium alloys with improved tolerance limits against impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blawert, C., E-mail: carsten.blawert@gkss.d [GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Fechner, D.; Hoeche, D.; Heitmann, V.; Dietzel, W.; Kainer, K.U. [GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Zivanovic, P.; Scharf, C.; Ditze, A.; Groebner, J.; Schmid-Fetzer, R. [TU Clausthal, Institut fuer Metallurgie, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The development of secondary magnesium alloys requires a completely different concept compared with standard alloys which obtain their corrosion resistance by reducing the levels of impurities below certain alloy and process depending limits. The present approach suitable for Mg-Al based cast and wrought alloys uses a new concept replacing the {beta}-phase by {tau}-phase, which is able to incorporate more impurities while being electro-chemically less detrimental to the matrix. The overall experimental effort correlating composition, microstructure and corrosion resistance was reduced by using thermodynamic calculations to optimise the alloy composition. The outcome is a new, more impurity tolerant alloy class with a composition between the standard AZ and ZC systems having sufficient ductility and corrosion properties comparable to the high purity standard alloys.

  5. Hardening of niobium alloys at precrystallization annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, E.V.; Pustovalov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Niobium base alloys were investigated. It is shown that precrystallization annealing of niobium-molybdenum, niobium-vanadium and niobium-zirconium alloys elevates much more sufficiently their resistance to microplastic strains, than to macroplastic strains. Hardening effect differs sufficiently for different alloys. The maximal hardening is observed for niobium-vanadium alloys, the minimal one - for niobium-zirconium alloys

  6. Grindability of dental magnetic alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Eisei; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu; Kimura, Kohei

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the grindability of cast magnetic alloys (Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and magnetic stainless steel) was evaluated and compared with that of conventional dental casting alloys (Ag-Pd-Au alloy, Type 4 gold alloy, and cobalt-chromium alloy). Grindability was evaluated in terms of grinding rate (i.e., volume of metal removed per minute) and grinding ratio (i.e., volume ratio of metal removed compared to wheel material lost). Solution treated Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy had a significantly higher grinding rate than the aged one at a grinding speed of 750-1500 m x min(-1). At 500 m x min(-1), there were no significant differences in grinding rate between solution treated and aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloys. At a lower speed of 500 m x min(-1) or 750 m x min(-1), it was found that the grinding rates of aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and stainless steel were higher than those of conventional casting alloys.

  7. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  8. Interphase thermodynamic bond in heterogeneous alloys: effects on alloy properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.M.; Konovalov, Yu.V.; Yuferov, O.I.

    2005-01-01

    Inconsistency between a conventional thermodynamic description of alloys as a mechanical mixture of phases and a real alloys state as a common thermodynamic system in which there is a complicated physical-chemical phases interaction has been considered. It is supposed that in heterogeneous alloys (eutectic ones, for instance), so called interphase thermodynamic bond can become apparent due to a partial electron levels splitting under phase interaction. Thermodynamic description of phase equilibrium in alloys is proposed taking into account a thermodynamic bond for the system with phase diagram of eutectic type, and methods of the value of this bond estimation are presented. Experimental evidence (Al-Cu-Si, Al-Si-Mg-Cu, U-Mo + Al) of the effect of interphase thermodynamic bond on temperature and enthalpy of melting of alloys are produced as well as possibility of its effects on alloys electrical conduction, strength, heat and corrosion resistance is substantiated theoretically [ru

  9. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  10. Two phase titanium aluminide alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Liu, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    A two-phase titanic aluminide alloy having a lamellar microstructure with little intercolony structures. The alloy can include fine particles such as boride particles at colony boundaries and/or grain boundary equiaxed structures. The alloy can include alloying additions such as .ltoreq.10 at % W, Nb and/or Mo. The alloy can be free of Cr, V, Mn, Cu and/or Ni and can include, in atomic %, 45 to 55% Ti, 40 to 50% Al, 1 to 5% Nb, 0.3 to 2% W, up to 1% Mo and 0.1 to 0.3% B. In weight %, the alloy can include 57 to 60% Ti, 30 to 32% Al, 4 to 9% Nb, up to 2% Mo, 2 to 8% W and 0.02 to 0.08% B.

  11. SINTERED REFRACTORY TUNGSTEN ALLOYS. Gesinterte hochschmelzende wolframlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, R.; Sedlatschek, K.; Braun, H.

    1971-12-15

    Dependence of the melting point of the refractory metals on their positions in the periodic system - alloys of tungsten with other refractory metals - sintering of the alloys - processing of the alloys - technological properties.

  12. Metastable superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.

    1978-07-01

    The study of metastable metals and alloys has become one of the principal activities of specialists working in the field of superconducting materials. Metastable crystalline superconductors such as the A15-type materials have been given much attention. Non-crystalline superconductors were first studied over twenty years ago by Buckel and Hilsch using the technique of thin film evaporation on a cryogenic substrate. More recently, melt-quenching, sputtering, and ion implantation techniques have been employed to produce a variety of amorphous superconductors. The present article presents a brief review of experimental results and a survey of current work on these materials. The systematics of superconductivity in non-crystalline metals and alloys are described along with an analysis of the microscopic parameters which underlie the observed trends. The unique properties of these superconductors which arise from the high degree of structural disorder in the amorphous state are emphasized

  13. Re-visions of rationality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R

    2005-01-01

    The appeal of simple algorithms that take account of both the constraints of human cognitive capacity and the structure of environments has been an enduring theme in cognitive science. A novel version of such a boundedly rational perspective views the mind as containing an 'adaptive toolbox' of specialized cognitive heuristics suited to different problems. Although intuitively appealing, when this version was proposed, empirical evidence for the use of such heuristics was scant. I argue that in the light of empirical studies carried out since then, it is time this 'vision of rationality' was revised. An alternative view based on integrative models rather than collections of heuristics is proposed.

  14. Revised hypothesis and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsk, P; Drummer, C; Christensen, N J

    2001-01-01

    Results from space have been unexpected and not predictable from the results of ground-based simulations. Therefore, the concept of how weightlessness and gravity modulates the regulation of body fluids must be revised and a new simulation model developed. The main questions to ask in the future...... are the following: Does weightlessness induce a diuresis and natriuresis during the initial hours of space flight leading to an extracellular and intravascular fluid volume deficit? Can sodium in excess be stored in a hitherto unknown way, particularly during space flight? Why are fluid and sodium retaining systems...

  15. Rare earth metal alloy magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, I.R.; Evans, J.M.; Nyholm, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to rare earth metal alloy magnets and to methods for their production. The technique is based on the fact that rare earth metal alloys (for e.g. cerium or yttrium) which have been crumbled to form a powder by hydride formation and decomposition can be used for the fabrication of magnets without the disadvantages inherent in alloy particle size reduction by mechanical milling. (UK)

  16. Thermomechanical treatment of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorev, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    The problems of the theory and practical application of thermomechanical treatment of titanium alloys are presented. On the basis of the systematic investigations developed are the methods of thermomechanical treatment of titanium alloys, established are the optimum procedures and produced are the bases of their industrial application with an account of alloy technological peculiarities and the procedure efficiency. It is found that those strengthening methods are more efficient at which the contribution of dispersion hardening prevails over the strengthening by phase hardening

  17. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...... of the novel catalyst material for synthesising hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water....

  18. Superplasticity of amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Yu.B.; Likhachev, V.L.; Sen'kov, O.N.

    1988-01-01

    Results of mechanical tests of Co 57 Ni 10 Fe 5 Si 11 B 17 amorphous alloy are presented and the effect of crystallization, occurring during deformation process, on plastic low characteristics is investiagted. Superplasticity of amorphous tape is investigated. It is shown, that this effect occurs only when during deformation the crystallization takes place. Process model, based on the usage disclination concepts about glass nature, is suggested

  19. Shape memory alloy actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  20. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    The specified alloys consist of Ni, Cr and Fe as main constituents, and Mo, Nb, Si, Zr, Ti, Al, C and B as minor constituents. They are said to exhibit high weldability and long-time structural stability, as well as low swelling under nuclear radiation conditions, making them especially suitable for use as a duct material and control element cladding for sodium-cooled nuclear reactors. (U.K.)

  1. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Laubenfels, de, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana per se. One new subgenus and 17 new sections are described, and 94 species are enumerated, of which 11 species and 1 variety are described as new, and 3 varieties have been raised to specific rank....

  2. Aluminum alloy impact sparkling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudyk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cast machine parts are widely used in many branches of industry. A very important issue is gaining the appropriate knowledge relating to the application of castings in places of explosion risks including but not limited to mining, chemical industry and rescue works. A possibility of explosion risks occurrence following the impact sparkling of the cast metal parts is still not solved problem in scientific research. In relation to this issue, in this article, the results of the study are presented, and relating to the tendency to impact sparkling of the aluminium alloys used in machine building. On the grounds of the results obtained, it was demonstrated that the registered impact sparkles bunches of feathers from the analyzed alloys: AlSi7Mg, (AK7; AlSi9Mg, (AK9; AlSi6Cu4, (AK64 and AlSi11, (AK11 show significant differences between each other. The quantitative analysis of the temperature distribution and nuclei surface area performed on the example of the alloy AK9 (subjected to defined period of corrosion allows for the statement that they are dangerous in conditions of explosion risk. Following this fact, designers and users of machine parts made from these materials should not use them in conditions where the explosive mixtures occur.

  3. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  4. Low activation vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzenburg, W. van.

    1991-01-01

    The properties and general characteristics of vanadium-base alloys are reviewed in terms of the materials requirements for fusion reactor first wall and blanket structures. In this review attention is focussed on radiation response including induced radioactivity, mechanical properties, compatibility with potential coolants, physical and thermal properties, fabricability and resources. Where possible, properties are compared to those of other leading candidate structural materials, e.g. austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels. Vanadium alloys appear to offer advantages in the areas of long-term activation, mechanical properties at temperatures above 600 deg C, radiation resistance and thermo-hydraulic design, due to superior physical and thermal properties. They also have a potential for higher temperature operation in liquid lithium systems. Disadvantages are associated with their ability to retain high concentrations of hydrogen isotopes, higher cost, more difficult fabrication and welding. A particular concern regarding use of vanadium alloys relates their reactivity with non-metallic elements, such as oxygen and nitrogen. (author). 33 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Revision Total Hip Arthoplasty: Factors Associated with Re-Revision Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Khatod, M; Cafri, G; Inacio, MCS; Schepps, AL; Paxton, EW; Bini, SA

    2015-01-01

    The survivorship of implants after revision total hip arthroplasty and risk factors associated with re-revision are not well defined. We evaluated the re-revision rate with use of the institutional total joint replacement registry. The purpose of this study was to determine patient, implant, and surgeon factors associated with re-revision total hip arthroplasty.A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The total joint replacement registry was used to identify patients who had undergone revi...

  6. Revised nonstochastic health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published a revision of the 1985 report, Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, NUREG/CR-4214, that included models for early occurring and continuing nonstochastic effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. This paper discusses specific models for lethality from early occurring and continuing effects. For brevity, hematopoietic-syndrome lethality is called hematopoietic death; pulmonary-syndrome lethality is called pulmonary death; and gastrointestinal syndrome lethality is called gastrointestinal death. Two-parameter Weibull risk functions are recommended for estimating the risk of hematopoietic, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal death. The risks are obtained indirectly by using hazard functions; as a result, this type of approach has been called hazard-function modeling and the models generated are called hazard-function models. In the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report, changes were made in the parameter values for a number of effects, and the models used to estimate hematopoietic and pulmonary deaths were substantially revised. Upper and lower estimates of model parameters are provided for all early health effects models. In this paper, we discuss the 1989 models for hematopoietic and pulmonary deaths, highlighting the differences between the 1989 and 1985 models. In addition, we give the reasons for which the 1985 models were modified

  7. Revising Lecture Notes: How Revision, Pauses, and Partners Affect Note Taking and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Linlin; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Samuelson, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Note taking has been categorized as a two-stage process: the recording of notes and the review of notes. We contend that note taking might best involve a three-stage process where the missing stage is revision. This study investigated the benefits of revising lecture notes and addressed two questions: First, is revision more effective than…

  8. Impact toughness of laser alloyed aluminium AA1200 alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ),. 559-563. [2] T. Tomida, K. Nakata, S. Saji, T. Kubo, T, Formation of metal matrix composite layer on aluminium alloy with TiC-Cu powder by laser surface alloying process; Surface and Coatings Technology; vol. 142-144, 2001, 585-589. [3] L. A. B...

  9. Titanium alloys. Advances in alloys, processes, products and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsop, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The last few years have been a period of consolidation of existing alloys and processes. While the aerospace industry remains the principal driving force for alloy development, the paper illustrates examples of new markets being established in 'older' alloys, by a combination of product/process development and a re-examination of engineering design parameters. Considerable attention is still being directed towards the titanium aluminide systems, but other more conventional alloy developments are underway aimed at specific engineering and process requirements, both in the aerospace and non-aerospace sectors. Both the advanced high temperature and conventional alloy developments are considered, before the paper goes on to assess the potential of new processes and products, like spray-forming, metal matrix composites and shaped-plate rolling. (orig.)

  10. Alloy development for cladding and duct applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straalsund, J.L.; Johnson, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Three general classes of materials under development for cladding and ducts are listed. Solid solution strengthened, or austenitic, alloys are Type 316 stainless steel and D9. Precipitation hardened (also austenitic) alloys consist of D21, D66 and D68. These alloys are similar to such commercial alloys as M-813, Inconel 706, Inconel 718 and Nimonic PE-16. The third general class of alloys is composed of ferritic alloys, with current emphasis being placed on HT-9, a tempered martensitic alloy, and D67, a delta-ferritic steel. The program is comprised of three parallel paths. The current reference, or first generation alloy, is 20% cold worked Type 316 stainless steel. Second generation alloys for near-term applications include D9 and HT-9. Third generation materials consist of the precipitation strengthened steels and ferritic alloys, and are being considered for implementation at a later time than the first and second generation alloys. The development of second and third generation materials was initiated in 1974 with the selection of 35 alloys. This program has proceeded to today where there are six advanced alloys being evaluated. These alloys are the developmental alloys D9, D21, D57, D66 and D68, together with the commerical alloy, HT-9. The status of development of these alloys is summarized

  11. ODS Alloys for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Sung

    2006-01-01

    ODS (oxide dispersion strengthening) alloy is one of the potential candidate alloys for the cladding or in reactor components of Generation IV reactors and for the structural material even for fusion reactors. It is widely accepted as very resistant material to neutron irradiation as well as strong material at high temperature due to its finely distributed and stable oxide particles. Among Generation IV reactors SFR and SCWR are anticipated in general to run in the temperature range between 300 and 550 .deg. C, and the peak cladding temperature is supposed to reach at about 620 .deg. C during the normal operation. Therefore Zr.base alloys, which have been widely known and adopted for the cladding material due to their excellent neutron economics, are no more adequate at these operating conditions. Fe-base ODS alloys in general has a good high temperature strength at the above high temperature as well as the neutron resistance. In this study a range of commercial grade ODS alloys and their applications are reviewed, including an investigation of the stability of a commercial grade 20% Cr Fe-base ODS alloy(MA956). The alloy was evaluated in terms of the fracture toughness change along with the aging treatment. Also an attempt of the development of 9% Cr Fe-base ODS alloys is introduced

  12. Sequenced Peer Revision: Creating Competence and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Ingrid K.; Robertson, John

    2013-01-01

    Mastering techniques of self- and peer revision is a valuable tool for all writers, especially US-educated Generation 1.5 students, whose near fluency enables them to dialogue successfully about their writing. Using action research, 2 academic writing instructors systematically trained students to more responsibly and effectively revise their…

  13. Nickel alloys and high-alloyed special stainless steels. Properties, manufacturing, applications. 4. compl. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubner, Ulrich; Kloewer, Jutta; Alves, Helena; Behrens, Rainer; Schindler, Claudius; Wahl, Volker; Wolf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the following eight topics: 1. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels - Material overview and metallurgical principles (U. Heubner); 2. Corrosion resistance of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (U. Heubner); 3. Welding of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (T. Hoffmann, M. Wolf); 4. High-temperature materials for industrial plant construction (J. Kloewer); 5. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels as hot roll clad composites-a cost-effective alternative (C. Schindler); 6. Selected examples of the use of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels in chemical plants (H. Alves); 7. The use of nickel alloys and stainless steels in environmental engineering (V. Wahl); 8: Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels for the oil and gas industry (R. Behrens).

  14. Revised GCFR safety program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, A.P.; Boyack, B.E.; Torri, A.

    1980-05-01

    This paper presents a summary of the recently revised gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) safety program plan. The activities under this plan are organized to support six lines of protection (LOPs) for protection of the public from postulated GCFR accidents. Each LOP provides an independent, sequential, quantifiable risk barrier between the public and the radiological hazards associated with postulated GCFR accidents. To implement a quantitative risk-based approach in identifying the important technology requirements for each LOP, frequency and consequence-limiting goals are allocated to each. To ensure that all necessary tasks are covered to achieve these goals, the program plan is broken into a work breakdown structure (WBS). Finally, the means by which the plan is being implemented are discussed

  15. Radiological control manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepping, R.

    1996-05-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Radiological Control Manual (LBNL RCM) has been prepared to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements and interpretation of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is one methodology to implement the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. Information given in this manual is also intended to provide demonstration of compliance to specific requirements in 10 CFR 835. The LBNL RCM (Publication 3113) and LBNL Health and Safety Manual Publication-3000 form the technical basis for the LBNL RPP and will be revised as necessary to ensure that current requirements from Rules and Orders are represented. The LBNL RCM will form the standard for excellence in the implementation of the LBNL RPP.

  16. Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by Dirac, as well as the rest mass of elementary particles predicted by Higgs in terms of spontaneous nonlinear symmetry breaking. It will here be put into doubt whether the approach by Higgs is the only theory which becomes necessary for explaining the particle rest masses. In addition, RQED theory leads to new results beyond those being available from the theories by Dirac, Higgs and the Standard Model, such as in applications to leptons and the photon.

  17. Hot sample archiving. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Study revision evaluated the alternatives to provide tank waste characterization analytical samples for a time period as recommended by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Program. The recommendation of storing 40 ml segment samples for a period of approximately 18 months (6 months past the approval date of the Tank Characterization Report) and then composite the core segment material in 125 ml containers for a period of five years. The study considers storage at 222-S facility. It was determined that the critical storage problem was in the hot cell area. The 40 ml sample container has enough material for approximately 3 times the required amount for a complete laboratory re-analysis. The final result is that 222-S can meet the sample archive storage requirements. During the 100% capture rate the capacity is exceeded in the hot cell area, but quick, inexpensive options are available to meet the requirements

  18. Radiological control manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepping, R.

    1996-05-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Radiological Control Manual (LBNL RCM) has been prepared to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements and interpretation of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is one methodology to implement the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. Information given in this manual is also intended to provide demonstration of compliance to specific requirements in 10 CFR 835. The LBNL RCM (Publication 3113) and LBNL Health and Safety Manual Publication-3000 form the technical basis for the LBNL RPP and will be revised as necessary to ensure that current requirements from Rules and Orders are represented. The LBNL RCM will form the standard for excellence in the implementation of the LBNL RPP

  19. Corrosion of aluminum alloys as a function of alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1969-10-01

    A study was initiated which included nineteen aluminum alloys. Tests were conducted in high purity water at 360 0 C and flow tests (approx. 20 ft/sec) in reactor process water at 130 0 C (TF-18 loop tests). High-silicon alloys and AlSi failed completely in the 360 0 C tests. However, coupling of AlSi to 8001 aluminum suppressed the failure. The alloy compositions containing iron and nickel survived tht 360 0 C autoclave exposures. Corrosion rates varied widely as a function of alloy composition, but in directions which were predictable from previous high-temperature autoclave experience. In the TF-18 loop flow tests, corrosion penetrations were similar on all of the alloys and on high-purity aluminum after 105 days. However, certain alloys established relatively low linear corrosion rates: Al-0.9 Ni-0.5 Fe-0.1 Zr, Al-1.0 Ni-0.15 Fe-11.5 Si-0.8 Mg, Al-1.2 Ni-1.8 Fe, and Al-7.0 Ni-4.8 Fe. Electrical polarity measurements between AlSi and 8001 alloys in reactor process water at temperatures up to 150 0 C indicated that AlSi was anodic to 8001 in the static autoclave system above approx. 50 0 C

  20. Aluminum alloy and associated anode and battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarcy, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an aluminum alloy. It comprises: eutectic amounts of at least two alloying elements selected from the group consisting of bismuth, cadmium, scandium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium, tin, and zinc with the balance being aluminum and the alloying elements being about 0.01 to 3.0 percent by weight of the alloy

  1. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Certain Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, K. R.; Dorward, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    SC resistance of new high-strength alloys tested. Research report describes progress in continuing investigation of stress corrosion (SC) cracking of some aluminum alloys. Objective of program is comparing SC behavior of newer high-strength alloys with established SC-resistant alloy.

  2. General characteristics of eutectic alloy solidification mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaignan, Clement.

    1977-01-01

    The eutectic alloy sodification was studied in binary systems: solidification of non facetted - non facetted eutectic alloy (theoretical aspects, variation of the lamellar spacing, crystallographic relation between the various phases); solidification of facetted - non facetted eutectic alloy; coupled growth out of eutectic alloy; eutectic nucleation [fr

  3. Pareto-optimal alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bligaard, Thomas; Johannesson, Gisli Holmar; Ruban, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    Large databases that can be used in the search for new materials with specific properties remain an elusive goal in materials science. The problem is complicated by the fact that the optimal material for a given application is usually a compromise between a number of materials properties and the ......Large databases that can be used in the search for new materials with specific properties remain an elusive goal in materials science. The problem is complicated by the fact that the optimal material for a given application is usually a compromise between a number of materials properties...... and the cost. In this letter we present a database consisting of the lattice parameters, bulk moduli, and heats of formation for over 64 000 ordered metallic alloys, which has been established by direct first-principles density-functional-theory calculations. Furthermore, we use a concept from economic theory......, the Pareto-optimal set, to determine optimal alloy solutions for the compromise between low compressibility, high stability, and cost....

  4. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  5. The economic impact of revision otologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, Sahar; Leonetti, John P; Pontikis, George

    2016-03-01

    Revision otologic surgery places a significant economic burden on patients and the healthcare system. We conducted a retrospective chart analysis to estimate the economic impact of revision canal-wall-down (CWD) mastoidectomy. We reviewed the medical records of all 189 adults who had undergone CWD mastoidectomy performed by the senior author between June 2006 and August 2011 at Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, Ill. Institutional charges and collections for all patients were extrapolated to estimate the overall healthcare cost of revision surgery in Illinois and at the national level. Of the 189 CWD mastoidectomies, 89 were primary and 100 were revision procedures. The total charge for the revision cases was $2,783,700, and the net reimbursement (collections) was $846,289 (30.4%). Using Illinois Hospital Association data, we estimated that reimbursement for 387 revision CWD mastoidectomies that had been performed in fiscal year 2011 was nearly $3.3 million. By extrapolating our data to the national level, we estimated that 9,214 patients underwent revision CWD mastoidectomy in the United States during 2011, which cost the national healthcare system roughly $76 million, not including lost wages and productivity. Known causes of failed CWD mastoidectomies that often result in revision surgery include an inadequate meatoplasty, a facial ridge that is too high, residual diseased air cells, and recurrent cholesteatoma. A better understanding of these factors can reduce the need for revision surgery, which could have a positive impact on the economic strain related to this procedure at the local, state, and national levels.

  6. Cochlear implant revision surgeries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maria Stella Arantes do; Reis, Ana Cláudia Mirândola B; Massuda, Eduardo T; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo

    2018-02-16

    The surgery during which the cochlear implant internal device is implanted is not entirely free of risks and may produce problems that will require revision surgeries. To verify the indications for cochlear implantation revision surgery for the cochlear implant internal device, its effectiveness and its correlation with certain variables related to language and hearing. A retrospective study of patients under 18 years submitted to cochlear implant Surgery from 2004 to 2015 in a public hospital in Brazil. Data collected were: age at the time of implantation, gender, etiology of the hearing loss, audiological and oral language characteristics of each patient before and after Cochlear Implant surgery and any need for surgical revision and the reason for it. Two hundred and sixty-five surgeries were performed in 236 patients. Eight patients received a bilateral cochlear implant and 10 patients required revision surgery. Thirty-two surgeries were necessary for these 10 children (1 bilateral cochlear implant), of which 21 were revision surgeries. In 2 children, cochlear implant removal was necessary, without reimplantation, one with cochlear malformation due to incomplete partition type I and another due to trauma. With respect to the cause for revision surgery, of the 8 children who were successfully reimplanted, four had cochlear calcification following meningitis, one followed trauma, one exhibited a facial nerve malformation, one experienced a failure of the cochlear implant internal device and one revision surgery was necessary because the electrode was twisted. The incidence of the cochlear implant revision surgery was 4.23%. The period following the revision surgeries revealed an improvement in the subject's hearing and language performance, indicating that these surgeries are valid in most cases. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Alloying Solid Solution Strengthening of Fe-Ga Alloys: A First-Principle Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Kuiying; Cheng, Leon M

    2006-01-01

    ... and Co in cubic solid solution of Fe-Ga alloys. Mayer bond order "BO" values were used to evaluate the atomic bond strengths in the alloys, and were then used to assess the alloying strengthening characteristics...

  8. Cobalt-based orthopaedic alloys: Relationship between forming route, microstructure and tribological performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Bhairav [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Favaro, Gregory [CSM Instruments SA, Rue de la Gare 4, Galileo Center, CH-2034 Peseux (Switzerland); Inam, Fawad [Advanced Composite Training and Development Centre and School of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Glyndwr University, Mold Road, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom); School of Engineering and Materials Science and Nanoforce Technology Ltd, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Reece, Michael J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science and Nanoforce Technology Ltd, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Angadji, Arash [Orthopaedic Research UK, Furlong House, 10a Chandos Street, London W1G 9DQ (United Kingdom); Bonfield, William [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Huang, Jie [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: m.edirisinghe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The average longevity of hip replacement devices is approximately 10-15 years, which generally depends on many factors. But for younger generation patients this would mean that revisions may be required at some stage in order to maintain functional activity. Therefore, research is required to increase the longevity to around 25-30 years; a target that was initially set by John Charnley. The main issues related to metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacement devices are the high wear rates when malpositioned and the release of metallic ions into the blood stream and surrounding tissues. Work is required to reduce the wear rates and limit the amount of metallic ions being leached out of the current MoM materials, to be able to produce an ideal hip replacement material. The most commonly used MoM material is the cobalt-based alloys, more specifically ASTM F75, due to their excellent wear and corrosion resistance. They are either fabricated using the cast or wrought method, however powder processing of these alloys has been shown to improve the properties. One powder processing technique used is spark plasma sintering, which utilises electric current Joule heating to produce high heating rates to sinter powders to form an alloy. Two conventionally manufactured alloys (ASTM F75 and ASTM F1537) and a spark plasma sintered (SPS) alloy were evaluated for their microstructure, hardness, tribological performance and the release of metallic content. The SPS alloy with oxides and not carbides in its microstructure had the higher hardness, which resulted in the lowest wear and friction coefficient, with lower amounts of chromium and molybdenum detected from the wear debris compared to the ASTM F75 and ASTM F1537. In addition the wear debris size and size distribution of the SPS alloy generated were considerably small, indicating a material that exhibits excellent performance and more favourable compared to the current conventional cobalt based alloys used in orthopaedics. - Highlights

  9. Revision of infected knee arthroplasties in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Bagger, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - The surgical treatment of periprosthetic knee infection is generally either a partial revision procedure (open debridement and exchange of the tibial insert) or a 2-stage exchange arthroplasty procedure. We describe the failure rates of these procedures on a nationwide...... basis. Patients and methods - 105 partial revisions (100 patients) and 215 potential 2-stage revision procedures (205 patients) performed due to infection from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013 were identified from the Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register (DKR). Failure was defined as surgically related death...

