Kanthilatha Pai; Sathish Pai
Since its original description by Devergie in 1854, several cases of linear lichen planus have been described in the literature, but there have been notably few cases of the more rare zosteriform lichen planus. Zosteriform lichen planus needs to be differentiated from linear lichen planus and other linear dermatoses. We present a case of Zosteriform Lichen planus for its rarity and briefly review literature.
Oliveira, Janine Pichler de; Uribe, Natalia Caballero; Abulafia, Luna Azulay; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira
Abstract Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. Esophageal lichen planus is a rarely reported manifestation of lichen planus, presenting itself commonly in middle-aged women, with symptoms such as dysphagia. We report a case of esophageal lichen planus in a 54-year-old woman associated with oral, cutaneous and ungual lichen planus. Although lichen planus is a disorder well known by dermatologists, reports of esophageal lichen ...
van der Waal, I.
Lichen planus komt niet zelden in het mondslijmvlies voor. De meeste tandartsen en mondhygiënisten zullen zich daarbij witte lijntjes beiderzijds op het wangslijmvlies voor de geest halen. Iedereen zal wel zeggen zo’n patiënt in de praktijk in zijn bestand te hebben, maar vermoedelijk wordt het
Oliveira, Janine Pichler de; Uribe, Natalia Caballero; Abulafia, Luna Azulay; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira
Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. Esophageal lichen planus is a rarely reported manifestation of lichen planus, presenting itself commonly in middle-aged women, with symptoms such as dysphagia. We report a case of esophageal lichen planus in a 54-year-old woman associated with oral, cutaneous and ungual lichen planus. Although lichen planus is a disorder well known by dermatologists, reports of esophageal lichen planus are rare in dermatologic literature. The esophageal lichen planus is little known and underdiagnosed, with a significant delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis.
Monteagudo, Benigno; Suarez-Amor, Óscar; Cabanillas, Miguel; de Las Heras, Cristina; Álvarez, Juan Carlos
Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that is characterized by the insidious onset of dark brown macules in sun-exposed areas and flexural folds. Superimposed linear lichen planus is an exceedingly rare disorder, but it has been found in both lichen planopilaris and lichen planus types. A 39-year-old woman is presented showing a segmental and linear lichen planus associated with non-segmental lesions meeting all criteria for the diagnosis of superimposed linear planus pigmentosus. The segmental lesions were always more pronounced.
Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous condition with a myriad of clinical manifestations. There are 3 forms of lichen planus that effect the vulva: papulosquamous, hypertrophic, and erosive. Erosive lichen planus can progress to vulvar scaring, vaginal stenosis, and squamous cell carcinoma; these long-term sequelae cause sexual distress, depression, and decreased quality of life for patients. Diagnosis is often delayed because of patient embarrassment or clinician misdiagnosis. Early recognition and treatment is essential to decreasing the morbidity of this condition. Multimodal treatment, along with a multidisciplinary approach, will improve outcomes and further clinical advances in studying this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ion, Daniela I; Setterfield, Jane F
Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common autoimmune T-cell-mediated disease of unknown aetiology affecting the mucous membranes, skin and nails. Its prevalence varies between 0.5 and 2.2% of the population in epidemiological studies with a peak incidence in the 30-60 years range and with a female predominance of 2:1. Mucosal lichen planus tends to follow a chronic course with acute exacerbations. Spontaneous remission of oral lichen planus (OLP) is uncommon, and indeed mucosal LP may become worse with time. In contrast, cutaneous lichen planus may follow a milder clinical course though some variants may be severe such as those affecting the palms and soles and the scalp and the genital tract in females (vulvovaginal gingival LP) where scarring leads to significant complications. It is important to identify those cases that may be drug induced or be associated with a contact allergic or irritant reaction (lichenoid reaction) or the rarer oral presentation of discoid lupus erythematosus. There is a very small risk of malignancy (approximately 1:200 patients/year) associated with oral lichen planus; thus patients should be informed that long term monitoring via their general dental practitioner is appropriate. This review will focus on the clinical presentation and management of oral lichen planus.
Liakopoulou, Angeliki; Rallis, Efstathios
Bullous lichen planus is a rare variant of lichen planus. It is characterized by vesicles or bullae, which usually develop in the context of pre-existing LP lesions. It is often misdiagnosed and should be differentiated from other subepidermal bullous diseases especially lichen planus pemphigoides. The diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and is confirmed by histopathology and immunofluoresence. The clinical features of bullous lichen planus include typical lichen planus lesions, accompanied by the formation of bullae on the affected or perilesional skin. This is evident on histology, with alteration of the dermo-epidermal junction and intrabasal bullae as a consequence of extensive inflammation. The histologic features in conjunction with the negative immunofluoresence indicate that bullous lichen planus is a form of "hyper-reactive lichen planus" rather than a distinct entity. There is no standard treatment of bullous lichen planus. Topical and systemic corticosteroids, dapsone and acitretin have been described as effective choices.
Mohan Das, Usha; JP, Beena
Oral lichen planus which is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases in adults, it has been rarely described in children. There are very reports in the literature regarding oral lichen planus in children, here we report a case of intraoral lesions of lichen planus. Lichen planus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperkeratotic or erosive lesions of the oral mucosa in children.
Full Text Available 29 - year Lichen planus is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune skin disease, that is often manifested, except on the skin, in the oral cavity in a variety of clinical forms. The prevalence of the disease in the general population is about 1-2%. Etiopathogenesis is not still well understood. Histopathology, in addition to the basic methods, anamnesis and physical examination, is vital for proper diagnosis of oral lichen planus (OLP. Very diverse and loaded histological findings are common for all forms of oral lichen planus. We reported the case of oral lichen planus in a 49 years old male patient, who presented to the Dentistry clinic of Medical faculty of Priština with burning and itching symptoms and changes in the buccal mucosa. Histopathological analysis of biopsy tissue conformed clinical diagnosis of lichen planus. Due to the possibility for malignant transformation of lesions, the long-term follow-up of patients with this disease is of great importance.
Rasool, S.; Katpar, S.; Ali, A.
Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous dermatological disorder, with intraoral manifestation. Skin lesions prevail with oral mucosal lesions. Prevalence of lichen planus, as an oral pre-malignant lesion, is 1-2 % population. Lateral border, dorsal tongue, gingiva, hard palate and vermilion border are common sites and lesions appear as reticular, plaque-like and papular intraoral types. Skin presents with pururitic, polygonal papules. Atrophic and erosive are the known intraoral pre-malignant types. A case report is presented, which responded well to steroid therapy. (author)
Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana
We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face.
Parihar, Asmita; Sharma, Sonal; Bhattacharya, Sambit Nath; Singh, Usha Rani
Background: Lichen planus is an idiopathic subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of the skin, mucous membranes and nails. We studied the clinicopathological profile of lichen planus in Indian population. Methods: A total of 145 cases of histologically diagnosed lichen planus samples were included. Clinical features like age, sex, type of lichen planus, location were recorded in the case record form. Histological features of lichen planus were studied. Results: Out of 145 cases, major...
Romero, Williams; Giesen, Laura; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Gonzalez, Sergio
Erosive lichen planus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus. Chronic erosions of the soles, accompanied by intense and disabling pain, are some of its most characteristic manifestations. We present the case of a woman who developed oral and plantar erosive lichen planus associated with lichen planus pigmentosus and ungueal lichen planus that were diagnosed after several years. The patient failed to respond to multiple therapies requiring longstanding medication but remained refractory. Knowledge of the treatment options for erosive lichen planus is insufficient. Further research is required to clarify their effectiveness, ideally adopting an evidence-based methodology.
Kragelund, Camilla; Kieffer-Kristensen, L; Reibel, J
OBJECTIVES: Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, but other Candida species cause candidosis. Candida species display significant differences in their susceptibility to antimycotic drugs. Patients with symptomatic or erythematous oral lichen planus (OLP) commonly have...
R Jayasri Krupaa
Full Text Available Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment.
Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.
Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696
Stoopler, Eric T; Alfaris, Sausan; Alomar, Dalal; Alawi, Faizan
Lichen planus (LP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorder with a wide array of clinical presentations. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is characterized clinically by striae, desquamation, and/or ulceration. Lichen planopilaris (LPP), a variant of LP, affects the scalp, resulting in perifollicular erythema and scarring of cutaneous surfaces accompanied by hair loss. The association between OLP and LPP has been reported previously with scant information on concomitant or sequential disease presentation. We describe a patient with concomitant OLP and LPP, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on OLP preceding the onset of LPP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Job, Anupa Mary; Kaimal, Sowmya
Vulvovaginal lichen planus is a type of chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the vulva, usually seen as a part of widespread lichen planus. The common clinical types of vulval lichen planus include papulosquamous, erosive and pigmented types. Hypertrophic lichen planus of the vulva is a rare entity. We report a case of hypertrophic lichen planus of the vulva which clinically simulated genital warts.
Horowitz, Marcia Raquel; Vidal, Marcela de Lima; Resende, Manuela Oliveira; Teixeira, Márcia Almeida Galvão; Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria de Morais; de Alencar, Eliane Ruth Barbosa
Lichen planus is an uncommon disease in children, and only 2 to 3% of affected patients are under twenty years of age. This dermatosis may appear in several clinical forms, which vary according to the morphology and distribution of lesions. In less than 0.2% of all lichen planus cases, the lesions are distributed along the lines of Blaschko, and is a variant called linear lichen planus. This is a case report of a patient aged two years and eight months, who presented keratotic violaceous papules, affecting the abdomen, buttocks and right thigh, distributed along the lines of Blaschko. Histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of linear lichen planus. PMID:24346902
Howard, Matthew; Hall, Anthony
Vulval lichen planus-lichen sclerosus overlap is an emerging observation. Few clinical reports exist with no reviews of literature. We present a focused update of this phenomenon and discuss a clinical case. We report a 63-year-old woman with a 20-year history of ulcerative vulvo-vaginitis, initially diagnosed as benign mucous membrane (cicatricial) pemphigoid. This led to prolonged treatment with oral corticosteroids with minimal improvement in symptoms. Subsequent complications of long-term use of systemic corticosteroid ensued. A clinico-pathological diagnosis of severe erosive lichen planus was made on clinical findings and on non-specific biopsy changes of ulceration and inflammation. Treatment with topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment twice daily led to dramatic improvement of ulceration, easing of discomfort and marked improvement in quality of life. Clinical examination revealed Wickham's striae on the labia majora supporting the diagnosis. Six years after commencement of topical clobetasol, white plaques were noticed on the labia majora, perineum and peri-anal region consistent with lichen sclerosus, confirmed by repeat vulval skin biopsy and on vulvectomy. This case highlights the challenge of diagnosis of extensive vulvo-vaginal ulceration and the necessity to re-examine a previous diagnosis if there is poor response to treatment.
Audhya, Moutusi; Varughese, Jenny S.; Nakhwa, Yuti C.
Lichen planus is a chronic papulosquamous dermatoses in which both skin and mucosae are involved. There are various morphological forms of lichen planus. Hypertrophic lichen planus is one of the rare clinical variants. Herein, we report a very unusual presentation of hypertrophic lichen planus. A similar presentation has not been reported in literature yet, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:25386324
Full Text Available Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare subtype of lichen planus. Because of its rarity, we present the case of a patient diagnosed as lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus based on clinical and histopatological findings, which clinical appearance did not resemble lichen planus at initial examination.
Ch. Madhu Babu; P. Padmaja; M. Roopa Shree
BACKGROUND Lichen planus is an idiopathic subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of the skin, mucous membranes, and nails. We studied the clinicopathological profile of 50 cases of Lichen planus in Osmania General Hospital from September 2010-April 2012. METHODS A total of 50 cases Lichen planus attending DVL OPD at OGH were studied. Clinical features like age, sex, type of Lichen planus, location were recorded in the case record form. Histological features of Lichen planus...
Full Text Available Lichen planus is a relatively common inflammatory disorder which may have cutaneous and or mucosal manifestation. The malignant potential of oral lichen planus is still debatable. Some authors are sceptical about the premalignant nature of the disease, while other investigators have reported that malignant transformations occur in 1-10% of the cases. The aim of this study is to report a case of erosive lichen plans which shows malignant transformation of histopathologic examination. A man of 39 years old visited the Dental Department or Kajradi's Hospital with pain symptoms of the palate, buccal and gingival mucosa on both sides for 6 months. The physical examination shows the white lesion with striae configuration and pain, red erosive area inside the palate extends to the buccal mucosa and the gingival mucosa. The suspect diagnosis is erosive lichen planus, but the histopathologic examination shows epidermoid carcinoma. It is concluded that erosive oral lichen planus has the potential to transform into epidermoid carcinoma.
Al-Hassiny, A; Friedlander, L T; Parachuru, V P B; Seo, B; Hussaini, H M; Rich, A M
As angiogenesis is fundamental to the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders, this study investigated the expression of various vascular markers in oral lichen planus and non-specific oral mucosal inflammatory tissues. Archival specimens of oral lichen planus (n = 15) and inflamed tissues (n = 13) were stained using immunohistochemistry with antibodies to CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and vasohibin. Nine representative sites at the epithelial-connective tissue junction and through the fibrous connective tissue were selected, and automated analysis techniques were used to determine the extent of positivity expressed as the percentage of positive cells. Significance was denoted when P lichen planus samples compared with inflamed controls. A higher level of CD34 was observed in the deeper parts of the connective tissue of Oral lichen planus (OLP) (P = .04), whereas VEGF and VEGFR2 expressions were higher all through the tissues (respectively, P lichen planus in all sites evaluated (P oral lichen planus compared with inflamed controls, with increased expression of pro-angiogenic factors and decreased anti-angiogenic expression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zolfaghari Saravi, Zahra; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Sharbatdaran, Majid; Bijani, Ali; Mozaffari, Fatemeh; Aminishakib, Pouyan
Background and objective: Given the postulated the role of inflammation and possible contribution of lymphangiogenesis in oral lichen planus, this study aimed to assess any associated presence of VEGFR-3. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 52 formalin fixed and paraffin embedded blocks of oral lichen planus (pathological diagnosis based on Modified WHO criteria), comprising 25 of erosive and 27 of reticular type, along with 60 samples of normal mucosa (with minimal inflammation from clinical and histopathological aspects) obtained at crown lengthening surgery. Four micron sections were cut from paraffin blocks and stained with H and E for confirmation of diagnosis and by immunohistochemistry with primary antibodies against VEGFR-3. Negative controls were provided by omission of primary antibody and placenta was considered as a positive control. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-wallis tests and P lichen planus specimens and 5% of those from normal mucosa (poral lichen planus than in normal mucosa (poral lichen planus (p=0.262) and the average number of stained vessels (p=0.092) demonstrated no significant difference according to the type. Conclusion: It appears that VEGFR-3 expression might be involved in the pathogenesis of the oral lichen planus through increasing lymphatic vessels and lymphangiogenesis. Creative Commons Attribution License
Feily, Amir; Yaghoobi, Reza; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali
Palmoplantar lichen planus is a localized and uncommon variant of lichen planus which is mostly resistant to treatment. Our purpose was to discuss all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate evidence regarding all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. Two major databases (PubMed, Google scholar) were searched. The review included all case reports, letters and original articles reporting any treatment for palmoplantar lichen planus but not treatment used in the other type of lichen planus, generalized lichen planus or other type of palmoplantar dermatoses. We have gone over more than 50 articles. There are many drugs that have been used in the treatment of lichen planus and generalized lichen planus but the palmoplantar type is a rare variety of lichen planus. That is why we could not find any clinical trial on the subject and just case reports have been described in this manuscript. In spite of plentiful investigations carried out on lichen planus, there is no treatment modality that has proved to be utterly satisfactory in treatment of palmoplantar lichen planus.
Francesco Tripodi Cutrì
Full Text Available Ashy dermatosis, also known as erythema dyschromicum perstans, is an idiopathic dermal melanosis of unknown etiology. We here describe an unusual case of 63-year-old Caucasian male with ashy dermatosis and skin lesion of lichen pigmentosus-like. No treatment was tried because the lesions were totally asymptomatic. After a control, three months later, all lesions had cleared up. This case is of interest because it proves the existence of ashy dermatosis with clinical aspect lichen planus pigmentosus-like. This is the first case in the literature of lichen planus pigmentosuslike ashy dermatosis confirming the view that ashy dermatosis is a variant of lichen planus without the typically band-like infiltrate and Max Joseph spaces.
Full Text Available Accidental observation of early cure of lichen planus in a female patient who received propranalol for the treatment of associated hyperthyroidism made us to try this drug in 20 patients with lichen planus. The cutaneous lesions responded very well to the treatment in 909′o of the cases. The mucous membrane lesions responded only partially and slowly. Another group of 20 patients with lichen planus who received only oral pheniramine maleate showed persistence of skin lesions even after 3 months. There were no serious side effects -with propranalol, though one patient with an atopic background, developed bronchial asthma for the first time at the age of 21. The excellent therapeutic response to propranalol-a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, in these patients indicates further study.
Full Text Available A case of vitiligo who subsequently developed the lesions of lichen planus is described. Both types of lesions occurred on sun exposed areas, aggravated on photochemotherapy and showed improvement on para aminobenzoic acid cream application with avoidance of sun exposure. The possibility of common aetiological background is discussed.
Full Text Available Lichen planus is an inflammatory disorder that may involveskin and mucous membranes. Linear lichen planusis a rare disorder occurring in approximately 0.2% of patientswith lichen planus. We report a case of linear lichenplanus on the upper extremity which lesions followed thelines of Blaschko. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 430-432
Uçmak, Derya; Azizoğlu, Ruken; Harman, Mehmet
Lichen planus is a benign, inflammatory and itchy dermatosis that is incurred by skin, skin extensions and mucosa. Lichen planus rarely show palmoplantar involvement. Since stratum corneum in palmoplantar lichen planus is extremely thick, lesions can be yellow colored instead of the purple colored papules that are classic lesions. Clinically, it might be confused with psoriasis, secondary syphilis, verruca vulgaris, hyperkeratotic eczema, palmoplantar keratodermas, hyperkeratotic type tinea p...
Abdel-Haq, Ayman; Kusnierz-Cabala, Beata; Darczuk, Dagmara; Sobuta, Eliza; Dumnicka, Paulina; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria
Lichen planus together with its oral variant is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the skin and the mucosa of unclear aetiology and with an unpredictable course that still poses a major problem in terms of diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and neopterin in saliva and serum of patients with lichen planus (including reticular and erosive form of oral lichen planus) and to compare them with the concentrations observed in healthy controls. The study material comprised serum and saliva samples from 56 patients diagnosed with lichen planus and 56 healthy volunteers. The ELISA test was used to measure concentrations of IL-6 and neopterin in the serum and saliva of the study participants. The concentrations of IL-6 in saliva and serum of patients with lichen planus were significantly higher than in controls (P = 0.0002; P oral lichen planus had significantly higher IL-6 concentrations in their saliva compared to patients with reticular form of disease (P = 0.01). The concentrations of neopterin were significantly higher in the serum but not in saliva of lichen planus patients vs. controls (P lichen planus as well as the salivary concentrations of IL-6. The differences observed in IL-6 levels in patients with erosive-atrophic forms of oral lichen planus may indicate a substantial role played by the cytokine in the disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that frequently involves the oral mucosa. It has been regarded by many authors as a premalignant condition. There has been a continuous debate regarding the possible malignant potential of OLP, and these patients have been recommended to have their lesions monitored two to four times annually. A case of a lichen planus transformed into malignancy is reported here. This case does not provide answers to the ongoing controversy about the innate propensity of OLP to become malignant. However, in view of common occurrence of OLP and unresolved issue regarding its malignant potential (MP, thus case report illustrates the need for histologic confirmation and close follow-up of patients with clinical lesions that have lichenoid features.
Full Text Available Seventy five patients with Lichen Planus (LP were enrolled from out-patient department for screening the therapeutic effect of dapsone. Patients were divided into two groups of 50 and 25. In regimen - 1 (RI 25 patients were given local corticosteroids and oral chlorpheniramine maleate. In regimen - 2 (R2 50 patients were given oral dapsone and chlorpheniramine maleate and topical coconut oil. It was found that total efficacy of R2 was 18% higher than R1.
Vazirnia, Aria; Cohen, Philip R
Lichen planus is an inflammatory disease that affects the skin, the oral mucosa, or both. Generalized cutaneous lichen planus may pose a therapeutic challenge for clinicians if the condition persists or flares after topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy. Acitretin, a systemic retinoid, can be considered a potential second-line treatment for patients with generalized cutaneous lichen planus. Herein, we describe a postmenopausal woman with generalized cutaneous lichen planus who was successfully treated with acitretin. A 58-year-old woman presented with generalized cutaneous lichen planus involving her upper and lower extremities as well as her lower back. After failing corticosteroid therapy, she was started on acitretin 20 mg/day, which was later increased to 30 mg/day. To review the literature on the use of acitretin in cutaneous lichen planus, we used the PubMed search engine and searched for the terms "acitretin" and "cutaneous lichen planus." Our patient had complete resolution of pruritus within one week of initiating acitretin 20 mg/day. After an increase in dose to 30 mg/day, the cutaneous lesions completely resolved over a 3-month period. There was no recurrence of disease as acitretin was tapered and discontinued. Generalized cutaneous lichen planus may pose a therapeutic challenge for the symptomatic relief of skin lesions. Topical and systemic corticosteroids are first-line treatments. In patients who fail corticosteroids, relapse after corticosteroid therapy, or have contraindications to corticosteroids, acitretin may be considered a potential second-line therapy.
Bullous lichen planus is a rare entity. We describe bullous lichen planus in an. Indian female who had itchy erythematous papular lesions with vesicles and bullae predominantly over the dorsa of both legs. The patient was subjected to histopathological examination after which the diagnosis was confirmed. The patient was ...
Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available.
Fairchild, Pamela S; Haefner, Hope K
Lichen planus is a rare dermatological disorder that is often associated with painful and disfiguring vulvovaginal effects. At the University of Michigan Center for Vulvar Diseases, we see many women with vulvovaginal lichen planus each year, with marked scarring and vulvovaginal agglutination that precludes vaginal intercourse and causes difficulty with urination. Through our experience, we developed a protocol for the operative management and postoperative care for severe vulvovaginal agglutination. Our objective is to share this protocol with a wider audience so that providers who see patients with these devastating effects of lichen planus can benefit from our experience to better serve this patient population. The figure represents a case of erosive lichen planus with early vaginal agglutination. The video reviews the pathophysiology and presentation of lichen planus. We then present a case of scarring and agglutination in a young woman, including our surgical management and postoperative care recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schilling, L; Vogt, T
Lichen ruber, also called lichen ruber planus or lichen planus (LP), is a noncontagious inflammatory skin disease. LP is the main representative and namesake of the group of lichenoid diseases, which are characterized by small papules often accompanied by severe itching. With 65% of cases, LP is primarily a disease of the mucous membranes. In 20% of the cases, the disease is found on the skin and mucous membranes; skin involvement alone is seen in only about 10% of cases. Cutaneous LP has a very favorable 1‑year prognosis of almost 80% healing as opposed to the mucosa and the adnexal organs. Histologically, keratinocytes with vacuolar degeneration, leaving behind apoptotic Kamino bodies and the characteristic band-shaped lymphocytic infiltrate at the dermatoepithelial junction, are common to lichenoid diseases. The horny layer is firm and compact and the stratum granulosum is thickened as a correlate of the Wickham stripes. The molecular pathogenesis, still partially hypothetical, assumes trigger factors leading to the presentation of intrinsic or foreign antigens. The triggered inflammation becomes independent in the sense of a classical cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Other autoimmune diseases are often associated with LP. Classical anti-inflammatory-immunosuppressive therapeutic concepts dominate with systemic retinoids ranking first in the highest evidence class for cutaneous LP with limitations in treatment of both mucosal and adnexal LP. More recently, interesting and new complementary phototherapeutics have been identified.
M. Gómez Vázquez
Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus (LS et atrophicus is a disease of unknown etiology, although hereditary, endocrine, and autoimmune factors are known to be involved. While the anal and genital regions are predominantly affected, only 2.5% of patients present with extragenital lesions, particularly of the trunk, neck, and upper limbs. The possible relationship between lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and both lichen planus (LP and localized scleroderma (morphea has not been clearly established, although in a number of cases, several of these conditions have been found simultaneously. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman with LS lesions affecting the neck, upper back, wrist and dorsum of the feet. The unusual character of this presentation is pointed out, along with its clinical similarity to LP.
Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Shafaee, Shahryar; Bijani, Ali; Bagheri, Soodabeh
Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are vascular adhesion molecules that their receptors are located on endothelial cells and leukocytes. The aim of this study is the immunohistochemical evaluation of VCAM1 and ICAM1 in oral lichen planus and to compare these two markers with normal mucosa for evaluation of angiogenesis. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 70 paraffined blocks of oral lichen planus and 30 normal mucosa samples taken from around the lesions. Samples were stained with H & E and then with Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal mouse anti human VCAM1 (CD106), & monoclonal mouse anti human ICAM1(CD54) for confirmation of diagnosis. Slides were evaluated under light microscope and VCAM1 and ICAM1 positive cells (endothelial cells and leukocytes) were counted. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon and Chi-Square and poral lichen planus according to the percentage of stained cells (p=0.000& p=0.000, Mann-Whitney test). Thirty cases of oral normal mucosa associated with lichen planus showed that the VCAM1 has increased significantly in comparison to normal mucosa (plichen planus and normal mucosa, showed a significantly difference (plichen planus was not observed (p>0.05). Regarding the results, it seems that high expression of VCAM1 and ICAM1 is related to oral lichen planus. PMID:24551788
Full Text Available Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP is a chronic pigmentary disorder with variable pattern of presentation. We here by present two cases of LPP one with parallel band like pigmentation over abdomen sparing the abdominal skin creases and other with parallel band like pattern following the Blaschko’s lines over left side of the abdomen. Our cases are unique not only for its presentation but also for the pattern of distribution and LPP should be the differential diagnosis in any pigmentary disorders.
Tampa, Mircea; Mitran, Madalina; Mitran, Cristina; Matei, Clara; Georgescu, Simona-Roxana
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology with significant impact on patients' quality of life. Malignant transformation into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered as one of the most serious complications of the disease; nevertheless, controversy still persists. Various factors seem to be involved in the progression of malignant transformation; however, the mechanism of this process is not fully understood yet. Molecular alterations detected in OLP samples might represent useful biomarkers for predicting and monitoring the malignant progression. In this review, we discuss various studies which highlight different molecules as ominous predictors of OLP malignant transformation. PMID:29682099
Oral lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of oral mucous membranes, characterized by an autoimmune epidermis attack by T cells. It remains unknown, however, how such aggressive T cells are activated in vivo to cause epidermal damage. This study analyzes the relationship at the peptide level between viruses and oral lichen planus disease. Four potentially immunogenic peptides (SSSSSSS, QEQLEKA, LLLLLLA, and MLSGNAG) are found to be shared between HCV, EBV, HHV-7, HSV-1, and CMV and three human proteins (namely pinin, desmoglein-3, and plectin). The described peptide sharing might be of help in deciphering the still unexplained immunopathogenic pathway that leads to oral lichen planus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rabinovich, O F; Rabinovich, I M; Guseva, A V
The aim of the study was to elaborate the rationale for the application of photodynamic therapy in complex treatment of patient with severe oral lichen planus. Complex clinical and laboratory examination and treatment was performed in 54 patients divided on 3 groups. Diagnosis of oral lichen planus was based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features. Group 1 received standard treatment, in the second group photodynamic therapy was conducted in addition to conventional treatment, patients in the third group received only photodynamic therapy. The study results proved photodynamic therapy to be useful tool in complex treatment of severe oral lichen planus.
Firstine Kelsi Hartanto
Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is a chronic muccocutaneous inflammatory disorder. Oral lichen planus (OLP has certain specific characteristics in its clinical presentation, but can also be presented in forms resembling other diseases. This may introduce difficulty in the diagnostic process. It has been reported that OLP affects between 0.1 to 4% individuals, predominantly women and people over 40 years old. Case Report: A 46-year-old woman complained of a non-healing ulcer present for 1.5 months. Intraorally, multiple white striae with prominent central areas of brownish hyperpigmentation were apparent on the right and left buccal mucosa, right and left buccal sulcus, and lateral and dorsum of the tongue. A biopsy was completed and the histopathology features confirmed the diagnosis of OLP. For the initial treatment, a topical corticosteroid was prescribed, followed by steroid mouthwash. Response to this treatment was positive. OLP has been frequently reported to affect women over the age of 40, with psychological stress as a primary predisposing factor. The clinical presentation is characteristic of Wickham’s striae with erosive areas. However, a biopsy and histopathological examination is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis. The clinical feature of pigmented OLP has been reported and confirmed by microscopic finding of band-like lymphocytic appearance which is the pathognomonic features of OLP, along with basal cell liquefaction degeneration, and melanin in continence at the lamina propria. Conclusion: Pigmented OLP is a variant of erosive OLP. Anamnesis, clinical presentation, and histopathological examination confirm diagnosis.
Full Text Available The association of lichen planus (LP with liver diseases is now well established. Recent reports suggest that the hepatitis viruses may play a central role in this association. Lichen planus following hepatitis B vaccination is much more unusual. A 19-year-old previously healthy male developed itchy violaceous papules and plaques over the upper extremities eight to ten days after the first injection of hepatitis B vaccine. He developed similar lesions over the upper trunk, neck and lower leg after the second and third injections. A skin biopsy showed a lichenoid tissue reaction. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF showed multiple colloid bodies and a strong continuous ragged basement membrane zone (BMZ band with fibrinogen. HbsAg by ELISA and anti-HCV antibodies were negative. The patient was treated with oral steroids and the lesions improved. LP is a pruritic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown origin. An increased prevalence of liver disease in patient with LP has been reported. Since the first case reported by Rebora in 1990, about 15 cases of LP occurring after hepatitis B vaccination have been reported in the literature irrespective of the type of vaccine used.
Full Text Available A 35-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a 3 months history of itchy cutaneous eruption on the trunk and asymptomatic cutaneous eruption on both groins. Physical examination revealed several, purplish-brown, scaly papules on the trunk and well-circumscribed, brown patchs in a linear distribution, on the bilateral inguinal regions. Dermoscopic examination of papules on the trunk revealed white crossing lines surrounded by brown dots; dermoscopic examination of patchs on groins revealed gray-brown dots and globules. According to histological, dermoscopical and clinical changes, the diagnoses of classical lichen planus (LP for the lesions on the trunk; and lichen planus pigmentosus inversus (LPPI for the lesions on the inguinal regions were made. Inhere we have described a rare case of LPPI and classical LP with dermoscopic features; and we suggest that LPPI is a variant of classical LP.
This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)
Lombardi, Tommaso; Küffer, Roger
Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the skin, skin appendages and mucous membranes, which frequently affects the oral mucosa. Its aetiology still remains unknown, and currently accepted pathogenesis is that of an autoimmune cell-mediated disease. To the contrary of skin lichen planus, oral lichen planus is a long-term chronic disease with dynamic evolution, in which progressive and profound changes of the clinical and histopathological aspects occur over time and under the influence of various exogenous factors. By convention, in the history of the oral lichen planus four successive stages can be distinguished without well-defined boundaries between them. These stages can be defined as an initial phase; a long intermediate phase with alternating periods of activity and quiescence, which has a gradually increasing risk of malignant transformation; a late stage which activity is traditionally diminished; and a post-lichen cicatricial stage with an absent or negligible and undetectable activity, often undiagnosed because clinically unrecognized; in this stage, the lesion does not respond to usual treatments, but retains the same risk of malignant transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rauschecker, Andreas M; Levine, Marc S; Whitson, Matthew J; Tondon, Rashmi; Rubesin, Stephen E; Furth, Emma E; Metz, David C
The purpose of this study is to present the clinical and radiographic findings of esophageal lichen planus. A search of computerized medical records identified 15 patients with pathologic findings of esophageal lichen planus on endoscopic biopsy specimens. Three other patients had presumed esophageal lichen planus, although no biopsy specimens were obtained. Twelve of these 18 patients (67%) had double-contrast esophagography performed at our institution; for eight of the 12 patients (67%), the studies revealed abnormalities in the esophagus. These eight patients constituted our study group. The barium esophagrams and medical records of these eight patients were reviewed to determine the clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic findings of esophageal lichen planus as well as the treatment and patient outcome. All eight patients were women (median age, 66.5 years), and all eight presented with dysphagia (mean duration, 3.2 years). Four patients had previous lichen planus that involved the skin (n = 1), the oral cavity (n = 2), or both (n = 1), and one patient later had lichen planus that involved the vagina. Five patients had a small-caliber esophagus with diffuse esophageal narrowing. The remaining three patients had segmental strictures in the cervical (n = 1), upper thoracic (n = 1), and distal thoracic (n = 1) esophagus. Esophageal lichen planus typically occurs in older women with longstanding dysphagia and often develops in the absence of extraesophageal disease. Barium esophagrams may reveal a small-caliber esophagus or, less commonly, segmental esophageal strictures. Greater awareness of the radiographic findings of esophageal lichen planus hopefully will lead to earlier diagnosis and better management of this condition.
Yang, Gang; Tan, Cheng
Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is an uncommon variant of lichen planus (LP) that manifests as macular hyperpigmentation involving chiefly the face and upper limbs. Although its etiology has not been fully elucidated, a relationship with hepatitis C infection, restrictive underwear, localized friction, and sun exposure have been proposed. Rarely, exposure to mustard oil, amla oil, henna, or hair dyes has been reported. We herein describe an LPP-like reaction to Guasha. © The Author(s) 2016.
Souza, M M; Florezi, G P; Nico, Mms; de Paula, F; Paula, F M; Lourenço, S V
Oral lichen planus is a chronic, T-cell-mediated, inflammatory disease that affects the oral cavity. The oral lichen planus pathogenesis is still unclear, however, the main evidence is that the mechanisms of activation of different T lymphocyte pathway induce apoptosis with an increase in Th1 and Th17 subtypes cells, triggered by the release of cytokines. This study analysed saliva proteomics to identify protein markers that might be involved in the pathogenesis and development of the disease. Proteins differentially expressed by oral lichen planus and healthy controls were screened using mass spectrometry; the proteins found in oral lichen planus were subjected to bioinformatics analysis, including gene ontology and string networks analysis. The multiplex analysis validation allowed the correlation between the proteins identified and the involved cytokines in Th17 response. One hundred and eight proteins were identified in oral lichen planus, of which 17 proteins showed a high interaction between them and indicated an association with the disease. Expression of these proteins was correlated with the triggering of cytokines, more specifically the Th17 cells. Proteins, such as S100A8, S100A9, haptoglobin, can trigger cytokines and might be associated with a pathological function and antioxidant activities in oral lichen planus. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and aims. The clinical management of oral lichen planus poses considerable difficulties to the clinician. In recent years, researchers have focused on the presence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Candida albicans in the patients with refractory lichen planus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of candida species in the erosive oral lichen planus lesions. Materials and methods. Twenty-one patients with erosive oral lichen planus and twenty-one healthy individuals aged 18-60 were randomly selected; samples were taken from the tongue, saliva and buccal mucosa with swab friction. Theses samples were sent to the laboratory for determining the presence of candida species in cultures and direct examination method. Results. No significant difference was found between healthy individuals and patients with erosive lichen planus regarding presence of candida species. The type of candida in the evaluated samples was Candida albicans in both healthy and patient groups. Conclusion. According to the results, candida was not confirmed as an etiologic factor for erosive lichen planus lesions.
Simarpreet V Sandhu
Full Text Available Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by bilateral white striations or plaques on the buccal mucosa, tongue or gingiva that has a multifactorial etiology, where the psychogenic factors seem to play an important role. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the existing relation between the OLP and psychological alterations of the patient, such as stress, anxiety, and depression. Materials and Methods: Hospital anxiety and depression scale was applied for psychometric analysis. Results: The study indicates a definitive relationship between a stressful life event and onset and progression of OLP. Conclusion: Stress management and bereavement counseling should be a part of management protocol of OLP.
Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a common idiopathic inflammatory disorder that affects the flexor aspect of the wrists, the legs, and the oral and genital mucosa. Depending upon the site of involvement, LP can be divided into mucosal, nail, scalp, or palmoplantar types. Palmoplantar LP can pose a diagnostic problem to the clinician as it resembles common dermatoses like psoriasis, verruca, corn, calluses, lichenoid drug eruption, and papular syphilide of secondary syphilis. In this case report, we describe a 4-year-old male child who presented with highly pruritic erythematous to violaceous hyperkeratotic papules and plaques on his palms and soles. Typical LP papules were noted on the upper back. Histopathology of the papular lesion showed features of LP. Dermatoscopy of a papule from the back showed the characteristic Wickham striae. We report this rare involvement of palm and soles in a case of childhood LP.
Darvishpoor Kakhki H.; Rad M.; Zarei MR.; Chamani G.
atement of Problem: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic disease that affects skin and mucous membranes. Lesions of oral lichen planus (OLP) can persist for a long time. Varying prevalence rates of oral lichen planus have been reported in different parts of the world, while information regarding the epidemiology of this disease in Iran is incomplete.Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the characteristics of oral lichen planus in a group of Iranian patients and compare the results with sim...
Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Sigurdsson, Vigfus; Vreuls, Willem; Lubbert, Pieter H. W.; Smout, André J. P. M.
Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease which can also affect the oesophagus. Unlike in oral lichen planus an increased risk for the development of squamous cell carcinoma in the oesophagus has not been established. We describe two sisters with a history of long-standing cutaneous lichen planus who
de Vries, Henry J. C.; Teunissen, Marcel B. M.; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Picavet, Daisy; Cornelissen, Marion
The cause of lichen planus is still unknown. Previously we showed human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) DNA and proteins in lesional lichen planus skin, and significantly less in non-lesional lichen planus, psoriasis or healthy skin. Remarkably, lesional lichen planus skin was infiltrated with plasmacytoid
Nahidi, Yalda; Tayyebi Meibodi, Naser; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Esmaily, Habibollah; Esmaeelzadeh, Maryam
Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous papulosquamous itchy disease with unknown etiology. A number of factors such as immune mechanisms, viral agents, and drugs have been implicated in pathogenesis of lichen planus. In recent years, several studies have indicated the role of viral agents in this disease, including human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7). Studies have given contradictory results, which is why we decided to study the possible association between lichen planus with HHV-7. In this case-control study, which was conducted on 60 cutaneous classic lichen planus samples as well as 60 healthy control skin samples after matching the two groups in terms of gender and age, tissue samples of patients and controls were studied by real time polymerase chain reaction to detect for HHV-7. According to this study, HHV-7 DNA was found in 18 samples of the case group (30.0%) and in six (10.0%) of the control group (P = 0.006). The results of this study support the likely role of HHV-7 in pathogenesis of lichen planus. As an exogenous antigen, this virus may be involved in cellular immune-mediated destruction of keratinocytes. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.
Alves, Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira; do Carmo Carvalho, Bruna Fernandes; Balducci, Ivan; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; Nicodemo, Denise; Almeida, Janete Dias
Oral lichen planus is a chronic immune-mediated disease with an estimated prevalence of 0.5-2.5% in the general population. Patients with oral lichen planus are often emotionally unstable and anxious and may develop concomitant systemic disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate emotional characteristics of patients with oral lichen planus. Two groups were studied: the first group consisted of 48 patients with a diagnosis of oral lichen planus, and the second group consisted of controls without the disease matched for age and gender at a proportion of 1:1. The emotional state of the patients was evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, SF-36 generic quality of life questionnaire, and the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20. The present investigation demonstrated the presence of anxiety and depression in patients with oral lichen planus and a negative impact of the disorder on the patient's quality of life as indicated by impairment of the physical aspect, vitality, mental health, and social aspect domains. This could indicate that associated psychological treatment may be important in the follow-up of these patients. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.
Olszewska, Malgorzata; Banka-Wrona, Agnieszka; Skrok, Anna; Rakowska, Adriana; Górska, Renata; Solomon, Lynn W; Rudnicka, Lidia
Vulvovaginal-gingival lichen planus (VVG-LP) consists of a triad of symptoms: vulval, vaginal and gingival lichen planus lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of lesions in various anatomical locations in patients with VVG-LP. The study included 126 consecutive patients with lichen planus. Sixteen (12.7%) patients fulfilled the criteria of VVG-LP. In 12/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP scalp lesions were also observed. Stratified epithelium-specific antinuclear antibodies (SES-ANA) and anti-ΔNp.3α antibodies were detected in 10/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP and in 15/110 (13.6%) patients with other forms of lichen planus (p lichen planopilaris. The new entity may be termed "vulvovaginal-gingival-pilar lichen planus" and our study indicates that SES-ANA is a marker of this type of lichen planus with extensive, severe and refractory-to-therapy involvement of the mucous membranes, skin and scalp.
Wang, Yu; Jin, Ying; Wang, Yi-Yue; Xu, Dan-Ni; Lin, Xiao-Ping
To investigate the influence of IL-35 in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and oral lichen planus, and the correlation between periodontitis and oral lichen planus patients. The gingival crevicular fluid（GCF） and serum were collected from patients with oral lichen planus (n=20), periodontitis (n=20), periodontitis and oral lichen planus (n=20) and healthy controls (n=12). The patients' basic information, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index were measured and collected. The expression of IL-35 in GCF and serum was detected by ELISA. SPSS19.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The concentration of IL-35 in patients with periodontitis and oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of other groups(Poral lichen planus may increase the concentration of IL-35 both in serum and GCF. The expression of IL-35 was positively correlated with periodontitis and oral lichen planus.
Scully, C; Beyli, M; Ferreiro, M C
Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common disorder of the stratified squamous epithelia, which is, in many ways, an enigma. This paper is the consensus outcome of a workshop held in Switzerland in 1995, involving a selection of clinicians and scientists with an interest in the condition and its...... about the mechanisms involved, and interesting new associations, such as with liver disease, have emerged. The management of lichen planus is still not totally satisfactory, and there is as yet no definitive treatment, but there have been advances in the control of the condition. There is no curative...... management. The oral (OLP) eruptions usually have a distinct clinical morphology and characteristic distribution, but OLP may also present a confusing array of patterns and forms, and other disorders may clinically simulate OLP. Lesions may affect other mucosae and/or skin. Lichen planus is probably...
Baek, K; Choi, Y
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a variant of lichen planus (LP), a common chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease. Cutaneous lesions of LP are self-limiting, but OLP lesions are non-remissive, alternating periods of exacerbation and quiescence, and only symptomatic treatments exist for OLP. The precise etiology and pathogenesis of OLP are hardly understood, which is a major obstacle to the development of new therapeutics for this disease. OLP is considered a T-cell-mediated inflammatory disease. Although various antigens have been considered, what actually triggers the inflammatory response of T cells is unknown. Suggested predisposing factors include genetic factors, stress, trauma, and infection. The aim of this review was to determine whether microbial infection can cause OLP. We first reviewed the association between OLP and microbial factors, including viral, fungal, and bacterial infections. In addition, each microbial factor associated with OLP was assessed by modified guidelines of Fredricks and Relman to determine whether it establishes a causal relationship. In conclusion, no microbial factor yet fulfills the guidelines to establish the causality of OLP. By focusing on the unclarified issues, however, the potential roles of microbial factors in the pathogenesis of OLP will be soon elucidated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Payeras, Márcia Rodrigues; Cherubini, Karen; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves
Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease, which frequently affects the oral mucosa of white females over 40 years old. Its aetiology remains uncertain and the pathogenesis is still the object of much speculation. The present paper presents the most well known antigens, and describes the action of different cells and proteins associated with the development of that disease, as well as the possible agents involved with its malignant transformation. Different external agents, especially virus, and internal agents, like stress, and the heat shock protein antigen expression, associated or not, can alter the basal keratinocytes of the oral mucosa making them susceptible to apoptosis by CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell as well as activate matrix metalloproteinase and mast cell degranulation, which produce a great range of inflammatory mediators and cytokines determining the clinical onset of the disease. Regarding carcinogenesis, since it is a complex process and presents multifactorial origin, it is believed that there may be a synergism between intrinsic, such as inflammation mediators, and extrinsic agents (tobacco, alcohol, viral infections) for the OLP malignant transformation to occur. However, further studies are needed to better understand the origin, pathogenesis and process of malignant transformation of OLP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
La fréquence des cas de HBV chez les Nigerians atteints du lichen planus ne sont pas encore documentés dans la littérature en depit de la fréquence élevée de HBV dans la région et des rapports d'un rapport éventue entre le lichen planus et HBV dans ce centre et dans d'autre régions. L'objet de cette étude était de ...
Full Text Available Lichen Planus is a muco-cutaneous disorder affecting females. The oral lesions precede the skin lesions, with malignant potential rate, ranging from 0.3 to 3%. Malignant changes are usually associated with stress and cocarcinogens. Usually, malignant transformation is presented as solitary lesion in the oral cavity, Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC, developing at multiple sites, as a very rare finding in patients of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP. A case of OLP without risk factors and strong history of stress, the Grinspan syndrome with field cancerization is presented in this article
Yu. A. Molochkova
Full Text Available Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease of the coated flat nonkeratinizing epithelium of the skin and mucous membranes. Still etiology of this disease is not completely clear. At the same time, many researchers have expressed their views in favor of the theory of occurrence of autoimmune planus. The emergence of this disease may also be associated with infectious diseases, trauma, hormonal disorders, and hereditary predisposition. Currently, standard treatment of lichen planus is topical application of corticosteroids. With the lack of effectiveness of the last clinicians suggest topical calcineurin inhibitors. That less, all treatments planus today are ineffective. Researchers continue to search for more effective treatments for this pathology. At this point in the treatment of various diseases is well proven photodynamic therapy. Given the high efficacy of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and various other skin diseases, clinicians began to fully explore the impact of the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of lichen planus.
Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit
A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons. PMID:27688435
Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of uncertain etiology. Recent reports suggest that LP is an extrahepatic manifestation of Hepatitis C infection. Objective: To determine the association of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with oral LP and to study the tests of liver function in patients with ...
Nadeem, A.; Khan, S.; Satti, A.A.
A case of recurrent progressively severe ulceration secondary to erosive lichen planus is reported. The patient developed marked malnutrition as a result of extensive involvement of the oral cavity. In addition to the oral ulcerations, she also had violaceous spots present over her forearm. Treatment administered in view of histopathological report and clinical presentation, resulted in marked improvement in symptoms and weight gain. (author)
van der Hem, P. S.; Egges, M.; van der Wal, J. E.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.
Oral lichen planus is a relatively common disease of the oral mucosa. The buccal mucosa and lateral border of the tongue are mostly involved, although the condition can occur anywhere in the oral cavity. The erosive type in particular can cause spontaneous pain during eating. In the period from 1975
Full Text Available Thirty-one patients of oral lichen planus were enrolled in this study and two groups were made. Group 1 consisting of 16 patients who applied topical tretinoin 0.05% and Group 2 comprising of 15 patients who were given topical betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%. The patients applying tretinoin showed statistically significant improvement as compared to patients applying betamethasone.
Wang, J.; van der Waal, I.
The aim of the present study has been to critically review 22 disease scoring systems (DSSs) on oral lichen planus (OLP) that have been reported in the literature during the past decades. Although the presently available DSSs may all have some merit, particularly for research purposes, the diversity
Hulimavu, Shwetha R; Mohanty, Leeky; Tondikulam, Narayan V; Shenoy, Sadhana; Jamadar, Saleha; Bhadranna, Abhishek
Oral lichen planus is a T-cell-mediated mucosal disease of unknown etiology. Numerous predisposing factors have been put forward in the etiology of this disease. This includes stress, drugs, genetic susceptibility, certain viruses, and bacterial infections. Recently, there have been studies published on possible role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of mucocutaneous diseases including oral lichen planus (OLP). The aim of this study was to detect immunohistochemically the presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral lichen planus. Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 50 cases of OLP and 10 cases of normal buccal mucosal biopsies and 6 endoscopic biopsies of patients with peptic ulcer (control group) were sectioned and stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Serial sections of same were stained immunohistochemically using Anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody and observed under microscope for presence or absence of Helicobacter pylori. Except for the control group, none of the cases of OLP and normal buccal mucosal biopsies showed positivity for Helicobacter pylori. As we did not detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori in any of the OLP cases, we question the role of these organisms in the pathogenesis of OLP planus if any. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Aim: analysis of different dermatoscopic patterns of lichen planus and psoriasis. Material and methods. We observed 80 patients: 40 with psoriasis, 40 — with lichen planus. Dermatoscopic study was conducted using video-dermatoscope of expert class "MoleMaxHD" (Derma Medical Systems company, Austria, under magnification from хЗО to x80. Results. Comparing the dermotoscopic findings of psoriatic plaque and lichen planus, vascular features were found to be more significant in psoriasis and in lichen planus non-vascular features were more prominant. Conclusion. Dermoscopy can be successfully used in differential diagnosis of these dermatoses.
AbuHilal, Mohn'd; Walsh, Scott; Shear, Neil
Erosive oral lichen planus and desquamative gingivitis are uncommon but severe debilitating variants of oral lichen planus. Treatment of these presentations is difficult and challenging. A 44-year-old woman was referred to the dermatology clinic with chronic painful lichen planus-related gingivitis and buccal erosions. She has failed multiple treatments including topical clobetasol and tacrolimus, intralesional corticosteroids and several systemic and immunosuppressive agents. Following completion of three months of treatment with oral apremilast at a dose of 30 mg twice daily, significant improvement was noted in her disease activity. Oral apremilast may be a safe and effective treatment for erosive oral lichen planus.
Knackstedt, Thomas J; Collins, Lindsey K; Li, Zhongze; Yan, Shaofeng; Samie, Faramarz H
Hypertrophic lichen planus is a chronic variant of lichen planus with controversial malignant association. To describe and analyze the relationship of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and hypertrophic lichen planus. A retrospective chart review of patients with hypertrophic lichen planus and SCC was performed at the authors' institution. Thereafter, scientific databases were searched for articles reporting cases of SCC arising in hypertrophic lichen planus. Patient demographics, immune status, lichen planus features, and SCC data points were extracted for each patient and evaluated. Thirty-eight cases of SCC in hypertrophic lichen planus occurred in 16 women, average age: 61.4, and 22 men, average age: 51.3, after a lag time of 88 days to 40 years. Squamous cell carcinoma was uniformly located on the lower extremity. Men had larger SCC than women (p = .027) and a significantly longer lag time to SCC development (p = .002). Long lag time was associated with a smaller SCC size (p = .032). In the past, hypertrophic lichen planus and SCC have been considered isolated diseases. Based on an increasing number of cases, the association between hypertrophic lichen planus and keratinocyte malignancies warrants surveillance.
Ghosh, Saptarshi; Kotne, Sivasankar; Ananda Rao, P B; Turlapati, S P V; Kumar Soren, Dillip
Lichen planus is a benign disorder characterized by an itchy, noninfectious skin rash. Though lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely and should be borne in mind while treating nonhealing longstanding lesions of lichen planus. Studies suggest an estimated 0.3-3% risk of malignancy in patients with oral lichen planus, however, cutaneous lichen planus does not carry an increased risk of malignant degeneration. We present a case of a 36-year-old male with a 10-year-long history of hypertrophic lichen planus who presented with a nonhealing ulcer in the left popliteal fossa. The patient underwent wide local excision with superficial skin grafting. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed verrucous squamous cell carcinoma complicating lichen planus. In view of underlying structure involvement, adjuvant radiation therapy was given. This case is being reported to emphasize the infrequent possibility of development of malignancy in cutaneous lichen planus, especially if it presents as a longstanding, nonhealing, itchy lesion with patchy areas of depigmentation in the lower limbs.
Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat
Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further studies are needed for introducing aldehyde dehydrogenase as a prognostic
Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat
Background Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. Objective This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Method Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. Results The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. Limitations of the study This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. Conclusions The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further
The aim of the present study has been to critically review 22 disease scoring systems (DSSs) on oral lichen planus (OLP) that have been reported in the literature during the past decades. Although the presently available DSSs may all have some merit, particularly for research purposes, the diversity of both the objective and subjective parameters used in these systems and the lack of acceptance of one of these systems for uniform use, there is a need for an international, authorized consensus meeting on this subject. Because of the natural course of OLP characterized by remissions and exacerbations and also due to the varying distribution pattern and the varying clinical types, e.g. reticular and erosive, the relevance of a DSS based on morphologic parameters is somewhat questionable. Instead, one may consider to only look for a quality of life scoring system adapted for use in OLP patients. Key words:Oral lichen planus, disease scoring system, classification. PMID:25681372
Md Nadeem Parvez
Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a chronic idiopathic disorder involving the skin and mucosal surfaces. Although oral mucosal involvement is common, esophageal LP (ELP is uncommon and also under-reported. Here, we present a case of ELP who was symptomatic with dysphagia for a year, but was untreated. Increasing awareness of this condition can help identify more cases and increase our understanding of this uncommon but interesting condition.
