WorldWideScience

Sample records for zorro gris pseudalopex

  1. Descripción de la dieta del zorro gris, Pseudalopex griseus (Canidae) (Gray, 1869), en el Parque Nacional Sierra de las quijadas, San Luis, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, María Beatriz; Bozzolo, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    La dieta de Pseudalopex griseus (Gray, 1869) fue estudiada mediante el análisis de heces recolectadas en el Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas. El parque representa un ambiente semiárido, con regímenes hídricos estacionalmente marcados. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el ítem más abundante durante todo el año es el Orden Coleoptera (estación seca 26%; estación húmeda 31%). En la estación seca, el ítem más abundante fueron las cactáceas (12%) y en la húmeda las leguminosas (25%). Otr...

  2. Estado del zorro gris Lycalopex griseus (Gray, 1837 (Mammalia: Canidae en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vivar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se sustenta la presencia del zorro gris Lycalopex griseus (Gray, 1837 en la costa sur del Perú en base a información morfológica externa y craneal. Esta especie es de similar tamaño a L. sechurae (Thomas, 1900 pero diferenciable en una mayor longitud del hocico y menor amplitud del cráneo; esta diferencia es respaldada en un Análisis de Componentes Principales. Se sugiere que la población del zorro gris en el Perú podría constituir una subespecie nueva de L. griseus por encontrarse más al norte de su distribución tradicionalmente conocida y separada de otras subespecies por el Desierto de Atacama en el norte de Chile, notable barrera biogeográfica.

  3. Morfometría externa y reparto de recursos en zorros simpátricos (Pseudalopex culpaeus y P. griseus) en el sureste de la Patagonia Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Sonia C.; Procopio, Diego E.; Martínez-Peck, Rolando; Zanón, Juan I.; Travaini, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Estudios previos han demostrado que el tamaño corporal de zorros grises o chillas (Pseudalopex griseus) y colorados o culpeos (P. culpaeus) es similar en alopatría, y que en simpatría se produce una divergencia en el tamaño de ambos zorros. El aumento en la diferencia del tamaño corporal entre las dos especies hacia la porción más austral de su distribución (Patagonia Argentina y sur de Chile) permitiría una especialización hacia diferentes recursos favoreciendo su coexistencia. Sin embargo, ...

  4. Nutritional ecology and digestive response to dietary shift in the large South American fox, Pseudalopex culpaeus Ecología nutricional y respuesta digestiva a cambios en la dieta en el zorro sudamericano grande, Pseudalopex culpaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO I. SILVA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the role of dietary shifts (from rodents to fruits and to mixed diets on the nutritional ecology of the culpeo fox Pseudalopex culpaeus, a native canid of South America. We studied the effects of food quality on digestive processes, nutrition, and mass balance, and the implications of diet quality for fox survival. We observed at the end of the nutritional trials that body mass differed significantly between the three diet groups (fruits, rats and mixed diets, while percentage of body mass change differed significantly only in the fruit diet treatment. Foxes fed with fruits consumed more food to meet their dietary and metabolic needs. Across diets, dry-matter as well as energy digestibility increased significantly with diet quality. Also, mean retention time was negatively and significantly correlated with dry-matter intake. We put forth that mixed diet may yield higher assimilation efficiencies and hence higher nutrient intakes than those predicted from the ingestion and assimilation of pure diets (i.e,. only rats, only fruits. We hypothesize that during periods of low availability of mammalian prey, a mixed diet should yield a positive energy/mass balance for the fox. We conclude that temporal and spatial variation in nutrient, energy, and water contents of prey available in a given habitat could have an important effect on fox nutrition, energy use, and mass balance. Finally, we postulate that P. culpaeus could not survive on fruits only past seven daysSometimos a prueba el papel del cambio de dieta (desde roedores a frutos y dieta mixta sobre la ecología nutricional del zorro culpeo Pseudalopex culpaeus, especie nativa de Sudamérica. Estudiamos el efecto de la calidad del alimento sobre los procesos digestivos, nutrición, balance de masas y las implicancias de la calidad de la dieta sobre la sobrevivencia de los zorros. La masa corporal al final de los ensayos nutricionales difirió significativamente entre los tres grupos de

  5. Effects of livestock on the feeding ecology of endemic culpeo foxes (Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi in central Argentina Efectos del ganado sobre la ecología trófica del zorro culpeo (Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi (Carnivora: Canidae endémico del centro de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA V. PIA

    2003-06-01

    presas. La selección de otras presas es modificada a través de efectos negativos del ganado sobre el alimento y la cobertura, reduciendo la densidad e incrementando la vulnerabilidad de presas silvestres. Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi es una subespecie endémica de zorro culpeo del centro de Argentina que es perseguida debido a su depredación sobre ganado. Estudiamos los efectos directos e indirectos del ganado sobre la ecología trófica de P. c. smithersi evaluando su dieta y disponibilidad y selección de presas en dos sitios con diferente abundancia de ganado-un parque nacional y una estancia adyacente de ovinos y vacunos en el pastizal de Pampa de Achala. Estudiamos la dieta a partir de heces y utilizamos coeficientes de conversión para estimar el número y biomasa de presas consumidas. Los culpeos depredaron principalmente sobre roedores nativos (cuises y cricétidos de acuerdo con el número y la biomasa de presas consumidas. Las diferencias en consumo, disponibilidad y selección de presas entre sitios estuvieron fuertemente asociadas con efectos del ganado. Los culpeos consumieron más carroña de ganado y aves en la estancia y tucos (Ctenomys sp. únicamente en el parque. La densidad de ganado fue alta en la estancia y baja en el parque, las densidades de cricétidos y tucos fueron significativamente mayores en el parque y las densidades de liebre europea (Lepus europaeus fueron similares entre sitios. De acuerdo con el número de presas consumidas los culpeos no parecieron ser selectivos, pero de acuerdo con la biomasa consumieron más cricétidos y menos liebres que lo esperado en ambos sitios y más ovejas que lo esperado en el parque. El ganado podría reducir las densidades e incrementar la vulnerabilidad de cricétidos y de los cavícolas tucos en Achala a través del pisoteo del suelo que destruye cuevas, la competencia por forraje y la reducción de la cobertura de pastos

  6. MODERNIDAD Y APOCALIPSIS EN LOS ZORROS DE ARGUEDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero de Vivanco

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se propone en este artículo una lectura de El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo en clave apocalíptica. Las distintas textualidades que atraviesan la novela -los diarios del autor, los mitos pre-hispánicos y la fábula narrativa propiamente tal- se articulan con características específicas del apocalipsis para representar el colapso social producido por la modernidad capitalista en el Perú de la década del setenta.The present article proposes a reading of El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo from an apocalyptic perspective. The different textual layers interwoven in the novel -the author’s diaries, the pre-hispanic myths and the narrative plot itself- are articulated in a way that resonates specifically with the apocalypsis in order to represent the social collapse brought on by capitalist modernity in Peru during the seventies.

  7. El suicido de Grisóstomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Zimic

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available El episodio amoroso de Grisóstomo y Marcela del Quijote (P Parte, capitulos XII-XIV ha inspirado ya muchas interpretaciones, algunas muy interesantes, otras desvariadas, a veces tan acaloradamente opuestas que ban herido vanidades académicas y provocado insultos, humillaciones personates y hasta pundonorosos alardes de nobleza de linaje y de ortodoxia católica. Indudablemente, en el episodio hay problemas controversiales, delicados y formulados de modo muy sutil, lo que se traduce en un texto muy complejo aun para el lector mejor preparado.

  8. The Caballero Revisited: Postmodernity in "The Cisco Kid", "The Mask of Zorro", and "Shrek II"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the achievement of the postmodern caballero films and the relevance of the social bandit myth for Chicano resistance. The continued relevance of the social bandit myth is clearly demonstrated by "The Cisco Kid" and "The Mask of Zorro." Both films show how initially flawed or directionless characters can…

  9. Leones y zorros: Poder y gobierno en las fábulas medievales hebreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revital Refael-Vivante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece un estudio de las relaciones entre el león y el zorro como metáforas de las conexiones en la arena política. Presentaremos un análisis de las relaciones entre gobernadores (león y zorro y sus súbditos en la filosofía antigua y en la edad media. Este estudio utiliza unas de las fábulas presentadas en la literatura hebrea de la edad media en el libro escrito por Brechia Ha-Nakdan Mishle Shualim y el libro Meshal Haqadmoni por Isaac Ibn Sahula. En la conclusión de este estudio se presenta una interpretación actual de esas metáforas (del león y el zorro en las teorías políticas-sociológicas sobre las minorías rectoras de nuestros días.

  10. Gonzalo García Zorro (1550-1617: el primer músico colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Perea Rodríguez

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonzalo García Zorro fue un criollo y por tanto su única, lejana posibilidad de surgir se entreveía vinculándose a la iglesia. Desde niño fue palpable la inteligencia de este mestizo de baja estatura, tez cobriza, rostro alunado con pómulos bien definidos y ojos algo rasgados. Por recomendación de su padre, al cura Juan de Castellanos, éste lo hizo su discípulo y lo inició en la lectura y en el conocimiento de la música que embelesó al muchacho.

  11. La poética del forastero en El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo, de José María Arguedas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bernabé

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leídos en el marco que impone la totalidad de los textos reunidos bajo el nombre de José María Arguedas, los diarios de El zorro... constituyen un fragmento dentro de un espacio autobiográfico mayor en el que se despliegan las variaciones en la figuración de la persona del autor. Ellas van desde el sesgo autobiográfico de algunos personajes de sus novelas hasta su autorrepresentación en ensayos etnográficos y folclóricos; también incluyen las cartas a la doctora Hoffmann y a John Murra además de sus “confesiones” en el Primer Encuentro de Narradores Peruanos del año 1965 en Arequipa. Más aún, si desistimos del régimen de verdad –y el estatuto de “autor-idad” que suele asumir para la crítica literaria la palabra del autor– podríamos confrontar los diversos relatos que establecen un espacio autobiográfico para trazar las marcas de las diferencias en los modos de autofiguración de José María Arguedas.

  12. Nefrectomia videolaparoscópica em Graxaim-do-campo (Pseudalopex gymnocercus com displasia renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.S. Feranti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Graxains-do-campo habitam o centro-leste da América do Sul, desde o sudeste do Brasil e leste da Bolívia. A displasia renal compreende um espectro de anomalias e é frequentemente relatada em cães de diversas raças, sendo a maioria dos relatos achados de necropsia. A maior parte das doenças renais congênitas nos cães apresenta caráter progressivo, portanto o tratamento é limitado e direcionado a fim de retardar a progressão da doença renal estabelecida. No presente relato é descrita a realização de nefrectomia laparoscópica em graxaim-do-campo (Pseudalopex gymnocercus com displasia renal. Suspeitou-se de doença no rim direito por meio de ultrassonografia e urografia excretora. Para o procedimento cirúrgico foram utilizados três portais (10, 10, 5mm, endoscópio rígido de 10mm/0(0 e clipes para hemostasia dos vasos renais. A técnica cirúrgica utilizada neste canídeo selvagem foi semelhante à usada em cão doméstico, devido à escassez de relatos em cirurgias em graxaim e a inexistência de descrições de nefrectomia videolaparoscópica em graxaim-do-campo. O animal foi acompanhado por um período de 30 dias pós-cirurgia sem a ocorrência de complicações. O presente relato demonstra que a técnica proposta foi adequada para a realização de nefrectomia videolaparoscópica em Graxaim-do-campo.

  13. Simulation of GRIS spectrometer response to the solar gamma-ray flare of 23 July 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, Yu A; Kotov, Yu D; Yurov, V N; Lupar, E E; Faradzhaev, R M; Glyanenko, A S

    2017-01-01

    GRIS is a prospective experiment designed to measure hard X-rays and γ-rays of solar flares in the energy range from 50 keV to 200 MeV as well as solar neutrons > 30 MeV. This study considers results of GEANT 4 simulation of GRIS detectors response to cosmic background radiation and to the solar flare SOL2002-07-23 (X4.8). It is shown that the GRIS spectrometers have enough sensitivity and energy resolution to measure redshifts of some narrow γ-rays in flare spectra, that the low energy thresholds of the detectors can be lowered considerably without a risk of counting rate saturation during high magnitude flares and that at a choice between LaBr 3 (Ce) and CeBr 3 the second one is a preferable scintillator for a hard X-ray and γ-ray spectrometer of solar flares. (paper)

  14. Acceleration of the GrIS mass loss as observed by GRACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has previously been analysed in a variety of ways, including altimetry, gravimetry and mass budget calculations, establishing a continuing decrease in the ice mass, with a number of studies finding acceleration in the mass loss. Here, we examine...

  15. "Gris Quintana": a Spanish granite from the Past into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    "Gris Quintana" is a medium-grained, biotite and amphibole granodiorite extracted in the Pluton of Quintana de la Serena (Extremadura, Spain). It is a constant light grey granite from the Hercynian geologic with excellent physicomechanical and physicochemical properties. The granodiorite is composed of plagioclase, biotite, quartz and alkali feldspar, with accessory allanite, titanite, apatite, zircon and ilmenite, mostly as inclusions within the biotite crystals. This commercial variety is extracted from many quarries in the late Hercynian plutons located in the Iberian Massif in Spain period (transition between Central Iberian and Ossa-Moren Zones), having large reserves of granite. Many of the quarries have their own transformation factory (high production zone), with which the sector is offered an endless variety of finishes and constructive rock typologies. A wide range of solutions to architects and designers are offered. Gris Quintana granite is one of the materials with highest technological benefits that are used in arquitecture. "Gris Quintana" granite has been used since ancient times, not only at a regional, but also at national and international level: paving, building (structural, exterior façadas, interior uses), urban decoration and funeral art. It can be found in monuments and more recently, in buildings of different styles and uses, that stand out in beauty and splendor, lasting in time. Some singular works in "Gris Quintana" granite all over the world: extension to the "Congreso de Diputados" (Parliament) in Madrid, "Puerta de San Vicente" in Madrid, Andalucia Parliament columns in Sevilla, New Senate Buiding in Madird, "Gran Vía" pavement in Madrid, "Teatro Real façade" in Madrid… "Gris Quintana" granite accomplishes all the requirements for its nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource, for both its use in construction and for artistic purposes.

  16. Use of the microcrystalline limestone as building material: the "GrisPulpis"case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García del Cura, M. A.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Gris Pulpis is a Jurassic microcrystalline limestone found in the Maestrazgo Area of the Iberian Mountain Range (province of Castellón, Spain. This paper reports the results of a detailed study of the mineralogical, pelrographic and chromatic characteristics, as well as the durability, of this stone, classified as a commercial marble for its polish ability. The study determined the relationship between the structural characteristics of the stone, with a proliferation of stylolites and veins, and its physical properties. Its flexura I strength was found to be greater than would normally be expected in a structure with such a dense web of stylolites and veins. This is due to the structural and mineralogical properties of these stylolites, characterised by an extremely wavy design, scant mineral infillings and, occasionally, subsequent cementation. The characteristics of the porous media of homogeneous microcrystalline limestones such as Gris Pulpis largely explain the durability of this stone when exposed to freeze-thaw cycles and salt crystallisation. These arc the properties that make Gris Pulpis limestone, quarried in the Spanish Region of Valencia, a valuable building material for both architectural and civil engineering applications

    En este trabajo se analizan las propiedades físicas y la durabilidad de una caliza microcristalina.El Gris Pulpis es una caliza microcristalina del Jurásico de la Cordillera Ibérica (Maestrazgo, cuyas características mineralógicas, petrográficas, cromáticas y alterabilidad se determinan detalladamente. Su aptitud para el pulido hace que sea un mármol comercial. Se establece la influencia de sus características estructurales (estilolitos, vénulas... en sus propiedades físicas. Su resistencia a flexión supera los valores que cabría esperar en función de la estructura de esta roca que, a veces, presenta abundantes estilolitos y vénulas. Esto es debido a las características estructurales y

  17. PRESENCIA DEL ZORRO DE CUATRO OJOS (Philander opossum EN EL CULTIVO DE PIÑA (Ananas comusus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monge-Meza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia del zorro de cuatro ojos (Philander opossum en áreas de producción de piña orgánica (Ananas comusus, en Sa nta Ce cilia de La Cruz, Guanacaste, Costa Ri ca. Las capturas se realizaron con trampas grandes de golpe, en muestreos quincenales desde febrero del 2008 hasta febrero del 2009. Se logró la captura de ocho individuos, desde marzo hasta agosto, lo cual indica que la especie podría tener actividad reproductiva desde finales de la época seca y en la lluviosa. Al menos uno de los individuos consumió piña, según análisis de su contenido estomacal. Si n embargo, el nivel de daño observado en el campo no permite considerar a esta especie como una plaga de la piña, sino una especie oportunista que aprovecha frutos maduros dejados en el campo, después de la cosecha. La colecta de individuos en varios meses del año, indican que esta especie utiliza las plantaciones de piña orgánica como parte de su hábitat, lo cual contradice la idea generalizada que los monocultivos no proveen condiciones mínimas para que las especie s de vida silvestre lo visiten o lo habiten.

  18. La Section d´Or y Juan Gris: Un camino hacia un cubismo espiritual

    OpenAIRE

    Sarriugarte Gómez, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    [ES] El artista de origen madrileño Juan Gris tuvo la oportunidad de ser testigo directo de la gestación del cubismo a raíz de su estancia en 1906 en la capital francesa. A partir de aquí, comienza a relacionarse con distintos pintores y críticos vanguardistas, que le ofertarán nuevas posibilidades aperturistas para su posterior involucración cubista. El año 1912 marca su definitiva integración bajo la estela pictórica del cubismo sintético, destacando igualmente su relación con el g...

  19. Cariotipo del tit? gris (Saguinus leucopus): similitudes con el cariotipo humano

    OpenAIRE

    Tabares, Juan Hember; Fierro, Carlos Humberto; Pulido, Paola Del Pilar; Ossa Reyes, Humberto

    2008-01-01

    El tit? gris (Saguinus leucopus) es un primate end?mico de Colombia cuyo cariotipo se describe en el presente estudio a partir de una pareja de individuos ubicados en el Centro de Rehabilitaci?n de Fauna Silvestre del Oriente de Caldas, Colombia. Las muestras de sangre fueron recolectadas de la vena femoral y anticoaguladas con heparina de sodio. Los cromosomas se obtuvieron por el m?todo cl?sico de cultivo de linfocitos y bandeamiento Q y G Los individuos presentan 46 cromosomas (2n = 46: 30...

  20. Opto-mechanical design of an image slicer for the GRIS spectrograph at GREGOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Reyes, N.; Esteves, M. A.; Sánchez-Capuchino, J.; Salaun, Y.; López, R. L.; Gracia, F.; Estrada Herrera, P.; Grivel, C.; Vaz Cedillo, J. J.; Collados, M.

    2016-07-01

    An image slicer has been proposed for the Integral Field Spectrograph [1] of the 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST) [2] The image slicer for EST is called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera) [3] and it is a telecentric system with diffraction limited optical quality offering the possibility to obtain high resolution Integral Field Solar Spectroscopy or Spectro-polarimetry by coupling a polarimeter after the generated slit (or slits). Considering the technical complexity of the proposed Integral Field Unit (IFU), a prototype has been designed for the GRIS spectrograph at GREGOR telescope at Teide Observatory (Tenerife), composed by the optical elements of the image slicer itself, a scanning system (to cover a larger field of view with sequential adjacent measurements) and an appropriate re-imaging system. All these subsystems are placed in a bench, specially designed to facilitate their alignment, integration and verification, and their easy installation in front of the spectrograph. This communication describes the opto-mechanical solution adopted to upgrade GRIS while ensuring repeatability between the observational modes, IFU and long-slit. Results from several tests which have been performed to validate the opto-mechanical prototypes are also presented.

  1. Tratamiento Híbrido de agua residual gris doméstica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Paredes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El reúso del agua residual gris doméstica es una práctica que también puede aplicarse en nuestro país. Este reúso ayudaria a reducir los costos de consumo de agua potable que actualmente poseen las personas de estratos medio y bajo en el país. Este estudio aplica un concepto nuevo de sistema de tratamiento híbrido para descontaminar el agua y poderla reusar para riego de jardines o para llenar el tanque de los inodoros en una vivienda. Un tratamiento de agua residual gris doméstica híbrido plantea la consecución de remociones totales de materia orgánica, sólidos suspendidos totales, coliformes fecales del 93 %, 92 % y 99,2 %, respectivamente. Este tipo de tratamiento puede tener un valor agregado al disminuir las descargas de aguas servidas a través del sistema de alcantarillado sanitario, con el abaratamiento de la infraestructura para los organismos seccionales del país.