  10. ALLOY DESIGN AND PROPERTY EVALUATION OF TI ALLOY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1,2 DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA, NIGERIA. 2 DEPT ... a result of this structural change, titanium alloys fall ... the phase stability and mechanical behaviours of Ti-.

  11. Individual questions of financial control and revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Глібко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. In modern conditions at investigation and gathering of proofs in criminal proceedings according to item 93 CPC of Ukraine collecting of proofs which is carried out by the criminal proceedings parties, victim is important, the representative of the legal person, in which relation carries out manufacture, including a way истребования and receptions from public authorities, local governments, the enterprises, establishments and organisations, official and physical persons of things, documents, data, conclusions of experts, conclusions of revisions and certificates of checks. Recent research and publications analisis. In scientific sources questions of carrying out of revisions S. B.Zhivko, V.V.Akimov, G.Demjanchuk, J.Buzdugan is considered. Paper objective. Article purpose is studying and definition of a place of revision among forms of inspection of the state control and use of results of revision in criminal proceedings. Paper main body. Off-schedule exit revision that is revision which is not provided in plans of work of body of the state financial control is considered and is spent at presence at least one of the circumstances listed in item 11 of the Law of Ukraine «About main principles of realisation of the state financial control in Ukraine». If revision is carried out on request of investigating bodies it is spent on the basis of the petition of the inspector and accepted by the results of consideration of this petition of the decision of the investigatory judge. The primary goal of revision on request of investigating bodies or on the basis of court definition is reception of proofs on business. Therefore the revision certificate admits the written proof as on the basis of its conclusion of the inspector, the public prosecutor receives the information on a perfect crime, abusing, and also on the persons who have committed a crime, on the period of commission of crime and an amount of damage. In criminal

  12. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable highstrength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO2 laser. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloys, over the last years.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la aleación superficial mediante láser de aluminio con metales de transición. El cromo y el molibdeno son particularmente interesantes porque producen aleaciones de alta resistencia y por el bajo coeficiente de difusión y solución sólida en aluminio. Para producir estas aleaciones se ha seguido un procedimiento desarrollado en dos partes. En primer lugar, el material se alea usando una baja velocidad de procesado y en segundo lugar la estructura se modifica mediante un refinamiento posterior. Este procedimiento se ha empleado en la producción de aleaciones Al-Cr, Al-Mo y Al-Nb mediante aleación con láser de CO2 de polvos de Cr, Mo o Nb en aluminio y la aleación 7175. Este trabajo es una revisión del desarrollado en el Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa en los últimos años.

  13. Taxation and Welfare: A Revision Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Offers a revision exercise intended to remind students of some economic terminology associated with taxation and welfare. Provides a set of definitions for which students are to supply matching terms. Includes an answer list and suggests related exercises. (SG)

  14. Student-initiated revision in child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaham, M; Gray, O P; Davies, D P

    1994-03-01

    Most teaching of child health in Cardiff takes place in block attachments of 8 weeks. There is an introductory seminar of 2 days followed by a 6-week clinical attachment in a district general hospital in Wales, and then a revision period of one week designed to help students formalize and structure their basic knowledge and to clarify aspects of child health which they may have had difficulty in understanding. The revision programme has to take into account: the short time available, the small number of teaching staff, the most relevant basic knowledge and active participation by the student. This paper describes how this week has been improved through the use of student-initiated revision (SIR). The students' appraisal of this revision and in particular SIR is presented.

  15. New and revised standards for coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

  16. FFTF operations procedures preparation guide. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The Guide is intended to provide guidelines for the initial preparation of FFTF Operating Procedures. The Procedures Preparation Guide was developed from the plan presented and approved in the FFTF Reactor Plant Procedures Plan, PC-1, Revision 3

  17. Revising incompletely specified convex probabilistic belief bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available revision employing the notion of optimum entropy, and point out some of the benefits and difficulties in those methods. Both the boundary distribution method and the optimum entropy method are reasonable, yet yield different results....

  18. Descriptor revision belief change through direct choice

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a critical examination of how the choice of what to believe is represented in the standard model of belief change. In particular the use of possible worlds and infinite remainders as objects of choice is critically examined. Descriptors are introduced as a versatile tool for expressing the success conditions of belief change, addressing both local and global descriptor revision. The book presents dynamic descriptors such as Ramsey descriptors that convey how an agent’s beliefs tend to be changed in response to different inputs. It also explores sentential revision and demonstrates how local and global operations of revision by a sentence can be derived as a special case of descriptor revision. Lastly, the book examines revocation, a generalization of contraction in which a specified sentence is removed in a process that may possibly also involve the addition of some new information to the belief set.

  19. Manufacturing of High Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-07-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion they have high configurational entropy, and thus they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and phase stability. The present study investigates the microstructure of two single-phase face-centered cubic (FCC) HEAs, CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn, with special attention given to melting, homogenization and thermo-mechanical processing. Large-scale ingots were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent in small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was applied to both alloys in order to eliminate segregation due to normal ingot solidification. The alloys fabricated well, with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters being employed.

  20. Nickel and cobalt base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Nickel base alloys have a good resistance to pitting, cavernous or cracks corrosion. Nevertheless, all the nickel base alloys are not equivalent. Some differences exit between all the families (Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Cr-Fe, Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo/W-Cu, Ni-Cr-Mo/W, Ni-Mo). Cobalt base alloys in corrosive conditions are generally used for its wear and cracks resistance, with a compromise to its localised corrosion resistance properties. The choice must be done from the perfect knowledge of the corrosive medium and of the alloys characteristics (chemical, metallurgical). A synthesis of the corrosion resistance in three medium (6% FeCl 3 , 4% NaCl + 1% HCl + 0.1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , 11.5% H 2 SO 4 + 1.2% HCl + 1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 1% CuCl 2 ) is presented. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs

  1. Magnetoimpedance effect in Nanoperm alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando, B.; Alvarez, P.; Santos, J.D.; Gorria, P.; Sanchez, M.L.; Olivera, J.; Perez, M.J.; Prida, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of isothermal annealing (1 h at 600 deg. C in Ar atmosphere) on the soft magnetic properties and magnetoimpedance (MI) effect has been studied in ribbons of the following Nanoperm alloys: Fe 91 Zr 7 B 2 , Fe 88 Zr 8 B 4 , Fe 87 Zr 6 B 6 Cu 1 and Fe 8 Zr 1 B 1 . A maximum MI ratio of about 27% was measured for the nanocrystalline alloy Fe 87 Zr 6 B 6 Cu 1 at a driving frequency of 0.2 MHz. The thermal annealing led to magnetic softening for this alloy, while a hardening is observed for the Fe 8 Zr 1 B 1 alloy

  2. Emissivity measurements on aeronautical alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, L. del; Perez-Saez, R.B.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, L.; Esquisabel, X.; Fernandez, I.; Gonzalez-Martin, P.; Tello, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The emissivity of three Ni and Co based aeronautical alloys is analyzed in this paper. These alloys are employed in high temperature environments whenever good corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance and high strength are essential. Thus, apart from the aeronautical industry, these alloys are also used in other technological applications, as for example, aerospace, nuclear reactors, and tooling. The results in this paper extend the emissivity data for these alloys available in the literature. Emissivity dependence on the radiation wavelength (2-22 μm), sample temperature (200-650 o C) and emission angle (0-85 o ) has been investigated. In addition, the effect of surface finish and oxidation has also been taken into consideration. The data in this paper have several applications, as temperature measurement of a target by pyrometry, low observability of airplanes and thermal radiation heat transfer simulation in airplane nozzles or furnaces.

  3. Emissivity measurements on aeronautical alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, L. del, E-mail: leire.del-campo@cnrs-orleans.f [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Perez-Saez, R.B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.e [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Gonzalez-Fernandez, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Esquisabel, X.; Fernandez, I. [Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Planta de Zamudio, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Gonzalez-Martin, P. [Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Parque empresarial San Fernando, Avda. Castilla 2, 28830 San Fernando de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Tello, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-01-21

    The emissivity of three Ni and Co based aeronautical alloys is analyzed in this paper. These alloys are employed in high temperature environments whenever good corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance and high strength are essential. Thus, apart from the aeronautical industry, these alloys are also used in other technological applications, as for example, aerospace, nuclear reactors, and tooling. The results in this paper extend the emissivity data for these alloys available in the literature. Emissivity dependence on the radiation wavelength (2-22 {mu}m), sample temperature (200-650 {sup o}C) and emission angle (0-85{sup o}) has been investigated. In addition, the effect of surface finish and oxidation has also been taken into consideration. The data in this paper have several applications, as temperature measurement of a target by pyrometry, low observability of airplanes and thermal radiation heat transfer simulation in airplane nozzles or furnaces.

  4. First principles thermodynamics of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducastelle, F.

    1993-01-01

    We present a brief report on the methods of solid state physics (electronic structure, statistical thermodynamics) that allow us to discuss the phase stability of alloys and to determine their phase diagrams. (orig.)

  5. Auger electron spectroscopy of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijers, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis describes how the surface compositions of some alloys can be determined by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The motivation for this research and the reasons for the choice of alloy systems studied are formulated. The theoretical background of AES is briefly discussed and the apparatus used and the experimental procedures applied are described. Four alloy systems have been investigated in this thesis - Ni-Cu and Pd - Ag (consisting of a component active in most cataytic reactions - Ni and Pd; and a component which is almost inactive for a number of reactions - Cu and Ag) and Pt - Pd and Pt-Ir (consisting of two active components). Knowledge of the surface composition of the various alloy systems is shown to be essential for the interpretation of catalytic results. (Auth./C.F.)

  6. NRC revision to 10 CFR Part 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.E.; Cool, W.S.; Mills, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's pollution standards have been revised since publication in the late 1950s, but the basic approach has not changed. The revisions resulted in inaccuracies, conflicts, and ambiguities in requirements. The need for comprehensive updating including radiation-protection principles, risk, occupational exposure dose limits, standards for the public (including de minimis level), surveys and monitoring, disposal into sewerage systems, and records is discussed. 2 tables

  7. Revised data taking schedule with ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, Marek; Aduszkiewicz, A; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brzychczyk, J; Bubak, A; Bunyatov, S A; Choi, K U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Cleymans, J; Derkach, D A; Diakonos, F; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Feofilov, G A; Fodor, Z; Ferrero, A; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Grzeszczuk, A; Guber, F; Hasegawa, T; Haungs, A; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kisiel, J; Kobayashi, T; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kolevatov, R S; Kondratiev, V P; Kowalski, S; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Laszlo, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Majka, Z; I Malakhov, A; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mijakowski, P; Mitrovski, M; Montaruli, T; Mrówczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nikolic, V; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Röhrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovskii, A; Sakashita, K; Schuster, T; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shibata, M; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Szuba, M; Tada, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Zipper, W; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the revised data taking schedule of NA61 with ion beams. The revision takes into account limitations due to the new LHC schedule as well as final results concerning the physics performance with secondary ion beams. It is proposed to take data with primary Ar and Xe beams in 2012 and 2014, respectively, and to test and use for physics a secondary B beam from primary Pb beam fragmentation in 2010, 2011 and 2013.

  8. Derivative spectrophotometry of cobalt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The method of derivative spectrophotometry is briefly described, and derivative absorption spectra are presented for samarium, cobalt, and commercial Sm-Co alloys. It is shown that the use of derivative spectrophotometry not only improves the accuracy and selectivity of element determinations but also simplifies the analysis of alloys. Results of a statistical evaluation of the metrological characteristics of the analytical procedure described here are presented. 8 references

  9. Volatilization from PCA steel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagrman, D.L.; Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Petti, D.A.

    1996-08-01

    The mobilizations of key components from Primary Candidate Alloy (PCA) steel alloy have been measured with laboratory-scale experiments. The experiments indicate most of the mobilization from PCA steel is due to oxide formation and spalling but that the spalled particles are large enough to settle rapidly. Based on the experiments, models for the volatization of iron, manganese, and cobalt from PCA steel in steam and molybdenum from PCA steel in air have been derived.

  10. The microstructures of ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, G.M.K.; Ranganathan, S.

    1977-01-01

    The phenomenon of ordering in substitutional alloys confers special properties on them by introducing various types of structures and structural defects. Some of the important structural defects (translational and rotational antiphase boundaries, dissociated antiphase boundaries and superdislocations) and their observation by various microscopical methods, with particular emphasis on the applications of the electron microscope are described with illustrations drawn from the studies on nickel-molybdenum and nickel-tungsten alloys. (M.G.B.)

  11. Laser welding of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    This thesis treats laser welding of aluminium alloys from a practical perspective with elements of mathematical analysis. The theoretical work has in all cases been verified experimentally. The aluminium alloys studied are from the 5xxx and 6xxx groups which are common for example in the automotive industry. Aluminium has many unique physical properties. The properties which more than others have been shown to influence the welding process is its high reflection, high thermal conductivity, lo...

  12. Electrical conductivity in random alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, A.; Thakur, P.K.; Yussouff, M.

    1984-12-01

    Based on the augmented space formalism introduced by one of us and the use of the Ward identity and the Bethe-Sapeter equation, a formalism has been developed for the calculation of electrical conductivity for random alloys. A simple application is made to a model case, and it is argued that the formalism enables us to carry out viable calculations on more realistic models of alloys. (author)

  13. Electrical conductivity in random alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, A.; Yussouff, M.

    1983-06-01

    Starting from the augmented space formalism by one of us, and the use of the Ward identity and Bethe Salpeter equation, a complete formalism for the calculation of the electrical conductivity in tight-binding models of random binary alloys has been developed. The formalism is practical in the sense that viable calculations may be carried out with its help for realistics models of alloy systems. (author)

  14. Introductory Business Textbook Revision Cycles: Are They Getting Shorter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Brian; Brunswick, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The rate of textbook revision cycles is examined in light of the recent trend towards more rapid revisions (and adoptions of textbooks). The authors conduct background research to better understand the context for textbook revision cycles and the environmental forces that have been influencing what appears to be more rapid textbook revisions. A…

  15. Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-02-09

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, “Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,” Revision 0 issued in October 2009. Brief Description of Revision: A minor revision to correct oversights made during revision to incorporate the 10 CFR 835 Update; and for use as a reference document for Tenant Organization Radiological Protection Programs.

  16. Revision of the DELFIC Particle Activity Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, David A [ORNL; Jodoin, Vincent J [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    The Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) was originally released in 1968 as a tool for modeling fallout patterns and for predicting exposure rates. Despite the continual advancement of knowledge of fission yields, decay behavior of fission products, and biological dosimetry, the decay data and logic of DELFIC have remained mostly unchanged since inception. Additionally, previous code revisions caused a loss of conservation of radioactive nuclides. In this report, a new revision of the decay database and the Particle Activity Module is introduced and explained. The database upgrades discussed are replacement of the fission yields with ENDF/B-VII data as formatted in the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code, revised decay constants, revised exposure rate multipliers, revised decay modes and branching ratios, and revised boiling point data. Included decay logic upgrades represent a correction of a flaw in the treatment of the fission yields, extension of the logic to include more complex decay modes, conservation of nuclides (including stable nuclides) at all times, and conversion of key variables to double precision for nuclide conservation. Finally, recommended future work is discussed with an emphasis on completion of the overall radiation physics upgrade, particularly for dosimetry, induced activity, decay of the actinides, and fractionation.

  17. Revision surgery for failed thermal capsulorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Bin; Yokota, Atsushi; Gill, Harpreet S; El Rassi, George; McFarland, Edward G

    2005-09-01

    With the failure of thermal capsulorrhaphy for shoulder instability, there have been concerns with capsular thinning and capsular necrosis affecting revision surgery. To report the findings at revision surgery for failed thermal capsulorrhaphy and to evaluate the technical effects on subsequent revision capsular plication. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen patients underwent arthroscopic evaluation and open reconstruction for a failed thermal capsulorrhaphy. The cause of the failure, the quality of the capsule, and the ability to suture the capsule were recorded. The patients were evaluated at follow-up for failure, which was defined as recurrent subluxations or dislocations. The origin of the instability was traumatic (n = 6) or atraumatic (n = 8). At revision surgery in the traumatic group, 4 patients sustained failure of the Bankart repair with capsular laxity, and the others experienced capsular laxity alone. In the atraumatic group, all patients experienced capsular laxity as the cause of failure. Of the 14 patients, the capsule quality was judged to be thin in 5 patients and ablated in 1 patient. A glenoid-based capsular shift could be accomplished in all 14 patients. At follow-up (mean, 35.4 months; range, 22 to 48 months), 1 patient underwent revision surgery and 1 patient had a subluxation, resulting in a failure rate of 14%. Recurrent capsular laxity after failed thermal capsular shrinkage is common and frequently associated with capsular thinning. In most instances, the capsule quality does not appear to technically affect the revision procedure.

  18. Thermohydrogen processing (THP) of titanium alloy and titanium-aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Javaid Iqbal

    The microstructures, phases and phase transformations occurring in cast and Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIP'd) Ti-6Al-4V-H and the blended elemental (BE) TiAl-H systems were investigated. In this work, the existing Ti-6Al-4V-H phase diagram was revised and the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams for beta-phase (isothermal) and martensite (quench plus aging) decomposition were determined at different hydrogen concentrations. Alloying with hydrogen decreases the nose temperatures for the start of both the beta/martensite decompositions in a linear fashion and increases the nose times for both of these in a non-linear fashion. During aging at temperatures below the beta transus temperature, the martensite decomposes into alpha+betaM (metastable beta) and on quenching, from the aging temperature, the betaM transforms to martensite + beta R (residual beta) with the amount of latter increasing with increasing hydrogen content. Microstructures varying from alpha-lamellar laths to fine equiaxed alpha-grains were produced in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, by using different thermohydrogen processing (THP) treatments. A microstructure consisting of mixed equiaxed and elongated alpha-grains were only produced in samples containing 30at.%H after the complete decomposition of the beta/martensite below a critical temperature (Tc), followed by dehydrogenation. A mixture consisting of partially equiaxed alpha-grains thus produced by THP, increased the tensile strength from 841MPa (starting Ti-6Al-4V) to 965MPa after THP and also increased the % elongation from 7.5% to 10.5%. In addition to other THP parameters, the final microstructure also depends on the starting microstructure and recommendations are made for future work in this regard. Initial results of temperature cycling treatments, which involved heat treating of Ti-6Al-4V samples containing 30at.%H at 680°C for 5 minutes followed by water quenching and repetition of the same treatment for 10 cycles, did not show a decrease in

  19. Surface modification of 5083 Al alloy by electrical discharge alloying processing with a 75 mass% Si-Fe alloy electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambekova, Kuralay [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Rd., Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hung-Mao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Far East University, No. 49, Zhonghua Rd., Xinshi Dist., Tainan City 74448, Taiwan (China); Uan, Jun-Yen, E-mail: jyuan@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Rd., Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-01

    This study experimentally investigates the surface modification of 5083 Al alloy by the electrical discharge alloying (EDA) process with a Si-Fe alloy as an electrode. Samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-hardness and corrosion resistance tests. The micro-hardness of EDA alloyed layer was evidently higher than that of the base metal (5083 Al alloy). The TEM results show that the matrix of the alloyed layer has an amorphous-like structure; the matrix contains fine needle-like Si particles, block-like Si particles and nano-size Al{sub 4.5}FeSi and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} particles. The TEM results support experimental results for the high hardness of the alloyed layer. Moreover, the EDA alloyed layer with composite microstructures has good corrosion resistance in NaCl aqueous solution.

  20. Review about corrosion of superheaters tubes in biomass plants; Revision sobre la corrosion de tubos sobrecalentadores en plantas de biomasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlanga-Labari, C.; Fernandez-Carrasquilla, J.

    2006-07-01

    The design of new biomass-fired power plants with increased steam temperature raises concerns of high-temperature corrosion. The high potassium and chlorine contents in many biomass, specially in wheat straw, are potentially harmful elements with regard to corrosion. Chlorine may cause accelerated corrosion resulting in increased oxidation, metal wastage, internal attack, void formations and loose non-adherent scales. The most severe corrosion problems in biomass-fired systems are expected to occur due to Cl-rich deposits formed on superheater tubes. In the first part of this revision the corrosion mechanism proposed are described in function of the conditions and compounds involved. The second part is focused on the behaviour of the materials tested so far in the boiler and in the laboratory. First the traditional commercial alloys are studied and secondly the new alloys and the coasting. (Author). 102 refs.

  1. Electron-beam welding of aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, Marcel; de Bony, Yves

    1980-08-15

    The objective of this article is to describe the status of the application of electron-beam welding to aluminum alloys. These alloys are widely employed in the aeronautics, space and nuclear industries.

  2. A (Nd, Zr(Fe, Co11.5Ti0.5Nx compound as a permanent magnet material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suzuki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied NdFe11TiNx compounds as permanent magnet materials. The (Nd0.7,Zr0.3(Fe0.75Co0.2511.5Ti0.5N0.52 powder that contained a limited amount of the α-(Fe, Co phase shows fairly good magnetic properties, such as a saturation polarization (Js of 1.68 T and an anisotropic field (Ha of 2.88 (Law of approach to saturation – 4.0 MA/m (Intersection of magnetization curves. Both properties are comparable to those of the Nd2Fe14B phase.

  3. Postoperative pain outcomes after transvaginal mesh revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, Jill M; Osborn, David J; Reynolds, W Stuart; Biller, Daniel H; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2015-01-01

    Although the current literature discusses mesh complications including pain, as well as suggesting different techniques for removing mesh, there is little literature regarding pain outcomes after surgical removal or revision. The purpose of this study is to determine if surgical removal or revision of vaginal mesh improves patient's subjective complaints of pelvic pain associated with original placement of mesh. After obtaining approval from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center Institutional Review Board, a retrospective review of female patients with pain secondary to previous mesh placement who underwent excision or revision of vaginal mesh from January 2000 to August 2012 was performed. Patient age, relevant medical history including menopause status, previous hysterectomy, smoking status, and presence of diabetes, fibromyalgia, interstitial cystitis, and chronic pelvic pain, was obtained. Patients' postoperative pain complaints were assessed. Of the 481 patients who underwent surgery for mesh revision, removal or urethrolysis, 233 patients met our inclusion criteria. One hundred and sixty-nine patients (73 %) reported that their pain improved, 19 (8 %) reported that their pain worsened, and 45 (19 %) reported that their pain remained unchanged after surgery. Prior history of chronic pelvic pain was associated with increased risk of failure of the procedure to relieve pain (OR 0.28, 95 % CI 0.12-0.64, p = 0.003). Excision or revision of vaginal mesh appears to be effective in improving patients' pain symptoms most of the time. Patients with a history of chronic pelvic pain are at an increased risk of no improvement or of worsening pain.

  4. Thermodynamic Database for Zirconium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerlerud Perez, Rosa

    2003-05-01

    For many decades zirconium alloys have been commonly used in the nuclear power industry as fuel cladding material. Besides their good corrosion resistance and acceptable mechanical properties the main reason of using these alloys is the low neutron absorption. Zirconium alloys are exposed to a very severe environment during the nuclear fission process and there is a demand for better design of this material. To meet this requirement a thermodynamic database is developed to support material designers. In this thesis some aspects about the development of a thermodynamic database for zirconium alloys are presented. A thermodynamic database represents an important facility in applying thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for a given material providing: 1) relevant information about the thermodynamic properties of the alloys e.g. enthalpies, activities, heat capacity, and 2) significant information for the manufacturing process e.g. heat treatment temperature. The basic information in the database is first the unary data, i.e. pure elements; those are taken from the compilation of the Scientific Group Thermodata Europe (SGTE) and then the binary and ternary systems. All phases present in those binary and ternary systems are described by means of the Gibbs energy dependence on composition and temperature. Many of those binary systems have been taken from published or unpublished works and others have been assessed in the present work. All the calculations have been made using Thermo C alc software and the representation of the Gibbs energy obtained by applying Calphad technique

  5. Quasicrystal-reinforced Mg alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyun Kim, Young; Tae Kim, Won; Hyang Kim, Do

    2014-04-01

    The formation of the icosahedral phase (I-phase) as a secondary solidification phase in Mg-Zn-Y and Mg-Zn-Al base systems provides useful advantages in designing high performance wrought magnesium alloys. The strengthening in two-phase composites (I-phase + α -Mg) can be explained by dispersion hardening due to the presence of I-phase particles and by the strong bonding property at the I-phase/matrix interface. The presence of an additional secondary solidification phase can further enhance formability and mechanical properties. In Mg-Zn-Y alloys, the co-presence of I and Ca 2 Mg 6 Zn 3 phases by addition of Ca can significantly enhance formability, while in Mg-Zn-Al alloys, the co-presence of the I-phase and Mg 2 Sn phase leads to the enhancement of mechanical properties. Dynamic and static recrystallization are significantly accelerated by addition of Ca in Mg-Zn-Y alloy, resulting in much smaller grain size and more random texture. The high strength of Mg-Zn-Al-Sn alloys is attributed to the presence of finely distributed Mg 2 Sn and I-phase particles embedded in the α -Mg matrix.

  6. Carbon Alloys-Multi-functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Eiichi [MSL, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)], E-mail: yasuda.e.aa.@m.titech.ac.jp; Enami, Takashi; Hoteida, Nobuyuki [MSL, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Lanticse-Diaz, L.J. [University of the Philippines (Philippines); Tanabe, Yasuhiro [Nagoya University (Japan); Akatsu, Takashi [MSL, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2008-02-25

    Last decade after our proposal of the 'Carbon Alloys' concept, many different kinds of Carbon Alloys, such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, graphene sheet with magnetism, semi-conducting BCN compounds, graphite intercalation compounds, exfoliated carbon fiber, etc. have been found and developed. To extend the concept further, it is important to make it into intelligent materials by incorporating multiple functions. One example of the multi-functionalization is the development of homo-atomic Carbon Alloys from glassy carbon (GC) that exhibits high electrical conductivity and low gas permeability after treatment at critical conditions. Glassy carbon underwent metamorphosis to graphite spheres at HIP condition, and improved resistance to oxidation after alloying with Ta. The other one is shape utilization of the nano-sized carbon by understanding the effect of its large surfaces or interfaces in nanotechnology treatment. Recently carbon nanofiber was produced by polymer blend technology (PB) which was proposed by Prof. A. Oya during the Carbon Alloy project and progressed into intelligent carbon nanofiber (CNF) materials. CNF is combined into the polymer composites which is a candidate material for the bipolar separator in fuel cell. The superior properties, i.e., high electrical conductivity, high modulus, high strength, etc., of the CNF is being utilized in the preparation of this polymer composite.