Bickle, Kelly; Smithberger, Erica; Lien, Mary H; Fenske, Neil Alan
The authors report a case of a Latin American woman who developed progressive pigmentation primarily involving two digits of her right hand. She was scheduled for amputation based on a presumptive histologic diagnosis of melanoma with regression. Dermatology consultation with repeat biopsies disclosed a lichenoid tissue reaction with marked pigment incontinence and no evidence of melanoma. This report should prompt physicians to include lichen planus pigmentosus in the differential diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma.
Darczuk, D; Krzysciak, W; Vyhouskaya, P; Kesek, B; Galecka-Wanatowicz, D; Lipska, W; Kaczmarzyk, T; Gluch-Lutwin, M; Mordyl, B; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, M
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including oral lichen planus. Therefore, determining the salivary markers of oxidative stress is an excellent alternative approach to diagnosing oral cavity diseases. The objective of our study was to provide preliminary validation and determination of the salivary markers of oxidative stress in both patients with reticular and erosive forms of oral lichen planus as well as in healthy individuals without any oral lesions. In total, 62 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) were enrolled in the study, including 31 with the reticular form of lichen planus (44.63 ± 11.05 years) and 31 with erosive forms (40.43 ± 10.05 years), who had never been treated for their disease. The control group comprised 30 individuals without any oral lesions (42.12 ± 12.22 years). We determined the saliva levels in glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The mean saliva levels of GSH and TAC were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in OLP patients compared to the control group. The mean levels of salivary TBARS were higher in both OLP groups (reticular and erosive) compared to the control group (P = 0.01). The lower saliva levels of GSH and TAC in patients with OLP indicate that free radicals and the resulting oxidative damage may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OLP lesions. In conclusion, monitoring the oxidant-antioxidant status of saliva may serve as an efficient and less intrusive marker for determining stages of disease development in patients with OLP.
Rallis, Efstathios; Liakopoulou, Angeliki; Christodoulopoulos, Constantinos; Katoulis, Alexandros
Bullous lichen planus (BLP) is a rare variant of lichen planus, characterized by the development of vesicular and bullous lesions, of skin, nails, hair and/or mucosa. We present a case of 63-year-old woman with BLP, unresponsive to previous therapies with topical corticosteroids, topical calcipotriol, antihistamines and oral cyclosporine (4 mg/kg/day for 4 months). She was already receiving treatment for arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Acitretin was administered for 5 months with complete remission of BLP lesions and no major side effects. This is probably the first reported case of BLP treated with acitretin monotherapy. In this case acitretin was an efficacious and well-tolerated therapeutic option for BLP.
Theodosiou, Grigorios; Papageorgiou, Marina; Vakirlis, Efstratios; Mandekou-Lefaki, Ioanna
Hypertrophic lichen planus (HLP) is a variant of lichen planus characterized by marked epidermal hyperplasia and severe pruritus. We present a case of a female patient with HLP and concomitant primary biliary cirrhosis, which responded to topical therapy with betamethasone under occlusion and TCA-peelings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Saleh, N; Samir, N; Megahed, H; Farid, E
Chronic inflammation was found to play an important role in the development of cardiovascular risk factors. Homocysteine (Hcy) and fibrinogen have been identified as a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lichen planus is assumed to be closely related to dyslipidaemia. Several cytokines involved in lichen planus pathogenesis, could explain its association with dyslipidaemia. Also chronic inflammation with lichen planus has been suggested as a component of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to detect a panel of cardiovascular risk factors in patients of lichen planus. This study was done on 40 patients of lichen planus and 40 healthy controls. All patients and controls were subjected to clinical examination. Serum levels of homocysteine, fibrinogen and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA). Metabolic syndrome parameters including anthropometric measures, lipid profiles, blood sugar and blood pressure were studied. Patients with lichen planus showed significant association with metabolic syndrome parameters than controls (P lichen planus patients than controls (P lichen planus were found to have higher makers of both metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in relation to controls most probably due to long standing inflammation. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Background The exact cause of LP is not known. However, the association of lichen planus with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been reported in literature. A wide variation in the reported prevalence of HCV infection in patients with lichen planus in different geographical areas was observed. This case – control study ...
Quispel, R.; van Boxel, O. S.; Schipper, M. E.; Sigurdsson, V.; Canninga-van Dijk, M. R.; Kerckhoffs, A.; Smout, A. J.; Samsom, M.; Schwartz, M. P.
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The first cases of squamous cell carcinoma in esophageal lichen planus were recently described. We performed a study to establish the prevalence of endoscopic and histopathologic abnormalities consistent with lichen planus and (pre-) malignancy in a cohort of patients with
van der Waal, I.
Oral lichen planus (OLP) has a prevalence of approximately 1%. The etiopathogenesis is poorly understood. The annual malignant transformation is less than 0.5%. There are no effective means to either predict or to prevent such event. Oral lesions may occur that to some extent look like lichen planus
Bakhtiari, S; Taheri, J B; Toossi, P; Azimi, S; Kawosi Nezhad, Sh
To investigate the prevalence of oral lichen planus in patients younger than 18 years, referred to a dermatology centre in Iran during 2002-2014. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory, immune-mediated disease that could affect the oral mucosa and is a pre-cancerous condition. The disease usually develops in middle age with female predominance and is rare in children. In this retrospective study, cases with definitive histopathologic diagnosis of lichen planus, over a 12-year period from 2002 to 2014 from a dermatologic hospital archive were evaluated. The prevalence of both cutaneous and oral lichen planus, the male:female ratio and site of involvement were calculated using SPSS version 21. Thirty-six of 564 patients younger than 18 years old diagnosed with lichen planus. Two females (0.4%) had oral lichen planus. One patient had erosive, and one had bullous, oral lichen planus. Oral lichen planus had a very low frequency in Iranian population younger than 18 years old, identifying these patients is recommended for long-term follow-up.
Payette, Michael J; Weston, Gillian; Humphrey, Stephen; Yu, JiaDe; Holland, Kristen E
Lichenoid dermatoses, a group of inflammatory skin conditions with characteristic clinical and histopathologic findings, range from common to rare. Classic lichen planus typically presents as pruritic, polygonal, violaceous flat-topped papules and plaques; many variants in morphology and location also exist. Other lichenoid dermatoses share similar clinical presentations and histopathologic findings. These include lichenoid drug eruption, lichen planus-like keratosis, lichen striatus, lichen nitidus, and keratosis lichenoides chronica. Epidemiologic characteristics vary among each lichenoid disorder. While classic lichen planus is considered a disease of adults, other lichenoid dermatoses may be more common in younger populations. The literature contains an array of reports on the variations in presentation and successful management of lichen planus and lichenoid dermatoses among diverse populations. Familiarity with the characteristics of each lichenoid dermatosis, rare or common within each patient population, is key to accomplishing timely recognition and effective management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jiménez-Gallo, David; Albarrán-Planelles, Cristina; Linares-Barrios, Mario; Martínez-Rodríguez, Alberto; Báez-Perea, José María; González-Fernández, Julio Abraham
Lichen planus follicularis tumidus (LPFT) represents an uncommon variety of lichen planus (LP). Clinically, it presents with prominent purplish lesions or white-pigmented yellowish cysts and comedones. Histopathologically, it is similar to lichen planopilaris, and it is additionally characterized by follicles and cysts surrounded by a lichenoid lymphocytic infiltrate. The most common location is the retroauricular region, and it may be associated with other variants of LP. Herein, we describe the case of a 50-year-old woman with a history of lower limb hypertrophic LP who subsequently presented with multiple pink, tumid, pruritic plaques with white-yellow cysts and comedones extensively affecting the bilateral face. Histopathologic examination revealed a lichenoid infiltrate surrounding the follicles and cysts. We diagnosed LPFT and began treatment with topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, systemic corticosteroids and oral acitretin without improvement. Subsequently, the patient had an acceptable response to cyclosporine at doses of 5 mg/kg/day with remission of itching and tumidity but with residual cysts and comedones remaining. To date, the literature contains only 16 cases of LPFT. To our knowledge, this is the most severe case and is the only one with cessation of disease activity in response to cyclosporine. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mostafa, Diana; Tarakji, Bassel
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic immunologic mucocutaneous disorder. Although there are many presenting treatments, some of them proved its failure. Recently, the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been expanding due to its numerous advantages, as it is safe, convenient, and non-invasive and has toxic effect towards selective tissues. This article provides comprehensive review on OLP, its etiology, clinical features and recent non-pharmacological treatments. We also describe the topical PDT and its mechanisms. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of PDT in treatment of OLP through collecting the data of the related clinical studies. We searched in PubMed website for the clinical studies that were reported from 2000 to 2014 using specific keywords: “photodynamic therapy” and “treatment of oral lichen planus”. Inclusion criteria were English publications only were concerned. In the selected studies of photodynamic treatment, adult patients (more than 20 years) were conducted and the OLP lesions were clinically and histologically confirmed. Exclusion criteria were classical and pharmacological treatments of OLP were excluded and also the using of PDT on skin lesions of lichen planus. We established five clinical studies in this review where all of them reported improvement and effectiveness of PDT in treatment of OLP lesions. The main outcome of comparing the related clinical studies is that the photodynamic is considered as a safe, effective and promising treatment modality for OLP. PMID:25883701
Liu, Wei-Bing; Sun, Li-Wei; Yang, Hua; Wang, Yan-Fei
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, has prolonged courses, repeated attacks and resistance to treatment. The traditional narrow spectrum UVB treatment has an established efficacy on skin lichen planus, and high safety. However, most of ultraviolet phototherapy devices have a huge volume, thereby cannot be used in the treatment of OLP. Lymphocytic infiltration is evident in the lesions of lichen planus, and the direct irradiation of 308-nm excimer laser can induce apoptosis of the T lymphocytes in skin lesions, thereby has a unique therapeutic effect on the diseases involving T lymphocytes. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of OLP. A total of six OLP patients were enrolled into this study, and further pathological diagnosis was conducted, then 308-nm excimer laser was used in the treatment. The efficacy of 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of OLP was satisfactory. The clinical symptoms of five patients were significantly improved. In two patients, the erosion surface based on congestion and the surrounding white spots completely disappeared, and clinical recovery was achieved. Three patients achieved partial remission, that is, the erosion surface healed, congestion and white spot area shrunk by more than 1/2 of the primary skin lesions. In the remaining one patient, the erosion surface had not completely healed after treatment, and congestion and white spot area shrunk by less than 1/2 of the primary skin lesions. Only one patients had developed mild pain during the treatment, and this symptom alleviated by itself. The 308-nm excimer laser therapy can serve as a safe and effective treatment for OLP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sousa, Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de; Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Rosa, Luiz Eduardo Blumer
Currently, much is discussed regarding the pre-malignant nature of mouth mucosa lichen planus. The present study aims at analyzing the alterations found in the epithelial cells present in the oral cavity lichen planus, comparing them to those found in epidermoid carcinoma. Histological cross-sections of oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma, dyed by hematoxylineosin, were analyzed through light microscopy. The most frequently found alterations in oral lichen planus were: an increase in the nucleus/cytoplasm relation (93.33%), nucleus membrane thickness (86.67%) and bi-nucleus or multinucleous (86.67%). The Student t test (alpha=5%) revealed a statistically significant difference between the average number of cell alterations in oral lichen planus (5.87+/-1.57) and in epidermoid carcinoma (7.60+/-1.81). As to the types of alterations, the chi-squared test also revealed statistically significant differences among the lesions assessed in relation to the following cell alterations: nuclear excess chromatism, atypical mitoses, cellular pleomorphism and abnormal cell differentiation (poral lichen planus, the results obtained in this study show that the alterations present in oral lichen planus differ considerably from those seen in epidermoid carcinoma, thus showing how distinct these two diseases are.
Adamo, D; Ruoppo, E; Leuci, S; Aria, M; Amato, M; Mignogna, M D
The psychological factors and their association with chronic inflammatory disease, aren't well recognized, yet their importance in oral lichen planus is still debated. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disturbances, anxiety, depression and their association in patient with oral lichen planus. 50 patients with oral lichen planus vs. equal number of age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Questionnaires examining insomnia symptoms, excessive daytime sleepiness (Pittsburgh sleep quality index and Epworth aleepiness scale) depression and anxiety (The Hamilton rating scale for Depression and Anxiety) were used. The patients with oral lichen planus had statistically higher scores in all items of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index, the Hamilton rating scale for depression and anxiety and Epworth sleepiness scale than the healthy controls. The median and inter-quartile range of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index was 5-2 and for the oral lichen planus patients and 4-2 for the healthy controls (P Oral lichen planus patients report a greater degree of sleep problems, depressed mood and anxiety as compared with controls. We suggest to screen sleep disturbances in patients with oral lichen planus because they could be considered a prodromal symptoms of mood disorders. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Full Text Available Background. Lichen Planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of immunological basis and unknown etiology. women with oral lichen planus may have concomitant manifestations in vulvovaginal areas. Objective. To determine the frequency and risk factors of genital involvement in a group of Iranian women affected by oral lichen planus. Methods. Thirty-six women with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus were evaluated for demographic, historical, and clinical parameters of the oral disease. All the patients were referred for careful vulvovaginal examination, as well as histopathological assessment upon clinical indication. Results. Nineteen patients complained from genital symptoms but the number of women with the final diagnosis of genital lichen planus (=2 was too small to show any correlation with the parameters evaluated. Conclusion. In spite of low genital involvement possibly due to inadequate patient population, lack of follow-up visits, and contribution of genetic or ethnic factors, for conservative patient care, women with the oral lichen planus in particular those having some relevant genital symptoms, should preferably be referred for careful vulvovaginal examination. Multicenter cohort studies on women of different geographical regions or ethnicities who have genital lichen planus alone or in combination with other common sites are encouraged.
Stoopler, Eric T; Parisi, Ernesta; Sollecito, Thomas P
The social use of betel nut is relatively common in certain geographic areas, especially India and Southeast Asia. The term betel nut does not truly describe the product that is chewed; rather, the term quid is more accurate because it refers to a substance or mixture of substances, including the areca nut, that are chewed and remain in contact with the mucosa. Betel quid is a type of quid that contains betel leaf. Chewer's mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis are clinical entities that have been associated with betel quid use. We report a case of oral lichen planus induced by betel quid use in a 79-year-old Cambodian woman.
Lavanya, N; Jayanthi, P; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the mucus membrane of the oral cavity. It is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease in which the cytotoxic CD8+ T cells trigger apoptosis of the basal cells of the oral epithelium. Several antigen-specific and nonspecific inflammatory mechanisms have been put forward to explain the accumulation and homing of CD8+ T cells subepithelially and the subsequent keratinocyte apoptosis. A wide spectrum of treatment modalities is available, from topical corticosteroids to laser ablation of the lesion. In this review, we discuss the various concepts in the pathogenesis and current treatment modalities of OLP. PMID:22529568
Potts, E D; Rowell, N R
Thirty-five patients with classical lichen planus (LP) were extensively investigated with special reference to immunohistological changes and histocompatibility (HLA) typing. There was no evidence of lupus erythematosus (LE) in any patient, although one patient with LP and eczema had an elevated titre of antinuclear factor. There was no increased incidence of any HLA type--in particular HLA-B7 and HLA-B8--known to be associated with LE. The results suggest that LE and LP are separate disorders.
Alrashdan, Mohammad S; Cirillo, Nicola; McCullough, Michael
Lichen planus (LP) is a common chronic inflammatory condition that can affect skin and mucous membranes, including the oral mucosa. Because of the anatomic, physiologic and functional peculiarities of the oral cavity, the oral variant of LP (OLP) requires specific evaluations in terms of diagnosis and management. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the current developments in the understanding of the etiopathogenesis, clinical-pathologic presentation, and treatment of OLP, and provide follow-up recommendations informed by recent data on the malignant potential of the disease as well as health economics evaluations.
Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a chronic mucocutaneous disease widely recognized in adults, but uncommon in children. The purpose of this paper is to report two cases of LP in children. The diagnosis was made based on clinical and histopathological findings. The treatment consisted of antifungal and multivitamin therapy. Regression of lesions was observed. The patients are still under follow up.Although LP is uncommon in children, it is necessary to have adequate knowledge about this condition for proper diagnosis and treatment.
GHEORGHE, Carmen; MIHAI, Lelia; PARLATESCU, Ioanina; TOVARU, Serban
The relationship between chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) and oral lichen planus (OLP) is a current topic in the field of oral medicine. Many studies of this association have been made over time. The geographic variation of the hepatitis C prevalence proved to be an important factor influencing the statistical results of the studies analyzing the association of the oral plan lichen with the hepatitis C virus. Approaching this issue is not to be neglected. Treatment outcomes in patients with oral lichen planus associated with chronic hepatitis C virus are often unsatisfactory compared to patients suffering from idiopathic oral lichen planus. Also, the evolution of oral lesions is often fluctuating, with repeated periods of relapse according to the degree of liver function decompensation. Background therapy for liver disease itself may influence lichen planus lesions. Thus, during therapy with interferon and ribavirin oral lesions may appear or become acute. PMID:25553136
Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Farnam, Alireza; Attaran, Rana; Farhang, Sara; Safarnavadeh, Maryam; Gholizadeh, Narges; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Depression, stress and anxiety are psychological factors that their influence on the expression of lichen planus by affecting the immune system's function has been confirmed. There is a probable relationship between anger and OLP expression. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the association of "anger" and OLP. In this descriptive study 95 subjects were included in 3 groups. A: patients with oral lichen planus, B: positive control, C: negative control. Anger and its indices were assessed by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) questionnaire, and pain was measured via the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 18 software. The lichen planus and positive control groups bore higher total anger index (AX index) values compared with the negative control. Comparing anger expression-in (AXI) among the lichen planus and negative control groups revealed higher grades in lichen planus group. Evaluating the pain severity index (VAS) data and anger indices in lichen planus group, Spearman's Rank Correlation Test revealed a significant correlation between TAngR (reactional anger traits) and pain severity. The findings of this study indicated that there was a significant correlation between anger control and suppression of lichen planus development. On the other hand, the patients with more severe pain mostly expressed their anger physically. Based on the findings, we can make the claim that anger suppression and its control-in (gathering tension) may play a role in the development of lichen planus as a known psychosomatic disorders.
Sananmuang, K.; Pankhurst, C. L.; Gilkes, J. J. H.; Hardie, J. M.; Ivanyi, L.
The relationship between cell-mediated immunity to sonicated whole cell extract of Simonsiella and lichen planus was investigated in 15 patients with lichen planus, 14 control diseases subjects and 14 controls with healthy oral mucosa by in vitro lymphocyte stimulation. The mean stimulation index was highest in lichen planus group (SI=13.8 ± 2.98), followed by the control diseases group (SI=10.9 ± 2.03) and finally by healthy control group (SI=7.2 ± 1.67). However, there ...
Reddy, D Santhosh; Sivapathasundharam, B; Saraswathi, T R; SriRam, G
Mast cells are granule containing secretory cells present in oral mucosal and connective tissue environment. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions are commonly occurring oral diseases and have some similarity clinically and histologically. Both are characterized by an extensive sub epithelial infiltrate of T cells, together with mast cells, eosinophils and blood capillaries. In this study mast cell and eosinophil densities along with number of blood capillaries were studied to find out if they could aid in histopathological distinction between oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis. To enumerate mast cells and compare the status of Mast Cells (Intact or Degranulated) in Lichen planus, Lichenoid mucositis and normal buccal mucosa in tissue sections stained with Toluidine Blue, and also to enumerate Eosinophils and blood capillaries in tissue sections stained with H and E. The study group included 30 cases each of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis. 10 cases of clinically normal oral buccal mucosa formed the control group. All the sections were stained with Toluidine blue and H and E separately. Histopathological analysis was done using binocular light microscope equipped with square ocular grid to standardize the field of evaluation. The result of the study showed. · Significant increase in number of mast cells in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis compared to normal buccal mucosa. · Significant increase of intact mast cells suepithelially within the inflammatory cell infiltrate in oral lichen planus compared to oral lichenoid mucositis. · Significant increase of degranulated mast cells in oral lichenoid mucositis to oral lichen planus, and increase in number of eosinophil densities in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. · Significant increase in number of capillaries in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. The findings of increased number of intact mast cells sub epithelially in oral
Full Text Available Oral lichen planus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which continues to challenge the dental professional with its wide spectrum of clinical involvement. This pilot study attempts to evaluate the status of oral lichen planus in a rural population from South Kerala in order to obtain such data as prevalence, distribution according to age, gender, clinical types and site of lesion .A drop in the age group of male population presenting with lichen planus was a significant finding in our study. However, more elaborate epidemiologic studies are required to probe further into this finding.
Rosengard, Heather C; Wheat, Chikoti M; Tilson, Matthew P; Cuda, Jonathan D
Lichen planus is an inflammatory dermatosis with a prevalence of approximately 1%. Recent meta-analyses show that patients with hepatitis C virus have a 2.5- to 4.5-fold increased risk of developing lichen planus. Lichen planus has also followed vaccinations and has specifically been attributed to the hepatitis B vaccine, the influenza vaccine, and the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine. We describe a case of lichen planus in a hepatitis C virus-infected African American male occurring in temporal association with the administration of the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine. The patient's presentation was clinically consistent with lichen planus and confirmed by biopsy. It is likely that many cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus have gone unpublished or unrecognized. In areas with high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection, we may expect to see more cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus especially in light of the updated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination recommendations. This case serves to educate healthcare providers about vaccine-induced lichen planus and, in particular, the need to counsel hepatitis C virus-infected patients about a potential risk of developing lichen planus following vaccination. We also reflect on current theories suggesting the T-cell-mediated pathogenesis of lichen planus and the role that hepatitis C virus and toxoid or protein vaccines may play in initiating the disease.
Abhishek Ranjan Pati
Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical types and association of psychological factors in patients with Oral Lichen Planus (OLP. Materials and Methods: An analytical age- and sex-matched study involved 30 patients with oral lichen planus (group 1 and 30 control subjects (group 2. We applied the following psychometric tests to both groups: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results: The patients with OLP were found to exhibit statistically significant higher anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction with the tests that were used (GHQ 24 and HADS than the control group (P > 0.05. The study group likewise exhibited greater depression and somatic symptoms. The mean total of the GHQ and HAD scores were found to be higher in the study group than in the controls (P > 0.05. Among the various types of OLP, patients with the erosive type had higher mean scores for anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and depression. Conclusion: In most patients psychiatric morbidity was strongly associated with OLP, which could support its role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. The higher scores of the General Health Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale gave an insight into the hypothesis that psychological factors are associated with the causation of OLP.
Aniket Bhagwat Bhole
Full Text Available Neoplastic transformation of lichen planus (LP is reported, but it's a rare event. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC complicating cutaneous LP has an incidence of 0.4%. Average age at the time of diagnosis of SCC in patients of LP is 58 years with a range of 29–78 years. We report an extremely rare case of 17-year-old female patient who developed SCC from lichen planus hypertrophicus (LPH, a variant of LP. Patient presented with LPH over the anterior aspect of both legs since the age of 7 years which is again a pediatric rarity. SCC developed over an anteromedial aspect of left ankle after 10 years when she came to us. Both the diagnoses were histopathologically confirmed. The patient was treated with complete excision of tumor and defect was closed with rotation flap. This report emphasizes that the long-standing hypertrophic form of LP seems to have a considerable propensity for malignant transformation, even in the juvenile age group. Hence, careful vigilance of a longstanding LPH is necessary to allow early detection of a developing SCC.
López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio
Oral lichen planus (OLP) can seriously affect the quality of life of patients because it has a strong impact on social relations, psychological status and daily activities. To study the quality of life using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) (validated Spanish version) in patients with OLP. A total of 74 patients with a minimum age of 18 years who had lichen planus were recruited into the study, along with 74 'healthy' subjects matched by sex and age who acted as control. Both groups completed the OHIP-49. Higher scores were obtained on the OHIP-49 index in patients with OLP for all the subgroups and for the overall total than in the control group. Furthermore, there were statistically significant differences in the items concerning psychological discomfort, social disability and handicap in patients with OLP. The study shows that the quality of life in patients with OLP is reduced and that patient-centred measures should be considered in the management of patients with OLP.
Full Text Available Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and it may affect the oral mucosa, skin and other mucous membranes. Diagnosis is based on clinic and histopathology; direct immunofluorescence techniques can also be of use. It affects about one to two percent of the population, mainly women between the fifth and sixth decades of life. In the mouth, the most affected area is the buccal mucosa, followed by the gums, tongue and/or palate. Its three most representative clinical forms are reticular, erythematous and erosive; evolution depends on the type it is. Lesion treatment is determined by the clinical form and, since no fully effective treatment has been found yet, it is directed towards controlling the disease. The treatment of choice involves topical or systemic corticosteroids, but other drugs may also be used.The aim of this paper is to gather current and relevant information about oral lichen planus: its pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and management.
Singh Shri Nath
Full Text Available Lichen planus, which is a very common condition, is being presented. However, the uncommon feature in this cases is its early onset and equally early development of squamous cell carcinoma on a lesion on the right thigh.
Sharma, Gaurav; Vohra, Puneeta; Rehani, Shweta; Nagpal, Archna
Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease, predominantly affecting the middle-aged individuals and may be associated with a plethora of signs and symptoms related to the skin, scalp, nails and mucous membranes. The definitive etiology of lichen planus is not yet known and no therapeutic modality has yet been universally accepted. Lichen planus in pediatric patients is a rare phenomenon and its presence in the oral mucosa is even rarer. The aim of this article is to present a rare case of a symptomatic oral lichen planus (OLP) occurring in a 12-year old child that was managed successfully with a novel sequential modality of topical retinoids followed by aloe vera gel application. PMID:29104603
Sharma, Gaurav; Sardana, Divesh; Vohra, Puneeta; Rehani, Shweta; Nagpal, Archna
Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease, predominantly affecting the middle-aged individuals and may be associated with a plethora of signs and symptoms related to the skin, scalp, nails and mucous membranes. The definitive etiology of lichen planus is not yet known and no therapeutic modality has yet been universally accepted. Lichen planus in pediatric patients is a rare phenomenon and its presence in the oral mucosa is even rarer. The aim of this article is to present a rare case of a symptomatic oral lichen planus (OLP) occurring in a 12-year old child that was managed successfully with a novel sequential modality of topical retinoids followed by aloe vera gel application.
Deen, Kristyn; McMeniman, Erin
Erosive genital lichen planus is a disabling, inflammatory mucocutaneous condition that can cause significant patient morbidity and loss of function. Treatment initially involves topical corticosteroids but some patients can have severe treatment-resistant courses requiring systemic immunosuppression. With potentially unfavorable adverse effect profiles and subsequent intolerance of these agents by patients, erosive lichen planus can ultimately be a challenging condition to treat effectively. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with treatment-resistant erosive genital lichen planus who was successfully managed with mycophenolate mofetil. Although there is only weak evidence for this agent in this condition, its role in dermatology is growing due to its efficacy and advantageous adverse effect profile and should therefore be considered in patients with treatment-resistant erosive genital lichen planus. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Oral lichen planus (OLP is chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa, presenting in various clinical forms. The etiology of OLP is still unknown but mounting evidence points to the immunologic basis of this disorder.
van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M
The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice.
Full Text Available An unusual case of Oral submucous fibrosis and concomitant occurrence of oral lichen planus in a 18 year old male patient is presented. These conditions are defined and the clinical features on histopathology are discussed.
Mares, S; Ben Slama, L; Gruffaz, F; Goudot, P; Bertolus, C
Many authors have reported the possible malignant transformation of oral lichen. The incidence of this event remains controversial. Many authors make a distinction between the "true" oral lichen planus (OLP) and lichenoid lesions (LL) according to the WHO clinical and histological classification. For these authors an increased risk of development of oral cancer could occur only on LL. Our aim was to check this hypothesis on a cohort followed for 10 years. We included patients who were referred to our team for the first time between 1995 and 1997, still followed in 2010, with a histological diagnosis of buccal lichen planus. We classified lesions as OLP or LL according to the WHO clinical and histological classification: the two clinical criteria for OLP were a reticulated aspect and bilateral and symmetric lesions. Three histological criteria were necessary for the diagnosis: dense inflammatory infiltrate in the upper lamina propria, liquefaction degeneration of basal keratinocytes, and no signs of dysplasia. The final diagnosis was OLP, when all clinical ad histological criteria were met otherwise it was LL. We studied the patient's outcome between their first consultations and May 2010. Thirty-two patients, whose data was available, met inclusion criteria. Eight were diagnosed with OLP and 24 with LL. The mean follow-up was 164 months [154-183]. No oral cancer was observed in the OLP group. Two patients in the LL group presented with oral cancer after 45 and 143 months of follow-up. Malignant transformations were observed only in the LL group. Our results correlate with those of Van Der Meij et al. published in 2006. The strict use of the WHO diagnostic criteria seems to allow identifying patients at risk of developing oral cancer (LL) and others with only a benign course of this chronic oral mucosal disease. These results need to be confirmed by prospective multicentric studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Friedman, Paula; Sabban, Emilia Cohen; Marcucci, Carolina; Peralta, Rosario; Cabo, Horacio
Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous dermatosis that involves the skin, scalp, nails and mucous membranes. Although its pathogenesis is still unknown, there is evidence that an imbalance of immunologic cellular reactivity plays an important role. Histopathologic examination reveals characteristic interface dermatitis. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive tool, useful in the assessment of inflammatory dermatoses, such as lichen planus. In this paper we describe the dermoscopic findings of different variants of LP (ungual, cutaneous, planopilaris, pigmentosus). PMID:26693092
Goel, Sinny; Khurana, Nita; Marwah, Akanksha; Gupta, Sunita
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of cdk4 and p16, the proteins implicated in hyperproliferation and arrest in oral lichen planus and to compare their expression in erosive and non-erosive oral lichen planus and with normal mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Analysis of cdk4 and p16 expression was done in 43 erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) and 17 non-erosive oral lichen planus (NOLP) cases, 10 normal mucosa and 10 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases with immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrated a significantly increased expression of cytoplasmic cdk4 (80% cases, cells stained - 19.6%), and cytoplasmic p16 (68.3% cases, cells stained - 16.4%) in oral lichen planus (OLP) compared to normal mucosa. cdk4 was much higher in OSCC in both cytoplasm and nuclei compared to normal mucosa. Also, while comparing OLP with positive control, significant difference was noted for cdk4 and p16, with expression being more in OSCC. While comparing EOLP with NOLP; significant differences were seen for cdk4 cytoplasmic staining only, for number of cases with positive staining as well as number of cells stained. Overexpression of cytoplasmic cdk4 and p16 was registered in oral lichen planus, however considerably lower than in squamous cell carcinoma. Erosive oral lichen planus demonstrated overexpression of cytoplasmic cdk4 and premalignant nature compared to non-erosive lesion. Therefore there is an obvious possibility for cytoplasmic expression of cdk4 and p16 to predict malignant potential of oral lichen planus lesions.
Full Text Available Background and aims. Oral lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with malignant potential, pathogenesis of which is not still well known. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. In this case-control study, 30 patients with oral lichen planus (case group and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (control group, referring to Dental School of Babol University of Medical Sciences, were selected using simple sampling method. Unstimulated saliva of the two groups was collected. Salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and lipid peroxidation products were investigated and compared, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using Student’s ttest. Results. The mean and standard deviation of salivary TAC in patients with oral lichen planus (297.23 ± 149.72 μM was significantly lower than that in the controls (791.43±183.95 μM; P < 0.0001, and mean and standard deviation of salivary malondialdehyde (MDA (0.49 ± 0.30 μM was remarkably higher in oral lichen planus patients compared to the control group (0.15 ± 0.11 μM (P < 0.0001. TAC was also reduced in both groups in line with an increase in the level of MDA (P < 0.0001, r = −0.48. Conclusion. The results of this study suggested that an increase in oxidative stress and an imbalance in antioxidant defense system in the saliva of oral lichen planus patients may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.
Shirzad, Atena; Pouramir, Mahdi; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Jenabian, Niloofar; Bijani, Ali; Motallebnejad, Mina
Background and aims. Oral lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with malignant potential, pathogenesis of which is not still well known. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. In this case-control study, 30 patients with oral lichen planus (case group) and 30 age-and gender-matched healthy subjects (control group), referring to Dental School of Babol University of Medical Sciences, were selected using simple sampling method. Unstimulated saliva of the two groups was collected. Salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation products were investigated and compared, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using Student' t-test. Results. The mean and standard deviation of salivary TAC in patients with oral lichen planus (297.23 ± 149.72 μM) was significantly lower than that in the controls (791.43 ± 183.95 μM; P & 0.0001), and mean and standard deviation of salivary malondialdehyde (MDA) (0.49 ± 0.30 μM) was remarkably higher in oral lichen planus patients compared to the control group (0.15 ± 0.11 μM) (P & 0.0001). TAC was also reduced in both groups in line with an increase in the level of MDA (P & 0.0001, r = -0.48). Conclusion. The results of this study suggested that an increase in oxidative stress and an imbalance in antioxidant defense system in the saliva of oral lichen planus patients may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.
Redder, C Pramod; Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Kandagal, V Suresh; Ingaleshwar, Pramod S; Shetty, Sharan J; Vibhute, Nupura
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Detection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. This study has been carried out to evaluate the cell proliferation rate in oral lichen planus (OLP) and comparison between plaque and erosive lichen planus, which indicates the potential for malignant transformation. This study was comprised of 64 cases of histologically proven lichen planus, out of which 32 cases of plaque and erosive each was taken. Two sections were taken from each, one for H and E staining to verify histological diagnosis according to Eisenberg criteria, other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horse radish peroxidise method for identifying immunohistochemical expression of PCNA. Data were statistically analyzed by Tukey high-range statistical domain test. Statistically significant P value was considered lichen planus, erosive type (66.86%) showed higher expression of PCNA followed by plaque (17.07%). Overall, P value was lichen planus followed by plaque type, which ultimately results in increased rate of malignant transformation. PCNA is a good nuclear protein marker to evaluate the proliferation status of OLP. Out of the two types of lichen planus, erosive type possesses more proliferative ratio and chances of malignant change is more in this type. It emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up with erosive type when compared with plaque type.
Ali, Neema M; Bhat, Ramesh; Rao, Shwetha B
Lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely. A 40 year old female patient presented with a 1 year history of developing multiple, itchy, pigmented lesions over both lower legs which gradually spread to involve the whole body. A few tense bullae were seen on the extremities. An erythematous fleshy lesion was seen on the upper aspect of the left buttock. Skin biopsy from a plaque on the right forearm showed features suggestive of lichen planus. Skin biopsy of a bullae showed a sub epidermal bulla filled with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence revealed no immunoreactants along the basement membrane zone. A diagnosis of erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lichen planus was made. Biopsy of fleshy lesion of left buttock revealed a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lesions and secondary squamous cell carcinoma; these occurences in a single patient is extremely rare and has not been previously reported to the best of our knowledge.
Cheng, Hui Mei; Chuah, Sai Yee; Gan, Emily Yiping; Jhingan, Anjali; Thng, Steven Tien Guan
Controversy persists as to whether lichen planus pigmentosus and ashy dermatosis are separate clinical entities. This study was conducted to examine the clinicopathological features and treatment outcome of the two conditions. A retrospective medical chart review of all patients who were diagnosed with lichen planus pigmentosus or ashy dermatosis was conducted. The information collected included the participants' age at onset, site of onset, duration of disease, presence of precipitating factors, distribution of disease, pigmentation and presence of symptoms. In patients from whom a biopsy was taken the histopathological reports were included. Altogether 26 patients with ashy dermatosis and 29 with lichen planus pigmentosus were included in the study. Compared with ashy dermatosis, lichen planus pigmentosus had a more localised distribution with a preponderance for facial involvement, compared with the truncal preponderance in ashy dermatosis. Ashy dermatosis tended to have a more stable clinical course than lichen planus pigmentosus, which was more likely to wax and wane. The utility of histopathology in differentiating between the two conditions is low. Ashy dermatosis and lichen planus pigmentosus, as defined in this study, appear to be two separate clinical entities with distinguishable clinical features and natural histories. © 2018 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Alaizari, N A; Al-Maweri, S A; Al-Shamiri, H M; Tarakji, B; Shugaa-Addin, B
A role for hepatitis C virus in oral lichen planus has been postulated. This systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing epidemiological studies was conducted to determine if there is a correlation between oral lichen planus and hepatitis C virus infection. We examined the association between hepatitis C virus and oral lichen planus by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies that examined the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies in the serum of cases and controls. We searched PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library databases from 2005 to January 2015. Associations were measured using random-effect odds ratios (ORs) combined with 95% confidence intervals. Nineteen eligible studies, encompassing 1807 cases of OLP and 2519 controls, were retrieved and included in this review. The summary estimate OR for all studies was 6.07 (95% CI: 2.73-13.48), showing a statistically significant difference in the proportion of HCV seropositivity among oral lichen planus patients, compared with controls and substantial heterogeneity between studies (I(2) = 65%) as a result of a variety of geographical distributions. The association of hepatitis C virus infection with oral lichen planus emphasizes the importance of hepatitis C virus screening in oral lichen planus patients. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.
Llorente-Pendás, Santiago; González-Garcia, Manuel; García-Martín, José-Manuel
Background Was to describe 14 cases of a proliferative verrucous leukoplakia as a clinical evolution of oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The clinical and histopathological characteristics of 14 cases of OLP that progress towards a plaque-like and verrucous form were indicated, with monitoring over a period of six to 24.3 years. Results The female/male ratio was 11/3, (78.6 and 21.4%). The mean age when the first biopsy was undertaken was 56.4 years old. None of the patients smoked during the study. As bilateral reticular was clinically diagnostic criterion, the second most frequent clinical form was the plaque form (n=10; 71.4%), followed by the atrophic (n=6; 42.8%), and erosive forms (n=4; 28.5%). Clinically it spread towards attached gingival mucosa and the hard palate. In the histopathologic study, there were a predominance of hyperkeratosis and verrucous epithelial hyperplasia. Three of the cases progressed to a squamous cell carcinoma, and one patient developed two verrucous carcinoma. Conclusions Further research is needed to demonstrate if proliferative multifocal oral lichen planus and proliferative multifocal oral leukoplakia are the same disorder but have different behaviour of malignancy for reasons of origin. Key words:Oral lichen planus, proliferative verrucous oral leukoplakia, malignant oral lichen planus, multifocal verrucous oral lichen planus, proliferative verrucous oral lichen planus. PMID:27031060
Byun, J-S; Hong, S-H; Choi, J-K; Jung, J-K; Lee, H-J
Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease whose exact cause is unclear and which requires efficient diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Identification of disease-specific biomarkers in saliva is an easy, quick, and non-invasive approach for molecular diagnosis. This study was designed to examine salivary exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) that could be candidates for diagnosing and elucidating the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. We compared miRNA profiles of salivary exosomes of patients with oral lichen planus with those of healthy controls. Saliva samples from 16 patients with oral lichen planus and eight healthy controls were divided into two sets and examined using miRNA microarray analysis and TaqMan quantitative PCR. The three miRNAs identified (miR-4484, miR-1246, and miR-1290) were further validated. Of these, miR-4484 was significantly upregulated in the salivary exosomes of patients with oral lichen planus. This study thus identifies a potential miRNA biomarker for oral lichen planus and provides insight into the functions of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of oral inflammatory diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade; Guilherme, Marina Riedi; Peretti, Murilo Calvo; Werner, Betina
Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a variant of lichen planopilaris with marginal progressive hair loss on the scalp, eyebrows and axillae. We report a case of frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus in a postmenopausal woman, that started with alopecia on the eyebrows and then on the frontoparietal region, with periocular and cervical hyperpigmentation of difficult management. The condition was controlled with systemic corticosteroid therapy and finasteride. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus frequently associated with frontal fibrosing alopecia in darker phototipes. It should be considered in patients affected by scarring alopecia with a pattern of lichen planopilaris and areas of skin hyperpigmentation revealing perifollicular hyperpigmentation refractory to multiple treatments. This case illustrates diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in face of scarring alopecia and perifollicular hyperpigmentation.
Georgakopoulou, Eleni A.; Achtari, Marina D.; Achtaris, Michael; Foukas, Periklis G.; Kotsinas, Athanassios
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic oral inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. According to reports, 1-2% of OLP patients develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the long run. While World Health Organization (WHO) classifies OLP as “a potentially malignant disorder,” it is still a matter of debate which mechanisms drive OLP to such a condition. The current hypothesis connecting OLP and OSCC is that chronic inflammation results in crucial DNA damage which over time results in cancer development. Initial studies investigating the OLP and OSCC link were mainly retrospective clinical studies. Over the past years, several amount of information has accumulated, mainly from molecular studies on the OLP malignant potential. This article is a critical review of whether OLP has a malignant potential and, therefore, represents a model of preneoplastic inflammation. PMID:22675259
Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V
The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966
Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Cayuela, Cristina Aznar; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Parra-Perez, Francisco; Escribano, Damian; Ceron, Jose
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease, inflammatory and autoimmune in character, in which the pathogenesis is not fully understood. Psychological stress has also been implicated in triggering or exacerbating the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological profile, sleep, and salivary biological markers-cortisol, immunoglobin A (IgA), and adiponectin - in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). The sample consisted of 65 patients (33 with OLP and 32 control patients). Patients completed hospital anxiety and depression scales (HADD, HADA). Questionnaires were used to assess sleepiness: the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used for rating pain. Unstimulated whole saliva was evaluated, together with total proteins: cortisol, IgA, and adiponectin. Patients with OLP obtained significantly higher HADA and PSQI scores than control subjects (P = 0.001, P = 0.012, respectively). Total salivary protein (flow at rest) analysis found that total proteins were higher in the OLP group (P = 0.001). In the OLP group, IgA was 80.3 ± 51.3 vs. the control group 48.9 ± 32.8 (P = 0.005). Mean cortisol was 0.5 ± 0.3 μg/dl in the OLP group vs. 0.4 ± 0.2 μg/dl in the control group (P = 0.010). The OLP group showed a correlation between the HADA variable and pain (r = 0.358; P = 0.041), HADD (r = 0.568; P = 0.001), and PSQI (r = 0.537; P = 0.001). OLP patients presented worse psychological profiles and sleep disturbances, as well as higher values for IgA, cortisol, and total proteins than control subjects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hiremath, Santhosh; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema
Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions affecting the oral cavity show similar clinico-pathological features creating a diagnostic dilemma. Hence, the aim of the present study was to establish a clinical and histopathological correlation in the diagnosis of oral lichen planus, based on the modified WHO diagnostic criteria of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions proposed by Van der Meij and Van der Waal in 2003. In the present study, 100 cases of oral lichen planus were clinically and histopathologically analyzed. Out of the 100 cases, 50 were prospective and 50 were retrospective cases. Prospective cases were collected based on the clinical diagnosis of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesion. Retrospective cases were collected based on the histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus. Both the clinical and histopathological analyses were performed based on a proposal for a set of modified diagnostic criteria of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesion. A final diagnosis of oral lichen planus was made only after the correlation of the clinical diagnosis with the histopathological diagnosis. The interobserver agreement among three observers for both prospective and retrospective cases in the final diagnosis of oral lichen planus was found to be "good" to "very good" indicating high reproducibility. However, the final diagnoses of true oral lichen planus after clinico-pathological correlation in prospective and retrospective study groups appeared to be 38.0% and 54.0% respectively. The results of the present study revealed mild to moderate clinico-pathological correlation in the final diagnosis of oral lichen planus for the prospective and retrospective study groups respectively.
Gholizadeh, N; Mehdipour, M; Najafi, Sh; Bahramian, A; Garjani, Sh; Khoeini Poorfar, H
Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory immunologic-based disease involving skin and mucosa. This disease is generally divided into two categories: erosive and non-erosive. Many etiologic factors are deliberated regarding the disease; however, the disorders of immune system and the role of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and monocytes are more highlighted. Zinc is an imperative element for the growth of epithelium and its deficiency induces the cytotoxic activity of T-helper2 cells, which seems to be associated with lichen planus. This study was aimed to evaluate the levels of serum zinc in erosive and non-erosive oral lichen planus (OLP) and to compare it with the healthy control group to find out any feasible inference. A total of 22 patients with erosive oral lichen planus, 22 patients with non erosive OLP and 44 healthy individuals as the control group were recruited in this descriptive-comparative study. All the participants were selected from the referees to the department of oral medicine, school of dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Serum zinc level was examined for all the individuals with liquid-stat kit (Beckman Instruments Inc.; Carlsbad, CA). Data were analyzed by adopting the ANOVA and Tukey tests, using SPSS 16 statistical software. The mean age of patients with erosive and non-erosive LP was 41.7 and 41.3 years, respectively. The mean age of the healthy control group was 34.4 years .The mean serum zinc levels in the erosive and non erosive lichen planus groups and control groups were 8.3 (1.15), 11.15 (0.92) and 15.74 (1.75) μg/dl respectively. The difference was statistically significant (poral lichen planus. This finding may probably indicate the promising role of zinc in development of oral lichen planus.
Sonthalia, Sidharth; Varma, Sangeeta; Jha, Abhijeet Kumar; Jakhar, Deepak; Kaliyadan, Feroze
Dermoscopy, a non-invasive technique for cutaneous diagnosis is being increasingly studied in various disorders of the skin, nails and scalp. However, it has been under-utilized for the diagnosis and characterization of mucosal disorders. The dermoscopic characterization of cutaneous lichen planus and its variants has been well documented with Wickham's striae constituting the hallmark of the condition. However, the dermoscopic features of oral lichen planus with hand-held or videodermoscopy remain to be elucidated. We present the case of a young adult man who presented with asymptomatic white lacy lesions over a bluish-black background over the tongue, patchy hyperpigmentation of the buccal mucosae and gingivae, and longitudinal melanonychia involving some nails. History of intake of any drugs preceding the lesions, smoking, chewing of betel nut and dental implants was negative. Family history was non-contributory. There were no cutaneous lesions suggestive of lichen planus. Mucoscopy (dermoscopy of the mucosa, oral in this case) and onychoscopy were done followed by biopsy from the tongue that confirmed the diagnosis of lichen planus. Oral mucoscopy of the tongue revealed a tri-colored pattern with structureless veil-like grey-white areas (modified Wickham's striae), well-demarcated red glossy erosions, and violaceous-to-brown clods. Additionally, vascular pattern of dotted and linear to curved vessels along the borders of leukoplakia-like areas and erosions were observed. Onychoscopy confirmed lichen planus-associated melanonychia. Dermoscopy also proved useful in conveniently ruling out other disorders typified by mucosal and nail pigmentation such as Laugier Hunziker syndrome and drug-induced changes. Although direct oral microscopy has been used in defining features of oral lichen planus, to the best of our knowledge this case is the first report on mucoscopy or dermoscopy of oral lichen planus.
Objectives: Although several detailed studies concerning the patient profile and clinical features of oral lichen planus have been undertaken all over the world in different populations, a similar study has not yet been conducted in a Turkish population. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of a group of patients with oral lichen planus in Turkey. Study Design: Charts of 370 patients, from the archive of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology Department of Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry (Istanbul, Turkey), with histologically confirmed clinical diagnosis of oral lichen planus in the period 1990-2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 370 patients, 260 (70.3%) were women and 110 (29.7%) were men. The mean age was 49.84±13.41 years (range of 16-83). The lesions were asymptomatic in 63 patients (17%). Nearly half of the patients (47.6%) had multiple sites of involvement. Predominantly red forms were the most frequent, affecting 60.5% of patients. Approximately 17% of the patients had symptoms of possible extraoral involvement. No evidence suggesting a connection between oral lichen planus and tobacco or alcohol use was found. Only one out of the 370 cases had histologically proven malignant transformation. Conclusions: The patient profile and clinical features of oral lichen planus in Turkey were generally similar to those described in other populations. The preponderance of the red forms and also the fact that majority of patients referred themselves to our clinic highlighted the lack of awareness among Turkish health care providers about lichen planus. Key words:Oral lichen planus, clinical features, patient profile. PMID:23524413
Kalkur, Chaithra; Sattur, Atul Prahlad; Guttal, Kruthika Satyabodh
Lichen planus is a psychosomatic disease. Higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, higher level of anxiety and neuroendocrine and immune dysregulations, all these factors, will enhance the exacerbation of the disease. The present study was to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels in patients with oral lichen planus. The psychometric evaluation using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-42 questionnaire was carried out, by the same investigator on all members of group 1 (Oral Lichen Planus) and group 2 (Control). DASS-42 questionnaire consists of 42 symptoms divided into three subscales of 14 items: Depression scale, anxiety scale, and stress scale. The Student t test was used to determine statistical difference for both the groups and to evaluate for significant relationships among variables. Psychological assessment using DASS-42 reveals lichen planus patients showed higher frequency of psychiatric co morbidities like depression, anxiety and stress compared to control group. This study has provided evidence that the DASS-42 questionnaire is internally consistent and valid measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychiatric evaluation can be considered for patients with oral lichen planus with routine treatment protocols are recommended. DASS-42 Questionnaire can also be used to determine the level of anxiety, stress and depression in diseases of the oral mucosa like recurrent apthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome and TMD disorders.
Full Text Available Context: Lichen planus is a psychosomatic disease. Higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, higher level of anxiety and neuroendocrine and immune dysregulations, all these factors, will enhance the exacerbation of the disease. Aims: The present study was to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels in patients with oral lichen planus. Methods: The psychometric evaluation using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42 questionnaire was carried out, by the same investigator on all members of group 1 (Oral Lichen Planus and group 2 (Control. DASS-42 questionnaire consists of 42 symptoms divided into three subscales of 14 items: Depression scale, anxiety scale, and stress scale. Statistical Analysis Used: The Student t test was used to determine statistical difference for both the groups and to evaluate for significant relationships among variables. Results: Psychological assessment using DASS-42 reveals lichen planus patients showed higher frequency of psychiatric co morbidities like depression, anxiety and stress compared to control group. Conclusions: This study has provided evidence that the DASS-42 questionnaire is internally consistent and valid measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychiatric evaluation can be considered for patients with oral lichen planus with routine treatment protocols are recommended. DASS-42 Questionnaire can also be used to determine the level of anxiety, stress and depression in diseases of the oral mucosa like recurrent apthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome and TMD disorders.
Simark-Mattsson, Charlotte; Eklund, Christina
Impairment of cellular immunity is reported in lichen planus, an autoimmune disease affecting mucosae and skin. Our aim was to investigate immune responses directed against a set of microbial antigens in patients with oral lichen planus and in matched controls. Venous blood was obtained, and the mononuclear cells were enriched by density gradient centrifugation. The proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was assessed, following stimulation with purified protein derivative (PPD), Candida albicans, phytohemagglutinin or when cells were left unstimulated, after three or six days of cell culture. The production of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-ß was assessed in supernatants using the Bio-plex(®) assay and was complemented with ELISA for selected cytokines. Patients with oral lichen planus demonstrated reduced proliferative responses against PPD (P stimulated supernatants from patients with oral lichen planus. Collectively, the findings suggested that memory lymphocytes from patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) may have an impaired functional ability to react against certain recall antigens, as part of a generalized response, which may reflect immune regulatory processes. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of down-regulation in OLP pathogenesis and progression. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Fernández-Cuevas, Laura; Ruelas-Villavicencio, Ana Lilia; Guerrero-Ramos, Brenda; Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Milke-García, María Pilar; Méndez-Flores, Silvia
The development of squamous cell carcinoma from oral lichen planus is controversial. We report a case of intraoral squamous cell carcinoma, which presents together with lesions of oral lichen planus. The aim of this report was to analyze the problem to distinguish between the incipient changes of squamous cell carcinoma from the features described in oral lichen planus, in order to establish an accurate diagnosis of both entities. A 57-year old man with a history of smoking and chronic alcohol intake, who had an ulcerated tumor mass located in the tongue, and bilateral white reticular patches on buccal mucosa and borders of the tongue. The histopathological report was moderately differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus respectively. The premalignant nature of OLP is still indeterminate and controversial, this is primarily due to inconsistency in the clinical and histological diagnostic criteria used to differentiate cases of oral lichen planus from lichenoid reactions or other lesions causing intraepithelial dysplasia with high potentially malignant transformation. Oral lichenoid reactions are possibly most likely to develop malignant transformation as compared to the classic OLP lesions.