  2. Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) instrument and plans for serving SN 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tueller, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Teegarden, B.J.; Leventhal, M.; MacCallum, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) is a powerful second-generation high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer. It consists of an array of seven large (typically >200 cm 3 ) n-type Germanium detectors surrounded by a thick (15 m) NaI active shield. Its energy range is 0.02 to 10 MeV. A new detector segmentation technique will be employed to reduce the detector background. The β-decay background component, which is expected to be dominant in the 0.2--2 MeV range, will be suppressed by roughly a factor of 20. The 3σ GRIS sensitivity to a narrow Fe line at 847 keV (expected to be the most intense from a supernova) will be ∼2 x 10 -4 photons/cm 2 -s for an 8 hr observation of the LMC over Alice Springs, Australia with unsegmented detectors. The instrument in simplified form will be ready to observe SN 1987A in early 1988

  3. Shock therapy: Gris Gun's shock absorber can take the punch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-04-01

    A newly developed shock impedance tool that isolates downhole tools that measure the effects of well stimulation techniques from being damaged by the violent shaking caused by various well stimulation techniques which combine perforating and propellant technology in a single tool, is discussed. The shock exerted by a perforating gun can exceed 25,000 G forces within 100 to 300 milliseconds, may damage or even destroy the sensitive electronics housed in the various recorders that record data about fracture gradients, permeability and temperature. The shock absorber developed by Tesco Gris Gun and Computalog, incorporates the mechanics of a piston style shock absorber in combination with a progressive spring stack and energy-dampening silicone oil chambers. The end results is an EUE 'slim line' assembly that is adaptable between the gun perforating string and the electronic equipment. It is typically attached below, reducing the shock load by as much as 90 per cent. The shock absorber is now available commercially through Gris Gun's exclusive distributorship. An improved version, currently under development, will be used for wireline perforating and tubing-conveyed perforating applications. 2 figs.

  4. El zorro del cielo: un mito sobre el origen de las plantas cultivadas y los intercambios con el mundo sobrenatural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available LE RENARD CELESTE : UN MYTHE SUR L’ORIGINE DES PLANTES CULTIVEES ET LES ECHANGES AVEC LE MONDE SURNATUREL. Cet article propose une interprétation d’un mythe andin relatant le voyage de l’ancêtre des renards au ciel. Dans le sud du Pérou et en Bolivie, ce mythe explique, selon les versions, l’origine des plantes cultivées ou celle des renards. À partir d’une analyse séquentielle qui s’efforce de déchiffrer le symbolisme du récit, nous montrons que ce mythe constitue une réflexion des pasteurs de la puna sur leurs relations saisonnières avec les populations des vallées, en particulier à partir du mois d’avril, lorsqu’ils descendent prêter leur force de travail aux agriculteurs céréaliers. Le mythe présente la complémentarité entre les deux étages écologiques comme analogue à celle qui s’établit entre les hommes et le monde surnaturel. Ces deux complémentarités, qui sont étroitement solidaires, apparaissent à leur tour comme la condition de la fécondité agricole. Nous menons notre analyse à partir de deux versions quechuas que nous avons recueillies dans la province de Quispicanchis (dept. de Cuzco, Pérou et dont nous présentons une transcription et une traduction en appendice. Este artículo propone una interpretación de un mito andino que relata el viaje del ancestro de los zorros al cielo. En el sur del Perú y en Bolivia, ese relato explica, según las versiones, el origen de las plantas cultivadas o de los zorros. A partir de un análisis secuencial que ensaya descifrar el simbolismo de los hechos narrados, mostramos que el mito constituye una reflexión de los pastores de la puna sobre sus relaciones estacionales con las poblaciones de los valles, en particular a partir del mes de abril, cuando ellos descienden a prestar su fuerza de trabajo a los cultivadores de cereales. El mito presenta la complementariedad entre los dos pisos ecológicos como análoga a la que se establece entre los hombres y el

  5. X-ray and the Gamma spectrometer GRIS on the Russian segment of the International space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, Yu.D.; Yurov, V.N.; Glyanenko, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Planned experiment on research X-ray and gamma radiation and neutrons of solar flares is described in the paper. Descriptions of scientific equipment of GRIS, a condition of carrying out experiment and results of calculation of characteristics of its detector are provided [ru

  6. La novela de arriba y la antropología de abajo: ¿Los zorros de Arguedas como etnografía experimental?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Benítez Leiva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se elabora una lectura de El Zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo de José María Arguedas, desde una óptica proveniente de la antropología, haciéndola dialogar con el género de la etnografía experimental, enmarcado dentro de la crisis del paradigma positivista en ciencias sociales. Esta novela pretende dar cuenta de un contexto intercultural complejo, elaborando una fórmula textual con mayores facultades de abordaje que la novela indigenista o el realismo etnográfico clásico. Si bien Arguedas no tiene pretensiones científicas, su novela refleja y abre aspectos de la realidad utilizando recursos como el collage, el mito como antecedente histórico y la perspectiva polifónica mediante el discurso de diversos actores sociales presentes en la obra. Todo ello hace evidencia de su formación como etnólogo que a la vez es literato, inscribiéndose dentro del fenómeno de los géneros confusos y la refiguración del pensamiento social (Geertz 1980. Se procede a partir de la novela en su totalidad y los diarios que la acompañan, destacando ciertos fragmentos y nutriéndonos de perspectivas teóricas referentes a la etnografía. Igualmente, evidenciamos la complejidad del estilo arguediano, como los cuestionamientos teóricos y epistemológicos de la antropología de la segunda mitad del siglo XX.

  7. MuSICa at GRIS: a prototype image slicer for EST at GREGOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcines, A.; Collados, M.; López, R. L.

    2013-05-01

    This communication presents a prototype image slicer for the 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST) designed for the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope (GRIS). The design of this integral field unit has been called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera). It is a telecentric system developed specifically for the integral field, high resolution spectrograph of EST and presents multi-slit capability, reorganizing a bidimensional field of view of 80 arcsec^{2} into 8 slits, each one of them with 200 arcsec length × 0.05 arcsec width. It minimizes the number of optical components needed to fulfil this multi-slit capability, three arrays of mirrors: slicer, collimator and camera mirror arrays (the first one flat and the other two spherical). The symmetry of the layout makes it possible to overlap the pupil images associated to each part of the sliced entrance field of view. A mask with only one circular aperture is placed at the pupil position. This symmetric characteristic offers some advantages: facilitates the manufacturing process, the alignment and reduces the costs. In addition, it is compatible with two modes of operation: spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric, offering a great versatility. The optical quality of the system is diffraction-limited. The prototype will improve the performances of GRIS at GREGOR and is part of the feasibility study of the integral field unit for the spectrographs of EST. Although MuSICa has been designed as a solar image slicer, its concept can also be applied to night-time astronomical instruments (Collados et al. 2010, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7733, 77330H; Collados et al. 2012, AN, 333, 901; Calcines et al. 2010, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7735, 77351X)

  8. Localization and subcellular association of Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus in grapevine leaf tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Giulia; Ermacora, Paolo; Bianchi, Gian Luca; De Amicis, Francesca; Pagliari, Laura; Martini, Marta; Loschi, Alberto; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Loi, Nazia; Musetti, Rita

    2018-05-01

    Despite the increasing impact of Grapevine Pinot gris disease (GPG-disease) worldwide, etiology about this disorder is still uncertain. The presence of the putative causal agent, the Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus (GPGV), has been reported in symptomatic grapevines (presenting stunting, chlorotic mottling, and leaf deformation) as well as in symptom-free plants. Moreover, information on virus localization in grapevine tissues and virus-plant interactions at the cytological level is missing at all. Ultrastructural and cytochemical investigations were undertaken to detect virus particles and the associated cytopathic effects in field-grown grapevine showing different symptom severity. Asymptomatic greenhouse-grown grapevines, which tested negative for GPGV by real time RT-PCR, were sampled as controls. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR and ELISA tests excluded the presence of viruses included in the Italian certification program both in field-grown and greenhouse-grown grapevines. Conversely, evidence was found for ubiquitous presence of Grapevine Rupestris Stem Pitting-associated Virus (GRSPaV), Hop Stunt Viroid (HSVd), and Grapevine Yellow Speckle Viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) in both plant groups. Moreover, in every field-grown grapevine, GPGV was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Ultrastructural observations and immunogold labelling assays showed filamentous flexuous viruses in the bundle sheath cells, often located inside membrane-bound organelles. No cytological differences were observed among field-grown grapevine samples showing different symptom severity. GPGV localization and associated ultrastructural modifications are reported and discussed, in the perspective of assisting management and control of the disease.

  9. Combate del moho gris (Botrytis cinerea de la fresa mediante Gliocladium roseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Chaves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En la zona de Poasito de Alajuela, se evaluó la acción del antagonista Gliocladium roseum, en forma individual y en conjunto con los fungicidas empleados en la finca, para el combate de Botrytis cinerea en fresa; comparándose los resultados contra los obtenidos con el manejo comercial. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones y se hicieron aplicaciones semanales del antagonista (a una concentración ³ 107 conidios ml-1 durante un período aproximado de 4 meses (julio-octubre del 2000. Se evaluó la incidencia de moho gris en condiciones de campo y poscosecha, así como el efecto de los fungicidas aplicados sobre la germinación de los conidios del antagonista, mediante una prueba in vitro. Se obtuvo un combate más efectivo de la enfermedad en condiciones de campo al emplear el biocontrolador sólo o en conjunto con los fungicidas, con respecto al manejo comercial que se hace de la misma. En poscosecha, el desempeño del antagonista fue estadísticamente igual al del combate químico. Estos resultados muestran que los fungicidas aplicados no afectan considerablemente al antagonista, lo que se corroboró con la prueba in vitro. Al emplear G. roseum para el combate de B. cinerea no sólo se logra combatir efectivamente a este, sino también el resto de los patógenos (Colletotrichum, Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia, Rhizopus,Alternaria, Fusarium, Verticillium y Penicillium, ya que el porcentaje de frutas sanas es mayor al integrar la acción del antagonista al manejo de enfermedades de la finca. Sin embargo, estas diferencias no son estadísticamente significativas. Por lo anterior se concluye que G. roseum constituye una posible alternativa de manejo integrado del moho gris en fresa.

  10. Isolation of rabies virus from the parotid salivary glands of foxes (Pseudalopex vetulus from Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil Isolamento de vírus rábico de glândulas salivares parótidas de raposas (Pseudalopex vetulus do Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of rabies virus in the parotid salivary glands, 12 road-killed rabies-positive hoary foxes (Pseudoalopex vetulus were tested by using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT and mouse inoculation test (MIT. All 12 parotid salivary glands were positive for both tests, although in some cases several passages were required. The findings of this study support the importance of the hoary fox as rabies reservoir in the semi-arid region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil.Para determinar a presença de vírus rábico em glândulas salivares parótidas, 12 raposas (Pseudalopex vetulus atropeladas em rodovias e positivas para raiva foram testadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência direta (IFD e teste de inoculação em camundongos (IC. Todas as 12 glândulas salivares parótidas foram positivas em ambos os testes, embora, em alguns casos, várias passagens terem sido necessárias. Os achados do presente trabalho reforçam a importância das raposas como reservatórios de raiva no semi-árido do Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil.

  11. Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS): a new balloon-borne experiment for gamma-ray line astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.; Cline, T.L.; Gehrels, N.; Porreca, G.; Tueller, J.; Leventhal, M.; Huters, A.F.; Maccallum, C.J.; Stang, P.D.; Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is a relatively new field that holds great promise for further understanding of high energy astrophysical processes. When the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer (GRSE) was removed from the GRO payload, a balloon program was initiated to permit continued development and improvement of instrumentation in this field, as well as continued scientific observations. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) is one of the experiments selected as part of this program. The instrument contains a number of new and innovative features that are expected to produce a significant improvement in source location accuracy and sensitivity over previous balloon and satellite experiments

  12. Hållbarhetsredovisning i svenska börsbolag : En studie utifrån GRI:s riktlinjer

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Niklas; Moberg, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    Sammanfattning Titel: ”Hållbarhetsredovisning i svenska börsbolag – En studie utifrån GRI:s riktlinjer” Seminariedatum: Måndagen 25 Februari 2008 Ämne/kurs: Företagsekonomi C-uppsats, 15 p Författare: Niklas Nyberg, Sofia Moberg Handledare: Margareta Paulsson Nyckelord: GRI, Hållbarhetsredovisning, redovisning, svenska företag Bakgrund: De senaste åren har kraven på svenska företag ökat, och intressenter efterfrågar nu information angående produktion, underleverantörer m.m. Att visa att de ta...

  13. Gamma Ray Imaging System (GRIS) GammaCam trademark. Final report, January 3, 1994 - May 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the activities undertaken during the development of the Gamma Ray Imaging System (GRIS) program now referred to as the GammaCam trademark. The purpose of this program is to develop a 2-dimensional imaging system for gamma-ray energy scenes that may be present in nuclear power plants. The report summarizes the overall accomplishments of the program and the most recent GammaCam measurements made at LANL and Estonia. The GammaCam is currently available for sale from AIL Systems as an off-the-shelf instrument

  14. Helmintos do cachorro do campo, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 e do cachorro do mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 no sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Helminths of Pampas fox Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 and of Crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 in the Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo L. Ruas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta canídeos selvagens foram capturados por "live trap" nos municípios de Pedro Osório e Pelotas, sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e transportados para o Laboratório de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Após serem necropsiados, segmentos do intestino, respiratório, urinário e fígado foram separados e examinados. Os crânios dos animais foram usados para identificação taxonômica. Dos 40 animais capturados, 22 (55% foram Pseudalopex gymnocercus e 18 (45% Cerdocyon thous. Os nematóides mais prevalentes foram: Ancylostoma caninum (45,4 em P. gymnocercus e 22,2% em C. thous, Molineus felineus (9,9 em P. gymnocercus e 5,6% em C. thous, Strongyloides sp. (22,7 em P. gymnocercus e 16,7% em C. thous, Trichuris sp. (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 11,1% em C. thous, e Capillaria hepatica (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 5,5 % em C. thous. Os trematódeos observados foram: Alaria alata (50,0% em C. thous e 36,4 em P. gymnocercus, e Asthemia heterolecithodes em 5,6% dos C. thous. Cestóides foram identificados como Spirometra sp. (61,1% em C. thous e 54,5 em P. gymnocercus, Diphyllobothriidae (81,8 em P. gymnocercus e 77,8% em C. thous, e Acantocephala do gênero Centrorhynchus foi observado somente em 5,6% dos C. thous. Estes resultados indicaram a helmintofauna de canídeos selvagens nas áreas estudadas.Forty wild canids were captured by live trap at Municipalities of Pedro Osorio and Pelotas in Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul and they were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. After they were posted, segments of intestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts and liver were separated and examined. Animal skulls were used for taxonomic identification. Of forty wild animals trapped, 22 (55% were Pseudalopex gymnocercus and 22 (55% Cerdocyon thous. The most prevalent nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (45.4 in P. gymnocercus and 22.2% in C. thous, Molineus felineus (9.9 in P

  15. Gamma-ray imaging spectrometer (GRIS): a new balloon-borne experiment for gamma-ray line astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.; Cline, T.L.; Gehrels, N.; Porreca, G.; Tueller, J.; Leventhal, M.; Huters, A.F.; MacCallum, C.J.; Stang, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is a relatively new field that holds great promise for further understanding of high energy astrophysical processes. Preliminary results such as the annihilation radiation from the galactic center, the 26 Al line from the galactic plane and cyclotron lines from neutron stars may well be just the initial discoveries of a rich and as yet undeveloped field. When the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer (GRSE) was removed from the GRO payload NASA decided to initiate a balloon program to permit continued development and improvement of instrumentation in this field, as well as continued scientific observations. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) is one of the experiments selected as part of this program. The instrument contains a number of new and innovative features that are expected to produce a significant improvement in source location accuracy and sensitivity over previous balloon and satellite experiments. 6 refs., 2 figs

  16. Exposure of pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous from the Southern region of Brazil to Canine distemper virus (CDV, Canine parvovirus (CPV and Canine coronavirus (CCoV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Oliveira Hübner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of 13 Brazilian free-ranging nondomestic canids (five pampas fox - Pseudalopex gymnocercus and eight crab-eating fox -Cerdocyon thous from Southern region of Brazil, to Canine distemper virus (CDV, canine parvovirus (CPV and Canine coronavirus (CCoV was investigated. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 38.5% (5/13 of the samples. There were anti-CDV antibodies in 60% (3/5 of P. gymnocercus and in 25% (2/8 of C. thous. The frequency was higher among the adults and males. Eleven canids (84.6% presented antibodies against CPV, 80% (4/5 were from P. gymnocercus and 87.5% (7/8 were from C. thous. There was no difference in positivity rate against CPV between gender and age. Antibodies against CCoV were detected in 38.5% (5/13 of the samples, with 60% (3/5 of positivity in P. gymnocercus and 25% (2/8 in C. thous. The frequency of antibodies against CCoV was higher among the adults and males. The study showed that these canids were exposed to CDV, CPV and CCoV.Foi investigada a ocorrência de exposição em 13 canídeos não domésticos de vida livre (cinco graxains-do-campo - Pseudalopex gymnocercus e oito graxains-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous da região sul do Brasil ao vírus da cinomose canina (CDV, parvovírus canino (CPV e coronavírus canino (CCoV. Anticorpos contra o CDV foram detectados em 38,5% (5/13 das amostras. Haviam anticorpos anti-CDV em 60% (3/5 dos P. gymnocercus e em 25% (2/8 dos C. thous. A freqüência foi maior entre machos e adultos. Para CPV, 11 canídeos (84,6% apresentaram anticorpos, 80% (4/5 eram da espécie P. gymnocercus e 87,5% (7/8 eram C. thous. Não houve diferença de positividade para o CPV entre sexos e idades. Anticorpos contra o CCoV foram detectados em 38,5% (5/13 das amostras, sendo 60% (3/5 de positividade entre os P. gymnocercus e 25% (2/8 entre os C. thous. A freqüência de anticorpos para CCoV foi maior entre os machos e adultos. O estudo revelou que estes canídeos foram expostos ao CDV, CPV

  17. LIBERACIÓN Y SEGUIMIENTO DE DOS GRUPOS DE TITÍ GRIS (Saguinus leucopus EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE TOLIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado con dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus, procedentes de decomisos y entregas voluntarias. Los animales fueron rehabilitados durante aproximadamente un año en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el fin de estimular el desarrollo y recuperación de las habilidades necesarias para su sobrevivencia al ser devueltos al medio ambiente natural. Se construyeron dos jaulas como plataformas de liberación en un bosque en el departamento del Tolima, y los animales fueron alojados en ellas para iniciar su proceso de acostumbramiento al medio. Durante este tiempo se realizó un estudio etológico, con el propósito de determinar las posibles variaciones comportamentales derivadas del cambio en el entorno. Los animales fueron liberados y se llevó a cabo el seguimiento visual para evaluar el proceso de rehabilitación y la adaptación de los individuos al nuevo hábitat. Se observó una variación en la presentación de comportamientos relacionados con actividades de desplazamiento, descanso e interacciones sociales en comparación con estudios realizados en cautiverio. Después de la liberación, los animales fueron vistos en sitios próximos a las jaulas de acostumbramiento, lo cual podría indicar que establecieron sus territorios en estas áreas; no se registraron variaciones significativas en la conformación de los grupos ni enfrentamientos entre las dos tropas. Estas observaciones indicarían que el proceso de liberación cumplió con su objetivo, y puede considerarse exitoso.

  18. Arterial vascular supply of the thymus in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Master Gris Cou Plumé lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to expand information on the comparative morphology of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Máster Gris Cou Plumé lineage, a study was conducted to provide data on the number of lobes of the thymus in addition to origin, number and distribution of the arteries that promoted the sanguineous supply of this organ. To this end 30 poultry (15 males and 15 females were used. They were about six week old and were donated after natural death by poultry farms of the Federal District. The arterial supply was injected with a “450” Neoprene Latex stained solution. Subsequently, the poultry were fixed in a 10% formoldehyde aqueous solution by means of deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracaviteous applications and were kept in the same solution. Four to nine cervical lobes were found, in addition to one or two thoracic lobes on the left side. On the right side, three to seven cervical lobes and one or two thoracic lobes were found. The lobes were supplied indirectly by branches coming from the common carotidal artery, the cranial and caudal thyroidal arteries, the ascending esophageal artery, the ingluvial artery, the common vagus nerve artery, the occipital artery and the cutaneous branches. They were also supplied by direct by branches from the ingluvial artery, cranial thyroidal artery and common vagus nerve artery. It was possible to verify that poultry of this breed not only possessed characteristics that were defining for the breed as such, but also demonstrated particular arrangements for each of the individuals.

  19. Comunicación vocal de dos grupos de Tití gris (Saguinus leucopus en Mariquita, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Rueda-C.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio del repertorio vocal y su significado, de dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus en San Sebastián de Mariquita, departamento del Tolima. Uno de los grupos habita una zona urbana, la casa de la Fundación Segunda Expedición Botánica (Funbotánica y el otro se encuentra en el Bosque del Municipio (José Celestino Mutis. Se identificaron 27 tipos de sonidos, de los cuales se registraron 21 en el grupo Funbotánica y 13 en el grupo Bosque. Se caracterizaron cada una de las señales y en particular se hizo énfasis en la asociación entre las vocalizaciones y los patrones de comportamiento que exhibe la especie. Los titíes emitieron señales específicas en contextos como alimentación, alarma, amenaza y establecimiento de contacto con individuos que se encuentran fuera de vista (señales de llamada. Igualmente, se encontró relación entre las señales y algunos mensajes no conductuales (sexo, edad y posición jerárquica; esto demuestra que las vocalizaciones brindan gran cantidad de información sobre la identidad del emisor, acontecimientos en el ambiente y conductas específicas de los individuos. No se logró establecer diferencias estadísticas entre las señales emitidas en cada grupo, sin embargo, los titíes produjeron vocalizaciones similares en los dos ambientes, con algunas variaciones en frecuencia y duración; aspectos que podrían estar influenciados por las características propias del hábitat.