  7. Synthesis of Nb-18%Al alloy by mechanical alloying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymek, S.; Wrobel, M.; Dollar, M.

    1999-01-01

    The main goal of this study was attempt to employ by mechanical alloying to produce Nb-Al alloy. The Nb-rich alloy composition was selected in order to receive the ductile niobium solid solution (Nb ss ) phase in the final, equilibrium state. This ductile phase was believed to prevent crack propagation in the consolidated alloy and thus to improve its ductility and toughness. Elemental powders of niobium (99.8% pure and -325 mesh) and aluminium (99.9% pure and -325 mesh) were used as starting materials. These powders were mixed to give the nominal compositions od 82% Nb and 18% Al (atomic percent). Mechanical alloying was carried out in a Szegvari laboratory attritor mill in an argon atmosphere with the controlled oxygen level reduced to less than 10 ppm. The total milling time was 86 hours. During the course of milling powder samples were taken out after 5, 10 and 20 hours, which allowed characterization of the powder morphology and progress of the mechanical alloying process. The changes in particle morphology during milling were examined using a scanning electron microscope and the phase analysis was performed in a X-ray diffractometer with CoK α radiation. Initially, particles' size increased and their appearance changed from the regular to one of the flaky shape. X-ray diffraction patterns of examined powders as a function of milling time are presented. Peaks from Al, through much weaker than in the starting material, were still present after 5 hours of milling but disappeared completely after 10 hours of milling. With increasing milling time, the peaks became broader and their intensities decreased. Formation of amorphous phase was observed after 86 hours of milling. This was deducted from a diffuse halo observed at the 2Θ angle of about 27 o . Intermetallic phases Nb 3 Al and Nb 2 Al were found in the consolidated material only. (author)

  8. Progress in development of iron base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackay, V.V.; Parker, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    The ways of development of new iron base high-strength alloys are considered. Perspectiveness of ferritic steel strengthening with intermetallides (TaFe 2 , for instance) is shown. Favourable combination of plasticity, strength and fracture toughness in nickel-free iron-manganese alloys (16-20%) is also pointed out. A strength level of alloyed maraging steels can be achieved by changes in chemical composition and by proper heat treatments of low- and medium-alloyed steels

  9. Fe-Cr-Ni system alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Phase diagram of Fe-Cr-Ni system, which is the basic one for production of corrosion resistant alloys, is considered. Data on corrosion resistance of such alloys are correlated depending on a number of factors: quality and composition of modifying elements, corrosion medium, temperature, alloy structure, mechanical and thermal treatment. Grades of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys are presented, and fields of their application are pointed out

  10. Description of Project Sapphire. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The mission of Project Sapphire was to repackage approximately 600 kg of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the Republic of Kazakhstan into internationally acceptable shipping packages and transport the material to a storage location in the United States. There were four material types to be repackaged: metal; oxide; uranium/beryllium (U/Be) alloy; and residues from U/Be alloy production. Seven major steps described in this report were necessary for successful execution of the project: planning and training; readiness assessment; deployment; set up; process; take down; and transport. Nuclear criticality safety especially affected several of these steps

  11. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has ...

  12. Corrosion Behaviour of New Zr Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolksdorf, E.

    1974-01-01

    Corrosion studies have indicated that the most promising replacements for Zicaloy-2 are ZrCrFe, ZrVFe and probably ZrNbTa, provided they are in their optimized condition. These alloys are conventionally manufactured alloys. An internally oxidized ZrMgO alloy is even superior, from the corrosion...

  13. Ti-Pt Alloys form mechanical milling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nxumalo, S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available C maximum in these alloys. A few researchers have studied the martensitic transformation in TiPt alloys using arc melted cast samples. In this work high temperature shape memory alloys are targeted using powder metallurgy as a processing route....

  14. Hanford Site technical baseline database. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report lists the Hanford specific files (Table 1) that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. Table 2 includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 0 of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. This information is being managed and maintained on the Hanford RDD-100 System, which uses the capabilities of RDD-100, a systems engineering software system of Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC). This revision of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database uses RDD-100 version 3.0.2.2 (see Table 3). Directories reflect those controlled by the Hanford RDD-100 System Administrator. Table 4 provides information regarding the platform. A cassette tape containing the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database is available

  15. Magnesium and related low alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.; Caillat, R.; Darras, R.

    1959-01-01

    In the first part the authors examine the comparative corrosion of commercial magnesium, of a magnesium-zirconium alloy (0,4 per cent ≤ Zr ≤ 0,7 per cent) of a ternary magnesium-zinc-zirconium alloy (0,8 per cent ≤ Zn ≤ 1,2 per cent) and of english 'Magnox type' alloys, in dry carbon dioxide-free air, in damp carbon dioxide-free air, and in dry and damp carbon dioxide, at temperatures from 300 to 600 deg. C. In the second part the structural stability of these materials is studied after annealings, of 10 to 1000 hours at 300 to 450 deg. C. Variations in grain after these heat treatments and mechanical stretching properties at room temperature are presented. Finally various creep rate and life time diagrams are given for these materials, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 deg. C. (author) [fr

  16. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  17. Alloy phase stability and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocks, G.M.; Pope, E.P.; Giamei, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    At the level of basic quantum theory the papers in this symposium reflect the great progress that has been made in understanding the physical properties of both ordered and disordered alloys based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). DFT provides a quantitative parameter-free (often referred to as first principles) theory of the ground state properties of these systems. This general approach has also been used in combination with classical elasticity and dislocation theory to provide the first quantitative understanding of some of the mechanical properties of intermetallic alloys. Recent advances have built on DFT theory to provide the first glimpses of a theory of the finite temperature phase stability of alloys. It is the strength of these first principles theories that the understanding of materials properties is in terms of the underlying electronic structure. At the level of atomistic simulation, based on semi-empirical potentials, again much progress has been made in understanding the properties of extended defects such as grain boundaries and dislocations. On the experimental front increasingly sophisticated tools are being brought to bear in order to understand both the underlying electronic structure and detailed atomic arrangements. This information, together with input from theory, is playing an increasing role in guiding alloy design efforts. At the more practical level a number of these sophisticated alloy design efforts have in recent years produced impressive results across a broad front. The properties of existing materials are continually being improved and new ones developed. Often this progress is based on a deeper understanding of the properties at the atomistic and electronic level. The design of new ordered intermetallic alloys that have reached or are reaching commercialization represents one of the major achievements of this investment of intellectual resources

  18. Resource description and access 2013 revision

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This e-book contains the 2013 Revision of RDA: Resource Description and Access, and includes the July 2013 Update. This e-book offers links within the RDA text and the capability of running rudimentary searches of RDA, but please note that this e-book does not have the full range of content or functionality provided by the subscription product RDA Toolkit. Included: A full accumulation of RDA- the revision contains a full set of all current RDA instructions. It replaces the previous version of RDA Print as opposed to being an update packet to that version. RDA has gone through many changes sin

  19. Revised Huang-Yang multipolar pseudopotential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derevianko, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    A number of authors have recently pointed out inconsistencies of results obtained with the Huang-Yang multipolar pseudopotential for low-energy scattering [K. Huang and K. C. Yang, Phys. Rev. 105, 767 (1957); later revised by Huang, Statistical Mechanics (Wiley, New York, 1963)]. The conceptual validity of their original derivation has been questioned. Here I show that these inconsistencies are rather due to an algebraic mistake made by Huang and Yang. With the corrected error, I present the revised version of the multipolar pseudopotential

  20. Plan-Belief Revision in Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    When information is shared between agents of unknown reliability, it is possible that their belief bases become inconsistent. In such cases, the belief base must be revised to restore consistency, so that the agent is able to reason. In some cases the inconsistent information may be due to use of...... of incorrect plans. We extend work by Alechina et al. to revise belief bases in which plans can be dynamically added and removed. We present an implementation of the algorithm in the AgentSpeak implementation Jason....

  1. Fast-track revision knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Kristensen, Billy B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose Fast-track surgery has reduced the length of hospital stay (LOS), morbidity, and convalescence in primary hip and knee arthroplasty (TKA). We assessed whether patients undergoing revision TKA for non-septic indications might also benefit from fast-track surgery....... Methods 29 patients were operated with 30 revision arthroplasties. Median age was 67 (34-84) years. All patients followed a standardized fast-track set-up designed for primary TKA. We determined the outcome regarding LOS, morbidity, mortality, and satisfaction. Results Median LOS was 2 (1-4) days...

  2. PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines: Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurie, S.; Bucci, G.; Johnson, L.; King, M.; Lamanna, L.; Morgan, E.; Bates, J.; Burns, R.; Eaker, R.; Ward, G.; Linnenbom, V.; Millet, P.; Paine, J.P.; Wood, C.J.; Gatten, T.; Meatheany, D.; Seager, J.; Thompson, R.; Brobst, G.; Connor, W.; Lewis, G.; Shirmer, R.; Gillen, J.; Kerns, M.; Jones, V.; Lappegaard, S.; Sawochka, S.; Smith, F.; Spires, D.; Pagan, S.; Gardner, J.; Polidoroff, T.; Lambert, S.; Dahl, B.; Hundley, F.; Miller, B.; Andersson, P.; Briden, D.; Fellers, B.; Harvey, S.; Polchow, J.; Rootham, M.; Fredrichs, T.; Flint, W.

    1993-05-01

    An effective, state-of-the art secondary water chemistry control program is essential to maximize the availability and operating life of major PWR components. Furthermore, the costs related to maintaining secondary water chemistry will likely be less than the repair or replacement of steam generators or large turbine rotors, with resulting outages taken into account. The revised PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines in this report represent the latest field and laboratory data on steam generator corrosion phenomena. This document supersedes Interim PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Recommendations for IGA/SCC Control (EPRI report TR-101230) as well as PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines--Revision 2 (NP-6239)

  3. Theoretical studies of metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, J.S.; Wille, L.T.

    1991-07-01

    A new method to predict and understand the structure and phase stability of solid-solution alloys from a knowledge only of the atomic numbers of the constituent atoms is being developed. The coherent potential approximation will be used to obtain the electronic contribution to the energy and the Monte Carlo method of statistical mechanics will be used for the thermodynamic part of the calculation. An improved coherent potential approximation will be developed by combining the standard approach with the quadratic KKR (QKKR) band theory method. This will make it easier to predict the properties of alloys from first principles. The QKKR method will be developed further

  4. PROCESS OF DISSOLVING ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, R.S.; Vogler, S.

    1958-01-21

    A process is described for dissolving binary zirconium-uranium alloys where the uranium content is about 2%. In prior dissolution procedures for these alloys, an oxidizing agent was added to prevent the precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride. In the present method complete dissolution is accomplished without the use of the oxidizing agent by using only the stoichiometric amount or slight excess of HF required by the zirconium. The concentration of the acid may range from 2M to 10M and the dissolution is advatageously carried out at a temperature of 80 deg C.

  5. Hydrogen effects in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Dexter, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The permeability of six commercial aluminum alloys to deuterium and tritium was determined by several techniques. Surface films inhibited permeation under most conditions; however, contact with lithium deuteride during the tests minimized the surface effects. Under these conditions phi/sub D 2 / = 1.9 x 10 -2 exp (--22,400/RT) cc (NTP)atm/sup -- 1 / 2 / s -1 cm -1 . The six alloys were also tested before, during, and after exposure to high pressure hydrogen, and no hydrogen-induced effects on the tensile properties were observed

  6. Phosphorus containing sintered alloys (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchnik, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus additives are considered for their effect on the properties of sintered alloys of different applications: structural, antifriction, friction, magnetic, hard, superhard, heavy etc. Data are presented on compositions and properties of phosphorus-containing materials produced by the powder metallurgy method. Phosphorus is shown to be an effective activator of sintering in some cases. When its concentration in the material is optimal it imparts the material such properties as strength, viscosity, hardness, wear resistance. Problems concerning powder metallurgy of amorphous phosphorus-containing alloys are reported

  7. Hot workability of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeon Chul; Oh, Kyung Jin

    1986-01-01

    Hot Workability of aluminium alloys, 2024, 6061 and 7075, has been studied by hot torsion tests at temperatures from 320 to 515 deg C and at strain rates from 1.26 x 10 -3 to 5.71 x 10 -3 sec -1 . Hot working condition of these aluminium alloys was determined quantitatively from the constitutive equations obtained from flow stress curves in torsion. Experimental data of the logarith of the Zener-Hollomonn parameter showed good linear relationships to the logarith of sinh(ασ-bar)

  8. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples.

  9. Mechanical properties of ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroupa, F.

    1977-06-01

    A survey is given of the metallophysical fundamentals of the mechanical properties of ordered two-phase alloys. Alloys of this type have a superlattice structure in a substitution mixed crystal. Ordering is achieved by slow cooling or by annealing below the critical temperature, during which ordering domains (antiphase domains) are formed. At a high degree of ordering, the dislocations are concentrated to form pairs, so-called super-dislocations. The mechanical properties may be selectively changed by varying different parameters (size of the ordering domains, degree of ordering, energy of the antiphase boundaries) by a special composition and heat treatment.(GSC) [de

  10. Thermodynamic properties of calcium–bismuth alloys determined by emf measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hojong; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Chung, Brice; Jiang Kai; Tomaszowska, Alina A.; Wang Kangli; Wei Weifeng; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of Ca–Bi alloys were determined by electromotive force (emf) measurements to assess the suitability of Ca–Bi electrodes for electrochemical energy storage applications. Emf was measured at ambient pressure as a function of temperature between 723 K and 1173 K using a Ca(s)|CaF 2 (s)|Ca(in Bi) cell for twenty different Ca–Bi alloys spanning the entire range of composition from x Ca = 0 to 1. Reported are the temperature-independent partial molar entropy and enthalpy of calcium for each Ca–Bi alloy. Also given are the measured activities of calcium, the excess partial molar Gibbs energy of bismuth estimated from the Gibbs–Duhem equation, and the integral change in Gibbs energy for each Ca–Bi alloy at 873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K. Calcium activities at 973 K were found to be nearly constant at a value of a Ca = 1 × 10 −8 over the composition range x Ca = 0.32–0.56, yielding an emf of ∼0.77 V. Above x Ca = 0.62 and coincident with Ca 5 Bi 3 formation, the calcium activity approached unity. The Ca–Bi system was also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry over the entire range of composition. Based upon these data along with the emf measurements, a revised Ca–Bi binary phase diagram is proposed.

  11. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  12. ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

    1962-06-12

    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  13. An introduction to surface alloying of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmani, Santosh S; Goyal, Rajendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Surface Alloying of Metals aims to serve as a primer to the basic aspects of surface alloying of metals. The book serves to elucidate fundamentals of surface modification and their engineering applications. The book starts with basics of surface alloying and goes on to cover key surface alloying methods, such as carburizing, nitriding, chromizing, duplex treatment, and the characterization of surface layers. The book will prove useful to students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, as also to researchers and practitioners looking for a quick introduction to surface alloying.

  14. Protective claddings for high strength chromium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The application of a Cr-Y-Hf-Th alloy as a protective cladding for a high strength chromium alloy was investigated for its effectiveness in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of a core alloy. Cladding was accomplished by a combination of hot gas pressure bonding and roll cladding techniques. Based on bend DBTT, the cladding alloy was effective in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of the chromium core alloy for up to 720 ks (200hours) in air at 1422 K (2100 F). A significant increase in the bend DBTT occurred with longer time exposures at 1422 K or short time exposures at 1589 K (2400 F).

  15. Revision total hip arthoplasty: factors associated with re-revision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatod, Monti; Cafri, Guy; Inacio, Maria C S; Schepps, Alan L; Paxton, Elizabeth W; Bini, Stefano A

    2015-03-04

    The survivorship of implants after revision total hip arthroplasty and risk factors associated with re-revision are not well defined. We evaluated the re-revision rate with use of the institutional total joint replacement registry. The purpose of this study was to determine patient, implant, and surgeon factors associated with re-revision total hip arthroplasty. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The total joint replacement registry was used to identify patients who had undergone revision total hip arthroplasty for aseptic reasons from April 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010. The end point of interest was re-revision total hip arthroplasty. Risk factors evaluated for re-revision total hip arthroplasty included: patient risk factors (age, sex, body mass index, race, and general health status), implant risk factors (fixation type, bearing surface, femoral head size, and component replacement), and surgeon risk factors (volume and experience). A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used. Six hundred and twenty-nine revision total hip arthroplasties with sixty-three (10%) re-revisions were evaluated. The mean cohort age (and standard deviation) was 57.0 ± 12.4 years, the mean body mass index (and standard deviation) was 29.5 ± 6.1 kg/m(2), and most of the patients were women (64.5%) and white (81.9%) and had an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of associated with the risk of re-revision. For every ten-year increase in patient age, the hazard ratio for re-revision decreases by a factor of 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.90). For every five revision surgical procedures performed by a surgeon, the risk of revision decreases by a factor of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 0.99). At the time of revision, a new or retained cemented femoral implant or all-cemented hip implant increases the risk of revision by a factor of 3.19 (95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 8.38) relative to a retained or new uncemented hip implant. A ceramic on a

  16. Investigating aluminum alloy reinforced by graphene nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: shaojiuyan@126.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Yang, C.; Hong, Q.H.; Chen, J.Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Lin, Z.M. [Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2014-08-26

    As one of the most important engineering materials, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in many fields. However, the requirement of enhancing their mechanical properties without sacrificing the ductility is always a challenge in the development of aluminum alloys. Thanks to the excellent physical and mechanical properties, graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been applied as promising reinforcing elements in various engineering materials, including polymers and ceramics. However, the investigation of GNFs as reinforcement phase in metals or alloys, especially in aluminum alloys, is still very limited. In this study, the aluminum alloy reinforced by GNFs was successfully prepared via powder metallurgy approach. The GNFs were mixed with aluminum alloy powders through ball milling and followed by hot isostatic pressing. The green body was then hot extruded to obtain the final GNFs reinforced aluminum alloy nanocomposite. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis show that GNFs were well dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix and no chemical reactions were observed at the interfaces between the GNFs and aluminum alloy matrix. The mechanical properties' testing results show that with increasing filling content of GNFs, both tensile and yield strengths were remarkably increased without losing the ductility performance. These results not only provided a pathway to achieve the goal of preparing high strength aluminum alloys with excellent ductilitybut they also shed light on the development of other metal alloys reinforced by GNFs.

  17. Environmental fatigue in aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys exhibit similar environmental fatigue crack growth characteristics compared to conventional 2000 series alloys and are more resistant to environmental fatigue compared to 7000 series alloys. The superior fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloys 2090, 2091, 8090, and 8091 is due to crack closure caused by tortuous crack path morphology and crack surface corrosion products. At high R and reduced closure, chemical environment effects are pronounced resulting in accelerated near threshold da/dN. The beneficial effects of crack closure are minimized for small cracks resulting in rapid growth rates. Limited data suggest that the 'chemically small crack' effect, observed in other alloy system, is not pronounced in Al-Li alloys. Modeling of environmental fatigue in Al-Li-Cu alloys related accelerated fatigue crack growth in moist air and salt water to hydrogen embrittlement.

  18. Applications of shape memory alloys in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, M.; Suzuki, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, a first application of shape memory TiNi alloy was a moving flap in an air-conditioner which was developed as sensing function of shape memory alloy at Matsushista Electric Industrial Co. Then, shape memory utilized in a coffee maker, an electric rice-cooker, a thermal mixing valve and etc. were commercialized in Japan. And brassiere wires, a guide wire for medical treatment, an antenna for portable telephone and others were commercialized utilizing superelasticity. At the same time with these commercial products, there was not only progress in fabrication technology to effect accurate transformation temperature, but also the discovery of small hysteresis alloy such as R-phase or TiNiCu alloy and low transformation temperature alloy such as TiNiFe, TiNiV and TiNiCo alloys. Therefore the shape memory alloy market has expanded widely to electric appliances, automobile, residence, medical care and other field today. (orig.)

  19. Requirements of titanium alloys for aeronautical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiban, Brânduşa; Bran, Dragoş-Teodor; Elefterie, Cornelia Florina

    2018-02-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aeronatical components made from Titanium based alloys. Asignificant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys). For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  20. Aeronautical Industry Requirements for Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran, D. T.; Elefterie, C. F.; Ghiban, B.

    2017-06-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aviation components made from Titanium based alloys. A significant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys).For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  1. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.B. Rebak; J.H. Payer

    2006-01-01

    Alloy 22 (NO6022) was designed to stand the most aggressive industrial applications, including both reducing and oxidizing acids. Even in the most aggressive environments, if the temperature is lower than 150 F (66 C) Alloy 22 would remain in the passive state having particularly low corrosion rates. In multi-ionic solutions that may simulate the behavior of concentrated ground water, even at near boiling temperatures, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 is only a few nano-meters per year because the alloy is in the complete passive state. The corrosion rate of passive Alloy 22 decreases as the time increases. Immersion corrosion testing also show that the newer generation of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may offer a better corrosion resistance than Alloy 22 only in some highly aggressive conditions such as in hot acids

  2. Irradiation effects in magnesium and aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructure, mechanical properties and swelling of several magnesium and aluminium alloys were studied. The neutron fluences of 2-3 X 10 22 n/cm 2 , >0.2 MeV produced displacement doses of 20 to 45 displacements per atom (dpa). Ductility of the magnesium alloys was severely reduced by irradiation induced recrystallization and precipitation of various forms. Precipitation of transmuted silicon occurred in the aluminium alloys. However, the effect on ductility was much less than for the magnesium alloys. The magnesium and aluminium alloys had excellent resistance to swelling: The best magnesium alloy was Mg/3.0 wt% Al/0.19 wt% Ca; its density decreased by only 0.13%. The best aluminium alloy was 6063, with a density decrease of 0.22%. (Auth.)

  3. Revision of the genus Phaeanthus (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.B.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A revision of the genus Phaeanthus Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) is presented. The genus comprises 8 species. A key to the fruiting and/or flowering specimens of the genus is included. The genus consists of shrubs to small-sized trees from Malesia and Vietnam. It is characterised by sepals and

  4. Revision of South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kannemeyer, L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available an improved mechanistic-empirical design method has been developed, based on the latest available local and international research and design trends. The process followed during revision as well as some of the key outcomes of this process are presented...

  5. A revision of the genus Mastixia (Cornaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthew, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    A revision of the genus in its entire range of distribution is presented. Out of more than 50 published specific names, 9 species (with 13 subspecies or varieties) are recognized, in addition to 4 new species and one new subspecies. The two subgenera Pentamastixia and Tetramastixia of Wangerin

  6. EU law revisions and legislative drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghetto, Enrico; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    in force in their original form for several years while others are revised soon after their enactment. What factors account for this variation? We empirically analyze the proposition that in the presence of ‘legislative drift,’ i.e. the intertemporal variation of decision-makers’ preferences, major...

  7. A synoptic revision of Inversodicraea (Podostemaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheek, M.; Feika, A.; Lebbie, A.; Goyder, D.; Tchiengue, B.; Sene, O.; Tchouto, P.; Burgt, van der X.

    2017-01-01

    Six new species of Inversodicraea (I. feika from Sierra Leone, I. liberia from Liberia, and I. ebo, I. eladii, I. tchoutoi, and I. xanderi from Cameroon) are described as new to science in the context of a synoptic revision of this African genus, now comprising 30 species, including I. cussetiana

  8. The Brosimum allene: a structural revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gaojie; Liu, Kai; Williams, Lawrence J

    2008-12-04

    Insight derived from a synthetic model, calculated (13)C NMR data, and comparison to experimental data indicate that the proposed allenic structure A, originally assigned to an isolate from Brosimum acutifolium Huber, should be revised to B, a natural product and nonallenic substance, mururin C.

  9. Rhinoplasty for the multiply revised nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the problems encountered on revising a multiply operated nose and the methods used in correcting such problems. The study included 50 cases presenting for revision rhinoplasty after having had 2 or more previous rhinoplasties. An external rhinoplasty approach was used in all cases. Simultaneous septal surgery was done whenever indicated. All cases were followed for a mean period of 32 months (range, 1.5-8 years). Evaluation of the surgical result depended on clinical examination, comparison of pre- and postoperative photographs, and degree of patients' satisfaction with their aesthetic and functional outcome. Functionally, 68% suffered nasal obstruction that was mainly caused by septal deviations and nasal valve problems. Aesthetically, the most common deformities of the upper two thirds of the nose included pollybeak (64%), dorsal irregularities (54%), dorsal saddle (44%), and open roof deformity (42%), whereas the deformities of lower third included depressed tip (68%), tip contour irregularities (60%), and overrotated tip (42%). Nasal grafting was necessary in all cases; usually more than 1 type of graft was used in each case. Postoperatively, 79% of the patients, with preoperative nasal obstruction, reported improved breathing; 84% were satisfied with their aesthetic result; and only 8 cases (16%) requested further revision to correct minor deformities. Revision of a multiply operated nose is a complex and technically demanding task, yet, in a good percentage of cases, aesthetic as well as functional improvement are still possible.

  10. Title TBA: Revising the Abstract Submission Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibon, Roni; Open Science Committee, Cbu; Henson, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Academic conferences are among the most prolific scientific activities, yet the current abstract submission and review process has serious limitations. We propose a revised process that would address these limitations, achieve some of the aims of Open Science, and stimulate discussion throughout the entire lifecycle of the scientific work. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A taxonomic revision of Lamium (Lamiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennema, J.

    1989-01-01

    The present study deals with the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Lamium (Lamiaceae). The taxonomic revision is mainly based on the study of herbarium collections, and to a smaller degree on field observations and abstracts from literature. The research was done at the Rijksherbarium, Leyden,

  12. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... changes include: (1) The use of grantee funds in furtherance of program objectives over and above the... the objective of the grant-supported program. (2) The revision indicates the need for additional... programs, functions, and activities when budgeted separately for a grant, except that the Bureau shall...

  13. Revised Reynolds Stress and Triple Product Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lillard, Randolph P.

    2017-01-01

    Revised versions of Lag methodology Reynolds-stress and triple product models are applied to accepted test cases to assess the improvement, or lack thereof, in the prediction capability of the models. The Bachalo-Johnson bump flow is shown as an example for this abstract submission.

  14. INDIRECT WRITTEN CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK, REVISION, AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Poorebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrective feedback, the necessity of providing it, and how it should be provided has been one of the hot topics in the area of ELT. Amid continuing controversies over whether providing feedback helps L2 learners improve their writing accuracy, many research studies have been undertaken to compare the relative effectiveness of different types of feedback. However, the difference between two types of indirect corrective feedback, namely indication and indication plus location, have not been properly examined yet. Motivated to narrow this gap, this study is designed to compare two groups of Iranian learners, each revising their papers based on one of the aforementioned options. For data analysis, a series of independent samples t tests were employed. The results revealed that the difference between the two groups in their reduction of errors from the original draft to the revision of each task followed a growing trend and became significant. Nonetheless, the difference in accuracy of new pieces of writing fell short of significance. Finally, it was found that error reduction in revision stage cannot be considered as learning. The results of the study, discussed in relation to that of others, implicate that the purpose for which feedback is provided is essential in determining the type of feedback; more explicit feedback is better for revising purposes while more implicit feedback is good for learning purposes.