Ramalingam, Suganya; Malathi, Narasimhan; Thamizhchelvan, Harikrishnan; Sangeetha, Narasimhan; Rajan, Sharada T
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic T cell mediated disease of oral mucosa, skin, and its appendages with a prevalence of 0.5 to 2.6% worldwide. Oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) are a group of lesions with diverse aetiologies but have clinical and histological features similar to OLP, thereby posing a great challenge in differentiating both lesions. Mast cells are multifunctional immune cells that play a major role in the pathogenesis of lichen planus by release of certain chemical mediators. Increased mast cell densities with significant percentage of degranulation have been observed as a consistent finding in pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The current study was aimed at quantifying the mast cells in histopathological sections of OLP and OLR thereby aiding a means of distinguishing these lesions. The study group involved 21 cases of oral lichen planus, 21 cases of oral lichenoid reactions, and 10 control specimens of normal buccal mucosa. All the cases were stained with Toluidine Blue and routine haematoxylin and eosin and the mast cells were quantified. The results were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and an intergroup analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test. The number of mast cells showed an increased value in oral lichen planus when compared to oral lichenoid reaction and thus an estimation of mast cells count could aid in distinguishing OLP from OLR histopathologically.
Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Siozopoulou, Vasiliki; Huizing, Manon T
Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva is extremely rare. It is a slow growing, low malignant variant of a squamous cell carcinoma with a cauliflower appearance. Women with lichen planus have an increased risk of developing vulval cancer. A 79-year-old woman consulted for vulval itching. On clinical examination, a 3-cm large verrucous clitoral cancer in an area of lichen planus was seen. Based on her last clinical examination, the growth was estimated to be 1 cm 2 per month with an invasion depth after 6 months of 5 mm. A tumor developing in an area of lichen planus appears to have more aggressive features. This is the first time that the growth of a verrucous carcinoma has been documented in an area of lichen planus. Clinicians and patients should be aware of the aggressive behavior of cancers developing in areas of lichen planus and adjust their surgical management together with the follow-up strategy.
Podboy, A; Sunjaya, D; Smyrk, T C; Murray, J A; Binder, M; Katzka, D A; Alexander, J A; Halland, M
Oesophageal lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disorder characterized by significant oesophageal stricturing. Oesophageal lichen planus is a rare, difficult to diagnose, and likely an under recognized disease. As a result, there is no standardized approach to therapy and treatment strategies vary. To examine the utility of topical steroid therapy (fluticasone or budesonide) in the management of oesophageal lichen planus. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with oesophageal lichen planus who underwent baseline and follow up endoscopy pre and post topical steroid therapy between 1995 and 2016 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN. Average time between upper GI endoscopy was 3.2 months (0.7-11.7). Swallowed steroid preparations included fluticasone 880 μg twice daily or budesonide 3 mg twice daily. Patients were reviewed for symptomatic response to therapy using the Dakkak-Bennett dysphagia score (0-4, no dysphagia to total aphagia). Pre- and post-endoscopic findings were assessed. Additional baseline demographic, endoscopic, and histologic data were also obtained. We identified 40 patients who met the inclusion criteria. A significant reduction in median dysphagia score from 1 (0-4) to 0 (0-3) after steroid therapy (P lichen planus. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: Malondialdehyde (MDA is a useful determinant to show high level of lipid peroxidation which lead to impaired cell function. Previous studies have mentioned there is a relationship between high oxidative stress and low anti-oxidant activity in patients with oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum level of Malondialdehyde as an indicator of oxidative stress in patients with oral lichen planus which is a chronic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Materials & Methods: This descriptive-comparative study evaluated the oxidative stress status on twenty patients with oral lichen planus and 20 control healthy individuals based on serum level of Malondialdehyde. Results: The mean serum Malondialdehyde levels in oral lichen planus patients and control individuals were 2.9 (±2 and 2.4 (±1.3 µg/ml, respectively, indicating no significant difference (P=0.6. Conclusion: According to the results, role of Malondialdehyde in cellular damage and pathogenesis of oral lichen planus was not proved.
Danielsson, Karin; Ebrahimi, Majid; Nylander, Elisabet; Wahlin, Ylva Britt; Nylander, Karin
Lichen planus is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disease affecting both skin and mucosa, mainly in oral and/or genital regions. Keratinocytes go through a well-regulated process of proliferation and differentiation, alterations in which may result in defects in the protective epithelial barrier. Long-term barrier impairment might lead to chronic inflammation. In order to broaden our understanding of the differentiation process in mucosal lichen planus, we mapped the expression of 4 factors known to be involved in differentiation. Biopsies were collected from oral and genital lichen planus lesions and normal controls. Altered expression of all 4 factors in epithelium from lichen planus lesions was found, clearly indicating disturbed epithelial differentiation in lichen planus lesions.
Larsen, Kristine Roen; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Reibel, Jesper
BACKGROUND: To examine if patients with oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and generalised stomatitis and concomitant contact allergy have more frequent and severe xerostomia, lower unstimulated and chewing-stimulated saliva and citric-acid-stimulated parotid saliva flow rates, and higher...... of xerostomia, clinical examination, sialometry, mucosal biopsy and contact allergy testing. RESULTS: Nineteen patients had oral lichen planus, 19 patients had oral lichenoid lesions and 11 patients had generalised stomatitis. 38.8% had contact allergy. Xerostomia was significantly more common and severe...... in the chewing stimulated saliva samples from patients when compared to healthy controls. The differences were not significant and they were irrespective of the presence of contact allergy. CONCLUSION: Xerostomia is prevalent in patients with oral lichen planus, lichenoid lesions and generalised stomatitis...
Pavlotsky, Felix; Nathansohn, Nir; Kriger, Grigory; Shpiro, Dorit; Trau, Henri
Previous small reports suggested the role of ultraviolet (UV)-B in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. To summarize our experience with UVB in a relatively large study group looking specifically into predictive factors for complete response and the long-term relapse rates. A retrospective analysis of 50 patients with generalized cutaneous lichen planus, treated by broad or narrow band UVB. Seven and 43 patients were treated by broad and narrow band UVB, respectively. Complete response was achieved in 70% and 85% of those were still in remission after a median of 34.7 months. The complete response rate and the need for higher cumulative exposure doses were not influenced by sex, age, skin type, presence of additional diseases, failure of previous treatment or disease duration. This is a retrospective non-randomized analysis of a usually self-limiting disease. UVB is a safe and efficient treatment option for generalized cutaneous lichen planus.
van den Akker, T W
Lichen planus concerns a benign skin disorder without involvement of other organ systems. Its course is generally limited to less than a year. Classic lichen planus is characterized by pruritic, violaceous, plane papules which occur most commonly on the inside of the wrists, the lower back, the lower legs and the perimalleolar region of adults aged between 30-60 years. Frequently, oral and genital mucous membrane lesions are involved. Erosive mucosal lesions are particularly painful and long-lasting. Many clinical variants have been described ranging from lichenoid drug eruptions to associations with graft-versus-host disease. The cause of lichen planus is unknown. An immunopathological pathogenesis with T-lymphocytes directed against basal keratinocytes or the basal membrane zone is assumed. Multiple therapeutic options exist: local and systemic corticosteroids, psoralens with ultraviolet A light (PUVA), retinoids, cyclosporin.
Lospinoso, D J; Fernelius, C; Edhegard, K D; Finger, D R; Arora, N S
Lupus erythematosus/lichen planus overlap syndrome is a rare disorder combining the clinical, histological and immunopathological features of both lupus erythematosus (LE) and lichen planus (LP). Cutaneous lesions mostly affect the distal arms, legs, face and trunk. Palmoplantar involvement is felt to be characteristic of this condition. Plaques are often painful, centrally atrophic, bluish-red to hypopigmented in color, large, and scaly. On biopsy of clinically ambiguous lesions, histopathological features of one or both processes can be found, obscuring the diagnosis and complicating prognosis and treatment. Thus, direct immunofluorescence has become an essential tool in helping to diagnose this condition. In this report we describe the unique clinical and immunohistopathological manifestations of lupus erythematosus/lichen planus overlap syndrome along with a successful response to treatment with acitretin.
Full Text Available Introduction . Psoriasis and lichen planus are common dermatological conditions, whose coexistence is rarely described. Although the exact etiopathogenesis of both diseases is still unknown, autoimmune factors play an important role in their development. A common feature is also the occurrence of the Köbner phenomenon. The principal differences concern the clinical, histological and immunological events. Objective. To present a patient with oral lichen planus, in whom psoriasis developed. Case report. A 75-year-old patient, with a 3-year history of oral lichen planus, presented itchy erythematous skin lesions initially located in the intertriginous area. Outpatient treatment consisting of topical and oral antifungal medications did not bring significant improvement. Skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of psoriasis. Treatment with tar ointment and topical tacrolimus was carried out, resulting in gradual improvement. Conclusions . A review of the literature indicates the existence of possible, but still unexplained, linkages between these two diseases.
C Pramod Redder
Full Text Available Background: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Detection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. This study has been carried out to evaluate the cell proliferation rate in oral lichen planus (OLP and comparison between plaque and erosive lichen planus, which indicates the potential for malignant transformation. Materials and Methods: This study was comprised of 64 cases of histologically proven lichen planus, out of which 32 cases of plaque and erosive each was taken. Two sections were taken from each, one for H and E staining to verify histological diagnosis according to Eisenberg criteria, other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horse radish peroxidise method for identifying immunohistochemical expression of PCNA. Data were statistically analyzed by Tukey high-range statistical domain test. Statistically significant P value was considered <0.05. Results: In two types of lichen planus, erosive type (66.86% showed higher expression of PCNA followed by plaque (17.07%. Overall, P value was <0.001, which was statistically significant. It indicates that proliferation activity is more in erosive lichen planus followed by plaque type, which ultimately results in increased rate of malignant transformation. Conclusion: PCNA is a good nuclear protein marker to evaluate the proliferation status of OLP. Out of the two types of lichen planus, erosive type possesses more proliferative ratio and chances of malignant change is more in this type. It emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up with erosive type when compared with plaque type.
Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology, mostly affecting patients in their fifth and sixth decade of life. It is believed to be an autoimmune process involving T cells directed against basal keratinocytes. It affects the skin, nails, oral pharynx and genitals. Esophageal involvement is quite rare and can cause strictures, ulcerations and squamous cell cancer. The present article describes the case of a 54-year-old woman who was referred for assessment of dysphagia that initially occurred with solids, which then progressed to soft foods but spared liquids. The patient reported a weight loss of 9.1 kg. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed and she was subsequently diagnosed with pill esophagitis. At the same time, she was also diagnosed with oral LP, with no involvement of the esophagus. She was treated with a proton pump inhibitor that resolved her gastrointestinal symptoms. The symptoms returned one year later and a repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed white plaques due to LP. She was treated with intermittent glucocorticoids. Diagnosis of esophageal LP is crucial for the proper treatment. Some patients may require systemic immunosuppression and mechanical dilation to prevent weight loss. Surveillance endoscopies should be performed to monitor for squamous cell cancer. Cyclosporine has been used for genital and oral LP, but the present case is the first in which it has been used successfully to treat esophageal LP.
Marable, D R; Bowers, L M; Stout, T L; Stewart, C M; Berg, K M; Sankar, V; DeRossi, S S; Thoppay, J R; Brennan, M T
The purpose of this multicentre study was to determine the incidence of oral candidiasis in patients treated with topical steroids for oral lichen planus (OLP) and to determine whether the application of a concurrent antifungal therapy prevented the development of an oral candidiasis in these patients. Records of 315 patients with OLP seen at four Oral Medicine practices treated for at least 2 weeks with steroids with and without the use of an antifungal regimen were retrospectively reviewed. The overall incidence of oral fungal infection in those treated with steroid therapy for OLP was 13.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of oral candidiasis development in those treated with an antifungal regimen vs those not treated prophylactically (14.3% vs 12.6%) (P = 0.68). Despite the use of various regimens, none of the preventive antifungal strategies used in this study resulted in a significant difference in the rate of development of an oral candidiasis in patients with OLP treated with steroids. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gaber, Mohamed Abdelwahed; Maraee, Alaa Hassan; Alsheraky, Dalia Rifaat; Azeem, Marwa Hussain Abdel
Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory papulosquamous skin disease characterized by epidermal basal cell damage and a particular band-like infiltrate predominantly of T cells in the upper dermis. It is characterized by the formation of colloid bodies representing apoptotic keratinocytes. The apoptotic process mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells mainly involves two distinct pathways: the perforin/granzyme pathway and the Fas/FasL pathway. So far, little is known regarding the role of perforin-mediated apoptosis in LP. Is to study the expression and distribution of perforin in the epidermis and dermis of lesional LP skin. Skin biopsy specimens from lesional skin of 31 patients with LP and 10 healthy persons were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Significant accumulation of perforin + cells was found in both epidermis and dermis of LP lesions compared with healthy skin. Perforin expression was significantly upregulated in the epidermis of LP lesions. Accumulation of perforin + cells in the epidermis of LP lesions suggest a potential role of perforin in the apoptosis of basal keratinocytes.
Nicolae, Ilinca; Mitran, Cristina Iulia; Mitran, Madalina Irina; Ene, Corina Daniela; Tampa, Mircea; Georgescu, Simona Roxana
Recent studies have highlighted the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of lichen planus (LP). In the present study, the interest of the authors is focused on the investigation of ascorbic acid status in patients with LP and identification of parameters that might influence the level of this vitamin. We analyzed the level of urinary ascorbic acid (reflectometric method) in 77 patients with LP (cutaneous LP (CLP)-49 cases; oral LP (OLP)-28 cases) and 50 control subjects. The evaluation of all participants included clinical examination and laboratory and imaging tests. Compared to the control group (19.82 mg/dl) the level of ascorbic acid was significantly lower both in patients with CLP (8.47 mg/dl, p = 0.001) and in those with OLP (8.04 mg/dl, p = 0.001). In patients with LP it was found that the deficiency of ascorbic acid increases with age (r = -0.318, p = 0.032). The urinary concentrations of ascorbic acid were significantly lower in patients with LP associated with infections compared to patients with LP without infections. The urinary ascorbic acid level may be a useful parameter in identifying patients with LP who are at risk of developing viral or bacterial infections.
Cascone, Marco; Celentano, Antonio; Adamo, Daniela; Leuci, Stefania; Ruoppo, Elvira; Mignogna, Michele D
Although the exact incidence of pediatric oral lichen planus (OLP) is unknown, the oral mucosa seems to be less commonly involved, and the clinical presentation is often atypical. The aim of the study is to present a case series of OLP in childhood. From our database, we retrospectively selected and analyzed the clinical data of OLP patients under the age of 18 where the diagnosis had been confirmed by histopathological analysis. The case series from our database shows eight patients, four males and four females. The mean (±SD) age at the time of diagnosis of the disease was 13.5 (±2.73) years, ranging in age from 9 to 17. Clinically, a reticular pattern was present in six patients (75%), and the tongue was the most commonly involved oral site (six cases, 75%). We also report the first case of OLP in a 9-year-old girl affected by autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy. We report the largest case series of pediatric OLP published in literature thus far. Differences in the disease between adults and pediatric patients have been detected, but further investigation and a larger case series are needed to establish any detailed differences in clinical outcomes. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.
Monteiro, Bárbara Vanessa de Brito; Pereira, Joabe Dos Santos; Nonaka, Cassiano F W; Godoy, Gustavo P; da Silveira, Éricka J D; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa
A recently described lineage of lymphocytes, Th17 cells, has been associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this article was to assess the immunoexpression of cytokines related to this lineage, interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-23 and in reticular and erosive oral lichen planus (OLP). The sample included 41 cases of OLP (23 reticular and 18 erosive) and 10 cases of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (IFH). Lymphocytes exhibiting cytoplasmic immunostaining were counted. Epithelial immunostaining was also evaluated. There was no statistical differences in the number of IL-17 and IL-23 lymphocytes between the OLP (55.40 and 48.40, respectively) and IFH (39.30 and 44.40, respectively). A significantly higher number of IL-23 lymphocytes was found in erosive OLP group (63.80) when compared with reticular (41.40) and IFH lesions (44.40) (P=0.019). Furthermore, epithelial immunopositivity for IL-17 and IL-23 was higher in OLP lesions than in IFH (P=0.012 and P=0.011, respectively). A significantly higher number of IL-23 lymphocytes in erosive OLP and the strong epithelial immunopositivity for IL-23 and IL-17 in OLP group could suggest an important participation of TCD4 Th17 response in this disorder.
Nagao, Yumiko; Nishida, Nao; Toyo-Oka, Licht; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Amoroso, Antonio; Carrozzo, Marco; Sata, Michio; Mizokami, Masashi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Tanaka, Yasuhito
There is a close relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and lichen planus, a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants associated with HCV-related lichen planus. We conducted a GWAS of 261 patients with HCV infection treated at a tertiary medical center in Japan from October 2007 through January 2013; a total of 71 had lichen planus and 190 had normal oral mucosa. We validated our findings in a GWAS of 38 patients with HCV-associated lichen planus and 7 HCV-infected patients with normal oral mucosa treated at a medical center in Italy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NRP2 (rs884000) and IGFBP4 (rs538399) were associated with risk of HCV-associated lichen planus (P lichen planus. The odds ratios for the minor alleles of rs884000, rs538399, and rs9461799 were 3.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.95-5.41), 0.40 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.63), and 2.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.41-3.28), respectively. In a GWAS of Japanese patients with HCV infection, we replicated associations between previously reported polymorphisms in HLA class II genes and risk for lichen planus. We also identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NRP2 and IGFBP4 loci that increase and reduce risk of lichen planus, respectively. These genetic variants might be used to identify patients with HCV infection who are at risk for lichen planus. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Falguni H Panchal
Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus (LP, a T-cell-mediated inflammatory disorder, wherein inflammation produces lipid metabolism disturbances, is linked to increase in cardiovascular (CV risk with dyslipidemia. Increased reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides have also been implicated in its pathogenesis. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the status on lipid disturbances, oxidative stress, and inflammation in LP patients. Materials and Methods: The study was initiated after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee permission and written informed consent from participants. The study included 125 patients (74 LP patients and 51 age and sex-matched controls visiting the outpatient clinic in the dermatology department of our hospital. Variables analyzed included lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and catalase (CAT activity. Results: Analysis of lipid parameters revealed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C along with decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in LP patients as compared to their respective controls. LP patients also presented with a significantly higher atherogenic index that is, (TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios than the controls. A significant increase in CRP levels was observed among the LP patients. There was a statistically significant increase in the serum levels of the lipid peroxidation product, MDA and a statistically significant decrease in CAT activity in LP patients as compared to their respective controls. A statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.96 was observed between serum MDA levels and duration of LP whereas a significantly negative correlation (r = −0.76 was seen between CAT activity and LP duration. Conclusion: Chronic inflammation in patients with LP may explain the association with dyslipidemia and CV risk. Our findings also suggest that an increase in
Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus (LP is a papulosquamous disease of unknown etiology that is relatively uncommon in children. There is a paucity of data on the clinical profile of LP in children. Available case series are few and majority being retrospective. A cross-sectional observational study to evaluate the clinical profile of childhood LP was performed. Materials and Methods: All childhood cases (<18 years with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of LP were evaluated. Detailed clinical history, examination, and investigations were performed according to a proforma. Observation and Results: There were 42 children and childhood LP constituted 1.4% of the pediatric dermatoses. There were 26 females (61.9% and 16 (38.1% males with male to female ratio of 1:1.6. The age ranged from 2 to 18 years with a mean age of 11.6 ± 5.1 years. The duration of the disease ranged from 15 days to 5 years with a mean of 8.6 ± 9.4 months. History of recent hepatitis B vaccination was found in 6 (14.3% patients, and exposure to X-ray radiation was seen in 3 (7.1%. The most common morphological presentation of LP was papules and plaques observed in 34 (81% patients. Classical LP was the most common variant, found in 29 (69% patients, followed by hypertrophic variant in 7 (16.7% patients. Koebnerization was found in 31 (73.8% patients. Oral mucosa involvement was seen in 28.6% of patients, nail in 42.85%, and scalp in 7.1% of patients. Conclusion: Childhood LP resembles adult LP in most of the aspects. However, etiological factors in childhood LP may be different. It is an under-reported disease. Large multi-centric prospective studies should be undertaken to acquire a better understanding of the clinical profile of childhood LP.
Siponen, Maria; Bitu, Carolina Cavalcante; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Nieminen, Pentti; Salo, Tuula
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an idiopathic T-cell-mediated mucosal inflammatory disease. Cathepsin K (Cat K) is one of the lysosomal cysteine proteases. It is involved in many pathological conditions, including osteoporosis and cancer. The expression and role of Cat K in OLP are unknown. Twenty-five oral mucosal specimens diagnosed histopathologically as OLP and fourteen healthy controls (HC) were used to study the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of Cat K. Colocalization of Cat K with CD1a, Melan-A, CD68, CD45, mast cell tryptase (MCT), and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 4 and 9 were studied using double IHC and/or immunofluorescence (IF) staining. Expression of Cat K was also evaluated in OLP tissue samples before and after topical tacrolimus treatment. Cat K was expressed in a higher percentage of cells in the epithelial zone, and the staining intensity was stronger in the stroma in OLP compared to controls (P < 0.001). In OLP, Cat K was present mostly in melanocytes and macrophages and sporadically in basal keratinocytes, endothelial cells, and extracellularly. Cat K was found also in some fibroblasts in HC and OLP samples. Coexpression of Cat K and TLRs 4 and 9 was seen in some dendritic cells (presumably melanocytes) and macrophages. In OLP, tacrolimus treatment reduced the expression of Cat K in the epithelium but increased it in the stroma. These results suggest that Cat K is involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. Cat K possibly takes part in the modulation of matrix molecules and cellular receptors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Salem, A; Al-Samadi, A; Stegajev, V; Stark, H; Häyrinen-Immonen, R; Ainola, M; Hietanen, J; Konttinen, Y T
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a band-like T-cell infiltrate below the apoptotic epithelial cells and degenerated basement membrane. We tested the hypothesis that the high-affinity histamine H4 receptors (H4 Rs) are downregulated in OLP by high histamine concentrations and proinflammatory T-cell cytokines. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining, image analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of tissue samples and cytokine-stimulated cultured SCC-25 and primary human oral keratinocytes. H4 R immunoreactivity was weak in OLP and characterized by mast cell (MC) hyperplasia and degranulation. In contrast to controls, H4 R immunostaining and MC counts were negatively correlated in OLP (P = 0.003). H4 R agonist at nanomolar levels led to a rapid internalization of H4 Rs, whereas high histamine concentration and interferon-γ decreased HRH4 -gene transcripts. Healthy oral epithelial cells are equipped with H4 R, which displays a uniform staining pattern in a MC-independent fashion. In contrast, in OLP, increased numbers of activated MCs associate with increasing loss of epithelial H4 R. Cell culture experiments suggest a rapid H4 R stimulation-dependent receptor internalization and a slow cytokine-driven decrease in H4 R synthesis. H4 R may be involved in the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. In OLP, this maintenance might be impaired by MC degranulation and inflammatory cytokines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chokshi, Krunal; Desai, Sachin; Malu, Rahul; Chokshi, Achala
Introduction Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory, T-cell-mediated autoimmune oral mucosal disease with unclear aetiology. The clinical management of OLP poses considerable difficulties to the oral physician. Aim The aim was to assess the efficacy of any form of intervention used to medically manage OLP. Materials and Methods We searched and analysed the following databases (from January 1990 to December 2014):- Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. All Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) for the medical management of OLP which compared active treatment with placebo or between active treatments were considered in this systematic review. Participants of any age, gender or race having symptomatic OLP (including mixed forms), unconnected to any identifiable cause (e.g. lichenoid drug reactions) and confirmed by histopathology have been included. Interventions of all types, including topical treatments or systemic drugs of variable dosage, duration & frequency of delivery have been considered. All the trials identified were appraised by five review authors and the data for all the trials were synthesised using specifically designed data extraction form. Binary data has been presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and continuous data as mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs. Results A total of 35 RCTs were included in this systematic review on medical management of OLP. No strong evidence suggesting superiority of any specific intervention in reducing pain and clinical signs of OLP were shown by the RCTs included here. Conclusion Future RCTs on a larger scale, adopting standardized outcome assessing parameters should be considered. PMID:27042598
Kun, J; Perkecz, A; Knie, L; Sétáló, G; Tornóczki, T; Pintér, E; Bán, Á
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology with antigen-specific and non-specific mechanisms. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a non-selective cation channel activated by noxious stimuli such as oxidative stress products evoking pain and release of proinflammatory mediators from sensory nerve endings culminating in neurogenic inflammation. Extraneuronal TRPA1s, for example, on immune cells possess yet unknown functions. We studied the buccal mRNA expression (qPCR) and protein localization (immunohistochemistry) of TRPA1 receptors and key OLP mediator transcripts in oral mucosa samples of healthy volunteers (n = 9), OLP patients (n = 43), and OLP-like hyperkeratotic patients (n = 12). We measured 27.7- and 25.5-fold TRPA1 mRNA increase in OLP and OLP-like hyperkeratotic patients compared to healthy controls. TRPA1 transcripts elevated 2.4-fold in hypertensive OLP but not in hyperkeratotic patients compared to counterparts, reduced by 1.6-fold by angiotensin-convertase inhibitor intake. TRPA1 messenger RNA was more coexpressed with transcripts of tumor necrosis factor α than with interferon γ. Keratinocytes, macrophages but not T cells expressed TRPA1. We provided evidence for the extraneuronal presence and upregulation of the proinflammatory TRPA1 receptor in buccal samples of patients with OLP. This may implicate the ion channel in the pathomechanism of OLP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jensen, Jonas Sanberg; Lindebjerg, Jan; Jørgensen, Lars Stig
We present the rare case of a proximal oesophageal stricture caused by a combination of oesophageal lichen planus without any other manifestations and intramural pseudo-diverticulosis, resulting in significant dysphagia. The diagnosis was not reached until a second set of biopsies were performed...
Neena S. Sawant
Full Text Available The precise cause of lichen planus is unknown, but the disease seems to be immunologically mediated. It is a psychocutaneous disorder. Due to scarcity of Indian studies in this field, we decided to study in patients of lichen planus the prevalence of depression and quality of life with comparison of the same in both the genders. Patients diagnosed as having lichen planus by consultant dermatologist were enrolled after informed consent and ethics approval. 45 patients were screened, of which 35 who satisfied the criteria were taken up for the study. A semistructured proforma was designed to collect the necessary information with administration of dermatology life quality index and Beck’s depression inventory. While 25% were depressed with females being more affected than males, quality of life was impaired in more than 90% patients. Impairment was maximum due to symptoms and illness feelings, disturbed daily activities, or work and time consumption in treatment. There was a strong association between depression and impairment in quality of life in both the genders. This study helps in early identification of psychological problems in lichen planus patients and in planning their future course of management, hence reducing the lack of productivity and improving the prognosis and quality of life.
Carbonari, Augusto Pinke Cruz; Imada, Regina Rie; Nakamura, Romeu; Araki, Osvaldo; Cristina, Kelly; Balancin, Marcelo Luiz; Ibrahim, Roberto El
An 82-year-old man sought our service with dysphagia and was referred for upper endoscopy with biopsies, which evidenced multiple ulcers of the esophagus and oropharinx. Histopathology confirmed the unusual diagnosis of esophageal lichen planus. The correct clinical suspicion of this disease can facilitate the diagnosis and guide specific treatment, which can drastically change the natural course of the disease.
Anitua, E; Piñas, L; Escuer-Artero, V; Fernández, R S; Alkhraisat, M H
Oral lichen planus is associated with the Koebner phenomenon, and trauma may exacerbate oral lesions. Short dental implants, as alternatives to bony augmentation, would reduce the number of interventions and their morbidity. However, we know of no studies that have analysed the long-term outcomes of short implants in patients with oral lichen planus. We have therefore designed a retrospective study of such patients treated with short implants (≤8.5mm long), with survival of implants as the main outcome. The secondary outcomes were marginal bone loss and the development of complications. We calculated the implants' survival and compared the outcomes statistically between erosive and reticular oral lichen planus. Sixty-six short implants were placed in 23 patients with a mean (SD) age of 58 (7) years. The mean (SD) peri-implant bone loss was 0.96 (0.89) mm mesially and 0.99 (1.1) mm distally. Sixty-five of the 66 implants survived with a mean (SD) follow-up of 68 (32) months, and there were no significant differences between erosive and reticular disease. Stable long-term outcomes can be expected for short implants placed in patients with oral lichen planus, and graftless rehabilitation of missing teeth could be possible in these patients if short implants were used. Copyright © 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sawant, Neena S.; Vanjari, Nakul A.; Khopkar, Uday; Adulkar, Satish
The precise cause of lichen planus is unknown, but the disease seems to be immunologically mediated. It is a psychocutaneous disorder. Due to scarcity of Indian studies in this field, we decided to study in patients of lichen planus the prevalence of depression and quality of life with comparison of the same in both the genders. Patients diagnosed as having lichen planus by consultant dermatologist were enrolled after informed consent and ethics approval. 45 patients were screened, of which 35 who satisfied the criteria were taken up for the study. A semistructured proforma was designed to collect the necessary information with administration of dermatology life quality index and Beck's depression inventory. While 25% were depressed with females being more affected than males, quality of life was impaired in more than 90% patients. Impairment was maximum due to symptoms and illness feelings, disturbed daily activities, or work and time consumption in treatment. There was a strong association between depression and impairment in quality of life in both the genders. This study helps in early identification of psychological problems in lichen planus patients and in planning their future course of management, hence reducing the lack of productivity and improving the prognosis and quality of life. PMID:25802892
Akpinar Kara, Yesim
Lichen planus is a common mucocutaneous inflammatory skin disease with a multifactorial etiology. Cytokines play a key role in lichen planus pathogenesis. This study investigates the relationship between disease severity and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which is considered a primary cytokine that initiates cytotoxicity. Serum TNF-α levels were compared between a patient group (n = 34) and a control group (n = 20). TNF-α serum levels were measured using human TNF-α Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kits, and the two groups were statistically compared to each other. Mean serum TNF-α levels were found to be significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p 0.005). No relationship was detected between TNF-α levels and patients' sex. It is thought that TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of lichen planus. TNF-α may be a simple and effective predictor to illustrate the inflammatory status in patients with lichen planus.
van der Meij, E. H.; Schepman, K. P.; Smeele, L. E.; van der Wal, J. E.; Bezemer, P. D.; van der Waal, I.
On the basis of a literature review of the period 1950-1976, Krutchkoff et al questioned the possible premalignant nature of oral lichen planus. Their criticism was largely based on insufficiencies of data in support of the initial diagnoses of the condition. In this article, a review of the
Remmerbach, Torsten W; Liese, Jan; Krause, Sarah; Schiefke, Ingolf; Schiefke, Franziska; Maier, Melanie; Liebert, Uwe G
Co-occurrence of oral lichen planus (OLP) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection suggests a strong association, but the relation between mucocutaneus, autoimmune lichen planus and HCV infection remains unclear. In areas with higher prevalence of HCV infection in general population, like Japan and southern Europe, 20 to 40 % of patients with OLP test positive for anti-HCV antibodies, whereas in German populations, a co-occurrence of 4.2 to 16 % was reported. We screened 143 patients with histopathologically proven OLP for prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies. Additionally, we examined 51 anti-HCV-positive subjects with current or past HCV infection for clinical symptoms of OLP. In all patients, confirmatory diagnosis was made by the detection of HCV RNA via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A randomized control group comprised 109 blood sera samples of patients without any characteristics of OLP. The results of all patients showed no co-occurrence in either cohort. In conclusion, no association between oral lichen planus and chronic HCV infection in our study population was found. Anti-HCV antibody screening in patients with confirmed oral lichen planus is not indicated routinely in central Germany.
Background The literature hardly contains information on how patients suffering from oral lichen planus could be managed by dentists. Material and Methods Based on the limited available literature and particularly on the long-term clinical and histopathological experience of one of the authors, suggestions on how dentists could manage patients with oral lichen planus have been put forward. Results: In most cases, the dentist should be able to establish a correct diagnosis. Results In most cases, the dentist should be able to establish a correct diagnosis. Occasionally, the dentist may call upon a specialist, usually an oral medicine specialist or an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for confirmation of the diagnosis, possibly a biopsy procedure, and management of the patient in case of severe symptoms. Proper patient information is of utmost importance in the management. Conclusions General dentists can be expected to manage the majority of patients with oral lichen planus. Some patients may need to be referred for diagnostic purposes to a specialist; this is also the case for the rare patient with severe symptoms, possibly requiring systemic treatment. Key words:Oral mucosal disease, oral lichen planus. PMID:29476684
Kragelund, Camilla; Jensen, Siri Beier; Hansen, Claus
Objective. This study aimed to determine if the activity of the environmentally influenced cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2, alone or in combination with CYP2D6*4 genotype, discriminates subgroups of oral lichen planus (OLP) according to lifestyle factors and clinical manifestations. Study Design...
Objectives: To report on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among a sample of the Egyptian population. Study Design: 4470 Egyptian patients, aged 15-75 years, were seen at the outpatient clinic at the Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. 31.25 % of these patients were males and 68.75% were females. Oral mucosal lesions consistent with oral lichen planus (OLP) were identified both clinically and confirmed histologically (in atypical cases) so that the prevalence of oral lichen planus in this study is 1.43%. Results: 64 patients were diagnosed with OLP (20 males and 44 females). The average age of the affected group was 48.07 years. Associated skin lesions were detected in 15/64 patients (23.44%) and tobacco habits was observed in 20/64 patients (31.25%). The average period of follow-up of the affected cases was 1-2 years, during which two cases developed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral lesion. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study it revealed the prevalence of OLP among middle-aged women. Atrophic lesions were most frequent, followed by the erosive forms. Anti-HCV circulating antibodies were more common in patients with OLP and, notably, OLP was associated with Diabetes mellitus in 15.63% of patients. Key words:Prevalence, oral lichen planus, Egypt. PMID:25810846
Ebrahimi, M.; Nylander, K.; van der Waal, I.
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic disease of the oral mucosa for which the aetiopathogenesis is not fully understood. It mainly affects middle aged and elderly. The finding of autoantibodies against p63, a member of the p53 family, is a strong indication of autoimmunity as a
Jamileh Beigom Taheri
Full Text Available Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to determine efficacy of 19% Elaeagnus angustifolia (EA topical gel in the treatment of symptomatic oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. Patients with symptomatic oral lichen planus referring to the Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were asked to participate in the study. Twenty-eight patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with lichen planus were divided into two groups (15 in the case and 13 in the control groups. The subjects were randomly assigned to either topical gel of EA or placebo in a double-blind manner. They were then instructed to apply the medication on dried lesions three times daily. Pain and size of the lesions were evaluated after 2 weeks. Data were analyzed by SPSS 12.0 software, using t-test, paired t-test, Fisher’s exact test and chi-square test. Results. Twenty-eight patients (m/f: 7/21 with symptomatic oral lichen planus participated in the study. Fifteen patients (m/f: 4/11 received E A gel and 13 patients (m/f: 3/10 received placebo. There was a 75% decrease in pain (33.3% in the case and 7.7% in the control groups, and a decrease of 50% in size (33.3% in the case group and 75% only in 7.6% of the case group. Conclusion. The results suggest that 19% EA gel is efficient in the treatment of symptomatic oral lichen planus, with antiinflammatory and analgesic effects, as well.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presence of H. pylori has been evaluated and described in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity of patients with oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The study included 54 patients with oral leukoplakia, 72 with oral lichen planus lesions, and 40 healthy controls. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity samples was analyzed using a single-step Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method. All patients underwent a periodontal examination and the following clinical parameters were collected: pocket depth, bleeding, and plaque indexes. The periodontal status was assessed using the Offenbacher classification. Results In most patients, pathological lesions were in typical sites on the buccal mucosa (leukoplakia in 88%, and oral lichen planus in 93% of patients. The DNA of the Helicobacter pylori was present in 20% of patients with leukoplakia and 23% of patients with lichen planus. We did not find the DNA of H. pylori in healthy controls. The periodontal status described by periodontal indices was worse in the investigated group than in the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest that the H. pylori presence in oral cavities may be related with leukoplakia and lichen planus oral lesions.
Kazanowska-Dygdała, Magdalena; Duś, Irena; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata
Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presence of H. pylori has been evaluated and described in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity of patients with oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. The study included 54 patients with oral leukoplakia, 72 with oral lichen planus lesions, and 40 healthy controls. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity samples was analyzed using a single-step Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. All patients underwent a periodontal examination and the following clinical parameters were collected: pocket depth, bleeding, and plaque indexes. The periodontal status was assessed using the Offenbacher classification. In most patients, pathological lesions were in typical sites on the buccal mucosa (leukoplakia in 88%, and oral lichen planus in 93% of patients). The DNA of the Helicobacter pylori was present in 20% of patients with leukoplakia and 23% of patients with lichen planus. We did not find the DNA of H. pylori in healthy controls. The periodontal status described by periodontal indices was worse in the investigated group than in the control group. These findings suggest that the H. pylori presence in oral cavities may be related with leukoplakia and lichen planus oral lesions.
Paul, Mayura; Shetty, Devi Charan
Context: Oral lichen planus (OLP) affects 0.5-1% of the total world's population. The histological features of oral lichen planus were first described by Dubreuill in 1906. Despite the advent of various techniques, the etiology of lichen planus remains obscure, although many theories for the etiology have been proposed. Aims: By studying OLP electron microscopically, we shall be emphasizing on the cells and its interactions in specific/altered surroundings which would help us in hypothesizing the effects of its specific cell-to-cell interactions. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 cases of oral lichen planus were selected and categorized into erosive and nonerosive forms based upon clinical pattern and confirmed as lichen planus by histopathological analysis. Tissue specimens thus obtained were cut into two halves and fixed in appropriate fixatives, i.e., neutral buffered formalin for paraffin-embedded hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde for electron microscopic purpose respectively. Results: Ultrastructural comparison among the two forms showed significant differences between them. The basal layer showed cytoplasmic processes, intercellular spaces, desmosomes, nuclei, and signs of degeneration. The erosive form showed elongated, narrow or irregular cytoplasmic projections whereas the nonerosive showed short and broad based projections. Conclusions: The present study confirms the ultrastructural findings of basal cells in OLP with previous authors findings. Besides this, the categorization of the ultrastructural differences between erosive and nonerosive has raised the question of difference in the probable cellular and molecular mechanism between erosive and nonerosive forms. PMID:23798823
Otero-Rey, Eva Maria; Suarez-Alen, Fatima; Peñamaria-Mallon, Manuel; Lopez-Lopez, Jose; Blanco-Carrion, Andres
Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder with a capacity, although low, for malignant transformation. Of all the factors related to the process of malignant transformation, it is believed that the chronic inflammatory process plays a key role in the development of oral cancer. This inflammatory process is capable of providing a microenvironment based on different inflammatory cells and molecules that affect cellular growth, proliferation and differentiation. The objectives of our study are: to review the available evidence about the possible relationship between the chronic inflammatory process present in oral lichen planus and its malignant transformation, to discuss the potential therapeutic implications derived from this relationship and to study the role that topical corticosteroids play in the control of oral lichen planus inflammation and its possible progression to malignant transformation. The maintenance of a minimum dose of topical corticosteroids could prevent the inflammatory progression of oral lichen planus to oral cancer.
Shi, Quan; Zhang, Tong; Huo, Na; Huang, Yang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Hongchen
Abstract Background: More and more studies have suggested that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin (IL) genes are correlated with an increased risk of developing oral lichen planus (OLP). However, these results were inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis is to retrieve and comprehensively analyze all related clinical studies to investigate the association of ILs gene polymorphisms with the OLP risk. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies to evaluate the association between IL polymorphisms and the OLP. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from each study were pooled to estimate the strength of the association. Statistical analyses were performed by using STATA software. Results: In all 6 studies, including 4 SNPs (IL6-174G/C, IL10-592C/A, IL10-819C/T, and IL10-1082G/A), 362 OLP patients and 622 non-OLP control subjects from five different countries were investigated. As for the IL6-174G/C, IL10-819C/T, and IL10-1082G/A, no evidence was found to support the association between SNP and OLP susceptibility in any genetic models. However, as for IL10-592C/A, a significant relationship between them was identified in all of comparison models (C vs A: OR = 0.724, 95% CI = 0.585–0.897, P = 0.003; CC vs AA: OR = 0.447, 95% CI = 0.276–0.722, P = 0.001; AC vs AA: OR = 0.585, 95% CI = 0.387–0.883, P = 0.011; CC+AC vs AA: OR = 0.544, 95% CI = 0.365–0.809, P = 0.003; CC vs AA+AC: OR = 0.715, 95% CI = 0.515–0.994, P = 0.046). Conclusion: With the presently available evidence, this meta-analysis fails to show the statistical associations between IL6-174G/C, IL10-819C/T, and IL10-1082G/A and OLP susceptibility in any genetic models. However, the A allele and AA genotype in IL10-592C/A polymorphism may increase the risk of OLP. In the future, more well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are needed. PMID
Pedersen, A.M.; Torpet, L.A.; Reibel, J.
Primary Sjögren's syndrome, oral lichen planus, bovine colostrum, saliva, xerostomia, oral mucosa......Primary Sjögren's syndrome, oral lichen planus, bovine colostrum, saliva, xerostomia, oral mucosa...
Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmanasis (CL may present with unusual clinical variants such as acute paronychial, annular, palmoplantar, zosteriform, erysipeloid, and sporotrichoid. The zosteriform variant has rarely been reported. Unusual lesions may be morphologically attributed to an altered host response or owing to an atypical strain of parasites in these lesions. We report a patient with CL in a multidermatomal pattern on the back and buttock of a man in Khozestan province in the south of Iran. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of multidermatomal zosteriform CL. It was resistant to conventional treatment but responded well to a combination of meglumine antimoniate, allopurinol, and cryotherapy.
Misra, Neeta; Chittoria, Nandita; Umapathy, Deepak; Misra, Pradyumna
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic disease of uncertain aetiology. Treatment of patients with symptomatic OLP represents a therapeutic challenge. Despite numerous existing remedies, there are many treatment failures. The diode laser therapy is used as a possible alternative method in the treatment of lichen planus. The patient with OLP lesions was treated using diode laser (940 nm) for the symptomatic relief of pain and burning sensation. The patient was assessed before, during and after the completion of the treatment weekly. The treatment was performed for 2 months and the patient showed complete remission of burning sensation and pain (visual analog scale 0%). The follow-up was performed for 7 months and no recurrence of burning sensation was found. Diode laser therapy seems to be an effective alternative treatment for relieving the symptoms of OLP.
He, Y; Gong, D; Shi, C; Shao, F; Shi, J; Fei, J
The bacterial community structure of buccal mucosa in patients with oral lichen planus was evaluated and compared with healthy control. Buccal scraping samples have been taken on 43 oral lichen planus patients (21 erosive and 22 non-erosive) and 21 mucosal healthy volunteers. The V3 hypervariable 16S rDNA region was amplified and sequenced by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. 94.26% of the total buccal bacteria were classified into 15 abundant genera. Eight of these abundant genera could be detected in all cases, namely Streptococcus, Prevotella, Haemophilu, Neisseria, Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia, Veillonella and Actinomyces. Four abundant bacteria showed significantly different prevalence at the genus level: Streptococcus was more abundant (P oral microbiome. Further studies should be taken to elucidate the inner relationship between these observed changes and OLP development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Al-Ajroush, N.; Al-Khenaizan, S.
Lichen planus (LP) is an uncommon, inflammatory dermatosis with characteristic lesions affecting the skin, nails and the mucous membranes. It is rare in childhood. Although nail abnormalities have been reported in 1-10% of patients with LP, the prevalence of nail involvement in affected children is unknown. Here we report a 2-year-old child with isolated nail LP, in association with primary sclerosing cholangitis. (author)
Ratha, Kshirod Kumar; Barik, Laxmidhar; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Hazra, Jayram
Ayurvedic medicines are often considered effective for chronic and lifestyle disorders. Hypertrophic lichen planus (HLP) is a rare inflammatory skin condition and develops into squamous cell carcinoma in few cases. It has resemblance with Charma Kushtha mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Conventional therapy used in this condition is unsatisfactory and is not free from side effects. A case of long-standing systemic steroid-dependent HLP is presented here which was intervened successfully with Ayurvedic modalities.
Velez, Ana Maria Abreu; Howard, Michael S; Pereyo, Neville
AbstractPalmoplantar lichen planus is an uncommon dermatosis. We present a case of 38-year-old Caucasian male with a history of pruritic, scaly lesions on the right plantar foot. Physical examination revealed whitish plaques and numerous spiny hyperkeratotic papules and focal scaling. A biopsy demonstrated orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity within the epidermis and/or lichenoid infiltrate with CD3, CD8, CD45, CD68, myeloid his...
Augusto Pinke Cruz Carbonari
Full Text Available Summary An 82-year-old man sought our service with dysphagia and was referred for upper endoscopy with biopsies, which evidenced multiple ulcers of the esophagus and oropharinx. Histopathology confirmed the unusual diagnosis of esophageal lichen planus. The correct clinical suspicion of this disease can facilitate the diagnosis and guide specific treatment, which can drastically change the natural course of the disease.
Yildirim, Benay; Sengüven, Burcu; Demir, Cem
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Herpes Simplex virus, Epstein Barr virus and Human Papilloma virus -16 in oral lichen planus cases and to evaluate whether any clinical variant, histopathological or demographic feature correlates with these viruses. Study Design: The study was conducted on 65 cases. Viruses were detected immunohistochemically. We evaluated the histopathological and demographic features and statistically analysed correlation of these...
Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Marae, Alaa Hassan; Shoeib, Mohammed; Dawood, Ghada; Abouelfath, Enas
The AP-1 transcription factor complex is a key player in regulating inflammatory processes, cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell transformation. The aim of the present study is to investigate C-Jun (one of AP-1complex) expression and its proliferative role in skin samples of lichen planus, psoriasis as common inflammatory skin diseases and squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical method. The present study was carried out on skin biopsies of 15 psoriatic patients, 15 lichen planus patients, 15 SCC, and 15 normal skin biopsies. Nuclear expression of C-Jun was detected in basal and few suprabasal layers of epidermis of normal skin. C-Jun was expressed in the whole epidermal layers of both psoriasis (14/15) and lichen planus (15/15) in addition to its expression in lymphocytic infiltrate in the latter in about half of cases (8/15). C-Jun was also expressed in 93.3% (14/15) of SCC in a percentage lower than that of psoriasis, lichen planus, and normal skin. The percentage of C-Jun expression in SCC was significantly associated with an early stage (p = 0.000), free surgical margins (p = 0.022), and small tumour size (p = 0.003). The marked reduction of C-Jun in SCC in comparison to normal skin and inflammatory skin dermatoses may refer to its tumour suppressor activity. C-Jun expression in SCC carries favourable prognosis. Absence of significant association between C-Jun and Ki-67 either in SCC or inflammatory skin diseases indicates that it does not affect proliferative capacity of cells.
Vesper, M; Riethdorf, S; Christoph, E; Ruthke, A; Schmelzle, R; Löning, T
Human papilloma viruses (HPV) can be detected in different epithelia with the help of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The role of HPV in the development of anogenital cancers has been intensively studied, and current evidence shows that most cervical cancers are associated with so-called high risk HPV types (e.g. HPV 16 and 18). HPV-infections can also be demonstrated in oral premalignant lesions and squamous cell carcinomas. Depending on the sensitivity of the detection method, 40-67% of leukoplakias, 2.5-76% of squamous cell carcinomas and 0-87% of cases of lichen planus were described to be infected with HPV 16 or 18. Whether lichen planus can be considered as a premalignant lesion is still controversial. By the use of PCR and hybridization we found infections with the high risk HPV types 16, 18 and 31 in 42% (3/7) of the patients with lichen planus. Further investigations with a higher numbers of cases in combination with the analysis of the viral gene expression as well as the clinical and histological control of the corresponding regions are necessary. The aim of these studies is to find out the prognostic value of the HPV infection for this facultative premalignant disease.
Full Text Available Plaque induced gingival enlargement is most commonly seen and when encountered simultaneously with erosive lichen planus poses a challenge to the treating dentist. Prognosis of one condition may influence the prognosis of another condition. The presented case highlights the significance of proper diagnosis and the management of simultaneously occurring gingival lesions. A 49-year-old hypertensive female presented with painful enlarged bleeding and suppurating gums with burning sensation on eating food along with long-term usage of antihypertensive drug amlodipine known for its gingival enlargement effect. All these multiple factors led to diagnostic dilemma. Effective management of the gingival enlargement was done by using electrocautery to rehabilitate the functions and esthetics of the patient. Gingival condition was also complicated by the presence of coexisting lichen planus which was predominantly erosive for which topical corticosteroid, antifungal, and antimicrobial agents were prescribed. Eight-month follow-up did not show recurrence of gingival enlargement. Electrocautery is an effective tool for the gingivectomy in severe inflammatory type of gingival enlargement because of rapid postoperative hemostasis. For the management of erosive lichen planus, long-term use of topical corticosteroids is an effective approach. Maintenance of oral hygiene and regular follow-ups are essential for these conditions.
Yildirim, Benay; Sengüven, Burcu; Demir, Cem
The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Herpes Simplex virus, Epstein Barr virus and Human Papilloma virus -16 in oral lichen planus cases and to evaluate whether any clinical variant, histopathological or demographic feature correlates with these viruses. The study was conducted on 65 cases. Viruses were detected immunohistochemically. We evaluated the histopathological and demographic features and statistically analysed correlation of these features with Herpes Simplex virus, Epstein Barr virus and Human Papilloma virus-16 positivity. Herpes Simplex virus was positive in six (9%) cases and this was not statistically significant. The number of Epstein Barr virus positive cases was 23 (35%) and it was statistically significant. Human Papilloma virus positivity in 14 cases (21%) was statistically significant. Except basal cell degeneration in Herpes Simplex virus positive cases, we did not observe any significant correlation between virus positivity and demographic or histopathological features. However an increased risk of Epstein Barr virus and Human Papilloma virus infection was noted in oral lichen planus cases. Taking into account the oncogenic potential of both viruses, oral lichen planus cases should be detected for the presence of these viruses.
Lucchese, A; Dolci, A; Minervini, G; Salerno, C; DI Stasio, D; Minervini, G; Laino, L; Silvestre, F; Serpico, R
Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of skin and mucous membranes. Approximately 20% of women with oral lichen planus develops lesions in the genital mucosa. In 1982, Pelisse described a special form of lichen planus (LP), which consists of a triad of symptoms: vulval, vaginal and gingival (VVG)-LP lesions. Aim of the present report is to report two new cases and review the international literature. Two cases of VVG-LP are reported and a review of recent literature is performed. The onset of erosive or ulcerative mouth lesions may precede or follow by months or even years the onset of vulvovaginal lesions. Vaginal agglutination is associated with the postmenopausal state in conjunction with a dermatologic condition. Intra-lesional corticosteroids have a role in localized chronic ulceration, while systemic therapies such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, hydroxychloroquine, ciclosporin, methotrexate, retinoids, thalidomide and photo chemotherapy have been used in more severe cases with varying success. VVG-LP is rather a rare condition and has been documented in the literature mainly in the form of case reports. Lack of a precise diagnostic criteria of VVG-LP depends on the specialists.