  20. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de duas espécies de marantaceae no Nordeste do Brasil : Ischnosiphon gracilis (Rudge) Köern. e Stromanthe porteana A. Gris

    OpenAIRE

    Virgínia de Lima Leite, Ana

    2002-01-01

    As espécies de Marantaceae apresentam um elaborado mecanismo de polinização caracterizado pela apresentação secundária de pólen associada a um mecanismo explosivo do estilete. Neste trabalho foram feitas análises da biologia floral e do sistema reprodutivo em populações naturais de Ischnosiphon gracilis (Rudge) Köern. e Stromanthe porteana A. Gris ocorrentes no Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos (8º7 30 S 34º52 30 W), estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. A inflorescência de I. gracil...

  1. Du gris au vert

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ont fait des essais en ce qui concerne l'épandage d'engrais, la densité des semis et les semis en ligne. Ils ont recueilli conjointement les don- nées et ont discuté des résultats. Les agricul- teurs ont récolté les tubercules, les ont classés et ont analysé le rapport coûts-avantages. À la lumière des résultats, les agriculteurs ont.

  2. UN MODELO DE GESTIÓN DE LA CALIDAD Y CANTIDAD DE AGUA CON LÓGICA DIFUSA GRIS PARA EL RÍO ABURRÁ

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Fernando Carvajal Serna

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un modelo de lógica difusa gris para la gestión de la calidad y cantidad del agua en el río Aburrá, el cual permite tener en cuenta la incertidumbre de los parámetros ambientales, que por lo general hacen que la toma de decisiones para las autoridades ambientales presente conflictos con los descargadores o contaminadores de los cuerpos de agua. La aplicación del modelo se hizo a una campaña del río Aburrá tomando como datos el caudal, el oxígeno disuelto y la demanda bi...

  3. UN MODELO DE GESTIÓN DE LA CALIDAD Y CANTIDAD DE AGUA CON LÓGICA DIFUSA GRIS PARA EL RÍO ABURRÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Carvajal Serna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo de lógica difusa gris para la gestión de la calidad y cantidad del agua en el río Aburrá, el cual permite tener en cuenta la incertidumbre de los parámetros ambientales, que por lo general hacen que la toma de decisiones para las autoridades ambientales presente conflictos con los descargadores o contaminadores de los cuerpos de agua. La aplicación del modelo se hizo a una campaña del río Aburrá tomando como datos el caudal, el oxígeno disuelto y la demanda bioquímica de oxígeno. El modelo toma los aportes de las quebradas como los puntos de contaminación de los descargadores. Este modelo implica una optimización de acuerdo con los objetivos de la autoridad ambiental y los descargadores. El modelo se desarrolló en Matlab. Como conclusión se muestra el potencial del modelo para la gestión del agua del río y para alcanzar las metas planteadas por la autoridad ambiental.

  4. Liberación y seguimiento de dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus en el departamento de Tolima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado con dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus, procedentesde decomisos y entregas voluntarias. Los animales fueron rehabilitados duranteaproximadamente un año en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el fin de estimular el desarrolloy recuperación de las habilidades necesarias para su sobrevivencia al ser devueltos almedio ambiente natural. Se construyeron dos jaulas como plataformas de liberaciónen un bosque en el departamento del Tolima, y los animales fueron alojados en ellaspara iniciar su proceso de acostumbramiento al medio. Durante este tiempo se realizóun estudio etológico, con el propósito de determinar las posibles variaciones comportamentalesderivadas del cambio en el entorno. Los animales fueron liberados y se llevóa cabo el seguimiento visual para evaluar el proceso de rehabilitación y la adaptación delos individuos al nuevo hábitat. Se observó una variación en la presentación de comportamientosrelacionados con actividades de desplazamiento, descanso e interaccionessociales en comparación con estudios realizados en cautiverio. Después de la liberación,los animales fueron vistos en sitios próximos a las jaulas de acostumbramiento,lo cual podría indicar que establecieron sus territorios en estas áreas; no se registraronvariaciones significativas en la conformación de los grupos ni enfrentamientos entre lasdos tropas. Estas observaciones indicarían que el proceso de liberación cumplió con suobjetivo, y puede considerarse exitoso.

  5. Food habits of two syntopic canids, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, in southeastern Brazil Hábitos alimentarios de dos cánidos sintópicos, el aguara guazú (Chrysocyon brachyurus y el zorro del monte (Cerdocyon thous, en el sudeste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA DE ARRUDA BUENO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous are two South American canids with large overlap in their geographic distribution. However, there are few data on the comparative ecology of these species. The aim of this research was to quantify the diet of these two canids living in syntopy at three levels: frequency of occurrence, minimum number of individuals preyed and estimated biomass ingested. Additionally, seasonality in the consumption of major groups of food items and aspects of prey size distribution were assessed. The study took place in the Experimental Station of Itapetininga, São Paulo State, Brazil. General results showed that both canids are omnivorous in accordance with other studies. By occurrences, the wolves consumed vegetal and animal food in similar proportions, whereas the foxes consumed more animals, mainly insects. In contrast, both canids ingested mainly animal food if biomass is considered. The maned wolf consumed more wolf's fruit (Solanum lycocarpum and small mammals in the dry season, and miscellaneous fruits during the wet season. The crab-eating fox also ingested more miscellaneous fruits in the wet season, but the insects were mostly consumed during dry months. The crab-eating fox is more generalist than the maned wolf, but the wolf seems better able to handle distinct prey types. The distribution of prey sizes suggested separate food niches: while the maned wolf consumed a larger spectrum of prey sizes, especially small vertebrates between 10.1 and 100.0 g, the crab-eating fox consumed smaller prey, mainly insects between 0.01 and 0.1 gEl aguara guazú (Chrysocyon brachyurus y el zorro del monte (Cerdocyon thous son dos cánidos sudamericanos cuyas distribuciones geográficas se sobreponen extensamente. Sin embargo, hay pocos datos sobre la ecología comparativa de estas especies. El objetivo de esta investigación fue cuantificar la dieta de estos dos cánidos en sintopia en

  6. Materias primas vs materia gris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Aldemar Gómez Sierra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Los alimentos y los combustibles, en la última década, sobre pasaron el límite de la demanda; la causa no es sólo la evolución demográfica, ni el cambio climático, también es el efecto de las emergentes y poderosas economías asiáticas, especialmente la China, que está aumentando la exigencia energética y consume más y mejores alimentos; 500 millones de ciudadanos chinos están en capacidad de requerirlos y de viajar por el mundo como turistas.

  7. BERRYA ROXB. and CARPODIPTERA GRIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a. j. g. h. kostermans

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available In his monographic treatment of Tiliaceae, Burret {in Notizbl. bot.Gart. Berlin 9: 607. 1926 pointed out the close affinity of Berrya andCarpodiptera, the former represented in Asia and the Pacific area, thelatter from Africa and America.

  8. CARIOTIPO DEL TITÍ GRIS (Saguinus leucopus MEDIANTE BANDAS R-REPLICATIVAS KARYOTYPE OF TITÍ GREY (Saguinus leucopus THROUGH R-REPLICATIVE BANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Posada Céspedes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Colombia es considerado un país megabiodiverso, ostentando varias especies endémicas como Saguinus leucopus. El Tití gris, como es vulgarmente llamado, habita bosques tropicales, es omnívoro y de hábitos diurnos, y se destaca como dispersor de semillas. Morfológicamente se caracteriza por su reducido tamaño, pelaje café y dorso plateado. Se organiza en grupos familiares formados por la pareja y su descendencia, con una hembra dominante, la cual es la única que cría. Debido a factores fundamentalmente de origen antrópico, se encuentra catalogada como especies en peligro de extinción por la UICN y está registrado en el apéndice I del CITES. Aun cuando se han realizados estudios sobre su biología básica, son pocos los reporte sobre la evaluación citogenética y ninguno sobre cariotipo con bandas R-Replicativa. En esta investigación se realizó el cariotipo y el idiograma, con bandas R-Replicativas, mediante la incorporación de 5'-bromo-2'-deoxiuridina (BrdU en sangre periférica estimulada con fitohemaglutinina de S. leucopus. Los resultados mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 46, con un número fundamental (NF de 76. Los cromosomas se organizaron en cinco grupos de acuerdo con su forma y tamaño. El grupo A, es conformado por 3 pares de cromosomas grandes submetacéntricos; el grupo B, por 5 pares de cromosomas de tamaño medio metacéntricos o submetacéntricos; el grupo C, por 6 pares acrocéntricos y el grupo D, por 8 pares subtelocéntricos y el par sexual XX/XY. El cromosoma "X" es de tamaño medio submetacéntrico y el "Y" es metacéntrico, y de los más pequeños del genoma. Finalmente, se propone un idiograma con bandas R- Replicativa con base en mitosis en estadio III de replicación.Abstract. Colombia is considered a mega-biodiverse country, boasting several endemic species such as Saguinus leucopus. The Marmoset gray, as is commonly called, inhabits tropical forests, is omnivorous and diurnal, and stands as seed

  9. Un modelo de gestión de la calidad y cantidad de agua con lógica difusa gris para el Río Aburrá.

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal Serna, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un modelo de lógica difusa gris para la gestión de la calidad y cantidad del agua en el río Aburrá, el cual permite tener en cuenta la incertidumbre de los parámetros ambientales, que por lo general hacen que la toma de decisiones para las autoridades ambientales presente conflictos con los descargadores o contaminadores de los cuerpos de agua. La aplicación del modelo se hizo a una campaña del río Aburrá tomando como datos el caudal, el oxígeno disuelto y la demanda bi...

  10. El PRT-La Verdad entre los trabajadores de la carne de Berisso: La agrupación El Activista de la Carne y la Lista Gris [1967-1972

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Carlos Hernán Castillo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a research about the working class and students struggles and the strategies of the left parties in La Plata city and Gran La Plata between 1966 and 1973. This work is focused on the study of the political activity of the PRT-La Verdad during this period. At the beginning of 1968 the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores -PRT split in two fractions. The fraction led by Nahuel Moreno -named PRT-La Verdad [PRT- The Truth]- was the largest of the two in La Plata y Gran La Plata. In this area the PRT had many members among the students and in the workers movement. This article studies the political activity of the PRT, and the PRT-LV after the split- in the Sindicato de Obreros y Empleados de la Industria de la Carne y Afines de Berisso [Meat Processing Plants Workers Union], between 1967 and 1972 at the Swift and Armour meat processing plants. During the period analyzed in the article, the members and supporters of the PRT-LV were organized in a rank and file union group named El Activista de la Carne - Lista Gris [The Activist-Gray List]. The sources of this research are the bulletins and leaflets edited by El Activista de la Carne. We also consulted the files of DIPBA as well as the bibliography on the subject

  11. The «C» campanian and grey seudocampanian pottery in the province of Seville | La cerámica campaniense «C» y seudocampaniense de pasta gris en la provincia de Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Ventura Martínez

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available We want to make a contribution to the study of the Campanian pottery in the Iberian Peninsula. We analyse a lot of this pottery from various sites of the province of Seville, and carry out the study of the C Campanian pottery, and of the grey-paste pottery connected with it, in this area. | El presente estudio pretende ser una contribución al conocimiento de la cerámica campaniense en el ámbito de la Península Ibérica. En base al material reunido, procedente de diversos yacimientos de la provincia de Sevilla, el planteamiento del trabajo ha girado en torno a la documentación efectiva en dicho ámbito provincial tanto de la cerámica campaniense de tipo C como de una serie de cerámicas caracterizadas básicamente por su pasta gris y que en ocasiones, por sus características técnicas, formales o decorativas apuntan a una inspiración más o menos directa en las producciones propiamente campanienses.

  12. ERKÜ Esinduskogu aastakoosolek õnnestus / Gris Livieri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Livieri, Gris

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Rahvuskomitee Ühendriikides Esinduskogu koosolekust 2. mail 2009, kus kõneldi Eesti julgeolekust, Ülemaailmse Eesti Kesknõukogu tegevusest, Ühendatud Balti Ameerika Komitee lähenevast konverentsist ja ERKÜ tegevusest ning arutati põhjalikult ERKÜ 2009. a. tegevuse plaane

  13. COMPORTAMIENTO MECÁNICO Y DE FRAGUADO DE MORTEROS DE CEMENTO PÓRTLAND GRIS TIPO III CON ADITIVOS COMPORTAMENTO MECÂNICO E DE PEGA DE MORTEIROS DE CIMENTO PORTLAND CINZENTO TIPO III COM ADITIVOS MECHANICAL AND SETTING BEHAVIOR OF MORTARS FROM GRAY PORTLAND CEMENT TYPE III WITH ADDITIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIRSON MONTOYA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudió la variabilidad en el desempeño de morteros con el empleo de diferentes lotes de dos tipos de aditivos, uno retardante y uno acelerante de fraguado, para tal fin, se comparó su comportamiento con un mortero sin aditivo. Se analizaron las propiedades físicas, químicas y mecánicas del cemento Pórtland gris tipo III procedente de Cementos Rioclaro, se midieron los tiempos de fraguado inicial y final utilizando diferentes dosis de aditivos, además, se realizaron medidas de resistencia a la compresión de los morteros con aditivo retardante. Se encontró poca variabilidad entre los lotes de los aditivos estudiados; con el aditivo retardante usado se encontró que cuanto mayor es el tiempo de fraguado inicial, mayor es el tiempo de fraguado final. Utilizando el aditivo en dosis hasta de 0,6 % en peso del cemento, aumentó el tiempo de retardo a valores entre 550 y 600 min con el aumento del contenido de aditivo. De forma similar, con el aumento en el contenido del aditivo retardante, bajó la resistencia inicial y aumentó la resistencia final del mortero. Con dosis crecientes de aditivo acelerante disminuyó el tiempo de fraguado de las mezclas estudiadas.No presente trabalho se estudou a variabilidade no desempenho de morteiros com o emprego de diferentes lotes de dois tipos de aditivos, um retardante e um acelerante de pega, para tal fim, se comparou seu comportamento com um morteiro sem aditivo. Analisaram-se as propriedades físicas, químicas e mecânicas do cimento Pórtland cinzento tipo III procedente de Cementos Rioclaro, se mediram os tempos de pega inicial e final utilizando diferentes doses de aditivos, além disso, se realizaram medidas de resistência à compressão dos morteiros com aditivo retardante. Se encontrou pouca variabilidade entre os lotes dos aditivos estudados; com o aditivo retardante usado se encontrou que quanto maior é o tempo de pega inicial, maior é o tempo de pega final

  14. Unmasking Zorro: functional importance of the facial mask in the Masked Shrike (Lanius nubicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Reuven Yosef; Piotr Zduniak; Piotr Tryjanowski

    2012-01-01

    The facial mask is a prominent feature in the animal kingdom. We hypothesized that the facial mask of shrikes allows them to hunt into the sun, which accords them detection and surprise-attack capabilities. We conducted a field experiment to determine whether the mask facilitated foraging while facing into the sun. Male shrikes with white-painted masks hunted facing away from the sun more than birds with black-painted masks, which are the natural color, and more than individuals in the contro...

  15. Sæt en mager gris på gaflen - og tab dig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerno, Gudrun Lau

    2005-01-01

    Så forjættende lyder budskabet fra Institut for Human Ernæring på KVL – Den Kgl. Veterinær- og Landbohøjskole. Et forskningsforsøg har påvist at ved et stort indtag af animalsk protein især fra svinekød, kan vi tabe os syv til otte kilo på seks måneder. Overlæge, lektor Søren Toubro har nogle bud...

  16. Cincuenta Tonos de Gris, Sexualidad y Contrato de Prestación Sexual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Rodrigues Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es suscitar reflexiones jurídicas sobre sexualidad y prestación de servicios sexuales, teniendo en cuenta el derecho al propio cuerpo ante la disposición de dar placer al otro a través de dolores corporales, y verificando los límites entre erotismo y sadismo, así como la protección o no de la Ley Maria da Penha a la mujer que acepta el sadismo del compañero. Además del filme y el análisis comparativo con el libro homónimo, se hace uso de la revisión bibliográfica. Se concluye que las relaciones sexuales conscientemente consentidas están dentro de la autonomía del sujeto.

  17. Du gris au vert - L'espoir reprend racine dans les hautes terres d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2010 ... Renforcer le leadership en matière de politiques parmi les travailleurs de la santé qui œuvrent auprès de patients atteints du VIH/sida. Les travailleurs de la santé doivent posséder le leadership et les capacités en matière de recherche et d'élaboration de politiques requis pour con.

  18. Combate del moho gris (Botrytis cinerea) de la fresa mediante Gliocladium roseum

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Chaves; Amy Wang

    2004-01-01

    En la zona de Poasito de Alajuela, se evaluó la acción del antagonista Gliocladium roseum, en forma individual y en conjunto con los fungicidas empleados en la finca, para el combate de Botrytis cinerea en fresa; comparándose los resultados contra los obtenidos con el manejo comercial. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones y se hicieron aplicaciones semanales del antagonista (a una concentración ³ 107 conidios ml-1) durante un períod...

  19. Infection with a Hepatozoon sp. closely related to Hepatozoon felis in a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex -Pseudalopex -gymnocercus) co-infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A; Fresneda, Karina; Rossi, Daniel; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Baneth, Gad

    2012-05-25

    A species of Hepatozoon closely related to Hepatozoon felis found in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) is described. The fox was euthanized after showing severe incoordination. On necropsy and histopathology there was bilateral, diffuse, severe, sub-acute, necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia, with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Canine distemper virus was detected by immunohistochemistry in the bronchiolar epithelium, syncytial cells, alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes. The skeletal muscle and myocardium contained multiple round to oval protozoan cysts ranging from 64 μm × 75 μm to 98 μm × 122 μm, with a central eosinophilic meront-like core surrounded by concentric rings of mucinous material resembling Hepatozoon americanum cysts but smaller in size. Macrophages within rare pyogranulomas and monocytes/macrophages in adjacent sinusoidal blood vessels in the skeletal muscle contained intracytoplasmic round protozoa consistent with merozoites or developing gamonts of Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon sp. infection was confirmed by PCR of skeletal muscle and the sequenced 18S rRNA PCR product was found to be 99% identical to H. felis by BLAST analysis and deposited in GenBank as accession number HQ020489. It clustered together in the phylogenetic analysis with published H. felis sequences and separately from H. canis, H. americanum and other Hepatozoon species. However, the close relatedness of the fox Hepatozoon to H. felis does not rule out infection with a different and possibly unknown Hepatozoon species. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. L’ombra de l’eunuc o el gris del clarobscur: representació terrorista i condicionants morals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L’ombra de l’eunuc, by Jaume Cabré (1996, presents the inner conflict of a former terrorist during Franco’s regime, and the consequences that the unsuccessful armed struggle has in his later life. The context surrounding the writing of the book is one of discredit to the concept of armed struggle as seen in democratic Spain and, in particular, in Catalonia. In contrast with that view, the author proposes a representation of the terrorist based on the individual, at a time when terrorism was a means to fight against a totalitarian governmentality, so that it consequently became partially legitimised. This recontextualization permits a re-evaluation of the violence taboo and the weakening of the Otherness barrier, thus disrupting the simplified and stereotyped perceptions of the menace and the threatened by using perspective and characterisation.

  1. La etnoliteratura de José María Arguedas: migración indígena y babelización de la ciudad en El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales Salvador, Dora

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The author aims to reflect on the ethnoliterary nature put forward by transcultural fiction. Considering that literature displays a relevant social function and plays an important role regarding intercultural communication as a medium that contributes in a significant way to the representation and construction of cultures, the author focuses on the contribution of José María Arguedas. More than thirty years after Arguedas' death, his work still remains the best instance of transcultural literature in Latin American fiction. His writings represent the unavoidable, and often tragic, bicultural co-existence and blending of Andean and Spanish worlds in Perú; in the past as well as in the present and the future.

    El propósito de este trabajo es reflexionar sobre la naturaleza etnoliteraria propuesta por la ficción transcultural. Teniendo en cuenta que la literatura despliega una relevante función social y también juega un papel importante en lo que respecta a la comunicación intercultural, como medio que contribuye de forma significativa a la representación y construcción de las culturas, nos centraremos en la aportación ficcional de José María Arguedas. Más de treinta años después de su muerte, Arguedas es sin duda el mejor ejemplo de literatura transcultural en las letras latinoamericanas. Sus escritos representan la inevitable y a menudo trágica coexistencia y mezcla bicultural de los mundos andino y español en Perú, pasado, presente y futuro.

  2. Ice loss from GrIS glaciers feeding Nuup Kangerlua (Godthåbsfjord), southwest Greenland: 1985–2008–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motyka, Roman; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Fahnestock, Mark

    glacier Narsap Sermia (NS) has remained relatively stable at its LIA extent until quite recently. Comparison of Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data (flown May 2011) to the 2008 DEM indicates that KNS continues to thin at rates of 1–5 m a–1 below 800 m, but has been stable at higher elevations...