  15. Migrant Education Administrative Handbook. Revised April 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    The revised handbook provides specific references to the legislation and the National Migrant Program Guidelines, while setting forth the administrative procedures required for migrant projects in North Carolina. Specific topics of discussion in migrant program administration cover Public Law 89-750, state and local educational agency…

  16. 76 FR 2291 - TRICARE Reimbursement Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... rule revises the regulation by removing references to specific numeric Diagnosis Related Group (DRG... following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for... descriptions became obsolete, so we are removing the numeric references in the regulation and utilizing only...

  17. 78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear..., ``Radiation Sources,'' Section 12.3 -12.4, ``Radiation Protection Design Features,'' and Section 12.5, ``Operational Radiation Protection Program.'' DATES: The effective date of this Standard Review Plan update is...

  18. Abschluss einer Aphanocephalus-revision (Coleoptera. Discolomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John, H.

    1967-01-01

    Im Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, befand sich eine Anzahl noch von Grouvelle determinierter Exemplare der Gattung Aphanocephalus Wollaston, die bei meiner Revision dieser Gattung (John, 1956, Ent. Blätt. 52) nicht berücksichtigt werden konnte, da das Material mir damals nicht

  19. A revision of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van P.C.; Sweet, F.S.T.; Fernández-Casas, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha, a widespread, species rich genus, ranges from the Americas and Caribbean to Africa and India. In Malesia five species occur, all of which were introduced and originated in Central and South America. The five species are revised and an identification key, nomenclature, descriptions,

  20. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-02-19

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  1. New Directions in Reading Instruction--Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Bess, Ed.

    The gains in knowledge about the nature of reading and how to most effectively teach it come from cognitive research. This booklet (in the form of a flipchart) synthesizes and summarizes much of the current research on effective instruction for improved literacy and greater student achievement. The booklet, a revised edition of "New…

  2. Fast-track revision knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Kristensen, Billy B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose Fast-track surgery has reduced the length of hospital stay (LOS), morbidity, and convalescence in primary hip and knee arthroplasty (TKA). We assessed whether patients undergoing revision TKA for non-septic indications might also benefit from fast-track surgery...

  3. Revision of Dorstenia sect. Nothodorstenia (Moraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The African genus Craterogyne Lanjouw has to be united with Dorstenia L. Most species of Craterogyne can be included in Dorstenia sect. Nothodorstenia Engl. A revision of this section is presented. 5 species have been accepted, viz. D. elliptica Bureau, D. djettii J. L. Guillaumet, D. oligogyna

  4. EPRI BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    BWRVIP-190: BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines – 2008 Revision has been revised. The revision committee consisted of U.S. and non-U.S. utilities (members of the BWR Vessel and Internals Protection (BWRVIP) Mitigation Committee), reactor system manufacturers, fuel suppliers, and EPRI and industry experts. The revised document, BWRVIP-190 Revision 1, was completely reformatted into two volumes, with a simplified presentation of water chemistry control, diagnostic and good practice parameters in Volume 1 and the technical bases in Volume 2, to facilitate use. The revision was developed in parallel and in coordination with preparation of the Fuel Reliability Guidelines Revision 1: BWR Fuel Cladding Crud and Corrosion. Guidance is included for plants operating under normal water chemistry (NWC), moderate hydrogen water chemistry (HWC-M), and noble metal application (GE-Hitachi NobleChem™) plus hydrogen injection. Volume 1 includes significant changes to BWR feedwater and reactor water chemistry control parameters to provide increased assurance of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mitigation of reactor materials and fuel reliability during all plant conditions, including cold shutdown (≤200°F (93°C)), startup/hot standby (>200°F (93°C) and ≤ 10%) and power operation (>10% power). Action Level values for chloride and sulfate have been tightened to minimize environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of all wetted surfaces, including those not protected by hydrogen injection, with or without noble metals. Chemistry control guidance has been enhanced to minimize shutdown radiation fields by clarifying targets for depleted zinc oxide (DZO) injection while meeting requirements for fuel reliability. Improved tabular presentations of parameter values explicitly indicate levels at which actions are to be taken and required sampling frequencies. Volume 2 provides the technical bases for BWR water chemistry control for control of EAC, flow accelerated corrosion

  5. Nickel, cobalt, and their alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the compositions, properties, processing, performance, and applications of nickel, cobalt, and their alloys. It includes all of the essential information contained in the ASM Handbook series, as well as new or updated coverage in many areas in the nickel, cobalt, and related industries.

  6. Heat treatment of nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F. Jr.; Clatworthy, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    A heat treating process is described that can be used to produce desired combinations of strength, ductility, and fabricability characteristics in heat resistant age-hardenable alloys having precipitation-hardening amounts of niobium, titanium, and/or tantalum in a nickel-containing matrix. (U.S.)

  7. Electroplated zinc-cobalt alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.E.O.S.; Farr, J.P.G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work on the deposition and use of ectrodeposited zinc-cobalt alloys is surveyed. Alloys containing lower of Nuclear quantities of cobalt are potentially more useful. The structures of the deposits is related to their chemical and mechanical properties. The inclusion of oxide and its role in the deposition mechanism may be significant. Chemical and engineering properties relate to the metallurgical structure of the alloys, which derives from the mechanism of deposition. The inclusion of oxides and hydroxides in the electroplate may provide evidence for this mechanism. Electrochemical impedance measurements have been made at significant deposition potentials, in alkaline electrolytes. These reveal a complex electrode behaviour which depends not only on the electrode potential but on the Co content of the electrolyte. For the relevant range of cathodic potential zinc-cobalt alloy electrodeposition occurs through a stratified interface. The formation of an absorbed layer ZnOH/sup +/ is the initial step, this inhibits the deposition of cobalt at low cathodic potentials, so explaining its 'anomalous deposition'. A porous layer of zinc forms on the adsorbed ZnOH/sup +/ at underpotential. As the potential becomes more cathodic, cobalt co- deposits from its electrolytic complex forming a metallic solid solution of Co in Zn. In electrolytes containing a high concentration of cobalt a mixed entity (ZnCo)/sub +/ is assumed to adsorb at the cathode from which a CoZn intermetallic deposits. (author)

  8. Research on modulated structure alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Tokuzo; Saito, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Kenki

    1982-01-01

    Research was carried out for the purposes of clarifying the cause of modulated structure formation, developing the structure control method utilizing modulated structure and clarifying the suitability of modulated structure alloys as radiation damage-resisting materials. The research on structure control method encountered a difficulty in the analysis of experimental results, bu the following results were obtained in the other items. The method of solving a diffusion equation including a nonlinear term was found in course of the clarification of the cause of modulated structure formation. As a means of detecting faint unevenness in solid solution, of which the deviation of composition is a few %, the structure analysis method utilizing magnetic property was developed. This method was applied to Ni-9.6 at.% Ti alloy, and the process of expanding amplitude in composition variation in spinodal decomposition and the formation of solute atomshort region at the time of nucleation-growth were confirmed. Utilizing the high energy electron beam generated in a superhigh voltage electron microscope, electron beam irradiation experiment was carried out on precipitation hardening alloys with modulated structure. As the result, it was found that in Ni-Ti alloy, the amount of void swelling resistance showed the change with the increase of modulated structure period. (Kako, I.)

  9. Palladium alloys for hydrogen diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A palladium-base alloy with tin and/or a silicon addition and its use in the production of hydrogen from water via a cycle of chemical reactions, of which the decomposition of HI into H 2 and I 2 is the most important, is described

  10. Introduction to hydrogen in alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlake, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Substitutional alloys, both those that form hydrides and those that do not, are discussed, but with more emphasis on the former than the latter. This overview includes the following closely related subjects: (1) the significant effects of substitutional solutes on the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) equilibria of metal-hydrogen systems, (2) the changes in thermodynamic properties resulting from differences in atom size and from modifications of electronic structure, (3) attractive and repulsive interactions between H and solute atoms and the effects of such interactions on the pressure dependent solubility for H, (4) H trapping in alloys of Group V metals and its effect on the terminal solubility for H (TSH), (5) some other mechanisms invoked to explain the enhancement (due to alloying) of the (TSH) in Group V metals, and (6) H-impurity complexes in alloys of the metals Ni, Co, and Fe. Some results showing that an enhanced TSH may ameliorate the resistance of a metal to hydrogen embrittlement are presented

  11. Iron-nickel-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karenko, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    A specification is given for iron-nickel-chromium age-hardenable alloys suitable for use in fast breeder reactor ducts and cladding, which utilize the gamma-double prime strengthening phase and are characterized in having a delta or eta phase distributed at or near grain boundaries. A range of compositions is given. (author)

  12. Electroless alloy/composite coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The market for these coatings is expanding fast as the potential applications are on the rise. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review different electroless alloy/composite coatings with respect to bath types and their composition, properties and applications. Different characterisation studies have been ...

  13. The welding of alloy 800

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, M.; Norman, P.L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews the technical literature published on the welding of alloy 800. Much of this work has been carried out using the Varestraint and Gleeble tests to investigate the susceptibility of the alloy and of high nickel consumables to hot-cracking. Inspite of much reported work, it is pointed out that many years of experience in the use of alloy 800 shows it to be readily weldable without any major problems occurring due to hot-cracking. The elements investigated include titanium, aluminium, sulphur, phosphorus and carbon, and the effects of these elements are discuused in terms of their effects on the hot-ductility curves obtained by Gleeble testing. Conclusions reached by various researchers state that the individual effects of the above five elements may be masked by other unknown factors. It is concluded that with correct welding procedures alloy 800 can be welded without cracking problems even with high heat input welding processes using either high-nickel filler wires or a matching electrode. Matching composition filler wires have been used with success but none are at present available commercially. (author)

  14. Hydrostatic extrusion of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bohlen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the capabilities and limitations of the hydrostatic extrusion process for the manufacturing of magnesium alloy sections. Firstly, the process basics for the hydrostatic extrusion of materials in general and of magnesium in particular are introduced. Next, some recent research

  15. Outcome, revision rate and indication for revision following resurfacing hemiarthroplasty for osteoarthritis of the shoulder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J V; Polk, A; Sorensen, A K

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated patient-reported outcomes, the rate of revision and the indications for revision following resurfacing hemiarthroplasty of the shoulder in patients with osteoarthritis. All patients with osteoarthritis who underwent primary resurfacing hemiarthroplasty and reported...... to the Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry (DSR), between January 2006 and December 2010 were included. There were 772 patients (837 arthroplasties) in the study. The Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder (WOOS) index was used to evaluate patient-reported outcome 12 months (10 to 14) post......-operatively. The rates of revision were calculated from the revisions reported to the DSR up to December 2011 and by checking deaths with the Danish National Register of Persons. A complete questionnaire was returned by 688 patients (82.2%). The mean WOOS was 67 (0 to 100). A total of 63 hemiarthroplasties (7...

  16. EPRI PWR primary water chemistry guidelines revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElrath, Joel; Fruzzetti, Keith

    2014-01-01

    EPRI periodically updates the PWR Primary Water Chemistry Guidelines as new information becomes available and as required by NEI 97-06 (Steam Generator Program Guidelines) and NEI 03-08 (Guideline for the Management of Materials Issues). The last revision of the PWR water chemistry guidelines identified an optimum primary water chemistry program based on then-current understanding of research and field information. This new revision provides further details with regard to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), fuel integrity, and shutdown dose rates. A committee of industry experts, including utility specialists, nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) and fuel vendor representatives, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) representatives, consultants, and EPRI staff collaborated in reviewing the available data on primary water chemistry, reactor water coolant system materials issues, fuel integrity and performance issues, and radiation dose rate issues. From the data, the committee updated the water chemistry guidelines that all PWR nuclear plants should adopt. The committee revised guidance with regard to optimization to reflect industry experience gained since the publication of Revision 6. Among the changes, the technical information regarding the impact of zinc injection on PWSCC initiation and dose rate reduction has been updated to reflect the current level of knowledge within the industry. Similarly, industry experience with elevated lithium concentrations with regard to fuel performance and radiation dose rates has been updated to reflect data collected to date. Recognizing that each nuclear plant owner has a unique set of design, operating, and corporate concerns, the guidelines committee has retained a method for plant-specific optimization. Revision 7 of the Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Water Chemistry Guidelines provides guidance for PWR primary systems of all manufacture and design. The guidelines continue to emphasize plant

  17. Studies on neutron irradiation effects of iron alloys and nickel-base heat resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    1987-09-01

    The present paper describes the results of neutron irradiation effects on iron alloys and nickel-base heat resistant alloys. As for the iron alloys, irradiation hardening and embrittlement were investigated using internal friction measurement, electron microscopy and tensile testings. The role of alloying elements was also investigated to understand the irradiation behavior of iron alloys. The essential factors affecting irradiation hardening and embrittlement were thus clarified. On the other hand, postirradiation tensile and creep properties were measured of Hastelloy X alloy. Irradiation behavior at elevated temperatures is discussed. (author)

  18. [Comparison of the clinical effects of selective laser melting deposition basal crowns and cobalt chromium alloy base crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-min; Wang, Wei-qian; Ma, Jing-yuan

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical effects of selective laser melting (SLM) deposition basal crowns and cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns. One hundred and sixty eight patients treated with either SLM deposition basal crowns (110 teeth) or cobalt chromium alloy casting basal crowns (110 teeth) were followed-up for 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months. The revised standard of American Public Health Association was used to evaluate the clinical effect of restoration, including the color of porcelain crowns, gingival inflammation, gingival margin discoloration, and crack or fracture. Data analysis was conducted with SPSS 20 software package for Student's t test and Chi-square test. Six cases were lost to follow-up. The patients who were treated with SLM deposition basal crowns (104 teeth) and cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns (101 teeth) completed the study. Patients were more satisfied with SLM deposition cobalt chromium alloy porcelain crowns. There was 1 prosthesis with poor marginal fit after 24 months of restoration in SLM crowns. There were 6 prostheses with edge coloring and 8 with poor marginal fit in cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns, which was significantly different between the 2 groups(P<0.05). The SLM deposition copings results in smaller edge coloring and better marginal fit than those of cobalt-chrome copings. Patients are pleased with short-term clinical results.

  19. 40 CFR 60.4124 - Hg budget permit revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg budget permit revisions. 60.4124... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Permits § 60.4124 Hg budget permit revisions. Except as provided in § 60.4123(b), the permitting authority will revise the Hg Budget permit, as necessary, in...

  20. Integrating Relational Reasoning and Knowledge Revision during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese; Van Boekel, Martin; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Our goal in this theoretical contribution is to connect research on knowledge revision and relational reasoning. To achieve this goal, first, we review the "knowledge revision components framework" (KReC) that provides an account of knowledge revision processes, specifically as they unfold during reading of texts. Second, we review a…

  1. Oxide characterization and hydrogen behaviors of Zr-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Kim, D. J.; Kwon, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Oh, S. J.; Yim, B. J.; Son, S. B.; Yun, S. P.

    2006-03-01

    The work scope and contents of the research are as follows : basic properties of zirconium alloys, hydrogen pick-up mechanism of zirconium alloy, effects of hydride on the corrosion behaviors of zirconium alloys, estimation on stress of oxide layer in the zirconium alloy, microstructure and characteristic of oxide in pre-hydrided zirconium alloys

  2. Progressive degradation of alloy 690 and the development of a significant improvement in alloy 800CR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehle, Roger W.; Arioka, Koji; Tapping, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The present most widely used alloys for tubing in steam generators and structural materials in water cooled reactors are Alloy 690 and Alloy 800. However, both alloys, while improved over Alloy 600 may not meet the needs of longer range applications in the range of 80-100 years. Alloy 690 sustains damage resulting from the formation of cavities at grain boundaries which eventually cover about 50% of the area of the grain boundaries with the remainder covering being covered with carbides. The cavities seem to nucleate on the carbides leaving the grain boundaries a structure of cavities and carbides. Such a structure will lead the Alloy 690 to fail completely. Normal Alloy 800 does not produce such cavities and probably retains a large amount of its corrosion resistance but does sustain progressive SCC at low rate. A new alloy, 800CR, has been developed in a collaboration among Arioka, Tapping, and Staehle. This alloy is based on a Cr composition of 23.5-27% with the remainder retaining the previous Alloy 800 composition. 800CR sustains a crack velocity about 100 times less than Alloy 690 and a negligible rate of initiation. The 800CR, alloy is now seeking a patent. (authors)

  3. Phase formation in multicomponent monotectic aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Alloys with a miscibility gap in the liquid state are potential materials for advanced bearings in automotive and other applications. While binary alloys, such as Al-Pb or Al-Bi, are well known, the information available for ternary monotectic Al-alloys is scarce. However, the phase formation in multicomponent alloys is not only more challenging from a scientific aspect, it is also a prerequisite for a focused development of advanced alloys. This motivated our detailed study of monotectic Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys including both experimental and computational thermodynamic methods. Based on the initially established systematic classification of monotectic ternary Al-alloys, the first promising monotectic reaction was observed in the ternary Al-Bi-Zn system. Further ternary systems Al-Cu-Sn, Al-Bi-Sn, Al-Bi-Cu and Bi-Cu-Sn were investigated as basis for quaternary Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys. Experimental investigations of phase equilibria, enthalpies and solidification microstructures were combined with thermodynamic modeling. The results demonstrate that the developed precise thermodynamic description is vital to reveal the distinct multicomponent monotectic features of pertinent phase diagrams. The solidification paths of ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, were also studied using thermodynamic calculations, revealing specific details of phase formation during solidification of selected alloys.

  4. 75 FR 57597 - Revised Proposal for Revisions to the Schedules of Civil Penalties for a Violation of a Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Revisions to the Schedules of Civil Penalties for a Violation of a Federal Railroad Safety Law or Federal... railroad safety laws and regulations are necessary because many of FRA's civil penalties have not been..., et al. Revised Proposal for Revisions to the Schedules of Civil Penalties for a Violation of a...

  5. Nanostructure evolution of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels: Revised Object kinetic Monte Carlo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiapetto, M., E-mail: mchiapet@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Université de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59600 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Messina, L. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-114 21 Stockholm (Sweden); Becquart, C.S. [Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Université de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59600 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Olsson, P. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-114 21 Stockholm (Sweden); Malerba, L. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2017-02-15

    This work presents a revised set of parameters to be used in an Object kinetic Monte Carlo model to simulate the microstructure evolution under neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steels at the operational temperature of light water reactors (∼300 °C). Within a “grey-alloy” approach, a more physical description than in a previous work is used to translate the effect of Mn and Ni solute atoms on the defect cluster diffusivity reduction. The slowing down of self-interstitial clusters, due to the interaction between solutes and crowdions in Fe is now parameterized using binding energies from the latest DFT calculations and the solute concentration in the matrix from atom-probe experiments. The mobility of vacancy clusters in the presence of Mn and Ni solute atoms was also modified on the basis of recent DFT results, thereby removing some previous approximations. The same set of parameters was seen to predict the correct microstructure evolution for two different types of alloys, under very different irradiation conditions: an Fe-C-MnNi model alloy, neutron irradiated at a relatively high flux, and a high-Mn, high-Ni RPV steel from the Swedish Ringhals reactor surveillance program. In both cases, the predicted self-interstitial loop density matches the experimental solute cluster density, further corroborating the surmise that the MnNi-rich nanofeatures form by solute enrichment of immobilized small interstitial loops, which are invisible to the electron microscope.

  6. Corrosion-electrochemical behaviour and mechanical properties ofaluminium alloy-321, alloyed by barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganiev, I.; Mukhiddinov, G.N.; Kargapolova, T.V.; Mirsaidov, U.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of present work is studying of influence of barium additionson electrochemical corrosion of casting aluminium-copper alloy Al-321,containing as base alloying components copper, chromium, manganese, titanium,zirconium, cadmium

  7. Investigation on mechanical alloying process for v-cr-ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciulescu, M.; Carlan, P.; Mihalache, M.; Bucsa, G.; Abrudeanu, M.; Galateanu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) is an efficient approach for fabricating oxide-dispersion alloys and structural materials including vanadium alloys for fusion and fission application. Dissolution behaviour of the alloying elements is a key issue for optimizing the mechanical alloying process in fabricating vanadium alloys. This paper studies the MA process of V-4wt.%Cr-4wt.%Ti alloy. The outcomes of the MA powders in a planetary ball mill are reported in terms of powder particle size and morphology evolution and elemental composition. The impact of spark-plasma sintering process on the mechanically alloyed powder is analysed. An optimal set of sintering parameters, including the maximum temperature, the dwell time and the heating rate are determined. (authors)

  8. Crevice corrosion propagation on alloy 625 and alloy C276 in natural seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCafferty, E.; Bogar, F.D.; Thomas, E.D. II; Creegan, C.A.; Lucas, K.E.; Kaznoff, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical composition of the aqueous solution within crevices on two different Ni-Cr-Mo-Fe alloys immersed in natural seawater was determined using a semiquantitative thin-layer chromatographic method. Active crevices were found to contain concentrated amounts of dissolved Ni 2+ , Cr 3+ , Mo 3+ , and Fe 2+ ions. Propagation of crevice corrosion for the two alloys was determined from anodic polarization curves in model crevice solutions based upon stoichiometric dissolution or selective dissolution of alloy components. Both alloys 625 (UNS N06625) and C276 (UNS N10276) underwent crevice corrosion in the model crevice electrolytes. For the model crevice solution based upon selective dissolution of alloy constituents, the anodic dissolution rate for alloy 625 was higher than that for alloy C276. This trend was reversed for the model crevice solution based upon uniform dissolution of alloy constituents

  9. Revised National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Pressure Injury Staging System: Revised Pressure Injury Staging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsberg, Laura E; Black, Joyce M; Goldberg, Margaret; McNichol, Laurie; Moore, Lynn; Sieggreen, Mary

    Our understanding of pressure injury etiology and development has grown in recent years through research, clinical expertise, and global interdisciplinary expert collaboration. Therefore, the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) has revised the definition and stages of pressure injury. The revision was undertaken to incorporate the current understanding of the etiology of pressure injuries, as well as to clarify the anatomical features present or absent in each stage of injury. An NPUAP-appointed Task Force reviewed the literature and created drafts of definitions, which were then reviewed by stakeholders and the public, including clinicians, educators, and researchers around the world. Using a consensus-building methodology, these revised definitions were the focus of a multidisciplinary consensus conference held in April 2016. As a result of stakeholder and public input, along with the consensus conference, important changes were made and incorporated into the new staging definitions. The revised staging system uses the term injury instead of ulcer and denotes stages using Arabic numerals rather than Roman numerals. The revised definition of a pressure injury now describes the injuries as usually occurring over a bony prominence or under a medical or other device. The revised definition of a Stage 2 pressure injury seeks to clarify the difference between moisture-associated skin damage and injury caused by pressure and/or shear. The term suspected has been removed from the Deep Tissue Pressure Injury diagnostic label. Each definition now describes the extent of tissue loss present and the anatomical features that may or may not be present in the stage of injury. These important revisions reflect the methodical and collaborative approach used to examine the available evidence and incorporate current interdisciplinary clinical expertise into better defining the important phenomenon of pressure injury etiology and development.

  10. A revised Self- and Family Management Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Margaret; Schulman-Green, Dena; Knafl, Kathleen; Reynolds, Nancy R

    2015-01-01

    Research on self- and family management of chronic conditions has advanced over the past 6 years, but the use of simple frameworks has hampered the understanding of the complexities involved. We sought to update our previously published model with new empirical, synthetic, and theoretical work. We used synthesis of previous studies to update the framework. We propose a revised framework that clarifies facilitators and barriers, processes, proximal outcomes, and distal outcomes of self- and family management and their relationships. We offer the revised framework as a model that can be used in studies aimed at advancing self- and family management science. The use of the framework to guide studies would allow for the design of studies that can address more clearly how self-management interventions work and under what conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C Brooke; Lamson, Karen S; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J Chris

    2014-10-01

    This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the "Standards for Vision Science Libraries" aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users.

  12. Effects of segregation of primary alloying elements on the creep response in magnesium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Y.D.; Dieringa, H.; Hort, N.

    2008-01-01

    The segregation of primary alloying elements deteriorates the high temperature creep resistance of magnesium alloys. Annealing at high temperatures alleviating their segregations can improve the creep resistance. Present investigation on the effect of segregation of primary alloying elements...... on the creep response may provide some useful information about how to improve the creep resistance of magnesium alloys in the future. (c) 2008 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Swelling in neutron-irradiated titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.T.

    1982-04-01

    Immersion density measurements have been performed on a series of titanium alloys irradiated in EBR-II to a fluence of 5 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at 450 and 550 0 C. The materials irradiated were the near-alpha alloys Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S, the alpha-beta alloy Ti-64, and the beta alloy Ti-38644. Swelling was observed in all alloys with the greater swelling being observed at 550 0 C. Microstructural examination revealed the presence of voids in all alloys. Ti-38644 was found to be the most radiation resistant. Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S also displayed good radiation resistance, whereas considerable swelling and precipitation were observed in Ti-64 at 550 0 C

  14. A highly ductile magnesium alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, W; Liu, H

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are finding increasing applications in industry mainly due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. However, they have intrinsically poor plastic deformation ability at room temperature. Therefore, the vast majority of Mg alloys are used only in cast state, severely limiting the development of their applications. We have recently discovered a new Mg alloy system that possesses exceptionally high ductility as well as good mechanical strength. The superior plasticity allows this alloy system to be mechanically deformed at room temperature, directly from an as-cast alloy plate, sheet or ingot into working parts. This type of cold mechanical forming properties has never been reported with any other Mg alloy systems.

  15. Alloy Effects on the Gas Nitriding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M.; Sisson, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Alloy elements, such as Al, Cr, V, and Mo, have been used to improve the nitriding performance of steels. In the present work, plain carbon steel AISI 1045 and alloy steel AISI 4140 were selected to compare the nitriding effects of the alloying elements in AISI 4140. Fundamental analysis is carried out by using the "Lehrer-like" diagrams (alloy specific Lehrer diagram and nitriding potential versus nitrogen concentration diagram) and the compound layer growth model to simulate the gas nitriding process. With this method, the fundamental understanding for the alloy effect based on the thermodynamics and kinetics becomes possible. This new method paves the way for the development of new alloy for nitriding.

  16. Corrosion resistance of titanium alloys for dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskawiec, J.; Michalik, R.

    2001-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys belong to biomaterials which the application scope in medicine increases. Some properties of the alloys, such as high mechanical strength, low density, low Young's modulus, high corrosion resistance and good biotolerance decide about it. The main areas of the application of titanium and its alloys are: orthopedics and traumatology, cardiosurgery, faciomaxillary surgery and dentistry. The results of investigations concerning the corrosion resistance of the technical titanium and Ti6Al14V alloy and comparatively a cobalt alloy of the Vitallium type in the artificial saliva is presented in the work. Significantly better corrosion resistance of titanium and the Ti6Al14V than the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was found. (author)

  17. Anodic oxidation of Ta/Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mato, S.; Alcala, G.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.; Shimizu, K.; Habazaki, H.; Quance, T.; Graham, M.J.; Masheder, D.