Fahy, Caoimhe M R; Torgerson, Rochelle R; Davis, Mark D P
Genital or vulval lichen planus (VLP) may have a disabling effect on a patient's quality of life. Evidence-based management guidelines are lacking for VLP. We sought to review clinical presentation and treatment of patients who received a diagnosis of VLP. The 100 consecutive patients who received a diagnosis of VLP at Mayo Clinic between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2015, were reviewed retrospectively. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Fisher's exact test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for analysis of categorical and continuous variables, respectively. All statistical tests were 2 sided, with the α level set at .05 for statistical significance. The time to diagnosis for 49% of patients was more than 1 year. Three patients (3%) had vulval dysplasia, including invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Sixty-eight patients (68%) had multisite lichen planus disease. Eleven patients (11%) had disease remission. Dermatology was the lead specialty for 9 of these cases of remission. This was a retrospective, small-cohort study. A low frequency of disease remission was seen in patients with VLP. Patients with lichen planus benefit considerably from dermatology consultation. Further research is warranted to establish high-quality, evidence-based guidelines for multidisciplinary management of this challenging disease. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Varghese, Soma Susan; George, Giju Baby; Sarojini, Sreenivasan Bargavan; Vinod, Sankar; Mathew, Philips; Mathew, Deepu George; Sebastian, Joseph; George, Arun
Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. Dysplastic OLP has an altered cytogenic profile and can progress into oral squamous cell carcinoma. The epidemiology of OLP is well-described in several relatively large series from various geographic locations, whereas such series from southern India is rare. The aim of the present study was to determine the epidemiology of OLP in a cohort of South Indian population. Methods: All the case data records of 29,606 patients who visited Mar Baselios Dental College and Hospital, Kerala, India from 2014 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. For data review, 122 patients of OLP were selected Estimated were type, number, and location of lesions, clinical manifestation, age of the patient, gender, onset and duration of lesion, stressful life style, habits, skin involvement and associated systemic illness, and presence/absence of dysplasia. Results: When the distribution of OLP among the gender was considered, we found more prevalence in females than males. Fifty-seven percent of patients were associated with stressful lifestyle. Reticular lichen planus was the most common clinical subtype found. Bilateral buccal mucosal was the common site, when the distribution of sites of OLP were compared (P lichen planus lesions. Conclusions: OLP patients had high incidence of hypersensitivity reactions and 5% of OLP lesions showed anaplasia. Long term follow-up is necessary to monitor the recurrence, prognosis, and malignant transformation of OLP. PMID:27051650
Rai, Narendra Parkash; Kumar, Prafful; Mustafa, Shabil M; Divakar, Darshan D; Kheraif, Abdulaziz Al; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Vellapally, Sajith; Dalati, M H N; Parine, Narashimha Reddy; Anil, Sukumaran
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease mostly seen in middle aged and elderly females. Oral lichen planus can occur in different oral sites such as gingiva, labial, buccal mucosa and on the tongue. And can have an indirect effect on initiating periodontitis. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the periodontal status of OLP patients and compare it with that of healthy controls. The presence of erosive lesions among gingival tissues makes oral hygiene procedures difficult to perform for obvious reasons. Plaque control and rigorous oral hygiene are primary requisites for the treatment of any oro-mucosal disease. Thirty patients with the erosive and reticular form of OLP as a study group and 30 healthy subjects as a control group were selected. The periodontal status of all subjects including gingival index (GI), Russell's periodontal index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were evaluated in both groups. Finally, the data was analyzed by a paired t-test using SPSS software v. 22. The mean values of GI, PI and BOP were observed to be higher in the study group compared to the control group, and this was statistically significant (p oral lichen planus patients with larger sample size, and careful follow-up of these will assure an increase in the quality of life of these patients. The patient should be informed regarding the risk of periodontal problems in OLP and should be advised to have regular dental checkups to avoid a worsening of the conditio.
Shirol, Pallavi D; Naik, Veena; Kale, Alka
Lichen planus is a premalignant condition with minimal diagnostic aids. This study is an attempt to use paraffin embedded sections of lichen planus with immunofluorescein stain and to evaluate the immunofluorescent sections to establish pattern of fibrinogen deposition. Thirty-five paraffin embedded sections of old and new cases of oral lichen planus (study group) and five normal oral mucosa (control group) were chosen. Two sections of each (H & E) case were taken, one was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and another with fluorescein isothiocynate conjugate (FITC) polyclonal rabbit antibody against fibrinogen. Fluorescent findings were examined with a fluorescent microscope. A high statistical significant correlation was found in respect to fluorescence positivity, intensity of fluorescence and distribution of fluorescence each with p < 0.0001 and fluorescence at blood vessel walls (p = 0.0003). This study suggested that paraffin embedded sections can be successfully used in direct immunofluorescence staining in routine set up where only formalin fixed tissues are received. Paraffin embedded sections can be successfully used in direct immunofluorescence staining when only formalin fixed tissues are received.
Gholizadeh, Narges; Khoini Poorfar, Hossein; TaghaviZenouz, Ali; Vatandoost, Masoumeh; Mehdipour, Masoumeh
Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease which is relatively common and in 30-70% of patients, mucosal lesions can be seen and known as a precancerous lesion but its etiology is not completely understood. Desmogleins I and III are the main desmosomal transmembrane proteins. These proteins have been identified as the autoantigen of the autoimmune disease. The aim of this study was evaluation of serum autoantibodies against desmogleins Ι, ΙΙΙ in oral lichen planus . We attempted to determine the etiology of this disease with evaluation of these serum factors. Thirty-five patients with oral lichen planus and 35 healthy controls were recruited and tested for serum autoantibodies against desmogleins Ι, ΙΙΙ and indirect immunofluorescence also performed. Data were analyzed by statistical-analytical methods (Independent sample t -test) with using the SPSS.15 software. Serum autoantibody against desmoglein Ι had no significant difference in the two groups ( P =0.31 ) but significant increase in serum autoantibody to desmoglein ΙΙΙ was found in patients with oral lichen planus ( P =0.00) . It seems that autoantibody against desmoglein III has a significant role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.
Rana, Madiha; Kanatas, Anastasios; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Majeed
We can improve our understanding of how patients cope with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by making a comparison with their processes of coping and those used in other conditions. We have therefore compared quality of life (QoL), severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and factors that influence coping between patients with oral SCC and those with oral lichen planus. We asked 104 patients with oral SCC and 51 with oral lichen planus to complete questionnaires about their coping strategies, social support, locus of control, spirituality, QoL, and severity of symptoms. The outcome was that patients with oral SCC were far more likely to resort to coping strategies such as depressive coping, distraction, and self-motivation. The groups also differed regarding QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC had a poorer QoL and higher depression scores, whereas patients with oral lichen planus had better scores in the social support and spirituality categories. Patients with oral SCC generally had more distress than those with oral lichen planus. Not only did the former resort to depressive coping strategies, but they also had poorer QoL and higher values for depression. For the patients with oral lichen planus, social support and spirituality were protective, whereas they were associated with distress by patients with oral SCC. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahmad Reza Mobaien
Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the skin, nail, hair and mucous membranes. Oral lichen planus (LP is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the oral mucous membranes with a variety of clinical presentations. Various etiologies include HCV suggested for LP, and the aim of this study was comparison of seropositivity of HCV in LP patients and control group. Methods: All oral LP patients that were referred to dermatology clinic of farshchian hospitalwere entered in the study. Five cc of clot blood was taken from each patient and tested for anti-HCVand when anti-HCV tested positive another 2cc clot bloodwas taken for HCV-Rt-PCR test. The results were analyzed with SPSS 16. Results: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 oral lichen planus patients [males 13(43.3% females 17(56.7%] with mean ages of 46±13.7years and 60 healthy individual [males 26(43.3% females 34(56.7%]. There was no oral lichen planus patients who had anti-HCV positive whiles 2 males(3.3% of healthy group had anti-HCV positive which was confirmed by HCV-Rt-PCR. Conclusions: This study showed that there is no correlation between seropositivity of HCV and oral lichen planus in our patients in the west of Iran.
Al-Janaby, Hala; El-Sakka, Haytham; Masood, Manal; Ashani W Mendis, Walimuni; M Slack-Smith, Linda; Parsons, Richard; M Frydrych, Agnieszka
Oral lichen planus and mouth dryness are common pathoses, yet not entirely understood. These two conditions may be associated, with a few studies investigating the relationship between mouth dryness and oral lichen planus providing conflicting results. None of the studies have explored the specific impact of disease treatment on mouth dryness. The purpose of this observational before and after comparison study was to examine the effect of treatment of oral lichen planus with topical corticosteroids on mouth dryness. Nineteen subjects with oral lichen planus were evaluated for the severity of xerostomia using a xerostomia inventory and a visual analogue scale. Stimulated and unstimulated whole salivary flow rates, unstimulated salivary pH and buffering capacity were also measured. All subjects were evaluated before and after treatment with topical corticosteroids. All subjects reported xerostomia before treatment with topical corticosteroids, with 79% reporting a significant improvement ( P = 0.03) after treatment. Topical corticosteroid treatment was not associated with statistically significant differences in stimulated or unstimulated salivary flow rates, unstimulated salivary pH or buffering capacity. The results of this study suggest that treatment of oral lichen planus with topical corticosteroids may decrease the severity of dry mouth symptoms.
Full Text Available Background: Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease with a poorly understood etiology. The role of angiogenesis in the development of different chronic inflammatory diseases is of great concern. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an important regulator of angiogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the serum level of VEGF in patients with oral lichen planus compared with normal individuals and consider its clinical significance.Methods: In this case-control study, 36 serum samples from patients diagnosed with oral lichen planus admitted to the Oral Medicine Department of the School of Dentistry at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (14 men, 22 women, mean [±SD] age: 38.8 [±6.07] years and 23 serum samples from healthy individuals (9 men, 14 women, mean [±SD] age: 38.7 [±4.9] years were collected. VEGF concentration was measured using the ELISA method. The Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis.Results: The serum VEGF level was significantly higher in patients with oral lichen planus compared with the healthy controls (112.97 [±63.2] vs. 66.21 [±56.2] ngr/ml, P<0.001. A similar difference was also observed between the two types of oral lichen planus, being more pronounced in the erosive form (P<0.001.Conclusion: Serum VEGF can be used as a useful and suitable marker to scrutinize the disease activity.
Wang, Hui; Han, Qi; Luo, Zhenhua; Xu, Caixia; Liu, Jiajia; Dan, Hongxia; Xu, Yi; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming
This study aims to compare the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 in local periodontal tissues from patients with both chronic periodontitis and oral lichen planus (CP-OLP), patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) only, patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) only, and healthy controls (HC). The periodontal tissues were collected from 15 CP-OLP patients, 15 CP patients, 15 OLP patients, and 10 healthy controls. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to investigate the protein and mRNA expression level of IL-17 and IL-23 in periodontal lesions from these four groups. IHC statistical analysis showed that the expression level of IL-17- and IL-23p19-positive cells significantly increased in CP-OLP group compared with that in CP (P periodontal tissues from periodontitis patients with oral lichen planus, which might aggravate the inflammatory response in local lesions. Oral lichen planus and chronic periodontitis may have interaction in disease pathogenesis, while IL-17 detection in local lesions may be helpful in identifying the disease severity in periodontitis patients with oral lichen planus.
Mahboob, A.; Haroon, T.S.; Iqbal, Z.; Butt, A.K.
Objective: To determine the frequency of anti-HCV antibodies, identify risk factors associated with HCV infection and to screen asymptomatic carries in patients with lichen planus. Subjects and Methods: A total of 184 clinically diagnosed cased of lichen (LP) were selected for the study. Blood samples of all the patients were tested for anti hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV-Ab). Polymerase chain reaction for hepatitis C virus was done in patients with positive anti-HCV-Ab. Trancutaneous liver biopsy was performed in 7 patients with positive HCV-RNA. The histopathological results were evaluated using validated Metavir and Knodell scoring systems. Results: Out of 184 LP patients, 43 (23.4%) were anti-HCV antibodies positive. Females were predominantly affected and male to female ratio was 1:5.1. Maximum positively for anti-HCV was observed in age group 31-40 years (39.53%) followed by 41-50 years (25.58%). Eighty-one percent patients had history of dental treatment and 63% had received multiple injections for various ailments. Forty percent patients had family history of jaundice while 26% had jaundice in the past. Ten out of 16 anti-HCV antibody positive patients, checked for HCV-RNA, had high levels of virus in blood. Transcutaneous liver biopsy done in 7 patients revealed underlying liver disease at various stages. Four patients treated with alpha-interferon and ribazole therapy for liver disease, showed marked improvement in their skin disease. Conclusion: A high prevalence of HCV infection was detected in patients with lichen planus. Patients with lichen planus should be screened for HCV carrier state. (author)
Singh, A R; Rai, A; Aftab, M; Jain, S; Singh, M
This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of steroidal and non-steroidal agents for treating oral lichen planus. Forty patients with clinical and/or histologically proven oral lichen planus were randomly placed into four groups and treated with topical triamcinolone, oral dapsone, topical tacrolimus or topical retinoid for three months. Pre- and post-treatment symptoms and signs were scored for each patient. Patients in all treatment groups showed significant clinical improvement after three months (p 0.05) and for topical retinoid vs topical tacrolimus (p > 0.05). Non-steroidal drugs such as dapsone, tacrolimus and retinoid are as efficacious as steroidal drugs for treating oral lichen planus, and avoid the side effects associated with steroids.
Morita, Mayu; Asoda, Seiji; Tsunoda, Kazuyuki; Soma, Tomoya; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Shirakawa, Masayori; Shoji, Hirofumi; Yagishita, Hisao; Nishikawa, Takeji; Kawana, Hiromasa
Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. Topical use of steroids and other immuno-modulating therapies have been tried for this intractable condition. Nowadays, tacrolimus ointment is used more commonly as a choice for treatment. However, a number of discussions have taken place after tacrolimus was reported to be carcinogenic. This report describes a patient who applied tacrolimus ointment to the lower lip after being diagnosed with oral lichen planus in 2008, and whose lesion developed squamous cell carcinoma in 2010. Since the relationship between tacrolimus and cancer development has been reported in only a few cases, including this case report, the clinician must be careful selecting tacrolimus as a second-line treatment for oral lichen planus.
Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Sheykhbahaei, Nafiseh; SadrZadeh-Afshar, Maryam-Sadat
Many studies have suggested that a lesion originally diagnosed as oral lichen planus (OLP) has different possibilities of undergoing malignant transformation in time, although these findings remain a controversial issue; for example, some studies reported different values of potential malignancy of OLP. World Health Organization (WHO) classifies OLP as a "potentially malignant disorder" with unspecified malignant transformation risk, and suggests that OLP patients should be closely monitored. Numerous studies have attempted to confirm the malignant transformation potential of OLP. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline and EMBASE databases, PubMed, Google Scholar, Ovid, Up To Date, BMJ Clinical Evidence, MD Consult, and Science Direct were searched for papers published between 1997 and 2015. The medical subject heading search terms were "lichen planus," "oral lichen planus," "erosive oral lichen planus," "dysplasia," "oral precancerous condition," "oral premalignant condition," oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and atrophic lichen planus. A total of 120 English language abstracts were reviewed, and 50 relevant articles identified. Because of the extensive literature on the association between OLP and SCC, we have divided the data into genetic and non-genetic factors for more accurate assessment. In this evidence base, malignant transformation ranges from 0 to 37% with a mean of 4.59%. The highest rate of malignancy was noted in erythematosus and erosive lesions. In this way, follow-up of OLP patients could be carried out more efficiently and appropriately. Oral lichen planus is a premalignant lesion. All types of OLP in any site of oral mucosa must be monitored regularly.
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Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. Patients with atrophic and erosive lichen planus often have symptoms of soreness and need proper treatment. The main therapy of OLP has been the administration of topical or systemic corticosteroids. Potent topical corticosteroids have been increasingly prescribed in the treatment of erosive lichen planus. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of adcortyl ointment (triamcinolone in orabase with topical tacrolimus for the treatment of erosive oral lichen planus.
Materials and methods. Sixty Patients with histopathologically confirmed oral lichen planus were enrolled in the study. The severity of lesions was scored from 0 to 5 according to the criteria described in a previous study. Patients were randomly given adcortyl (group A and topical tacrolimus ointment (group B and asked to apply the medication on dried lesions 4 times a day. The lesions were evaluated after 4 weeks of treatment. Visual analogue scale was used to assess the severity of pain before and after treatment. The severity scores were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis k-sample test.
Results. The average score of lesions improved from 3.4 to 1.5 in patients who received adcortyl ointment and from 3.2 to 1.2 in patients who received topical tacrolimus ointment. The differences between the improvements in scores were not statistically significant in the two groups. The average pain severity in A and B groups was 8.2 and 7.8 at the beginning of treatment, and 3.5 and 3.2 at the end of treatment, respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in pain severity in both groups.
Conclusion. Topical tacrolimus is a safe and effective alternative therapy in the treatment of oral lichen planus.
Baghaei, Fahimeh; Shojaei, Setareh; Afshar-Moghaddam, Noushin; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Rastin, Verisheh; Nasr, Mohsen; Moghimbeigi, Abbas
Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common in middle aged individuals. Some studies have shown that oral lichen planus has a potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.p21 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates the cell cycle, thus it acts as an inhibitor in cell proliferation. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the immunostaining of p21 (as a proliferation inhibitory factor) in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this descriptive cross-sectional study, p21expression was investigated in 24 samples of oral lichen planus (OLP), 24 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 24 samples of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH) by employing immunohistochemical staining. The mean percentage of p21-positive cells in OSCC (54.5±6.6) was significantly higher than that in OLP (32.8±6.08) and OEH (9.4±3.8). Moreover, OLP samples expressed p21 significantly higher than the OEH. Kruskal Wallis test revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the intensity of staining (plichen planus to SCC. Therefore, continuous follow-up periods for OLP are recommended for diagnosis of the malignant transformations in early stages.
Kapoor, Anoop; Sikri, Poonam; Grover, Vishakha; Malhotra, Ranjan; Sachdeva, Sonia
Background: Gingival involvement is commonly seen in lichen planus, a chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory condition of the stratified squamous epithelia. It is often painful and may undergo malignant transformation and thus warrants early diagnosis and prompt treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of a bioresorbable membrane (Polyglactin 910) in the management of erosive lichen planus of gingiva. Materials and Methods: A split-mouth randomized controlled trial was carried out. Fifteen patients with identical bilateral lesions of lichen planus on gingiva were included in the study. Three parameters were selected for the clinical assessment of gingival lesions: Surface texture, color, and burning sensation. After complete oral prophylaxis, an excisional biopsy procedure was carried out for lesions on both sides, but on the experimental side, the biopsy procedure was combined with placement of the bioresorbable membrane. The statistical significance of intergroup differences in measurements was tested by using an independent sample t-test. A two-tailed P-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Intragroup comparisons revealed a statistically significant difference between mean value of grades at 6, 12, and 24 weeks in both groups for the surface texture, color, and burning sensation of gingiva, respectively. For intergroup comparison of change in surface texture, color, and burning sensation of gingiva between group A and group B, differences were statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: Surgical management of the lesion accomplished significant improvement of lesion with no significant additional clinical benefits with the application of bioresorbable membrane. Worsening of baseline scores was not observed in any case at the end of the study. PMID:25097651
Full Text Available Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. Mucosal lesions are classified into six clinical forms and there is malignant potential for two forms of OLP; therefore, follow-up should be considered. There are many unestablished etiological factors for OLP and some different treatment modalities are based on etiology. The aims of current OLP therapy are to eliminate mucosal erythema and ulceration, alleviate symptoms and reduce the risk of oral cancer. We have used review papers, case reports, cohort studies, and case-and-control studies published from 1985 to 2010 to prepare this review of literature.
Sri Tjahjani Sumantri
Full Text Available Lichen planys is disorder of the skin and mucous membrane that presenting pruritic, purple and polygonal papules. Oral lesions may persist for years and with clinical appearance that sometimes very ocnfusing. In most cases, oral lesions are present as white, reticulated or natelike areas involving the mucosa. These lesions are characteristic and called Wickham's striae. This paper presented some cases with lesions that resembled oral lichen planus.
Anita D Munde
Full Text Available Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a relatively common inflammatory mucocutaneous disorder that frequently involves the oral mucosa. The clinical presentation of OLP ranges from mild painless white keratotic lesions to painful erosions and ulcerations. An important complication of OLP is the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma, which led the World Health Organization (WHO to classify OLP as a potentially malignant disorder. The demographic and clinical characteristics of OLP have been well-described in several relatively large series from developed countries, whereas such series from developing countries are rare. Objective: The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 128 OLP patients in rural population of India. Materials and Methods: In this study, the diagnostic criteria proposed by van der Meij et al. in 2003 based on the WHO definition of OLP were used to identify cases. Results: In 128 patients, M:F ratio was 1.61:1. The buccal mucosa was the most common site (88.20%. White lichen was seen in 83.59% and red lichen in 16.40% cases. Reticular type of OLP was the most common form (83.5% followed by erosive (15.6% and atrophic OLP (0.78%. The incidence of systemic diseases included hypertension (11%, diabetes mellitus (2.4%, and hypothyroidism (0.78%. Histopathologically epithelial dysplasia was present in 4 cases. Conclusion: Most of the characteristics are consistent with previous studies with differences in few. Lichen planus is a chronic disease where treatment is directed to control of symptoms. Long-term follow-up is essential to monitor for symptomatic flare ups and possible malignant transformation.
Munde, Anita D.; Karle, Ravindra R.; Wankhede, Pranali K.; Shaikh, Safia S.; Kulkurni, Meena
Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common inflammatory mucocutaneous disorder that frequently involves the oral mucosa. The clinical presentation of OLP ranges from mild painless white keratotic lesions to painful erosions and ulcerations. An important complication of OLP is the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma, which led the World Health Organization (WHO) to classify OLP as a potentially malignant disorder. The demographic and clinical characteristics of OLP have been well-described in several relatively large series from developed countries, whereas such series from developing countries are rare. Objective: The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 128 OLP patients in rural population of India. Materials and Methods: In this study, the diagnostic criteria proposed by van der Meij et al. in 2003 based on the WHO definition of OLP were used to identify cases. Results: In 128 patients, M:F ratio was 1.61:1. The buccal mucosa was the most common site (88.20%). White lichen was seen in 83.59% and red lichen in 16.40% cases. Reticular type of OLP was the most common form (83.5%) followed by erosive (15.6%) and atrophic OLP (0.78%). The incidence of systemic diseases included hypertension (11%), diabetes mellitus (2.4%), and hypothyroidism (0.78%). Histopathologically epithelial dysplasia was present in 4 cases. Conclusion: Most of the characteristics are consistent with previous studies with differences in few. Lichen planus is a chronic disease where treatment is directed to control of symptoms. Long-term follow-up is essential to monitor for symptomatic flare ups and possible malignant transformation. PMID:24015006
Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Bagheri, Sudabeh
Lichen planus is a prevalent chronic mucocutaneous condition, whose exact pathogenesis has not been elucidated yet and its standard treatment at present involves the use of local corticosteroids. Curcumin is a colored material extracted from Curcuma longa plant species and is used as an appetizer and for medical purposes. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and anti-cancerous properties. In the present study, the effect of mucoadhesive pastes containing curcumin and local corticosteroids was evaluated for the treatment of erosive lichen planus lesions. In this case‒control study, 40 patients with oral lichen planus were evaluated. Twenty patients, as the cases, were given mucoadhesive pates containing curcumin and 20 patients, as the controls, were given local corticosteroids. The lesion sizes were recorded in the first session and during the follow-up sessions. Pain severities were measured and recorded using the visual analogue scale (VAS) on the first session and during the follow-up sessions. Data were analyzed with SPSS 19, using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Data are significant P 0.05). Curcumin was effective in the treatment of oral lichen planus lesions and resulted in decreases in lesion sizes, pain and burning sensation severities and changes in classification of the lesions without any complications. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cruz, Aline Fernanda; de Resende, Renata Gonçalves; de Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos; Pereira, Núbia Braga; Melo, Leonardo Augusto; Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago
The oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease. Although its aetiology is not well understood, the role of T lymphocytes in its inflammatory events is recognised. Identifying the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this immune-mediated condition is fundamental for understanding the inflammatory reaction that occurs in the disease. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the methylation pattern of 21 immune response-related genes in the different clinical forms of oral lichen planus. A cross-sectional study was performed to analyse the DNA methylation patterns in three distinct groups of oral lichen planus: (i) reticular/plaque lesions; (ii) erosive lesions; (iii) normal oral mucosa (control group). After DNA extraction from biopsies, the samples were submitted to digestions by methylation-sensitive and methylation-dependent enzymes and double digestion. The relative percentage of methylated DNA for each gene was provided using real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays. Hypermethylation of the STAT5A gene was observed only in the control group (59.0%). A higher hypermethylation of the ELANE gene was found in reticular/plaque lesions (72.1%) compared to the erosive lesions (50.0%). Our results show variations in the methylation profile of immune response-related genes, according to the clinical type of oral lichen planus after comparing with the normal oral mucosa. Further studies are necessary to validate these findings using gene expression analysis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kunz, M; Urosevic-Maiwald, M; Goldinger, S M; Frauchiger, A L; Dreier, J; Belloni, B; Mangana, J; Jenni, D; Dippel, M; Cozzio, A; Guenova, E; Kamarachev, J; French, L E; Dummer, R
Patients with severe oral lichen planus refractory to standard topical treatment currently have limited options of therapy suitable for long-term use. Oral alitretinoin (9-cis retinoic acid) was never systematically investigated in clinical trials, although case reports suggest its possible efficacy. To assess the efficacy and safety of oral alitretinoin taken at 30 mg once daily for up to 24 weeks in the treatment of severe oral lichen planus refractory to standard topical therapy. We conducted a prospective open-label single arm pilot study to test the efficacy and safety of 30 mg oral alitretinoin once daily for up to 24 weeks in severe oral lichen planus. Ten patients were included in the study. Primary end point was reduction in signs and symptoms measured by the Escudier severity score. Secondary parameters included pain and quality of life scores. Safety parameters were assessed during a follow-up period of 5 weeks. A substantial response at the end of treatment, i.e. >50% reduction in disease severity measured by the Escudier severity score, was apparent in 40% of patients. Therapy was well tolerated. Adverse events were mild and included headache, mucocutaneous dryness, musculoskeletal pain, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone and dyslipidaemia. Alitretinoin given at 30 mg daily reduced disease severity of severe oral lichen planus in a substantial proportion of patients refractory to standard treatment, was well tolerated and may thus represent one therapeutic option for this special group of patients. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate Langerhans cell (LC in lichen planus (LP, lichenoid mucositis (LM and normal mucosa (NM using CD1a monoclonal antibody immunohistochemically. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 cases of oral lichen planus and 15 cases of LM were selected based on clinical examination and confirmed by histopathological analysis. The biopsies from the 10 patients were taken from normal buccal mucosa as control. Paraffin blocks of tissue were made, which are used for routine hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining using biotin streptavidin methods (CD1a monoclonal antibody. Analysis of CD1a expression was performed by evaluating the labeling index (LI for each slide. Results: The mean CD1a LI for LP was significantly higher than that of LM and NM in the basal and supra basal layer. The mean CD1a positive cells in the connective tissues for LP were higher than that of LM and NM. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates a statistically significant increase in number of LC in LP than in LM, indicating the possible different immunopathogenic mechanisms.
Mohammad Amin Khajavi
Full Text Available Introduction: Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease in oral mucosa and skin. Recently, reports have demonstrated a possible relationship between lichen planus and liver diseases. During the past decade, there has been a hypothesis regarding viral etiological agents that have been found to be in association with hepatotrophic viruses known as Hepatitis B and C with LP. This research was studied in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, to find a relationship between OLP and HBV infection. Methods: Age and gender of 134 patients (with OLP and 134 controls (without OLP were not matched and their serum samples were respectively screened for HBsAg by ELISA (third generation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for HBV-DNA. Results: Tests were positive (for both HBsAg and HBV-DNA for 9 patients (6.71% with OLP and 2 healthy individuals (1.49% infected with HBV (P=0.03. Conclusion: There was a relationship between HBV and OLP in our population. Based on our findings, it is recommended that viral serology for Hepatitis B and OLP patients be conducted as a routine screening process.
Larsen, Kristine Røn; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Reibel, Jesper
The objective of this study was to examine if clinical and histopathological variables in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), and generalized stomatitis display different cytokine profiles and if concomitant contact allergy influences this profile. Forty-nine pat......The objective of this study was to examine if clinical and histopathological variables in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), and generalized stomatitis display different cytokine profiles and if concomitant contact allergy influences this profile. Forty...... analyzed and compared between groups. Nineteen patients had OLP, primarily with ulcerative lesions on the buccal mucosa, 19 patients had OLL, and 11 patients had generalized stomatitis. All patients had oral symptoms, mainly stinging and burning. Nineteen patients and 10 healthy subjects had contact...... higher levels of IL-6 than the healthy subjects. Interferon-γ, IL-12p40, and IL-12p70 were below detection limit. Our findings indicate that OLP, OLL, and generalized stomatitis cannot be discriminated by means of the selected serum cytokines, and that the presence of concomitant contact allergy does...
Conrotto, D; Barattero, R; Carbone, M; Gambino, A; Sciannameo, V; Ricceri, F; Conrotto, F; Broccoletti, R; Arduino, P-G
Lichen planus has been recently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The oral manifestations can be divided into white hyperkeratotic lesions (WL) and atrophic and erosive lesions (RL). The aim of this report was to compare the presence of CVDs between patients affected by WL or RL, to test the hypothesis that RL are associated with an increased incidence of CVDs. Patients were analysed through a complete collection of all the risk factors for CVDs. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a cardiovascular event-acute coronary syndrome (ACS), any revascularization or stroke/TIA. A multivariable logistic regression model, adjusted for age at diagnosis, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, hypertension, CVDs familiarity and periodontitis, was performed. A prospective cohort of 307 patients has been evaluated; 185 (60.3%) had WL and 122 RL (39.7%). Twenty-four patients had a CVD. ACS occurred more frequently in RL (adjusted odds ratio 5.83; 95% CI: 1.16-29.39), mainly due to the higher risk of it after the histological diagnosis of Oral lichen planus OLP (odds ratio 4.23; 95% CI: 0.66-27.23). Patients with RL could possibly have a higher risk of developing ACS. Further analysis on larger cohort is however warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Hannah X; Blasiak, Rachel; Kim, Edwin; Padilla, Ricardo; Culton, Donna A
Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy. Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Of the participants, 94% identified at least one trigger of their OLP flares. Approximately half of the participants (51%) reported at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral allergy syndrome, and 63% identified at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral contact dermatitis. Emotional stress was the most commonly reported trigger (77%). Regarding avoidance, 79% of the study participants reported avoiding their known triggers in daily life. Of those who actively avoided triggers, 89% reported an improvement in symptoms and 70% reported a decrease in the frequency of flares. Trigger identification and avoidance can play a potentially effective role in the management of OLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata; Zwyrtek, Edyta; Owczarek, Joanna Elżbieta; Szcześniak, Dorota
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic, multifocal, sometimes painful, inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa. OLP can predispose development of psycho-emotional disorders. Until now, the relationship between the severity of lichen planus and the psychological profile of patients (psychological well-being, perceived stress and pain coping strategies) has never been studied. Study was conducted on 42 OLP patients. Number of sites involved, severity and activity score of OLP were evaluated. Psychological tests were used to evaluate patients' psycho-emotional condition. The mean duration time of symptomatic OLP was 43 months. We detected that the longer the duration of subjective symptoms, the poorer the quality of life and the higher the level of perceived stress (PSS). Also, the higher the PSS results, the greater the anxiety and depression on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Likewise, higher level of depression in HADS was strongly correlated with worse quality of life. (p≤0.05). In this study, we detected a relationship between duration of the disease, level of perceived stress and quality of life. The longer the disease lasts, the higher it tends to catastrophize. This may influence development or increase of the anxiety and depression and may decrease patients' quality of life.
Piñas, Laura; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Suárez-Fernández, Ricardo; Anitua, Eduardo
Local deficit of several biomolecules have been described in oral lichen planus (OLP). Such a deficit impairs cellular functions and cell-matrix communication. Assess the efficacy of the local application of autologous biomolecules in the treatment of erosive OLP. In this study, the use of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as a source of blood-derived and autologous growth factors and proteins were tested in erosive oral lichen planus refractory to corticosteroids. Histopathological features of the disease were also analysed at the time of diagnosis. Clinical data were the number of recurrences and achievement of pain reduction and complete healing of the lesions. A total of 10 patients with erosive OLP refractory to treatment by corticosteroids were included in the study. All patients were females with a mean age of 48±12years. A complete remission of the disease was achieved after one infiltration of PRGF in 8 patients. Only 2 patients required a total of 2 infiltrations to heal. Hydropic degeneration of the epithelium basal layer, band-like subepithelial lymphocytic infiltration and fibrin deposits in the epithelium were observed in all patients. Interestingly plasma cells were present in 2 patients. All patients presenting plasma cells healed after only one PRGF infiltration. However, 2 patients out of 6 (no plasma cells) required 2 infiltrations. The local administration of autologous local factors could overcome the deficit of biomolecular clues and thus improve cell functions and restore cell-matrix communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Ynson, Marie Lourdes; Forouhar, Faripour; Vaziri, Haleh
Lichen planus is a fairly common chronic idiopathic disorder of the skin, nails and mucosal surfaces. Esophageal involvement of this disease on the other hand is rare and only about 50 cases have been reported in literature. Given its rarity, it can be difficult to diagnose and may be easily misdiagnosed as reflux esophagitis. Currently, there are no clear recommendations on the optimal management of this disease and little is known about the best treatment approach. Systemic steroids are usually the first line treatment and offer a favorable response. In this report, we would like to present a novel approach in the management of esophageal lichen planus in a middle-aged woman treated successfully with swallowed fluticasone propionate 220 mcg twice a day for 6 wk, as evidenced by objective clinical findings. Based on our review of related literature and experience in this patient, we feel that a trial of swallowed fluticasone may be a prudent approach in the management of these patients since it has a more favorable side effect profile than systemic treatment. PMID:23539434
Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata; Zwyrtek, Edyta; Owczarek, Joanna Elżbieta; Szcześniak, Dorota
Abstract Objectives Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic, multifocal, sometimes painful, inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa. OLP can predispose development of psycho-emotional disorders. Until now, the relationship between the severity of lichen planus and the psychological profile of patients (psychological well-being, perceived stress and pain coping strategies) has never been studied. Material and Methods Study was conducted on 42 OLP patients. Number of sites involved, severity and activity score of OLP were evaluated. Psychological tests were used to evaluate patients’ psycho-emotional condition. The mean duration time of symptomatic OLP was 43 months. Results We detected that the longer the duration of subjective symptoms, the poorer the quality of life and the higher the level of perceived stress (PSS). Also, the higher the PSS results, the greater the anxiety and depression on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Likewise, higher level of depression in HADS was strongly correlated with worse quality of life. (p≤0.05). Conclusions In this study, we detected a relationship between duration of the disease, level of perceived stress and quality of life. The longer the disease lasts, the higher it tends to catastrophize. This may influence development or increase of the anxiety and depression and may decrease patients’ quality of life. PMID:29364344
Yugandar I, Shiva Kumar, Sai Prasad, Srilakshmi P, Akshaya N, Abhiram R, Sujalalitha K, Meghana GB
Full Text Available Lichen planus is a pruritic, benign, papulosquamous, inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology that affects either or all of the skin, mucous membrane, hair and nail. In its classic form, it presents with violaceous, scaly, flat-topped, polygonal papules. A female patient aged 43 years with a history of pruritic eruptions for a period of one month over the right armpit and back of the right chest (C8, T1, T2, T3 Dermatomes. She had a history of herpes zoster in the same localization, which had been treated with topical and oral acyclovir two months prior to this visit. This variant may represent as an example of the Wolf’s isotopic response. We presented our case because of its rarity as a Dermatomal distribution of lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP and its appearance in the area of healed herpes zoster as an isotopic response. The case well highlights this unusual condition and represents the first case reported in Indian dermatology literature to our best of knowledge. The clinical and histological features of this case are described here.
Allon, Irit; Ofir, Merav; Vered, Hanna; Hirshberg, Abraham
To investigate the expression of anti- and proapoptosis markers, metallothionein (MT), and caspase-2, in the epithelial and inflammatory cells of oral lichen planus (OLP) patients, and to investigate the association with clinical parameters. Included were biopsies of 70 OLP patients. The clinical data were collected from patients' charts. The expression of MT and caspase-2 was immunomorphometrically analyzed in the epithelial and inflammatory cells, and the results were correlated with the clinical presentation. The epithelial and inflammatory cells expressed MT (10.2 ± 5.75 and 0.68 ± 0.86) and caspase-2 (1.54 ± 2.6 and 0.98 ± 1.15) which show a trend toward an inverse expression. The expression of MT in the epithelium was significantly higher in patients presenting with keratotic lichen planus than in patients with the atrophic and erosive forms (P = 0.0008). In the inflammatory cells, the expression of MT was inversely correlated with increasing age (R = 0.34, P = 0.0069). The pattern of expression of MT and caspase-2 in OLP suggests an extensive antiapoptotic response in the keratotic form of the disease. Symptomatic patients may benefit from therapy targeted to apoptosis in the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes and appendages. Although its pathogenesis is still unclear, some studies showed that autoreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes are the effector cells which cause degeneration and destruction of keratinocytes. Osteopontin (OPN) is expressed during inflammation by natural killer cells, activated T cells and macrophages and classified as a T-helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine. Plasma OPN has been reported to be a potential clinical marker for prediction of atherosclerosis. The mean values of plasma and tissue OPN in the lesional skin of LP patients were significantly higher than that in the control group (P Values for both plasma and tissue OPN were < 0.001). Correlating levels of plasma OPN in the LP patients to metabolic syndrome parameters showed a statistically significant correlation with dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, levels of plasma and tissue OPN were higher in cutaneous lichen planus patients than controls and plasma OPN could be a marker for cardiovascular risk in these patients
Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz; Mojahedi, Seyyed Masoud; Namdari, Mahshid; Rankohi, Zahra Elmi; Jafari, Soudeh
Oral lichen planus is an autoimmune disorder with several challenges in treatment. Photodynamic therapy has been proposed as a new treatment option for the disease. The present study compared the clinical effects of photodynamic therapy to dexamethasone mouthwash in the treatment of oral lichen planus lesions. In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with oral lichen planus were included.15 patients were treated with 5% methylene blue mediated photodynamic therapy using Fotosan device for 30s (630nm wavelength and 7.2-14.4J/cm 2 dose) for 4 sessions in the days 1, 4, 7, 14. In another group, the treatment was done on 15 patients by 0.5mg tab dexamethasone solution in 5cc water, rinsed 4 times in a day within two weeks. The sign score, symptoms scores (pain), clinical severity and treatment efficacy were measured at the days 15, 30, 60, 90 after beginning of the treatment. The results were subjected to Mann-whitney U test in both groups. No significant difference existed between the two modalities regarding the treatment efficacy index, sign score, symptom score and clinical severity on the 15, 30, 60 and 90 post-treatment days. Decreases in patient's symptoms were statistically significant in both groups. Photodynamic therapy was as effective as the dexamethasone mouth wash in the treatment of oral lichen planus. It could be used as a safe modality in the treatment of oral lichen planus lesions without identified side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim: to study the features of lichen planus in the Krasnodar region. Materials and methods. Total 68 clinical cases have been analyzed. The patients were subdivided into age groups in accordance with physiological age gradation. The Classification of lichen planus proposed by the Federal clinical guidelines for the management of patients with lichen planus (Moscow, 2015 was used. The diagnosis in each case was confirmed by histological examination of biopsy specimens of the skin. The data on the prevalence of lichen planus was obtained from the annual reports of the Clinical dermatovenerology dispensary of Krasnodar city from year 2012 to 2015. Results. Women were found to suffer
Carrión, Daniela Calderón; Korkmaz, Yüksel; Cho, Britta; Kopp, Marion; Bloch, Wilhelm; Addicks, Klaus; Niedermeier, Wilhelm
The Merkel cell-neurite complex initiates the perception of touch and mediates Aβ slowly adapting type I responses. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with T-cell-mediated inflammation, whereas hyperkeratosis is characterized with or without epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa. To determine the effects of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis on the Merkel cell-neurite complex, healthy oral mucosal epithelium and lesional oral mucosal epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients were stained by immunohistochemistry (the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and double immunofluorescence methods) using pan cytokeratin, cytokeratin 20 (K20, a Merkel cell marker), and neurofilament 200 (NF200, a myelinated Aβ- and Aδ-nerve fibre marker) antibodies. NF200-immunoreactive (ir) nerve fibres in healthy tissues and in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were counted and statistically analysed. In the healthy oral mucosa, K20-positive Merkel cells with and without close association to the intraepithelial NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected. In the lesional oral mucosa of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients, extremely rare NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected only in the lamina propria. Compared with healthy tissues, lichen planus and hyperkeratosis tissues had significantly decreased numbers of NF200-ir nerve fibres in the oral mucosal epithelium. Lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were associated with the absence of Aβ-nerve endings in the oral mucosal epithelium. Thus, we conclude that mechanosensation mediated by the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the oral mucosal epithelium is impaired in lichen planus and hyperkeratosis.
Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Bayat, Zeynab; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Shahryar-Hesami, Soroosh; Mahdavinezhad, Ali; Samie, Lida; Solgi, Ghasem
Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune disease that could be considered as a potential premalignant status. To evaluate the miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 expression levels in patients with oral Lichen planus lesions compared to healthy subjects with normal oral mucosa. Forty patients with oral lichen planus and 18 healthy age and gender-matched controls were recruited in this case-control study. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed clinically and pathologically. The expression levels of two miRNAs in peripheral blood samples were determined using commercial TaqMan MicroRNA Assays. Relative quantification of gene expression was calculated by the 2-ΔΔct method. The expression levels of miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 in patients with oral Lichen planus were significantly higher than those of healthy controls. Also, a direct but insignificant correlation was found between miRNA-155 and miRNA-146a expression levels among the patient group. Our findings indicate that miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 could be potential biomarkers for the immunopathogenesis of oral lichen planus.
Mendes, G-G; Servato, J-P-S; Borges, F-C; Rosa, R-R; Siqueira, C-S; de Faria, P-R; Loyola, A-M; Cardoso, S-V
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by T cells, which manifests as reticular (white) or erosive (red) lesions, that are eventually painful. Oral lichenoid lesion (OLL) are distinguished from OLP by the presence of precipitating factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of metallothionein, which is involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and the anti-oxidative response, could serve as a differential diagnostic for OLP and OLL. We evaluated the expression of metallothionein in 40 cases of OLP and 20 cases of OLL using immunohistochemistry. White OLP has higher concentrations of metallothionein than red OLP in basal and parabasal layers. Moreover, metallothionein was more frequently observed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of basal cells in OLP patients compared to the same regions of OLL cases. Metallothionein levels are related to OLP severity and may contribute to a differential diagnosis between OLP and OLL.
Velez, Ana Maria Abreu; Howard, Michael S; Pereyo, Neville
Palmoplantar lichen planus is an uncommon dermatosis. We present a case of 38-year-old Caucasian male with a history of pruritic, scaly lesions on the right plantar foot. Physical examination revealed whitish plaques and numerous spiny hyperkeratotic papules and focal scaling. A biopsy demonstrated orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity within the epidermis and/or lichenoid infiltrate with CD3, CD8, CD45, CD68, myeloid histiod antigen, BCL2, p27, p53, HLA-DPDQDR, metallothionein and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1. The diagnosis of PPLP was thus confirmed; this case illustrates that PPLP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of uncommon foot dermatoses with a significant junctional inflammatory component. PMID:26312708
Abreu Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S; Pereyo, Neville
Palmoplantar lichen planus is an uncommon dermatosis. We present a case of 38-year-old Caucasian male with a history of pruritic, scaly lesions on the right plantar foot. Physical examination revealed whitish plaques and numerous spiny hyperkeratotic papules and focal scaling. A biopsy demonstrated orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity within the epidermis and/or lichenoid infiltrate with CD3, CD8, CD45, CD68, myeloid histiod antigen, BCL2, p27, p53, HLA-DPDQDR, metallothionein and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1. The diagnosis of PPLP was thus confirmed; this case illustrates that PPLP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of uncommon foot dermatoses with a significant junctional inflammatory component.
Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a chronic papulosquamous dermatosis in which both skin and mucous membranes may be involved. To date, there have been only five reports of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients with hypertrophic LP. In the present report, we describe a 37-year-old female who presented with widely distributed, hyperpigmented, pruritic scaly lesions involving the face, trunk, and upper and lower extremities for one month. She also had swelling of both lower legs with low grade fever for past one week. She was diagnosed to be a HIV-positive patient who had severe, widespread hypertrophic LP lesions along with acute eruptive lesions of LP. These LP lesions were a presenting feature of HIV infection in our case.
Kistenev, Yury; Borisov, Alexey; Shapovalov, Alexander; Baydik, Olga; Titarenko, Maria
The ability of diagnostics of oral lichen planus (OLP) based on spectral analysis of saliva using the THz spectroscopy is presented. The study included 8 patients with clinically proven OLP. The comparison group consisted of 8 healthy volunteers. Absorption spectra of the saliva was measured using time-domain spectrometer T-spec (EXPLA) in the range 0.2-3THz and have been considered as the feature vectors of the state. The spatial distribution of the objects under study in the feature space was analyzed using principle component analysis. The groups under study were shown to separate in full. Thus, the saliva analysis by the THz spectroscopy technique can be potentially used as a method of noninvasive diagnostics of the OLP.
Zuo, Yu-Ling; Gong, Di-Ping; Li, Bi-Ze; Zhao, Juan; Zhou, Ling-Yue; Shao, Fang-Yang; Jin, Zhao; He, Yuan
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects oral mucosa, some of which may finally develop into oral squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, pinpointing the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of OLP is important to develop efficient treatments for OLP. Recently, the accumulation of the large amount of omics data, especially transcriptome data, provides opportunities to investigate OLPs from a systematic perspective. In this paper, assuming that the OLP associated genes have functional relationships, we present a new approach to identify OLP related gene modules from gene regulatory networks. In particular, we find that the gene modules regulated by both transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of OLP and many genes in the modules have been reported to be related to OLP in the literature. PMID:26064947
Bendas, Ehab R; Abdullah, Hamoud; El-Komy, Mohamed H M; Kassem, Mohamed A A
The work aimed at studying a novel topical niosomal gel formulation of hydroxychloroquine for the management of oral lichen planus. Niosomes have been reported as conceivable vesicles to deliver drug molecules to the desired mucous membrane or skin layers. Hydroxychloroquine niosomes were designed using different methods of preparation. Tween 20 and cholesterol in molar ratio (1:0.5) were used. The prepared systems were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size and in vitro drug release. Different factors affecting the encapsulation of hydroxychloroquine in niosomes were studied vs. varying the type of surfactant, the cholesterol:surfactant molar ratio and the amount of the drug. The selected noisome formulation was dispersed in different gel formulations and evaluated according to the in vitro drug release and the physical stability. The results showed that the type of surfactant, cholesterol ratio and incorporated amount of drug altered the entrapment efficiency and the in vitro release of hydroxychloroquine from niosomes. The optimum formulation was prepared by reverse phase evaporation technique using Brij 98:cholesterol molar ratio (1:1.5) and containing 20mg of hydroxychloroquine and incorporated in 20% w/v Pluronic F-127 gel. A double-blind, controlled clinical study was performed using two groups of patients. Group A (n=11) who received hydroxychloroquine niosomal gel formulation, one application-a-day over 4 months showed 64.28% reduction in the size of lesions and the average score of pain was reduced from "4" to "1". Compared to placebo group B (n=5), who showed only 3.94% reduction in the lesion size and the average score of pain was remained "3". Our results suggest that these niosomal formulations could constitute a promising approach for the topical treatment of oral lichen planus in short time with less side effects and no recurrence after stopping the treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The role of human papilloma virus (HPV in oral lichen planus (OLP is controversial.The primary aim of the current study is to calculate the pooled risk estimates of HPV infection in OLP when compared with healthy controls.Bibliographic searches were conducted in three electronic databases. Articles on the association between HPV and OLP were selected from case-control studies or cross-sectional studies, following predefined criteria. Pooled data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI.Of the 233 publications identified, 22 case-control studies met the inclusion criteria. Collectively, 835 cases and 734 controls were available for analysis. The summary estimate showed that OLP patients have significantly higher HPV prevalence (OR: 6.83; 95% CI: 4.15-11.27 than healthy controls. In subgroup analyses, the association of HPV and OLP varied significantly by geographic populations. The ORs ranged from 2.43 to 132.04. The correlation of HPV and erosive-atrophic oral lichen planus (EA-OLP (OR: 9.34 was comparable and well above that of HPV and non-EA-OLP (OR: 4.32. Among HPV genotypes, HPV 16 showed an extremely strong association with OLP (OR: 11.27, and HPV 18 showed a relatively strong one (OR: 6.54.In conclusion, a significant association was found between HPV and OLP. The strength of the association varied across geographic populations, clinical types of OLP, and HPV genotypes. The results suggest that HPV might play an important causal role in OLP and in its malignant to progression.
Werneck, Juliana Tristão; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Silva Junior, Arley
There are few reports on the migration of CLA+ T cells through E-selectin in cutaneous lichen planus, with only one study on oral lichen planus (OLP). This study aimed to analyze CLA expression and assess whether there is a correlation with E-selectin (CD62E) in OLP lesions. Biopsies were performed on 11 patients including two areas: one without clinical and histopathological features of OLP [perilesional group (PLG)] and the other with clinical and histopathological features of OLP [OLP group (OLPG)]. The specimens obtained were divided into two: One was fixed in formalin for routine analysis (H&E), and the other was frozen for CD3, CD4, CD8, CLA, and CD62E immunofluorescence markers. More CD4+ (median 1409, range 860-2519), CD8+ (median 1568, range 654-3258), and CLA+ T cells (median 958, range 453-2198) and higher CD62E expression (median 37, range 27-85) were identified in OLPG (P = 0.003; P = 0.003; P = 0.004; P = 0.003, respectively) than those in PLG. The median prevalence analysis was also significantly higher for CLA+CD8+ T cells in OLPG (OLPG = 39.4%, range 18.4-64.2; PLG = 29.4%, range 12.1-47.1) (P = 0.026). None of the correlations between CD3+ or CLA+ T cells and CD62E in OLPG and in PLG were significant. The significant presence of CLA+ T cells and E-selectin expressions in the OLPG suggests their involvement in the etiopathogenesis of OLP; however, only a weak correlation between CLA+ T cells and E-selectin was observed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Weber, B; Schlapbach, C; Stuck, M; Simon, H-U; Borradori, L; Beltraminelli, H; Simon, D
Cutaneous (CLP) and oral lichen planus (OLP) as the main subtypes of lichen planus (LP) present with different clinical manifestation and disease course, although their histopathologic features such as the band-like lymphocyte infiltrate and keratinocyte apoptosis are similar. So far, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the in situ cellular infiltrates, cytokine expression profiles and apoptosis markers in CLP and OLP. Using immunofluorescence staining and laser scanning microscopy, we evaluated the cellular infiltrate (CD1a, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD21, CD57, CD123), cytokine expression (interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-17, IL-22, IL-23, tumour necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, interferon (IFN)-γ), and apoptosis markers (Fas, Fas ligand, cleaved caspase-3, TUNEL) of 21 anonymized biopsy specimens of LP (11 CLP, 10 OLP). Among infiltrating cells mainly T cells and natural killer (NK) cells as well as plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC) were observed. A predominance of CD8+ T cells was noted in OLP. In both CLP and OLP, T helper (Th)1, Th9, Th17, and Th22-type cytokines were expressed. The expression of IL-9, IFN-γ and IL-22 was higher in CLP compared to that of OLP (P = 0.0165; P = 0.0016; P = 0.052 respectively). Expression of Fas and Fas ligand as well as cleaved caspase-3-positive cells was observed in the epithelium of all LP samples. The cell and cytokine patterns of CLP and OLP were partially distinct and generally resembled those reported for autoimmune diseases. The presence of CD8+ and NK cells as well as Fas/Fas ligand expression suggested that various pathways involved in keratinocyte apoptosis are relevant for LP. These results might help to establish targeted therapies for LP. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
De Jong, W F; Albrecht, M; Bánóczy, J; van der Waal, I
In a combined study of the Free University, Amsterdam and the Semmelweis Medical University, Budapest, the presence of epithelial dysplasia was studied in 100 cases of oral lichen planus. The criteria of epithelial dysplasia which were used in this study correspond with those reported by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Precancerous Lesions in 1978. In approximately 25% of all cases, moderate or at least mild dysplasia was observed. The number of dysplastic changes per section did not show any significant correlation with the clinical type, nor with age or sex. There were no marked differences between the Amsterdam and Budapest material. Long-term data on the follow-up were not available yet. No comment can therefore be given about the meaning of the finding of epithelial dysplasia in lichen planus being a sign of premalignancy or not.
Popovska, Mirjana; Fidovski, Jasmin; Mindova, Sonja; Dirjanska, Katerina; Ristoska, Stevica; Stefanovska, Emilija; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Mitic, Kristina; Rusevska, Biljana
The therapy of erosive lichen planus (ELP) has been particular problem in the treatment of oral lesions. This case of ELP in male patient 29 years old was treated with topic application of the NBF gingival gel, three times a day after meal, previously rinsed with Clorhexidine gluconate 0.12%. After 5 days of treatment, initial improvements were recorded, and after two weeks of application of the NBF gingival gel we observed significant improvement. Clinical monitoring after the fifth day show...