  3. Experiencias en Cuba de la producción de piezas fundidas de fundición gris esferoidal (FGE, un material de elevadas cualidades y propiedades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mondelo García

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo expone alternativas posibles de acceder a fabricar fundiciones grises esferoidales(FGE, así como conocimientos, experiencias y métodos empleados en su producción en Cuba,contando por lo tanto con un material de elevadas cualidades y propiedades tecnológicas enexplotación. Se dan materiales básicos utilizados en los procesos de obtención de la FGE, locual incluye el proceso de recarburación de estas aleaciones ferrosas, más las operaciones denodulización e inoculación, junto a los controles bases en sus operaciones fundamentales, parafabricar piezas con la calidad y certificación requeridas. Se tienen resultados experimentalesproductivos de estas fundiciones nodulares, con marcas de diversas estructuras, propiedadesmecánicas y composiciones. Se valora además resultados de la sustitución de piezas deaceros por FGE con posibilidades de obtener, por tratamiento térmico los hierrosaustemperados (ADI y elementos económicos comparativos de la factibilidad de fabricación dela fundición sintética en piezas FGE con chatarras de aceros básicamente y recarburantesnacionales de carbón vegetal, como variante alternativa.

  4. CARACTERÍSTICAS SEMINALES DEL TITÍ GRIS (Saguinus leucopus BAJO CONDICIONES DE CAUTIVERIO, OBTENIDAS POR ESTIMULACIÓN VIBRATORIA DEL PENE (EVP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Poches

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia de la técnica de estimulación vibratoria del pene (evP para obtener semen en quince especímenes de S. leucopus bajo condiciones de cautiverio, en cuatro diferentes sitios en Colombia. adicionalmente, se estandarizó la técnica evP y se deter-minaron algunas características seminales (color, viscosidad, volumen, pH, motilidad, morfología, viabilidad, concentración y morfometría espermática. se empleó clorhidrato de ketamina a dosis entre 5 y 10 mg/kg i.M. para la sedación previa al muestreo a fin de disminuir el estrés de la captura y del procedimiento, ya que los especímenes no estaban acostumbrados o entrenados para procesos de obtención de muestras biológicas. en el uso de la técnica se logró un 52,6% de éxito en la combinación de 90 Hz de vibración y 1 mm de amplitud; el tiempo de eyaculación promedio fue de 12:35±6:42 minutos; el pH, 7,5±0,26; el volumen, 24±18,82 μl; la motilidad masal fue de 3,7/5,0±0,5; la motilidad individual progresiva, 97,1±45,4%; la concentración espermática fue de 87.617±21.327 x 104 spz/μl; la normalidad fue del 69,3±11,06% y la viabilidad del 93,7±4,9%. Las características seminales fueron similares a las reportadas en otras es-pecies de callitríchidos y obtenidas por la misma técnica. se empleó satisfactoriamente el diluyente Talp-Hepes y el cual no afectó las características antes descritas. La evP es un método innovador, replicable, viable y seguro para la obtención de semen en S. leucopus y a otros callitríchidos bajo sedación con ketamina en condiciones de cautiverio.

  5. Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Arguedas Cortés

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%, fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica.Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica. Centrocestus formosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1453-1465. Epub 2010 December 01.

  6. Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Arguedas Cortés

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%, fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica.

  7. Evaluación estacional de la riqueza y abundancia de especies de mamíferos en la Reserva Biológica Municipal "Mário Viana", Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Cândido Rocha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos la fauna de mamíferos terrestres medianos y grandes, tomando en cuenta la riqueza y abundancia de las especies y la cantidad de individuos, en la Reserva Biológica Municipal "Mário Viana", Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Hicimos dos visitas mensuales durante todo el año 2001 en un transecto de 2 820 m de extensión, previamente preparado para la identificación de huellas. Identificamos 22 especies en la estación lluviosa y 18 de ellas también en la seca. Registramos Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842 (zorro, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758 (hurón, Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771 (puma e Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (capiguara durante la estación de lluvias. Según el procedimiento Jackknife, la riqueza de especies durante la estación seca (19.83, con intervalo de confianza (IC = 2.73 fue menor que durante la estación lluviosa (25.67, con IC= 3.43. Solamente cuatro mostraron índices de abundancia significativamente diferentes entre estaciones: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (armadillo de nueve bandas, Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758 (armadillo de seis bandas, Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (agutí y Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 (tapir. Por otro lado, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792 (armadillo gigante y Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 (ocelote se destacaron por presentar un índice de abundancia idéntico entre las estaciones. La distribución de la abundancia de las especies en el área de muestreo, siguió más o menos el patrón esperado para las comunidades en equilibrio, especialmente en la estación lluviosa, evidenciando que el ambiente aún mantiene una buena calidad para la conservación de los mamíferos. El presente estudio mostró que la RBMMV, a pesar de ser pequeña (con aproximadamente 470 ha, desempeña un papel importante para la conservación de la mastofauna de la región, siendo un área de refugio en un ambiente con mucha influencia antrópica, principalmente por la cr

  8. Integración de data geológica, topográfica y su almacenamiento en una base de datos espacial como una forma de mejora la explotación de la información gris

    OpenAIRE

    Choy Franco, Pablo Arturo; Choy Franco, Pablo Arturo

    2006-01-01

    Mauricio Hochschild & Cia (MHC) cuenta con una trayectoria de casi 80 años, teniendo sus inicios en el negocio minero, con el cual se dio a conocer y pudo desarrollarse de manera exitosa, consolidándose en el mercado nacional. El éxito en el sector minero le permitió ampliar sus líneas de negocio hacia el rubro de cementos, adquiriendo a fines de la década de los 80 una de las principales compañías de cemento en el Perú como lo es Cementos Pacasmayo. Posteriormente, en el año 1998, adquirió C...

  9. El PRT-La Verdad entre los trabajadores de la carne de Berisso: La agrupación El Activista de la Carne y la Lista Gris (1967-1972)

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo se enmarca dentro de un proyecto más general referido al estudio de los conflictos obreros y estudiantiles y las estrategias de la izquierda en La Plata y Gran La Plata entre 1966 y 1973 y, más en particular, del estudio de la actividad en la región durante ese período del PRT-La Verdad. De las dos fracciones en las que se escindió el Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores a comienzos de 1968, el sector encabezado por Nahuel Moreno ?que pasó a denominarse "PRT-La Verdad"- fue...

  10. Profesores franquistas, antifranquistas y en la "zona gris". La guerra ideológica que vivieron los profesores de Segunda Enseñanza en el País Valenciano (1936-1950)

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez Tarín, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    El objeto de estudio en la presente tesis se ha centrado en analizar si realmente fue el franquismo el régimen dictatorial que desarrolló una política represiva de mayor envergadura en la Segunda Enseñanza en comparación con las otras dos dictaduras del sur de Europa: Portugal e Italia. La limpieza política de docentes en España no fue un hecho aislado y excepcional, el mismo combate ideológico, ya se venía fraguando en Europa desde la Primera Guerra Mundial entre antiilustrados e ilustrad...

  11. Robust image alignment for cryogenic transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Robert A; Kowal, Julia; Ringler, Philippe; Stahlberg, Henning

    2017-03-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy recently experienced great improvements in structure resolution due to direct electron detectors with improved contrast and fast read-out leading to single electron counting. High frames rates enabled dose fractionation, where a long exposure is broken into a movie, permitting specimen drift to be registered and corrected. The typical approach for image registration, with high shot noise and low contrast, is multi-reference (MR) cross-correlation. Here we present the software package Zorro, which provides robust drift correction for dose fractionation by use of an intensity-normalized cross-correlation and logistic noise model to weight each cross-correlation in the MR model and filter each cross-correlation optimally. Frames are reliably registered by Zorro with low dose and defocus. Methods to evaluate performance are presented, by use of independently-evaluated even- and odd-frame stacks by trajectory comparison and Fourier ring correlation. Alignment of tiled sub-frames is also introduced, and demonstrated on an example dataset. Zorro source code is available at github.com/CINA/zorro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Filmikurioosumid : Kõige, kõige, kõige filmid : Zorrod läbi aegade / Aare Ermel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ermel, Aare, 1957-2013

    2002-01-01

    1919. aastal ilmunud Johnston McCulley jutustus "Capistrano needus" pani aluse lugematutele vaeste eest maskis ja pimeduse varjus kättemaksva Zorro lugudele trükisõnas ja kinolinal. Samast tüvest on pärit ka Batmani (looja Bob Kane) ja Supermani lood

  13. La voz del amauta en el poema Llamado a algunos doctores (Huk Doctorkunaman Qayay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Álvarez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se pretende establecer, algunas relaciones que el poema de José María Arguedas, Llamado a algunos doctores, construye con determinados rasgos del pensamiento mostrado por el autor en Todas las sangres, Los ríos profundos, Warma Kuyay y El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo; así como en la mesa redonda sobre Todas las sangres de junio de 1965. Se intenta encontrar, en la voz poética, la voz del amauta, en la forma en que el poeta expresa su relación con la naturaleza y con lo divino. This paper seeks to establish some relationships that the poem of Jose Maria Arguedas, Llamado a algunos doctores, established with certain features of the thought expressed by the author in Todas las sangres, Los ríos profundos, Warma Kuyay and El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo; as well the roundtable of june of 1965 about Todas las sangres. It tries to find the poetic voice in the voice of amauta in the way the poet expresses his relationship with nature and the divine.

  14. Modeling of radiant heat transfers in non-grey gases using the discrete ordinate method in association with a narrow bands statistical model; Modelisation des transferts radiatifs dans des gaz non gris par la methode des ordonnees discretes associee a un modele statistique a bandes etroites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.B. de; Delmas, A; Sacadura, J F [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-12-31

    A formulation based on the use of the discrete ordinate method applied to the integral form of the radiant heat transfer equation is proposed for non-grey gases. The correlations between transmittances are neglected and no explicit wall reflexion is considered. The configuration analyzed consists in a flat layer of non-isothermal steam-nitrogen mixture. Cavity walls are grey with diffuse reflexion and emission. A narrow band statistical model is used to represent the radiative properties of the gas. The distribution of the radiative source term inside the cavity is calculated along two temperature profiles in a uniform steam concentration. Results obtained using this simplified approach are in good agreement with those found in the literature for the same temperature and concentration distributions. This preliminary study seems to indicate that the algorithm based on the integration of radiant heat transfer along the luminance path is less sensitive to de-correlation effects than formulations based on the differential form the the radiant heat transfer. Thus, a more systematic study of the influence of the neglecting of correlations on the integral approach is analyzed in this work. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  15. Modeling of radiant heat transfers in non-grey gases using the discrete ordinate method in association with a narrow bands statistical model; Modelisation des transferts radiatifs dans des gaz non gris par la methode des ordonnees discretes associee a un modele statistique a bandes etroites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.B. de; Delmas, A.; Sacadura, J.F. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1996-12-31

    A formulation based on the use of the discrete ordinate method applied to the integral form of the radiant heat transfer equation is proposed for non-grey gases. The correlations between transmittances are neglected and no explicit wall reflexion is considered. The configuration analyzed consists in a flat layer of non-isothermal steam-nitrogen mixture. Cavity walls are grey with diffuse reflexion and emission. A narrow band statistical model is used to represent the radiative properties of the gas. The distribution of the radiative source term inside the cavity is calculated along two temperature profiles in a uniform steam concentration. Results obtained using this simplified approach are in good agreement with those found in the literature for the same temperature and concentration distributions. This preliminary study seems to indicate that the algorithm based on the integration of radiant heat transfer along the luminance path is less sensitive to de-correlation effects than formulations based on the differential form the the radiant heat transfer. Thus, a more systematic study of the influence of the neglecting of correlations on the integral approach is analyzed in this work. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  16. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, Martin E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models pre...

  17. Greenland ice sheet surface mass-balance modelling and freshwater flux for 2007, and in a 1995-2007 perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    y-1); the only year with a negative GrIS SMB. Runoff in 2007 was approximately 35% greater than average for 1995-2006. From 1995 through 2007 overall, precipitation decreased while ablation increased, leading to an increased average SMB loss of 127 km3. The modelled GrIS SMB was merged with previous......-stations) were used as model inputs. The GrIS minimum surface melt extent of 29% occurred in 1996, while the greatest extent of 51% was present in 2007. The 2007 melt extent was 20% greater than the average for 1995-2006. The year 2007 had the highest GrIS surface runoff (523 km3 y-1) and the lowest SMB (-3 km3...... estimates of GrIS subglacial runoff (from geothermal melt) and GrIS calving to quantify GrIS freshwater flux to the ocean, indicating an average negative mass-balance of 265 (±83) km3 y-1. This study further suggests an average GrIS freshwater flux of approximately 786 km3 y-1 to the ocean, of which 45...

  18. The pattern of anthropogenic signal emergence in Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fyke, J.G.; Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) trends influence observed Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) mass loss, but the component of these trends related to anthropogenic forcing is unclear. Here we study the simulated spatial pattern of emergence of an anthropogenically derived GrIS SMB signal between 1850 and 2100

  19. Future climate warming increases Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fyke, J.G.; Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.; Price, S.

    2014-01-01

    The integrated surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has large interannual variability. Long-term future changes to this variability will affect GrIS dynamics, freshwater fluxes, regional oceanography, and detection of changes in ice volume trends. Here we analyze a simulated

  20. The sensitivity of the Greenland Ice Sheet to glacial-interglacial oceanic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Ilaria; Blasco, Javier; Robinson, Alexander; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Montoya, Marisa

    2018-04-01

    Observations suggest that during the last decades the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has experienced a gradually accelerating mass loss, in part due to the observed speed-up of several of Greenland's marine-terminating glaciers. Recent studies directly attribute this to warming North Atlantic temperatures, which have triggered melting of the outlet glaciers of the GrIS, grounding-line retreat and enhanced ice discharge into the ocean, contributing to an acceleration of sea-level rise. Reconstructions suggest that the influence of the ocean has been of primary importance in the past as well. This was the case not only in interglacial periods, when warmer climates led to a rapid retreat of the GrIS to land above sea level, but also in glacial periods, when the GrIS expanded as far as the continental shelf break and was thus more directly exposed to oceanic changes. However, the GrIS response to palaeo-oceanic variations has yet to be investigated in detail from a mechanistic modelling perspective. In this work, the evolution of the GrIS over the past two glacial cycles is studied using a three-dimensional hybrid ice-sheet-shelf model. We assess the effect of the variation of oceanic temperatures on the GrIS evolution on glacial-interglacial timescales through changes in submarine melting. The results show a very high sensitivity of the GrIS to changing oceanic conditions. Oceanic forcing is found to be a primary driver of GrIS expansion in glacial times and of retreat in interglacial periods. If switched off, palaeo-atmospheric variations alone are not able to yield a reliable glacial configuration of the GrIS. This work therefore suggests that considering the ocean as an active forcing should become standard practice in palaeo-ice-sheet modelling.

  1. Using fecal profiles of bile acids to assess habitat use by threatened carnivores in the Maulino forest of central Chile Empleo del perfil de ácidos biliares fecales para evaluar uso del hábitat por carnívoros amenazados en el bosque maulino de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA GUERRERO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and habitat use by carnivores can be assessed by studying their tracks or feces. If these methods are to be used confidently, they should not only unequivocally discriminate among species, but should also render the same patterns of spatial distributions. We assessed the fulfillment of these requirements with five carnivores inhabiting the Maulino forest of central Chile: Galictis cuja, Oncifelis guigna, Pseudalopex culpaeus, Pseudalopex griseus, and Puma concolor. Fecal bile acid thin layer chromatographic profiles were assessed, and shown to be species-specific, invariant within samples of a given individual and among individuals of a given species, but consistently different across species. The spatial distribution of feces in mixed stands of native forests and exotic pine plantations in the coastal Maule region of central Chile was compared with the expected distribution according to habitat offer, and also with the expected distribution based on earlier track records. The results revealed that Pseudalopex culpaeus makes extensive use of pine plantations; Oncifelis guigna prefers native forests, and Pseudalopex griseus thrives in pine plantations, native forests, and patches of native forest, in proportion to habitat availability. Results from scat distribution were similar to those obtained by tracks records. Feces and tracks were thus useful indicators of habitat use by carnivores, and could be used complementarily to study species with conservation problemsEl uso del hábitat por carnívoros puede ser examinado a partir de la distribución de sus huellas y fecas. Para que ambas aproximaciones sean usadas en forma segura y complementaria, ellas deberían no solamente discriminar inequívocamente entre especies, sino que también deberían entregar la misma información sobre los patrones de distribución espacial. Analizamos el cumplimiento de estos requisitos con cinco especies de carnívoros en el bosque maulino de Chile

  2. Visceral leishmaniasis in captive wild canids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, Marcela M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Silva, Teane M A; Silva, Fabiana L; Motta, Rafael O C; Miranda, Ildikó; Ecco, Roselene; Santos, Renato L

    2008-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil). Leishmania sp. can naturally infect several species of mammals, and the domestic dog is the most important reservoir of the disease in South America. This report describes five cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazilian canids. Among 15 animals kept in captivity in a zoo in Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil), two animals, a bush dog (Spheotos venaticos) and a hoary zorro (Lycalopex vetulus) were serologically positive and developed clinical signs of VL, whereas three other canids, including a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and a hoary zorro (Lycalopex vetulus) had positive serological results without clinical signs.

  3. Faune magdalénienne de la Grande Grotte de Labastide. (Hautes - Pyrénées, France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Clot

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available La cueva de Labastide (Altos Pirineos, francia ha proporcionado una fauna del Magdaleniense medio (datada en 14.260 ± 440 BP, con especies de gran tamaño, el caballo (Equus caballus cf. gallicus, el bisonte y el uro, el reno. Algunos restos señalan la presencia de la cabra de los Pirineos y del sarrio, sin embargo el ciervo está ausente. Entre los carnívoros, se deben anotar numerosos huesos de zorro   común, y algunos de restos de zorro polar, de línce nórdico y de gato montés. Unos treinta restos pertenecen al glotón, pocas veces citado en los Pirineos.

  4. Prólogo

    OpenAIRE

    Beverley, John

    2013-01-01

    En una entrevista hecha a Ángel Rama un poco antes de su muerte en 1983, se le preguntó si en la última novela de José María Arguedas, El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo, había todavía una esperanza para la cultura indígena. Rama respondió de la siguiente manera: Sin duda, pero no de la cultura indígena sino de la cultura mestiza, porque la cultura india ya no tenía sentido. Lo que él [Arguedas] comprendió es que efectivamente la salida era esa barrosa salida del mestizaje. Ese zigzaguean...

  5. Verdade e ficção nos «Diarios» de José María Arguedas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Monte Alto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Após escrever El zorro de arriba y el zorro d abajo, José María Arguedas, escritor e antropólogo peruano, tentou se suicidar em sua sala na Universidad Agrária de la Molina, em Lima, 1969, como havia anunciado nas páginas que acabava de escrever; acabou falecendo três dias depois num hospital. Através da análise dos Diarios, contidos em seu último romance, queremos discutir o papel do diário na (reconstrução da trajetória pessoal do autor e na sua escolha como instrumento de anúncio de sua morte.Palavras-chave: Literatura peruana; José María Arguedas; Diarios; biografia.Resumen: Trás escribir El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo, José María Arguedas, escritor y antropólogo peruano, intentó suicidarse en su despacho en la Universidad Agraria de la Molina, en Lima, 1969, como había anunciado desde las páginas que acababa de escribir; tres dias después falleció en un hospital. A través del análisis de los Diarios presentes en su postrera novela buscamos discutir el papel del diario en la (reconstrucción de la trayectoria personal del autor y en su elección como instrumento de anuncio de su muerte.Palabras-clave: Literatura peruana; José María Arguedas; Diarios; biografía.Keywords: Peruvian literature; José María Arguedas; Diarios; biography.

  6. A yeast model for target-primed (non-LTR retrotransposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busby Jason N

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Target-primed (non-LTR retrotransposons, such as the human L1 element, are mobile genetic elements found in many eukaryotic genomes. They are often present in large numbers and their retrotransposition can cause mutations and genomic rearrangements. Despite their importance, many aspects of their replication are not well understood. Results We have developed a yeast model system for studying target-primed retrotransposons. This system uses the Zorro3 element from Candida albicans. A cloned copy of Zorro3, tagged with a retrotransposition indicator gene, retrotransposes at a high frequency when introduced into an appropriate C. albicans host strain. Retrotransposed copies of the tagged element exhibit similar features to the native copies, indicating that the natural retrotransposition pathway is being used. Retrotransposition is dependent on the products of the tagged element's own genes and is highly temperature-regulated. The new assay permits the analysis of the effects of specific mutations introduced into the cloned element. Conclusion This Zorro3 retrotransposition assay system complements previously available target-primed retrotransposition assays. Due to the relative simplicity of the growth, manipulation and analysis of yeast cells, the system should advance our understanding of target-primed retrotransposition.

  7. Contrasting evidence of Holocene ice margin retreat, south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, L. B.; Larsen, N. K.; Davidson, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Constraining the Greenland Ice Sheet's (GrIS) response to Holocene climate change provides calibrations for ice sheet models that hindcast past ice margin fluctuations. Ice sheet models predict enhanced ice retreat in south-western Greenland during the middle Holocene; however, few geological...... observations corroborating the extensive retreat are available. We present new data from lake sediment cores from the Isua region, south-western Greenland, which provide constraints on Holocene fluctuations of the GrIS margins. Our data indicate that the main GrIS margin was 30 km west of its present...

  8. Observed runoff, jokulhlaups and suspended sediment load from the Greenland ice at Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, 2007 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hasholt, Bent [UNIV OF COPENHAGEN

    2009-01-01

    This study fills the gap in hydrologic measurements of runoff exiting a part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), the Kangerlussuaq drainage area, West Greenland. The observations are of value for obtaining knowledge about the terrestrial freshwater and sediment output from part of the GrIS and the strip of land between the GrIS and the ocean, in the context of varying ice sheet surface melt and influx entering the ocean. High-resolution stage, discharge and suspended sediment load show a decrease in runoff of {approx} 25% and in sediment load of {approx} 40% from 2007 to 2008 in response to a decrease in the summer accumulated number of positive degree days. During the 2007 and 2008 runoff season, joekulhlaups are observed at Kangerlussuaq, drained from an ice-dammed lake at the margin of the GrIS.