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of iron during anodizing of sputter-deposited Ta/Fe alloys in ammonium pentaborate electrolyte has been examined by transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anodic films on Ta/1.5 at.% Fe, Ta/3 at.% Fe and Ta/7 at.% Fe alloys are amorphous and featureless and develop at high current efficiency with respective formation ratios of 1.67, 1.60 and 1.55 nm V -1 . Anodic oxidation of the alloys proceeds without significant enrichment of iron in the alloy in the vicinity of the alloy/film interface and without oxygen generation during film growth, unlike the behaviour of Al/Fe alloys containing similar concentrations of iron. The higher migration rate of iron species relative to that of tantalum ions leads to the formation of an outer iron-rich layer at the film surface

  18. Nickel aluminide alloy suitable for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.T.

    1998-03-10

    Alloys are disclosed for use in structural applications based upon NiAl to which are added selected elements to enhance room temperature ductility and high temperature strength. Specifically, small additions of molybdenum produce a beneficial alloy, while further additions of boron, carbon, iron, niobium, tantalum, zirconium and hafnium further improve performance of alloys at both room temperature and high temperatures. A preferred alloy system composition is Ni--(49.1{+-}0.8%)Al--(1.0{+-}0.8%)Mo--(0.7 + 0.5%)Nb/Ta/Zr/Hf--(nearly zero to 0.03%)B/C, where the % is at. % in each of the concentrations. All alloys demonstrated good oxidation resistance at the elevated temperatures. The alloys can be fabricated into components using conventional techniques. 4 figs.

  19. Annealing behavior of high permeability amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabenberg, L.

    1980-06-01

    Effects of low temperature annealing on the magnetic properties of the amorphous alloy Co 71 4 Fe 4 6 Si 9 6 B 14 4 were investigated. Annealing this alloy below 400 0 C results in magnetic hardening; annealing above 400 0 C but below the crystallization temperature results in magnetic softening. Above the crystallization temperature the alloy hardens drastically and irreversibly. Conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to show that the magnetic property changes at low temperatures occur while the alloy is truly amorphous. By imaging the magnetic microstructures, Lorentz electron microscopy has been able to detect the presence of microscopic inhomogeneities in this alloy. The low temperature annealing behavior of this alloy has been explained in terms of atomic pair ordering in the presence of the internal molecular field. Lorentz electron microscopy has been used to confirm this explanation

  20. Phase transformations during sintering of mechanically alloyed TiPt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nxumalo, S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Page 307 SMA alloys have been successfully used in several applications including medical, automotive and aerospace as stents, couplings and actuators. The most successful shape memory alloys currently are the NiTi alloys. These are however...

  1. Revision of Sciaphila (Triuridaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsin Hsieh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sciaphila (Triuridaceae is revised based on comparative morphological and palynological studies in Taiwan. Four species are recognized, i. E. Sciaphila arfakiana Becc., S. Maculata Miers, S. ramosa Fukuy. & T. Suzuki, and S. secundiflora Thwaites ex Benth. Sciaphila arfakiana and S. maculata are new record to Flora of Taiwan and S. secundiflora distributed in Kueishan Island is a new distribution. SEM micrographs of pollen grains, a key to species, species descriptions, and taxonomic notes are provided.

  2. Revised Unfilling Procedure for Solid Lithium Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveling, A.

    2003-01-01

    A procedure for unfilling used lithium lenses to has been described in Pbar Note 664. To date, the procedure has been used to disassemble lenses 20, 21, 17, 18, and 16. As a result of this work, some parts of the original procedure were found to be time consuming and ineffective. Modifications to the original procedure have been made to streamline the process and are discussed in this note. The revised procedure is included in this note.

  3. Benchmarking i eksternt regnskab og revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Kiertzner, Lars

    2001-01-01

    løbende i en benchmarking-proces. Dette kapitel vil bredt undersøge, hvor man med nogen ret kan få benchmarking-begrebet knyttet til eksternt regnskab og revision. Afsnit 7.1 beskæftiger sig med det eksterne årsregnskab, mens afsnit 7.2 tager fat i revisionsområdet. Det sidste afsnit i kapitlet opsummerer...... betragtningerne om benchmarking i forbindelse med begge områder....

  4. Revised Safety Instruction 41 (IS41 REV.)

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that the Revised Safety Instruction No. 41 (IS41 REV.), entitled 'The use of plastic and other non-metallic materials at CERN with respect to fire safety and radiation resistance' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335806/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  5. Revising strategies for different text types

    OpenAIRE

    Roussey, JY; Piolat, A; Guercin, F

    1990-01-01

    Forty-eight children and forty-eight adults of contrasting degrees of expertise made a series of corrections in order to improve a text (narrative or description) in which three within-statement errors and three between-statement errors had been inserted. Subjects used a simplified word processor (SCRIPREV) which recorded all movements of linguistic units. The purpose of this research was to study revising strategies by examining the correction-sequencing procedures implemented by these subje...

  6. Revised coordinates of variable stars in Cassiopeia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesci, R.

    2018-02-01

    The identification of the variable stars published on IBVS 3573 has ben revised on the basis of the original (unpublished) finding charts. Cross check with the 2MASS catalog has been made to get more accurate coordinates and to confirm their nature from their , colors. The Mira stars, given their known periods, could be used with the astrometric parallaxes of the forthcoming Gaia catalog to improve the Period-Luminosity relation.

  7. Revision of ISO 15859 Aerospace Fluid Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Benjamin; McClure, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed review of ISO 15859 "Space Systems - Fluid Characteristics, Sampling and Test Methods" was performed An approach to revising Parts 1-9 and 11-13 was developed and concurred by the NASA Technical Standards Program Office. The approach was to align them with the highest level source documents, and not to program-specific requirements. The updated documents were prepared and presented.

  8. Laser cladding of quasicrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, F.; Sirkin, H.; Colaco, R.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Quasicrystals are a new class of ordinated structures with metastable characteristics room temperature. Quasicrystalline phases can be obtained by rapid quenching from the melt of some alloys. In general, quasicrystals present properties which make these alloys promising for wear and corrosion resistant coatings applications. During the last years, the development of quasicrystalline coatings by means of thermal spray techniques has been impulsed. However, no references have been found of their application by means of laser techniques. In this work four claddings of quasicrystalline compositions formed over aluminium substrate, produced by a continuous CO 2 laser using simultaneous powders mixture injection are presented. The claddings were characterized by X ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers microhardness. (Author) 18 refs

  9. Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.

  10. Phonons in fcc binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.

    1992-01-01

    Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  11. Sulfidation/oxidation resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.; Tassen, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The patent describes a nickel-base, high chromium alloy. It is characterized by excellent resistance to sulfidation and oxidation at elevated temperatures as high as 2000 degrees F. (1093 degrees C.) and higher, a stress-rupture life of about 200 hours or more at a temperature at least as high as 1800 degrees F. (990:0083 degrees C.) and under a stress of 2000 psi, good tensile strength and good ductility both at room and elevated temperature. The alloy consists essentially of about 27 to 35% chromium, about 2.5 to 5% aluminum, about 2.5 to about 6% iron, 0.5 to 2.5% columbium, up to 0.1% carbon, up to 1% each of titanium and zirconium, up to 0.05% cerium, up to 0.05% yttrium, up to 1% silicon, up to 1% manganese, and the balance nickel

  12. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Heats of transformation of eutectic alloys were measured for many binary and ternary systems by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis. Only the relatively cheap and plentiful elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Cu, Zn were considered. A method for measuring volume change during transformation was developed using x-ray absorption in a confined sample. Thermal expansion coefficients of both solid and liquid states of aluminum and of its eutectics with copper and with silicon also were determined. Preliminary evaluation of containment materials lead to the selection of silicon carbide as the initial material for study. Possible applications of alloy PCMs for heat storage in conventional and solar central power stations, small solar receivers and industrial furnace operations are under consideration.

  13. Guidance document for revision of DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudera, D.E.; McMurtrey, C.D.; Meagher, B.G.

    1993-04-01

    This document provides guidance for the revision of DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management.`` Technical Working Groups have been established and are responsible for writing the revised order. The Technical Working Groups will use this document as a reference for polices and procedures that have been established for the revision process. The overall intent of this guidance is to outline how the order will be revised and how the revision process will be managed. In addition, this document outlines technical issues considered for inclusion by a Department of Energy Steering Committee.

  14. Nuclear safety guide: TID--7016, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Guide was first issued in 1956 as classified AEC report LA-2063 and was reprinted the next year, unclassified, as TID-7016. Revision 1, published in 1961, extended the scope and refined the guiding information. Revision 2 of the Guide differs significantly from its predecessor in that the latter was intentionally conservative in its recommendations. Firmly based on experimental evidence of criticality, the original Guide and the first revision were considered to be of most value to organizations whose activities with fissionable materials were not extensive and, secondarily, that it would serve as a point of departure for members of established nuclear safety teams experienced in the field. The advance of calculational capability has permitted validated calculations to extend and substitute for experimental data. The broadened data base has enabled better interpolation, extension, and understanding of available information, especially in areas previously addressed by undefined but adequate factors of safety. The content has been thereby enriched in qualitative guidance. The information inherently contains, and the user can recapture, the quantitative guidance characteristic of the former Guides by employing appropriate safety factors

  15. Revised inspection program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates nuclear power plants to assure adequate protection of the public and the environment from the dangers associated with nuclear materials. NRC fulfills this responsibility through comprehensive safety reviews of nuclear facilities, licensing of organizations that use nuclear materials, and continuing inspection. The NRC inspection program is currently conducted from the five regional offices in or near Philadelphia, Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas and San Francisco. Inspectors travel from the regional offices to nuclear power plants in various phases of construction, test and operation in order to conduct inspections. However, in June 1977 the Commission approved a revision to the inspection program that will include stationing inspectors at selected plants under construction and at all plants in operation. In addition, the revised program provides for appraising the performance of licensees on a national basis and involves more direct measurement and observation by NRC inspectors of work and tests in progress. The program also includes enhanced career management consisting of improved training and career development for inspectors and other professionals. The report was requested in the Conference Report on the NRC Authorization for Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1978. The report provides a discussion of the basis for both the current and revised inspection programs, describes these programs, and shows how the NRC inspection force will be trained and utilized. In addition, the report includes a discussion of the actions that will be taken to assure the objectivity of inspectors

  16. The Subunit Principle in Scar Face Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshahat, Ahmed; Lashin, Riham

    2017-06-01

    Facial scaring is considered one of the most difficult cosmetic problems for any plastic surgeon to solve. The condition is more difficult if the direction of the scar is not parallel to relaxed skin tension lines. Attempts to manage this difficult situation included revisions using geometric designs, Z plasties or W plasties to camouflage the straight line visible scaring. The use of long-lasting resorbable sutures was tried too. Recently, the use of botulinum toxin during revision improved the results. Fractional CO2 lasers, microfat grafts, and platelet-rich plasma were added to the armamentarium. The scar is least visible if placed in the junction between the facial subunits. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of the subunit principle to improve the results of scar revision. Four patients were included in this study. Tissue expansion of the intact part of the subunit allowed shifting the scar to the junction between the affected subunit and the adjacent one. Tissue expansion, delivery of the expanders, and advancement of the flaps were successful in all patients. The fact that this is a 2-stage procedure and sacrifices some of the intact skin from the affected facial subunit, makes this technique reserved to patients with ugly facial scars who are ambitious to improve their appearance.

  17. Stochastic simulation of nucleation in binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’vov, P. E.; Svetukhin, V. V.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we simulate nucleation in binary alloys with respect to thermal fluctuations of the alloy composition. The simulation is based on the Cahn–Hilliard–Cook equation. We have considered the influence of some fluctuation parameters (wave vector cutoff and noise amplitude) on the kinetics of nucleation and growth of minority phase precipitates. The obtained results are validated by the example of iron–chromium alloys.

  18. Recent developments in advanced aircraft aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dursun, Tolga; Soutis, Costas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To compete with composites, performance of aluminium alloys should be increased. • Al–Li alloys have higher strength, fracture and fatigue/corrosion resistance. • Improvements of aerospace Al alloys are due to optimised solute content and ratios. • In selecting new materials, there should be no reduction in the level of safety. • The use of hybrid materials could provide additional opportunities for Al alloys. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys have been the primary material for the structural parts of aircraft for more than 80 years because of their well known performance, well established design methods, manufacturing and reliable inspection techniques. Nearly for a decade composites have started to be used more widely in large commercial jet airliners for the fuselage, wing as well as other structural components in place of aluminium alloys due their high specific properties, reduced weight, fatigue performance and corrosion resistance. Although the increased use of composite materials reduced the role of aluminium up to some extent, high strength aluminium alloys remain important in airframe construction. Aluminium is a relatively low cost, light weight metal that can be heat treated and loaded to relatively high level of stresses, and it is one of the most easily produced of the high performance materials, which results in lower manufacturing and maintenance costs. There have been important recent advances in aluminium aircraft alloys that can effectively compete with modern composite materials. This study covers latest developments in enhanced mechanical properties of aluminium alloys, and high performance joining techniques. The mechanical properties on newly developed 2000, 7000 series aluminium alloys and new generation Al–Li alloys are compared with the traditional aluminium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of the joining methods, laser beam welding and friction stir welding, are also discussed

  19. Characterization of aluminium alloys rapidly solidified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discussed the investigation of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the aluminium alloys (3003; 7050; Al-9% Mg) rapidly solidified by melt spinning process (cooling rate 10 4 - 10 6 K/s). The rapidly solidification process of the studied aluminium alloys brought a microcrystallinity, a minimum presence of coarse precipitation and, also, better mechanical properties of them comparing to the same alloys using ingot process. (author) [pt

  20. Fuel powder production from ductile uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.R.; Meyer, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Metallic uranium alloys are candidate materials for use as the fuel phase in very-high-density LEU dispersion fuels. These ductile alloys cannot be converted to powder form by the processes routinely used for oxides or intermetallics. Three methods of powder production from uranium alloys have been investigated within the US-RERTR program. These processes are grinding, cryogenic milling, and hydride-dehydride. In addition, a gas atomization process was investigated using gold as a surrogate for uranium. (author)

  1. The oxidation and corrosion of ODS alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion of high temperature oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are reviewed. The environmental resistance of such alloys are classified by oxide growth rate, oxide volatility, oxide spalling, and hot corrosion limitations. Also discussed are environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. It is concluded that ODS NiCrAl and FeCrAl alloys are highly oxidation and corrosion resistant and can probably be used uncoated.

  2. Oxidation And Hot Corrosion Of ODS Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Report reviews oxidation and hot corrosion of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys, intended for use at high temperatures. Classifies environmental resistances of such alloys by rates of growth of oxides, volatilities of oxides, spalling of oxides, and limitations imposed by hot corrosion. Also discusses environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. Concludes ODS NICrAl and FeCrAl alloys highly resistant to oxidation and corrosion and can be used uncoated.

  3. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  4. Alloy nanoparticle synthesis using ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, Tina M [Sandia Park, NM; Powers, Dana A [Albuquerque, NM; Zhang, Zhenyuan [Durham, NC

    2011-08-16

    A method of forming stable nanoparticles comprising substantially uniform alloys of metals. A high dose of ionizing radiation is used to generate high concentrations of solvated electrons and optionally radical reducing species that rapidly reduce a mixture of metal ion source species to form alloy nanoparticles. The method can make uniform alloy nanoparticles from normally immiscible metals by overcoming the thermodynamic limitations that would preferentially produce core-shell nanoparticles.

  5. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  6. Microstructural characterization of EXCEL alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroza Z E, Celiz; Saumell M, Lani; Versaci, R A; Bozzano, P B

    2012-01-01

    The microstructure of Excel alloy was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the present phases. Characteristic peaks of α-Zr (HCP), β-Zr (BCC) and δhydride (FCC) were identified. The high relatives intensities of certain peaks suggest that samples are textured. Basal poles were dominant in radial-longitudinal planes and prismatic poles have the highest concentration in radial-tangential planes (author)

  7. Chitosan patterning on titanium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Gilabert Chirivella, Eduardo; Pérez Feito, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Clarisse; Ribeiro, Sylvie; Correia, Daniela; González Martin, María Luisa; Manero Planella, José María; Lanceros Méndez, Senentxu; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Gómez Ribelles, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used in medical implants because of their excellent properties. However, bacterial infection is a frequent cause of titanium-based implant failure and also compromises its osseointegration. In this study, we report a new simple method of providing titanium surfaces with antibacterial properties by alternating antibacterial chitosan domains with titanium domains in the micrometric scale. Surface microgrooves were etched on pure titanium disks at i...

  8. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  9. Electrodeposition of engineering alloy coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lasse

    Nickel based electrodeposited alloys were investigated with respect to their deposition process, heat treatment, hardness, corrosion resistance and combined wear-corrosion resistance. The investigated alloys were Ni-B, Ni-P and Ni-W, which are not fully developed for industrial utilisation...... are written in brackets). Temperature and especially pH influenced the cathodic efficiency of the electrodeposition processes for Ni-W and Ni-P. Mass balance problems of the development alloy processes are identified.Heat treatment for one hour at approx. 350°C, 400°C and 600°C of electrodeposited Ni-B, Ni......-P and Ni-W, respectively, resulted in hardness values of approx. 1000 HV0.1 in the case of Ni-P(6), approx. 1100 HV0.1 in the case of Ni-W(40-53) and approx. 1300 HV0.1 in the case of Ni-B(5). Cracks, which emerged during electrodeposition and heat treatment, were observed on Ni-W and Ni-B.The corrosion...

  10. Nanodispersed boriding of titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, K.O.; Kostyuk, V.O.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of improving the operational reliability of machines is becoming increasingly important due to the increased mechanical, thermal and other loads on the details. There are many surface hardening methods for machines parts which breakdown begins with surface corruption. The most promising methods are chemical-thermal treatment. The aim of this work is to study the impact of boriding on the structure and properties of titanium alloy. Materials and Methods: The material of this study is VT3-1 titanium alloy. The boriding were conducted using nanodispersed powder blend based on boric substances. It is established that boriding of paste compounds allows obtaining the surface hardness within 30 - 29 GPa and with declining to 27- 26 GPa in layer to the transition zone (with total thickness up to 110 μm) owing to changes of the layer phase composition where T 2 B, TiB, TiB 2 titanium borides are formed. The increasing of chemical-thermal treatment time from 15 minutes to 2 hours leads to thickening of the borated layer (30 - 110 μm) and transition zone (30 - 190 μm). Due to usage of nanodispersed boric powder, the boriding duration is decreasing in 2 - 3 times. This allows saving time and electric energy. The developed optimal mode of boriding the VT3-1 titanium alloy allows obtaining the required operational characteristics and to combine the saturation of the surface layer with atomic boron and hardening

  11. Liquid metal corrosion considerations in alloy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid metal corrosion can be an important consideration in developing alloys for fusion and fast breeder reactors and other applications. Because of the many different forms of liquid metal corrosion (dissolution, alloying, carbon transfer, etc.), alloy optimization based on corrosion resistance depends on a number of factors such as the application temperatures, the particular liquid metal, and the level and nature of impurities in the liquid and solid metals. The present paper reviews the various forms of corrosion by lithium, lead, and sodium and indicates how such corrosion reactions can influence the alloy development process

  12. Use of low fusing alloy in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, A G; Schneider, R L; Aquilino, S A

    1998-11-01

    Low fusing alloy has been used in dentistry for remount procedures in both fixed and removable prosthodontics, in implant prosthodontics for the fabrication of solid implant casts, in maxillofacial prosthetics as oral radiation shields, and in dental research for its unique properties. Previously, the use of low fusing alloy was thought to offer a high degree of dimensional accuracy. However, multiple in vitro studies have shown that its presumed dimensional accuracy may be questionable. This article reviews the physical properties, metallurgical considerations of low fusing alloy, its applications in dentistry, and a safe, simple method of using low fusing alloy.

  13. Synthesis of shape memory alloys using electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Timothy Roy

    Shape memory alloys are used in a variety of applications. The area of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) is a developing field for thin film shape memory alloys for making actuators, valves and pumps. Until recently thin film shape memory alloys could only be made by rapid solidification or sputtering techniques which have the disadvantage of being "line of sight". At the University of Missouri-Rolla, electrolytic techniques have been developed that allow the production of shape memory alloys in thin film form. The advantages of this techniques are in-situ, non "line of sight" and the ability to make differing properties of the shape memory alloys from one bath. This research focused on the electrodeposition of In-Cd shape memory alloys. The primary objective was to characterize the electrodeposited shape memory effect for an electrodeposited shape memory alloy. The effect of various operating parameters such as peak current density, temperature, pulsing, substrate and agitation were investigated and discussed. The electrodeposited alloys were characterized by relative shape memory effect, phase transformation, morphology and phases present. Further tests were performed to optimize the shape memory by the use of a statistically designed experiment. An optimized shape memory effect for an In-Cd alloy is reported for the conditions of the experiments.

  14. Characterization of a NIMONIC TYPE super alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora Rangel, L.; Martinez Martinez, E.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical properties of strength and thermofluence of a NIMONIC type super alloy under thermal treatment was determined. The relationship between microstructure, phases and precipitates was also studied. (author)

  15. Precipitation and Hardening in Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jian-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Magnesium alloys have received an increasing interest in the past 12 years for potential applications in the automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries. Many of these alloys are strong because of solid-state precipitates that are produced by an age-hardening process. Although some strength improvements of existing magnesium alloys have been made and some novel alloys with improved strength have been developed, the strength level that has been achieved so far is still substantially lower than that obtained in counterpart aluminum alloys. Further improvements in the alloy strength require a better understanding of the structure, morphology, orientation of precipitates, effects of precipitate morphology, and orientation on the strengthening and microstructural factors that are important in controlling the nucleation and growth of these precipitates. In this review, precipitation in most precipitation-hardenable magnesium alloys is reviewed, and its relationship with strengthening is examined. It is demonstrated that the precipitation phenomena in these alloys, especially in the very early stage of the precipitation process, are still far from being well understood, and many fundamental issues remain unsolved even after some extensive and concerted efforts made in the past 12 years. The challenges associated with precipitation hardening and age hardening are identified and discussed, and guidelines are outlined for the rational design and development of higher strength, and ultimately ultrahigh strength, magnesium alloys via precipitation hardening.

  16. Revision of Krsko NPP Quality Assurance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscan, R.; Fifnja, I.; Kavsek, D.

    2012-01-01

    International standards from nuclear power plant operation area are being frequently upgraded and revised in accordance with the continuous improvement philosophy. This philosophy applies also to the area of Quality Assurance, which has also undergone significant improvement since the early 1950s. Besides just nuclear industry, there are also other international quality standards that are being continuously developed and revised, bringing needs for upgrades also in the nuclear application. Since the beginning of Krsko NPP construction, the overall Quality Assurance program and its applicable procedures were in place to assure that all planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that an item or service will satisfy given requirements to quality, are in place. The overall requirements for quality as one of the major objectives for Krsko NPP operation are also set forth in the Updated Safety Analyses Report, the document that serves as a base for operating license. During more than 30 years of Krsko NPP operation, the quality requirements and related documents were revised and upgraded in several attempts. The latest revision 6 of QD-1, Quality Assurance Plan was issued during the year 2011. The bases for the revision were: Changes of the Slovenian regulatory requirements (ZVISJV, JV5, JV9?), Changes of Krsko NPP licensing documents (USAR section 13?), SNSA inspection requirements, Changes of international standards (IAEA, ISO?), Conclusions of first PSR, Implementation of ISO standards in Krsko NPP (ISO14001, ISO17025), Changes of plant procedures, etc. One of the most obvious changes was the enlargement of the QA Plan scope to cover interdisciplinary areas defined in the plant management program MD-1, such as Safety culture, Self-assessment, Human performance, Industrial Safety etc. The attachment of the QA Plan defining relationships between certain standards was also updated to provide matrix for better correlation of requirements of

  17. Surface treatment of new type aluminum lithium alloy and fatigue crack behaviors of this alloy plate bonded with Ti–6Al–4V alloy strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhen-Qi; Huang, Ming-Hui; Hu, Guo-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new generation aluminum lithium alloy which special made for Chinese commercial plane was investigated. ► Pattern of aluminum lithium alloy and Ti alloy were shown after anodization. ► Crack propagation of samples bonded with different wide Ti straps were studied in this paper. -- Abstract: Samples consisting of new aluminum lithium alloy (Al–Li alloy) plate developed by the Aluminum Company of America and Ti–6Al–4V alloy (Ti alloy) plate were investigated. Plate of 400 mm × 140 mm × 2 mm with single edge notch was anodized in phosphoric solution and Ti alloy plate of 200 mm × 20 (40) mm × 2 mm was anodized in alkali solution. Patterns of two alloys were studied at original/anodized condition. And then, aluminum alloy and Ti alloy plates were assembled into a sample with FM 94 film adhesive. Fatigue crack behaviors of the sample were investigated under condition of nominal stress σ = 36 MPa and 54 MPa, stress ratio of 0.1. Testing results show that anodization treatment modifies alloys surface topography. Ti alloy bonding to Al–Li alloy plate effectively retards crack growth than that of Al–Li alloy plate. Fatigue life of sample bonded with Ti alloy strap improves about 62.5% than that of non-strap plate.

  18. Fracture characteristics of uranium alloys by scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koger, J.W.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.