Elisabetta Merigo; Aldo Oppici; Anna Parlatore; Luigi Cella; Fabio Clini; Matteo Fontana; Carlo Fornaini
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proposed for different applications in the medical field and in maxillofacial surgery thanks to its many growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a disease that affects the oral mucosa in a chronic way. This disease frequently worsens the quality of life of patients, particularly when clinical manifestations are of the erythematous or erosive/ulce...
Piccinni, M-P; Lombardelli, L; Logiodice, F; Tesi, D; Kullolli, O; Biagiotti, R; Giudizi, Mg; Romagnani, S; Maggi, E; Ficarra, G
The role of Th17 cells and associated cytokines was investigated in oral lichen planus. 14 consecutive patients with oral lichen planus were investigated. For biological studies, tissues were taken from reticular or erosive lesions and from normal oral mucosa (controls) of the same patient. mRNA expression for IL-17F, IL-17A, MCP-1, IL-13, IL-2, IL-10, IL-1β, RANTES, IL-4, IL-12B, IL-8, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-18, TGF-β1, IL-23R, IL-7, IL-15, IL-6, MIG, IP-10, LTB, VEGF, IL-5, IL-27, IL-23A, GAPDH, PPIB, Foxp3, GATA3, and RORC was measured using the QuantiGene 2.0. Results showed that Th17-type and Th0-type molecules' mRNAs, when compared with results obtained from tissue controls, were increased in biopsies of erosive lesions, whereas Th2-type molecules' mRNAs were increased in reticular lesions. When the CD4+ T-cell clones, derived from oral lichen planus tissues and tissue controls, were analyzed, a higher prevalence of Th17 (confirmed by an increased CD161 expression) and Th0 CD4+ T clones was found in erosive lesions, whereas a prevalence of Th2 clones was observed in reticular lesions. Our data suggest that Th17, Th0, and Th2 cells, respectively, may have a role in the pathogenesis of erosive and reticular oral lichen planus. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kujundzic, Bojan; Zeljic, Katarina; Supic, Gordana; Magic, Marko; Stanimirovic, Dragan; Ilic, Vesna; Jovanovic, Barbara; Magic, Zvonko
The current study investigated the association between VDR EcoRV (rs4516035), FokI (rs2228570), ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236), CYP27B1 (rs4646536), CYP24A1 (rs2296241), and MTHFR (rs1801133) gene polymorphisms and risk of oral lichen planus (OLP) occurrence. The study group consisted of 65 oral lichen planus patients and 100 healthy blood donors in the control group. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by real time PCR or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Heterozygous as well as mutated genotype of vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI (rs2228570) polymorphism was associated with increased oral lichen planus risk in comparison with wild type genotype (odds ratio (OR) = 3.877, p = 0.017, OR = 38.153, p = 0.001, respectively). A significantly decreased OLP risk was observed for heterozygous genotype of rs2296241 polymorphism in CYP24A1 gene compared with the wild type form (OR = 0.314, p = 0.012). VDR gene polymorphisms ApaI and TaqI were in linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.71, r(2) = 0.22). Identified haplotype AT was associated with decreased OLP risk (OR = 0.592, p = 0.047). Our results highlight the possible important role of VDR FokI (rs2228570) and CYP24A1 rs2296241 gene polymorphisms for oral lichen planus susceptibility. Identification of new molecular biomarkers could potentially contribute to determination of individuals with OLP predisposition.
Venkatesiah, Sowmya S; Kale, Alka D; Hallikeremath, Seema R; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S
Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that clinically and histologically resembles lichenoid lesions, although the latter has a different etiology. Though criteria have been suggested for differentiating oral lichen planus from lichenoid lesions, confusion still prevails. To study the cellular and nuclear volumetric features in the epithelium of normal mucosa, lichen planus, and lichenoid lesions to determine variations if any. A retrospective study was done on 25 histologically diagnosed cases each of oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions, and normal oral mucosa. Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc test. The basal cells of oral lichen planus showed a significant increase in the mean nuclear and cellular areas, and in nuclear volume; there was a significant decrease in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as compared to normal mucosa. The suprabasal cells showed a significant increase in nuclear and cellular areas, nuclear diameter, and nuclear and cellular volumes as compared to normal mucosa. The basal cells of oral lichenoid lesions showed significant difference in the mean cellular area and the mean nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as compared to normal mucosa, whereas the suprabasal cells differed significantly from normal mucosa in the mean nuclear area and the nuclear and cellular volumes. Morphometry can differentiate lesions of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions from normal oral mucosa. Thus, morphometry may serve to discriminate between normal and premalignant lichen planus and lichenoid lesions. These lesions might have a high risk for malignant transformation and may behave in a similar manner with respect to malignant transformation.
Ali, S; Wahbi, W
The main objective of oral lichen planus management is to control symptomatic outbreaks via eliminating lesions and alleviating symptoms. Corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and most of the available modalities are associated with adverse effects, which may limit their use. The aim of this review was to assess the effect of aloe vera on pain alleviation and/or clinical improvement in patients with symptomatic oral lichen planus. MEDLINE-PubMed; CENTRAL, and LILACS were searched in May 2016 to identify all clinical trials evaluating aloe vera vs placebo or corticosteroids for treatment of oral lichen planus. The included studies were five clinical trials and two case reports. From the included studies, there is weak evidence that aloe vera is more efficient than placebo and has comparable effect to triamcinolone acetonide. The meta-analyses show heterogeneity and reveals that aloe vera is inferior to the control in general. Although corticosteroids are still the gold standard, aloe vera shows promising results especially with no adverse effects compared with various adverse effects of corticosteroids. We recommend conducting new randomized clinical trials with larger sample size, sufficiently long follow-up period as well as standardized aloe vera formulations and outcome measures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Lorenzini, Guido; Viviano, Massimo; Chisci, Elettra; Chisci, Glauco; Picciotti, Maria
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disease of uncertain aetiology. OLP has many manifestations: reticular, erosive, atrophic, plaque like, papular, bullous, with unique etiopathogenetic working. The purpose of this study is to find a link between different clinical types of lichen and the alterations of lymphocytes on peripheral blood and oral mucosa. A total of 21 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age of patients was 53.82 years, between 31 and 78 years. OLP Diagnosis was afterwards confirmed by histopathology. Selected patients underwent to clinical evaluation, lesion characterization, incisional biopsy, samples histological analysis, peripheral blood collection. Blood specimens were submitted to cell count determination with differential, characterization of populations and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations using monoclonal antibodies in flow cytometry. Referring to the clinical presentation of lesions, patients were divided in two groups: red lesions (RL) and white lesions (WL) and compared with an age-matched control group. The results of the immunophenotypic study showed correlation between WL and the expression of CD19 lymphocytes (r = 0.693, P = 0.0005). The results of immunohistochemical study performed on histological specimens showed a significant correlation between RL group and expression of all lymphocyte tested (CD3 r = 0.722 P = 0.0002, CD4 r = 0.579 P = 0.0060, CD56 r = 0.513 P = 0.0173, CD8 r = 0.548 P = 0.0102). We assume there is the responsibility of the expression of lymphocytes, not only type but also as quantity, in determining RL or WL manifestation of OLP. Circulating lymphocytes may have a role, too. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sanketh, D Sharathkumar; Srinivasan, Samuel Raj; Patil, Shankargouda; Ranganathan, Kannan
In the present study, we simulated clinical scenarios by explicitly describing the history and clinical and histological features of hypothetical patients presenting with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesion, and epithelial dysplasia in a self-designed questionnaire. By doing so, we aimed to elicit a diagnosis from oral pathologists and trainees, analyze their responses, appraise issues, and propose solutions regarding the diagnosis of OLP. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 oral pathologists and trainees in South India. Six questions were designed to assess awareness of the diagnostic aspects of OLP. Ten questions were hypothetical clinical scenarios (HCS) devised to evaluate respondents' knowledge of diagnostic guidelines and the criteria used by the respondents to render a diagnosis. There were 60 of 100 responses to the questionnaire. More than half the respondents were aware of the World Health Organization and modified guidelines of OLP. We observed considerable variations in diagnoses for the HCS. Our study illustrates the ambiguity in rendering an accurate diagnosis, despite adequate guidelines. Based on the responses for the HCS, we hypothesized that changes in the distribution (unilateral or bilateral) and clinical characteristic of OLP, and habits of patients, have a significant bearing on the clinical and final diagnoses of the lesion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Ravina Naomi Tarigan
Full Text Available Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory condition that effects oral mucous membranes with a variety of clinical presentations including reticular, atrophic, plaque and ulcerative lesions. Corticosteroid is one of the effective therapy for OLP in reducing the sign and symptoms of this disease, but this therapy have a serious side effect, therefore to administering one must consider the patient’s systemic condition. We reported a case of OLP in 52 years old female patient who has no history of diabetes mellitus and unknown glucose level. Management of this patient included application of corticosteroid swish, topical 0.05% clobetasol propionate and 0,1% triamcinolone acetonide, antimycotics, improvement the oral hygiene status and referral to internal medicine specialist. The next treatments plan challenging because unstable blood glucose level which in turn effects the drug choice and teeth extraction plan. We concluded that the treatment of OLP requires a complete assessment of medical status and lab studies specially on the first visit so the drug selection with corticosteroid therapy and the treatment planning of predisposing factor are effective in reducing the sign and symptoms of OLP with minimum systemic side effect.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i1.19
López-Jornet, P; Camacho-Alonso, F; Molina-Miñano, F
The oral mucosa is relatively vulnerable to pathological processes, and is often affected by autoimmune and malignant diseases. The oral epithelium is normally non-homogeneous, and joins to the connective tissue through interlocking of its downward projections in the form of papillae. This study aims to conduct a histomorphometric study of the epithelial papillae in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). This study was based on 100 cheek mucosa biopsies from patients with OLP (66 white reticular and 34 atrophic-erosive) (13 males and 87 females, with a mean age of 54.95 +/- 13.64 years). A histological and morphometric evaluation was made, based on imaging analysis with MIP software 4.5 for studying the papillary structure in the patients with OLP. The mean epithelial thickness was 227.5 +/- 78.5 microm. The different papillary measures--BLS (distance from basal layer to epithelial surface), DPS (distance from dermal papilla top to epithelial surface), DPW (dermal papilla width), and DPD (interdermal papilla distance between two papillae)--yielded no statistically significant differences with respect to age, sex, smoking and clinical form. However, a significant correlation was observed in relation to papilla width and inflammatory infiltrate (P = 0.031). The application of this imaging system is useful for measuring variations in epithelial papillary architecture.
Kassem, Riad; Yarom, Noam; Scope, Alon; Babaev, Meir; Trau, Henri; Pavlotzky, Felix
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that can significantly affect the patient's quality of life. We sought to demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of local ultraviolet (UV) B phototherapy in OLP. Patients with biopsy-confirmed erosive OLP recalcitrant to previous medical therapy were treated with the TheraLight UV 120-2 system (TheraLight Inc, Carlsbad, CA). Lesions were accessed directly using a flexible fiber guide. Local phototherapy was delivered 3 times a week, with gradual increase in UVB dose every other session. Affected oral mucosa was defined as the area showing erosions or symptomatic reticular lesions. Complete response was defined as reduction of at least 80% in the affected mucosal area, and partial response was defined as a reduction of 50% to 80% in the affected mucosal area. The primary end point was efficacy after 8 weeks of treatment. Fourteen patients were included in the study. Nine achieved complete response and 5 partial response after 8 weeks. Ten patients were continued on maintenance therapy and were able to maintain their response for another 29 weeks. None of the patients showed any serious side effects from local UVB therapy. The study was performed in a small series of patients at a single medical center. Further studies with larger patient samples are required to validate our findings. Local UVB phototherapy may be a promising treatment modality for erosive OLP. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Shariati, Matin; Mokhtari, Mojgan; Masoudifar, Aria
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common mucocutaneous disease with malignant transformation potential. Several etiologies such as humoral, autoimmunity, and viral infections might play a role, but still there is no definite etiology for this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome in Iranian patients with OLP as compared to people with normal mucosa. The study was carried out on a case group including 38 tissue specimens of patients with histopathological confirmation of OLP and a control group including 38 samples of healthy mucosa. All samples were examined by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to determine the DNA of EBV. Twenty-two (57.9%) female samples and 16 (42.1%) male samples with OLP were randomly selected as the case group, and 20 (52.6%) female samples and 18 (47.4%) male samples with healthy mucosa as the control group. There was a statistically significant difference in the percentage of EBV positivity between the case (15.8%) and the control groups ( P < 0.05); in the case group, three female samples (13.6%) and three male samples (18.8%) were infected with EBV; the difference between the genders was not statistically significant ( P = 0.50). Results emphasized that EBV genome was significantly higher among Iranian patients with OLP so antiviral therapy might be helpful.
Shariati, Matin; Mokhtari, Mojgan; Masoudifar, Aria
Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common mucocutaneous disease with malignant transformation potential. Several etiologies such as humoral, autoimmunity, and viral infections might play a role, but still there is no definite etiology for this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) genome in Iranian patients with OLP as compared to people with normal mucosa. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on a case group including 38 tissue specimens of patients with histopathological confirmation of OLP and a control group including 38 samples of healthy mucosa. All samples were examined by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to determine the DNA of EBV. Results: Twenty-two (57.9%) female samples and 16 (42.1%) male samples with OLP were randomly selected as the case group, and 20 (52.6%) female samples and 18 (47.4%) male samples with healthy mucosa as the control group. There was a statistically significant difference in the percentage of EBV positivity between the case (15.8%) and the control groups (P < 0.05); in the case group, three female samples (13.6%) and three male samples (18.8%) were infected with EBV; the difference between the genders was not statistically significant (P = 0.50). Conclusion: Results emphasized that EBV genome was significantly higher among Iranian patients with OLP so antiviral therapy might be helpful. PMID:29692821
Full Text Available Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a common mucocutaneous disease with malignant transformation potential. Several etiologies such as humoral, autoimmunity, and viral infections might play a role, but still there is no definite etiology for this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV genome in Iranian patients with OLP as compared to people with normal mucosa. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on a case group including 38 tissue specimens of patients with histopathological confirmation of OLP and a control group including 38 samples of healthy mucosa. All samples were examined by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR method to determine the DNA of EBV. Results: Twenty-two (57.9% female samples and 16 (42.1% male samples with OLP were randomly selected as the case group, and 20 (52.6% female samples and 18 (47.4% male samples with healthy mucosa as the control group. There was a statistically significant difference in the percentage of EBV positivity between the case (15.8% and the control groups (P < 0.05; in the case group, three female samples (13.6% and three male samples (18.8% were infected with EBV; the difference between the genders was not statistically significant (P = 0.50. Conclusion: Results emphasized that EBV genome was significantly higher among Iranian patients with OLP so antiviral therapy might be helpful.
Arduino, Paolo G; Karimi, Dora; Tirone, Federico; Sciannameo, Veronica; Ricceri, Fulvio; Cabras, Marco; Gambino, Alessio; Conrotto, Davide; Salzano, Stefano; Carbone, Mario; Broccoletti, Roberto
The association between oral lichen planus (OLP) and hypothyroidism has been debated with conflicting results: some authors detected a statistically significant association between these two, while others did not confirm it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thyroid status in patients with newly diagnosed OLP to test the null hypothesis that thyroid disease is not associated with an increased incidence of oral lesions, with a prospective case-control approach. A total of 549 patients have been evaluated, of whom 355 were female. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. Patients suffering from thyroid diseases were associated with an almost 3-fold increased odds of having OLP (OR 2.85, 95% CI: 1.65-4.94), after adjusting this analysis for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and hepatitis C infection. It would be appropriate to further investigate the possible concomitance of OLP among patients with thyroid disorder; endocrinologists should be aware of this association, especially because OLP is considered a potentially malignant oral disorder. © 2017 The authors.
Full Text Available Background: The relationship between Lichen Planus (LP and diabetes was studied previously, but the re-sults were in conflict. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM in patients with LP among Iranian patients. Methods: In this study, 80 patients with LP were enrolled. They referred to dermatology clinic of our hospital during one year. A self-designed checklist for the study included duration of the disease, the pattern of the dis-tribution of lichenoid lesions and fasting blood sugar (FBS. Results: From 80 patients with LP, 16 (20% had diabetes. Also, 14 patients (17.5% had impaired fasting glucose. The mean age of diabetic patients was significantly higher than non-diabetic group (p=0.039. In addi-tion, the duration of LP in patients with DM was significantly higher than non-diabetic patients (p=0.024. Conclusion: In our study, we saw a high prevalence of DM among patients with LP. Comparing our findings with the overall prevalence of DM in Iran, there was a significant difference between the prevalence of DM among patients with LP and the overall prevalence (p=0.001. Regarding our findings screening for FBS in pa-tients with LP is required in Iran.
Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Reibel, Jesper; Zachariae, Claus; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge
Abstract The objective of this study was to examine if clinical and histopathological variables in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), and generalized stomatitis display different cytokine profiles and if concomitant contact allergy influences this profile. Forty‐nine patients and 29 healthy age‐ and gender‐matched subjects were included. Demographic and clinical data immunohistochemical findings in mucosal specimens, results of contact allergy testing, and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor‐α, interferon‐γ, interleukin (IL)‐6, IL‐10, IL‐12p40, and IL‐12p70 were analyzed and compared between groups. Nineteen patients had OLP, primarily with ulcerative lesions on the buccal mucosa, 19 patients had OLL, and 11 patients had generalized stomatitis. All patients had oral symptoms, mainly stinging and burning. Nineteen patients and 10 healthy subjects had contact allergies, primarily to fragrance ingredients. Patient groups did not differ with regard to oral symptoms, clinical pattern of the lesions, or contact allergy. Serum cytokine levels did not differ between the different patient groups and were not related to histopathological findings. The patients had higher levels of IL‐6 than the healthy subjects. Interferon‐γ, IL‐12p40, and IL‐12p70 were below detection limit. Our findings indicate that OLP, OLL, and generalized stomatitis cannot be discriminated by means of the selected serum cytokines, and that the presence of concomitant contact allergy does not influence the cytokine expression. PMID:29744205
Ruokonen, Hellevi M A; Juurikivi, Aino; Kauppila, Timo; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta
Oral lichen planus (OLP) and lichenoid lesions (OLL) are regarded as precursor lesions of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with potential for malignant transformation. This potential is not clear due to difficulties in diagnosis of OLP and OLL. Our aim was therefore to evaluate previously identified OLP and OLL as precursor lesions in OSCC and to identify cancer related etiological factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We retrospectively reviewed all cases (total 323, comprising 164 females and 159 males) with OSCC treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases and Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital during 2015. Confirmed by histopathological biopsy, 58 (17.9%) had OLP and 13 had OLL (4.0%) as precursor lesion. Patients with OLP were slightly older than those without it. OLP was more common in females than in males (p < .0001). TN class 1 tumors were more prevalent among patients with OLP or OLL (p = .006) and cancer relapses less common (p = .005). Smoking was less frequent in patients with OLP and OLL (p < .0001). Also alcohol abuse was less frequent among these patients (p < .001). Our findings confirm the importance of active follow-up of all patients with OLP and OLL even in patients who do not fit a traditional high-risk category for OSCC.
Ashack, Kurt A; Haley, Laura L; Luther, Chelsea A; Riemer, Christie A; Ashack, Richard J
Mucosal lichen planus (MLP) is a therapeutic challenge in need of a new treatment approach because of its debilitating effect on patient's quality of life. We sought to evaluate a standardized treatment plan for patients with MLP. A second objective was to describe the effect of mycophenolate mofetil in this patient population. The study retrospectively analyzed 53 patients with MLP treated using a standardized algorithm. The number of MLP lesions, disease activity, and pain at the last visit were compared with baseline scores determined at the initial visit. Results were analyzed using the paired samples t test and confirmed with the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. The average number of lesions was reduced from 3.77 to 1.67 (P < .001). The average disease activity was reduced from 2.73 to 0.90 (P < .001). Average pain reported decreased from 2.03 to 1.03 (P < .001). This study was a retrospective analysis of a small patient population. There was no universal symptom severity scale used at the time of treatment for some patients. The standardized treatment plan reduced symptoms for patients with MLP. Mycophenolate mofetil appears to be a reasonable treatment option for these patients. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferreira, Stefânia Jeronimo; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares; Johann, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis
To evaluate cytopathological changes in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) compared with patients without OLP. Swabs were collected from the oral mucosa of 20 patients with OLP (case group) and 20 patients without OLP (control group) using liquid-based cytology. After Papanicolaou staining, the smears were characterized based on Papanicolaou classification and degree of maturation. Nuclear area (NA) measurements, cytoplasmic area (CA) measurements, and the NA/CA ratio were determined from 50 epithelial cells per slide. For quantification of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), the smears were stained with silver nitrate, and the number of AgNORs was counted in 100 cells. In both groups, there was a predominance of Papanicolaou Class I nucleated cells in the superficial layer. The average values of NA (p>0.05) and CA (p=0.000) were greater in the case group (NA=521.6, CA=22,750.3) compared with the control group (NA=518.9, CA=18,348.0). The NA/CA ratio was 0.025 for the case group and 0.031 for the control group (p=0.004). There was no significant difference between the mean AgNORs values of both groups (p>0.05). The oral mucosa of patients with OLP exhibited significant cytomorphometric changes. However, there was no evidence of malignancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Mehmet Kamil Mülayim
Full Text Available Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that affects the skin and the mucosa, especially the oral mucosa. Several therapeutic agents have been investigated for the treatment of OLP. All agents used in the OLP therapy are palliative. Potent topical steroids are used as the conventional therapy for OLP. Since side-effects or steroid resistance may be encountered, alternative treatments may be necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the topical pimecrolimus in the treatment of OLP. Methods: Seventeen patients with OLP were recruited into this study. Topical pimecrolimus 1% cream was applied twice a day to the affected areas. Patients were followed up for 3-6 months. Photographs of the lesions were taken and analyzed for areas of ulceration, erythema, and reticulation in every clinical examination. Results: We found that topical pimecrolimus 1% cream was an effective treatment for OLP. Two patients could not complete the treatment protocol because of the side effects such as local irritation and nausea. Conclusion: Topical pimecrolimus may be a valuable second treatment choice for patients with steroid-related side-effects or steroid-resistant OLP. However further randomized controlled studies have to be conducted to compare conventional treatment of topical corticosteroid with topical pimecrolimus.
Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Aslani, Ehsan
Caveolin-1(Cav-1), the main part of caveolae structure, is supposed to play a role in pathogenesis of many human tumors. Since oral lichen planus (OLP) is considered as a potential premalignant disease, this study evaluated Cav-1 expression in OLP in comparison with benign hyperkeratosis, dysplastic epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), to investigate its possible role in pathogenesis and malignant transformation of OLP. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of Cav-1 in the epithelial component and stroma was evaluated in 81 samples, including 12 cases of hyperkeratosis, 24 OLP, 22 epithelial dysplasia, and 23 OSCC samples. Correlations between Cav-1 expression and clinicopathological variables were evaluated statistically. Positive Cav-1 staining was found in 58% of OLP, 91% of hyperkeratosis, 100% of epithelial dysplasia, and 95% of OSCC samples. OSCC showed the highest Cav-1 expression and OLP had the lowest (P=0.001). The intensity of staining was significantly increased in stepwise manner from OLP to OSCC (P=0.001). Expression of Cav-1 was related to the grade of samples in OSCC and dysplastic samples (P=0.04). Based on the findings, it was concluded that Cav-1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of OLP and carcinogenesis of SCC, but its role in malignant transformation of OLP is not confirmed. Further studies are needed to evaluate its potential therapeutic function in OLP and SCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Rodrigues, L N; Sousa, S F; Silva, Rcc; Abreu, Mhg; Pires, F R; Mesquita, R A; Bastos-Rodrigues, L; De Marco, L; Gomes, C C; Gomez, R S; Bernardes, V F
The amalgam-associated oral lichenoid lesion (AAOLL) shows clinical and histopathological features similar to oral lichen planus (OLP). Molecular researches to improve knowledge of pathogenesis and clinical behavior of AAOLL are still scarce. We investigated for the first time the use of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) as a molecular approach for genetic characterization of AAOLL in comparison with OLP and evaluated the cell proliferation index. The sample comprised nine AAOLLs, 10 OLPs, and eight NOMs matched by patients' gender and age. LOH was assessed using polymorphic microsatellite markers at chromosomes 9p (D9S157, D9S162, D9S171), 11q (D11S1369), and 17p (TP53, AFM238WF2). Cell proliferation was assessed by immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 (MIB-1). The association between LOH and Ki-67 was investigated. Loss of heterozygosity occurred in 5/9 AAOLLs and in 2/10 OLPs in at least one marker each, while NOM showed no LOH. Cell proliferation index in AAOLL ranged from 2 to 23%. There was no association between cell proliferation and LOH, independent of the marker. Our study shows that the profile of molecular changes in AAOLL and OLP, evaluated by LOH and Ki-67 expression, is similar. Additional studies including larger samples should be performed to confirm or to refute our findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gupta, Sonia; Jawanda, Manveen Kaur
The mouth is a mirror of health or disease, a sentinel or early warning system. The oral cavity might well be thought as a window to the body because oral manifestations accompany many systemic diseases. In many instances, oral involvement precedes the appearance of other symptoms or lesions at other locations. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disorder of stratified squamous epithelium of uncertain etiology that affects oral and genital mucous membranes, skin, nails, and scalp. LP is estimated to affect 0.5% to 2.0% of the general population. This disease has most often been reported in middle-aged patients with 30-60 years of age and is more common in females than in males. The disease seems to be mediated by an antigen-specific mechanism, activating cytotoxic T cells, and non-specific mechanisms like mast cell degranulation and matrix metalloproteinase activation. A proper understanding of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis of the disease becomes important for providing the right treatment. This article discusses the prevalence, etiology, clinical features, oral manifestations, diagnosis, complications and treatment of oral LP. PMID:26120146
Pentenero, M; Monticone, M; Marino, R; Aiello, C; Marchitto, G; Malacarne, D; Giaretti, W; Gandolfo, S; Castagnola, P
DNA aneuploidy has been reported to be a predictor of poor prognosis in both premalignant and malignant lesions. In oral lichen planus (OLP), this hypothesis remains to be proved. This study aimed to determine the rate of occurrence of DNA aneuploidy in patients with OLP by high-resolution DNA flow cytometry. Patients with OLP were consecutively enrolled. Tissue samples were subdivided for formalin fixation and routine histological assessment and for immediate storage at -20°C for later DNA ploidy analysis, which was performed by DAPI staining of the extracted nuclei and excitation with a UV lamp. The DNA aneuploid sublines were characterized by the DNA Index. A DNA aneuploid status was observed in two of 77 patients with OLP (2.6%). When considering the clinical aspect of the OLP lesions, both DNA aneuploid cases had a reticular clinical aspect. DNA aneuploidy is an uncommon event in OLP and less frequent compared to other non-dysplastic and non-OLP oral potentially malignant disorders. The extremely low rate of DNA aneuploidy could represent an occasional finding or reflect the low rate of malignant transformation observed in patients with OLP even if the real prognostic value of DNA ploidy analysis in patients with OLP remains to be confirmed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yahalom, Ran; Yarom, Noam; Shani, Tali; Amariglio, Ninet; Kaplan, Ilana; Trakhtenbrot, Luba; Hirshberg, Abraham
Oral lichen planus (OLP) carries an increased risk for malignant transformation with aneuploid cells (ACs) being found in brush samples of a quarter of patients with OLP. Patients with OLP were followed and repeated brush samples were simultaneously analyzed for morphology and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using centromeric probes for chromosomes 2 and 8. Three patients with a high proportion of ACs developed oral cancer. Fifteen patients had ≥1% ACs (13 in affected sites and 2 in nonaffected sites), whereas only 2 of the 15 patients with <1% ACs in the first sample had ≥1% ACs in the second sample. A strong positive correlation between the results of the initial and repeated samples was found. High proportion of ACs in brush samples from patients with OLP may imply an impending malignant transformation. As FISH analysis is consistent over time, it can be used to identify a subgroup of patients who would require close follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E741-E746, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Li, Xu-Zhao; Yang, Xu-Yan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Zou, Wei; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Ling-Shu; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Xie, Liang-Zhen
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic immune-pathological and inflammatory disease and potentially oral precancerous lesion. Erosive OLP patients show the higher rate of malignant transformation than patients with non-erosive OLP. Identifying the potential biomarkers related to erosive OLP may help to understand the pathogenesis of the diseases. Metabolic profiles were compared in control and patient subjects with erosive OLP by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) coupled with pattern recognition methods An integrative analysis was used to identify the perturbed metabolic pathways and pathological processes that may be associated with the disease. In total, 12 modulated metabolites were identified and considered as the potential biomarkers of erosive OLP. Multiple metabolic pathways and pathological processes were involved in erosive OLP. The dysregulations of these metabolites could be used to explain the pathogenesis of the disease, which could also be the potential therapeutic targets for the disease. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Price, Stephanie M; Murrah, Valerie A
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a frequently mismanaged chronic disease that requires care throughout a patient's life, and therefore a condition the general dentist must know how to manage. Patients with OLP often suffer considerable physical discomfort and an inability to perform proper oral hygiene, eventually resulting in poor periodontal health. In addition, these patients are confronted with the psychological stress of knowing that OLP is not curable. This is accompanied by a fear of other negative health developments, particularly oral cancer. The objective of this study was to identify major issues surrounding the management of OLP by the general dentist. A literature review of over 1100 articles was performed. An eclectic compilation of the issues revealed 12 major areas of concern. This article reviews those concerns and presents strategies for coping with the myriad signs, symptoms, and complications associated with this disease, as well as educational approaches and legal considerations. A rationale is provided to place the responsibility for the management of these patients under the person best positioned to coordinate care for this condition--the general dentist. A general dentist can contribute to the overall oral health of an OLP patient with timely diagnosis, effective treatment, thorough patient education, and the orchestration of efforts by a team of health care providers.
Wang, Hui; Zhang, Dunfang; Han, Qi; Zhao, Xin; Zeng, Xin; Xu, Yi; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Qianming
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory oral mucosal diseases with T-cell-mediated immune pathogenesis. In subepithelial and lamina propria of OLP local lesions, the presence of CD4(+) T helper (CD4(+) Th) cells appeared as the major lymphocytes. These CD4(+) T lymphocytes can differentiate into distinct Th cell types such as Th1, Th2, Treg, Th17, Th22, Th9, and Tfh within the context of certain cytokines environment. Growing evidence indicated that Th1/Th2 imbalance may greatly participate into the cytokine network of OLP immunopathology. In addition, Th1/Th2 imbalance can be regulated by the Treg subset and also greatly influenced by the emerging novel CD4(+) Th subset Th17. Furthermore, the presence of novel subsets Th22, Th9 and Tfh in OLP patients is yet to be clarified. All these Th subsets and their specific cytokines may play a critical role in determining the character, extent and duration of immune responses in OLP pathogenesis. Therefore, we review the roles of distinct CD4(+) Th subsets and their signature cytokines in determining disease severity and susceptibility of OLP and also reveal the novel therapeutic strategies based on T lymphocytes subsets in OLP treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Luengtrakoon, Kirawut; Wannakasemsuk, Worraned; Vichitrananda, Vilasinee; Klanrit, Poramaporn; Hormdee, Doosadee; Noisombut, Rajda
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is considered as a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease causing oral mucosal damage and ulcerations. Accumulated data support the involvement of cell-mediated immune dysfunction in the development of OLP. However, the connection between neuroendocrine system and oral immune response in OLP patients has never been clarified. Melatonin is considered as a major chronobiotic hormone produced mainly by the pineal gland. This gland is recognized as a regulator of circadian rhythm and a sensor in the immune response through the NF-kB transduction pathway. It was suggested that pineal-derived melatonin and extra-pineal melatonin synthesized at the site of inflamed lesion might play a role in inflammatory response. According to our immunohistochemical study, expression of melatonin could be detected in human oral mucosa. In addition, increased levels of melatonin were observed in inflamed oral mucosa of OLP patients. We hypothesize that chronic inflammation possibly induces the local biosynthesis of melatonin in inflamed oral mucosa. We also speculate that melatonin in oral mucosa may play a cytoprotective role through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, melatonin may play an immunomodulatory role in relation to pathogenesis of OLP. Our hypothesis provides a new implication for upcoming research on the connection between circadian neuroendocrine network and immune response in oral mucosal compartments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mravak-Stipetić, Marinka; Lončar-Brzak, Božana; Bakale-Hodak, Iva; Seiwerth, Sven; Majstorović, Martina; Grce, Magdalena
Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) are clinically and histologically similar lesions but their treatment planning and prognosis are different. The review of the literature indicates numerous criteria to distinguish these two lesions; however there is a lot of inconsistency. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the correlation of histopathology and clinical OLP and OLL diagnosis and to clarify which histopathologic criteria could best distinguish these two diagnoses. A retrospective study showed that clinically diagnosed 92 OLPs and 14 OLLs have been confirmed histopathologically in 52.2% and 42.9% of cases, respectively. In addition, histopathology showed statistically significant more eosinophils (P < 0.0005), plasma cells (P < 0.0005), and granulocytes (P < 0.05) in OLL than OLP. To establish histopathological diagnosis of OLP and OLL it should be mandatory to define the type of cells in mononuclear infiltrate, which can be associated more accurately with clinical feature and patient history. Therefore, currently accepted diagnostic criteria for OLP and OLL should be modified and validated on a larger number of patients taking into account particular distinguishing histopathological features. PMID:25531004
Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Sindhuja, Pandian; Parameswar, R. Arjun; Nirmal, Ramdas Madhavan; Reddy, B. Venkat Ramana; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan
Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a unique disorder affecting generally the older age group. Numerous studies have been done on various aspects of OLP such as pathogenesis, rate of malignant transformation, etc. However, very few studies are available with respect to clinical features especially association of hyperpigmentation and OLP. This study aims at studying the clinical aspects of OLP and study the association between hyperpigmentation and OLP in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 58 patients with OLP who attended the outpatient department of our institution were included in the study and a complete history, followed by thorough intraoral examination was done. All the data were recorded and assessed for statistical analysis using SPSS software. Results: We found that the male to female ratio affected with OLP was 1:1 and the most common form of OLP that was seen was the reticular subtype. Also, buccal mucosa was the most common affected site and more than 60% patients had hyperpigmentation associated with the site affected by OLP. We found a statistically significant relation between the reticular type of OLP and the older age group (51–70 years) with hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: Although further studies are required to say anything conclusively, post-inflammatory changes occurring the mucosa due to OLP could be a cause for hyperpigmentation in the sites affected. PMID:26538905
Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that most often affects middle-aged adults. LP can involve the skin or mucous membranes including the oral, vulvovaginal, esophageal, laryngeal, and conjunctival mucosa. It has different variants based on the morphology of the lesions and the site of involvement. The literature suggests that certain presentations of the disease such as esophageal or ophthalmological involvement are underdiagnosed. The burden of the disease is higher in some variants including hypertrophic LP and erosive oral LP, which may have a more chronic pattern. LP can significantly affect the quality of life of patients as well. Drugs or contact allergens can cause lichenoid reactions as the main differential diagnosis of LP. LP is a T-cell mediated immunologic disease but the responsible antigen remains unidentified. In this paper, we review the history, epidemiology, and clinical subtypes of LP. We also review the histopathologic aspects of the disease, differential diagnoses, immunopathogenesis, and the clinical and genetic correlations. PMID:24672362
Bacci, C; Vanzo, V; Frigo, A C; Stellini, E; Sbricoli, L; Valente, M
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study assessed the efficacy of topical tocopherol acetate compared with placebo in easing oral discomfort in patients with reticular oral lichen planus (ROLP). Thirty-four patients with clinically diagnosed and histologically confirmed ROLP were randomly assigned to two groups, which received first one of two treatments (treatment 1 or 2) for a month, then the other (treatment 2 or 1) for another month, with a two-week washout between them. One treatment contained tocopherol acetate and the other only liquid paraffin. The primary outcome was less discomfort, measured on a visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes were as follows: length of striae measured and photographed at each follow-up; surface area of lesions; and a modified Thongprasom score. No statistically significant differences emerged between the two treatments (1 vs 2) in terms of VAS scores (P > 0.05; 0.8624) or length of striae (P = 0.0883). Significant differences were seen for surface area of lesions (P < 0.05, P = 0.0045) and modified Thongprasom scores (P = 0.0052). The two treatments differed only in terms of the surface area of the lesions and Thongprasom scores, not in VAS scores for discomfort or the length of patients' striae. Topical tocopherol proved effective in the treatment of ROLP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic immunological disorder with unknown etiology. Some studies have reported an association between oral lichen planus and diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of diabetes mellitus in patients with oral lichen planus and healthy persons. Materials & Methods: This case ‒ control study was performed on 50 patients with OLP and 50 healthy individuals. Diagnosis of OLP was confirmed by typical clinical and histopathological findings. The control group were selected randomly from healthy individuals after matching for age and sex. Blood samples were taken to achieve 5 mL for measuring fasting serum blood glucose and HbA1C. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test. Results: In this case ‒ control study, 50 patients with OLP (39 females, 11 males with a mean age of 44.5±13.24 years and 50 healthy individuals (33 females, 17 males with a mean age of 41.3±11.44 years were evaluated. The mean fasting blood glucose and HbA1C levels in patient with OLP were 95.1 ± 8.1 and 5.1±1.3 mg/dL , and 89.1±7.7 and 4.6±1.1 mg/dL in healthy individuals (P=1. Conclusion: The frequency of diabetes mellitus was not significantly different between the case and the control groups. The results showed that diabetes mellitus does not have a direct role in the OLP etiology.
Upeniece, Ilze; Groma, Valerie; Skuja, Sandra; Cauce, Vinita
The study of cytoskeleton arrangement and its contribution to survival of cell-to-cell contacts appears to be essential for understanding of numerous cellular and tissue processes. Applying CK15, S100 labeling and TUNEL reaction to cutaneous lichen planus subtypes, we found CK15 expression in the outer and inner root sheath of hair follicles, the basal epidermal layer, and eccrine glands. Its follicular expression was decreased in nearby inflammatory infiltrates. The CK15 immunopositivity was mostly described as weak (92.3%) for lichen planus but equally subdivided into weak, moderate and strong in lichen planopilaris (2 = 32.514; df = 4; p lichen planopilaris involving the scalp: 81.2 ±10.7; 87.8 ±10.7 and 88.0 ±10.5 for the basal, spinous and upper epidermal layers, respectively. S100 positive epidermal and follicular cells did not differ in the lesions demonstrated in the study groups; still immunoreactivity was more pronounced in the scalp region of lichen planopilaris. Damage of cell-to-cell contacts was confirmed by electron microscopy. Apart from immunocyte-mediated keratinocyte death, cytoskeleton-based injury and loss of cell-to-cell and matrix contacts may be of great importance, leading to eradication of degrading cells and thus contributing to the pathogenesis of lichen planus.
Yu. V. Molochkova
Full Text Available Rationale: Lichen planus (LP is an important problem for the healthcare due to its increasing prevalence, as well as typical, atypical and prone to malignization types of the disease that can be both severe and poorly responding to treatment. Accurate data on the prevalence of LP are lacking.Aim: To assess the prevalence of various LP types in the patient population of the Moscow Region.Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of examination of 338 patients with LP, who were getting standard treatment in the Department of Dermatovenereology and Dermato-oncology of the Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI in 1999 to 2017.Results: Among 338 LP patients, atypical LP of the skin was diagnosed in 81 (23.96%: hypertrophic type, in 31 (38.27%, pigmented, in 23 (28.4%, atrophic, in 11 (13.58%, follicular, in 8 (9.88%, lichen obtusus, in 3 (3.7%, bullous, in 1 (1.23%, erythematous, in 1 (1.23%, vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome, in 2 (2.47%, and Grinspan's syndrome, in 1 (1.23%. In 35 (43.21% of patients, cutaneous LP was associated with atypical oral LP (OLP: in 17 (48.57% of cases with hyperkeratotic, in 11 (31.43%, with erosive, and in 7 (20%, with exudative-hyperemic type. In 19 (23.46% cases, atypical cutaneous LP was associated with LP of the genital mucosae, including in 12 (63.16% cases with a typical reticular type, in 6 (31.58%, with atypical erosive, and in 1 (5.26%, with hypertrophic type. In 16 (4.73% of the patients there was atypical OLP only; in 6 (37.5% of them it had the exudative-hyperemic type, in 5 (31.25%, erosive, and in 5 (31.25%, hyperkeratotic. The most severe course of the dermatosis was observed for follicular, atrophic, hypertrophic types of cutaneous LP, vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome, and erosive OLP.Conclusion: Atypical LP was diagnosed in 81 (23.96% cases, and in 45 (55.6% cases it was associated with the OLP. The latter in 35 (43.21% of cases was characterized by atypical lesions of OLP, including
Umida A. Shukurova
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs in feces of patients with different clinical forms of oral lichen planus (OLP. Materials and Methods: The study included 139 patients with different clinical forms of OLP in the acute stage. The diagnosis of OLP was performed according to both clinical and histopathological criteria. Patients were distributed in four groups according to the clinical form of OLP. Group 1 included 36 patients with the reticular form of OLP; Group 2 included 34 patients with the exudative-hyperemic form of OLP; Group 3 included 27 patients with the erosive-ulcerative form of OLP; Group 4 included 42 patients with the bullous form of OLP. The four groups to be compared were randomized by sex and age. The control group consisted of 40 healthy, age-matched, randomly selected persons without clinical and instrumental signs of OLP and other diseases of the oral cavity. The concentration of SCFAs in feces was evaluated by gas-liquid chromatography. The profiles (specific concentration of C2, C3, and C4 acids, the ratio of iso-acids to straight-chain acids (iso-Cn/Cn and iso-C5/C5 were also calculated. Results: Three types of SCFA changes reflecting the activity of certain groups of microorganisms were found. For all types of the SCFA disorders, we found a marked increase in the iso-C5/C5 ratio. The severity of dysbiosis increased with the severity of clinical forms of OLP. Changes in the qualitative and quantitative contents of SCFAs reflect the disturbances in gut microbiocenosis in LPO patients, which may be one cause for aggravation of the pathological process.
Hazzaa, Hala H A; El-Wakeel, Naglaa M; Attia, Enas A S; Abo Hager, Eman A
To assess the expression of activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) and investigate its possible relationship with microvessel density (MVD) in different forms of oral lichen planus (OLP) compared to controls' biopsies. Biopsies from 20 reticular/papular OLP (R/PLP), 20 atrophic/erosive OLP (A/ELP) patients, and 20 healthy subjects were immunohistochemically analyzed and statistically compared and correlated for ALK1 expression and MVD as assessed by CD34 expression. All OLP specimens revealed the presence of positive cytoplasmic CD34 immunostaining in endothelial cells, with statistically high significant MVD in each of R/PLP (Median; M = 4.40) and A/ELP (M = 7.69) compared to controls (M = 1.16) (P < 0.001). Statistically significant MVD was found in A/ELP compared to R/PLP (P < 0.001). All control specimens revealed negative ALK1 immunostaining of the few inflammatory cells found, while 85% of A/ELP cases and 70% of R/PLP cases showed positively immunostained sections for ALK-1, with statistically significant higher ALK1 expression In A/ELP (M = 1.95) compared to R/PLP (M = 0.86) (P = 0.005). No significant correlation between CD34 and ALK1 was detected in R/PLP (r = 0.081), while a barely moderate positive correlation was found in A/ELP (r = 0.396). ALK1 expression and MVD are increased in OLP, particularly in A/ELP type. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muramatsu, Ken; Nishie, Wataru; Natsuga, Ken; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Iwata, Hiroaki; Yamada, Tamaki; Yamashita, Emi; Asaka, Takuya; Shimizu, Hiroshi
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the oral mucosa of unknown etiology. Clinically, the erosive type of OLP (erosive OLP) can show features similar to those of pemphigus vulgaris (PV), an autoimmune blistering disorder in which desmoglein (Dsg)3 is targeted. In addition to clinical and histopathological findings, immunological studies, including direct immunofluorescence (IF), indirect IF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detect autoantibodies to Dsg3, are helpful in differentiating erosive OLP from PV. Here, we show two cases of erosive OLP with autoantibodies to Dsg3. Patient 1 was a 68-year-old woman with chronic erosions of the oral mucosa, in which elevated levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G autoantibodies to Dsg1 and Dsg3 were detected by ELISA. Patient 2 was an 85-year-old woman with white striae with erosions on the lateral sides of the buccal mucosa with elevated levels of IgG autoantibodies to Dsg3 detected by ELISA. Histopathological findings from both cases showed lichenoid dermatitis, and both direct and indirect IF showed no tissue-bound IgG autoantibodies. From these findings, the diagnosis of erosive OLP was made. Immunological assays revealed both cases to have IgG-directing calcium-independent linear epitopes on Dsg3, which are suggestive of non-pathogenic autoantibodies. In addition, autoantibodies to Dsg3 in patient 2 reacted with a prosequence-possessing precursor form of Dsg3 but not with the mature form of the molecule. The present study suggests that erosive OLP may develop anti-Dsg3 autoantibodies, which should be carefully assessed. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Gonzalez-Moles, M A; Gil-Montoya, J A; Ruiz-Avila, I; Bravo, M
Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) are considered potentially malignant disorders with a cancer incidence of around 1% of cases, although this estimation is controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the cancer incidence in a case series of patients with OLP and OLL and to explore clinicopathological aspects that may cause underestimation of the cancer incidence in these diseases. A retrospective study was conducted of 102 patients diagnosed with OLP (n = 21, 20.58%) or OLL (n = 81) between January 2006 and January 2016. Patients were informed of the risk of malignization and followed up annually. The number of sessions programmed for each patient was compared with the number actually attended. Follow-up was classified as complete (100% attendance), good (75-99%), moderate (25-74%), or poor (<25% attendance) compliance. Cancer was developed by four patients (3.9%), three males and one male. One of these developed three carcinomas, which were diagnosed at the follow-up visit (two in lower gingiva, one in floor of mouth); one had OLL and the other three had OLP. The carcinoma developed in mucosal areas with no OLP or OLL involvement in three of these patients, while OLP and cancer were diagnosed simultaneously in the fourth. Of the six carcinomas diagnosed, five (83.3%) were T1 and one (16.7%) T2. None were N+, and all patients remain alive and disease-free. The cancer incidence in OLP and OLL appears to be underestimated due to the strict exclusion criteria usually imposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sinon, Suraya H; Rich, Alison M; Parachuru, Venkata P B; Firth, Fiona A; Milne, Trudy; Seymour, Gregory J
The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and TLR-associated signalling pathway genes in oral lichen planus (OLP). Initially, immunohistochemistry was used to determine TLR expression in 12 formalin-fixed archival OLP tissues with 12 non-specifically inflamed oral tissues as controls. RNA was isolated from further fresh samples of OLP and non-specifically inflamed oral tissue controls (n = 6 for both groups) and used in qRT(2)-PCR focused arrays to determine the expression of TLRs and associated signalling pathway genes. Genes with a statistical significance of ±two-fold regulation (FR) and a P-value < 0.05 were considered as significantly regulated. Significantly more TLR4(+) cells were present in the inflammatory infiltrate in OLP compared with the control tissues (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the numbers of TLR2(+) and TLR8(+) cells between the groups. TLR3 was significantly downregulated in OLP (P < 0.01). TLR8 was upregulated in OLP, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. The TLR-mediated signalling-associated protein genes MyD88 and TIRAP were significantly downregulated (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05), as were IRAK1 (P < 0.05), MAPK8 (P < 0.01), MAP3K1 (P < 0.05), MAP4K4 (P < 0.05), REL (P < 0.01) and RELA (P < 0.01). Stress proteins HMGB1 and the heat shock protein D1 were significantly downregulated in OLP (P < 0.01). These findings suggest a downregulation of TLR-mediated signalling pathways in OLP lesions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Adami, Guy R.; Yeung, Alexander C.F.; Stucki, Grant; Kolokythas, Antonia; Sroussi, Herve Y.; Cabay, Robert J.; Kuzin, Igor; Schwartz, Joel L.
Objective Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a disease of the oral mucosa of unknown cause producing lesions with an intense band-like inflammatory infiltrate of T cells to the subepithelium and keratinocyte cell death. We performed gene expression analysis of the oral epithelium of lesions in subjects with OLP and its sister disease, oral lichenoid reaction (OLR), in order to better understand the role of the keratinocytes in these diseases. Design Fourteen patients with OLP or OLR were included in the study, along with a control group of 23 subjects with a variety of oral diseases and a normal group of 17 subjects with no clinically visible mucosal abnormalities. Various proteins have been associated with OLP, based on detection of secreted proteins or changes in RNA levels in tissue samples consisting of epithelium, stroma, and immune cells. The mRNA level of twelve of these genes expressed in the epithelium was tested in the three groups. Results Four genes showed increased expression in the epithelium of OLP patients: CD14, CXCL1, IL8, and TLR1, and at least two of these proteins, TLR1 and CXCL1, were expressed at substantial levels in oral keratinocytes. Conclusions Because of the large accumulation of T cells in lesions of OLP it has long been thought to be an adaptive immunity malfunction. We provide evidence that there is increased expression of innate immune genes in the epithelium with this illness, suggesting a role for this process in the disease and a possible target for treatment. PMID:24581860
Bandyopadhyay, Alokenath; Behura, Shyam Sundar; Nishat, Roquaiya; Dash, Kailash Chandra; Bhuyan, Lipsa; Ramachandra, Sujatha
Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the histopathologically diagnosed cases of oral lichen planus (OLP) in terms of age, gender, clinical variant, site, hyperpigmentation, systemic illness, grade of dysplasia, and associated malignant transformation. This study also intended to do a review of reported cases of OLP with malignant transformation. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-three cases of histopathologically diagnosed OLP between 2010 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and clinicopathological data including malignant transformation were obtained. The data obtained were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software for Windows version 20.0 (IBM SPSS, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). A review of published literature on OLP with malignant transformation was also done from 1988 to 2017 and tabulated. Results: OLP in this study showed a male predilection with most of the patients in the third decade. The buccal mucosa (bilateral presentation) was the most common site (79.72%), and reticular type was the most common clinical type (79.02%) followed by erosive type (20.98%). The majority (92.31%) of cases were diagnosed with OLP without dysplasia. The rest (7.69%) of dysplastic cases were predominantly seen in the buccal mucosa of 58 years and above, female patients manifesting mainly as erosive type. Two patients (1.4%) previously diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as OLP developed oral squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: The present investigation revealed the predominance of OLP among middle-aged male population and the prevalence of bilateral involvement of buccal mucosa. Two of our cases showed malignant transformation over an average period of 3.5 years. The outcome of this study emphasizes the role of clinical follow-up of patients with OLP. PMID:28584781
Full Text Available Background and aims. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disorder with unspecified etiology, appearing as a result of stress, genetic predisposition and immunologic factors. Erosive type of the disease is more important because of its clinical symptoms of pain, irritation and malignancy risk. Despite various medications used, a definite cure for lichen planus is unknown. Regarding the effect of zinc on healing of ulcers, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of a mouthwash with and without zinc and fluocinolone on healing of erosive oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. Twenty randomly-selected patients with erosive oral lichen planus were divided into two groups of 10. One group received zinc mouthwash with fluocinolone ointment and the other group received placebo with ointment. The largest dimension of the ulcers was measured by digital calipers and the intensity of pain was determined by visual analogue scale. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. Results. Pain, irritation and lesion surface area decreased in both groups. Decrease in pain severity was identical in both groups (P = 0.11. However, decrease in surface area with zinc mouthwash plus fluocinolone was more than that with only fluocinolone (P = 0.037. Conclusion. 0.2% zinc mouthwash plus fluocinolone and only fluocinolone were both effective in decreasing pain, irritation, and surface area of OLP. However, decrease in surface area with zinc mouthwash plus fluocinolone was more than that with fluocinolone alone.