  9. Multi-decadal marine- and land-terminating glacier recession in the Ammassalik region, southeast Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mernild

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Landsat imagery was applied to elucidate glacier fluctuations of land- and marine-terminating outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS and local land-terminating glaciers and ice caps (GIC peripheral to the GrIS in the Ammassalik region, Southeast Greenland, during the period 1972–2011. Data from 21 marine-terminating glaciers (including the glaciers Helheim, Midgaard, and Fenris, the GrIS land-terminating margin, and 35 GIC were examined and compared to observed atmospheric air temperatures, precipitation, and reconstructed ocean water temperatures (at 400 m depth in the Irminger Sea. Here, we document that net glacier recession has occurred since 1972 in the Ammassalik region for all glacier types and sizes, except for three GIC. The land-terminating GrIS and GIC reflect lower marginal and areal changes than the marine-terminating outlet glaciers. The mean annual land-terminating GrIS and GIC margin recessions were about three to five times lower than the GrIS marine-terminating recession. The marine-terminating outlet glaciers had an average net frontal retreat for 1999–2011 of 0.098 km yr−1, which was significantly higher than in previous sub-periods 1972–1986 and 1986–1999. For the marine-terminating GrIS, the annual areal recession rate has been decreasing since 1972, while increasing for the land-terminating GrIS since 1986. On average for all the observed GIC, a mean net frontal retreat for 1986–2011 of 0.010 ± 0.006 km yr−1 and a mean areal recession of around 1% per year occurred; overall for all observed GIC, a mean recession rate of 27 ± 24% occurred based on the 1986 GIC area. Since 1986, five GIC melted away in the Ammassalik area.

  10. Halms effekt på mavesår hos slagtesvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Herskin, Mette S.

    2015-01-01

    Tildeling af halm i stien til slagtesvin svarende til op til ca. 300 g pr. gris pr. dag fjernede ikke, men reducerede forekomsten af mavesår/-ar og gav et fastere maveindhold.......Tildeling af halm i stien til slagtesvin svarende til op til ca. 300 g pr. gris pr. dag fjernede ikke, men reducerede forekomsten af mavesår/-ar og gav et fastere maveindhold....

  11. Experimental Protoporphyria: Effect of Bile Acids on Liver Damage Induced by Griseofulvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA, dehydrocholic (DHA, chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO. The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed, superoxide dismutase (SOD, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH, and cytochrome P450 (CYP levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris.

  12. Atmospheric river impacts on Greenland Ice Sheet surface melt and mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, K.; Mote, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has accelerated during the early part of the 21st Century. Several episodes of widespread GrIS melt in recent years have coincided with intense poleward moisture transport by atmospheric rivers (ARs), suggesting that variability in the frequency and intensity of these events may be an important driver of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS. ARs may contribute to GrIS surface melt through the greenhouse effect of water vapor, the radiative effects of clouds, condensational latent heating within poleward-advected air masses, and the energy provided by liquid precipitation. However, ARs may also provide significant positive contributions to GrIS SMB through enhanced snow accumulation. Prior research on the role of ARs in Arctic climate has consisted of case studies of ARs associated with major GrIS melt events or examined the effects of poleward moisture flux on Arctic sea ice. In this study, a long-term (1979-2016) record of intense moisture transport events affecting Greenland is compiled using a conventional AR identification algorithm as well as a self-organizing map (SOM) classification applied to integrated water vapor transport (IVT) data from several atmospheric reanalysis datasets. An analysis of AR effects on GrIS melt and SMB is then performed with GrIS surface melt data from passive microwave satellite observations and the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) regional climate model. Results show that meltwater production is above normal during and after AR impact days throughout the GrIS during all seasons, with surface melt enhanced most by strong (> 85th percentile IVT) and extreme (> 95th percentile IVT) ARs. This relationship holds at the seasonal scale, as the total amount of water vapor transported to the GrIS by ARs is significantly greater during above-normal melt seasons. ARs exert a more complex influence on SMB. Normal (< 85th percentile IVT) ARs generally do not have a substantial impact on

  13. Atmospheric summer teleconnections and Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass variations: insights from MERRA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Schubert, Siegfried D; Molod, Andrea M; Cullather, Richard I; Zhao, Bin; Nowicki, Sophie M J; Lee, Jae N; Velicogna, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between leading atmospheric teleconnection patterns and Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) temperature, precipitation, and surface mass balance (SMB) are investigated for the last 36 summers (1979–2014) based on Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications version 2 reanalyses. The results indicate that the negative phase of both the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation, associated with warm and dry conditions for the GrIS, lead to SMB decreases within 0–1 months. Furthermore, the positive phase of the East Atlantic (EA) pattern often lags the negative NAO, reflecting a dynamical linkage between these modes that acts to further enhance the warm and dry conditions over the GrIS, leading to a favorable environment for enhanced surface mass loss. The development of a strong negative NAO in combination with a strong positive EA in recent years leads to significantly larger GrIS warming compared to when the negative NAO occurs in combination with a negative or weak positive EA (0.69 K versus 0.13 K anomaly). During 2009 and 2011, weakened (as compared to conditions during the severe surface melt cases of 2010 and 2012) local high pressure blocking produced colder northerly flow over the GrIS inhibiting warming despite the occurrence of a strong negative NAO, reflecting an important role for the EA during those years. In particular, the EA acts with the NAO to enhance warming in 2010 and 2012, and weaken high pressure blocking in 2009 and 2011. In general, high pressure blocking primarily impacts the western areas of the GrIS via advective temperature increases, while changes in net surface radiative fluxes account for both western and eastern GrIS temperature changes. (letter)

  14. Taxonomy and Biology of Phlebotomine Vectors of Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-30

    niasis tegumentaria Ti: ricana. Reporte de los primeros tres casos descubicrt~o; c-n R.D. forma anergica en tres hermanos. Rev. Domin. Dormat-ol. 9: 19...Trop. Med. Hyg. 34: 440-446. 48. Herrer, A. 1951. Estudios sobre leishmaniasis tegumentaria en el Peru. II. Infeccion experimental do zorros con...cultivos do leishmanias aisladas de casos do uta. Rev. Med. Exp. (Lima) 8: 29-33. 49. Herror, A. 1971. Leishmania hertigi sp. n., from the tropical :., "r

  15. Identificación de escenarios de calidad de hábitat para fauna silvestre : caso de estudio| cuenca media y alta del río Otún (Risaralda)

    OpenAIRE

    García Gómez, Martha Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo contiene eje clave de investigación las dinámicas espaciales de cambio en la calidad del hábitat para fauna silvestre, a partir de la transformación de coberturas dentro de las áreas protegidas (sistemas naturales) y los sistemas reproductivos. Se presenta la estructura de un modelo basado en la utilización de software SIG. Lógica difusa y Agentes Inteligentes a partir del cual se logra la simulación de escenarios de calidad de hábitat para la especie ?zorros? en la cuenca media ...

  16. Palinofloras de las formaciones El Morterito y Palo Pintado [Mioceno Superior-Plioceno Inferior], noroeste de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Maricel Yanina

    2014-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se presenta el estudio palinológico de dos unidades litológicas del Mioceno Tardío/Plioceno de Argentina: la Formación El Morterito (Aloformación Playa del Zorro) aflorante en el valle del Cajón, provincia de Catamarca y Formación Palo Pintado en el Valle Calchaquí, provincia de Salta. La sucesión Neógena del valle del Cajón fue primeramente descripta como Formación El Morterito, posteriormente se reconocieron tres Aloformaciones. Considerando las áreas de distribución ...

  17. Effect of specific pathways to 1.5°C global warming on the contribution of Greenland to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, A.; Rückamp, M.; Falk, U.; Frieler, K.

    2017-12-01

    Sea level rise associated with changing climate is expected to pose a major challenge for societies. Here, we estimate the future contribution of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) to sea level change in terms of different emission scenarios. We investigate the effect of different pathways of global warming on the dynamics and mass balance of the GrIS with a focus on scenarios in line with limiting global warming to 2.0° or even 1.5° by the end of 2100 (Paris Agreement). We particularly address the issue of peak and decline scenarios temporarily exceeding a given temperature limit. This kind of overshooting might have strong effects on the evolution of the GrIS. Furthermore, we investigate the long-term effects of different levels of climate change to estimate the threshold for stabilizing the GrIS. For modeling the flow dynamics and future evolution of the GrIS, we apply the thermo-mechanical coupled Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). The model is forced with anomalies for temperature and surface mass balance derived from different GCM data from the CMIP5 RCP2.6 scenario provided from the ISIMIP2b project. In order to obtain these anomalies from the GCM data, a surface energy balance model is applied.

  18. Mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age, implications on sea level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to intense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest a global mean SLR of 15-20 cm, quantifying the separate components is of great concern - in particular...... for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the past GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge found by in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here......-2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, and NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. We present mass balance estimates of the GrIS since retreat commence from the maximum extent...

  19. Implications of changing scattering properties on Greenland ice sheet volume change from Cryosat-2 altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    2017-01-01

    ) in the elevation change algorithm, to correct for temporal changes in the ratio between surface- and volume-scatter in Cryosat-2 observations. We present elevation and volume changes for the Greenland ice sheet in the period from 2010 until 2014. The waveform parameters considered here are the backscatter...... waveform parameters to be applicable for correcting for changes in volume scattering. The best results in the Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric mode area of the GrIS are found when applying only the backscatter correction, whereas the best result in the Low Resolution Mode area is obtained by only......Long-term observations of surface elevation change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is of utmost importance when assessing the state of the ice sheet. Satellite radar altimetry offers a long time series of data over the GrIS, starting with ERS-1 in 1991. ESA's Cryosat-2 mission, launched in 2010...

  20. Nitrate addition has minimal short-term impacts on greenland ice sheet supraglacial prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Karen A.; Stibal, Marek; Chrismas, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Tropospheric nitrate levels are predicted to increase throughout the 21st century, with potential effects on terrestrial ecosystems, including the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). This study considers the impacts of elevated nitrate concentrations on the abundance and composition of dominant bulk...... and active prokaryotic communities sampled from in situ nitrate fertilization plots on the GrIS surface. Nitrate concentrations were successfully elevated within sediment-filled meltwater pools, known as cryoconite holes; however, nitrate additions applied to surface ice did not persist. Estimated bulk...... cryoconite communities were not nitrate limited at the time of sampling. Instead, temporal changes in biomass and community composition were more pronounced. As these in situ incubations were short (6 weeks), and the community composition across GrIS surface ice is highly variable, we suggest that further...

  1. Observations of runoff and sediment and dissolved loads from the Greenland Ice Sheet at Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Bent; Mikkelsen, Andreas Peter Bech; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2012-01-01

    Observations from 2007 to 2010 of runoff, sediment and solute delivery from a segment of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the proglacial landscape draining into the fjord at Kangerlussuaq are presented. The observations include at least three jökulhlaups and extreme recordings from 2010...... previously published for 2007 and 2008. The average effective erosion from the catchment was 0.28 mm (min. 0.18 and max. 0.45 mm). The erosion is larger than indicated from most other locations along the GrIS, but in the same order of magnitude as erosion in other glaciated areas at the same latitude, e.......g. Norway. The sandur in the proglacial area acts as a sediment sink for a lot of the sediments from the GrIS....

  2. The state of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard

    Firn is defined as snow that has survived a melt season and provides the link between the high-frequency variability of the atmosphere to the ”slower” reacting ice sheet.In this thesis, firn is described by a theoretical and statistical approach to accommodate the variability in observed firn...... compaction on ice sheet scales. The modeling objectives are multiple and aim at estimating the contribution from the firn to the observed volume change of the GrIS and to the diffusion of stable water isotopes. The firn modeling then provides crucial information on total mass balance of the Gr......IS and the paleo-temperature reconstructions retrieved from ice cores.The dynamical firn model developed in this thesis explains13 % of the observed volume change of the GrIS from 2003-2008, without contributing to the global sea-level rise. This emphasizes the need for well constraint firn-compaction models. Here...

  3. Supe: Arguedas’s unfinished novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Dammert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It had several names, «Harina Mundo», «Mar de Harina», «Jonás», «El pez grande», and was a literary project that José María Arguedas started after the publication of Todas las  Sangres (1964. The novel was intended to tell the story of ‘the transformations of Puerto Supe’, a fishing town he knew well, for he spent there the summer of 1943 and 1963. As we know, Arguedas later transformed this project into his last novel called El zorro de Arriba y el zorro de Abajo, which took place in the port of Chimbote.Two chapters of the unfinished novel about Supe were published while Arguedas was still alive: «Mar de Harina» and «El Pelón». In this article I present information about those chapters and the characters they portray, given that they were taken from real life. For this purpose, I draw on oral sources, such as my personal memories and the conversations I held in 2004 with the current inhabitants of Supe, about the characters of this unfinished project.

  4. Changes in Greenland ice bed conditions inferred from seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Takagi, Ryota; Kanao, Masaki; Tsuboi, Seiji; Tono, Yoko; Childs, Dean; Zhao, Dapeng

    2018-04-01

    Basal conditions of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are a key research topic in climate change studies. The recent construction of a seismic network has provided a new opportunity for direct, real-time, and continuous monitoring of the GrIS. Here we use ambient noise surface wave data from seismic stations all over Greenland for a 4.5-year period to detect changes in Rayleigh-wave phase velocity between seismic station pairs. We observe clear seasonal and long-term velocity changes for many pairs, and propose a plausible mechanism for these changes. Dominant factors driving the velocity changes might be seasonal and long-term pressurization/depressurization of the GrIS and shallow bedrock by air and ice mass loading/unloading. However, heterogeneity of the GrIS basal conditions might impose strong regionalities on the results. An interesting feature is that, even at adjacent two station pairs in the inland GrIS, one pair shows velocity decrease while another shows velocity increase as a response to the high air and snow pressure. The former pair might be located on a thawed bed that decreases velocity by increased meltwater due to pressure melting, whereas the latter pair might be located on a frozen bed that increases velocity by compaction of ice and shallow bedrock. The results suggest that surface waves are very sensitive to the GrIS basal conditions, and further observations will contribute to a more direct and quantitative estimation of water balance in the Arctic region.

  5. Coupled Long-Term Evolution of Climate and the Greenland Ice Sheet During the Last Interglacial and Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Lofverstrom, M.; Lipscomb, W.; Fyke, J. G.; Marshall, S.; Sacks, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is expected to contribute increasingly to global sea level rise by the end of this century, and potentially several meters in this millennium, but still with considerable uncertainty. The rate of Greenland melt will impact on regional sea levels. The Last Interglacial (LIG, 129 ka to 116 ka) is recognized as an important period for testing our knowledge of climate-ice sheet interactions in warm climate states. Although the LIG was discussed in the First Assessment Report of the IPCC, it gained more prominence in the IPCC Fourth and Fifth Assessment (AR4 and AR5) with reconstructions highlighting that global mean sea level was at least 5 m higher (but probably no more than 10 m higher) than present for several thousand years during the LIG. Model results assessed for the AR5 suggest a sea level contribution of 1.4 to 4.3 m from the GrIS. These model simulations, though, did not include all the feedbacks of the climate system and the GrIS. Here, we examine the response of the Arctic climate system and the GrIS in simulations with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) fully coupled to the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM), using a surface energy balance scheme and without bias corrections. The analysis focuses on how the GrIS responds to the imposed high boreal summer insolation of the LIG and in addition, to the long-term feedbacks of high-latitude vegetation changes. Results will highlight the evolution of the ice sheet and the surface mass balance (patterns of ablation and accumulation) as compared to data-based reconstructions for the LIG. We conclude with a discussion on how the LIG may be informative as a potential process analogue for the GrIS response for future centuries to come.

  6. Dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet and Icelandic Glaciers in the 20th Century Using Geodetic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    by bedrock geometry. It is revealed that dynamic ice loss recently seen in the southeast and northwest GrIS also occurred in the northwest between 1985 and 1993, highlighting the difficulty of capturing these events in mass balance models. Extending the record back to the LIA, the results show...... that for the past 110 years, the surface mass balance has been decreasing, while the dynamic term has been constant. The spatial pattern of thinning in the 20th century is identical to that of current change, suggesting this pattern will continue in the near future. The mass change of the GrIS in 20th century...

  7. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    and ocean load changes occurring since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 thousand years ago) and may be used to constrain the GrIS deglaciation history. We use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System network to directly measure GIA and estimate basinwide mass changes since the LGM. Unpredicted......Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice...

  8. Investigating Margin and Grounding Line Dynamics with a Coupled Ice and Sea Level Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, J.; Milne, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from the coupling of an adaptive mesh glaciological model (BISICLES) with a model of glacial isostatic adjustment and sea level. We apply this coupled model to study the deglaciation of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from the last glacial maximum. The proximity of the GrIS to the much larger Laurentide results in an east-west gradient in sea level rates across Greenland during the deglaciation. We investigate the impacts of this sea level gradient on ice and grounding line dynamics at the margins, as well as the influence of both local and non-local ice on sea level and ice dynamics.

  9. Spatial pattern of mass loss processes across the Greenland Ice Sheet from the Little Ice Age to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K. H.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Kjeldsen, K. K.

    The Greenland Ice Sheet loses mass through surface meltwater runoff and discharge from marine terminating outlet glaciers. The spatial variability and magnitude of these processes have been studied and described in detail for the past decades. Here, we combine the mass loss between the LIA to 2010...... these components are variable between the different sectors of the GrIS, e.g. in the southeast sector of the GrIS we find substantial mass loss, possibly driven by high precipitation rates but also the presence of a large number of marine terminating glaciers. Furthermore many areas currently undergoing changes...

  10. Timing and origin of recent regional ice-mass loss in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasgen, Ingo; van den Broeke, Michiel; Bamber, J.L.Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    and Kanagaratnam, 2006) together with output of the regional atmospheric climate modelling (RACMO2/GR; Ettema et al., 2009), and surface-elevation changes from the Ice, cloud and land elevation satellite (ICESat; Sørensen et al., 2011). We show that changing ice discharge (D), surface melting and subsequent run-off...... (M/R) and precipitation (P) all contribute, in a complex and regionally variable interplay, to the increasingly negative mass balance of the GrIS observed within the last decade. Interannual variability in P along the northwest and west coasts of the GrIS largely explains the apparent regional mass...

  11. Destabilization of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, K. H.

    . Here, we reveal that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), which extends more than 600 km into the interior of the ice sheet, is now undergoing dynamic thinning after more than a quarter of a century of stability. This sector of the GrIS is of particular interest in sea level projections, because...... the glacier flows into a large submarine basin with a negative bed slope near the grounding line. Our findings unfold the next step in mass loss of the GrIS as we show a heightened risk of rapid sustained loss from Northeast Greenland on top of the thinning in Southeast and Northwestern Greenland....

  12. Assimilation of MODIS Ice Surface Temperature and Albedo into the Snow and Ice Model CROCUS Over the Greenland Ice Sheet Along the K-transect Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navari, M.; Margulis, S. A.; Bateni, S. M.; Alexander, P. M.; Tedesco, M.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) is an important component of current and future projections of sea level rise. In situ measurement provides direct estimates of the SMB, but are inherently limited by their spatial extent and representativeness. Given this limitation, physically based regional climate models (RCMs) are critical for understanding GrIS physical processes and estimating of the GrIS SMB. However, the uncertainty in estimates of SMB from RCMs is still high. Surface remote sensing (RS) has been used as a complimentary tool to characterize various aspects related to the SMB. The difficulty of using these data streams is that the links between them and the SMB terms are most often indirect and implicit. Given the lack of in situ information, imperfect models, and under-utilized RS data it is critical to merge the available data in a systematic way to better characterize the spatial and temporal variation of the GrIS SMB. This work proposes a data assimilation (DA) framework that yields temporally-continuous and physically consistent SMB estimates that benefit from state-of-the-art models and relevant remote sensing data streams. Ice surface temperature (IST) is the most important factor that regulates partitioning of the net radiation into the subsurface snow/ice, sensible and latent heat fluxes and plays a key role in runoff generation. Therefore it can be expected that a better estimate of surface temperature from a data assimilation system would contribute to a better estimate of surface mass fluxes. Albedo plays an important role in the surface energy balance of the GrIS. However, even advanced albedo modules are not adequate to simulate albedo over the GrIS. Therefore, merging remotely sensed albedo product into a physically based model has a potential to improve the estimates of the GrIS SMB. In this work a MODIS-derived IST and a 16-day albedo product are independently assimilated into the snow and ice model CROCUS

  13. A photogrammetric DEM of Greenland based on 1978-1987 aerial photos: validation and integration with laser altimetry and satellite-derived DEMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Kjær, Kurt H.; Nuth, Christopher

    Here we present a DEM of Greenland covering all ice-free terrain and the margins of the GrIS and local glaciers and ice caps. The DEM is based on the 3534 photos used in the aero-triangulation which were recorded by the Danish Geodata Agency (then the Geodetic Institute) in survey campaigns...... spanning the period 1978-1987. The GrIS is covered tens of kilometers into the interior due to the large footprints of the photos (30 x 30 km) and control provided by the aero-triangulation. Thus, the data are ideal for providing information for analysis of ice marginal elevation change and also control...