    1976-10-01

    The fracture characteristics of uranium alloys were determined by scanning electron microscopy. The fracture mode of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of uranium-7.5 weight percent niobium-2.5 weight percent zirconium (Mulberry) alloy, uranium--niobium alloys, and uranium--molybdenum alloys in aqueous chloride solutions is intergranular. The SCC fracture surface of the Mulberry alloy is characterized by very clean and smooth grain facets. The tensile-overload fracture surfaces of these alloys are characteristically ductile dimple. Hydrogen-embrittlement failures of the uranium alloys are brittle and the fracture mode is transgranular. Fracture surfaces of the uranium-0.75 weight percent titanium alloys are quasi cleavage

  19. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking in HTH Alloy X-750 and Alloy 625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, R.; Mills, W.J.; Lebo, M.R.; Hyatt, B.Z.; Burke, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    In-reactor testing of bolt-loaded compact tension specimens was performed in 360 C water to determine the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) behavior of HTH Alloy X-750 and direct-aged Alloy 625. New data confirm previous results showing that high irradiation levels reduce SCC resistance in Alloy X-750. Heat-to-heat variability correlates with boron content, with low boron heats showing improved IASCC properties. Alloy 625 is resistant to IASCC, as no cracking was observed in any Alloy 625 specimens. Microstructural, microchemical and deformation studies were performed to characterize the mechanisms responsible for IASCC in Alloy X-750 and the lack of an effect in Alloy 625. The mechanisms under investigation are: boron transmutation effects, radiation-induced changes in microstructure and deformation characteristics, and radiation-induced segregation. Irradiation of Alloy X-750 caused significant strengthening and ductility loss that was associated with the formation of cavities and dislocation loops. High irradiation levels did not cause significant segregation of alloying or trace elements in Alloy X-750. Irradiation of Alloy 625 resulted in the formation of small dislocation loops and a fine body-centered-orthorhombic phase. The strengthening due to the loops and precipitates was apparently offset by a partial dissolution of γ double-prime precipitates, as Alloy 625 showed no irradiation-induced strengthening or ductility loss. In the nonirradiated condition, an IASCC susceptible HTH heat containing 28 ppm B showed grain boundary segregation of boron, whereas a nonsusceptible HTH heat containing 2 ppm B and Alloy 625 with 20 ppm B did not show significant boron segregation. Transmutation of boron to helium at grain boundaries, coupled with matrix strengthening, is believed to be responsible for IASCC in Alloy X-750, and the absence of these two effects results in the superior IASCC resistance displayed by Alloy 625

  20. Application of mechanical alloying to synthesis of intermetallic phases based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical alloying is the process of synthesis of powder materials during milling in high energetic mills, usually ball mills. The central event in mechanical alloying is the ball-powder-ball collision. Powder particles are trapped between the colliding balls during milling and undergo deformation and/or fracture. Fractured parts are cold welded. The continued fracture and cold welding results in a uniform size and chemical composition of powder particles. The main applications of mechanical alloying are: processing of ODS alloys, syntheses of intermetallic phases, synthesis of nonequilibrium structures (amorphous alloys, extended solid solutions, nanocrystalline, quasi crystals) and magnetic materials. The present paper deals with application of mechanical alloying to synthesis Ni A l base intermetallic phases as well as phases from the Nb-Al binary system. The alloy were processed from elemental powders. The course of milling was monitored by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. After milling, the collected powders were sieved by 45 μm grid and hot pressed (Nb alloys and NiAl) or hot extruded (NiAl). The resulting material was fully dense and exhibited fine grain (< 1 μm) and uniform distribution of oxide dispersoid. The consolidated material was compression and creep tested. The mechanical properties of mechanically alloys were superior to properties of their cast counterparts both in the room and elevated temperatures. Higher strength of mechanically alloyed materials results from their fine grains and from the presence of dispersoid. At elevated temperatures, the Nb-Al alloys have higher compression strength than NiAl-based alloys processed at the same conditions. The minimum creep rates of mechanically alloyed Nb alloys are an order of magnitude lower than analogously processed NiAl-base alloys. (author)

  1. The Properties of 7xxx Series Alloys Formed by Alloying Additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak Z.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a constant development in the field of aluminium alloys engineering. This results from, i.a., better understanding of the mechanisms that direct strengthening of these alloys and the role of microalloying. Now it is microalloying in aluminum alloys that is receiving a lot of attention. It affects substantially the macro- and microstructure and kinetics of phase transformation influencing the properties during production and its exploitation. 7xxx series aluminum alloys, based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system, are high-strength alloys, moreover, the presence of Zr and Sr further increases their strength and improves resistance to cracking.

  2. Synthesis of Amorphous Powders of Ni-Si and Co-Si Alloys by Mechanical Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuro, Keisuke; Miura, Harumatsu

    1991-05-01

    Amorphous powders of the Ni-Si and Co-Si alloys are synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) from crystalline elemental powders using a high energy ball mill. The alloying and amorphization process is examined by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy. For the Ni-Si alloy, it is confirmed that the crystallization temperature of the MA powder, measured by DSC, is in good agreement with that of the powder sample prepared by mechanical grinding from the cast alloy ingot products of the same composition.

  3. Report on FY15 alloy 617 code rules development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sham, Sam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, Robert I [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hollinger, Greg [Becht Engineering Co., Inc., Liberty Corner, NJ (United States); Pease, Derrick [Becht Engineering Co., Inc., Liberty Corner, NJ (United States); Carter, Peter [Stress Engineering Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Pu, Chao [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wang, Yanli [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Due to its strength at very high temperatures, up to 950°C (1742°F), Alloy 617 is the reference construction material for structural components that operate at or near the outlet temperature of the very high temperature gas-cooled reactors. However, the current rules in the ASME Section III, Division 5 Subsection HB, Subpart B for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 650°C (1200°F) (Corum and Brass, Proceedings of ASME 1991 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, PVP-Vol. 215, p.147, ASME, NY, 1991). The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, 650°C (1200°F), is well below the temperature range of interest for this material for the high temperature gas-cooled reactors and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactors. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis requiring sophisticated material models that have not yet been formulated and verified. To address these issues, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) analysis methods applicable to very high temperatures. The proposed rules for strain limits and creep-fatigue evaluation were initially documented in the technical literature (Carter, Jetter and Sham, Proceedings of ASME 2012 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, papers PVP 2012 28082 and PVP 2012 28083, ASME, NY, 2012), and have been recently revised to incorporate comments and simplify their application. Background documents have been developed for these two code cases to support the ASME Code committee approval process. These background documents for the EPP strain limits and creep-fatigue code cases are documented in this report.

  4. How to Revise, and Revise Really Well, for Premier Academic Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaPlaca, Peter J.; Lindgreen, Adam; Vanhamme, Joelle

    2018-01-01

    Most of the premier academic journals in all fields routinely have rejection rates of 80%, 95%, or higher. All journals prefer articles that make significant contributions to the field. Revising a manuscript and responding properly to the comments of reviewers and editors often is challenging....... This article discusses how to revise effectively a manuscript according to the (minor or major) comments of reviewers and editors for premier academic journals. We provide a series of tips for helping the authors in their endeavor, making the process less arduous and improving the possibility of a positive...

  5. The Evaluation of the Corrosion Resistance of the Al-Si Alloys Antimony Alloyed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodova J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloys alloyed with the different amount of antimony. Specifically it goes about the alloy AlSi7Mg0,3 which is antimony alloyed in the concentrations 0; 0,001; 0,005; 0,01 a 0,05 wt. % of antimony. The introduction of the paper is dedicated to the theory of the aluminium alloys corrosion resistance, testing and evaluation of the corrosion resistance. The influence of the antimony to the Al-Si alloys properties is described further in the introduction. The experimental part describes the experimental samples which were prepared for the experiment and further they were exposed to the loading in the atmospheric conditions for a period of the 3 months. The experimental samples were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The results of the experiment were documented and the conclusions in terms of the antimony impact to the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloy were concluded. There was compared the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloy antimony alloyed (with the different antimony content with the results of the Al-Si alloy without the alloying after the corrosion load in the atmospheric conditions in the experiment.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Low Density Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, X. D.; Liu, H. J.; Li, L. F.; Yang, K.

    2006-01-01

    Low-density alloys include aluminum alloys, titanium alloys and magnesium alloys. Aluminum alloys and titanium alloys have been widely investigated and used as structural materials for cryogenic applications because of their light weight and good low-temperature mechanical properties.For aerospace applications, persistent efforts are being devoted to reducing weight and improving performance. Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural alloys among those mentioned above. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to magnesium alloys and to investigate their behaviors at cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, we have investigated the mechanical properties and microstructures of some magnesium alloys at cryogenic temperatures. Experimental results on both titanium and magnesium alloys are taken into account in considering these materials for space application

  7. Grain refinement of 7075Al alloy microstructures by inoculation with Al-Ti-B master alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotea, V.; Juhasz, J.; Cadar, F.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to bring some clarification on grain refinement and modification of high strength alloys used in aerospace technique. In this work it was taken into account 7075 Al alloy, and the melt treatment was carried out by placing in the form of master alloy wire ternary AlTiB the casting trough at 730°C. The morphology of the resulting microstructures was characterized by optical microscopy. Micrographs unfinished and finished with pre-alloy containing ternary Al5Ti1B evidence fine crystals, crystal containing no columnar structure and highlights the size of the dendrites, and intermetallic phases occurring at grain boundaries in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. It has been found that these intermetallic compounds are MgZn2 type. AlTiB master alloys finishing ensures a fine eutectic structure, which determines the properties of hardware and improving the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys used in aeronautical engineering.

  8. Synthesis Of NiCrAlC alloys by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.K.; Pereira, J.I.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is the synthesis of nickel alloys (NiCrAlC), which has been proposed like a economic alternative to the Stellite family Co alloys using mechanical alloying, followed by sintering heat treatment of milled material. The NiCrAlC alloys consist of a chromium carbides dispersion in a Ni 3 Al intermetallic matrix, that is easily synthesized by mechanical alloying. The use of mechanical alloying enables higher carbides sizes and distribution control in the matrix during sintering. We are also investigated the compaction of the processed materials by compressibility curves. The milling products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the end product was featured by conventional metallography and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), that enabled the identification of desired phases, beyond microhardness test, which has been shown comparable to alloys manufactured by fusion after heat treating. (author)

  9. Combinatorial thin film materials science: From alloy discovery and optimization to alloy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Thomas, E-mail: gebhardt@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Music, Denis; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2012-06-30

    This paper provides an overview of modern alloy development, from discovery and optimization towards alloy design, based on combinatorial thin film materials science. The combinatorial approach, combining combinatorial materials synthesis of thin film composition-spreads with high-throughput property characterization has proven to be a powerful tool to delineate composition-structure-property relationships, and hence to efficiently identify composition windows with enhanced properties. Furthermore, and most importantly for alloy design, theoretical models and hypotheses can be critically appraised. Examples for alloy discovery, optimization, and alloy design of functional as well as structural materials are presented. Using Fe-Mn based alloys as an example, we show that the combination of modern electronic-structure calculations with the highly efficient combinatorial thin film composition-spread method constitutes an effective tool for knowledge-based alloy design.

  10. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  11. Combinatorial thin film materials science: From alloy discovery and optimization to alloy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, Thomas; Music, Denis; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of modern alloy development, from discovery and optimization towards alloy design, based on combinatorial thin film materials science. The combinatorial approach, combining combinatorial materials synthesis of thin film composition-spreads with high-throughput property characterization has proven to be a powerful tool to delineate composition–structure–property relationships, and hence to efficiently identify composition windows with enhanced properties. Furthermore, and most importantly for alloy design, theoretical models and hypotheses can be critically appraised. Examples for alloy discovery, optimization, and alloy design of functional as well as structural materials are presented. Using Fe-Mn based alloys as an example, we show that the combination of modern electronic-structure calculations with the highly efficient combinatorial thin film composition-spread method constitutes an effective tool for knowledge-based alloy design.

  12. Modification of Sr on 4004 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Erjun; Cao, Guojian; Feng, Yicheng; Wang, Liping; Wang, Guojun; Lv, Xinyu

    2013-05-01

    As a brazing foil, 4004 Al alloy has good welding performance. However, the high Si content decreases the plasticity of the alloy. To improve the plasticity of 4004 Al alloy and subsequently improve the productivity of 4004 Al foil or 434 composite foil, 4004 Al alloy was modified by Al-10%Sr master alloy. Modification effects of an additional amount of Sr, modification temperature, and holding time on 4004 aluminum alloy were studied by orthogonal design. The results showed that the greatest impact parameter of 4004 aluminum alloy modification was the additional amount of Sr, followed by holding time and modification temperature. The optimum modification parameters obtained by orthogonal design were as follows: Sr addition of 0.04%, holding time of 60 min, and modification temperature of 760°C. The effect of Sr addition on modification was analyzed in detail based on orthogonal results. With increasing of Sr addition, elongation of 4004 alloy increased at first, and decreased after reaching the maximum value.

  13. METHOD AND ALLOY FOR BONDING TO ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuaig, F.D.; Misch, R.D.

    1960-04-19

    A brazing alloy can be used for bonding zirconium and its alloys to other metals, ceramics, and cermets, and consists of 6 to 9 wt.% Ni, 6 to 9 wn~.% Cr, Mo, or W, 0 to 7.5 wt.% Fe, and the balance Zr.

  14. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  15. Development of high performance ODS alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Lin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Garner, Frank [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2018-01-29

    This project aims to capitalize on insights developed from recent high-dose self-ion irradiation experiments in order to develop and test the next generation of optimized ODS alloys needed to meet the nuclear community's need for high strength, radiation-tolerant cladding and core components, especially with enhanced resistance to void swelling. Two of these insights are that ferrite grains swell earlier than tempered martensite grains, and oxide dispersions currently produced only in ferrite grains require a high level of uniformity and stability to be successful. An additional insight is that ODS particle stability is dependent on as-yet unidentified compositional combinations of dispersoid and alloy matrix, such as dispersoids are stable in MA957 to doses greater than 200 dpa but dissolve in MA956 at doses less than 200 dpa. These findings focus attention on candidate next-generation alloys which address these concerns. Collaboration with two Japanese groups provides this project with two sets of first-round candidate alloys that have already undergone extensive development and testing for unirradiated properties, but have not yet been evaluated for their irradiation performance. The first set of candidate alloys are dual phase (ferrite + martensite) ODS alloys with oxide particles uniformly distributed in both ferrite and martensite phases. The second set of candidate alloys are ODS alloys containing non-standard dispersoid compositions with controllable oxide particle sizes, phases and interfaces.

  16. TERNARY ALLOYS OF URANIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, F.G.

    1960-08-01

    Ternary alloys of uranium are described which are useful as neutron- reflecting materials in a fast neutron reactor. They are especially resistant to corrosion caused by oxidative processes of gascous or aqueous origin and comprise uranium as the predominant metal with zirconiunn and niobium wherein the total content of the minor alloying elements is between 2 and 8% by weight.

  17. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  18. Titanium and titanium alloys: fundamentals and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leyens, C; Peters, M

    2003-01-01

    ... number of titanium alloys have paved the way for light metals to vastly expand into many industrial applications. Titanium and its alloys stand out primarily due to their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance, at just half the weight of steels and Ni-based superalloys. This explains their early success in the aerospace and the...

  19. Iron titanium manganase alloy hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, James J.; Wiswall, Jr., Richard H.

    1979-01-01

    A three component alloy capable of reversible sorption of hydrogen having the chemical formula TiFe.sub.1-x Mn.sub.x where x is in the range of about 0.02 to 0.5 and the method of storing hydrogen using said alloy.

  20. Irradiation of copper alloys in FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, H.R.; Garner, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Nine copper-base alloys in thirteen material conditions have been inserted into the MOTA-18 experiment for irradiation in FFTF at approx.450 0 C. The alloy Ni-1.9Be is also included in this experiment, which includes both TEM disks and miniature tensile specimens

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Metastable Beta Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannetta, Christopher J.

    Additive manufacturing processes of many alloys are known to develop texture during the deposition process due to the rapid reheating and the directionality of the dissipation of heat. Titanium alloys and with respect to this study beta titanium alloys are especially susceptible to these effects. This work examines Ti-20wt%V and Ti-12wt%Mo deposited under normal additive manufacturing process parameters to examine the texture of these beta-stabilized alloys. Both microstructures contained columnar prior beta grains 1-2 mm in length beginning at the substrate with no visible equiaxed grains. This microstructure remained constant in the vanadium system throughout the build. The microstructure of the alloy containing molybdenum changed from a columnar to an equiaxed structure as the build height increased. Eighteen additional samples of the Ti-Mo system were created under different processing parameters to identify what role laser power and travel speed have on the microstructure. There appears to be a correlation in alpha lath size and power density. The two binary alloys were again deposited under the same conditions with the addition of 0.5wt% boron to investigate the effects an insoluble interstitial alloying element would have on the microstructure. The size of the prior beta grains in these two alloys were reduced with the addition of boron by approximately 50 (V) and 100 (Mo) times.

  2. Phase transformations on Zr-Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Sergio Norifumi

    1980-01-01

    This research intended the laboratory scale experimental development of Zr-Nb alloys with adequate characteristics for use as fuel element cladding or for the making of irradiation capsules. Zr-Nb alloys with different Nb contents were melted and the resulting material was characterised. The following metallurgical aspects were considered: preparation of Zr-Nb alloys with various Nb contents; heat and thermomechanical treatments; microstructural characterization; mechanical properties; oxidation properties. The influence of the heat treatment and thermomechanical treatment, on the out-of-pile mechanical and oxidation properties of the Zr-Nb alloys were studied. It was found that the alloy microhardness increases with the Nb content and/or with the thermomechanical treatment. Mechanical properties such as yield and ultimate tensile strength as well as elongation were determined by means of compression tests. The results showed that the alloy yield stress increases with the Nb content and with the thermomechanical treatment, while its elongation decreases. Thermogravimetric analysis determined the alloy oxidation kinetics, in the 400 - 800 deg C interval, at 1 atm. oxygen pressure. The results showed that the alloy oxidation rate increases with the temperature and Nb content. It was also observed that the oxidation rate increases considerably for temperatures higher than 600 deg C.(author)

  3. Theory of Rare-Earth Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A mean-field random alloy theory combined with a simple calculation of the exchange interaction J(c,Q) is shown to quantitatively account for the phase diagrams for alloys of rare-earth metals with Y, Lu, Sc, and other rare-earth metals. A concentration-dependent J(c,Q) explains the empirical 2...

  4. Intermetallic alloys: Deformation, mechanical and fracture behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, B.

    1988-01-01

    The state of the art in intermetallic alloys development with particular emphasis on deformation, mechanical and fracture behaviour is documented. This review paper is prepared to lay the ground stones for a future work on mechanical property characterization and fracture behaviour of intermetallic alloys at GKSS. (orig.)

  5. Review of tantalum and niobium alloy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the current state of niobium- and tantalum-base alloy production. The materials requirements, alloy compositions of interest, and production status are discussed. Finally, a list of developments needed to support the SP-100 program will be identified. A bibliography is included

  6. Electrocatalysis on bimetallic and alloy surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, M.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Bimetallic surfaces and alloys are well known to have unique catalytic properties for many important chemical transformations [1]. In electrocatalysis, bimetallic and alloy catalysts have been a particularly active area of research in relation to low-temperature fuel cells [2]. On the anode side,

  7. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures

  8. Alloys of clathrate allotropes for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Candace K; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai S

    2014-12-09

    The present disclosure is directed at an electrode for a battery wherein the electrode comprises clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin. In method form, the present disclosure is directed at methods of forming clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin which methods lead to the formation of empty cage structures suitable for use as electrodes in rechargeable type batteries.

  9. Impact toughness of laser surface alloyed Aluminium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available with intermetallic phases and metal matrix composites were achieved during laser alloying. Brittle fracture of the SiC particles and transgranular cracking of the intermetallic phases was observed for the laser alloyed samples, while ductile fracture was observed...

  10. Superconductivity in zirconium-rhodium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegler, S. T.

    1969-01-01

    Metallographic studies and transition temperature measurements were made with isothermally annealed and water-quenched zirconium-rhodium alloys. The results clarify both the solid-state phase relations at the Zr-rich end of the Zr-Rh alloy system and the influence upon the superconducting transition temperature of structure and composition.

  11. Grain refinement of zinc-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2006-01-01

    It is now well-established that the structure of the zinc-aluminum die casting alloys can be modified by the binary Al-Ti or the ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys. in this paper, grain refinement of zinc-aluminum alloys by rare earth materials is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining of these alloys and parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the Zn-Al alloys cast, parameters related to the grain refining elements or alloys and parameters related to the process. The effect of addition of other alloying elements e.g. Zr either alone or in the presence of the main grain refiners Ti or Ti + B on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, based on the grain refinement and the parameters affecting it, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is suggested. Finally, the recent research work on the effect of grain refiners on the mechanical behaviour, impact strength, wear resistance, and fatigue life of these alloys are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Fundamental irradiation studies on vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Garner, F.A.; Ermi, A.M.

    1985-05-01

    A joint experiment on the irradiation response of simple vanadium alloys has been initiated under the auspices of the DAFS and BES progams. Specimen fabrication is nearly complete and the alloys are expected to be irradiated in lithium in FFTF-MOTA Cycles 7 and 8

  13. Microbiological diagnosis in revision of infected knee arthroplasties in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Pitter, Frederik Taylor; Voldstedlund, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: One hundred and two partial revisions (open debridement and exchange of tibial insert) and 213 two-stage procedures performed due to infection in 275 patients from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2013 were included and analysed by linkage to data from a nationwide registry on microbiological test results....... RESULTS: 78 (24.8%) revisions were culture negative, 192 (60.9%) showed monomicrobial growth and 43 (14.3%) polymicrobial growth. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent isolate in mono-culture in 70 (22.2%) revisions and in polymicrobial culture in 15 revisions with a total frequency of 27.0%. Only...... one case (1.4%) of methicillin-resistance was registered. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were frequent, sole pathogen in 65 revisions and in polymicrobial cultures in 28 revisions with a total frequency of 29.5%. A pre-operative knee aspiration was performed in 50% and preoperative blood...

  14. Nuclear safety guide. TID-7016, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Guide was first issued in 1956 as classified AEC report LA-2063 and was reprinted the next year, unclassified, as TID-7016. Revision 1, published in 1961, extended the scope and refined the guiding information. The present revision of the Guide differs significantly from its predecessor in that the latter was intentionally conservative in its recommendations. Firmly based on experimental evidence of criticality, the original Guide and the first revision were considered to be of most value to organizations whose activities with fissionable materials were not extensive and, secondarily, that it would serve as a point of departure for members of established nuclear safety teams, experienced in the field. The reader will find a significant change in the character of information presented in this version. Nuclear Criticality Safety has matured in the past twelve years. The advance of calculational capability has permitted validated calculations to extend and substitute for experimental data. The broadened data base has enabled better interpolation, extension, and understanding of available information, especially in areas previously addressed by undefined but adequate factors of safety. The content has been thereby enriched in qualitative guidance. The information inherently contains, and the user can recapture, the quantitative guidance characteristic of the formerGuides by employing appropriate safety factors. In fact, it becomes incumbent on the Criticality Safety Specialist to necessarily impose safety factors consistent with the possible normal and abnormal credible contingencies of an operation as revealed by his evaluation. In its present form the Guide easily becomes a suitable module in any compendium or handbook tailored for internal use by organizations. It is hoped the Guide will continue to serve immediate needs and will encourage continuing and more comprehensive efforts toward organizing nuclear criticality safety information

  15. Calculation code revised MIXSET for Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonda, Kozo; Oka, Koichiro; Fukuda, Shoji.

    1979-02-01

    Revised MIXSET is a FORTRAN IV calculation code developed to simulate steady and transient behaviors of the Purex extraction process and calculate the optimum operating condition of the process. Revised MIXSET includes all the functions of MIXSET code as shown below. a) Maximum chemical system of eight components can be handled with or without mutual dependence of the distribution of components. b) The flowrate and concentration of feed can be renewed successively at any state, transient or steady, for searching optimum operating conditions. c) Optimum inputs of feed concentrations and flowrates can be calculated to satisfy both of specification and recovery rate of a product. d) Radioactive decay reactions can be handled on each component. Besides these functions, the following chemical reactions concerned in Purex process are newly-included in Revised MIXSET code and the quantitative changes of components such as H + , U(IV), U(VI), Pu(III), Pu(IV), NH 2 OH, N 2 H 4 can be simulated. 1st Gr. (i) reduction of Pu(IV); U 4+ + 2Pu 4+ + 2H 2 O → UO 2 2+ + 2Pu 3+ + 4H + . (ii) oxidation of Pu(III); 2Pu 3+ + 3H + + NO 3 - → 2Pu 4+ + HNO 2 + H 2 O. (iii) oxidation of U(IV); U 4+ + NO 3 - + H 2 O → UO 2 2+ + H + + HNO 2 2U 4+ + O 2 + 2H 2 O → 2UO 2 2+ + 4H + . (iv) decomposition of HNO 2 ; HNO 2 + N 2 H 5 + → HN 3 + 2H 2 O + H + . (author)

  16. Laparoscopic revision of failed antireflux operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, F M; Bloomston, M; Zervos, E; Muench, J; Albrink, M H; Murr, M; Rosemurgy, A S

    2001-01-01

    A small number of patients fail fundoplication and require reoperation. Laparoscopic techniques have been applied to reoperative fundoplications. We reviewed our experience with reoperative laparoscopic fundoplication. Reoperative laparoscopic fundoplication was undertaken in 28 patients, 19 F and 9 M, of mean age 56 years +/- 12. Previous antireflux procedures included 19 open and 12 laparoscopic antireflux operations. Symptoms were heartburn (90%), dysphagia (35%), and atypical symptoms (30%%). The mean interval from antireflux procedure to revision was 13 months +/- 4.2. The mean DeMeester score was 78+/-32 (normal 14.7). Eighteen patients (64%) had hiatal breakdown, 17 (60%) had wrap failure, 2 (7%) had slipped Nissen, 3 (11%) had paraesophageal hernias, and 1 (3%) had an excessively tight wrap. Twenty-five revisions were completed laparoscopically, while 3 patients required conversion to the open technique. Complications occurred in 9 of 17 (53%) patients failing previous open fundoplications and in 4 of 12 patients (33%) failing previous laparoscopic fundoplications and included 15 gastrotomies and 1 esophagotomy, all repaired laparoscopically, 3 postoperative gastric leaks, and 4 pneumothoraces requiring tube thoracostomy. No deaths occurred. Median length of stay was 5 days (range 2-90 days). At a mean follow-up of 20 months +/- 17, 2 patients (7%) have failed revision of their fundoplications, with the rest of the patients being essentially asymptomatic (93%). The results achieved with reoperative laparoscopic fundoplication are similar to those of primary laparoscopic fundoplications. Laparoscopic reoperations, particularly of primary open fundoplication, can be technically challenging and fraught with complications. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Nuclear safety guide. TID-7016, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J T [ed.

    1978-05-01

    The Nuclear Safety Guide was first issued in 1956 as classified AEC report LA-2063 and was reprinted the next year, unclassified, as TID-7016. Revision 1, published in 1961, extended the scope and refined the guiding information. The present revision of the Guide differs significantly from its predecessor in that the latter was intentionally conservative in its recommendations. Firmly based on experimental evidence of criticality, the original Guide and the first revision were considered to be of most value to organizations whose activities with fissionable materials were not extensive and, secondarily, that it would serve as a point of departure for members of established nuclear safety teams, experienced in the field. The reader will find a significant change in the character of information presented in this version. Nuclear Criticality Safety has matured in the past twelve years. The advance of calculational capability has permitted validated calculations to extend and substitute for experimental data. The broadened data base has enabled better interpolation, extension, and understanding of available information, especially in areas previously addressed by undefined but adequate factors of safety. The content has been thereby enriched in qualitative guidance. The information inherently contains, and the user can recapture, the quantitative guidance characteristic of the formerGuides by employing appropriate safety factors. In fact, it becomes incumbent on the Criticality Safety Specialist to necessarily impose safety factors consistent with the possible normal and abnormal credible contingencies of an operation as revealed by his evaluation. In its present form the Guide easily becomes a suitable module in any compendium or handbook tailored for internal use by organizations. It is hoped the Guide will continue to serve immediate needs and will encourage continuing and more comprehensive efforts toward organizing nuclear criticality safety information.