Ergun, S; Warnakulasuriya, S; Duman, N; Saruhanoğlu, A; Sevinç, B; Oztürk, S; Ozel, S; Cefle, K; Palanduz, S; Tanyeri, H
The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic instability of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients diagnosed with oral lichen planus (OLP) by investigation of frequencies of micronuclei (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE). A total of 22 newly diagnosed and untreated patients with OLP of same severity scores and twenty healthy controls participated in this study. They were all non-smokers with no previous history or family history of cancer. The periodontal status, flow rate and buffering capacity of whole mouth saliva were recorded. SCE and MN analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes of OLP patients and healthy controls. The frequencies of MN (50.00 +/- 22.36) and SCE (6.89 +/- 1.48) in OLP patients were found to be significantly elevated compared with that in normal individuals (25.20 +/- 9.52 and 5.93 +/- 1.31; z = 3.946, P = 0.0001; z = 2.346, P = 0.019). There were no significant differences in the MN frequency and SCE between the two subgroups with reticular or erosive types of OLP. These pilot data indicate an increased genomic instability in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a cohort of Turkish patients diagnosed with oral lichen planus as compared with that of healthy individuals. As patients with OLP may have an increased or potential risk for oral malignancy, these assays could be used in translational research to monitor beneficial effects of interventions and long-term prognosis.
Kern, Johannes S; Technau-Hafsi, Kristin; Schwacha, Henning; Kuhlmann, Jan; Hirsch, Gunther; Brass, Volker; Deibert, Peter; Schmitt-Graeff, Anette; Kreisel, Wolfgang
Lichen planus (LP) is a classic skin disease that can involve the skin, hair, and nails, as well as the oral and genital mucosa. Histopathology is characterized by a T-lymphocytic, lichenoid, and interface dermatitis. Multiple case reports and small case series have shown that LP can involve the esophagus. However, the diagnostic criteria, incidence, and best treatment options remain uncertain. This study aimed to refine the diagnostic criteria, estimate prevalence, and present an outlook on treatment options to prevent long-term sequelae. Thirty-two consecutive patients with LP of the skin, hair, nails, oral mucosa, and/or genital mucosa underwent a comprehensive clinicopathologic assessment. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed, and biopsies were evaluated histologically, immunohistochemically, and by direct immunofluorescence. Patients diagnosed with esophageal lichen planus (ELP) were followed up prospectively where possible. In total, 20 of 32 patients had ELP. Ten of these 20 patients were classified as having proven ELP, with clear-cut endoscopically visible lesions; the other 10 were classified as having probable ELP. Eight of 10 patients with proven ELP were started on new or additional therapy because of esophageal findings. Treatment with a topical budesonide formulation or systemic corticosteroids was successful in most patients with proven ELP and reversed functional esophageal stenosis. ELP can be found in more than 50% of patients with proven mucocutaneous LP when clinical and pathologic findings are correlated carefully. Topical or systemic corticosteroids are the first-line therapy for ELP. Timely medical therapy seems to prevent scarring stenosis of the esophagus.
Silveira, Wanessa da Silva; Bottezini, Ezequiel Gregolin; Linden, Maria Salete; Rinaldi, Isadora; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; de Carli, João Paulo; Trentin, Micheline; Dos Santos, Pâmela Letícia
Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common mucocutaneous disease with autoimmune etiology. Considering its malignancy potential, it is important to define the correct diagnosis, treatment, and clinical follow-up for patients with LP so that the disease is not diagnosed late, thus hindering the chances of curing the disease. This study aims to describe a clinical case of oral squamous cell carcinoma, potentially originated from LP. The patient is undergoing clinical and histopathological follow-up. A 64-year-old Caucasian male patient presented with a proliferative verrucous lesion on the tongue and sought treatment at the School of Dentistry, University of Passo Fundo (UPF), Passo Fundo, Brazil. He claimed the lesion had been present since 1988, and had been initially diagnoses as "oral lichen planus." The physical exam presented three diagnostic hypotheses: plaque-like oral LP, verrucous carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. After incisional biopsy and histopathological analysis, squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed, probably originating from oral LP. The case study shows that malignancy from oral LP is possible, which justifies periodic clinical and histopathological follow-up, as well as the elimination of risk factors for carcinoma in patients with oral LP.
Singh, Pratyush; Grover, Jasleen; Byatnal, Aditi Amit; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Radhakrishnan, Raghu; Solomon, Monica Charlotte
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that affects the oral mucous membrane. During an inflammatory response, several chemokines and cytokines are released by the cells of the immune system. Activation of MMPs, along with mast cell-derived chymase and tryptase, degrades the basement membrane structural proteins, resulting in basement membrane breaks. To investigate the association between the COX-2 expressions, presence of intact or degranulating mast cells within the connective tissue and the extent of basement membrane discontinuity in OLP cases. This study included a total of 50 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens (FFPE) of histologically confirmed cases of idiopathic oral lichen planus. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out by immunohistochemistry to study the epithelial expression of COX-2 and by the use of special stains such as toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) to study the mast cell count and basement membrane changes in the oral mucosal tissue, respectively. There was a significant (P = 0.03) association between the COX-2 expressions and mast cell count. As the intensity of COX-2 expression increased from mild to moderate or severe, the number of mast cell count almost doubled. Interaction between upregulation of COX-2, mast cell and basement membrane sets a vicious cycle which relates to the chronic nature of the disease. Inhibitors of COX-2 may reduce the inflammatory process preceding the immune dysregulation in OLP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ding, Meng; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xiaoshuang; Zen, Ke; Wang, Wenmei; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zhang, Chunni
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. The aetiology and molecular mechanisms of OLP remain unclear. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a causal factor in the development of various diseases, but the clinical relevance of HCMV in OLP has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we firstly examined twenty-three HCMV-encoded microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in plasma from training set that including 21 OLP patients and 18 healthy controls using RT-qPCR technology. Dysregulated miRNAs were subsequently confirmed in another larger cohort refereed as validation set consisting of 40 OLP patients and 33 healthy controls. HCMV DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) was also measured in an additional cohort of 13 OLP patients and 12 control subjects. Furthermore, bioinformatics analyses, luciferase reporter assay and western blotting were also performed to predict and verify the direct potential targets of HCMV-encoded miRNAs. The RT-qPCR results showed that the plasma levels of five HCMV-encoded miRNAs including hcmv-miR-UL112-3p, hcmv-miR-UL22a-5p, hcmv-miR-UL148d, hcmv-miR-UL36-5p and hcmv-miR-UL59 were significantly increased in OLP patients in both training and validation sets. HCMV DNA in PBLs was also significantly higher in OLP patients than in control subjects. Additionally, by using a combination of luciferase reporter assay and western blotting, we demonstrated that cytomegalovirus UL16-binding protein 1, a molecule that mediates the killing of virus-infected cells by natural killer cells, is a direct target of hcmv-miR-UL59. Our results demonstrate a distinct expression pattern of HCMV-encoded miRNAs in OLP patients, which may provide insight into the relationship between HCMV infection and OLP, and warrants additional study in the diagnosis and aetiology of OLP.
Cell proliferation in lichen planus of the buccal mucosa with special regard to a therapy with an aromatic retinoid (RO 10-9359). Proliferationsverhalten des oralen lichen planus unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung einer Therapie mit aromatischem Retinoid (RO 10-9359)
The proliferative activity of buccal mucosa epithelium in 16 patients suffering from oral lichen planus was studied by using (/sup 3/H)-thymidine labelling technique in vitro and histometric methods. Autoradiographic sections of two groups of lesions (12 with atrophic and 4 with acanthotic epithelium) were compared with the buccal mucosa of 19 healthy controls investigated in the same way. Determinations comprised separate and combined labelling indices of the basal and suprabasal progenitor compartment (LIsub(bas), LIsub(sbas), LIsub(total)) in relation to basal cells as well as to surface of the epithelium. The following results were obtained. The values of LIsub(total) per 100 basal cells were increased in both groups of lesions, whereby the relation of LIsub(bas):LIsub(sbas) shifted markedly to LIsub(bas), in particular in the atrophic lesions. When relating the total of labelled nuclei to surface length, however, an increase could be confirmed only in acanthotic lesions, whereas most atrophic lesions showed a decrease. This indicates an impaired capacity of the atrophic epithelium to maintain regenerative steady state. This imbalance could also be confirmed by counting the total of basal cells per surface length, which were significantly lowered in atrophic lesions as compared with acanthotic ones as well as normal mucosa. From the results it can be concluded that the renewal activity of the epithelium in atrophic lesions of lichen planus mucosae becomes virtually deficient, though determination of LIsub(total) referred to basal cells simulates a slight increase. Thus, for detecting intrinsic imbalances in the proliferative equilibrium of squamous epithelium, correlation of progenitor compartment labelling to external surface as the site of continuous cell loss is required.
El-Labban, N G; Wood, R D
Serial sections of the so-called membrane-coating granules have been examined in keratinized oral epithelium of lichen planus lesions. As with 'granules' apparent in non-keratinized epithelium, it is found they do not represent specialized intra-cytoplasmic organelles, but are the result of sectioning at different areas, levels and planes through the plasma membrane of interdigitating cell processes. Such 'granules' appear mostly in the superficial, but not deep, part of the cytoplasm of the upper prickle cells. This is considered to be due to topographic differences between the upper and under surfaces of these cells and the presence of narrower intercellular spaces than those between deeper epithelial cells. Such arrangement often results in cell processes in sections appearing free in the superficial part of the cell below. The appearance of 'granules' arises when the plane of section is not at right angles to the two plasma membranes surrounding these processes.
Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Titarenko, Maria A.; Baydik, Olga D.; Shapovalov, Alexander V.
The ability to diagnose oral lichen planus (OLP) based on saliva analysis using THz time-domain spectroscopy and chemometrics is discussed. The study involved 30 patients (2 male and 28 female) with OLP. This group consisted of two subgroups with the erosive form of OLP (n = 15) and with the reticular and papular forms of OLP (n = 15). The control group consisted of six healthy volunteers (one male and five females) without inflammation in the mucous membrane in the oral cavity and without periodontitis. Principal component analysis was used to reveal informative features in the experimental data. The one-versus-one multiclass classifier using support vector machine binary classifiers was used. The two-stage classification approach using several absorption spectra scans for an individual saliva sample provided 100% accuracy of differential classification between OLP subgroups and control group.
Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Japanese patients with oral lichen planus and identify the impact of amino acid (aa) substitutions in the HCV core region and IFN-sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) of nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) associated with lichen planus. Methods In this retrospective study, 59 patients (group 1-A) with oral lichen planus among 226 consecutive patients who visited our hospital and 85 individuals (group 1-B, controls) with normal oral mucosa were investigated for the presence of liver disease and HCV infection. Risk factors for the presence of oral lichen planus were assessed by logistic regression analysis. We compared aa substitutions in the HCV core region (70 and/or 91) and ISDR of NS5A of 12 patients with oral lichen planus (group 2-A) and 7 patients who did not have oral lichen planus (group 2-B) among patients (high viral loads, genotype 1b) who received interferon (IFN) therapy in group1-A. Results The prevalence of anti-HCV and HCV RNA was 67.80% (40/59) and 59.32% (35/59), respectively, in group 1-A and 31.76% (27/85) and 16.47% (14/85), respectively, in group 1-B. The prevalence of anti-HCV (P oral lichen planus. The adjusted odds ratios for these three factors were 6.58, 3.53 and 2.58, respectively, and each was statistically significant. No significant differences in viral factors, such as aa substitutions in the core region and ISDR of NS5A, were detected between the two groups (groups 2-A and -B). Conclusion We observed a high prevalence of HCV infection in patients with oral lichen planus. Longstanding HCV infection, hypoalbuminemia, and smoking were significant risk factors for the presence of oral lichen planus in patients. It is advisable for Japanese patients with lichen planus to be tested for HCV infection during medical examination. PMID:22490000
Othman, Nagwa-Abdelhamid; Shaker, Olfat-Gamil; Elshenawy, Hanaa-Mohamed; Abd-Elmoniem, Wessam; Eldin, Amany-Mohy; Fakhr, Mariam-Yehia
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic inflammatory mucosal disease with a multifactorial etiology. It is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease in which the cytotoxic CD8+T cells trigger apoptosis of the basal cells of oral epithelium. Various treatment regimens have been employed for management of symptomatic OLP. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of topical steroids as well as laser on the clinical signs and symptoms detected by reticular, atrophic, erosive score (RAE score) and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) level in the serum of patients with symptomatic OLP. The study was conducted on twenty-four patients (18 females and 6 males) with symptomatic OLP that were allocated into two groups. Each included twelve patients. The first group treated either with diode laser (970nm SIROLaser Advance class IIIb, SIRONA The Dental Company, Germany) twice weekly with maximum of ten sessions while the second group were treated with topical corticosteroids (0.1% triamcinolone acetonide orabase, Kenacort-A Orabase Pomad, DEVA HOLDING A.Ș, Istanbul, Turkey) for four weeks. Corticosteroids group showed less clinical signs and symptoms of reticular, atrophic, erosive RAE score ( p =0.02) and TNF-α serum level ( p =0.028) than diode laser group with no reported therapy side effects or complications in any of the treated patients. Topical steroids reduce pain, reticular, atrophic, erosive RAE score and TNF-α serum level more than laser treatment. Moreover, laser treatment can be used as an alternative treatment when steroids are contraindicated for the treatment of symptomatic OLP. Key words: Oral lichen planus, diode laser, topical steroid, RAE score, TNF-α.
Shiva, Atena; Zamanian, Ali; Arab, Shahin; Boloki, Mahsa
Statement of the Problem: Oral lichen planus is a common mucocutaneous lesion with a chronic inflammatory process mediated by immune factors while a few cases of the disease become malignant. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the frequency of p53 marker as a tumor suppressor in patients with erosive and non-erosive oral lichen planus (OLP) by using immunohistochemical methods. Materials and Method: This descriptive cross-sectional study investigated the p53 expression in 16 erosive OLP, 16 non-erosive OLP samples, and 8 samples of normal oral mucosa through immunohistochemistry. The percentage of stained cells in basal and suprabasal layers, and inflammatory infiltrate were graded according to the degree of staining; if 0%, 50% of the cells were stained, they were considered as (-), (+), (++), (+++) and (++++), respectively. The obtained data was statistically analyzed and compared by using Chi square and Fisher’s exact test. Results: The mean percentage of p53 positive cells in erosive OLP (34.5±14.2) was considerably higher than that in non-erosive OLP (23.8±10.4) and normal mucosa (17.5±17). There was a significant difference among the three groups of erosive, non-erosive and control in terms of staining intensity. No significant difference existed between the patients’ age and sex in the two OLP groups. Conclusion: The increased incidence of p53 from normal mucosa to erosive OLP indicated the difference between biological behavior of erosive and non-erosive OLP. It can be claimed that the erosive OLP has great premalignant potential compared with the non-erosive one.
Ertem, Ahmet Goktug; Erdogan, Mehmet; Koseoglu, Cemal; Akoglu, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Elcin; Koseoglu, Gamze; Sivri, Serkan; Keles, Telat; Durmaz, Tahir; Aktas, Akın; Bozkurt, Engin
Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous inflammatory disease. Inflammation plays a major role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Epicardial fat tissue (EFT) has been shown to produce and secrete various proatherogenic and proinflammatory hormones and cytokines. The aim of this study was to assess EFT in patients with lichen planus. Fifty-four patients with LP and 50 controls were enrolled in the study. LP was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. EFT was measured on the free wall of the right ventricle in parasternal long-axis view, as previously described and validated. There were positive correlations between EFT thickness and platelet/lymphocyte ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, duration of LP, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, after adjustments for relevant confounders, LDL cholesterol, hsCRP, platelet/lymphocyte ratio and duration of LP were independent predictors of EFT thickness in patients with LP (β=0.231, p=0.014; β=0.205, p=0.037; β=0.361, p=0.001 and β=0.133, p=0.047, respectively). EFT is increased in patients with LP compared to control subjects. Duration of LP is correlated with EFT, and duration of LP is also an independent predictor of increased EFT, which is a predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Larsen, K R; Johansen, J D; Reibel, J; Zachariae, C; Rosing, K; Pedersen, A M L
Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology affecting the skin and oral mucosa. Oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs), like oral contact reactions, may resemble oral lichen planus (OLP) both clinically and histopathologically. As OLP and OLL are hyperkeratotic diseases and filaggrin is essential to keratinization, the distribution of filaggrin may be altered in these lesions. To investigate whether patients with OLP/OLL have (i) altered distribution of filaggrin in the oral mucosa; (ii) a higher incidence of mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG); (iii) active dermatoses, apart from cutaneous LP, than healthy controls; and (iv) patients with OLP/OLL and a defect in the FLG have more widespread oral lesions and report more symptoms than OLP/OLL patients without a concomitant defect in the FLG. Forty-nine Caucasian patients (42 women and 7 men, mean age 61.0 ± 10.3 years), with symptomatic OLP, OLL or stomatitis, and 29 matched healthy controls underwent a clinical oral and dermatological examination, oral mucosal biopsy and filaggrin genotyping (testing for R2447X, R501X, 2282del4). Smear tests for Candida spp. were performed in all patients to exclude oral candidiasis. Immunohistochemistry were performed using poly- and monoclonal filaggrin antibodies. The immunoreactivity for filaggrin was significantly more intense in the oral mucosa in the patients with OLP/OLL compared with healthy controls (P = 0.000025). No difference was noted in the incidence of defects in the FLG and active dermatoses between patients and healthy controls. No difference was noted in extension and number of symptoms reported by patients with OLP/OLL with or without a concomitant defect in the FLG. OLP/OLL is associated with an altered distribution of filaggrin in the oral mucosa independently of defects in the FLG. Patients with OLP/OLL did not display more active dermatoses other than cutaneous LP when compared to healthy controls. © 2016 European Academy of
Irani, Soussan; Esfahani, Alireza Monsef; Ghorbani, Anahita
Backgrounds: Lichen planus is a chronic systemic disease and oral mucosa is commonly involved. Oral lichen planus (OLP) most commonly affects middle-aged women. The prevalence of the disease ranges between 0.5% and 2.6% in the general population and the range of malignant transformation varies between 0% and 10%. Objectives: To assess the rate of malignant transformation of OLP samples. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out on 112 medical records of patients with histological diagnosis of OLP who attended the Department of Pathology at the Educational Hospital from 2005 to 2012. H&E-stained slides were reviewed by two pathologists using strict clinical and histopathological diagnostic World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Dysplastic changes were diagnosed and graded according to the latest WHO classification. Results: Of the 112 cases diagnosed as OLP, there were 39 males and 73 females and the patients’ ages ranged from 15 to 86 years (mean age 44.5 years). The erosive form with fifty cases was the most common clinical type and the papular type with one case was the least common clinical type. Regarding the site, the buccal mucosa was the most common site with 52 cases. Totally, dysplastic changes were found in 12 samples, among them five cases showed mild dysplasia and seven cases showed moderate dysplasia. One case developed oral squamous cell carcinoma after 3 years. Conclusion: OLP is considered as a premalignant condition by the WHO and several authors. Although the malignancy rate is not so high, to reduce morbidity and mortality from cancer arising on OLP lesions, a regular follow-up examination is recommended. PMID:27721603
Bob, Ukonu Agwu; Augustine, Uhunmwangho
Objective: The relationship between hepatitis C virus and Lichen Planus have been widely reported in the literature; although there are wide geographical variations in the reported prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in patients with lichen planus. This study seeks to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus among lichen planus patients and its clinical morphological type in the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada Abuja, Nigeria. Materials/Methods: This study was conducted between January 2010 and December, 2011 at the out patients Dermatological unit of the department of medicine at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital Gwagwalada Abuja, Nigeria. Consecutive patients who had body eruptions suspected to be lichen planus were recruited and histology done for confirmation. The control group included patients’ relations and some dermatology patients known to have low risk of hepatitis C virus infection and liver function tests done for both subjects and control after obtaining oral consent from them to participate in the study. Result: Anti- HCV antibodies were detected in nine cases (21.4%) and one case (3.3%) in the control group. This was statistically significant difference between the HCV antibody among the subject and control group (Plichen planus was the most frequent clinical type. Liver function test was not statistically significant among the subject and control group. Conclusion: Lichen planus and Hepatitis C virus appear to have a relationship and the prevalence rate was higher among the subject as compared to the control group in our environment. PMID:22980383
A. V. Molochkov
Full Text Available Background: Some authors have successfully used methotrexate in the treatment of atypical oral lichen planus (LP and noted its good tolerability. High clinical efficacy of the extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP has been also reported in the treatment of such patients. However, there is no information on the long-term results of methotrexate and ECP and their combination in the treatment of atypical LP. Aim: To study clinical efficacy and long-term results of the combination of routine therapy with the ECP course and a single injection of methotrexate at a dose of 10 mg in patients with atypical LP of the oral cavity and the skin. Materials and methods: This was a prospective study with an active control. Eighteen (18 patients with various forms of atypical LP of the oral cavity (hypertrophic, erosive/ulcerative, exudative/hyperemic forms and the skin (hypertrophic, pigmented, atrophic, follicular forms were administered the combination of routine therapy (chloroquine, doxycycline, vitamin B6, topical corticosteroids, an ECP course, and a single injection of methotrexate at a dose of 10 mg. Two hours before the ECP session all patients were given 8-methoxypsoralen. Peripheral mononuclear cells were isolated with a cell separator and treated with ultraviolet radiation (λ = 320–400 nm, then the monocyte cell mass was re-infused to the patient. The treatment course included 4 sessions performed every other day. A single injection of methotrexate was given in the middle of the ECP course. Clinical efficacy was assessed with the Thongprasom scale of activity of the disease and by visual analog scale (VAS for pain assessment in patients with oral lesions. Results: The treatment was well tolerated and was not associated with methotrexate-related immune abnormalities. At one month after the 4th ECP session, the mean Thongprasom score was decreased from 5 to 2.2 ± 1.2 (p < 0.001. At Week 24 after the treatment, 15 (83.2% of
The aim of the study was to correlate and compare AgNOR count in speckled leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and in oral squamous cell carcinoma and to assess if AgNOR count could contribute to the pre-therapeutic assessment of the biologic aggressiveness of the disease and to detect malignant potential of premalignant lesion and conditions which could render us to assess the prognosis of the disease.
Rao, Dhanya S; Ali, I M; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G
Early detection of oral cancer has been the most effective approach to reduce morbidity and mortality of cancer patients. If a lesion is clinically considered suspicious, an easily practicable, non-invasive, painless, safe, and accurate screening method for detection of the dysplastic changes is necessary. In an attempt to procure this, a study was conducted with the aim of determining the diagnostic accuracy of rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP) and silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR) in brush biopsies of potentially malignant lesions for early detection of oral cancer. Brush biopsies taken from 25 cases of leukoplakia and lichen planus each were stained with rapid PAP and silver nitrate stains. Histopathological correlation was performed and further compared with rapid PAP and AgNOR for its diagnostic validity. Statistically significant increase in the mean AgNOR count was seen from normal epithelium to lichen planus to that of leukoplakia. When compared with rapid PAP, a linear correlation was seen in AgNOR counts and stages of dysplasia in leukoplakia which was also found to be statistically significant. Diagnostic accuracy for AgNOR in leukoplakia was found to be 84%, lichen planus 73%, whereas RAPID PAP showed 72% accuracy. AgNOR analysis may be useful as a quantitative marker of incipient cellular alterations and hence would be helpful in assessing suspicious lesions and thus can be regarded as a valuable adjunct. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of STATs family expression in oral lichen planus tissue with peripheral blood PD-1 and PD-L1 expression as well as immune function. Methods: A total of 47 patients diagnosed with oral lichen planus in our hospital between May 2015 and March 2016 were selected as the oral lichen planus group (OLP group of the study, and healthy volunteers receiving physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group of the study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected to detect the expression of PD-1, PD-L1 and immune cell surface marker molecules, serum was collected to detect the content of Th1 and Th2 cytokines as well as immunoglobulin, and oral lichen planus lesion tissue and adjacent normal tissue were collected to determine STATs family expression. Results: p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT5a expression in lesion tissue were significantly higher than those in normal tissue while p-STAT2, p-STAT4 and p-STAT5b expression were not significantly different from those in normal tissue; PD-1 and PD-L1 mRNA expression as well as the mean fluorescence intensity of CD19+ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of OLP group were significantly higher than those of control group and positively correlated with p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT5a expression while the mean fluorescence intensity of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+CD56+ were significantly lower than those of control group and negatively correlated with p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT5a expression; serum IFN-γ and IL-2 content of OLP group were significantly lower than those of control group and negatively correlated with p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT5a expression while IL-4, IL-10, IgG, IgM and IgA content were significantly higher than those of control group and positively correlated with p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT5a expression. Conclusion: p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT5a expression abnormally increase in oral lichen planus tissues, and the Th1/Th2 cellular
Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de Sousa
Full Text Available Histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus is not easy since some cases of epithelial dysplasia may present traits which are very similar to those from lichen planus. AIM: to compare cell alterations which suggest malignancy present in oral lichen planus with those from epithelial dysplasia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: histological cross-sections of oral lichen planus and dysplasia, dyed by hematoxylin-eosin, were analyzed by means of light microscopy. RESULTS: variance analysis (alpha=5% revealed a statistically significant difference between the average number of cell alterations in the lichen planus (5.83±1.61 and epithelial dysplasia (4.46±1.26. The chi-squared test did not show statistically significant differences between oral lichen planus and epithelial dysplasia in relation to the following cell alterations: increase in nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, nuclear hyperchromatism, irregular chromatin distribution and enlarged nuclei (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Some cell alterations which suggest malignancy present in the oral lichen planus may also be found in epithelial dysplasia, impairing its diagnosis and, consequently, stressing the importance of following these patients in the long run.O diagnóstico histopatológico do líquen plano bucal não é fácil, pois alguns casos de displasia epitelial podem apresentar características bastante semelhantes às do líquen plano. OBJETIVO: Comparar as alterações celulares sugestivas de malignidade presentes no líquen plano bucal com as da displasia epitelial. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Cortes histológicos de líquen plano bucal e displasia, corados com hematoxilina-eosina, foram analisados por meio da microscopia de luz. RESULTADOS: A análise de variância (alfa=5% revelou haver diferença estatisticamente significante entre o número médio de alterações celulares no líquen plano bucal (5,83±1,61 e na displasia epitelial (4,46±1,26. O teste de qui-quadrado não mostrou diferença estatisticamente
Pol, Chetan A; Ghige, Suvarna K; Gosavi, Suchitra R
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease with an aetiopathogenesis associated with cell-mediated immunological dysfunction. It is possible that oral mucosal viral infections, including human papilloma virus-16 (HPV-16) infection, may have a causative role in OLP pathogenesis. To assess the prevalence of HPV-16 in histopathologically diagnosed specimens of OLP and to evaluate whether any clinical features (such as the localisation of specimens) or the age or gender of patients, are correlated with the presence of this virus. This study was conducted on 30 specimens with a histopathological diagnosis of OLP, using the immunohistochemical marker HPV-16. Thirty normal oral mucosa specimens were also included as controls. Brown nuclear staining was accepted as positive for the HPV-16 antibody. The results were analysed using Fisher's exact test. P values<0.05 were considered to be significant. Significant correlation (P=0.0001) was observed between HPV-16 infection and samples with OLP. No statistical conclusions could be drawn regarding age, gender, localisation and HPV-16 positivity. Our study showed that HPV-16 may play a role in the pathogenesis of OLP. Taking into account the oncogenic potential of HPV-16, patients with OLP should be screened for the presence of this virus. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
Merigo, Elisabetta; Oppici, Aldo; Parlatore, Anna; Cella, Luigi; Clini, Fabio; Fontana, Matteo; Fornaini, Carlo
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proposed for different applications in the medical field and in maxillofacial surgery thanks to its many growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a disease that affects the oral mucosa in a chronic way. This disease frequently worsens the quality of life of patients, particularly when clinical manifestations are of the erythematous or erosive/ulcerative type. The properties of PRP that are supported by scientific literature in both oral medicine and other medical fields have suggested the introduction of PRP in clinical practice for the medical treatment of different soft tissues diseases, such as when OLP patients do not respond to conventional therapies, or when conventional treatments have some contraindications or side effects. The aim of this work is to describe the use of PRP used as an oral rinse for the treatment of a patient diagnosed as affected by OLP at the Dentistry, Special Needs and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Unit of the Hospital of Piacenza. PRP protocol was started after the failure of conventional therapies based on the use of topical and systemic corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, and low-level laser therapy applications.
Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has been proposed for different applications in the medical field and in maxillofacial surgery thanks to its many growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF. Oral lichen planus (OLP is a disease that affects the oral mucosa in a chronic way. This disease frequently worsens the quality of life of patients, particularly when clinical manifestations are of the erythematous or erosive/ulcerative type. The properties of PRP that are supported by scientific literature in both oral medicine and other medical fields have suggested the introduction of PRP in clinical practice for the medical treatment of different soft tissues diseases, such as when OLP patients do not respond to conventional therapies, or when conventional treatments have some contraindications or side effects. The aim of this work is to describe the use of PRP used as an oral rinse for the treatment of a patient diagnosed as affected by OLP at the Dentistry, Special Needs and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Unit of the Hospital of Piacenza. PRP protocol was started after the failure of conventional therapies based on the use of topical and systemic corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, and low-level laser therapy applications.
Full Text Available The therapy of erosive lichen planus (ELP has been particular problem in the treatment of oral lesions. This case of ELP in male patient 29 years old was treated with topic application of the NBF gingival gel, three times a day after meal, previously rinsed with Clorhexidine gluconate 0.12%. After 5 days of treatment, initial improvements were recorded, and after two weeks of application of the NBF gingival gel we observed significant improvement. Clinical monitoring after the fifth day showed mild epithelialization of the eroded mucosa, yet still present erythematous base of the lesion. After the second week the erythema area was significantly reduced and the eroded surfaces of the mucosa were minimal, measured less than 0.5 mm. After the third week there were no erosions to detect on the oral mucosa, yet still present vague redness, which completely pulled after the fourth week. Treatment ended after the fifth week when the topical application of the NBF gingival gel was terminated, and therapy was done, and clinically achieved effects remained stable even after the third month of the treatment. Topic application of the NBF gingival gel with ELP patients showed positive clinical effects in relatively short time period.
Popovska, Mirjana; Fidovski, Jasmin; Mindova, Sonja; Dirjanska, Katerina; Ristoska, Stevica; Stefanovska, Emilija; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Mitic, Kristina; Rusevska, Biljana
The therapy of erosive lichen planus (ELP) has been particular problem in the treatment of oral lesions. This case of ELP in male patient 29 years old was treated with topic application of the NBF gingival gel, three times a day after meal, previously rinsed with Clorhexidine gluconate 0.12%. After 5 days of treatment, initial improvements were recorded, and after two weeks of application of the NBF gingival gel we observed significant improvement. Clinical monitoring after the fifth day showed mild epithelialization of the eroded mucosa, yet still present erythematous base of the lesion. After the second week the erythema area was significantly reduced and the eroded surfaces of the mucosa were minimal, measured less than 0.5 mm. After the third week there were no erosions to detect on the oral mucosa, yet still present vague redness, which completely pulled after the fourth week. Treatment ended after the fifth week when the topical application of the NBF gingival gel was terminated, and therapy was done, and clinically achieved effects remained stable even after the third month of the treatment. Topic application of the NBF gingival gel with ELP patients showed positive clinical effects in relatively short time period.
Amanat, Dariush; Ebrahimi, Hooman; Zahedani, Maryam Zahed; Zeini, Nasim; Pourshahidi, Sara; Ranjbar, Zahra
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with treatment challenges for clinicians. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of cryotherapy as a new modality with topical corticosteroids as a conventional therapy in the treatment of OLP. Thirty patients with bilateral OLP lesions were selected. From each patient a lesion on one side was chosen randomly for a single session of cryotherapy with nitrous oxide gas and the lesion on the other side received triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% ointment in orabase. Treatment outcome was measured by means of an appearance score, pain score (visual analogue scale), and severity of lesions before treatment and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. Paired samples t-test and Wilcoxon test. In both methods of treatment sign score, pain score and severity of lesions was significantly reduced in all follow-up sessions (Ptreatment outcome and relapse was not significantly different between the two treatment methods (P>0.05). Cryotherapy with nitrous oxide gas is as effective as topical triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of OLP with no systemic side effects and needs less patient compliance. It can be considered as an alternative or adjuvant therapy in OLP patients to reduce the use of treatments with adverse effects.
Lončar-Brzak, Božana; Klobučar, Marko; Veliki-Dalić, Irena; Sabol, Ivan; Kraljević Pavelić, Sandra; Krušlin, Božo; Mravak-Stipetić, Marinka
The aim of this study was to examine molecular alterations on the protein level in lesions of oral lichen planus (OLP), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy mucosa. Global protein profiling methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used, with a special emphasis on evaluation of deregulated extracellular matrix molecules expression, as well as on analyses of IG2F and IGFR2 expression in healthy mucosa, OLP and OSCC tissues by comparative semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics profiling of healthy mucosa, OLP and OSCC tissues (and accompanied histologically unaltered tissues, respectively) identified 55 extracellular matrix proteins. Twenty among identified proteins were common to all groups of samples. Expression of small leucine-rich extracellular matrix proteoglycans lumican and biglycan was found both in OSCC and OLP and they were validated by Western blot analysis as putative biomarkers. A significant increase (p < 0.05) of biglycan expression in OLP-AT group was determined in comparison with OLP-T group, while lumican showed significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) in OLP-T and OSCC-T groups vs. adjacent and control tissue groups. Biglycan expression was only determined in OSCC-AT group. Immunohistochemical analysis of IGF2 and IG2FR expression revealed no significant difference among groups of samples. Biglycan and lumican were identified as important pathogenesis biomarkers of OLP that point to its malignant potential.
De Carli, João Paulo; Linden, Maria Salete Sandini; da Silva, Soluete Oliveira; Trentin, Micheline Sandini; Matos, Felipe de Souza; Paranhos, Luiz Renato
The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and oral lichen planus (OLP), and further examine the relationship between age, sex, systemic diseases and drugs with the presence of HCV infection or OLP. A longitudinal clinical study was carried out from March 2010 to December 2013 with 51 individuals, of whom 33 had been presented with HCV (HCV-positive group) and 18 had OLP (OLP-positive group), in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil. Hepatitis C virus-positive individuals who presented lesions compatible with OLP were subjected to an intraoral biopsy for histopathological diagnosis, while OLP-positive individuals underwent anti-HCV serological test for diagnosis of HCV infection. Data on age, sex, systemic diseases and drugs used were recorded for later analysis. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency and by Pearson's Chi-square test, with a 5% significance level (p 0.05). There was a significant relationship between HCV infection and manifestation of OLP. Age, sex, systemic diseases and drugs were not identified as risk factors for the development of these diseases. The OLP could serve as an indicative of HCV infection in asymptomatic patients, thus enabling early diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis and hence, a better prognosis.
Full Text Available Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. Patients with atrophic and erosive types of OLP often have symptoms of soreness, and require proper treatment. The main treatment for OLP has been the administration of topical or systemic corticosteroids. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adcortyl cream (triamcinolone acetonide in orabase with topical pimecrolimus cream for the treatment of erosive OLP. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with OLP were enrolled in a single blind clinical trial and assigned to either a pimecrolimus 1% cream group or an adcortyl 0.1% cream group. The medication was applied every day for 2 months and patients were assessed every 2 weeks. Results: The mean lesion size and mean pain and burning sensation scores did not differ between the pimecrolimus and adcortyl cream groups. The pimecrolimus cream was well tolerated. No clinical drug-related adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Topical pimecrolimus cream may be recommended as a safe and effective alternative therapy in the treatment of OLP. Pimecrolimus cream is as effective as adcortyl cream in managing the signs and symptoms of OLP.
Hashimoto, Takashi; Fukuda, Aoi; Himejima, Akio; Morita, Shosuke; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Koga, Hiroshi; Krol, Rafal P; Ishii, Norito
Oral lichen planus (OLP) may show depositions of immunoglobulins and complement components in oral mucosal basement membrane zone (BMZ) in direct immunofluorescence, although these finding are not frequently seen. We collected and examined ten cases of severe OLP showing granular C3 deposition in BMZ. In addition to clinical, histopathological and direct immunofluorescence assessments, we performed various immune-serological tests, including indirect immunofluorescence of normal human skin and 1M NaCl-split skin, immunoblotting of normal human epidermal and dermal extracts, recombinant proteins of BP180 NC16a and C-terminal domains, concentrated culture supernatant of HaCaT cells and purified human laminin-332, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for BP230 and BP180. Direct immunofluorescence showed C3 deposition in BMZ exclusively of granular pattern in 7 cases and of both granular and linear patterns in 3 cases. The 10 cases showed no positive reactivity for either IgG or IgA antibodies in any immuno-serological tests. Detailed analyses of clinical, histopathological and immunological findings revealed striking female prevalence, although other parameters were in general characteristic of OLP. Granular C3 deposition in oral BMZ may be one of the characteristic features of severe OLP, although mechanisms for C3 deposition and its pathogenic role in OLP are currently unknown.
Gissi, Davide Bartolomeo; Asioli, Sofia; Gabusi, Andrea
Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system fails to recognize self-antigens expressed on the body's own cells and attacks them. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease of the oral cavity characterized by white/red lesions. Considered a potentially malignant disorder, OLP evolution into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still a matter of debate. While chronic autoimmune inflammation is considered a potential risk factor for malignant transformation in many solid tumors, the opposite idea that cancer may trigger autoimmune responses remains controversial. We describe 2 patients who developed lesions clinically suggestive of OLP with histological evidence of lichenoid infiltration some time after OSCC removal, even in areas far from the neoplastic site. Neither patient had OLP before the diagnosis of OSCC, or reported exposure to OLP-associated etiologic factors, and neither. experienced tumor recurrence during follow-up. Our findings suggest that oral cancer remission may be linked to OLP development, but further studies are necessary to unveil the underlying mechanisms and possible prognostic implications.
Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Gupta, Akanksha; Kamarthi, Nagaraju; Malik, Sangeeta; Goel, Sumit; Gupta, Swati
Background: Hormonal fluctuations during menopause lead to endocrine changes in women, especially in their sex steroid hormone production. Studies have documented the role of estrogen and progesterone (Pg) on autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Lichen planus (LP), an autoimmune disorder, seen frequently in perimenopausal women, may also get affected by sex steroid hormones, but no direct relationship has been established yet. Aim: The aim of this study is to find the incidence of oral LP (OLP) in perimenopausal women and evaluate the factors associated with it. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1 year. All the perimenopausal women (44.69 ± 3.79 years) who came to the dental outpatient department were evaluated for the presence of LP and various factors associated with it. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 questionnaire was used for psychometric evaluation of perimenopausal women. Results: According to our study, incidence of LP in postmenopausal women was 10.91%, which is higher than incidence of LP in general population, i.e., 0.5% to 2.0%. Incidence of LP increased with the severity of depression in perimenopausal women (P = 0.000). Conclusion: The incidence of OLP is higher in perimenopausal women than in general population and increases significantly with increase in the severity of depression. LP in perimenopausal women can be mediated by declined level of estrogen and Pg directly or indirectly through causing depression that can trigger LP. PMID:28706407
Full Text Available Oral lichen planus (OLP is a T cell-mediated inflammatory autoimmune disease. Autophagy has emerged as a fundamental trafficking event in mediating T cell response, which plays crucial roles in innate and adaptive immunity. The present study mainly investigated the mRNA expression of autophagy-associated genes in peripheral blood T cells of OLP patients and evaluated correlations between their expression and the clinical features of OLP. Five differentially expressed autophagy-associated genes were identified by autophagy array. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results confirmed that IGF1 expression in the peripheral blood T cells of OLP patients was significantly higher than that in controls, especially in female and middle-aged (30–50 years old OLP patients. In addition, ATG9B mRNA levels were significantly lower in nonerosive OLP patients. However, no significant differences were found in the expression of HGS, ESR1, and SNCA between OLP patients and controls. Taken together, dysregulation of T cell autophagy may be involved in immune response of OLP and may be correlated with clinical patterns.
Adamo, Daniela; Mignogna, Michele Davide; Pecoraro, Giuseppe; Aria, Massimo; Fortuna, Giulio
We sought to determine the efficacy of psychotropic drug in the management of BMS-like oral symptoms in patients with reticular oral lichen planus (R-OLP) refractory to conventional therapies, and its impact on anxious and depressive symptoms. We enrolled 28 cases of symptomatic R-OLP. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Total Pain Rating Index (T-PRI), the Hamilton rating scales for Depression (HAM-D) and Anxiety (HAM-A) were performed at baseline (time 0), after 2 months of topical clonazepam (time 1) and after 6 months of benzodiazepine and antidepressant drugs (time 2). R-OLP patients showed a statistically significant improvement in the NRS and T-PRI scores from time 0 [median: 9.0 (IQR: 7.2-10.0) and 10.5 (IQR: 7.0-13.0), respectively] to time 2 [(median: 2.0 (IQR: 2.0-3.0) (p oral symptoms in R-OLP patients refractory to conventional immunosuppressive therapy, although in a long-term period.
Dillenburg, Caroline Siviero; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Marques, Márcia Martins; Carrard, Vinícius Coelho; Filho, Manoel Sant'Ana; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Martins, Manoela Domingues
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease and a search for novel therapeutic options has been performed. We sought to compare the efficacy of laser phototherapy (LPT) to topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% for the treatment of atrophic and erosive OLP. Forty-two patients with atrophic/erosive OLP were randomly allocated to two groups: clobetasol group (n=21): application of topical clobetasol propionate gel (0.05%) three times a day; LPT group (n=21): application of laser irradiation using InGaAlP diode laser three times a week. Evaluations were performed once a week during treatment (Days 7, 14, 21, and 30) and in four weeks (Day 60) and eight weeks (Day 90) after treatment. At the end of treatment (Day 30), significant reductions in all variables were found in both groups. The LPT group had a higher percentage of complete lesion resolution. At follow-up periods (Days 60 and 90), the LPT group maintained the clinical pattern seen at Day 30, with no recurrence of the lesions, whereas the clobetasol group exhibited worsening for all variables analyzed. These findings suggest that the LPT proved more effective than topical clobetasol 0.05% for the treatment of OLP.
Sun, Lili; Feng, Jinqiu; Ma, Lihua; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Zengtong
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a potentially malignant disorder associated with an increased risk for progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The objective of this study to determine protein expression of cancer stem cell marker CD133 in tissue samples of patients with OLP and evaluate the correlation between CD133 expression and the risk of progression to OSCC. In this longitudinal case-control study, a total of 110 patients with OLP who received a mean follow-up of 56 months were enrolled, including 100 patients who did not progress to OSCC and 10 patients who had progressed to OSCC. CD133 expression was determined using immunohistochemistry in samples from these patients. Analysis of 10 cases of normal oral mucosa and 6 cases of postmalignant OSCC form previously diagnosed OLP was also performed. The results showed that CD133 expression was observed in 29% cases of nonprogressing OLP and in 80% cases of progressing OLP (P = .002). CD133 was not expressed in normal oral mucosa, but it positively expressed in the 100% cases of OSCC. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of malignant progression in the patients with CD133-positive expression was significantly higher than those with CD133 negativity (odds ratio, 9.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.96-48.92; P = .005). Collectively, CD133 expression was significantly associated with malignant progression in a longitudinal series of patients with OLP. Our findings suggested that CD133 may serve as a novel candidate biomarker for risk assessment of malignant potential of OLP. © 2013.
Ni Riordain, Richeal; Christou, Joanna; Pinder, Denise; Squires, Vanessa; Hodgson, Tim
To assess the economic burden of oral lichen planus (OLP) from the perspective of the healthcare provider in a U.K. population. This prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis was carried out via a cross-sectional study conducted in the Oral Medicine Unit of the Eastman Dental Hospital. This study was conducted in three phases - phase 1 involved framing of the cost-of-illness analysis, development of the cost inventory and design of the patient questionnaire for ease of data collection. Data collected from patients were inputted during phase 2, and costings were determined. The final phase consisted of the calculation of the cost of illness of OLP. One hundred patients were enrolled in the study, 30 males and 70 females, with an average age of 59.9 years (±13.4 years). The average OLP patient, based on our cohort, attends the oral medicine unit 2.64 times per year, their general medical practitioner 1.13 times annually, their general dental practitioner 0.82 times in a year and fills on average 3.37 prescriptions annually. This leads to an average annual cost of £398.58 (€541.16) per patient per year from the perspective of the healthcare provider. The annual average cost of OLP to the healthcare provider in the U.K. is substantial. The prevalence-based cost-of-illness data generated in this study will facilitate comparison with other chronic oral mucosal diseases and with chronic diseases managed in allied medical specialties. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shen, Zhengyu; Du, Guanhuan; Zhou, Zengtong; Liu, Wei; Shi, Linjun; Xu, Hui
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease involving oral mucosa. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) as the signature cytokine of T helper 22 cells is increasingly recognized as a key regulator in various autoimmune diseases. Our previous study reported that IL-22 immunoexpression in OLP was significantly increased compared with the normal controls. The objective of this preliminary study was to compare the IL-22 expression levels in oral biopsies from patients with OLP (n = 50) against normal oral mucosa (n = 19) using RT-qPCR and Western blot, identify the potential targeting miRNAs of IL-22, and examine the miRNA expression levels in OLP. Interleukin-22 expression level in OLP was significantly increased compared with the normal controls. The Dual-Luciferase reporter assay system in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells demonstrated that miR-562 and miR-203 were the target miRNAs of IL-22, which was consistent with predictions from bioinformatics software analyses. Interestingly, miR-562 expression in OLP was significantly decreased, but miR-203 expression in OLP was significantly increased compared with the normal controls. This preliminary study for the first time reported that aberrant expression levels of miR-562 and miR-203 were associated with high expression of IL-22 and demonstrated the target relationship between miRNAs and IL-22 in HEK293 cells. Our data indicated that IL-22 and its targeting miRNAs contribute to the pathogenesis of OLP. Further studies are required to investigate the regulatory pathways of IL-22 and miR-562 and miR-203 in OLP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Polesello, Vania; Zupin, Luisa; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Biasotto, Matteo; Pozzato, Gabriele; Ottaviani, Giulia; Gobbo, Margherita; Crovella, Sergio; Segat, Ludovica
The aetiology of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), a chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa, is not yet well understood. Since innate immunity may be hypothesized as involved in the susceptibility to OLP, we studied human beta defensin 1 (hBD-1) an antimicrobial peptide constitutively expressed in the saliva, looking at functional genetic variants possibly able to diminish hBD-1 production an consequently conferring major susceptibility to OLP. We analysed three DEFB1 polymorphisms at 5' UTR, -52G>A (rs1799946), -44C>G (rs1800972), -20G>A (rs11362) and two DEFB1 polymorphisms at 3'UTR, c*5G>A (rs1047031), c*87A>G (rs1800971), with the aim of correlating these genetic variants and hBD-1 salivary level in a group of OLP patients and in healthy subjects. We also evaluated hBD-1 salivary concentrations, using ELISA, in OLP and healthy controls. We compared hBD-1 concentrations in OLP and healthy subjects: hBD-1 concentration was significantly higher in OLP patients respect to control. When considering the correlation between DEFB1 polymorphisms genotypes and hBD-1 expression levels, significant results were obtained for SNPs -52G>A (p=0.03 both in OLP patients and healthy individuals) and -44C>G (p=0.02 in OLP patients). hBD-1 production was different between OLP and healthy subjects (not age-matched with OLP). DEFB1 gene polymorphisms, -52G>A and -44C>G, correlated with hBD-1 salivary concentrations. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Basheer, Shaini; Shameena, PM; Sudha, S; Varma, Sujatha; Vidyanath, S; Varekar, Aniruddha
Context: The malignant transformation potential of oral lichen planus (OLP) and related lesions is a subject of great controversy. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the expression of proteins related to apoptosis and tumour suppressor gene processes in OLP, oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) and oral lichenoid dysplasia (OLD). Materials and Methods The immunohistochemical study was carried out to investigate the expressions of survivin and p53 in a total of 30 lesional biopsy specimens - 10 cases each of OLP, OLR and OLD. The expression rates were further compared with 10 control specimens of normal oral mucosa (NORM). Results: Immunoreactivity for p53 was seen in 7 cases (70%) of OLD, 4 cases (40%) of OLP and 2 cases (20%) of OLR and none of NORM. We obtained a significant difference (P = 0.01) in mean p53 expression between the different entities. The positive staining rate of survivin was found to be significantly different between OLD (50%), OLP (10%), OLR (0%), and normal mucosa (0%) (P = 0.004). There was a positive correlation between p53 and survivin expression in OLP and OLD using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Conclusion: Lichenoid dysplasia has shown p53 and survivin expression in the range of not OLP, but leukoplakia. On the other hand, OLR seems to be an innocuous lesion. The study results with OLP are inconclusive but points toward a small but important malignant potential in OLP. This kind of comparative study highlights the importance of biopsying OLP and related lesions for proper diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:29391729
Siponen, Maria; Kullaa, Arja; Nieminen, Pentti; Salo, Tuula; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated mucosal disease of unclear etiology and of unresolved pathogenesis. Hyaluronan (HA) is an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan involved in inflammation and tumor progression. However, its presence in OLP has not been reported. We therefore aimed to study the immunohistochemical expression of HA, its receptor CD44, hyaluronan synthases (HAS1-3), and hyaluronidases (HYAL1-2) in OLP. The presence of HA, CD44, HAS1-3, and HYAL1-2 was studied by immunohistochemical methods in 55 OLP and 23 control oral mucosal specimens (CTR). The localization, intensity, and differences of the epithelial expression between OLP and CTRs were analyzed. HA and CD44 were found on cell membranes in the epithelial basal and intermediate layers in CTR and OLP specimens. The HA staining intensity was stronger in the basal layer of the epithelium in OLP than in CTRs (P < 0.001). HAS1 (P = 0.001) and HAS2 (P < 0.001) showed stronger staining in the basal and weaker staining in the superficial (P < 0.001) epithelial layers in OLP than in CTRs. The immunostaining of HAS3 was low in both OLP and CTRs. Positive HYAL1 and HYAL2 staining were mainly found in the basal and intermediate epithelial layers, and their intensities were significantly increased in OLP, except HYAL 2 in the intermediate epithelial layer. HA, HAS1-2, and HYAL1-2 have altered expression in OLP compared to CTRs and may therefore have a role in OLP pathogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
El Shenawy, Hanaa M; Eldin, Amany Mohy
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes bilateral white striations, papules, or plaques on the buccal mucosa, tongue, and gingivae. Erythema, erosions, and blisters may or may not be present. Several empirical therapies have been used in the treatment of (OLP). To evaluate the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) versus topical steroids for the treatment of erosive-atrophic lichen planus. Twenty-four patients with erosive-atrophic (OLP) were categorized into two groups. In the first group patients were treated with 970 nm diode laser irradiation, while, in the second group patients used topical corticosteroids (0.1% triamcinolone acetonide orabase). The gender, medical history and pain score were recorded. The pain score was measured before and after treatment by visual analogue scale (VAS). Steroid-treated group (0.1% triamcinolone acetonide orabase) show reduced pain score than laser group. Topical steroids are more effective than LLLT. LLLT may be used as an alternative treatment for symptomatic OLP when steroids are contraindicated.