  14. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: Archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E.A.A.; Blicher, M.E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We...

  15. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, K. H.; Wahr, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satell...

  16. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance...

  17. A century of variation in the dependence of Greenland iceberg calving on ice sheet surface mass balance and regional climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, G R; Wei, H L; Wilton, D J; Zhao, Y; Billings, S A; Hanna, E; Kadirkamanathan, V

    2014-06-08

    Iceberg calving is a major component of the total mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). A century-long record of Greenland icebergs comes from the International Ice Patrol's record of icebergs (I48N) passing latitude 48° N, off Newfoundland. I48N exhibits strong interannual variability, with a significant increase in amplitude over recent decades. In this study, we show, through a combination of nonlinear system identification and coupled ocean-iceberg modelling, that I48N's variability is predominantly caused by fluctuation in GrIS calving discharge rather than open ocean iceberg melting. We also demonstrate that the episodic variation in iceberg discharge is strongly linked to a nonlinear combination of recent changes in the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS and regional atmospheric and oceanic climate variability, on the scale of the previous 1-3 years, with the dominant causal mechanism shifting between glaciological (SMB) and climatic (ocean temperature) over time. We suggest that this is a change in whether glacial run-off or under-ice melting is dominant, respectively. We also suggest that GrIS calving discharge is episodic on at least a regional scale and has recently been increasing significantly, largely as a result of west Greenland sources.

  18. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat A.; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice...

  19. Modelling the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and neighbouring ice caps : A dynamical and statistical downscaling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noël, B.P.Y.

    2018-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is the world’s second largest ice mass, storing about one tenth of the Earth’s freshwater. If totally melted, global sea level would rise by 7.4 m, affecting low-lying regions worldwide. Since the mid-1990s, increased atmospheric and oceanic temperatures have

  20. Sensitivity of the Greenland Ice Sheet to Interglacial Climate Forcing: MIS 5e Versus MIS 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmayani, Rima; Prange, Matthias; Lunt, Daniel J.; Stone, Emma J.; Schulz, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is thought to have contributed substantially to high global sea levels during the interglacials of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e and 11. Geological evidence suggests that the mass loss of the GrIS was greater during the peak interglacial of MIS 11 than MIS 5e, despite a weaker boreal summer insolation. We address this conundrum by using the three-dimensional thermomechanical ice sheet model Glimmer forced by Community Climate System Model version 3 output for MIS 5e and MIS 11 interglacial time slices. Our results suggest a stronger sensitivity of the GrIS to MIS 11 climate forcing than to MIS 5e forcing. Besides stronger greenhouse gas radiative forcing, the greater MIS 11 GrIS mass loss relative to MIS 5e is attributed to a larger oceanic heat transport toward high latitudes by a stronger Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The vigorous MIS 11 ocean overturning, in turn, is related to a stronger wind-driven salt transport from low to high latitudes promoting North Atlantic Deep Water formation. The orbital insolation forcing, which causes the ocean current anomalies, is discussed.

  1. Response of the Atlantic Ocean circulation to Greenland Ice Sheet melting in a strongly-eddying ocean model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Maltrud, M.E.; Hecht, M.W.; Dijkstra, H.A.; Kliphuis, M.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) to high-latitude freshwater input is one of the key uncertainties in the climate system. Considering the importance of the AMOC for global heat transports, and the vulnerability of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) to global

  2. Política de acceso abierto a los resultados de proyectos financiados ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Barbara Porrett

    El acceso abierto reviste una importancia fundamental para el mandato del IDRC y ... gris resultantes de actividades financiadas por el IDRC —incluidos los trabajos ... Sí. Los cargos razonables de procesamiento de artículos (APC, en inglés) ...

  3. ESA's Ice Sheets CCI: validation and inter-comparison of surface elevation changes derived from laser and radar altimetry over Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland – Round Robin results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovsky, K.; Ticconi, F.

    2013-01-01

    method for determining each parameter. This work describes the SEC Round Robin and the subsequent conclusions leading to the creation of a method for determining GrIS SEC values. The participants used either Envisat radar or ICESat laser altimetry over Jakobshavn Isbræ drainage basin, and the submissions...

  4. Career Aspirations of Malaysian Research and Development Professionals in the Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Maimunah; Ramly, Efizah Sofiah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to compare the influence of self-efficacy, organizational socialization and continuous improvement (CI) practices on the career aspirations of research and development (R&D) professionals in government research institutes (GRIs) and multinational corporations (MNCs) in Malaysia. R&D professionals in this study…

  5. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland Ice Sheet cross-validated with the input-output method (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Van der Wal, W.; Van den Broeke, M.; Enderlin, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighbouring glaciated regions using a least-squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input-output

  6. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input-output method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Zheng; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; van der Wal, Wouter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Enderlin, Ellyn M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input–output

  7. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input–output method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.; Schrama, E.J.O.; van der Wal, W.; van den Broeke, MR; Enderlin, EM

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input–output

  8. Inter-annual Variations in Snow/Firn Density over the Greenland Ice Sheet by Combining GRACE gravimetry and Envisat Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X.; Shum, C. K.; Guo, J.; Howat, I.; Jezek, K. C.; Luo, Z.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite altimetry has been used to monitor elevation and volume change of polar ice sheets since the 1990s. In order to derive mass change from the measured volume change, different density assumptions are commonly used in the research community, which may cause discrepancies on accurately estimating ice sheets mass balance. In this study, we investigate the inter-annual anomalies of mass change from GRACE gravimetry and elevation change from Envisat altimetry during years 2003-2009, with the objective of determining inter-annual variations of snow/firn density over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). High positive correlations (0.6 or higher) between these two inter-annual anomalies at are found over 93% of the GrIS, which suggests that both techniques detect the same geophysical process at the inter-annual timescale. Interpreting the two anomalies in terms of near surface density variations, over 80% of the GrIS, the inter-annual variation in average density is between the densities of snow and pure ice. In particular, at the Summit of Central Greenland, we validate the satellite data estimated density with the in situ data available from 75 snow pits and 9 ice cores. This study provides constraints on the currently applied density assumptions for the GrIS.

  9. Mergers between Governmental Research Institutes and Universities in the Danish HE Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Kaare; Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the mergers in the Danish Higher Education (HE)-sector with a particular emphasis on the 2007 mergers involving universities and Government Research Institutes (GRIs). Furthermore, it follows the post-merger processes up to 2014/2015 at two Danish universities and examines the consequences of the changes seen…

  10. Multi-decadal dynamic thinning on the northwest margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Kjær, Kurt H.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    records with a 25 m grid resolution and vertical uncertainty of 4.6m. Comparative DEMs were derived from laser altimetry data recorded in 2005 and 2010. Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) can be partitioned into surface mass balance (SMB) processes (runoff and precipitation) and ice dynamics...

  11. Prévalence de la brucellose et de la tuberculose chez les bovins au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RONALDESS

    2 mars 2018 ... lait et de viande, elle est une maladie animale chronique ... animale, combinés à l'impact significatif de. M. bovis sur ... économique et d'impact sur la santé publique, est difficile à .... bacilles rouges sur fond bleu-gris en cas de.

  12. Mergers between governmental research institutes and Universities in the Danish HE sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Kaare; Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the mergers in the Danish Higher Education (HE)-sector with a particular emphasis on the 2007 mergers involving universities and Government Research Institutes (GRIs). Furthermore, it follows the post-merger processes up to 2014/2015 at two Danish universities...

  13. Betydningen af Lawsonia og PCV2 virus for daglig tilvækst hos slagtesvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Markku; Nielsen, Mai Britt Friis; Dahl, Jan

    Resultaterne af denne undersøgelse viser at: - Grise med store mængder Lawsonia i gødningen (≥106/gram gødning) har større risiko (OR=5,2) for at være en langsomt voksende gris. - Grise med synlige tarmforandringer har større risiko (OR=13,2) for at være en langsomt voksende gris. - Grise med...... diarré har større risiko (OR=10,1) for at være en langsomt voksende gris. Derimod kunne der ikke påvises nogen sammenhæng mellem mængden af PCV2 virus, antistoffer mod PCV2 virus eller påvisning af PCV2 virus ved immunhistokemi i tarmlymfeknude og tilvæksten hos grise. Undersøgelsen er gennemført i 5...... virus og Lawsonia på DTU-Veterinærinstitutet. For hver gris blev den maksimalt målte værdi af Lawsonia og PCV2 virus mængde i gødning og antistoffer mod de to sygdomme brugt som forklarende variabel. Sammenhængen til hurtigt/langsomt voksende grise for de maksimalt målte værdier blev undersøgt ved...

  14. 76 FR 27657 - Notice of Domestic Interested Party Petitioner's Desire To Contest the Tariff Classification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... by offering guidance in understanding the scope of the headings and GRIs. The wickless wax objects... Wickless Wax Objects AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... imported wickless wax objects identified in entry documents as ``wax cylinders'', ``wax pillars'', ``wax...

  15. Accelerated mass loss from Greenland ice sheet : Links to atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Waliser, Duane E.; Lee, Choon-Ki; Tian, Baijun; Scambos, Ted; Kim, Baek-Min; van Angelen, Jan H.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive the mass imbalance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is critical to the accurate projection of its contribution to future sea level rise. Greenland's ice mass loss has been accelerating recently. Using satellite Earth-gravity and regional climate model data,

  16. Estimating Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallee, H

    2012-01-01

    We report future projections of Surface Mass Balance (SMB) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) obtained with the regional climate model MAR, forced by the outputs of three CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs) when considering two different warming scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). The GCMs

  17. Estimating the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallée, H.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the sea level rise (SLR) originating from changes in surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), we present 21st century climate projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR (Mod`ele Atmosph´erique R´egional), forced by output of three CMIP5 (Coupled Model

  18. MEGNANOU RMmdi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Tableau 1). Ce dernier est cependant plus riche en minéraux que les beurres beige et gris (Tableau 3). Tous les types de beurres de karité commercia- lisés sur les marchés locaux et étudiés, contiennent des métaux lourds (plomb et nickel).

  19. Neuro-spect: Imaginología funcional en psiqyuiatría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. Ismael Mena

    2013-01-01

    Las imágenes son adquiridas con un sistema E.CAM de dos cabezales Siemens Co y los resultados son comparados con una base de datos normales para el mismo grupo etario y los resultados entonces demostrados con un escala de colores calibrada en desviaciones estándar sobre y bajo el rango normal que aparece en color gris.

  20. Greenland Ice Sheet seasonal and spatial mass variability from model simulations and GRACE (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patrick M.; Tedesco, Marco; Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne; Luthcke, Scott B.; Fettweis, Xavier; Larour, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Improving the ability of regional climate models (RCMs) and ice sheet models (ISMs) to simulate spatiotemporal variations in the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is crucial for prediction of future sea level rise. While several studies have examined recent trends in GrIS mass loss, studies focusing on mass variations at sub-annual and sub-basin-wide scales are still lacking. At these scales, processes responsible for mass change are less well understood and modeled, and could potentially play an important role in future GrIS mass change. Here, we examine spatiotemporal variations in mass over the GrIS derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites for the January 2003-December 2012 period using a "mascon" approach, with a nominal spatial resolution of 100 km, and a temporal resolution of 10 days. We compare GRACE-estimated mass variations against those simulated by the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) RCM and the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). In order to properly compare spatial and temporal variations in GrIS mass from GRACE with model outputs, we find it necessary to spatially and temporally filter model results to reproduce leakage of mass inherent in the GRACE solution. Both modeled and satellite-derived results point to a decline (of -178.9 ± 4.4 and -239.4 ± 7.7 Gt yr-1 respectively) in GrIS mass over the period examined, but the models appear to underestimate the rate of mass loss, especially in areas below 2000 m in elevation, where the majority of recent GrIS mass loss is occurring. On an ice-sheet-wide scale, the timing of the modeled seasonal cycle of cumulative mass (driven by summer mass loss) agrees with the GRACE-derived seasonal cycle, within limits of uncertainty from the GRACE solution. However, on sub-ice-sheet-wide scales, some areas exhibit significant differences in the timing of peaks in the annual cycle of mass change. At these scales, model biases, or processes not accounted for by models related

  1. Increasing runoff and sediment load from the Greenland ice sheet at kangerlussuaq (Sonder Stromfjord) in a 30-year perspective, 1979-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.; Hasholt, Bent [UNIV OF COPENGAGEN; Steffen, Konrad [UNIV OF COLORADO; Van Den Broeke, Michiel [UTRECHT UNIV; Mcgrath, Daniel [UNIV OF COLORADO; Yde, Jacob [UNIV OF AARHUS

    2009-01-01

    This observation and modeling study provides insights into runoff and sediment load exiting the Watson River drainage basin, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland during a 30 year period (1978/79-2007/08) when the climate experienced increasing temperatures and precipitation. The 30-year simulations quantify the terrestrial freshwater and sediment output from part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the land between the GrIS and the ocean, in the context of global warming and increasing GrIS surface melt. We used a snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) to simulate the winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff and surface mass balance (SMB), of the Greenland ice sheet. Observed sediment concentrations were related to observed runoff, producing a sediment-load time series. To a large extent, the SMB fluctuations could be explained by changes in net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation), with 8 out of 30 years having negative SMB, mainly because of relatively low annual net precipitation. The overall trend in net precipitation and runoff increased significantly, while 5MB increased insignificantly throughout the simulation period, leading to enhanced precipitation of 0.59 km{sup 3} w.eq. (or 60%), runoff of 0.43 km{sup 3} w.eq (or 54%), and SMB of 0.16 km3 w.eq. (or 86%). Runoff rose on average from 0.80 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 1978/79 to 1.23 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 2007/08. The percentage of catchment oudet runoff explained by runoff from the GrIS decreased on average {approx} 10%, indicating that catchment runoff throughout the simulation period was influenced more by precipitation and snowmelt events, and less by runoff from the GrIS. Average variations in the increasing Kangerlussuaq runoff from 1978/79 through 2007/08 seem to follow the overall variations in satellite-derived GrIS surface melt, where 64% of the variations in simulated runoff were explained by regional melt conditions on the GrIS. Throughout the simulation

  2. NHM-SMAP: spatially and temporally high-resolution nonhydrostatic atmospheric model coupled with detailed snow process model for Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwano, Masashi; Aoki, Teruo; Hashimoto, Akihiro; Matoba, Sumito; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tanikawa, Tomonori; Fujita, Koji; Tsushima, Akane; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Shimada, Rigen; Hori, Masahiro

    2018-02-01

    To improve surface mass balance (SMB) estimates for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), we developed a 5 km resolution regional climate model combining the Japan Meteorological Agency Non-Hydrostatic atmospheric Model and the Snow Metamorphism and Albedo Process model (NHM-SMAP) with an output interval of 1 h, forced by the Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55). We used in situ data to evaluate NHM-SMAP in the GrIS during the 2011-2014 mass balance years. We investigated two options for the lower boundary conditions of the atmosphere: an offline configuration using snow, firn, and ice albedo, surface temperature data from JRA-55, and an online configuration using values from SMAP. The online configuration improved model performance in simulating 2 m air temperature, suggesting that the surface analysis provided by JRA-55 is inadequate for the GrIS and that SMAP results can better simulate physical conditions of snow/firn/ice. It also reproduced the measured features of the GrIS climate, diurnal variations, and even a strong mesoscale wind event. In particular, it successfully reproduced the temporal evolution of the GrIS surface melt area extent as well as the record melt event around 12 July 2012, at which time the simulated melt area extent reached 92.4 %. Sensitivity tests showed that the choice of calculation schemes for vertical water movement in snow and firn has an effect as great as 200 Gt year-1 in the GrIS-wide accumulated SMB estimates; a scheme based on the Richards equation provided the best performance.

  3. Uso de cachaza y roca fosfórica en el cultivo de glycine (Neonotonia Wightii, Wight & Ann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanoris Bernal Carrazana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se desarrolló en la UCTB de suelos Cienfuegos en el período comprendido entre los meses de octubre a marzo de 2015 con el objetivo de determinar la concentración de fósforo en la planta de Glycine (Neonotonia wightii y su efecto sobre los indicadores morfo agronómicos y desarrollo de esta leguminosa a partir de las variantes de fertilización utilizadas. El experimento se realizó en condiciones semi controladas utilizando bolsas de polietileno en un suelo Pardo Grisáceo tamizado (tres milímetros, colectado en los primeros 20cm de profundidad. Los tratamientos fueron: 1. Suelo Pardo grisáceo + Roca Fosfórica; 2. Suelo Pardo grisáceo + Roca Fosfórica + Cachaza; 3. Suelo Pardo grisáceo + Cachaza y 4. Testigo (Suelo Pardo grisáceo. El diseño experimental utilizado; bloque al azar con 5 réplicas. Se realizó un análisis agroquímico del suelo al inicio y final del experimento. Se evaluaron los indicadores: germinación de la semilla, altura de la planta, diámetro del tallo, peso del follaje, peso de la raíz y contenido de fósforo en la parte aérea y la raíz de la planta. Los resultados alcanzados indicaron que todos los tratamientos fueron superiores al testigo, con diferencias significativas. Hubo tendencia al incremento de los tenores de fósforo en el suelo. Palabras clave: Cachaza, Glycine, Roca fosfórica.

  4. Estimating the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the sea level rise (SLR originating from changes in surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS, we present 21st century climate projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional, forced by output of three CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 general circulation models (GCMs. Our results indicate that in a warmer climate, mass gain from increased winter snowfall over the GrIS does not compensate mass loss through increased meltwater run-off in summer. Despite the large spread in the projected near-surface warming, all the MAR projections show similar non-linear increase of GrIS surface melt volume because no change is projected in the general atmospheric circulation over Greenland. By coarsely estimating the GrIS SMB changes from GCM output, we show that the uncertainty from the GCM-based forcing represents about half of the projected SMB changes. In 2100, the CMIP5 ensemble mean projects a GrIS SMB decrease equivalent to a mean SLR of +4 ± 2 cm and +9 ± 4 cm for the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively. These estimates do not consider the positive melt–elevation feedback, although sensitivity experiments using perturbed ice sheet topographies consistent with the projected SMB changes demonstrate that this is a significant feedback, and highlight the importance of coupling regional climate models to an ice sheet model. Such a coupling will allow the assessment of future response of both surface processes and ice-dynamic changes to rising temperatures, as well as their mutual feedbacks.

  5. Molecular identification of a novel gammaherpesvirus in the endangered Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Javier; Esperón, Fernando; Napolitano, Constanza; Hidalgo, Ezequiel; Dávila, José Antonio; Millán, Javier

    2013-12-01

    We report the detection and characterization of a novel gammaherpesvirus in the critically endangered Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes; syn. Pseudalopex fulvipes) on Chiloé Island, Chile. Out of 28 analysed blood samples stored in alcohol, four were positive for this herpesvirus using a previously described pan-herpesvirus PCR assay targeting the herpesvirus DNA polymerase. Positive samples were subsequently characterized by means of a PCR targeting a 500 bp fragment of the glycoprotein B of the gammaherpesviruses. This novel herpesvirus was most closely related to other gammaherpesviruses from terrestrial carnivores, and is tentatively named Darwin's fox gammaherpesvirus. No apparent lesions were observed in the surveyed foxes. This is the first report of a gammaherpesvirus infecting a canid worldwide, and also of one infecting a carnivore from South America.

  6. Investigation of the possible interconnection of the sinkhole of Taka Lake and various springs of the area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontiadis, I.L.; Dimitroulas, Christos; Zouridakis, N.; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1987-09-01

    51 Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer to investigate the possible interconnection of the sinkhole of Taka Lake (high plateau of Tripolis) and a number of springs in Arkadia and Lakonia (Peloponnese). For the same purpose analyses of the isotopic composition of the water of the same springs, as well as of that of Taka Lake have been performed. The results of this research reconfirm the contribution of the water entering the sinkhole of Taka Lake to the feeding of Astros Anavalos spring, this contribution being apparent only during the low flow period. The common origin of Loukou, Valtos, Moustos and Aghios Andreas spring water was also proved and determined. The origin of the water of Zorros spring (Lakonia) was determined as well. (author)

  7. Análisis de valoración contingente de restauración ecológica de una cantera en Soacha, Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Melissa Tequia Mayorga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar la disponibilidad a pagar por la realización de la restauración ecológica de la cantera Cueva del zorro, por parte de los habitantes de la vereda Panamá, en el municipio de Soacha, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Metodológicamente se aplicaron encuestas y una entrevista al líder comunitario de la comunidad con el fin de conocer la percepción acerca del ambiente, la restauración y la minería. La información  recopilada fue analizada a través de estadísticas descriptivas. Los resultados muestran que los niveles socio-económicos de la población influyen directamente en la toma de decisiones en cuanto al valor monetario ofrecido para la realización de la restauración.