  18. Closed cooling water chemistry guidelines revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElrath, Joel; Breckenridge, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This second revision of the Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline addresses the use of chemicals and monitoring methods to mitigate corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in the closed cooling-water (CCW) systems of nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants. This revision has been endorsed by the utility chemistry community and represents another step in developing a more proactive chemistry program to limit or control closed cooling system degradation with increased consideration of corporate resources and plant-specific design and operating concerns. These guidelines were developed using laboratory data, operating experience, and input from organizations and utilities within and outside of the United States of America. It is the intent of the Revision Committee that these guidelines are applicable to all nuclear and fossil-fueled generating stations around the world. A committee of industry experts—including utility specialists, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations representatives, water-treatment service-company representatives, consultants, a primary contractor, and EPRI staff—collaborated in reviewing available data on closed cooling-water system corrosion and microbiological issues. Recognizing that each plant owner has a unique set of design, operating, and corporate concerns, the Guidelines Committee developed a methodology for plant-specific optimization. The guideline provides the technical basis for a reasonable but conservative set of chemical treatment and monitoring programs. The use of operating ranges for the various treatment chemicals discussed in this guideline will allow a power plant to limit corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in CCW systems to acceptable levels. The guideline now includes closed cooling chemistry regimes proven successful in use in the international community. The guideline provides chemistry constraints for the use of phosphates control, as well as pure water with pH control. (author)

  19. Agencies revise standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with a guideline, compiled by the IAEA, for radiation protection. The guidelines aim at the control of individual risk through specified limits, optimisation of protection and the justification of all practices involving exposure to radiation. The guideline is a revision of the 1967 publication of the IAEA, Basic safety standards for radiation protection. According to the document the main resposibility for radiation protection lies with the employer. The workers should be responsible for observing protection procedures and regulations for their own as well as others' safety

  20. Impending revision of the euratom treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahl, G.

    1979-01-01

    The decision by the European Court of Justice in the matter of the EEC's participation in international negotiations on safety problems of the nuclear fuel cycle is of basic importance, beyond the case to which it referred, in the interpretation of the respective provisions of the Euratom Treaty in the nuclear fuel sector. The reasoning of the European Court of Justice, which constitutes a reinforcement and advancement of the responsibilities and rights of the EEC, has made France ask for a revision of the Treaty. (orig.) [de

  1. Financial Wealth Distribution in Revised Financial Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Rybáček

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial statistics undergo dynamic evolution as apparent consequence of their rising importance. Structureof assets, source of fi nancing, price changes or net fi nancial position, all these indicators can detect oncomingfi nancial instability. Financial statistics as a logical extension of the national accounts provide such information.Th e aim of the following text is to present fi nancial statistics, relation between particular accounts, the impact of extraordinary revision carried out in 2011, and also to analyse current wealth distribution as described by fi nancial statistics.

  2. The thesaurus review, renaissance, and revision

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Sandra K

    2013-01-01

    Use this single source to uncover the origin and development of the thesaurus! The Thesaurus: Review, Renaissance, and Revision examines the historical development of the thesaurus and the standards employed for thesaurus construction. This book provides both the history of thesauri and tutorials on usage to increase your understanding of thesaurus creation, use, and evaluation. This reference tool offers essential information on thesauri in the digital environment, including Web sites, databases, and software. For 50 years, the thesaurus has been a core reference book; The Thesaurus: Review,

  3. Radiation protection planning and management during revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewehr, K.

    1984-01-01

    During the operation of nuclear power plants it is normally possible for the in-house personnel to take care of arising radiation protection problems. However, in the comparatively short revision phases, the duties of radiation protection become much more varied. Additional trained radiation protection crews are needed at short notice. This is also the time in which the largest contributions are made to the annual cumulated doses of the personnel. Recent guidelines and rules trying to reduce the radiation exposure of personnel concentrate on this very point. The article outlines the radiation protection activities performed by the service personnel in the course of a steam generator check. (orig.) [de

  4. Development of Nanoporous Ni-Sn Alloy and Application for Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A very simple synthetic procedure was developed for the preparation of Ni-Sn alloy catalysts that were utilised for chemoselective hydrogenation of furfural, producing furfuryl alcohol almost exclusively. The mixture of nickel nanoparticles supported on aluminium hydroxide (R-Ni/AlOH and a solution containing tin was treated under hydrothermal condition, producing the as prepared nickel-tin alloy supported on aluminium hydroxide (Ni-Sn/AlOH. H2 treatment at range of temperature of 673-873 K for 1.5 h to the as prepared Ni-Sn/AlOH produced nanoporous Ni-Sn alloy catalysts. XRD patterns and SEM images revealed that the formation of Ni-Sn alloy of Ni3Sn and Ni3Sn2 phases and the transformation of crystalline gibbsite and bayerite into amorphous alumina were clearly observed after H2 treatment at 873 K. The formation of the Ni-Sn alloy may have played a key role in the enhancement of the chemoselectivity. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 1st September 2013; Revised: 26th November 2013; Accepted: 7th December 2013[How to Cite: Rodiansono, R., Hara, T., Ichikuni, N., Shimazu, S. (2014. Development of Nanoporous Ni-Sn Alloy and Application for Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 53-59. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5529.53-59][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5529.53-59

  5. The revision of the master's curiculm at Osaka Kyoiku University

    OpenAIRE

    赤松, 喜久; 伊藤, 敏雄

    2007-01-01

    The background covering the revision of the master's curriculum and a point concerning this revision in a teacher-training program at Osaka Kyoiku University are explained in this paper. Furthermore, future problems are organized and evaluated. The paper will help us to consider the revision of the curriculum expected as part of the master's course in a teacher's program. The number of required subjects is minimal so that a student may take more optional subjects to meet various needs. New su...

  6. Belief Revision in the GOAL Agent Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurkeland, Johannes Svante; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Agents in a multiagent system may in many cases find themselves in situations where inconsistencies arise. In order to properly deal with these, a good belief revision procedure is required. This paper illustrates the usefulness of such a procedure: a certain belief revision algorithm is consider...... in order to deal with inconsistencies and, particularly, the issue of inconsistencies, and belief revision is examined in relation to the GOAL agent programming language....

  7. Explanatory Coherence and Belief Revision in Naive Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    continental drift (Thagard & Nowak, 1988), and debates about why the dinosaurs became extinct . Application of ECHO to the belief revisions in Pat and Hal...rewono of nocuamy Idid 4onoly by bodck number) Students of reasoning have long tried to understand how people revise systems of beliefs. We maintain...Princeton University Students of reasoning have long tried to understand how people revise systems of beliefs (see Wertheimer, 1945, for example). We will

  8. Zirconium alloy barrier having improved corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, R.B.; Rosenbaum, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor has a composite cladding container having a substrate and a dilute zirconium alloy liner bonded to the inside surface of the substrate. The dilute zirconium alloy liner forms about 1 to about 20 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of zirconium and a metal selected from the group consisting of iron, chromium, iron plus chromium, and copper. The dilute zirconium alloy liner shields the substrate from impurities or fission products from the nuclear fuel material and protects the substrate from stress corrosion and stress cracking. The dilute zirconium alloy liner displays greater corrosion resistance, especially to oxidation by hot water or steam than unalloyed zirconium. The substrate material is selected from conventional cladding materials, and preferably is a zirconium alloy. (author)

  9. Corrosion resistance improvement of titanium base alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy in comparison with ternary Ti-6Al-4V alloy in Ringer-Brown solution and artificial Carter-Brugirard saliva of different pH values was studied. In Ringer-Brown solution, the new alloy presented an improvement of all electrochemical parameters due to the alloying with Zr; also, impedance spectra revealed better protective properties of its passive layer. In Carter-Brugirard artificial saliva, an increase of the passive film thickness was proved. Fluoride ions had a slight negative influence on the corrosion and ion release rates, without to affect the very good stability of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy.

  10. Nature of negative microplastic deformation in alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palatnik, L.S.; Ivantsov, V.I.; Kagan, Ya.I.; Papirov, I.I.; Fat'yanova, N.B.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.)

    1985-01-01

    The paper deals with investigation of microplastic deformation of corrosion resistant aging 40KhNYU alloy and the study of physical nature of negative microdeformation in this alloy under tension. Investigation of microplasticity of 40KhNYU alloy was conducted by the method of mechanostatic hysteresis using resistance strain gauge for measuring stresses and deformations. Microplasticity curves for 40KhNYU alloy were obtained. They represent the result of competition between usual (positive) microdeformation and phase (negative) deformation under tensile effect on the alloy. It was established that the negative microdeformation increment occurs during secondary aging of the phase precipitated from initial supersat urated solid solution (primary decomposition product). This phase decomposes under tension with disperse phase precipitation which promotes decreasing its specific volume and specimen volume as a whole

  11. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  12. Underwater laser beam welding of Alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Kono, Wataru; Kawano, Shohei; Yoda, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Stress Corrosion Clacking (SCC) has been reported at Alloy 600 welds between nozzles and safe-end in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. Alloy 690, which has higher chromium content than Alloy 600, has been applied for cladding on Alloy 600 welds for repairing damaged SCC area. Toshiba has developed Underwater Laser Beam Welding technique. This method can be conducted without draining, so that the repairing period and the radiation exposure during the repair can be dramatically decreased. In some old PWRs, high-sulfur stainless steel is used as the materials for this section. It has a high susceptibility of weld cracks. Therefore, the optimum welding condition of Alloy 690 on the high-sulfur stainless steel was investigated with our Underwater Laser Beam Welding unit. Good cladding layer, without any crack, porosity or lack of fusion, could be obtained. (author)

  13. Machinability of experimental Ti-Ag alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Okuno, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the machinability of experimental Ti-Ag alloys (5, 10, 20, and 30 mass% Ag) as a new dental titanium alloy candidate for CAD/CAM use. The alloys were slotted with a vertical milling machine and carbide square end mills under two cutting conditions. Machinability was evaluated through cutting force using a three-component force transducer fixed on the table of the milling machine. The horizontal cutting force of the Ti-Ag alloys tended to decrease as the concentration of silver increased. Values of the component of the horizontal cutting force perpendicular to the feed direction for Ti-20% Ag and Ti-30% Ag were more than 20% lower than those for titanium under both cutting conditions. Alloying with silver significantly improved the machinability of titanium in terms of cutting force under the present cutting conditions.

  14. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  15. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength

  16. Enthalpies of a binary alloy during solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.; Nandapurkar, P.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present a method of calculating the enthalpy of a dendritic alloy during solidification. The enthalpies of the dendritic solid and interdendritic liquid of alloys of the Pb-Sn system are evaluated, but the method could be applied to other binaries, as well. The enthalpies are consistent with a recent evaluation of the thermodynamics of Pb-Sn alloys and with the redistribution of solute in the same during dendritic solidification. Because of the heat of mixing in Pb-Sn alloys, the interdendritic liquid of hypoeutectic alloys (Pb-rich) of less than 50 wt pct Sn has enthalpies that increase as temperature decreases during solidification.

  17. Magnesium and related low alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J; Caillat, R; Darras, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In the first part the authors examine the comparative corrosion of commercial magnesium, of a magnesium-zirconium alloy (0,4 per cent {<=} Zr {<=} 0,7 per cent) of a ternary magnesium-zinc-zirconium alloy (0,8 per cent {<=} Zn {<=} 1,2 per cent) and of english 'Magnox type' alloys, in dry carbon dioxide-free air, in damp carbon dioxide-free air, and in dry and damp carbon dioxide, at temperatures from 300 to 600 deg. C. In the second part the structural stability of these materials is studied after annealings, of 10 to 1000 hours at 300 to 450 deg. C. Variations in grain after these heat treatments and mechanical stretching properties at room temperature are presented. Finally various creep rate and life time diagrams are given for these materials, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 deg. C. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie les auteurs etudient la corrosion comparee du magnesium commercial, d'un alliage magnesium-zirconium (0,4 pour cent {<=} Zr {<=} 0,7 pour cent), d'un alliage ternaire magnesium-zinc-zirconium (0,8 pour cent {<=} Zn {<=} 1,2 pour cent), et d'alliages anglais 'type Magnox', dans l'air sec decarbonate, l'air humide decarbonate, le gaz carbonique sec et humide a des temperatures de 300 a 600 deg. C. Dans une seconde partie, est etudiee la stabilite structurale de ces materiaux apres des recuits de 300 a 450 deg. C, et de 10 a 1000 heures. Sont presentees les variations, apres ces traitements thermiques, de la grosseur du grain, et des caracteristiques mecaniques de traction a la temperature ambiante. Enfin, quelques diagrammes de vitesse de fluage et de durees de vie sont presentes sur ces materiaux pour des temperatures variant entre 300 et 450 deg. C. (auteur)

  18. Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

    Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

  19. RCBI-II: The Second Revision of the Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Çigdem; Erdur-Baker, Özgür

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to update the Turkish version of the Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory (RCBI) and eliminate specific technology names. Validity and reliability tests were carried out with 1,803 high school students. The updated version of the RCBI yields valid and reliable scores measuring cyberbullying and victimization.

  20. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  1. Phase diagrams for surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Ruban, Andrei; Stoltze, Per

    1997-01-01

    We discuss surface alloy phases and their stability based on surface phase diagrams constructed from the surface energy as a function of the surface composition. We show that in the simplest cases of pseudomorphic overlayers there are four generic classes of systems, characterized by the sign...... is based on density-functional calculations using the coherent-potential approximation and on effective-medium theory. We give self-consistent density-functional results for the segregation energy and surface mixing energy for all combinations of the transition and noble metals. Finally we discuss...

  2. Clinical and Economic Burden of Revision Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is indicated for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA when conservative measures are unsuccessful. High tibial osteotomy (HTO, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA, and total knee arthroplasty (TKA are surgical options intended to relieve knee OA pain and dysfunction. The choice of surgical intervention is dependent on several factors such as disease location, patient age, comorbidities, and activity levels. Regardless of surgical treatment, complications such as infection, loosening or lysis, periprosthetic fracture, and postoperative pain are known risks and are indications for revision surgery. The clinical and economic implications for revision surgery are underappreciated. Over 55,000 revision surgeries were performed in 2010 in the US, with 48% of these revisions in patients under 65 years. Total costs associated with each revision TKA surgery have been estimated to be in excess of $49,000. The current annual economic burden of revision knee OA surgery is $2.7 billion for hospital charges alone. By 2030, assuming a 5-fold increase in the number of revision procedures, this economic burden will exceed $13 billion annually. It is appealing to envision a therapy that could delay or obviate the need for arthroplasty. From an actuarial standpoint, this would have the theoretical downstream effect of substantially reducing the number of revision procedures. Although no known therapies currently meet these criteria, such a breakthrough would have a tremendous impact in lessening the clinical and economic burden of knee OA revision surgery.

  3. Corrosion and protection of magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghali, E. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Metallurgy

    2000-07-01

    The oxide film on magnesium offers considerable surface protection in rural and some industrial environments and the corrosion rate lies between that of aluminum and low carbon steels. Galvanic coupling of magnesium alloys, high impurity content such as Ni, Fe, Cu and surface contamination are detrimental for corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. Alloying elements can form secondary particles which are noble to the Mg matrix, thereby facilitating corrosion, or enrich the corrosion product thereby possibly inhibiting the corrosion rate. Bimetallic corrosion resistance can be increased by fluxless melt protection, choice of compatible alloys, insulating materials, and new high-purity alloys. Magnesium is relatively insensible to oxygen concentration. Pitting, corrosion in the crevices, filiform corrosion are observed. Granular corrosion of magnesium alloys is possible due to the cathodic grain-boundary constituent. More homogeneous microstructures tend to improve corrosion resistance. Under fatigue loading conditions, microcrack initiation in Mg alloys is related to slip in preferentially oriented grains. Coating that exclude the corrosive environments can provide the primary defense against corrosion fatigue. Magnesium alloys that contain neither aluminum nor zinc are the most SCC resistant. Compressive surface residual stresses as that created by short peening increase SCC resistance. Cathodic polarization or cladding with a SCC resistant sheet alloy are good alternatives. Effective corrosion prevention for magnesium alloy components and assemblies should start at the design stage. Selective surface preparation, chemical treatment and coatings are recommended. Oil application, wax coating, anodizing, electroplating, and painting are possible alternatives. Recently, it is found that a magnesium hydride layer, created on the magnesium surface by cathodic charging in aqueous solution is a good base for painting. (orig.)

  4. Revision of failed shoulder hemiarthroplasty to reverse total arthroplasty: analysis of 157 revision implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Giovanni; Wagner, Eric; Sperling, John W; Paladini, Paolo; Fabbri, Elisabetta; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    There remains a paucity of studies examining the conversion of failed hemiarthroplasty (HA) to reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine a large series of revision HA to RTSA. A population of 157 patients who underwent conversion of a failed HA to a revision RTSA from 2006 through 2014 were included. The mean follow-up was 49 months (range, 24-121 months). The indications for revision surgery included instability with rotator cuff insufficiency (n = 127) and glenoid wear (n = 30); instability and glenoid wear were associated in 38 cases. Eight patients with infection underwent 2-stage reimplantation. Patients experienced significant improvements in their preoperative to postoperative pain and shoulder range of motion (P surgeries, secondary to glenoid component loosening (n = 3), instability (n = 3), humeral component disassembly (n = 2), humeral stem loosening (n = 1), and infection (n = 2). Implant survivorship was 95.5% at 2 years and 93.3% at 5 years. There were 4 reoperations including axillary nerve neurolysis (n = 2), heterotopic ossification removal (n = 1), and hardware removal for rupture of the metal cerclage for an acromial fracture (n = 1). At final follow-up, there were 5 "at-risk" glenoid components. Patients experience satisfactory pain relief and recovery of reasonable shoulder function after revision RTSA from a failed HA. There was a relatively low revision rate, with glenoid loosening and instability being the most common causes. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Processing and properties of Nb-Ti-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.

    1992-01-01

    The processing characteristics, tensile properties, and oxidation response of two Nb-Ti-Al-Cr alloys were investigated. One creep test at 650 C and 172 MPa was conducted on the base alloy which contained 40Nb-40Ti-10Al-10Cr. A second alloy was modified with 0.11 at. % carbon and 0.07 at. % yttrium. Alloys were arc melted in a chamber backfilled with argon, drop cast into a water-cooled copper mold, and cold rolled to obtain a 0.8-mm sheet. The sheet was annealed at 1,100 C for 0.5 h. Longitudinal tensile specimens and oxidation specimens were obtained for both the base alloy and the modified alloy. Tensile properties were obtained for the base alloy at room temperature, 400, 600, 700, 800, 900, and 1,000 C, and for the modified alloy at room temperature, 400, 600, 700, and 800 C. Oxidation tests on the base alloy and modified alloy, as measured by weight change, were carried out at 600, 700, 800, and 900 C. Both the base alloy and the modified alloy were extremely ductile and were cold rolled to the final sheet thickness of 0.8 mm without an intermediate anneal. The modified alloy exhibited some edge cracking during cold during cold rolling. Both alloys recrystallized at the end of a 0.5-h annealing treatment. The alloys exhibited moderate strength and oxidation resistance below 600 C, similar to the results of alloys reported in the literature

  6. Characterization of zinc–nickel alloy electrodeposits obtained from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc alloy offers superior sacrificial protection to steel as the alloy dissolves more slowly than pure zinc. The degree of protection and the rate of dissolution depend on the alloying metal and its composition. Zinc-nickel alloy may also serve as at less toxic substitute for cadmium. In this paper the physico-chemical ...

  7. Study of fatigue behaviour of 7475 aluminium alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    controlled toughness alloy developed for applications that require a combination of high strength, superior fracture toughness and resistance to fatigue crack propagation both in air and aggressive environment. The 7475 alu- minium alloy is basically a modified version of 7075 alloy. Properties in 7075 alloy are improved by ...

  8. Revised Distances to 21 Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, S.; Leahy, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    We carry out a comprehensive study of H I 21 cm line observations and 13CO line observations of 21 supernova remnants (SNRs). The aim of the study is to search for H I absorption features to obtain kinematic distances in a consistent manner. The 21 SNRs are in the region of sky covered by the Very Large Array Galactic Plane Survey (H I 21 cm observations) and Galactic Ring Survey (13CO line observations). We obtain revised distances for 10 SNRs based on new evidence in the H I and 13CO observations. We revise distances for the other 11 SNRs based on an updated rotation curve and new error analysis. The mean change in distance for the 21 SNRs is ≃25%, i.e., a change of 1.5 kpc compared to a mean distance for the sample of 6.4 kpc. This has a significant impact on interpretation of the physical state of these SNRs. For example, using a Sedov model, age and explosion energy scale as the square of distance, and inferred ISM density scales as distance.

  9. Three Principles to REVISE People's Unethical Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Gino, Francesca; Barkan, Rachel; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-01

    Dishonesty and unethical behavior are widespread in the public and private sectors and cause immense annual losses. For instance, estimates of U.S. annual losses indicate $1 trillion paid in bribes, $270 billion lost due to unreported income, and $42 billion lost in retail due to shoplifting and employee theft. In this article, we draw on insights from the growing fields of moral psychology and behavioral ethics to present a three-principle framework we call REVISE. This framework classifies forces that affect dishonesty into three main categories and then redirects those forces to encourage moral behavior. The first principle, reminding, emphasizes the effectiveness of subtle cues that increase the salience of morality and decrease people's ability to justify dishonesty. The second principle, visibility, aims to restrict anonymity, prompt peer monitoring, and elicit responsible norms. The third principle, self-engagement, increases people's motivation to maintain a positive self-perception as a moral person and helps bridge the gap between moral values and actual behavior. The REVISE framework can guide the design of policy interventions to defeat dishonesty. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. A Way to Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In conventional theoretical physics and its Standard Model the guiding principle is that the equations are symmetrical. This limitation leads to a number of difficulties, because it does not permit masses for leptons and quarks, the electron tends to “explode” un- der the action of its self-charge, a corresponding photon model has no spin, and such a model cannot account for the “needle radiation” proposed by Einstein and observed in the photoelectric e ff ect and in two-slit experiments. This paper summarizes a revised Lorentz and gauge invariant quantum electrodynamic theory based on a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum and characterized by linear intrinsic broken symmetry. It thus provides an alternative to the Higgs concept of nonlinear spontaneous broken sym- metry, for solving the difficulties of the Standard Model. New results are obtained, such as nonzero and finite lepton rest masses, a point-charge-like behavior of the electron due to a revised renormalization procedure, a magnetic volume force which counteracts the electrostatic eigen-force of the electron, a nonzero spin of the photon and of light beams, needle radiation, and an improved understanding of the photoelectric effect, two-slit ex- periments, electron-positron pair formation, and cork-screw-shaped light beams.

  11. REVISED STREAM CODE AND WASP5 BENCHMARK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K

    2005-01-01

    STREAM is an emergency response code that predicts downstream pollutant concentrations for releases from the SRS area to the Savannah River. The STREAM code uses an algebraic equation to approximate the solution of the one dimensional advective transport differential equation. This approach generates spurious oscillations in the concentration profile when modeling long duration releases. To improve the capability of the STREAM code to model long-term releases, its calculation module was replaced by the WASP5 code. WASP5 is a US EPA water quality analysis program that simulates one-dimensional pollutant transport through surface water. Test cases were performed to compare the revised version of STREAM with the existing version. For continuous releases, results predicted by the revised STREAM code agree with physical expectations. The WASP5 code was benchmarked with the US EPA 1990 and 1991 dye tracer studies, in which the transport of the dye was measured from its release at the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam downstream to Savannah. The peak concentrations predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±20.0%. The transport times of the dye concentration peak predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±3.6%. These benchmarking results demonstrate that STREAM should be capable of accurately modeling releases from SRS outfalls

  12. Scar modification. Techniques for revision and camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswell, B B

    1998-09-01

    The surgery and management of scars is a protracted and staged process that includes preparation of the skin through hygienic measures, scar softening (if indicated) with steroids, massage and pressure dressings, skilled execution of the surgical plan, and thorough postoperative wound care. This process generally covers a 1-year period for the various stages mentioned. Many general host and local skin factors will directly affect the final revision result. The two most important indirect factors that the surgeon must endeavor to control are optimal patient preparation and cutaneous health, and patient compliance with, and an ability to carry out, those wound care measures that the surgeon prescribes. Keloid and burn contracture scars represent two entities that are complicated and challenging to treat owing to their abnormal morphophysiologic features. Management of these scars is prolonged, and the patient must understand that the ultimate result will usually be a compromise. New grafting techniques, such as cultured autodermal grafts, offer improved initial management of burn wounds that may subsequently optimize scar revision in these patients. Keloids, and to a lesser extent hypertrophic scars, require steroid injections, pressure treatment, careful surgery, and protracted wound support and pressure treatment (exceeding 6 months) after surgery.

  13. Revised energy levels of singly ionized lanthanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzelçimen, Feyza; Tonka, Mehdi; Uddin, Zaheer; Bhatti, Naveed Anjum; Windholz, Laurentius; Kröger, Sophie; Başar, Gönül

    2018-05-01

    Based on the experimental wavenumbers of 344 spectral lines from calibrated Fourier transform (FT) spectra as well as wavenumbers of 81 lines from the wavelength tables from literature, the energy of 115 fine structure levels of singly ionized lanthanum has been revised by weighted global fits. The classifications of the lines are provided by numerous previous investigations of lanthanum by different spectroscopic methods and authors. For the high accurate determination of the center of gravity wavenumbers from the experimental spectrum, the hyperfine constants of the involved levels have been taken into account, if possible. For the 94 levels with known hyperfine constants the accuracy of energy values is better than 0.01 cm-1. For 34 levels the magnetic dipole hyperfine constants A have been determined from FT spectra as part of this work. For four of these 34 levels even electric quadrupole hyperfine constants B could be estimated. For levels, which have experimentally unknown hyperfine constants and which are connected only by lines not found in the FT spectra but taken from literature, the uncertainties of energy values are about a factor of 10 higher. A list of all revised level energies together with a compilation of hyperfine structure data is given as well as a list of all lines used.

  14. [Revision of the drinking water regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswirth, S

    2011-11-01

    The revision the Drinking Water Regulations will come into effect on 01.11.2011. Surveillance authorities and owners of drinking water supply systems had hoped for simplifications and reductions because of the new arrangements. According to the official statement for the revision the legislature intended to create more clarity, consider new scientific findings, to change regulations that have not been proved to close regulatory gaps, to deregulate and to increase the high quality standards. A detailed examination of the regulation text, however, raises doubts. The new classification of water supply systems requires different modalities of registration, water analyses and official observation, which will complicate the work of the authorities. In particular, the implementation of requirements of registration and examination for the owners of commercial and publicly-operated large hot-water systems in accordance with DVGW Worksheet W 551 requires more effort. According to the estimated 30 000 cases of legionellosis in Germany the need for a check of such systems for Legionella, however, is not called into question. Furthermore, the development of sampling plans and the monitoring of mobile water supply systems requires more work for the health authorities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Characteristics of Film Formed on Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in Water Containing lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang Seong Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Ju Yup

    1999-01-01

    Anodic polarization behaviors of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 have been studied as a function of lead content in the solution of pH 4 and 10 at 90 .deg. C. As the amount of lead in the solution increased, critical current densities and passive current densities of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 increased, while the breakdown potential of the alloys decreased. The high critical current density in the high lead solution was thought to come from the combination of an enhanced dissolution of constituents on the surface of the alloys by the lead and an anodic dissolution of metallic lead deposited on the surface of the specimens. The morphology of lead precipitated on the specimen after the anodic scan changed with the pH of solution: small irregular particles were precipitated on the surface of the specimen in the solution of pH 4, while the high density of regular sized particles was formed on it in the solution of pH 10.Pb was observed to enhance Cr depletion from the outer surface of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 and also to increase the ratio of O 2- /OH - in the surface film formed in the high lead solution. The SCC resistance of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 may have decreased due to the poor quality of the passive film formed and the enhanced oxygen evolution in the solution containing lead

  16. A sulfidation-resistant nickel-base alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, G.Y.

    1989-01-01

    For applications in mildly to moderately sulfidizing environments, stainless steels, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys (e.g., alloys 800 and 330), and more recently Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloys (e.g., alloy 556) are frequently used for construction of process equipment. However, for many highly sulfidizing environments, few existing commercial alloys have adequate performance. Thus, a new nickel-based alloy containing 27 wt.% Co, 28 wt.% Cr, 4 wt.% Fe, 2.75 wt.% Si, 0.5 wt.% Mn and 0.05 wt.% C (Haynes alloy HR-160) was developed

  17. A review on magnesium alloys as biodegradable materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xue-Nan; Zheng, Yu-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium alloys attracted great attention as a new kind of degradable biomaterials. One research direction of biomedical magnesium alloys is based on the industrial magnesium alloys system, and another is the self-designed biomedical magnesium alloys from the viewpoint of biomaterials. The mechanical, biocorrosion properties and biocompatibilities of currently reported Mg alloys were summarized in the present paper, with the mechanical properties of bone tissue, the healing period postsurgery, the pathophysiology and toxicology of the alloying elements being discussed. The strategy in the future development of biomedical Mg alloys was proposed.