Simpson, Rosalind C; Murphy, Ruth; Bratton, Daniel J; Sydes, Matthew R; Wilkes, Sally; Nankervis, Helen; Dowey, Shelley; Thomas, Kim S
Erosive lichen planus affecting the vulva (ELPV) is a relatively rare, chronic condition causing painful raw areas in the vulvovaginal region. Symptoms are pain and burning, which impact upon daily living. There is paucity of evidence regarding therapy. A 2012 Cochrane systematic review found no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this field. Topically administered corticosteroids are the accepted first-line therapy: however, there is uncertainty as to which second-line treatments to use. Several systemic agents have been clinically noted to show promise for ELPV refractory to topically administered corticosteroids but there is no RCT evidence to support these. The 'hELP' study is a RCT with an internal pilot phase designed to provide high-quality evidence. The objective is to test whether systemic therapy in addition to standard topical therapy is a beneficial second-line treatment for ELPV. Adjunctive systemic therapies used are hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Topical therapy plus a short course of prednisolone given orally is considered the comparator intervention. The trial is a four-armed, open-label, pragmatic RCT which uses a blinded independent clinical assessor. To provide 80 % power for each comparison, 96 participants are required in total. The pilot phase aims to recruit 40 participants. The primary clinical outcome is the proportion of patients achieving treatment success at 6 months. 'Success' is defined by a composite measure of Patient Global Assessment score of 0 or 1 on a 4-point scale plus improvement from baseline on clinical photographs scored by a clinician blinded to treatment allocation. Secondary clinical outcomes include 6-month assessment of: (1) Reduction in pain/soreness; (2) Global assessment of disease; (3) Response at other affected mucosal sites; (4) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores; (5) Sexual function; (6) Health-related quality of life using 'Short Form 36' and 'Skindex
Batu, Şule; Ofluoğlu, Duygu; Ergun, Sertan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Uslu, Ezel; Güven, Yegane; Tanyeri, Hakkı
The aim of this study was to evaluate prolidase activity and oxidative stress in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid contact reactions (OLCR) using serum and salivary samples and to compare these biomarkers with each other as well as with a group of healthy subjects in order to be able to opine their role in the estimation of OLP and OLCR. Eighteen recently diagnosed patients with OLP, 32 patients with OLCR and 18 healthy controls with matched periodontal status were recruited to the study. Prolidase activity, lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), sialic acid (SA), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) levels in both serum and saliva were determined. Additionally, salivary flow rate and its buffering capacity were estimated. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. No statistically significant differences were observed between the study groups and the control group regarding to the basic characteristics and the periodontal status (P > 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between OLP and OLCR groups regarding to the distribution of lesions' type, severity, and location (P > 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two study groups with regard to Prolidase activity, MDA, SA, and AOPPs (P ˃ 0.05), whereas statistically significant differences were found between the two study groups and the control group with regard to all evaluated parameters except of serum prolidase (P ˂ 0.01). Moderate correlation was found between salivary MDA and the OLP/OLCR lesion severity, whereas a weak correlation was observed between serum SA and the OLP/OLCR lesion severity (P ˂ 0.05). The findings of this study suggest an increased prolidase activity and oxidative stress and imbalance in the antioxidant defense system in biological fluids of patients with OLP and OLCR when compared with the healthy subjects
Schreurs, Olav; Karatsaidis, Andreas; Schenck, Karl
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common T-cell-dominated oral chronic inflammatory disease occurring in periods of remission, quiescence, activity with pronounced inflammation, and acute ulceration. Cell infiltrates in OLP contain varying numbers of CD4 + T cells expressing the transcription factor FoxP3. FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells are, however, a heterogeneous cell population containing suppressive and non-suppressive cells, and their distribution in infiltrates from OLP is unknown. Biopsies were taken from normal oral mucosa (n = 8) and OLP lesions (n = 19), and a set of in situ methods for the determination of the functional phenotype of FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells was applied. Numbers of FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells were highest in the atrophic form of the disease, yet low in the ulcerative form. The main FoxP3 + CD4 + T-cell population observed was FoxP3 + CD45RA - CD25 + CD45RO + and CD15s - , a phenotype delineating a non-suppressive subset. Numbers of cells with an actively suppressing phenotype (FoxP3 + CD45RA - CD25 + CD45RO + and CD15s + ) were, however, about twice as high in reticular lesions as compared with the atrophic form. Many FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells expressed T-bet, the hallmark transcription factor for IFN-γ-producing T cells, indicating that they may enhance immune and inflammatory responses rather than suppress them. The absence of actively suppressing FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells may in part explain why OLP is a remarkably persisting condition, in spite of the presence of substantially high numbers of FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells. The findings emphasize that it is crucial to examine not only numbers but also functional phenotype of FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells in human tissues. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Qin, Haihong; Jin, Jiang; Fischer, Heinz; Mildner, Michael; Gschwandtner, Maria; Mlitz, Veronika; Eckhart, Leopold; Tschachler, Erwin
CARD18 contains a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) via which it binds to caspase-1 and thereby inhibits caspase-1-mediated activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. To determine the expression profile and the role of CARD18 during differentiation of keratinocytes and to compare the expression of CARD18 in normal skin and in inflammatory skin diseases. Human keratinocytes were induced to differentiate in monolayer and in 3D skin equivalent cultures. In some experiments, CARD18-specific siRNAs were used to knock down expression of CARD18. CARD18 mRNA levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and CARD18 protein was detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. In situ expression was analyzed in skin biopsies obtained from healthy donors and patients with psoriasis and lichen planus. CARD18 mRNA was expressed in the epidermis at more than 100-fold higher levels than in any other human tissue. Within the epidermis, CARD18 was specifically expressed in the granular layer. In vitro CARD18 was strongly upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in keratinocytes undergoing terminal differentiation. In skin equivalent cultures the expression of CARD18 was efficiently suppressed by siRNAs without impairing stratum corneum formation. Epidermal expression of CARD18 was increased after ultraviolet (UV)B irradiation of skin explants. In skin biopsies of patients with psoriasis no consistent regulation of CARD18 expression was observed, however, in lesional epidermis of patients with lichen planus, CARD18 expression was either greatly diminished or entirely absent whereas in non-lesional areas expression was comparable to normal skin. Our results identify CARD18 as a differentiation-associated keratinocyte protein that is altered in abundance by UV stress. Its downregulation in lichen planus indicates a potential role in inflammatory reactions of the epidermis in this disease. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative
Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bennett, James P
The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than twenty lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered. PMID:22453171
Cutaneous leiomyomas are firm, round to oval, skin-coloured to brownish papules and nodules that may present as a solitary, few discrete or multiple clustered lesions. Different uncommon patterns of multiple leiomyoma distribution have been noted as bilateral, symmetrical, linear, zosteriform, or dermatomal-like arrangement. One such rare presentation was seen in a 23-year-old patient who presented with zosteriform skin coloured, occasionally painful cutaneous lesions over left shoulder region. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma. He was symptomatically managed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and topical capcicum cream. Case is reported here due to rare occurrence of this benign cutaneous neoplasm in an atypical pattern and on uncommon site. (author)
Camila Melo Gadelha Pereira Diniz
Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso de ceratoconjuntivite cicatricial bilateral em uma paciente portadora de líquen plano e apresentamos revisão da literatura mundial sobre esse assunto. Cicatrização conjuntival, com formação de simbléfaro, olho seco, infiltração corneana, neovascularização e afinamento foram os sinais observados. Diagnóstico foi baseado nos achados clínicos e biópsia, após exclusão das causas típicas de ceratoconjuntivite cicatricial.To describe a case of bilateral cicatrizing keratoconjunctivitis in a patient with lichen planus and review the literature. Conjunctiva cicatrization with symblepharon formation, dry eye, corneal infiltration and neovascularization and thinning were the most observed prominent signs. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings and biopsy, after exclusion of typical causes of cicatricial keratoconjuntivitis.
Masson Regnault, Marie; Vigarios, Emmanuelle; Projetti, Fabrice; Herbault-Barres, Beatrice; Tournier, Emilie; Lamant, Laurence; Sibaud, Vincent
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease considered as a CD8+ T lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune reaction, which may be triggered by undetermined virus. Recent reports have described the detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA in oral samples from healthy patients and in patients with different forms of oral cancers. We therefore investigated in a prospective way whether MCPyV was detectable in oral lesions of patients with active OLP. Our preliminary results do not support the hypothesis that OLP may be triggered by MCPyV infection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the involvement of other human polyomaviruses in OLP pathogenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is frequently associated with various extrahepatic manifestations such as autoimmune features and immune complex deposit diseases. Oral lichen planus (OLP is one of the representative extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA are highly effective and safe for the eradication of HCV. However, there is a lack of information regarding the association between HCV-associated OLP and interferon (IFN-free DAA therapy. Herein, we present the case of a 60-year-old female who was diagnosed with OLP during routine periodontal treatment by a dentist. The patient was referred for hepatitis C treatment using IFN-free DAA, which resulted in the improvement of the symptoms of OLP. This case represents the safety and efficacy of IFN-free DAAs in patients with HCV-associated OLP. However, long-term follow-up studies are required to elucidate the therapeutic effects of this therapy in these patients.
A Rare Case of Zosteriform Cutaneous Metastases from Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Hard Palate. ... examination, the patient had a superficial ulcer over the hard palate. A provisional diagnosis of zosteriform ... Majority of these cases can be misdiagnosed as herpes zoster and were treated with antiviral drugs. Distant ...
Pedro A. Ducasse Olivera
Full Text Available El liquen plano es una enfermedad dermatológica de origen desconocido que se manifiesta en la mucosa bucal. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo con los pacientes pesquisados mediante el Programa de Detección Precoz del Cáncer Bucal en el municipio especial Isla de la Juventud, con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento epidemiológico de esta entidad, distribución según sexo, raza y zona bucal mas afectada, así como establecer la relación entre la aparición de las lesiones en piel y mucosas. Según los resultados, se determinó que el liquen plano oral es más común en hombres de la tercera y sexta décadas, principalmente en mestizos y blancos, la zona más afectada fue el carrillo (42.9 % y las lesiones cutáneas aparecieron solo en 2 casos (9.5 %.Lichen planus is a dermatological disease of unknown origin that manifests itself in the oral mucosa, reason for which we decided to conduct a study on it as part of the Program for the Early Detection of Oral Cancer in the Isle of Youth special municipality with the patients screened in this program aimed at determining the epidemiological behavior of this entity, distribution by sex, race, the most affected oral zone, and the relation between the appearance of injuries in the skin and mucosas. According to the results, it was concluded that the oral lichen planus is more comon in men at the third and sixth decades of life, in mestizoes and white individuals, and that the cheek was the most affected area. The cutaneous lesions appeared only in 2 of the 21 affected cases.
The proliferative activity of buccal mucosa epithelium in 16 patients suffering from oral lichen planus was studied by using [ 3 H]-thymidine labelling technique in vitro and histometric methods. Autoradiographic sections of two groups of lesions (12 with atrophic and 4 with acanthotic epithelium) were compared with the buccal mucosa of 19 healthy controls investigated in the same way. Determinations comprised separate and combined labelling indices of the basal and suprabasal progenitor compartment (LIsub(bas), LIsub(sbas), LIsub(total)) in relation to basal cells as well as to surface of the epithelium. The following results were obtained. The values of LIsub(total) per 100 basal cells were increased in both groups of lesions, whereby the relation of LIsub(bas):LIsub(sbas) shifted markedly to LIsub(bas), in particular in the atrophic lesions. When relating the total of labelled nuclei to surface length, however, an increase could be confirmed only in acanthotic lesions, whereas most atrophic lesions showed a decrease. This indicates an impaired capacity of the atrophic epithelium to maintain regenerative steady state. This imbalance could also be confirmed by counting the total of basal cells per surface length, which were significantly lowered in atrophic lesions as compared with acanthotic ones as well as normal mucosa. From the results it can be concluded that the renewal activity of the epithelium in atrophic lesions of lichen planus mucosae becomes virtually deficient, though determination of LIsub(total) referred to basal cells simulates a slight increase. Thus, for detecting intrinsic imbalances in the proliferative equilibrium of squamous epithelium, correlation of progenitor compartment labelling to external surface as the site of continuous cell loss is required. (orig.)
Full Text Available Background and aims. Lichen planus is a relatively common mucocutaneous disease, with an unknown etiology. There is no complete cure for oral lichen planus (OLP, but some drugs, including corticosteroids, retinoids, cyclosporine and antibiotics are commonly used for treatment of OLP. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of combination of triamcinolone and vitamin A mouthwash with triamcinolone mouthwash alone on OLP. Materials and methods. Twenty OLP patients were randomly divided into two groups of 10. The experimental group was treated with combination of triamcinolone and vitamin A mouthwash and the control group was treated with triamcinolone-containing mouthwash alone. The patients were examined once every two weeks and the lesion size, pain and burning sensation were recorded based on visual analogue scale during a two-month period. Data were analyzed by MannWhitney U test using SPSS software. Results. The use of combination of triamcinolone-vitamin A mouthwash was effective in decreasing the pain and burning sensation of OLP (P = 0.012. Decrease in pain and burning sensation were similar in both groups (P = 0.73. The use of combination of triamcinolone-vitamin A mouthwash led to a decrease in the size of keratotic, atrophic and erosive OLP lesions (P = 0. Decrease in the size of the lesions was significantly greater in the study group compared to the control group (P = 0.029. Conclusion. The use of combination of triamcinolone-vitamin A mouthwash is effective in decreasing the size of keratotic, atrophic or erosive lesions.
Kershaw, K A
The extreme susceptibility of lichens to air pollution is emphasized in a discussion of the distribution and ecology of the symbionts. The susceptibility is possible due to the indiscriminate and rapid absorption of solutes over the surface of the thallus. Lichens are virtually absent from towns and industrial areas. In an investigation in Kvarntorp, Sweden, the distribution of lichens corresponded markedly with the levels of air pollution, mainly by sulfur dioxide and secondly to the low humidity of the area. There are a few lichens that are tolerant of pollution and occur abundantly in industrial and suburban areas. Lecandra conizaeoides and Stereocaulton pileatum are prevalent in large cities of Great Britain and are early colonizers of trees and brickwork. The apparent preference of lichens for asbestos roofing in polluted areas is related to the high water absorbing power of the substratum and the high base content, with the consequent power of neutralizing acidic atmospheric pollutants. The flora growing on an asbestos tiled roof eight miles from London was examined and revealed four species: S. muralis, L. dispersa, R. demissa, and C. vitellina. The density of the S. muralis was approximately 1/sq m with diameters up to 6 cm. The density of the other species was extremely high, up to 368 apothecia/sq cm for L. dispersa. The figures suggest that the high water absorbing properties and basicity of the asbestos are the factors responsible for the prolific lichen growth. 15 references, 13 figures.
Filiz Topaloğlu Demir
Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and the second leading cause of cancer deaths, after lung cancer. Cutaneous breast cancer metastases often develop as direct involvement and local spread and often manifest as solid painless nodules in the anterior chest wall. Internal malignant skin metastases rarely present like soft nodules, telangiectasia-like lesions, neoplastic alopecia, erysipeloides carcinoma, erythema annulare-like, herpetiformis or zosteriform, target-like, pyodermic and morphea-like lesions. In this article, we present a 49-year-old female patient describing a sensation of burning pain with erythematous papules and plaques in a zosteriform distribution. The diagnosis of zosteriform cutaneous metastases from a breast cancer was made. Majority of these cases may be misdiagnosed as herpes zoster infection and can be treated with antiviral drugs. Therefore, cutaneous metastases should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lesions in zosteriform distribution.
Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Aznar-Cayuela, Cristina; Rubio, Camila P; Ceron, José J; López-Jornet, Pia
The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress factors and C-reactive protein in the saliva of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). This consecutive, cross-sectional study included 20 patients with OLP, 19 with burning mouth syndrome (BMS), and 31 control subjects. The oral cavity of each patient was examined and patients responded to a quality of life questionnaire (OHIP-14) and the xerostomia inventory. The following parameters were measured in whole non-stimulated saliva: trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); total antioxidant capacity (TAC); cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC); ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); C-reactive protein (CRP); nitric oxide; nitrates; and nitrites. The OLP group presented statistically significant differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) (29 600 cps) in comparison with the control group (39 679 cps) (P < 0.05). In the BMS group, ROS was 29 707 cps with significant difference in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). Significantly higher salivary nitric oxide (145.7 μmol) and nitrite (141.0 μmol) levels were found in OLP patients in comparison with control group (P < 0.05). Increases in nitric oxide and C-reactive protein were found in the saliva of OLP patients in comparison with BMS and control patients. Further studies are required to confirm these findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang, Yanni; Zhang, Han; Du, Guanhuan; Wang, Yufeng; Cao, Tianyi; Luo, Qingqiong; Chen, Junjun; Chen, Fuxiang; Tang, Guoyao
Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a bioactive compound extracted from paeony roots and has been widely used to ameliorate inflammation in several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of TGP on oral lichen planus (OLP), a chronic inflammatory oral condition characterized by T-cell infiltration and abnormal epithelial keratinization cycle remains unclear. In this study, we found that TLR4 was highly expressed and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway was obviously observed in the OLP tissues. Moreover, there was significant higher mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in OLP keratinocytes than normal oral epithelial keratinocytes. With the help of the cell culture model by stimulating the keratinocyte HaCaT cells with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), we mimicked the local inflammatory environment of OLP. And we further confirmed that TGP could inhibit LPS-induced production of IL-6 and TNF-α in HaCaT cells via a dose-dependent manner. TGP treatment decreased the phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB p65 proteins, thus leading to less nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in HaCaT cells. Therefore, our data suggested that TGP may be a new potential candidate for the therapy of OLP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Casparis, S; Borm, J M; Tektas, S; Kamarachev, J; Locher, M C; Damerau, G; Grätz, K W; Stadlinger, B
This 10-year retrospective study analyzed the incidence of malignant transformation of oral lichen planus (OLP). The study also included dysplasia and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL) in the initial biopsy as a potential differential diagnosis. A total of 692 scalpel biopsies were taken from 542 patients (207 [38.2%] men and 335 [61.8%] women). Clinical and histopathological parameters were analyzed. The parameters gender (p = 0.022) and smoking behavior (p oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Smoking and joint disease appeared to be significant risk factors. Treatment with tretinoin in different concentrations (0.005-0.02%) significantly improved diagnosis. Twelve patients (8 female, 4 male) showed malignant transformation to OSCC within an average period of 1.58 years. The malignant transformation rate (MTR) was higher for OLL (4.4%) than OLP (1.2%). If the first biopsy showed intraepithelial neoplasia, the risk of developing OSCC increased (by 3.5% for squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN) II and by 6.7% for SIN III). Although we cannot rule out that OLP is a premalignant oral condition, we can confirm that OLP had the lowest MTR of all diagnoses.
Hambly, Jessica L; Haywood, Alison; Hattingh, Laetitia; Nair, Raj G
There is a lack of appropriate, commercially-available topical corticosteroid formulations for use in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction. Current therapy includes crushing a dexamethasone tablet and mixing it with water for use as a mouth rinse. This formulation is unpleasant esthetically and to use in the mouth, as it is a bitter and gritty suspension, resulting in poor compliance. Thus, the present study was designed to formulate and pilot an effective, esthetically-pleasing formulation. A single-blinded, cross-over trial was designed with two treatment arms. Patients were monitored for 7 weeks. Quantitative and qualitative data was assessed using VAS, numeric pain scales, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9, and thematic analysis to determine primary patient-reported outcomes, including satisfaction, compliance, quality of life, and symptom relief. Nine patients completed the pilot trial. Data analysis revealed the new compounded formulation to be superior to existing therapy due to its convenience, positive contribution to compliance, patient-perceived faster onset of action, and improved symptom relief. Topical dexamethasone is useful in the treatment of OLP. When carefully formulated into a compounded mouth rinse, it improves patient outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Luengtrakoon, Kirawut; Wannakasemsuk, Worraned; Vichitrananda, Vilasinee; Klanrit, Poramaporn; Hormdee, Doosadee; Noisombut, Rajda; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham
The existence of extra-pineal melatonin has been observed in various tissues. No prior studies of melatonin in human oral mucosal tissue under the condition of chronic inflammation have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin in oral mucosal tissue of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) which was considered as a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease causing oral mucosal damage and ulcerations. Sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients (n=30), and control subjects (n=30) were used in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and the semiquantitative scoring system was used to assess the levels of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT: a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of melatonin), melatonin, and melatonin receptor 1 (MT1) in oral mucosa of OLP patients and normal oral mucosa of control subjects. AANAT, melatonin, and MT1were detected in oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients and control subjects. Immunostaining scores of AANAT, melatonin, and MT1 in oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects (p=0.002, poral mucosal tissue of OLP patients imply that chronic inflammation may induce the local biosynthesis of melatonin via AANAT, and may enhance the action of melatonin via MT1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction. Aberrations of the Akt/mTOR/pS6 pathway have been linked to various types of human cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activation status of Akt, mTOR, and pS6 in oral lichen planus (OLP in comparison with oral premalignant and malignant lesions and normal oral mucosa (NM. Materials and Methods. Immunohistochemistry for p-Akt, p-mTOR, and phospho-pS6 was performed in 40 OLP, 20 oral leukoplakias (OL, 10 OSCC, and 10 control samples of NM. Results. Nuclear p-Akt expression was detected in the vast majority of cases in all categories, being significantly higher in OL. Cytoplasmic p-Akt and p-mTOR staining was present only in a minority of OLP cases, being significantly lower compared to OL and OSCC. Phospho-pS6 showed cytoplasmic positivity in most OLP cases, which however was significantly lower compared to OL and OSCC. Conclusions. Overall, cytoplasmic p-Akt, p-mTOR, and phospho-pS6 levels appear to be significantly lower in OLP compared to OL and OSCC. However, the expression of these molecules in a subset of OLP cases suggests that activation of Akt/mTOR/pS6 may occur in the context of OLP, possibly contributing to the premalignant potential of individual cases.
Alan Motta do Canto
Full Text Available O líquen plano é uma desordem comum do epitélio escamoso estratificado que acomete as mucosas oral e genital, a pele, as unhas e o couro cabeludo. O líquen plano oral (LPO afeta mulheres de meiaidade e apresenta padrões e distribuição característicos, como estriações brancas, pápulas ou placas brancas, eritema, erosões e bolhas, que podem estar associadas a medicações e/ou materiais dentários no paciente. O diagnóstico clínico somente poderá ser feito se a doença apresentar padrões clássicos, como lesões concomitantes na mucosa oral e na pele. O diagnóstico laboratorial por meio do exame histopatológico se caracteriza pela presença de projeções do epitélio em forma de dentes de serra e corpos de Civatte, e possibilita excluir condições de displasia e malignidade. A imunofluorescência direta é utilizada em suspeita de outras doenças, como pênfigo e penfigoide. O LPO é tratado com agentes anti-inflamatórios, principalmente, corticosteroides tópicos, e novos agentes e técnicas têm-se demonstrado eficazes. A transformação maligna do LPO e sua incidência exata permanecem controversas. Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar, com base na revisão da literatura, a etiopatogenia, o diagnóstico clínico, exames complementares e complicações do LPO.Lichen planus is a common disorder of the stratified squamous epithelium that affects oral and genital mucous membranes, skin, nails, and scalp. Oral Lichen Planus (OLP affects middle-aged women and shows distribution patterns and characteristics such as white striations, white plaques or papules, erythema, blisters and erosions, and may be associated with medication and/or dental materials used by the patient. The clinical diagnosis can only be made if the disease presents classical patterns such as concomitant lesions in the oral mucosa and skin. The laboratory diagnosis is histopathologically characterized by the presence of projections of the epithelium in the
Bokor-Bratic, Marija; Cankovic, Milos; Dragnic, Natasa
Many factors have been proposed to influence oral infection with yeast. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral yeasts in oral lichen planus (OLP) patients and control subjects, and to perform a multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors that influence oral Candida infection in OLP patients. In this cross-sectional study, 90 new patients with OLP and 90 sex- and age-matched control subjects with no mucosal lesions were interviewed about their health status, use of medication, and smoking and alcohol habits. Swab and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected and salivary pH was measured. A positive Candida culture was more prevalent among OLP patients (48.9%) than among control subjects (26.7%). Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species in both groups. By logistic regression analysis, unstimulated whole salivary flow rates of 0.11-0.24 ml min(-1) (OR = 5.90) and 0.25-0.32 ml min(-1) (OR = 3.51) and benzodiazepine anxiolytics intake (OR = 8.30) were independently associated with the presence of Candida among OLP patients. Age, denture wearing, levels of dentition, decreased salivary pH, antihypertensive drugs, and alcohol consumption were not associated with oral Candida infection in OLP patients. The results indicate that data on benzodiazepine anxiolytics intake and evaluation of unstimulated whole salivary flow rate should be considered as part of the clinical evaluation to identify OLP patients at risk for Candida infection. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.
Nogueira, Marcelle Almeida de Sousa; Gavioli, Camila Fátima Biancardi; Pereira, Nátalli Zanete; de Carvalho, Gabriel Costa; Domingues, Rosana; Aoki, Valéria; Sato, Maria Notomi
Lichen planus (LP) is a common inflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology. Reports of a common transactivation of quiescent human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) support the connection of viruses to the disease. HERVs are ancient retroviral sequences in the human genome and their transcription is often deregulated in cancer and autoimmune diseases. We explored the transcriptional activity of HERV sequences as well as the antiviral restriction factor and interferon-inducible genes in the skin from LP patients and healthy control (HC) donors. The study included 13 skin biopsies from patients with LP and 12 controls. Real-time PCR assay identified significant decrease in the HERV-K gag and env mRNA expression levels in LP subjects, when compared to control group. The expressions of HERV-K18 and HERV-W env were also inhibited in the skin of LP patients. We observed a strong correlation between HERV-K gag with other HERV sequences, regardless the down-modulation of transcripts levels in LP group. In contrast, a significant up-regulation of the cytidine deaminase APOBEC 3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing), and the GTPase MxA (Myxovirus resistance A) mRNA expression level was identified in the LP skin specimens. Other transcript expressions, such as the master regulator of type I interferon-dependent immune responses, STING (stimulator of interferon genes) and IRF-7 (interferon regulatory factor 7), IFN-β and the inflammassome NALP3, had increased levels in LP, when compared to HC group. Our study suggests that interferon-inducible factors, in addition to their role in innate immunity against exogenous pathogens, contribute to the immune control of HERVs. Evaluation of the balance between HERV and interferon-inducible factor expression could possibly contribute to surveillance of inflammatory/malignant status of skin diseases.
Omal, PM; Jacob, Vimal; Prathap, Akhilesh; Thomas, Nebu George
Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common among adult population. LP can present as skin and oral lesions. This study highlights the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP from a population of patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiodiagnosis, Pushpagiri College of Dental Sciences, Tiruvalla, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP. This is a ongoing prospective study with results of 2 years being reported. LP was diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathological analysis of mucosal and skin biopsy done for all patients suspected of having LP. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) software version 14. To test the statistical significance, chi-square test was used. Results: Out of 18,306 patients screened, 8,040 were males and 10,266 females. LP was seen in 118 cases (0.64%). Increased prevalence of LP was observed in middle age adults (40–60 years age group) with lowest age of 12 years and highest age of 65 years. No statistically significant differences were observed between the genders in skin LP group (P=0.12) and in oral and skin LP groups (P=0.06); however, a strong female predilection was seen in oral LP group (P=0.000036). The prevalence of cutaneous LP in oral LP patients was 0.06%. Conclusion: This study showed an increased prevalence of oral LP than skin LP, and oral and skin LP with a female predominance. PMID:22615505
Thi Do, T; Phoomak, C; Champattanachai, V; Silsirivanit, A; Chaiyarit, P
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is considered a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease of the oral mucosa. Immunopathogenesis of OLP is thought to be associated with cell-mediated immune dysregulation. O-GlcNAcylation is a form of reversible glycosylation. It has been demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation promoted nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling. Activation of NF-кB can induce expression of nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which is a large intracellular multi-protein complex involving an immune response. Dysregulated expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome was reported to be associated with autoinflammatory diseases. No integrative studies between O-GlcNAcylation and NLRP3 inflammasome in OLP patients have been reported. The present study aimed to determine the immunohistochemical expression of O-GlcNAcylation, NF-κB signalling molecules and NLRP3 inflammasome in oral mucosae of OLP patients. Oral tissue samples were collected from 30 OLP patients and 30 healthy individuals. Immunohistochemical staining and analyses of immunostaining scores were performed to evaluate expression of O-GlcNAcylation, NF-κB signalling molecules and NLRP3 inflammasome. According to observations in this study, significantly higher levels of O-GlcNAcylation, NF-κB signalling molecules and NLRP3 inflammasome were demonstrated in OLP patients compared with control subjects (P O-GlcNAcylation, NF-κB signalling molecules and NLRP3 inflammasome were also observed in OLP samples (P O-GlcNAcylation is associated with increased expression of NLRP3 inflammasome via the NF-κB signalling pathway. These findings provide a new perspective on immunopathogenesis of OLP in relation to autoinflammation. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.
Chang, Julia Y-F; Chen, I-Chang; Wang, Yi-Ping; Wu, Yu-Hsueh; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Sun, Andy
Serum gastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA), thyroglobulin antibody (TGA), and thyroid microsomal antibody (TMA) are found in some erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) patients. This study assessed whether serum GPCA, TGA and TMA and EOLP itself played significant roles in causing anemia and hematinic deficiencies in TGA/TMA-positive EOLP patients with GPCA positivity (GPCA + /TGA/TMA/EOLP patients) or negativity (GPCA - /TGA/TMA/EOLP patients). The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean blood hemoglobin (Hb), iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid levels were measured and compared between any two of the four groups of 29 GPCA + /TGA/TMA/EOLP patients, 80 GPCA - /TGA/TMA/EOLP patients, 198 all antibodies-negative EOLP patients (Abs - /EOLP patients), and 218 healthy control individuals. GPCA + /TGA/TMA/EOLP patients had significantly lower mean Hb and vitamin B12 levels as well as significantly greater frequencies of Hb, iron, and vitamin B12 deficiencies than healthy controls. GPCA + /TGA/TMA/EOLP patients had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 level and higher MCV as well as a significantly greater frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency than GPCA - /TGA/TMA/EOLP patients. Furthermore, both GPCA - /TGA/TMA/EOLP and Abs - /EOLP patients did have significantly lower mean Hb, MCV, and iron (for women only) levels, as well as significantly greater frequencies of Hb and iron deficiencies than healthy controls. However, there were no significant differences in measured blood data between GPCA - /TGA/TMA/EOLP and Abs - /EOLP patients. We conclude that serum GPCA is the major factor causing vitamin B12 deficiency, macrocytosis and pernicious anemia in GPCA + /TGA/TMA/EOLP patients. ELOP itself but not TGA/TMA positivity plays a significant role in causing anemia and hematinic deficiencies in GPCA - /TGA/TMA/EOLP patients. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Belal, Mahmoud Helmy
Aim: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease with an immunological etiology. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of selenium combined with Vitamins A, C & E (Selenium-ACE) in the treatment of erosive-ulcerative OLP as an adjunctive to topical corticosteroids plus antifungal agent. Subjects and Methods: Thirty patients with a confirmed clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OLP participated in this clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated into one of three groups and treated as follows: (I) Topical corticosteroids, (II) topical corticosteroids plus antifungal, and (III) SE-ACE combined with topical corticosteroids plus antifungal. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. The pain and severity of the lesions were recorded at the initial and follow-up visits. All recorded data were analyzed using paired t-test and ANOVA test. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The experimental groups showed a marked reduction in pain sensation and size of lesions, particularly in the final follow-up period, but there was no significant difference between the first two Groups I and II. However, healing of lesions and improvement of pain sensation was effective in Group III since a significant difference was found favoring Group III over both Groups I and II. Conclusion: No significant difference was found in treating erosive-ulcerative lesions of OLP by topical corticosteroids alone or combined with antifungal. However, when using SE-ACE in combination with topical corticosteroids plus antifungal, this approach may be effective in managing ulcerative lesions of OLP; but more research with a larger sample size and a longer evaluation period may be recommended. PMID:26681847
Du, J; Li, R; Yu, F; Yang, F; Wang, J; Chen, Q; Wang, X; Zhao, B; Zhang, F
To explore the protective function of vitamin D (VD)/vitamin D receptor (VDR) on the development of oral lichen planus (OLP) and elaborate the underling mechanism of it. H&E staining, myeloid peroxidase (MPO) assays, quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting, and Elisa were used to test the human biopsies and serum. QPCR, Western blotting, Elisa, and siRNA transfection were also performed in LPS-induced keratinocytes to observe the functions of vitamin D and VDR. The lack of VDR in the diseased biopsies from OLP patients was associated with activated helper T-cell type 1 (Th1)-driven inflammatory response. Importantly, the status of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of OLP patients was reduced consistently. In a cultured cell model, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 could downregulate excessive production of pro-inflammatory factors induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in keratinocyte HaCat cells. Mechanistically, even though LPS-induced cytokines in keratinocytes were inhibited both by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor and by activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, VDR-dependent 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 blocked the activation of phosphorylated-NF-κB p65 rather than c-Jun/c-Fos in the presence of LPS stimulation. These results suggest that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 plays an anti-inflammatory role in OLP by mediating NF-κB signaling pathway but not AP-1 signaling pathway with a VDR-dependent manner, predicting vitamin D supplement may be a potential strategy for the OLP management. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ke, Yao; Dang, Erle; Shen, Shengxian; Zhang, Tongmei; Qiao, Hongjiang; Chang, Yuqian; Liu, Qing; Wang, Gang
Chemokine-mediated CD8 + T-cell recruitment is an essential but not well-established event for the persistence of oral lichen planus (OLP). Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D)/CD100 is implicated in immune dysfunction, chemokine modulation, and cell migration, which are critical aspects for OLP progression, but its implication in OLP pathogenesis has not been determined. In this study, we sought to explicate the effect of Sema4D on human oral keratinocytes and its capacity to drive CD8 + T-cell lesional trafficking via chemokine modulation. We found that upregulations of sSema4D in OLP tissues and blood were positively correlated with disease severity and activity. In vitro observation revealed that Sema4D induced C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9/C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 production by binding to plexin-B1 via protein kinase B-NF-κB cascade in human oral keratinocytes, which elicited OLP CD8 + T-cell migration. We also confirmed using clinical samples that elevated C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9/C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 levels were positively correlated with sSema4D levels in OLP lesions and serum. Notably, we determined matrix metalloproteinase-9 as a new proteolytic enzyme for the cleavage of sSema4D from the T-cell surface, which may contribute to the high levels of sSema4D in OLP lesions and serum. Our findings conclusively revealed an amplification feedback loop involving T cells, chemokines, and Sema4D-dependent signal that promotes OLP progression. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yin, Jingfang; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Qi; Yang, Linglan; Cheng, Bin; Tao, Xiaoan
The important roles of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 had been reported in a series of inflammatory disorders. However, few studies investigated the potential role of CCL2/CCR2 axis in oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore, this study aimed to detect the expression of CCL2 and CCR2 in OLP lesions and compare their changes before and after treatment. CCL2 and CCR2 expression was investigated using immunohistochemical staining and real-time RT-PCR in 32 patients with OLP and eight controls. Moreover, changes in their expression after treatment with triamcinolone acetonide were assessed in lesions from three patients. CCL2+ and CCR2+ cells were few in the controls and remarkably increased in the epithelial and subepithelial layers of lesions (n = 32, all P < 0.001). However, the densities of CCL2+ and CCR2+ cells were not significantly different between reticular (n = 12) and erythematous/erosive lesions (n = 20), although they significantly decreased after treatment (627.7 ± 108.2 vs. 258.3 ± 148.3, P = 0.017; 1034.7 ± 74.6 vs. 648 ± 77.6, P = 0.003, respectively). CCL2+/CCR2+ cell numbers were positively correlated with disease activity (correlation coefficient, 0.588; P < 0.001; correlation coefficient, 0.409; P = 0.02, respectively). The results of this study indicated that the CCL2-CCR2 axis was involved in the pathogenesis of OLP and was positively correlated with disease activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Zhihui; Han, Ying; Song, Jiangyuan; Luo, Ruxi; Jin, Xin; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Ren, Yan-Fang; Liu, Hongwei
Little is known about mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in normal or inflammatory oral mucosal tissues, such as in oral lichen planus (OLP). Our objectives were to identify, isolate, and characterize MSCs from normal human oral mucosa and OLP lesions, and to evaluate indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity in mediating immunomodulation of MSCs from these tissues. Expressions of MSCs-related markers were examined in isolated cells by flow cytometry. Self-renewal and multilineage differentiations were studied to characterize these MSCs. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IDO, and STRO-1 were assessed by immunofluorescence. MSCs from oral mucosa and OLP or IFN-γ-pretreated MSCs were co-cultured with allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction assays (MLR). Proliferation and apoptosis of MLR or MSCs were detected by CCK8 and the annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit, respectively. IDO expression and activity were measured by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Isolated cells from oral mucosa and OLP expressed MSC-related markers STRO-1, CD105, and CD90 but were absent for hematopoietic stem cell markers CD34. Besides, they all showed self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacities. MSCs in OLP presented STRO-1/IDO+ phenotype by immunofluorescence. MSCs and IFN-γ-pretreated MSCs could inhibit lymphocyte proliferation via IDO activity, but not via cell apoptosis. Long-term IFN-γ could also inhibit MSC proliferation via IDO activity. Mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from human oral mucosa and OLP tissues. Besides self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties, these cells may participate in immunomodulation mediated by IFN-γ via IDO activity in human OLP. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ron', G I; Akmalova, G M; Emel'yanova, I V
The most significant of the primary stages of complex therapy of oral lichen planus (OLP), among causal and pathogenetic therapy is a local conservative treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the local use of the new compositions TIZOL with triamcinolon in complex therapy of erosive-ulcerous forms OLP oral mucosa. The study was performed with 47 patients with lichen planus in age from 24 to 70 years with erosive-ulcerous form OLP whose diagnosis was confirmed histologically. The first group included 25 patients in the complex treatment of locally applied composition TIZOL with triamcinolon. The second group of 22 people, who in the complex treatment applied locally 0.5% prednisone ointment. The high efficiency of topical TIZOL with a highly topical steroid in the complex therapy of erosive-ulcerous forms OLP, which was confirmed by the positive clinical dynamics in all patients (100%) and high self-esteem of patients (84% positive ratings), reduced life complete epithelialization of erosions.
Cohen, Philip R
Impetigo can result from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Wolf's isotopic response is the occurrence of a new cutaneous disorder at the site of a previously healed disease. A cutaneous immunocompromised district is an area of skin that is more vulnerable than the rest of the individual's body. To describe a man with impetigo localized to a unilateral dermatome and review the clinical features of other patients with zosteriform Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous infection. PubMed was used to search the following terms, separately and in combination: cutaneous, dermatome, dermatomal, district, herpes, immunocompromised, impetigo, infection, isotopic, response, skin, staphylococcal, Staphylococcus aureus, Wolf, zoster, zosteriform. All papers were reviewed and relevant manuscripts, along with their reference citations, were evaluated. Crusted, eroded and intact, erythematous papules and nodules acutely presented localized to the mandibular branch of the left trigeminal nerve on the face of a 66-year-old man; he did not recall a prior episode of varicella-zoster virus infection in that area. A bacterial culture isolated methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. Viral cultures and direct fluorescent absorption studies were negative for herpes simplex and herpes zoster virus. All of the lesions resolved after oral treatment with cefdinir. Impetigo and/or furunculosis in a zosteriform distribution have also been described in 3 additional patients. The bacterial culture showed either methicillin-susceptible or methicillin-resistant S. aureus; the skin infection resolved after treatment with oral antibiotics; however one man experienced 2 recurrences in the same area. Zosteriform cutaneous staphylococcal impetigo may be an example of Wolf's isotopic response in a cutaneous immunocompromised district.
Saruhanoğlu, A; Ergun, S; Kaya, M; Warnakulasuriya, S; Erbağcı, M; Öztürk, Ş; Deniz, E; Özel, S; Çefle, K; Palanduz, Ş; Tanyeri, H
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei (MNs) in both circulating lymphocytes and buccal epithelial cells of patients with oral lichenoid contact reactions (OLCRs) or with oral lichen planus (OLP) and compare their MN scores with those of healthy controls (HCs). The study group included 21 patients (mean age 51.3 ± 12.4; 6 males, 15 females) with OLCRs and 22 patients (mean age 47.6 ± 14.4; 4 males, 18 females) with OLP who were clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed according to WHO diagnostic criteria (WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Precancerous Lesions, 1978). All patients with OLCR demonstrated contact allergy to tested dental materials when evaluated by skin patch testing according to International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG), while all OLP patients tested negative to patch testing. Seventeen individuals with no oral mucosal disorders (mean age 51.7 ± 11.3; 8 males, 9 females) were recruited to constitute the healthy control group. [Correction added on 30 May 2014, after first online publication: the term, 'mean age' has been added to the text in parenthesis throughout the Material and Methods section.] Clinical features including type of OLP, location, disease severity, presence of skin lesions, presence of systemic disease including any allergies and dental (periodontal) status were recorded. MN analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes and on smears of buccal epithelial cells of all three study groups. Most OLP and OLCR lesions were of reticular type (83%), and OLP lesions were distributed bilaterally on the buccal mucosa (90.5%). The medians of MN frequencies in buccal epithelial cells in OLP and OLCR groups were significantly higher when compared with HC group (P < 0.001). [Correction added on 30 May 2014, after first online publication: in the results, 2nd sentence, the word 'lymphocytes' has been removed.] There was no significant difference between OLP group (14
Full Text Available We report the case of a 19-year old female who presented to our dermatological clinic with hyperpigmented, indurated and atrophic patches on a zosteriform distribution, extending from her left submammary region through to her back. Our case was consistent with a zosteriform morphea as an expression of an isotopic Wolf response following an episode of herpes zoster. We discuss the pathogenic mechanisms and review the clinical cases previously reported in the literature.
Comparing The Efficacy of Hematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff and Fluorescent Periodic Acid Schiff-Acriflavine Techniques for Demonstration of Basement Membrane in Oral Lichen Planus: A Histochemical Study.
Pujar, Ashwini; Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya
Basement membrane (BM) is a thick sheet of extracellular matrix molecules, upon which epithelial cells attach. Various immunohistochemical studies in the past have been carried out but these advanced staining techniques are expensive and not feasible in routine laboratories. Although hematoxylin and eosin (H-E) is very popular among pathologists for looking at biopsies, the method has some limitations. This is where special stains come handy. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate and compare the efficacy of H-E, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine staining techniques for the basement membrane and to establish a histochemical stain which could be cost effective, less time consuming, and unambiguous for observation of the basement membrane zone. A total number of 40 paraffin-embedded tissue sections of known basement membrane containing tissues including 10 - Normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 30 - oral lichen planus (OLP) were considered in the study. Four-micron-thick sections of each block were cut and stained with H-E stain, PAS and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine stain. Sections were evaluated by three oral pathologists independently for continuity, contrast and pattern. Though all the three stains showed favorable features at different levels, acriflavine stain was better than the other stains in demonstrating BM continuity, contrast and also the pattern followed by PAS stain. Acriflavine stain was the better in demonstrating a fibrillar pattern of a BM. Acriflavine stains a BM distinctly and is less time consuming and easy to carry out using readily available dyes as compared to other stains. The continuity and contrast along with the homogenous pattern and the afibrillar pattern of the BM was better demonstrated by acriflavine followed by the PAS stain.
Comparing the efficacy of hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid schiff and fluorescent periodic acid schiff-acriflavine techniques for demonstration of basement membrane in oral lichen planus: A histochemical study
Full Text Available Background: Basement membrane (BM is a thick sheet of extracellular matrix molecules, upon which epithelial cells attach. Various immunohistochemical studies in the past have been carried out but these advanced staining techniques are expensive and not feasible in routine laboratories. Although hematoxylin and eosin (H-E is very popular among pathologists for looking at biopsies, the method has some limitations. This is where special stains come handy. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate and compare the efficacy of H-E, periodic acid Schiff (PAS and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine staining techniques for the basement membrane and to establish a histochemical stain which could be cost effective, less time consuming, and unambiguous for observation of the basement membrane zone. Materials and Methods: A total number of 40 paraffin-embedded tissue sections of known basement membrane containing tissues including 10 - Normal oral mucosa (NOM and 30 - oral lichen planus (OLP were considered in the study. Four-micron-thick sections of each block were cut and stained with H-E stain, PAS and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine stain. Sections were evaluated by three oral pathologists independently for continuity, contrast and pattern. Results: Though all the three stains showed favorable features at different levels, acriflavine stain was better than the other stains in demonstrating BM continuity, contrast and also the pattern followed by PAS stain. Acriflavine stain was the better in demonstrating a fibrillar pattern of a BM. Acriflavine stains a BM distinctly and is less time consuming and easy to carry out using readily available dyes as compared to other stains. Conclusion: The continuity and contrast along with the homogenous pattern and the afibrillar pattern of the BM was better demonstrated by acriflavine followed by the PAS stain.
Wang, Jing; Luo, Hong; Xiao, Yan; Wang, Luyao
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory mucosal disease that involves the degeneration of keratinocytes. However, the etiology and mechanisms of OLP pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we used keratinocytes HaCaT stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic a local OLP immune environment, and investigated the regulatory role of miR-125b in keratinocyte proliferation and apoptosis under OLP conditions. Immunohistochemical analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay showed that MMP-2 expression was up-regulated and miR-125b expression was down-regulated in both OLP mucosa tissues and LPS-incubated HaCaT cells. Western blot analysis indicated that miR-125b overexpression suppressed LPS-induced MMP-2 expression in HaCaT cells. Molecularly, our results confirmed that MMP-2 is a target gene of miR-125b in HaCaT cells. The effect of miR-125b on cell proliferation was revealed by CCK-8 assay, BrdU assay and cell cycle analysis, which illustrated that miR-125b overexpression impeded LPS-induced HaCaT cell proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated that miR-125b overexpression promoted HaCaT cell apoptosis. Moreover, these effects were involved in PI3K/Akt/mTOR activation, as miR-125b overexpression inhibited LPS-enhanced expression of p-Akt and p-mTOR proteins. Taken together, these data confirm that miR-125b might inhibit keratinocyte proliferation and promote keratinocyte apoptosis in OLP pathogenesis by targeting MMP-2 through PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Silvia Elena Navas-Alfaro
ência rara no LPO. Acantose em dente de serra é achado pouco freqüente no LPO, porém vacuolização basal está sempre presente associada a infiltrado linfocitário em faixa; plasmócitos podem acompanhar linfócitos no LPO, mas estão ausentes do LPC.BACKGROUND: Lichen planus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory disease affecting skin and mucous membranes, separately or together. It frequently involves the oral cavity, with or without concomitant cutaneous compromise. Microscopically, while skin presents well characteristic aspects, oral mucosa can present variations related to local characteristics of the mucosa in the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: To compare histopathological alterations of oral lichen planus and cutaneous lichen planus with the study of the inflammatory infiltrate components. METHODS: 59 biopsies (29 of OLP and 30 of CLP, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded were studied. Semi-quantitative analysis of both epidermal and dermal alterations was performed using the hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff stains. RESULTS: For CLP the classic aspects of orthokeratosis, wedge shaped hypergranulosis and saw tooth rete ridges were observed. Such aspects differ from those of OLP in which orthokeratosis and thickened granular layer happen less frequently; instead, acquisition of those layers is observed in places where they are usually absent. Basal cell vacuolar alteration and effacement of the epithelium-conjunctive limit prevailed in both locations (skin and oral mucosa and lymphocytes and histiocytes were the inflammatory cells present in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Classic alterations as compact orthokeratosis, wedge shaped hypergranulosis, saw tooth rete ridges acanthosis and basal cell vacuolar alteration associates to lymphocytes in superficial band-like pattern are diagnostic of CLP. However, for OLP, the particular own characteristics of oral mucosa in the biopsied place should be considered; also, subtler alterations of horny (light orthokeratosis and
Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus (LS, also known as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown aetiology. It has both genital and extragenital presentations, nevertheless genital forms significantly outnumber extragenital LS. Dermoscopy is noninvasive diagnostic tool traditionally employed in pigmented lesions, however its usefulness in inflammatory skin conditions is becoming continuously more meaningful. Although the clinical diagnosis of fully developed LS rarely causes difficulties, unusual presentations require differentiation from the diseases such as lichen planus, morphea, extramammary Paget disease, SCC and others. In these cases histopathology contributes to the diagnosis. Studies on the use of dermoscopy in LS are sparse, nevertheless some dermoscopic features of LS has been described.
Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus (LS, also known as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown aetiology. It has both genital and extragenital presentations, nevertheless genital forms significantly outnumber extragenital LS. Dermoscopy is noninvasive diagnostic tool traditionally employed in pigmented lesions, however its usefulness in inflammatory skin conditions is becoming continuously more meaningful. Although the clinical diagnosis of fully developed LS rarely causes difficulties, unusual presentations require differentiation from the diseases such as lichen planus, morphea, extramammary Paget disease, SCC and others. In these cases histopathology contributes to the diagnosis. Studies on the use of dermoscopy in LS are sparse, nevertheless some dermoscopic features of LS has been described.
Lichen sclerosus Overview Lichen sclerosus (LIE-kun skluh-ROW-sus) is an uncommon condition that creates patchy, white skin that's thinner than normal. Lichen sclerosus can affect skin anywhere on your body. ...
Full Text Available Introduction. Lichen sclerosus (LS is a chronic, inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology affecting skin and mucous membranes. It was first described in 1887 by Darier. Lichen sclerosus usually begins as a single or multiple plaques (rarely as lichenoid papules gradually transforming into porcelain-white atrophic lesions. Depending on localization, it may manifest with itching, pain or a burning sensation and often may cause sexual dysfunction. Objective. Presentation of an LS case that posed diagnostic difficulties. Case report. We present a patient with clinical diagnosis of lichen planus hypertrophicus on the skin of forearms and hands which demonstrated histopathological features of LS. Additionally, the presence of LS lesions was found on the skin of the eyelid and penis. Conclusions . Our case seems to be interesting because of the differences between clinical and histopathological findings and multiple localization of lesions.
Full Text Available Oral dapsone 200 mg daily for 16 weeks was tried on 52 adult patients, of whom 33 patients (males 17, femals 16 completed the study. No other topical or systemic medication was permitted. All the patients tolerated the drug very well. In 22 (66.5% patients there was complete healing with hyperpigmentaiion after 16 weeks of therapy. In 7 (21.5% patients partial respone was seen. There were 4 (12% treatment failures. In patients with hiucosal lesions, the response started early and was seen more often (80.0% No relapse was seen in any of the patients followed-up for a preiod of one year.
Lichen nitidus Overview Lichen nitidus (LIE-kun ni-TIE-dus) is a rare skin condition that usually appears as tiny, skin-colored, glistening bumps on the surface of your skin. Lichen nitidus results from abnormal inflammatory activity in skin ...
Andrés González García
Full Text Available From a clinical point of view, the most common presentations of cutaneous metastatic disease are papules and nodules. However, a wide morphological spectrum of lesions has been described, including erythematous patches or plaques, inflammatory erysipelas-like lesions, diffuse sclerodermiform lesions with induration of the skin, telangiectatic papulovesicles, purpuric plaques mimicking vasculitis, and alopecia areata like scalp lesions. The so-called zosteriform pattern has been described to be in few cases and to the best of our knowledge has never been described associated with a metastasis of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This case highlights the relevance of including cutaneous metastases in the differential diagnosis of patients with nonhealing herpes zoster-like lesions, especially in those with underlying neoplasm recently diagnosed.
Camilo Andrés Morales
Se presentan tres casos de leishmaniasis cutánea zosteriforme en los que se identificaron Leishmania panamensis y Leishmania braziliensis como especies infectantes. La sospecha epidemiológica derivada de la procedencia de los pacientes, así como la sospecha clínica a partir del reconocimiento de una presentación infrecuente de la enfermedad, permitieron hacer el diagnóstico.
The lichen is an ideal subject for student study because it is omnipresent in school yards, easily collected and observed year-round, a pioneer of evolution on land, and a bioindicator of air pollution. After doing fieldwork on this unusual composite organism as an apprentice with a team of lichenologists, Sarah Thorne developed Learning Lichens.…
Full Text Available "Oral cavity is the reflection of an individual′s general health" .Many systemic diseases have manifestations in the oral cavity. Systemic influences,such as endocrinal, immtlnological, nutritional and psychological states have an important role in thebalance between oral health and disease. This also holds good for a well known mucocutaneous disorder - "Oral Lichen Planus". The present study is carried out to deteremine any co-relation between oral lichen planes and chronic liver diseases.
Objective To com pare and evaluate the treatment result of oral lichen ptanua(OLP) with CO2 laser and fi' actional CO2 laser. Method: One hundred and sixteen OLP cases were evaluated in this study. Among these patients, 60 and 56 cases were respectively contained in CO2 laser group ( group A ) and fractional CO2 laser group (group B). All patients in the two groups were treated three times by the same doctor and the same treatmental parameters. After the treatment, the local tissue reaction,decrustation time, wound heal time, scar, and cure rate were evaluated. Result: The degree of swelling and pain in group A was more severe than in group B. Deerustatian time was 9 ± 0.8 days in groupA and 7 ± 0.6 days in group B. ( p ＜ 0.05 ) . Wotmd healing time was 11 ± 0.8days in grpup A and 8 + 0. 6days in gwoup B ( p ＜ 0.05 ). The scar in group A was more severe than in group B. The cure rate was 43 ± 7.3 ％, and 45 ± 6.5 ％ respoctively (p ＞ 0.05 ) o Conclusion: Compare to traditional CO2 laser, OLP cases which treated with fractional CO2 lasei get the similar cure rate, but the swelling, pain and sear are more slight ,and the wound healing time is significantly shorten.%通过与传统CO2激光疗法比较,评价点阵CO2激光治疗口腔黏膜扁平苔藓的优劣.方法:经临床和病理检查确诊为口腔黏膜扁平苔藓患者116例,其中A组60例,接受传统CO2激光疗法,B组56例,接受点阵CO2激光疗法.治疗由同一人操作,参数相同:功率5.OW/cm2,照射时间3s,治疗次数3次,每次间隔10周.治疗后观察局部组织反应、脱痂时间、创面愈合时间、治疗区瘢痕形成情况及治愈率.结果:治疗后局部肿痛;A组明显严重于B组;脱痂时间:A组9±0.8天,B组7±0.6天,组间差异非常显著(p0.05).结论:与传统CO2,激光比较,点阵CO2激光治疗口腔黏膜扁平苔藓的治愈率相近,但具有创面愈合时间短,局部组织反应轻,瘢痕形成少等优点,值得推广.