  8. Simulation of the Greenland Ice Sheet over two glacial–interglacial cycles: investigating a sub-ice-shelf melt parameterization and relative sea level forcing in an ice-sheet–ice-shelf model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Bradley

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Observational evidence, including offshore moraines and sediment cores, confirm that at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS expanded to a significantly larger spatial extent than seen at present, grounding into Baffin Bay and out onto the continental shelf break. Given this larger spatial extent and its close proximity to the neighbouring Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS and Innuitian Ice Sheet (IIS, it is likely these ice sheets will have had a strong non-local influence on the spatial and temporal behaviour of the GrIS. Most previous paleo ice-sheet modelling simulations recreated an ice sheet that either did not extend out onto the continental shelf or utilized a simplified marine ice parameterization which did not fully include the effect of ice shelves or neglected the sensitivity of the GrIS to this non-local bedrock signal from the surrounding ice sheets. In this paper, we investigated the evolution of the GrIS over the two most recent glacial–interglacial cycles (240 ka BP to the present day using the ice-sheet–ice-shelf model IMAU-ICE. We investigated the solid earth influence of the LIS and IIS via an offline relative sea level (RSL forcing generated by a glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA model. The RSL forcing governed the spatial and temporal pattern of sub-ice-shelf melting via changes in the water depth below the ice shelves. In the ensemble of simulations, at the glacial maximums, the GrIS coalesced with the IIS to the north and expanded to the continental shelf break to the southwest but remained too restricted to the northeast. In terms of the global mean sea level contribution, at the Last Interglacial (LIG and LGM the ice sheet added 1.46 and −2.59 m, respectively. This LGM contribution by the GrIS is considerably higher (∼  1.26 m than most previous studies whereas the contribution to the LIG highstand is lower (∼  0.7 m. The spatial and temporal behaviour of the northern margin was

  9. Abrupt Greenland Ice Sheet runoff and sea water temperature changes since 1821, recorded by coralline algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenos, N.; Hoey, T.; Bedford, J.; Claverie, T.; Fallick, A. E.; Lamb, C. M.; Nienow, P. W.; O'Neill, S.; Shepherd, I.; Thormar, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) contains the largest store of fresh water in the northern hemisphere, equivalent to ~7.4m of eustatic sea level rise, but its impacts on current, past and future sea level, ocean circulation and European climate are poorly understood. Previous estimates of GrIS melt, from 26 years of satellite observations and temperature driven melt-models over 48 years, show a trend of increasing melt. There are however no runoff data of comparable duration with which to validate temperature-based runoff models, or relationships between the spatial extent of melt and runoff. Further, longer runoff records that extend GrIS melt records to centennial timescales will enable recently observed trends to be put into a better historical context. We measured Mg/Ca, δ18O and structural cell size in annual growth bands of red coralline algae to reconstruct: (1) near surface sea water temperature; and, (2) melt/runoff from the GrIS. (1) Temperature: we reconstructed the longest (1821-2009) sub-annual resolution record of water temperature in Disko Bugt (western Greenland) showing an abrupt change in temperature oscillation patterns during the 1920s which may be attributable to the interaction between atmospheric temperature and mass loss from Jakobshavn Isbrae glacier. (2) GrIS runoff: using samples from distal parts of Søndre Strømfjord we produced the first reconstruction of decadal (1939-2002) GrIS runoff. We observed significant negative relationships between historic runoff, relative salinity and marine summer temperature. Our reconstruction shows a trend of increasing reconstructed runoff since the mid 1980s. In situ summer marine temperatures followed a similar trend. We suggest that since 1939 atmospheric temperatures have been important in forcing runoff. Subject to locating in situ coralline algae samples, these methods can be applied across hundreds to thousands of years. These results show that our technique has significant potential to enhance

  10. Reconstructing Southern Greenland Ice Sheet History During the Plio-Pleistocene Intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation: Insights from IODP Site U1307

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake-Mizen, K. R.; Hatfield, R. G.; Carlson, A. E.; Walczak, M. H.; Stoner, J. S.; Xuan, C.; Lawrence, K. T.; Bailey, I.

    2017-12-01

    Should it melt entirely, the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has the potential to raise global sea-level by 7 metres. With the Arctic continuing to warm at a remarkable rate, to better understand how the GrIS will respond to future anthropogenically-induced climate change we must constrain its natural variability in the geological past. In this regard, much uncertainty exists surrounding its pre-Quaternary history; particularly during the mid-Piacenzian warm period (mPWP; 3.3-3.0 Ma) - widely considered an analogue for near-future equilibrium climate with modern atmospheric CO2 levels and elevated temperatures relative to today - and the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene onset of widespread Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG, 2.7 Ma). GrIS reconstructions for these intervals have been largely hampered by a lack of well-dated, high-resolution records from suitable sites. To address this, we present new high-resolution, multi-proxy records from IODP Site U1307, a North Atlantic marine sediment core recovered from the Eirik Drift just south of Greenland. Generation of a new high-resolution relative palaeointensity (RPI)-based age-model - representing the first of its kind for high-latitude sediments deposited during NHG - has enabled strong orbital age control. Our ice-rafted debris (IRD) record confirms a 2.72 Ma initiation of major southern GrIS marine-terminating glaciations, which appear to persist even through interglacial periods up to at least 2.24 Ma. XRF-scanning and IRD evidence suggests, however, that an ephemeral ice-cap of likely considerable size persisted on southern Greenland prior to the mPWP. These data, together with the analysed provenance of individual IRD, indicate marine-based GrIS margins extended southward over the NHG interval and only occurred on Greenland's southern tip from 2.7 Ma. Despite a large increase in the deposition of GrIS-derived IRD from this time, bulk sedimentation rates and magnetic grain-size dropped significantly, implying that

  11. Removal of Oil and Grease as Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPC in Wastewater Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alade Abass O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater characteristics, which depend on wastewater source, are increasingly becoming more toxic in recent times. The concentrations of oil and grease in wastewater streams have been observed to increase in wastewater stream with increasing adverse effects on the ecology. This results from the increasing use of oil and grease in high-demanded oil-processed foods, establishment and expansion of oil mills and refineries worldwide, as well as indiscriminate discharge of oil and grease into the water drains, domestically and industrially. This study reports the applications, efficiencies and challenges of the wastewater treatment techniques currently employed in the removal of oil and grease from the industrial wastewater and municipal water stream. The results shows that the concentrations of oil and grease injected into the ecosystem are of higher environmental impact and this needs to be given the desired attention. The desired development for effective removal of oil and grease as emerging pollutants of concern (EPC in wastewater stream are thus proposed. ABSTRAK: Ciri-ciri air sisa, bergantung kepada punca air sisa tersebut, menjadi semakin toksik akhir-akhir ini. Kepekatan minyak dan gris dalam air sisa anak sungai dilihat makin bertambah dalam air sisa anak sungai dengan bertambahnya kesan negatif ke atas ekologi. Ini disebabkan oleh peningkatan penggunaan minyak dan gris dalam makanan berproses yang tinggi permintaannya, penubuhan dan perkembangan kilang pertroleum dan loji penapisan di seluruh dunia. Minyak dan gris juga dibuang sewenang-wenangnya ke dalam parit air, dari kalangan domestik dan industry. Kajian ini membentangkan tentang aplikasi, keberkesanan dan teknik cabaran rawatan air buangan yang kini digunakan dalam pembuangan minyak dan gris dari air sisa industry dan air sungai perbandaran. Keputusan menunjukkan kepekatan minyak dan gris yang wujud dibuang ke dalam ekosistem mempunyai impak yang lebih tinggi terhadap persekitaran

  12. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, Martin E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records...... its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc) values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring...

  13. Supraglacial bacterial community structures vary across the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Karen A.; Stibal, Marek; Zarsky, Jakub D.

    2016-01-01

    The composition and spatial variability of microbial communities that reside within the extensive (>200 000 km(2)) biologically active area encompassing the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is hypothesized to be variable. We examined bacterial communities from cryoconite debris and surface ice across...... the GrIS, using sequence analysis and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes from co-extracted DNA and RNA. Communities were found to differ across the ice sheet, with 82.8% of the total calculated variation attributed to spatial distribution on a scale of tens of kilometers separation. Amplicons related...... to Sphingobacteriaceae, Pseudanabaenaceae and WPS-2 accounted for the greatest portion of calculated dissimilarities. The bacterial communities of ice and cryoconite were moderately similar (global R = 0.360, P = 0.002) and the sampled surface type (ice versus cryoconite) did not contribute heavily towards community...

  14. The Greenland Ice Sheet at the peak of warming during the previous Interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Rybak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Last Interglacial (LIG or the Eemian between ca. 130 and 115 kyr BP is probably the best analogue for future climate warming for which increasingly better proxy data are becoming available. The volume of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS during this period is of particular interest to better assess how much and how fast sea-level can rise in a future Earth undergoing gradual climatic warming. Sea-level during the LIG is inferred to have been up to 9 meter higher than today, but contribution of the GrIS into this rise remains unclear. Various ice-sheet modeling studies have come up with a very broad range of the LIG volume loss by the GrIS to between 60 cm and 6 m of equivalent sea-level rise. This wide range is explained by the sensitivity of GrIS models to the imposed climatic conditions and to poor knowledge of the LIG climate itself in terms of the magnitude and precise timing of the maximum warming, as well as in terms of spatial and annual patterns. To partially circumvent these uncertainties we made use of the newest temperature record over the Central Greenland reconstructed from the isotopic composition of the recently obtained NEEM ice core containing undisturbed LIG segment to build the climatic forcing of the model. The NEEM record unequivocally indicates times of the start and of the end of the LIG warming in Greenland as well as the duration of the warmest time period within the Eemian. Using a three-dimensional thermomechanical ice-sheet model, we produced an ensemble of possible LIG configurations by varying only four key parameters for temperature, precipitation rate, surface melting magnitude and melting pattern within realistic bounds. The outcome of a series of the numerical experiments is a variety of glaciologically consistent GrIS geometries corresponding to a wide range of possible «climates». To constrain the ensemble of GrIS geometries, we used data inferred from 5 Greenland ice cores such as the presence or absence of

  15. Development of TASS-NPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Suk ku; Kim, Hee Kyung; Kim, Hee Cheol

    1999-03-01

    TASS 1.0 is consisted of two parts. First part analyze the reactor transients and calculates system parameters during the transients. This part comprises the program of the primary and secondary thermal hydraulic model, the core model, the transfer model, the protection and the control system. The second part is the TASS executive routine. This part provides an operating system for TASS. The user can execute TASS with above models interactively through the TASS executive routine. But TASS executive routine is very large and the function is restricted. The development of GRIS( Graphical Routines for Interactive Simulation) was initiated to overcome the limitation of the TASS executive routine. TASS-NPA was developed based on GRIS. TASS-NPA simulation can be performed on Windows 95 and Window Nt of IBM Pc. The verification of the TASS-NPA function was performed with the Feed Water Line Break of Kori 3/4. (Author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 26 figs

  16. Effect of dietary protein level and length of fattening period on dressing percentage and carcass conformation in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Dosković, Vladimir; Bogosavljević-Bošković, Snežana; Škrbić, Zdenka; Đoković, Radojica; Rakonjac, Simeon; Petričević, Veselin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the effect of different protein levels in broiler feeds (supplemented with protease) and different lengths of fattening period on some parameters related to dressed carcass quality. Medium-growing Master Gris broiler chickens were used in a fattening trial lasting 63 days. At slaughter, dressing percentages and abdominal fat percentages were determined based on traditionally dressed carcass weights and abdominal fat weights of broilers at 49 and 63 days, and conformation i...

  17. Fantasías de nubes al viento: primera ronda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León de Greiff

    1969-10-01

    Full Text Available Oiga entonces, óye, oíd palabras sin sentido conocido: Las otras son tan huecas si sonoras (dice mi risa como tambor de feria (añejo símil de Perogrullo "profundas", "salomónicas" (torna a decir Mi Risa o Mi Sonrisa. -Tan profundas que no se toca fondo- (símil vetusto asaz, no nada gris, mas sí del buen Monsieur de la Palice...

  18. Reconstruction of the 1979–2006 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance using the regional climate model MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Results from a 28-year simulation (1979–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveal an increase of solid precipitation (+0.4±2.5 km3 yr−2 and run-off (+7.9±3.3 km3 yr−2 of surface meltwater. The net effect of these competing factors is a significant Surface Mass Balance (SMB loss of −7.2±5.1 km3 yr−2. The contribution of changes in the net water vapour flux (+0.02±0.09 km3 yr−2 and rainfall (+0.2±0.2 km3 yr−2 to the SMB variability is negligible. The meltwater supply has increased because the GrIS surface has been warming up +2.4°C since 1979. Sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and net solar radiation have not varied significantly over the last three decades. However, the simulated downward infrared flux has increased by 9.3 W m−2 since 1979. The natural climate variability (e.g. the North Atlantic Oscillation does not explain these changes. The recent global warming, due to the greenhouse gas concentration increase induced by human activities, could be a cause of these changes. The doubling of surface meltwater flux into the ocean over the period 1979–2006 suggests that the overall ice sheet mass balance has been increasingly negative, given the likely meltwater-induced acceleration of outlet glaciers. This study suggests that increased melting overshadows over an increased accumulation in a warming scenario and that the GrIS is likely to keep losing mass in the future. An enduring GrIS melting will probably affect in the future an certain effect on the stability of the thermohaline circulation and the global sea level rise.

  19. Spatial Variability of accumulation across the Western Greenland Ice Sheet Percolation Zone from ground-penetrating-radar and shallow firn cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G.; Osterberg, E. C.; Hawley, R. L.; Marshall, H. P.; Birkel, S. D.; Meehan, T. G.; Graeter, K.; Overly, T. B.; McCarthy, F.

    2017-12-01

    The mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) in a warming climate is of critical interest to scientists and the general public in the context of future sea-level rise. Increased melting in the GrIS percolation zone over the past several decades has led to increased mass loss at lower elevations due to recent warming. Uncertainties in mass balance are especially large in regions with sparse and/or outdated in situ measurements. This study is the first to calculate in situ accumulation over a large region of western Greenland since the Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment campaign during the 1990s. Here we analyze 5000 km of 400 MHz ground penetrating radar data and sixteen 25-33 m-long firn cores in the western GrIS percolation zone to determine snow accumulation over the past 50 years. The cores and radar data were collected as part of the 2016-2017 Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS). With the cores and radar profiles we capture spatial accumulation gradients between 1850-2500 m a.s.l and up to Summit Station. We calculate accumulation rates and use them to validate five widely used regional climate models and to compare with IceBridge snow and accumulation radars. Our results indicate that while the models capture most regional spatial climate patterns, they lack the small-scale spatial variability captured by in situ measurements. Additionally, we evaluate temporal trends in accumulation at ice core locations and throughout the traverse. Finally, we use empirical orthogonal function and correlation analyses to investigate the principal drivers of radar-derived accumulation rates across the western GrIS percolation zone, including major North Atlantic climate modes such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and Greenland Blocking Index.

  20. Texto y figuras preparatorios del Capítulo 10 (Tomo I) de la Histología del Sistema Nervioso de Cajal: CENTROS NERVIOSOS. [LA MÉDULA ESPINAL].

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    CENTROS NERVIOSOS. [LA MÉDULA ESPINAL]. [Plan de descripción de los centros nerviosos.] Substancia blanca y gris. ─ Médula espinal ; su conformación exterior é interior. [Ver: Freire, Miguel. Metodología usada en la presente edición. Metodología e historia de la edición en la correspondencia de Cajal. https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/150245

  1. Ice–ocean interaction and calving front morphology at two west Greenland tidewater outlet glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Chauché , N.; Hubbard , A.; Gascard , Jean-Claude; Box , J. E.; Bates , R.; Koppes , M.; Sole , A.; Christoffersen , P.; Patton , H.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Warm, subtropical-originating Atlantic water (AW) has been identified as a primary driver of mass loss across the marine sectors of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), yet the specific processes by which this water mass interacts with and erodes the calving front of tidewater glaciers is frequently modelled and much speculated upon but remains largely unobserved. We present a suite of fjord salinity, temperature, turbidity versus depth casts along with glacial runoff estim...

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15623-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available F079138_3( AF079138 |pid:none) Streptomyces venezuelae methymycin... 32 0.026 CT573213_2489( CT573213 |pid:n...) Streptomyces griseus subsp. gris... 44 0.030 AF015823_1( AF015823 |pid:none) Streptomyces venezuelae venA ...d:none) Leptosphaeria maculans HDX1 (HDX1)... 36 0.058 AF079138_6( AF079138 |pid:none) Streptomyces venezuela

  3. Long-term ice sheet-climate interactions under anthropogenic greenhouse forcing simulated with a complex Earth System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizcaino, Miren [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); University of California, Department of Geography, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Maier-Reimer, Ernst [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Groeger, Matthias [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Schurgers, Guy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Lund University, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund (Sweden); Winguth, Arne M.E. [Center for Climatic Research, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Madison (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Several multi-century and multi-millennia simulations have been performed with a complex Earth System Model (ESM) for different anthropogenic climate change scenarios in order to study the long-term evolution of sea level and the impact of ice sheet changes on the climate system. The core of the ESM is a coupled coarse-resolution Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM). Ocean biogeochemistry, land vegetation and ice sheets are included as components of the ESM. The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) decays in all simulations, while the Antarctic ice sheet contributes negatively to sea level rise, due to enhanced storage of water caused by larger snowfall rates. Freshwater flux increases from Greenland are one order of magnitude smaller than total freshwater flux increases into the North Atlantic basin (the sum of the contribution from changes in precipitation, evaporation, run-off and Greenland meltwater) and do not play an important role in changes in the strength of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (NAMOC). The regional climate change associated with weakening/collapse of the NAMOC drastically reduces the decay rate of the GrIS. The dynamical changes due to GrIS topography modification driven by mass balance changes act first as a negative feedback for the decay of the ice sheet, but accelerate the decay at a later stage. The increase of surface temperature due to reduced topographic heights causes a strong acceleration of the decay of the ice sheet in the long term. Other feedbacks between ice sheet and atmosphere are not important for the mass balance of the GrIS until it is reduced to 3/4 of the original size. From then, the reduction in the albedo of Greenland strongly accelerates the decay of the ice sheet. (orig.)

  4. On the importance of the albedo parameterization for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in EC-Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The albedo of the surface of ice sheets changes as a function of time due to the effects of deposition of new snow, ageing of dry snow, bare ice exposure, melting and run-off. Currently, the calculation of the albedo of ice sheets is highly parameterized within the earth system model EC-Earth by taking a constant value for areas with thick perennial snow cover. This is an important reason why the surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS is poorly resolved in the model. The purpose of this study is to improve the SMB forcing of the GrIS by evaluating different parameter settings within a snow albedo scheme. By allowing ice-sheet albedo to vary as a function of wet and dry conditions, the spatial distribution of albedo and melt rate improves. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of SMB in EC-Earth is not significantly improved. As a reason for this, we identify omissions in the current snow albedo scheme, such as separate treatment of snow and ice and the effect of refreezing. The resulting SMB is downscaled from the lower-resolution global climate model topography to the higher-resolution ice-sheet topography of the GrIS, such that the influence of these different SMB climatologies on the long-term evolution of the GrIS is tested by ice-sheet model simulations. From these ice-sheet simulations we conclude that an albedo scheme with a short response time of decaying albedo during wet conditions performs best with respect to long-term simulated ice-sheet volume. This results in an optimized albedo parameterization that can be used in future EC-Earth simulations with an interactive ice-sheet component.

  5. Determinantes sociales de la salud y el trabajo informal

    OpenAIRE

    Consuelo Vélez Álvarez; María del Pilar Escobar Potes; María Eugenia Pico Merchán

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir elementos teóricos sobre los determinantes sociales de la salud en la población trabajadora informal y condiciones sociales, modos de vida y repercusiones en el proceso salud-enfermedad. Estrategia de búsqueda: Búsqueda sistemática en bases de datos especializadas (Ovid, Proquest, Hinary, Medline, LILACS, Literatura gris). Se utilizaron las siguientes palabras claves: condiciones sociales, factores socioeconómicos, fuerza de trabajo, empleo; de igual forma se retoman texto...

  6. Concepts for a global resources information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C.; Urena, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Global Resources Information System (GRIS) is to establish an effective and efficient information management system to meet the data access requirements of NASA and NASA-related scientists conducting large-scale, multi-disciplinary, multi-mission scientific investigations. Using standard interfaces and operating guidelines, diverse data systems can be integrated to provide the capabilities to access and process multiple geographically dispersed data sets and to develop the necessary procedures and algorithms to derive global resource information.

  7. Greenland's glacial fjords and their role in regional biogeochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, J.; Arndt, S.

    2017-12-01

    Greenland's coastal fjords serve as important pathways that connect the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the surrounding oceans. They export seasonal glacial meltwater whilst being significant sites of primary production. These fjords are home to some of the most productive ecosystems in the world and possess high socio-economic value via fisheries. A growing number of studies have proposed the GrIS as an underappreciated yet significant source of nutrients to surrounding oceans. Acting as both transfer routes and sinks for glacial nutrient export, fjords have the potential to act as significant biogeochemical processors, yet remain underexplored. Critically, an understanding of the quantitative contribution of fjords to carbon and nutrient budgets is lacking, with large uncertainties associated with limited availability of field data and the lack of robust upscaling approaches. To close this knowledge gap we developed a coupled 2D physical-biogeochemical model of the Godthåbsfjord system, a sub-Arctic sill fjord in southwest Greenland, to quantitatively assess the impact of nutrients exported from the GrIS on fjord primary productivity and biogeochemical dynamics. Glacial meltwater is found to be a key driver of fjord-scale circulation patterns, whilst tracer simulations reveal the relative nutrient contributions from meltwater-driven upwelling and meltwater export from the GrIS. Hydrodynamic circulation patterns and freshwater transit times are explored to provide a first understanding of the glacier-fjord-ocean continuum, demonstrating the complex pattern of carbon and nutrient cycling at this critical land-ocean interface.