  18. Recent research and developments on wrought magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihang You

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wrought magnesium alloys attract special interests as lightweight structural material due to their homogeneous microstructure and enhanced mechanical properties compared to as-cast alloys. In this contribution, recent research and developments on wrought magnesium alloys are reviewed from the viewpoint of the alloy design, focusing on Mg-Al, Mg-Zn and Mg-rare earth (RE systems. The effects of different alloying elements on the microstructure and mechanical properties are described considering their strengthening mechanisms, e.g. grain refinement, precipitation and texture hardening effect. Finally, the new alloy design and also the future research of wrought magnesium alloys to improve their mechanical properties are discussed.

  19. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  20. Vibrational entropies in metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Wolverton, Christopher

    2000-03-01

    Recently, it has been recognized that vibrational entropy can have significant effects on the phase stability of metallic alloys. Using density functional linear response calculations and molecular dynamics simulations we study three representative cases: (i) phase diagram of Al-rich Al-Sc alloys, (ii) stability of precipitate phases in CuAl_2, and (iii) phonon dynamics in bcc Zr. We find large vibrational entropy effects in all cases. In the Al-Sc system, vibrations increase the solid solubility of Sc in Al by decreasing the stability of the L12 (Al_3Sc) phase. This leads to a nearly ten-fold increase in the solid solubility of Sc in Al at T=800 K. In the Cu-Al system, our calculations predict that the tetragonal Laves phase of CuAl2 has 0.35 kB/atom higher vibrational entropy than the cubic CaF_2-type phase (the latter is predicted to be the T=0 K ground state of CuAl_2). This entropy difference causes a structural transformation in CuAl2 precipitates from the fluorite to the tetragonal Laves phase around T=500 K. Finally, we analyze the highly unusual dynamics of anharmonically stabilized bcc Zr, finding large diffuse-scattering intensity streaks between the bcc Bragg peaks.

  1. Maximum surgical blood ordering schedules for revision lower limb arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Devendra; Challand, Christopher; Clarke, Andrew; Keenan, Jonathan

    2011-05-01

    Effective utilisation of blood products is fundamental. The introduction of maximum surgical blood ordering schedules (MSBOS) for operations has been shown to improve transfusion services. A retrospective analysis was undertaken to establish an evidence-based MSBOS for revision total hip replacement (THR) and total knee revision (TKR). The impact of this schedule on blood conservation was analysed. A retrospective analysis was undertaken on 397 patients who underwent revision THR and TKR over a 4-year period. The cross-match-to-transfusion ratio (CTR) and transfusion index (TI) were calculated. A MSBOS protocol was created based on the TIs and its' impact on transfusion services was assessed prospectively on 125 patients by comparing CTRs. In revision THR, TI was 1.19 for elective cases, 1.55 for emergency cases and 2.35 for infected cases. There was no difference in TI for revisions of cemented and uncemented components. Single component THR revision required less transfusion. In revision TKR, TI was 0.31 for elective cases, 2.0 for emergency cases and 1.23 for cases with infection. The introduction of the MSBOS protocol had resulted in a considerable improvement in blood ordering. Reductions in the CTR were seen for all types of revision surgery, but most evident in elective revision THR (3.24-2.18) and elective revision TKR (7.95-1.2). Analysis confirmed that excessive cross-matching occurred for revision lower limb arthroplasty. The introduction of our MSBOS protocol promoted blood conservation and compliance with established national guidelines.

  2. Structural alloys for high field superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1985-08-01

    Research toward structural alloys for use in high field superconducting magnets is international in scope, and has three principal objectives: the selection or development of suitable structural alloys for the magnet support structure, the identification of mechanical phenomena and failure modes that may influence service behavior, and the design of suitable testing procedures to provide engineering design data. This paper reviews recent progress toward the first two of these objectives. The structural alloy needs depend on the magnet design and superconductor type and differ between magnets that use monolithic and those that employ force-cooled or ICCS conductors. In the former case the central requirement is for high strength, high toughness, weldable alloys that are used in thick sections for the magnet case. In the latter case the need is for high strength, high toughness alloys that are used in thin welded sections for the conductor conduit. There is productive current research on both alloy types. The service behavior of these alloys is influenced by mechanical phenomena that are peculiar to the magnet environment, including cryogenic fatigue, magnetic effects, and cryogenic creep. The design of appropriate mechanical tests is complicated by the need for testing at 4 0 K and by rate effects associated with adiabatic heating during the tests. 46 refs

  3. Aeronautical requirements for Inconel 718 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefterie, C. F.; Guragata, C.; Bran, D.; Ghiban, B.

    2017-06-01

    The project goal is to present the requirements imposed by aviation components made from super alloys based on Nickel. A significant portion of fasteners, locking lugs, blade retainers and inserts are manufactured from Alloy 718. The thesis describes environmental factors (corrosion), conditions of external aggression (salt air, intense heat, heavy industrial pollution, high condensation, high pressure), mechanical characteristics (tensile strength, yield strength and fatigue resistance) and loadings (tensions, compression loads) that must be satisfied simultaneously by Ni-based super alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Titanium alloys, Aluminum alloys). For this alloy the requirements are strength durability, damage tolerance, fail safety and so on. The corrosion can be an issue, but the fatigue under high-magnitude cyclic tensile loading it’s what limits the lifetime of the airframe. Also, the excellent malleability and weldability characteristics of the 718 system make the material physical properties tolerant of manufacturing processes. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  4. Effect of neutron irradiation on vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braski, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys were evaluated for their susceptibility to irradiation hardening, helium embrittlement, swelling, and residual radioactivity, and the results were compared with those for the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The VANSTAR-7 and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys showed the greatest hardening between 400 and 600 0 C while V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti had lower values that were comparable to those of ferritic steels. The V-15Cr-5Ti and VANSTAR-7 alloys were susceptible to helium embrittlement caused by the combination of weakened grain boundaries and irradiation-hardened grain matrices. Specimen fractures were entirely intergranular in the most severe instances of embrittlement. The V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti alloys were more resistant to helium embrittlement. Except for VANSTAR-7 irradiated to 40 dpa at 520 0 C, all of the vanadium alloys exhibited low swelling that was similar to the ferritic steels. Swelling was greater in specimens that were preimplanted with helium using the tritium trick. The vanadium alloys clearly exhibit lower residual radioactivity after irradiation than the ferrous alloys

  5. Effect of neutron irradiation on vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braski, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys were evaluated for their susceptibility to irradiation hardening, helium embrittlement, swelling, and residual radioactivity, and the results were compared with those for the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The VANSTAR-7 and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys showed the greatest hardening between 400 and 600/sup 0/C while V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti had lower values that were comparable to those of ferritic steels. The V-15Cr-5Ti and VANSTAR-7 alloys were susceptible to helium embrittlement caused by the combination of weakened grain boundaries and irradiation-hardened grain matrices. Specimen fractures were entirely intergranular in the most severe instances of embrittlement. The V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti alloys were more resistant to helium embrittlement. Except for VANSTAR-7 irradiated to 40 dpa at 520/sup 0/C, all of the vanadium alloys exhibited low swelling that was similar to the ferritic steels. Swelling was greater in specimens that were preimplanted with helium using the tritium trick. The vanadium alloys clearly exhibit lower residual radioactivity after irradiation than the ferrous alloys.

  6. Engineering data bases for refractory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Harms, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    Refractory alloys based on niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten are required for the multi-100kW(e) space nuclear reactor power concepts that have been assessed in the SP-100 Program because of the extremely high temperatures involved. A review is presented of the technology efforts on the candidate refractory alloys in the areas of availability/fabricability, mechanical properties, irradiation effects, and compatibility. Of the niobium-base alloys, only Nb-1Zr has a data base that is sufficiently comprehensive for the high level of confidence required in the reference-alloy selection process for the reactor concept to be tested in the Ground Engineering System (GES) Phase of the SP-100 Program. Based on relatively short-term tests, the alloy PWC-11 (Nb-1Zr-0.1C) appears to have significantly greater creep strength than Nb-1Zr; however, concerns as to whether this precipitation-hardened alloy will remain thermally stable during seven years of full-power reactor operation need to be resolved. Additional information on the reference GES alloy will be needed for the detailed engineering design of a space power system and the fabrication of prototypical GES test components. Expedient development and demonstration of an adequate total manufacturing capability will be required if a high risk of significant schedule slippages and cost overruns is to be avoided. 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Oxide films on magnesium and magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.-S.; Liu, J.-B.; Wei, P.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are very active and readily ignite during heating and melting. In this study, we discuss the combustion of magnesium and magnesium alloys and propose prospective anti-ignition mechanisms for magnesium alloys during the heating process. When magnesium and magnesium alloys were heated in air, the sample surfaces produced layers of thermally formed oxides. These thermally formed oxides played an important role in affecting the combustion of the magnesium and magnesium alloys. When magnesium was heated in air, brucite that formed in the early stage was then transformed into periclase by dehydroxylation. By extending the heating time, more periclase formed and increased in thickness which was associated with microcracks formation. When magnesium was heated in a protective atmosphere (SF 6 ), a film of MgF 2 formed at the interface between the oxide layer and the Mg substrate. This film generated an anti-ignition behavior which protected the substrate from oxidation. When solution-treated AZ80 alloy was heated, spinel developed at the interface between the thermally formed oxide layer and the Mg substrate, improving the anti-ignition properties of the substrate. In addition, we also explain the effects of beryllium in an AZB91 alloy on the ignition-proofing behavior

  8. Activation analyses for different fusion structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaya, H.; Smith, D.

    1991-01-01

    The leading candidate structural materials, viz., the vanadium alloys, the nickel or the manganese stabilized austenitic steels, and the ferritic steels, are analysed in terms of their induced activation in the TPSS fusion power reactor. The TPSS reactor has 1950 MW fusion power and inboard and outboard average neutron wall loading of 3.75 and 5.35 MW/m 2 respectively. The results shows that, after one year of continuous operation, the vanadium alloys have the least radioactivity at reactor shutdown. The maximum difference between the induced radioactivity in the vanadium alloys and in the other iron-based alloys occurs at about 10 years after reactor shutdown. At this time, the total reactor radioactivity, using the vanadium alloys, is about two orders of magnitude less than the total reactor radioactivity utilizing any other alloy. The difference is even larger in the first wall, the FW-vanadium activation is 3 orders of magnitude less than other alloys' FW activation. 2 refs., 7 figs

  9. Aeronautical Cast Ti Alloy and Forming Technology Development

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Meijuan; NAN Hai; JU Zhongqiang; GAO Fuhui; QIE Xiwang; ZHU Langping

    2016-01-01

    The application and feature of Ti alloy and TiAl alloy for aviation at home and abroad were briefly introduced. According to the patent application status in Ti alloy field, the development of Ti alloy casting technology was analyzed in the recent thirty years, especially the transformation in aviation. Along with the development of aeronautional manufacturing technology and demand of high performance aircraft, Ti alloy casting is changing towards to be large, integral and complicated, and th...

  10. Density and Structure Analysis of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG

    2004-01-01

    Density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys was measured in the temperature range of 1773~1873 K with a sessile drop method.The density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys trends to decrease with increasing temperature. The density and molar volume of the alloys trend to increase with increasing W concentration in the alloys. The calculation result shows an ideal mixing of Ni-W alloys.

  11. Fatigue Characteristics of Selected Light Metal Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśla M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses results of fatigue testing of light metal alloys used in the automotive as well as aerospace and aviation industries, among others. The material subject to testing comprised hot-worked rods made of the AZ31 alloy, the Ti-6Al-4V two-phase titanium alloy and the 2017A (T451 aluminium alloy. Both low- and high-cycle fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature on the cycle asymmetry ratio of R=-1. The low-cycle fatigue tests were performed using the MTS-810 machine on two levels of total strain, i.e.Δεc= 1.0% and 1.2%. The high-cycle fatigue tests, on the other hand, were performed using a machine from VEB Werkstoffprufmaschinen-Leipzig under conditions of rotary bending. Based on the results thus obtained, one could develop fatigue life characteristics of the materials examined (expressed as the number of cycles until failure of sample Nf as well as characteristics of cyclic material strain σa=f(N under the conditions of low-cycle fatigue testing. The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was found to be characterised by the highest value of fatigue life Nf, both in lowand high-cycle tests. The lowest fatigue life, on the other hand, was established for the aluminium alloys examined. Under the high-cycle fatigue tests, the life of the 2017A aluminium and the AZ31 magnesium alloy studied was determined by the value of stress amplitude σa. With the stress exceeding 150 MPa, it was the aluminium alloy which displayed higher fatigue life, whereas the magnesium alloy proved better on lower stress.

  12. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4 and aging (T6 heat treatment.The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH2 and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7, revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269, and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  13. Grindability of cast Ti-Cu alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo; Kiyosue, Seigo; Yoda, Masanobu; Woldu, Margaret; Cai, Zhuo; Okuno, Osamu; Okabe, Toru

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the grindability of a series of cast Ti-Cu alloys in order to develop a titanium alloy with better grindability than commercially pure titanium (CP Ti), which is considered to be one of the most difficult metals to machine. Experimental Ti-Cu alloys (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mass% Cu) were made in an argon-arc melting furnace. Each alloy was cast into a magnesia mold using a centrifugal casting machine. Cast alloy slabs (3.5 mm x 8.5 mm x 30.5 mm), from which the hardened surface layer (250 microm) was removed, were ground using a SiC abrasive wheel on an electric handpiece at four circumferential speeds (500, 750, 1000, or 1250 m/min) at 0.98 N (100 gf). Grindability was evaluated by measuring the amount of metal volume removed after grinding for 1min. Data were compared to those for CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. For all speeds, Ti-10% Cu alloy exhibited the highest grindability. For the Ti-Cu alloys with a Cu content of 2% or less, the highest grindability corresponded to an intermediate speed. It was observed that the grindability increased with an increase in the Cu concentration compared to CP Ti, particularly for the 5 or 10% Cu alloys at a circumferential speed of 1000 m/min or above. By alloying with copper, the cast titanium exhibited better grindability at high speed. The continuous precipitation of Ti(2)Cu among the alpha-matrix grains made this material less ductile and facilitated more effective grinding because small broken segments more readily formed.

  14. High-temperature deformation of a mechanically alloyed niobium-yttria alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, I.; Koss, D.A.; Howell, P.R.; Ramani, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing have been used to process two Nb alloys containing yttria particles, Nb-2 vol.%Y 2 O 3 and Nb-10 vol.%Y 2 O 3 . Similar to some thermomechanically processed nickel-based alloys, both alloys exhibit partially recrystallized microstructures, consisting of a 'necklace' of small recrystallized grains surrounding much larger but isolated, unrecrystallized, cold-worked grains. Hot compression tests from 1049 to 1347 C (0.5-0.6T MP ) of the 10% Y 2 O 3 alloy show that MA material possesses a much higher yield and creep strength than its powder-blended, fully recrystallized counterpart. In fact, the density-compensated specific yield strength of the MA Nb-10Y 2 O 3 exceeds that of currently available commercial Nb alloys. (orig.)

  15. Hysteresis behaviour of thermoelastic alloys: some shape memory alloys models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lexcellent, C.; Torra, V.; Raniecki, B.

    1993-01-01

    The hysteretic behaviour of shape memory alloys (SMA) needs a more and more thin analysis because of its importance for technological applications. The comparison between different approaches allows to explicite the specifity of every model (macroscopic approach, micro-macro level, local description, phenomenological approach) and their points of convergence. On one hand, a thermodynamic treatment with a free energy expression as a mixing rule of each phase (parent or austenite phase and martensite) by adding a coupling term: the configurational energy, allowes modelling of material hysteresis loops. On the other hand, a phenomenological treatment based on a local investigation of two single crystals with a visualisation of microscopic parameters allows to perceive the phase transition mechanisms (nucleation, growth). All the obtained results show the importance of entropy production (or of the definition of the configurational energy term) for the correct description of hysteresis loops (subloops or external). (orig.)

  16. Descriptive epidemiology of the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rick W; Huston, Laura J; Spindler, Kurt P; Dunn, Warren R; Haas, Amanda K; Allen, Christina R; Cooper, Daniel E; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Lantz, Brett Brick A; Mann, Barton J; Stuart, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most common mode of failure. Allograft graft choice is more common in the revision setting than autograft. Concomitant knee injury is extremely common in this population.

  17. Is Peer Review Training Effective in Iranian EFL Students' Revision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeeli, Hadiseh; Abasi, Maasumeh; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of peer review training on the Iranian EFL students' subsequent revision in an advanced writing class in Larestan Islamic Azad University. After 12 weeks class demonstration, teacher-reviewer conferences with 20 male and female students, the students' first drafts, revisions, and reviewers' comments were…

  18. Revised SWAT. The integrated burnup calculation code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki [Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kiyosumi, Takehide [The Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    SWAT is an integrated burnup code system developed for analysis of post irradiation examination, transmutation of radioactive waste, and burnup credit problem. This report shows an outline and a user's manual of revised SWAT. This revised SWAT includes expansion of functions, increasing supported machines, and correction of several bugs reported from users of previous SWAT. (author)

  19. Revised SWAT. The integrated burnup calculation code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki; Kiyosumi, Takehide

    2000-07-01

    SWAT is an integrated burnup code system developed for analysis of post irradiation examination, transmutation of radioactive waste, and burnup credit problem. This report shows an outline and a user's manual of revised SWAT. This revised SWAT includes expansion of functions, increasing supported machines, and correction of several bugs reported from users of previous SWAT. (author)

  20. Do Writers Really Revise? Encouraging Unnatural Acts in Your Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    Unless students have an appropriate attitude toward revision--the keystone of the writing process--teachers who institute writing process approaches face frustration and failure. Implementing the following suggestions may help increase revision in the classroom. First, while the mature writing process is not strictly linear, students developing…

  1. Modeling data revisions : Measurement error and dynamics of "true" values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Jan P. A. M.; van Norden, Simon

    Policy makers must base their decisions on preliminary and partially revised data of varying reliability. Realistic modeling of data revisions is required to guide decision makers in their assessment of current and future conditions. This paper provides a new framework with which to model data

  2. Validity and Reliability of Revised Inventory of Learning Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzella, B. M.; And Others

    The Inventory of Learning Processes (ILP) was developed by Schmeck, Ribich, and Ramanaiah in 1977 as a self-report inventory to assess learning style through a behavioral-oriented approach. The ILP was revised by Schmeck in 1983. The Revised ILP contains six scales: (1) Deep Processing; (2) Elaborative Processing; (3) Shallow Processing; (4)…

  3. Text Revision in Deaf and Hearing Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruggi, Lilia A.; Gutiérrez-Cáceres, Rafaela

    2016-01-01

    In this study we explored the revision process and strategies implemented by deaf and hearing students who attend the same bilingual school context (LIS and Italian). For that we analysed and compared the types and quality of revisions made by deaf and hearing participants to their first draft of a narrative text ("Frog, Where Are You?")…

  4. The Use of Genre-Specific Evaluation Criteria for Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippakos, Zoi A.; MacArthur, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Revision is a challenging step of the writing process and students often focus their attention to mechanics or grammar instead of making organizational and meaning changes. It is important for students to critically read and independently evaluate their work when revising. This practitioner article discusses the importance of genre-specific…

  5. 75 FR 17253 - Revisions to the General Conformity Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 51 and 93 Revisions to the General... under the minor source New Source Review (NSR) programs similar to the EPA's existing General Conformity... EPA is making two minor revisions to the definition. First, EPA is correcting the citation for the SIP...

  6. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a form...

  7. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4...

  8. Carlsbad Area Office strategic plan, March 1995. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This edition of the Carlsbad Area Office Strategic Plan captures the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) new focus, and supersedes the edition issued previously (DOE, 1993a). This revision reflects: a revised strategy designed to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations earlier than the previous course of action; and a focus on establishment of standardized transuranic waste characterization and acceptance criteria for disposal facilities

  9. 76 FR 1440 - Notice of Revised Child Outcomes Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Outcomes Framework, renamed The Head Start Child Development and Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old. The Framework was revised to give more... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Notice of Revised...

  10. Designing Automated Guidance to Promote Productive Revision of Science Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansomboon, Charissa; Gerard, Libby F.; Vitale, Jonathan M.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2017-01-01

    Supporting students to revise their written explanations in science can help students to integrate disparate ideas and develop a coherent, generative account of complex scientific topics. Using natural language processing to analyze student written work, we compare forms of automated guidance designed to motivate productive revision and help…

  11. REVISION PERMISSIABILITY IN CIVIL PROCEDURE IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gligorova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The revision as an extraordinary legal remedy is one more legal instrument for litigant in the effort to achieve protection of the rights or to defend against ungrounded claims of the other party. Litigants may declare revision of the litigation process due to substantive violations of the provisions of Civil Procedure and incorrect application of substantive law. Declaring revision because of a substantive violation of the provisions of Civil Procedure is limited. The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the most common reasons for filing revision of the litigation process in the period from June 2011 to June in 2012. The research includes what kind of reasons are often repeated, and the volume, or the number of reviews submitted to the Supreme Court of the Republic of Macedonia. As general hypothesis is that most of the adopted revisions are due to substantial violations of the provisions of civil procedure. Two-thirds of the stated revisions in front of the Supreme Court of Republic of Macedonia were rejected as unfounded and only one third of the submitted revisions from June 2011 to June 2012 were grounded. Since accepted revisions 59% due to incorrect application of substantive law, and 41% due to substantial violations of the provisions of Civil Procedure.

  12. Merlin C. Wittrock and the Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krathwohl, David R.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    2010-01-01

    Merl Wittrock, a cognitive psychologist who had proposed a generative model of learning, was an essential member of the group that over a period of 5 years revised the "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," originally published in 1956. This article describes the development of that 2001 revision (Anderson and Krathwohl, Editors) and Merl's…

  13. A revision of the Pliocene and Quaternary Lutrinae from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a revision of the Pliocene and Quaternary Lutrinae from Europe is presented. Such a revision, including fossil material, has not been published since the work of Pohle (1919). Three tribes within the Lutrinae are recognized: the Lutrini, the Aonyxini and the Enhydrini. The latter

  14. Inferential revision in narrative texts: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana; Cain, Kate; Castellanos, María C; Bajo, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated the process of inferential revision during text comprehension in adults. Participants with high or low working memory read short texts, in which the introduction supported two plausible concepts (e.g., 'guitar/violin'), although one was more probable ('guitar'). There were three possible continuations: a neutral sentence, which did not refer back to either concept; a no-revise sentence, which referred to a general property consistent with either concept (e.g., '…beautiful curved body'); and a revise sentence, which referred to a property that was consistent with only the less likely concept (e.g., '…matching bow'). Readers took longer to read the sentence in the revise condition, indicating that they were able to evaluate their comprehension and detect a mismatch. In a final sentence, a target noun referred to the alternative concept supported in the revise condition (e.g., 'violin'). ERPs indicated that both working memory groups were able to evaluate their comprehension of the text (P3a), but only high working memory readers were able to revise their initial incorrect interpretation (P3b) and integrate the new information (N400) when reading the revise sentence. Low working memory readers had difficulties inhibiting the no-longer-relevant interpretation and thus failed to revise their situation model, and they experienced problems integrating semantically related information into an accurate memory representation.

  15. 77 FR 73454 - Revision of Information Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... proposed revision of its Senior Corps Grant Application (424-NSSC) (OMB Control Number 3045-0035). CNCS... questions to clarify new concepts; Simplify language and wording of questions; Revise questions to better... CNCS mailroom at Room 8100 at the mail address given in paragraph (1) above, between 9:00 a.m. and 4:00...

  16. 75 FR 81126 - Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... tons per year of lead is necessary to provide sufficient information about airborne lead levels near... Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...) that revised the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for lead and...

  17. Cocrystals and alloys of nitazoxanide: enhanced pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Kuthuru; Mannava, M K Chaitanya; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-03-18

    Two isomorphous cocrystals of nitazoxanide (NTZ) with p-aminosalicylic acid (PASA) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as well as their alloys were prepared by slurry and grinding techniques. The cocrystals exhibit faster dissolution rates and higher pharmacokinetic properties compared to the reference drug, and surprisingly the cocrystal alloy NTZ-PABA : NTZ-PASA (0.75 : 0.25) exhibited 4 fold higher bioavailability of NTZ in Sprague Dawley rats. This study opens the opportunity for cocrystal alloys as improved medicines.

  18. MO-HF-C alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, E.P.; Kalns, E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes, as an article of manufacture, a cast ingot of a molybdenum-hafnium-carbon alloy consisting essentially by weight of about 0.6% to about 1% Hf, about 0.045% to about 0.08% C, and the balance essentially molybdenum. The amount of Hf and C present are substantially stoichiometric with respect to HfC and within about +-15% of stoichiometry. The ingot is characterized in that it has a substantially less tendency to crack compared to alloys containing Hf in excess of about 1% by weight and carbon in excess of 0.08% by weight, without substantial diminution in strength properties of the alloy

  19. Electron microscopy of nuclear zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versaci, R.A.; Ipohorski, Miguel

    1986-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy observations of the microstructure of zirconium alloys used in fuel sheaths of nuclear power reactors are reported. Specimens were observed after different thermal and mechanical treatment, similar to those actually used during fabrication of the sheaths. Electron micrographs and electron diffraction patterns of second phase particles present in zircaloy-2 and zircaloy-4 were also obtained, as well as some characteristic parameters. Images of oxides and hydrides most commonly present in zirconium alloys are also shown. Finally, the structure of a Zr-2,5Nb alloy used in CANDU reactors pressure tubes, is observed by electron microscopy. (Author) [es

  20. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Of Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Calle, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to investigate resistances of 19 alloys to corrosion under conditions similar to those of corrosive, chloride-laden seaside environment of Space Transportation System launch site. Alloys investigated: Hastelloy C-4, C-22, C-276, and B-2; Inconel(R) 600, 625, and 825; Inco(R) G-3; Monel 400; Zirconium 702; Stainless Steel 304L, 304LN, 316L, 317L, and 904L; 20Cb-3; 7Mo+N; ES2205; and Ferralium 255. Results suggest electrochemical impedance spectroscopy used to predict corrosion performances of metal alloys.