... Outreach Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Lichen Sclerosus Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Lichen Sclerosus Lichen sclerosus usually affects the skin of ...
Kirschbaum, A; Klee, R
Studies with lichen explants and with naturally occurring lichens, conducted in the Lower Main region in West Germany within the framework of an air hydgienic and meteorologic model study of that region, are described. Parmelia physodes explants from oak trees growing in nonpolluted areas were exposed in polluted areas, such as in an industrial area, an airport, a petroleum refinery, and near a large chemical plant. The degree of air pollution in the exposure site was evaluated by the degree of the lichen damage in seven grades. The large-scale average distribution of air pollution in the survey area was studied by surveying the natural occurrence of lichen species on 10 apple trees in area units of 6.25 sq km each. The lichen explant and lichen survey methods compared by the study of naturally occurring lichens were near the exposure site of lichen explants.
Paul L. Patterson; Susan Will-Wolf; Marie T. Trest
Lichens are very responsive to environmental stressors in forests, including changes in forest structure, air quality, and climate. Each lichen species on a plot is an indicator of how lichen communities respond to ecological conditions. Individual lichen species occur erratically and even common species are often absent from plots with suitable habitat. The combined...
West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if ...
Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph
The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.
Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Rüetschi, Jörg; Fischer, Markus
Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens. PMID:21533256
Oldershaw, Cally; Hilton, Barbara; Rocca, Alis
The late Tom Chester, in his role as the British Lichen Society churchyard coordinator, did a great deal to encourage the use of the churchyard as an educational tool. In his honour, the Society has created an award as part of its "Lichen Project". When the Society approached the Association for Science Education (ASE) for help in…
Full Text Available Líquen estriado é uma erupção inflamatória incomum, de etiologia desconhecida. Raramente acomete adultos, e é caracterizada pelo surgimento abrupto de pápulas coalescentes, em arranjo linear, usualmente em extremidades. A histopatologia mostra reação liquenóide envolvendo folículos e glândulas. Ocasionalmente há sobreposição com líquen plano linear e "blaschkitis", seus principais diagnósticos diferenciais. Relata-se um caso de mulher adulta com pápulas eritematovioláceas em região cervical e hemiface direitas, cuja correlação clínico-histopatológica permitiu o diagnóstico de líquen estriado. Os achados atípicos e a dificuldade diagnóstica são discutidos.Lichen Striatus is an uncommon inflammatory skin eruption of unknown etiology. It rarely affects adults, and it is characterized by abrupt onset of coalescent papules, in a linear disposition, usually on the extremities. Histopathology shows lichenoid reaction involving follicles and glands. Occasionally, there is overlap with linear lichen planus and "blaschkitis", the main differential diagnoses. It is reported here the case of an adult woman with erythematous violaceous papules on the right side of the neck and face, diagnosed with lichen striatus by clinical and histopathological correlation. The atypical findings and the diagnostic difficulty are discussed.
Hawksworth, D L
The lichen flora of the central English county of Derbyshire is described and discussed. The distribution of each species is described with reference to 10 km grid squares. In areas where air pollution is severe, very few species are found, even if otherwise suitable habitants are available. Air pollution is therefore considered to be the dominant factor affecting the present lichen flora of the county. The lichen communities have been studied and nineteen unions belonging to eleven federations are recognized. Several species are discussed taxonomically. 182 references, 15 tables.
Richardson, H S
Lichens, a symbiotic association of an alga and a fungus, have been used for some years as 'bioindicators', to detect environmental pollution. For this, their property of reacting to certain pollutants with characteristic changes of growth is exploired. With this biological method, continual, sufficiently sensitive measurements over wide areas can often be carried out more simply than with expensive, complicated technical equipment, which requires servicing, as well. This article describes the various possibilities of using lichens as bioindicators, and reviews the methods currently in use for measuring air pollution by means of lichens.
Tallis, J H
The extreme sensitivity of lichens, particularly the larger ones, to industrialization has been recognized for many years. Most people attribute the absence of lichens from urban areas to the atmospheric pollution prevailing, and a few attribute it to climatic dryness, resulting from efficient drainage systems in towns. The two main components of air pollution are solid matter, or soot, and gaseous sulfur dioxide. The main effects of pollution appear to be: a direct reduction of light intensity by smoke haze, a deposit of soot on the plant surface, an acidification of the soil, and direct damage to plants. A body of evidence indicates that SO/sub 2/ may be the main harmful component for lichens. The distribution of lichens thus might be used to determine the limits within which atmospheric pollution is operating. 5 references.
This publication discusses the use of lichens as biological indicators. Perennial growth, long life, efficient take-up of mineral nutrients from air and rain and small loss of nutrition are properties that make lichens suitable as biological indicators. In surveys and monitoring, species diversity and coverage by organisms that live as epiphytes on tree trunks have been the most commonly used parameters. A decline in the occurrence of this type of lichen is often related to the content of sulphur compounds in the air and it has been demonstrated that many species are sensitive to sulphur dioxide. It is also known that the growth of many types of lichens increases with a moderate increase in available nitrogen. In South Norway, pollution sensitive species such as Bryoria spp. have advanced strongly, which is probably due to less sulphur in the rain and a higher content of nutrition in the form of nitrate and ammonium
Provides background information and teaching suggestions for collecting and using lichens in the classroom and for conducting field investigations. Focuses on structure, reproduction, photosynthesis, and effects of air pollution. (DC)
Although lichens are generally considered to be of little use to man, their sensitivity to air pollution makes them good biological indicators. The author describes how this feature can help to establish relative degrees of air pollution. He notes areas where lichens are reduced in number and vigor, and some in which they have disappeared altogether. He challenges the idea that dryness is responsible, since they have also disappeared from damp woodland areas. Experimental work supports the view that sulfur dioxide is the major factor rather than smoke, although there is no definitive proof. Lichen damage correlates best with mean winter levels of air pollution by SO/sub 2/. 16 references, 1 figure.
Nybakken, Line; Helmersen, Anne-Marit; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Selås, Vidar
Some lichen compounds are known to deter feeding by invertebrate herbivores. We attempted to quantify the deterring efficiency of lichen compounds against a generalist vertebrate, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In two separate experiments, caged bank voles had the choice to feed on lichens with natural or reduced concentrations of secondary compounds. We rinsed air-dry intact lichens in 100% acetone to remove extracellular compounds non-destructively. In the first experiment, pairs of control and rinsed lichen thalli were hydrated and offered to the bank voles. Because the lichens desiccated fast, we ran a second experiment with pairs of ground control and compound-deficient thalli, each mixed with water to porridge. Eight and six lichen species were tested in the first and second experiment, respectively. In the first, bank voles preferred compound-deficient thalli of Cladonia stellaris and Lobaria pulmonaria, but did not discriminate between the other thallus pairs. This was likely a result of deterring levels of usnic and stictic acid in the control thalli. When lichens were served as porridge, significant preference was found for acetone-rinsed pieces of Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, Platismatia glauca, and Evernia prunastri. The increased preference was caused mainly by lower consumption of control thalli. Grinding and mixing of thallus structures prevented bank voles from selecting thallus parts with lower concentration of secondary compounds and/or strengthened their deterring capacity. We conclude that some lichen secondary compounds deter feeding by bank voles.
Jereb, Vesna; Horvat, Milena
Lichens have long been regarded as a suitable tool for monitoring the relative levels of atmospheric pollutants. Lichens have neither roots, a waxy cuticle nor stomata: hence, for mineral nutrition they are largely dependent on wet and dry deposition from the atmosphere. Moreover, lichens are perennial and can accumulate elements over long periods of time. Therefore, concentrations of elements in lichens represent the average levels of elements in the atmosphere for a long period of time. The epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes is a good bioindicator of air pollution with total mercury (THg). In addition, it contains small amounts of methylmercury (MeHg + ). The first aim of our work was to test analytical techniques for determination of MeHg in lichens taken from different locations in Idrija and reference locations
Vilsholm, René Larsen; Wolseley, Pat; Søchting, Ulrik
Two surveys of the lichen and bryophyte flora growing on oak twigs from a Welsh and a Danish locality were compared with additional data on bark pH and % nitrogen in thalli of Hypogymnia physodes. Despite differences in climate and lichen flora, both sites showed a shift in the lichen communities...... showing a loss of nitrophobes in all sites and the appearance of nitrophiles in pasture sites in 2003. This study demonstrates that lichens on twigs can be used as an early warning system to detect a response to changes in land management and nitrogen deposition....
Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.
This volume reflects the particular concern of many biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. It brings together contributions from many experts in this field and includes much previously unpublished data, as well as up-to-date review chapters. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to critical laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various air pollutants on the living tissues of lichens. The action of such pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. It is the editors' intention that the book be both a reference volume and an encouragement for further wor
Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.
This volume reflects the concern of biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various pollutants. The actions of pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. Separate analytics are included for 17 chapters.
Full Text Available The paper includes the list of 184 species of Lichens stated in the area of Choszczno Lake District. It gives the ecological conditions of their occurrence and the number of sites. Theendangered lichens growing in the forest-bereft regions which were under the strong influence of factors included by intensive agriculture were presented.
Caius Solovan; Cristina Birsan; Anca E. Chiriac; Liliana Foia; Anca Chiriac; Piotr Brzeziński
Lichen striatus is an acquired linear inflammatory dermatosis, not frequently reported, with a peculiar clinical aspect, most often described in adults, with a poor response to treatment. We described 4 cases of lichen striatus diagnosed over an 8-month period of time.
Full Text Available Lichen striatus is an acquired linear inflammatory dermatosis, not frequently reported, with a peculiar clinical aspect, most often described in adults, with a poor response to treatment. We described 4 cases of lichen striatus diagnosed over an 8-month period of time.
Holleman, D F; Luick, J R
The preference by reindeer for five species of lichens commonly found on Central Alaska rangelands was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that reindeer are strongly selective species in their lichen grazing habits. The five tested species ranged as follows in order of decreasing acceptibility: Caldonia alpestris, C. rangiferina, Stereocaulon paschale, Cetraria richardsonii, and Peltigera aphthosa.
K. Stolte; D. Mangis; R. Doty; K. Tonnessen; Laurie S. Huckaby
This report is the result of a workshop held in Denver, Colorado on April 9-11, 1991. It summarizes the current literature and techniques for using lichens to monitor air quality. Experts in lichenology and ecology contributed information on lichen floristics, characterization of monitoring sites, lichen species and communities, identifying lichen species...
O' Hare, G
Available techniques for determining air pollution by sulfur dioxide using lichens are described. An application of these methods - species distributions, zone mapping and analyses of total sulfur content - in the west central Scotland area, is briefly reported.
Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby
Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling.
... planus)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection. Abstract... (Including Flatfeet (pes planus)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY...)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...
Dang, Jun; Bian, Yong-qian; Sun, Jian-yong
and patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). A total of 20 OLP and 12 patients with OSCC as well as 10 healthy subjects were subjected to miR-137 promoter methylation analysis using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). To address the malignancy prediction potential from miR-137 promoter methylation status...
Artico, G; Freitas, R S; Santos Filho, A M; Benard, G; Romiti, R; Migliari, D A
To determine the frequency of Candida spp., xerostomia, and salivary flow rate (SFR) in three different groups: patients with OLP (OLP group), patients with oral mucosal lesions other than OLP (non-OLP group), and subjects without oral mucosal lesions (control group). Xerostomia as well as SFR was investigated in the three groups. Samples for isolation of Candida spp. were collected from OLP lesions (38 patients), non-OLP lesions (28 patients), and healthy subjects (32 subjects). There was no statistically significant difference regarding the frequency of xerostomia and hyposalivation among the three groups (P > 0.05). A higher prevalence for colonization by Candida spp. was found in the healthy subject as compared to that of patients with OLP (P = 0.03) and non-OLP (P = 0.02) groups. Low SFR was not a factor for colonization by Candida spp. Xerostomia and hyposalivation occur with similar frequency in subjects with and without oral lesions; also, the presence of oral lesions does not increase the susceptibility to colonization by Candida spp. It seems that any study implicating Candida spp. in the malignant transformation of oral lesions should be carried out mostly on a biochemical basis, that is, by testing the capability of Candida spp. to produce carcinogenic enzyme. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Settings and Design: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was done in the Oral Medicine Department of a postgraduate teaching dental hospital in India. Materials and Methods: Thirty symptomatic OLP patients, randomly divided into two groups of 15 each, were administered lycopene 8 mg/day and an identical placebo, respectively, for 8 consecutive weeks. Burning sensation using visual analogue scale and overall treatment response using Tel Aviv-San Francisco scale were recorded at every visit. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using Wilcoxon Rank test, Mann-Whitney and Fischer′s Exact test. Results: A higher (84% reduction in burning sensation was seen in lycopene than in the placebo group (67%. All 15 (100% patients in the lycopene group showed 50% or more benefit and 11 (73.3% patients showed 70-100% benefit, while this number was only 10 and 4 (26.7%, respectively, in the placebo group. Conclusion: Lycopene was very effective in the management of OLP, and oxidative stress may have a role in disease pathogenesis.
Full Text Available Epidemic Kaposi sarcoma is a common finding among HIV/AIDS patients that are not under antiretroviral treatment, and sometimes it is the first sign of the disease. However, it can be seen even in patients with undetectable viral load and high CD 4 cell count. Under these circumstances, the clinical presentation can be atypical in location or number. For this reason, the number of differential diagnosis is increased and biopsy of the suspicious lesions is essential for an accurate diagnosis and further apropiate treatment.
Divano, M C; Parodi, A; Rebora, A
No anti-liver kidney microsomal (LKM1) antibodies were detected in 46 patients with LP, 16 of whom had also a chronic liver disease (CLD). In contrast, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies were found in 10% of patients with LP and in 50% of those with LP and CLD. Anti-HCV antibodies may be considered as a false-positive reaction in 56% of cases, especially when anti-LKM1 antibodies are present. Our findings do not support such a hypothesis, but suggest that CLD in LP patients is, at least in Italy, mostly a postviral chronic active hepatitis.
Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Legowski, Elizabeth; Tseytlin, Eugene
Medicine is the science of acquiring a lot of obscure knowledge and the art of knowing when to apply it, even if only once in a physician's lifetime. Although medical experts seem to have it all figured out, being significantly better and faster than trainees, many studies have suggested that it is not only the amount of knowledge - which comes with experience - that differentiates the experts, but it is also how the knowledge is structured in memory. To acquire new knowledge, trainees will first encode both `surface' (i.e., irrelevant) and `structural' (relevant) features, and repeated presentations of the material will allow for dismissal of the unimportant elements from memory. However, just because knowledge has been encoded it does not mean that it is safely guarded in the physician's memory; as with any information, if it is not tended to, it will slowly decay, and eventually it may be completely forgotten. In this study we investigated knowledge retention in a specific sub-domain of Pathology which is rarely, if ever, used by trainees. We wanted to determine the relationship between the way long-term memory is accessed (i.e., through recognition or free recall) and trainee performance. We also sought to determine whether access to long-term memory through either mechanism led to better transfer of newly acquired knowledge to never before seen cases.
Conclusion: Enhanced COX-2 expression in both OLP epithelium and inflammatory infiltrates correlates well with the clinical severity. An association between VAS score and COX-2 expression in OLP inflammatory infiltrates suggests an important role of additional COX-2 expression from inflammation in causing pain in OLP patients.
Hauck, Markus, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Plant Ecology, Albrecht von Haller Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Goettingen, Untere Karspuele 2, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)
Since lichens lack roots and take up water, solutes and gases over the entire thallus surface, these organisms respond more sensitively to changes in atmospheric purity than vascular plants. After centuries where effects of sulphur dioxide and acidity were in the focus of research on atmospheric chemistry and lichens, recently the globally increased levels of ammonia and nitrate increasingly affect lichen vegetation and gave rise to intense research on the tolerance of lichens to nitrogen pollution. The present paper discusses the main findings on the uptake of ammonia and nitrate in the lichen symbiosis and to the tolerance of lichens to eutrophication. Ammonia and nitrate are both efficiently taken up under ambient conditions. The tolerance to high nitrogen levels depends, among others, on the capability of the photobiont to provide sufficient amounts of carbon skeletons for ammonia assimilation. Lowly productive lichens are apparently predisposed to be sensitive to excess nitrogen. - Eutrophication has become a global threat for lichen diversity.
Powell, M.; Vondrák, Jan
Roč. 2012, č. 110 (2012), s. 11-14 ISSN 0300-4562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : diaspore transport * lichen colonization * Mediterranean lichen s Subject RIV: EF - Botanics
Bondarenko, P. V.; Nguyet, Le Thi Bich; Zhuravleva, S. E.; Trukhan, E. M.
The paramagnetic properties of lichens were investigated using EPR spectroscopy and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. as a case study. It was found that the concentration of paramagnetic centers in lichen thalli increased as the air-pollution level increased. Possible formation mechanisms of the paramagnetic centers in lichens were discussed. The efficiency of using EPR spectroscopy to study lichens as environmental quality indicators was demonstrated.
Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Byung Yoon; Park, Kyung Chan; Youn, Sang Woong
Lichen aureus is a rare type of chronic pigmented purpuric dermatosis. The eruptions consist of discrete or confluent golden to brownish lichenoid macules and papules, and are usually asymptomatic. Lichen aureus commonly occurs in young adults, but less frequently in children. We report the first case of multiple lichen aureus occurring in a Korean child.
Le Pogam, Pierre; Boustie, Joël
An update of xanthones encountered in lichens is proposed as more than 20 new xanthones have been described since the publication of the compendium of lichen metabolites by Huneck and Yoshimura in 1996. The last decades witnessed major advances regarding the elucidation of biosynthetic schemes leading to these fascinating compounds, accounting for the unique substitution patterns of a very vast majority of lichen xanthones. Besides a comprehensive analysis of the structures of xanthones described in lichens, their bioactivities and the emerging analytical strategies used to pinpoint them within lichens are presented here together with physico-chemical properties (including NMR data) as reported since 1996.
Rydzak, J; Krysiak, K
In Tomaszow Mazowiecki, a small town in Poland with the air highly contaminated with gases (SO/sub 2/, CS/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S), a flora of epiphytic and epilithic lichens is present. Lichens are not indicators of air pollution. They are indicators of a complex of microclimatic conditions that enable them to maintain a positive balance of assimilation and of respiratory processes in a given station within the town as well as in natural habitats. 58 references, 16 figures, 7 tables.
Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis with anogenital and extragenital presentations. Extragenital lichen sclerosus is most common on the neck, shoulders and upper trunk. Linear lesions are uncommon in LSA. We report a case of linear extragenital LSA involving forehead and scalp, along with grouped white papules of LSA in the right side of the back in a postmenopausal woman. The patient showed atypical clinical presentation of LSA in face which clinically mimicked ′en coup de sabre′ as seen in morphea, but other clinical features suggested the diagnosis of LSA and the histopathological findings confirmed it.
... simplex chronicus? • What is lichen sclerosus? • What is lichen planus? • What is vulvodynia? • What are the signs and ... gland cysts, lichen simplex chronicus, lichen sclerosus, and lichen planus. What is folliculitis? Folliculitis appears as small, red, ...
Petzold, D.E.; Goward, S.N.
Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)
Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.
Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.
De Sloover, J
An ecological method has been designed which allows a quantitative estimation of specific sensitivity of lichens to atmospheric pollution. That method is based on a comparison of the ''cortege moyen specifique'' i.e. the mean number of lichens growing with each species in a given area. Four of the obtained sequences are compared (The Dender valley and the area surrounding Gand, Belgium: the Oslo and the Helsinki areas); they show the order to toxiphoby of the related epiphytic lichens.
Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bennett, James P.; Johnson, Christopher J.
The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than 20 lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.
De Wit, T
The WHEN workgroup has made an inventory of the epiphytic lichens on freestanding trees in The Netherlands, using a 5 km square-grid as a basis. On the basis of the number of lichen species per tree species per square, the squares were divided into six classes of epiphyte richness. The data for the west of the country were analyzed in more detail, resulting in a zone map. It appeared possible to construct a descriptive model of the correlation between SO/sub 2/ concentrations and epiphyte richness. At median winter SO/sub 2/ concentrations higher than 100..mu..g/m/sup 3/ only a few insensitive species occur. At lower concentrations winter peak values (98 percentile) are more important than median ones. The extent to which a species is restricted to epiphyte-rich squares is used as a measure for ranking the species according to sensitivity. The more sensitive species have disappeared from large areas of The Netherlands. Comparison of the present situation with data from around 1950 reveals a decline almost everywhere in the country. The southern and western parts of the country are impoverished, the area between Rotterdam and Den Haag and the area between Arnhem and Nijmegen in particular have become very poor. A further decline of the epiphytic lichen vegetation, in particular of the relatively rich areas, is expected. In fumigation experiments, using HF, SO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, O/sub 3/ and O/sub 3/ combined with SO/sub 2/ at realistic concentrations and prolonged exposition it was found that these air pollutants cause (under glasshouse conditions) significant morphological damage to all or some of the tested lichen species.
Full Text Available Lichens represent unique symbiosis of fungi (mycobionts and algae (photobionts. Living in extreme conditions they developed various compounds to survive. Many of these original compounds have proven biological activities (antibiotic, antimycotic, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant, etc . This paper is synthesis of currently known data about lichens extracts and their potential use in pharmaceutics and medicine.
The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…
Calcott, Mark J; Ackerley, David F; Knight, Allison; Keyzers, Robert A; Owen, Jeremy G
Lichens, which are defined by a core symbiosis between a mycobiont (fungal partner) and a photobiont (photoautotrophic partner), are in fact complex assemblages of microorganisms that constitute a largely untapped source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Historically, compounds isolated from lichens have predominantly been those produced by the dominant fungal partner, and these continue to be of great interest for their unique chemistry and biotechnological potential. In recent years it has become apparent that many photobionts and lichen-associated bacteria also produce a range of potentially valuable molecules. There is evidence to suggest that the unique nature of the symbiosis has played a substantial role in shaping many aspects of lichen chemistry, for example driving bacteria to produce metabolites that do not bring them direct benefit but are useful to the lichen as a whole. This is most evident in studies of cyanobacterial photobionts, which produce compounds that differ from free living cyanobacteria and are unique to symbiotic organisms. The roles that these and other lichen-derived molecules may play in communication and maintaining the symbiosis are poorly understood at present. Nonetheless, advances in genomics, mass spectrometry and other analytical technologies are continuing to illuminate the wealth of biological and chemical diversity present within the lichen holobiome. Implementation of novel biodiscovery strategies such as metagenomic screening, coupled with synthetic biology approaches to reconstitute, re-engineer and heterologously express lichen-derived biosynthetic gene clusters in a cultivable host, offer a promising means for tapping into this hitherto inaccessible wealth of natural products.
Full Text Available Reindeer lichens are important in the structure and function of tundra and taiga ecosystems, as exemplified by cover values, biomass, mineral content, and effect on other ecosystem components. They are particularly important for winter ecology of reindeer and caribou which largely relay on them. Growth measurement is difficult due to the very slow rate and the methods that have been used are not sufficiently documented, precise, or appropriate. Use of carbon dioxide exchange models, coupled with models of lichen microclimate and water relations, based on microclimatic data are suggested as alternatives for land managers. The assumptions of such models are discussed and the performance of mixed species lichen mats and of the lichen CO2 environment and its effect on lichen CO2 exchange.
Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin
Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of
Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva
Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these
Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D.; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva
Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these
Pragya Ashok Nair
Full Text Available Vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis characterized by ivory-white plaques or patches with glistening surface commonly affecting the vulva and anus. Common symptoms are irritation, soreness, dyspareunia, dysuria, and urinary or fecal incontinence. Anogenital lichen sclerosus (LS is characterized by porcelain-white atrophic plaques, which may become confluent extending around the vulval and perianal skin in a figure of eight configuration. Thinning and shrinkage of the genital area make coitus, urination, and defecation painful. LS is not uncommon in India and present as an itchy vulvar dermatosis which a gynecologist may mistake for candidal vulvovaginitis. There is often a delay in diagnosis of VLS due to its asymptomatic nature and lack of awareness in patients as well as physicians. Embarrassment of patients due to private nature of the disease and failure to examine the genital skin properly are the other reasons for delay in diagnosis. There is no curative treatment for LS. Various medications available only relieve the symptoms. Chronic nature of the disease affects the quality of life. Proper and regular follow-up is required as there are chances of the development of squamous cell carcinoma.
The hypothesis was tested that the lichen substances produced by the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes control the intracellular uptake of divalent transition metals. Incubating lichen thalli with and without their natural content of lichen substances with metal solutions showed that the lichen substances of H. physodes selectively inhibit the uptake of Cu(2+) and Mn(2+), but not of Fe(2+) and Zn(2+). Such behavior is ecologically beneficial, as ambient concentrations of Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) in precipitation and bark are known to limit the abundance of H. physodes, whereas limiting effects of Fe(2+) or Zn(2+) have never been found. This suggests that increasing the Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) tolerance stimulated the evolution of lichen substances in H. physodes. The depsidone physodalic acid is apparently most effective at reducing Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) uptake among the seven lichen substances produced by H. physodes. Probably lichen substances play a general role in the metal homeostasis of lichens.
Urbanavichus, G.; Vondrák, Jan; Urbanavichene, I.
Roč. 102, č. 4 (2017), s. 563-576 ISSN 0006-8136 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : lichens * distribution * Northern Caucasus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany
Henderson-Sellers, A; Seaward, M R.D.
Bioindicators have not yet been widely used to measure the improving atmospheric conditions in our cities. This paper describes a study of the reinvasion of one lichen, Lecanora muralis (schreb.) rabenh., into the West Yorkshire conurbation. The results indicate that the response to improved atmospheric conditions is slow and difficult to model in terms of a simple threshold value of sulphur dioxide alone. It appears that the lichen's response becomes dependent upon other parameters as the atmospheric pollutant levels drop.
Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin
After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.
Verena K. Mittermeier
Full Text Available Non-targeted 1H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis.
Full Text Available The capacity to accumulate metal in the lichen communities has been used to identify the level of air pollution due road traffic. Several analyses have been conducted in the study, on tissue from lichens collected from six areas: the park of a town, various sites on the town’s freeway and on a county road segment with moderate traffic. The analyzed lichens were from the Parmelia spp. species which grow naturally on trees found in borderline lanes of motorways. Based on the degree of heavy metal accumulation such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in the Parmelia spp. lichens, a correlation has been made, with the road traffic. According to the metal bioaccumulation degree in lichens tissue, it has been established that the sources such as traffic from the outskirts of cities, from the perimeter of gas stations and of county roads continuously spread products which contain these elements, into the atmosphere. The fast information regarding the quality of the air in the environment allows the use of lichens as organism which can indicate environmental conditions and their modification by accumulating substances.
Samples of lichens were investigated, collected in 1987 in the Eastern Urals and in 1988 in the vicinity of Chernobyl. Data are given on the size of thalli of epiphytic lichens from trunks of pine in the Chernobyl area, and on the beta activity in epiphytic lichens in the birch forests of the Urals 30 years after the Kyshtym accident, as well as concentrations of 40 K, 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 144 Ce in lichen thalli and the bark of pine tree, taken at 5 locations in the vicinity of Chernobyl 1000 days after the accident. Also given are cross-ratios of radioactivity of 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 144 Ce in lichen thalli and in the bark of pine trees. The results indicate that the activity of radionuclides in lichen thalli make a fairly reliable indicator of relative differences between the investigated areas in terms of the level of surface contamination and qualitative composition of the involved radionuclides. (J.B.) 4 tabs., 15 refs
Full Text Available Lichen is a symbiotic plant built by the cells of algae and fungi hyphae. Algae are usually presented - green (Chlorophyta or blue green (Cyanophyta, a mushroom commonly found is ascomycetae and sometimes basidiomycetae. Mushrooms receive oxygen and carbohydrates from algae, and they in turn provide water, CO2 and mineral salts. Lichens are often found on trees and rocks in unpolluted environments and can be used as a bioindicator species. In during 2015-2016. was realized a survey of epiphytic lichen flora of the western mountains in environment of Vranje. Sampling was carried out at 4 locations: Borino brdo, Krstilovica, Markovo Kale and Pljačkovica. Based on the collected and determined samples can be concluded that the study implemented of the area of 25 species of lichens of which: 8 as crust, leafy 12 and 5 shrub. The research results indicate that the lichen flora of the western mountains environments Vranje of a rich and diverse as a result of favorable geographic position, geological and soil composition, climate and plant cover that provide opportunities for the development and survival of lichens.
Sarah Jovan; Susan Will-Wolf; Michael. Amacher
Lichen chemistry can be used to estimate concentrations of environmental contaminants, ranging from heavy metals and fertilizers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, pesticides, herbicides, and flame retardants. We conducted a pilot looking at 26 metals and nutrient anions in 5 widespread lichen species across the upper Midwest, including: As, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd,...
Beckett, Richard P; Zavarzina, Anna G; Liers, Christiane
Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (usually an Ascomycete) with green algae and/or a cyanobacterium. They dominate on 8 % of the world's land surface, mainly in Arctic and Antarctic regions, tundra, high mountain elevations and as components of dryland crusts. In many ecosystems, lichens are the pioneers on the bare rock or soil following disturbance, presumably because of their tolerance to desiccation and high temperature. Lichens have long been recognized as agents of mineral weathering and fine-earth stabilization. Being dominant biomass producers in extreme environments they contribute to primary accumulation of soil organic matter. However, biochemical role of lichens in soil processes is unknown. Our recent research has demonstrated that Peltigeralean lichens contain redox enzymes which in free-living fungi participate in lignocellulose degradation and humification. Thus lichen enzymes may catalyse formation and degradation of soil organic matter, particularly in high-stress communities dominated by lower plants. In the present review we synthesize recently published data on lichen phenol oxidases, peroxidases, and cellulases and discuss their possible roles in lichen physiology and soil organic matter transformations. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Investigations of the lichen flora of roadside trees were carried out at 69 sites in eastern Poland in 1966-1969. Conclusive relationships between lichen distributions and air pollution from automobile exhaust gases could not be inferred from the data.
Lang, G E; Reiners, W A; Heier, R K
Epiphytic lichen growth is abundant on the boles and branches of balsam fir trees at high elevations in New Hampshire. These lichens absorb elements needed for growth from solutions flowing over their surfaces and from direct impaction of water droplets. This study describes how epiphytic lichens and fir needles altered the chemistry of simulated rain water solutions under laboratory conditions. Experiments showed: 1) lichens absorbed ammonium and nitrate from solution; the rate of uptake increased with increasing temperature of the solution, 2) lichens lost calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen to the solution, 3) lichen thalli also initially lost potassium, but in time, net movement was reversed back into the thallus, 4) cation movement increased with increasing temperature, and 5) fir needles responded in a manner similar to that of the lichens, but the amount of change was much less. From these results it seems that epiphytic lichens have potential ecological importance in altering the chemistry of throughfall and stemflow.
Bates, Scott T.; Cropsey, Garrett W. G.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah
Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and “algae” (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N2 fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N2 fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses. PMID:21169444
After having recalled the morphology and the different classification of lichens, the author presents the main lichenous substances, in particular the depsides and the depsidones. A detailed study on the role of lichens as pollution biological indicators is given. (O.M.)
Conclusion: Cryotherapy with nitrous oxide gas is as effective as topical triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of OLP with no systemic side effects and needs less patient compliance. It can be considered as an alternative or adjuvant therapy in OLP patients to reduce the use of treatments with adverse effects.
Larsen, K R; Johansen, J D; Reibel, J
candidiasis. Immunohistochemistry were performed using poly- and monoclonal filaggrin antibodies. RESULTS: The immunoreactivity for filaggrin was significantly more intense in the oral mucosa in the patients with OLP/OLL compared to healthy controls (p=0.000025). No difference was noted in the incidence...
Conclusion: Our results suggest that treatment consisting of prednisolone plus traditional medicinal herbs can improve OLP symptoms, relieve pain, reduce recurrent severity, and increase the disease-free period. The benefits of combined therapy for OLP should be investigated by conducting a prospective randomized clinical trial in the future.
Y M Swarna
Interpretation and conclusion Topical tacrolimus 0.03% ointment induced better initial therapeutic response than triamcinolone acetonide 0.1 % ointment. However, relapses occurred in two subjects in group ′A′ and three subjects in group ′B′ after the cessation of the respective treatments. Nevertheless, at present topical tacrolimus may be a valuable addition to the already existing therapeutic modalities for treating subjects with OLP.
Conclusion: Prompt and complete healing of the EOLP lesions could be achieved in a relative short period of time after treatment with our protocol. Although complete response EOLP lesions recurred after a follow-up period of 3–24 months, patients did have an average remission period of 12 months after treatment with our protocol.
Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 22 is the signature cytokine of T-helper (Th 22 cells, and IL-23 is required for IL-22 production. The objective of this study was to examine the immunoexpression of IL-22 and IL-23 in archival paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens from oral LP (n=42 and cutaneous LP (n=38 against normal control tissues. The results showed that the percentage of cells expressing IL-22 and IL-23 in LP were significantly higher in LP compared to controls, respectively (both P<0.001. The correlation between IL-22 and IL-23 expression was significant (P<0.05. Moreover, the percentage of cells expressing IL-22 and IL-23 in oral LP were significantly higher than cutaneous LP (P<0.05. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that the increased expression of IL-22 and IL-23 in LP lesions could play roles in the pathogenesis of LP. Moreover, oral LP expressing IL-22 and IL-23 was higher than cutaneous LP, probably due to Th22 cells as an important component of oral mucosal host defense against oral microbiota and tissue antigens. This may be associated with the difference in clinical behaviour of the two variants of the disease.
Full Text Available Lichen is a plant with many benefits. Its abundant existence in an area may indicate that air pollution levels are still low. Besides as indicator of air quality, lichen is also used as traditional medicine. Until present time, application of lichens for arthritis, constipation, chemotherapy, external wound, microbial infection, worm and infestation are still done in some countries. It is due to active chemical compounds contain in lichen that has activities as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoa, analgesic and antipyretic, and anthelmintic. With its potential and efforts to provide sustainable materials, lichen has good prospect to be developed become modern medicine.
More than 5000 reindeer were moved from highly contaminated winter pasture areas (20 - greater than 80 kBq/m 2 ) to less contaminated areas (1.3 - 2 kBq/m 2 ) with the aim to study the possibility to reduce radiocesium uptake in muscular tissue under practical management conditions. The initial body content of 137 Cs was about 12000 Bq/kg meat. After moving to the less contaminated area the radiocesium level decreased with an effective half-time of about 30 days to 3000 Bq/kg. A further decrease was seen in the summer when the animals mainly graze vascular plants with a higher fibre and potassium content than found in the winter diet. The transfer factor was calculated to 0.65 d/kg in winter and to 0.30 d/kg in summer grazing conditions. The potassium intake was calculated to 7 g/d on winter pasture with about 65% lichen intake and about 30 g/d on summer pasture with more than 65% vascular plant intake
Arvid Odland; Sylvi M. Sandvik; Dag K. Bjerketvedt; Linn L. Myrvold
Quantification of lichen abundance is important for management of reindeer populations. We measured dry lichen biomass in 876 micro plots (16.5 cm × 16.5 cm) systematically sampled within 219 vegetation plots (2 m × 2 m) from 7 different areas in S Norway. Lichen biomass was quantified as: (a) dry weight in g m-2, (b) lichen height in cm, (c) lichen cover, and (d) lichen volume (lichen height × lichen cover). Lichen biomass decreased with increasing precipitation and increasing altitude. On l...
Zúñiga, Catalina; Leiva, Diego; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta
Photobiont availability is one of the main factors determining the success of the lichenization process. Although multiple sources of photobionts have been proposed, there is no substantial evidence confirming that the substrates on which lichens grow are one of them. In this work, we obtained cyanobacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences from the substrates underlying 186 terricolous Peltigera cyanolichens from localities in Southern Chile and maritime Antarctica and compared them with the sequences of the cyanobionts of these lichens, in order to determine if cyanobacteria potentially available for lichenization were present in the substrates. A phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed that Nostoc phylotypes dominated the cyanobacterial communities of the substrates in all sites. Among them, an overlap was observed between the phylotypes of the lichen cyanobionts and those of the cyanobacteria present in their substrates, suggesting that they could be a possible source of lichen photobionts. Also, in most cases, higher Nostoc diversity was observed in the lichens than in the substrates from each site. A better understanding of cyanobacterial diversity in lichen substrates and their relatives in the lichens would bring insights into mycobiont selection and the distribution patterns of lichens, providing a background for hypothesis testing and theory development for future studies of the lichenization process.
Diversity of tropical lichen-forming fungi, especially crustose lichens is currently poorly known. Since lichens are important bioindicators of air pollution, forest health, and climate change, we addressed the lichen diversity in Kenya. Our study focused on the diversity of lichen-forming fungi in the Mount Kenya montane forests ...
Initial literature reports indicated that lichens were highly resistant to gamma radiation. A series of experiments were undertaken to determine why lichens were so resistant. In experiments with Cladonia mitis, C. sylvatica, C. verticillata, Parmelia sulcata and P. subaurifera, using both acute and chronic radiation, it was found that these lichens were not highly resistant to gamma radiation. The lichens appeared to be resistant as long as they were in a dormant condition. But, when allowed to pass through a period which was suitable for growth, radiation damage was quickly manifested. Radiation damage was seen in various ways, including the change of thallus color, disintegration of phycobiant chloroplastids, coalescing of fungal hyphae, reduced CO 2 uptake, and reduction in thallus tensile strength
Asplund, Johan; Wardle, David A
Lichens occur in most terrestrial ecosystems; they are often present as minor contributors, but in some forests, drylands and tundras they can make up most of the ground layer biomass. As such, lichens dominate approximately 8% of the Earth's land surface. Despite their potential importance in driving ecosystem biogeochemistry, the influence of lichens on community processes and ecosystem functioning have attracted relatively little attention. Here, we review the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems and draw attention to the important, but often overlooked role of lichens as determinants of ecological processes. We start by assessing characteristics that vary among lichens and that may be important in determining their ecological role; these include their growth form, the types of photobionts that they contain, their key functional traits, their water-holding capacity, their colour, and the levels of secondary compounds in their thalli. We then assess how these differences among lichens influence their impacts on ecosystem and community processes. As such, we consider the consequences of these differences for determining the impacts of lichens on ecosystem nutrient inputs and fluxes, on the loss of mass and nutrients during lichen thallus decomposition, and on the role of lichenivorous invertebrates in moderating decomposition. We then consider how differences among lichens impact on their interactions with consumer organisms that utilize lichen thalli, and that range in size from microfauna (for which the primary role of lichens is habitat provision) to large mammals (for which lichens are primarily a food source). We then address how differences among lichens impact on plants, through for example increasing nutrient inputs and availability during primary succession, and serving as a filter for plant seedling establishment. Finally we identify areas in need of further work for better understanding the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems. These include
Øvstedal, D.O.; Gremmen, N.J.M.
A tota1 of 71 lichen species in 42 genera are listed for the island. Three species are described as new: “Arctomia” latispora Øvstedal, Fellhaneropsis subantarctica Øvstedal and Stereocaulon heardii Øvstedal. More than half of the species are restricted to the southern cold zone (Antarctica and
The known lichen diversity of Singapore, 296 species, is comparable with temperate lowland areas, but the taxa involved are different, even at high taxonomic levels: the commonest orders are Arthoniales and Graphidales instead of Lecanorales. Epiphytic species dominate, while saxicolous and
Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh
The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.
van Ijsselmuiden, Mèlanie N; Bos, Annelies M E; Hoek, Annemieke; van Beek, André P; Kerstens, Michiel N
Lichen sclerosus was diagnosed at a young age (19, 22 and 37 years) in three women with Turner syndrome. The oldest of these patients had probably suffered from this disorder for over 20 years. The relatively young age of these three patients is remarkable. This observation also suggests an
Full Text Available A case of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA in a male patient who presented with multiple hypopigmented to depigmented macules, polygonal in shape, distributed in a bilaterally, symmetrical manner over the hands, feet and flexor aspect of wrists is being reported. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of LSA.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant properties of the lichen Cetraria aculeata. Antioxidant activity of the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of lichen was tested by different methods including determination of total phenolics content, determination of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, ferrous ion chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The extracts of the lichen C. aculeata showed significant antioxidant activity. The methanol extract showed higher values for total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity compared to the ethyl acetate extract, while the ethyl acetate extract demonstrated better results for DPPH radical scavenging, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging than the methanol extract. This is the first report of the antioxidant properties of Cetraria aculeata growing in Serbia. The results of antioxidant activity indicate the application of this lichen as source of natural antioxidants that could be used as a possible food supplement, in the pharmaceutical industry and in the treatment of various diseases.
The hypothesis was tested that the lichen substances produced by the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes control the intracellular uptake of divalent transition metals. Incubating lichen thalli with and without their natural content of lichen substances with metal solutions showed that the lichen substances of H. physodes selectively inhibit the uptake of Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ , but not of Fe 2+ and Zn 2+ . Such behavior is ecologically beneficial, as ambient concentrations of Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ in precipitation and bark are known to limit the abundance of H. physodes, whereas limiting effects of Fe 2+ or Zn 2+ have never been found. This suggests that increasing the Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ tolerance stimulated the evolution of lichen substances in H. physodes. The depsidone physodalic acid is apparently most effective at reducing Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ uptake among the seven lichen substances produced by H. physodes. Probably lichen substances play a general role in the metal homeostasis of lichens. - Lichen substances in Hypogymnia physodes specifically reduce the uptake of Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ , but not Fe 2+ or Zn 2+
Svensson, Måns; Dahlberg, Anders; Ranius, Thomas; Thor, Göran
The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent) organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1) total lichen species richness, (2) species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3) the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.
Full Text Available The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years, managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1 total lichen species richness, (2 species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3 the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.
Angin, Salih; Crofts, Gillian; Mickle, Karen J; Nester, Christopher J
Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic soft tissue structures that apply forces and support the medial longitudinal arch have been implicated in pes planus. These structures have common functions but their interaction in pes planus is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to compare the cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness of the intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscles and plantar fascia thickness between normal and pes planus feet. Forty-nine adults with a normal foot posture and 49 individuals with pes planus feet were recruited from a university population. Images of the flexor digitorum longus (FDL), flexor hallucis longus (FHL), peroneus longus and brevis (PER), flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles and the plantar fascia were obtained using a Venue 40 ultrasound system with a 5-13 MHz transducer. The CSA and thickness of AbH, FHB and PER muscles were significantly smaller (AbH -12.8% and -6.8%, FHB -8.9% and -7.6%, PER -14.7% and -10%), whilst FDL (28.3% and 15.2%) and FHL (24% and 9.8%) were significantly larger in the pes planus group. The middle (-10.6%) and anterior (-21.7%) portions of the plantar fascia were thinner in pes planus group. Greater CSA and thickness of the extrinsic muscles might reflect compensatory activity to support the MLA if the intrinsic foot muscle function has been compromised by altered foot structure. A thinner plantar fascia suggests reduced load bearing, and regional variations in structure and function in feet with pes planus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Muggia, Lucia; Vancurova, Lucie; Škaloud, Pavel; Peksa, Ondrej; Wedin, Mats; Grube, Martin
The development of characteristic thallus structures in lichen-forming fungi requires the association with suitable photoautotrophic partners. Previous work suggests that fungi have a specific range of compatible photobionts and that selected algal strains are also correlated with the habitat conditions. We selected the rock-inhabiting crust lichen Protoparmeliopsis muralis, which exhibits high flexibility in algal associations. We present a geographically extended and detailed analysis of algal association patterns including thalli which host superficial algal colonies. We sampled 17 localities in Europe, and investigated the photobiont genotypic diversity within and between thalli and compared the diversity of intrathalline photobionts and externally associate algal communities between washed and unwashed thalli by single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses and ITS sequence data. The results show that (1) photobiont population within the lichen thalli is homogeneous; (2) multiple photobiont genotypes occur within single areoles and lobes of individual lichens; and (3) algal communities which superficially colonize the lichen thalli host taxa known as photobionts in unrelated lichens. Photobiont association patterns are extremely flexible in this ecologically versatile crust-forming lichen. We suggest that lichen surfaces represent a potential temporary niche for free-living stages of lichen photobionts, which could facilitate the establishment of further lichens in the proximal area. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meessen, J; Sánchez, F J; Sadowsky, A; de la Torre, R; Ott, S; de Vera, J-P
Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.
Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Sadowsky, A.; de la Torre, R.; Ott, S.; de Vera, J.-P.
Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.
Laundon, J R
There is good, but not conclusive, evidence that sulfur dioxide is the pollutant which deleteriously affects lichens. The distribution of many lichens in London corresponds closely with the concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Low humidity is also a factor. Apart from actually killing lichens, increasing air pollution can render certain species incapable of colonizing new surfaces, although the old thalli themselves are able to survive as relicts. Until the early nineteenth century air pollution affected the lichen flora only in the small built-up area of London. The halting of building around London since 1938 has brought stability to the lichen vegetation of the area, and since then changes have been minor ones. Recent changes in pollution emissions have had little effect on the lichen flora between 1950 and 1967. This is to be expected as sulfur dioxide concentrations have remained fairly constant at ground level.
Munzi, S.; Ravera, S.; Caneva, G.
A synthesis of the studies on lichen diversity carried out in Rome over the period 1982-2003 is presented. In this work, the Lichen Diversity (LD) method has been applied. Besides air pollution, the most important variable affecting the epiphytic lichen flora of Rome, currently updated to 102 taxa, is the influence of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Significant changes in the lichen flora have been noted over the past 20 years, with the lowest diversity now being found in the urban centre and in the eastern and southern sectors, while the 'lichen desert' area has decreased in parallel with decreasing concentrations of CO, NO x and SO 2. - Studies over the past 20 years have characterized the lichen diversity in the city of Rome
Loppi, S.; Riccobono, F.; Zhang, Z.H.; Savic, S.; Ivanov, D.; Pirintsos, S.A.
Widespread contamination by depleted uranium was not detected in the Balkan area. - The contribution of the conflict of 1999 to the environmental levels of uranium in the Balkan area was evaluated by means of lichens used as biomonitors. The average U concentration found in lichens in the present study was in line with the values reported for lichens from other countries and well below the levels found in lichens collected in areas with natural or anthropogenic sources of U. Measurement of isotopic ratios 235 U/ 238 U allowed to exclude the presence of depleted uranium. According to these results, we could not detect widespread environmental contamination by depleted uranium in the Balkan area
Goga, Michal; Antreich, Sebastian J; Bačkor, Martin; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Lang, Ingeborg
Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites.Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth.
Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan
Background and Aims The superhydrophobicity of the thallus surface in one of the most SO2-tolerant lichen species, Lecanora conizaeoides, suggests that surface hydrophobicity could be a general feature of lichen symbioses controlling their tolerance to SO2. The study described here tests this hypothesis. Methods Water droplets of the size of a raindrop were placed on the surface of air-dry thalli in 50 lichen species of known SO2 tolerance and contact angles were measured to quantify hydrophobicity. Key Results The wettability of lichen thalli ranges from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic. SO2 tolerance of the studied lichen species increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the thallus surface. Extraction of extracellular lichen secondary metabolites with acetone reduced, but did not abolish the hydrophobicity of lichen thalli. Conclusions Surface hydrophobicity is the main factor controlling SO2 tolerance in lichens. It presumably originally evolved as an adaptation to wet habitats preventing the depression of net photosynthesis due to supersaturation of the thallus with water. Hydrophilicity of lichen thalli is an adaptation to dry or humid, but not directly rain-exposed habitats. The crucial role of surface hydrophobicity in SO2 also explains why many markedly SO2-tolerant species are additionally tolerant to other (chemically unrelated) toxic substances including heavy metals. PMID:18077467
Elmoatasem, E M; Eid, M A
Plantar Pressure mapping was introduced as a new modality for assessment of the height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. Therefore, the aim of this study is to correlate the plantar pressure mapping readings of arch index contact force ratio (AICFR) in children with flexible pes planus with radiographic measurements and static plantar footprints in order to determine the reliability of pressure mapping as a modality for the assessment and follow up of the flat foot deformity. Radiographic measurements, foot prints, and pressure mapping scans were recorded for each foot at initial presentation and at latest follow up in 28 children (56 feet) with flexible pes planus. A positive correlation of pressure mapping results was found with the talo-first metatarsal angle, the calcaneal pitch angle, as well as the footprint scans (P plantar pressure mapping is a reliable and effective tool in screening, diagnosis, and follow up of children with flexible pes planus.
P. D. Crittenden
Full Text Available Lichen species in the genera Cladonia (subgenus Cladina, Cetraria, Stereocaulon and Alectoria are important vegetation components on well-drained terrain and on elevated micro-sites in peatlands in boreal-Arctic regions. These lichens often form closed mats, the component thalli in which grow vertically upwards at the apices and die off in the older basal regions; they are therefore only loosely attached to the underlying soil. This growth habit is relatively unusual in lichens being found in <0.5% of known species. It might facilitate internal nutrienr recycling and higher growth rates and, together with the production of allelochemicals, it might underlie the considerable ecological success of mat-forming lichens; experiments to critically assess the importance of these processes are required. Mat-forming lichens can constitute in excess of 60% of the winter food intake of caribou and reindeer. Accordingly there is a pressing need for data on lichen growth rates, measured as mass increment, in order to help determine the carrying capacity of winter ranges for rhese herbivores and to better predict recovery rates following grazing. Trampling during the snow-free season fragments lichen thalli; mat-forming lichens regenerate very successfully from thallus fragments provided trampling does nor re-occur. Frequent recurrence of trampling creates disturbed habitats from which lichens will rapidly become eliminated consistent with J.P. Grime's CSR strategy theory. Such damage to lichen ground cover has occurred where reindeer or caribou are unable to migrate away from their winter range such as on small islands or where political boundaries have been fenced; it can also occur on summer range that contains a significant lichen component and on winter range where numbers of migrarory animals become excessive. Species of Stereocaulon, and other genera that contain cyanobacteria (most notably Peltigera and Nephroma, are among the principal agents of
Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.
A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to
Sundstroem, K R; Haellgren, J E
Lichens are known to be extremely sensitive to sulfurous pollutants and have thus disappeared from the regions around urban areas. The authors give the physiological background to this sensitivity and an outline for a test system for sulfurous pollutants based on lichens.
Full Text Available A small group of fruticous lichen species, viz. Cetraria nivalis, Cladonia mitis, C. stellaris, and Stereocaulon paschale forms extensive mats in the most winter habitats of Rangifer tarandus populations in Norway. The plant communities accessible for grazing are often found on easily drained, moraine ridges. These lichen species are perennial, lying on the ground while growing slowly at the top. As they decompose they add humus to the top of the soil profile. The lichen mats catch all water from small showers, thus preventing vascular plants from obtaining a more regular water supply. Grazing removs whole plants and gradually makes larger and larger holes in the lichen mats. Wind and water erode the humus, with only coarse gravel remaining. This diminishes the soil water storage capacity. Without grazing, lichens will gradually build a humus layer, which would improve the soil water storage capacity. In time vascular plants then would take the place of the lichens. I propose the hypothesis that by (over-grazing Rangifer improve their winter pastures by making conditions more favourable for lichens than for vascular plants.The fact that lichens are more scarce on habitats with more and regular precipitation, 1 in more oceanic climates, 2 on soils with more silt, and 3 on bird perches with thick peat due to regular fertilising, support this hypothesis.
Wilde-Duyfjes, de B.E.E.
The diametral growth rate of the foliicolous lichen Strigula elegans (Fée) Müll. Arg., measured under natural conditions in the African tropical rainforest, has been established to amount to (0.7-)3-3-6(-8) mm annually. As compared to the diametral growth rate of lichens from temperate regions,
As in many lichen-forming fungi, species of Aspicilia genus are widely distributed all over the world, but no reports exist about their phylogenetic relations based on molecular biological methods. In the current study the phylogenetic relations of some Aspicilia species mainly manna group of lichens were investigated.