  8. Decreasing cloud cover drives the recent mass loss on the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Stefan; Tedstone, Andrew J; Fettweis, Xavier; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2017-06-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the latter being the dominant contribution. This change in state has been attributed to rising temperatures and a decrease in surface albedo. We show, using satellite data and climate model output, that the abrupt reduction in surface mass balance since about 1995 can be attributed largely to a coincident trend of decreasing summer cloud cover enhancing the melt-albedo feedback. Satellite observations show that, from 1995 to 2009, summer cloud cover decreased by 0.9 ± 0.3% per year. Model output indicates that the GrIS summer melt increases by 27 ± 13 gigatons (Gt) per percent reduction in summer cloud cover, principally because of the impact of increased shortwave radiation over the low albedo ablation zone. The observed reduction in cloud cover is strongly correlated with a state shift in the North Atlantic Oscillation promoting anticyclonic conditions in summer and suggests that the enhanced surface mass loss from the GrIS is driven by synoptic-scale changes in Arctic-wide atmospheric circulation.

  9. Modelling the climate and surface mass balance of polar ice sheets using RACMO2 - Part 1: Greenland (1958-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Brice; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Melchior van Wessem, J.; van Meijgaard, Erik; van As, Dirk; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Smeets, C. J. P. Paul; van Ulft, Lambertus H.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2018-03-01

    We evaluate modelled Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) near-surface climate, surface energy balance (SEB) and surface mass balance (SMB) from the updated regional climate model RACMO2 (1958-2016). The new model version, referred to as RACMO2.3p2, incorporates updated glacier outlines, topography and ice albedo fields. Parameters in the cloud scheme governing the conversion of cloud condensate into precipitation have been tuned to correct inland snowfall underestimation: snow properties are modified to reduce drifting snow and melt production in the ice sheet percolation zone. The ice albedo prescribed in the updated model is lower at the ice sheet margins, increasing ice melt locally. RACMO2.3p2 shows good agreement compared to in situ meteorological data and point SEB/SMB measurements, and better resolves the spatial patterns and temporal variability of SMB compared with the previous model version, notably in the north-east, south-east and along the K-transect in south-western Greenland. This new model version provides updated, high-resolution gridded fields of the GrIS present-day climate and SMB, and will be used for projections of the GrIS climate and SMB in response to a future climate scenario in a forthcoming study.

  10. Continuous Estimates of Surface Density and Annual Snow Accumulation with Multi-Channel Snow/Firn Penetrating Radar in the Percolation Zone, Western Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, T.; Marshall, H. P.; Bradford, J.; Hawley, R. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; McCarthy, F.; Lewis, G.; Graeter, K.

    2017-12-01

    A priority of ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) prediction is ascertaining the surface density and annual snow accumulation. These forcing data can be supplied into firn compaction models and used to tune Regional Climate Models (RCM). RCMs do not accurately capture subtle changes in the snow accumulation gradient. Additionally, leading RCMs disagree among each other and with accumulation studies in regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) over large distances and temporal scales. RCMs tend to yield inconsistencies over GrIS because of sparse and outdated validation data in the reanalysis pool. Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS) implemented multi-channel 500 MHz Radar in multi-offset configuration throughout two traverse campaigns totaling greater than 3500 km along the western percolation zone of GrIS. The multi-channel radar has the capability of continuously estimating snow depth, average density, and annual snow accumulation, expressed at 95% confidence (+-) 0.15 m, (+-) 17 kgm-3, (+-) 0.04 m w.e. respectively, by examination of the primary reflection return from the previous year's summer surface.

  11. Elevation Change Derived from SARAL/ALtiKa Altimetric Mission: Quality Assessment and Performance of the Ka-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanming Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The waveform retracking algorithm is a key factor that affects the accuracy of elevation change from satellite altimetry over an ice sheet. The elevation change results from four waveform retracker algorithms (ICE1/ICE2/Sea Ice/OCEAN provided by the Satellite with ARgos and ALtiKa (SARAL/ALtiKa data were compared using repeated SARAL data between March 2013 and April 2016 to determine the optimal retracker in the crossovers of descending and ascending orbits over a Greenland ice sheet (GrIS. The ICE1 provided slightly better results than the three other algorithms with the lowest standard deviation (SD of 0.30 m year−1. Further comparison was also conducted between the Satellite with ARgos and ALtiKa (SARAL and Operation ICEBridge laser data, thereby indicating that ICE1 was the best retracker with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of 0.43 m year−1. The distribution of elevation change rate and uncertainties over Greenland from SARAL were presented using the selected ICE1 retracker with a volume loss of 40 ± 12 km3 year−1. This volume loss did not include the fast-changing coastal areas of the GrIS. A large thinning was observed in Jakobshavn Isbræ, and a trend that extended far inland was also found from 2013–2016. Furthermore, a melting ice sheet was observed in the large areas northwest over the GrIS.

  12. CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitudes with PoRTIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Bartlett, L.; Gehrels, N.; Naya, J.; Stahle, C.M.; Tueller, J.; Teegarden, B.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of the CdZnTe internal background at balloon altitudes are essential to determine which physical processes make the most important background contributions. We present results from CdZnTe background measurements made by PoRTIA, a small CdZnTe balloon instrument that was flown three times in three different shielding configurations. PoRTIA was passively shielded during its first flight from Palestine, Texas and actively shielded as a piggyback instrument on the GRIS balloon experiment during its second and third flights from Alice Springs, Australia, using the thick GRIS NaI anticoincidence shield. A significant CdZnTe background reduction was achieved during the third flight with PoRTIA placed completely inside the GRIS shield and blocking crystal, and thus completely surrounded by 15 cm of NaI. A unique balloon altitude background data set is provided by CdZnTe and Ge detectors simultaneously surrounded by the same thick anticoincidence shield; the presence of a single coaxial Ge detector inside the shield next to PoRTIA allowed a measurement of the ambient neutron flux inside the shield throughout the flight. These neutrons interact with the detector material to produce isomeric states of the Cd, Zn, and Te nuclei that radiatively decay; calculations are presented to determine the relative contribution of these decays to the fully shielded CdZnTe background measured by PoRTIA

  13. Dark ice dynamics of the south-west Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedstone, Andrew J.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Cook, Joseph M.; Williamson, Christopher J.; Fettweis, Xavier; Hodson, Andrew J.; Tranter, Martyn

    2017-11-01

    Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have amplified surface melting. Some of the largest declines in GrIS albedo have occurred in the ablation zone of the south-west sector and are associated with the development of dark ice surfaces. Field observations at local scales reveal that a variety of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) can be present on the surface, ranging from inorganic particulates to cryoconite materials and ice algae. Meanwhile, satellite observations show that the areal extent of dark ice has varied significantly between recent successive melt seasons. However, the processes that drive such large interannual variability in dark ice extent remain essentially unconstrained. At present we are therefore unable to project how the albedo of bare ice sectors of the GrIS will evolve in the future, causing uncertainty in the projected sea level contribution from the GrIS over the coming decades. Here we use MODIS satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics on the south-west GrIS each year from 2000 to 2016. We quantify dark ice in terms of its annual extent, duration, intensity and timing of first appearance. Not only does dark ice extent vary significantly between years but so too does its duration (from 0 to > 80 % of June-July-August, JJA), intensity and the timing of its first appearance. Comparison of dark ice dynamics with potential meteorological drivers from the regional climate model MAR reveals that the JJA sensible heat flux, the number of positive minimum-air-temperature days and the timing of bare ice appearance are significant interannual synoptic controls. We use these findings to identify the surface processes which are most likely to explain recent dark ice dynamics. We suggest that whilst the spatial distribution of dark ice is best explained by outcropping of particulates from

  14. SAGE: Attribution of Biomass Burning Tracers sampled on the Greenland Ice Sheet in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Choi, H. D.; Polashenski, C.; Thomas, J. L.; Dibb, J. E.; Fairlie, T. D.; Winker, D. M.; Flanner, M.; Bergin, M.; Casey, K.; Ward, J. L.; Chen, J.; Courville, Z.; Trepte, C. R.; Lai, A.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    The SAGE team traversed and sampled the snow stratigraphy representing 2012-2014 snow accumulation in the northwest sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and found evidence of aerosol deposition that originated from biomass burning (BB). Black carbon (BC) concentrations (range 2.8-43 ng/g) were closely correlated with ammonium (NH4), both of which are tracers that are indicative of BB events. Data indicated the strongest deposition events occurred in July and August of 2013. Using a combination of these in-situ samples, modeling and satellite data, the transport and attribution of deposited smoke is back-traced from the GrIS to particular fires. The Langley Research Center Trajectory Model (LaTM) is used to track deposition events from pit locations on the GrIS to particular source fires from June through August 2013, which includes 2 months when smoke is known to have strongly impacted the GrIS (July August 2013) and 1 month (June 2013) of relatively low smoke impact. Simulated smoke is injected every 100 vertical meters to 2km ( boundary layer) in the LaTM and run backwards in time and space from sample sites until coincident with fire (MODIS data). Ground-based and satellite data are used to verify transport. As an example, we focus on one case study that traces smoke from fires that started burning on July 22nd and continued to burn through July 26-29. A river of smoke crosses Canada and is transported to the GrIS, arriving August 1st-2nd. Overall, we find the largest BB events do not equate to the largest deposition events, rather this process requires a combination of: intense fires; conducive transport paths; and deposition and preservation opportunities (snowfall). Intensely burning fires produce thick smoke, which is less likely to be dispersed or diluted in transport, and the smoke is injected to higher altitudes, which ensure a faster transport. Because fire severity, extreme fire seasons, general circulation patterns and precipitating snowfall are

  15. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  16. Exposure of Free-Ranging Wild Carnivores and Domestic Dogs to Canine Distemper Virus and Parvovirus in the Cerrado of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Hayashi, Erika Midori Kida; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Coelho, Claudio José; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Megid, Jane; Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Silveira, Leandro; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2016-09-01

    Human population growth around protected areas increases the contact between wild and domestic animals, promoting disease transmission between them. This study investigates the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores and domestic dogs to canine distemper virus (CDV) and parvovirus in Emas National Park (ENP) in the Cerrado savanna of central Brazil. Serum samples were collected from 169 wild carnivores, including the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and coati (Nasua nasua), and from 35 domestic dogs living on rural properties bordering ENP. Serological tests showed that 10.6% of wild carnivores (maned wolves, crab-eating foxes and ocelots) and 71.4% of domestic dogs were exposed to CDV, and 56.8% of wild carnivores, including all species sampled except coatis, and 57.1% of domestic dogs were exposed to parvovirus. This report is the first to indicate that the free-ranging pampas cat, jaguarundi and striped hog-nosed skunk are exposed to parvovirus. CDV and parvovirus deserve attention in ENP, and it is extremely important to monitor the health of carnivore populations and perform molecular diagnosis of the viruses to determine the possible involvement of the domestic dog in their transmission.

  17. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes.

  18. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazilian wildlife revealed abundant new genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliano, S N; Soares, H S; Minervino, A H H; Santos, A L Q; Werther, K; Marvulo, M F V; Siqueira, D B; Pena, H F J; Soares, R M; Su, C; Gennari, S M

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to isolate and genotype T. gondii from Brazilian wildlife. For this purpose, 226 samples were submitted to mice bioassay and screened by PCR based on 18S rRNA sequences. A total of 15 T. gondii isolates were obtained, including samples from four armadillos (three Dasypus novemcinctus, one Euphractus sexcinctus), three collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla), three whited-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari), one spotted paca (Cuniculus paca), one oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus), one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus), one lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus) and one maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). DNA from the isolates, originated from mice bioassay, and from the tissues of the wild animal, designated as "primary samples", were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP), using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L258, PK1, CS3 and Apico). A total of 17 genotypes were identified, with 13 identified for the first time and four already reported in published literature. Results herein obtained corroborate previous studies in Brazil, confirming high diversity and revealing unique genotypes in this region. Given most of genotypes here identified are different from previous studies in domestic animals, future studies on T. gondii from wildlife is of interest to understand population genetics and structure of this parasite.

  19. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazilian wildlife revealed abundant new genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Vitaliano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and genotype T. gondii from Brazilian wildlife. For this purpose, 226 samples were submitted to mice bioassay and screened by PCR based on 18S rRNA sequences. A total of 15 T. gondii isolates were obtained, including samples from four armadillos (three Dasypus novemcinctus, one Euphractus sexcinctus, three collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla, three whited-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari, one spotted paca (Cuniculus paca, one oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, one lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus and one maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus. DNA from the isolates, originated from mice bioassay, and from the tissues of the wild animal, designated as “primary samples”, were genotyped by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP, using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L258, PK1, CS3 and Apico. A total of 17 genotypes were identified, with 13 identified for the first time and four already reported in published literature. Results herein obtained corroborate previous studies in Brazil, confirming high diversity and revealing unique genotypes in this region. Given most of genotypes here identified are different from previous studies in domestic animals, future studies on T. gondii from wildlife is of interest to understand population genetics and structure of this parasite.

  20. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  1. Re-emergence of rabies virus maintained by canid populations in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarilla, A C F; Pompei, J C A; Araujo, D B; Vázquez, F A; Galeano, R R; Delgado, L M; Bogado, G; Colman, M; Sanabria, L; Iamamoto, K; Garcia, R; Assis, D; Recalde, R; Martorelli, L F; Quiñones, E; Cabello, A; Martini, M; Cosivi, O; Durigon, E L; Favoretto, S R

    2018-02-01

    Paraguay has registered no human cases of rabies since 2004, and the last case in dogs, reported in 2009, was due to a variant maintained in the common vampire bat "Desmodus rotundus". In 2014, a dog was diagnosed as positive for rabies with aggression towards a boy and all required measures of control were successfully adopted. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the dog was not vaccinated and had been attacked by a crab-eating fox, "zorro" (Cerdocyon thous). The sample was diagnosed by the Official Veterinary Service of the Country and sent to the Center on Rabies Research from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, for antigenic and genetic characterization. A second sample from a dog positive for rabies in the same region in 2015 and 11 samples from a rabies outbreak from Asuncion in 1996 were also characterized. The antigenic profile of the samples, AgV2, was compatible with one of the variants maintained by dogs in Latin America. In genetic characterization, the samples segregated in the canine (domestic and wild species)-related group in an independent subgroup that also included samples from Argentina. These results and the epidemiology of the case indicate that even with the control of rabies in domestic animals, the virus can still circulate in wildlife and may be transmitted to domestic animals and humans, demonstrating the importance of continuous and improved surveillance and control of rabies, including in wild species, to prevent outbreaks in controlled areas. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Aspectos moleculares del virus de la parvovirosis canina y sus implicaciones en la enfermedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Díaz R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El parvovirus canino tipo 2 (CPV-2 es el agente causal de una enfermedad infecto-contagiosa que produce una gastroenteritis aguda hemorrágica que afecta a caninos jóvenes. El CPV-2 se adaptó a la especie canina por mutación del virus de la Panleucopenia felina (FPV luego de su paso por animales silvestres como el hurón y los zorros. La alta variabilidad de la proteína viral 2 (VP2 es la causa principal del amplio rango de hospedadores y de las reacciones cruzadas entre las variantes. En la actualidad, la secuenciación de esta proteína ha permitido identificar tres variantes del virus conocidas como 2a, 2b y 2c que conviven en el mundo con diferencias en tropismo celular, infecciocidad y patogenicidad. El virus ssADN ha presentado una gran variación génica en cortos períodos de tiempo lo que indica un alto grado de selección por evolución sólo comparable con virus RN, esta alta variabilidad no se ha aclarado totalmente. El empleo de las técnicas moleculares permitirá diferenciar entre cepas vacunales y de campo, tanto como contar con técnicas diagnósticas confiables y específicas.

  3. Investigation of a Quantitative Method for the Analysis of Chiral Monoterpenes in White Wine by HS-SPME-MDGC-MS of Different Wine Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Song

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A valid quantitative method for the analysis of chiral monoterpenes in white wine using head-space solid phase micro-extraction-MDGC-MS (HS-SPME-MDGC-MS with stable isotope dilution analysis was established. Fifteen compounds: (S-(−-limonene, (R-(+-limonene, (+-(2R,4S-cis-rose oxide, (−-(2S,4R-cis-rose oxide, (−-(2R,4R-trans-rose oxide, (+-(2S,4S-cis-rose oxide, furanoid (+-trans-linalool oxide, furanoid (−-cis-linalool oxide, furanoid (−-trans-linalool oxide, furanoid (+-cis-linalool oxide, (−-linalool, (+-linalool, (−-α-terpineol, (+-α-terpineol and (R-(+-β-citronellol were quantified. Two calibration curves were plotted for different wine bases, with varying residual sugar content, and three calibration curves for each wine base were investigated during a single fiber’s lifetime. This was needed as both sugar content and fiber life impacted the quantification of the chiral terpenes. The chiral monoterpene content of six Pinot Gris wines and six Riesling wines was then analyzed using the verified method. ANOVA with Tukey multiple comparisons showed significant differences for each of the detected chiral compounds in all 12 wines. PCA score plots showed a clear separation between the Riesling and Pinot Gris wines. Riesling wines had greater number of chiral terpenes in comparison to Pinot Gris wines. Beyond total terpene content it is possible that the differences in chiral terpene content may be driving the aromatic differences in white wines.

  4. Reconstructing surface elevation changes for the Greenland Ice Sheet (1993-2013) and analysis of Zachariae Isstrom, northeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle

    Previous studies investigating the velocity and elevation change records of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) revealed rapid and complex changes. It is therefore imperative to determine changes with both high spatial and temporal resolutions. By fusing multiple laser altimetry data sets, the Surface Elevation Reconstruction and Change (SERAC) program is capable of reconstructing surface elevation changes with high spatial and temporal resolution over the entire GrIS. The input data include observations from NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission (2003-2009) as well as data collected by NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) (1993-2013) and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) (2007-2012) airborne laser altimetry systems. This study extends the record of surface elevation changes over the GrIS by adding 2012 and 2013 laser altimetry data to the previous 1993-2011 record. Extending the record leads to a new, more accurate and detailed altimetry record for 1993-2013. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are fused with laser altimetry data over Zachariae Isstrom, northeast Greenland to analyze surface elevation changes and associated thinning rates during 1978-2014. Little to no elevation change occurred over Zachariae Isstrom from 1978-1999, however, from 1999-2014 elevation changes near the calving front became increasingly negative and accelerated. Calving front position showed steady retreat and grounding line position has been retreating towards the interior of the ice sheet at an increasing rate from 2010-2014 when compared to the 1996-2010 period. The measured elevation changes near the calving front have brought a large portion of the glacier close to the height of flotation. If the current thinning trend continues this portion of the glacier will reach flotation within the next 2-5 years allowing for further retreat and increased vulnerability to retreat for sections of

  5. Influence of glacial meltwater on global seawater δ234U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Carli A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Das, Sarah B.; Sheik, Cody; Stevenson, Emily I.

    2018-03-01

    We present the first published uranium-series measurements from modern Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) runoff and proximal seawater, and investigate the influence of glacial melt on global seawater δ234U over glacial-interglacial (g-ig) timescales. Climate reconstructions based on closed-system uranium-thorium (U/Th) dating of fossil corals assume U chemistry of seawater has remained stable over time despite notable fluctuations in major elemental compositions, concentrations, and isotopic compositions of global seawater on g-ig timescales. Deglacial processes increase weathering, significantly increasing U-series concentrations and changing the δ234U of glacial meltwater. Analyses of glacial discharge from GrIS outlet glaciers indicate that meltwater runoff has elevated U concentrations and differing 222Rn concentrations and δ234U compositions, likely due to variations in subglacial residence time. Locations with high δ234U have the potential to increase proximal seawater δ234U. To better understand the impact of bulk glacial melt on global seawater δ234U over time, we use a simple box model to scale these processes to periods of extreme deglaciation. We account for U fluxes from the GrIS, Antarctica, and large Northern Hemisphere Continental Ice Sheets, and assess sensitivity by varying melt volumes, duration and U flux input rates based on modern subglacial water U concentrations and compositions. All scenarios support the hypothesis that global seawater δ234U has varied by more than 1‰ through time as a function of predictable perturbations in continental U fluxes during g-ig periods.

  6. The modelled liquid water balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Christian R.; Reijmer, Carleen H.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that the surface mass balance will dominate the Greenland Ice Sheet's (GrIS) contribution to 21st century sea level rise. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the liquid water balance (LWB) of the ice sheet and its response to increasing surface melt. We therefore analyse a firn simulation conducted with the SNOWPACK model for the GrIS and over the period 1960-2014 with a special focus on the LWB and refreezing. Evaluations of the simulated refreezing climate with GRACE and firn temperature observations indicate a good model-observation agreement. Results of the LWB analysis reveal a spatially uniform increase in surface melt (0.16 m w.e. a-1) during 1990-2014. As a response, refreezing and run-off also indicate positive changes during this period (0.05 and 0.11 m w.e. a-1, respectively), where refreezing increases at only half the rate of run-off, implying that the majority of the additional liquid input runs off the ice sheet. This pattern of refreeze and run-off is spatially variable. For instance, in the south-eastern part of the GrIS, most of the additional liquid input is buffered in the firn layer due to relatively high snowfall rates. Modelled increase in refreezing leads to a decrease in firn air content and to a substantial increase in near-surface firn temperature. On the western side of the ice sheet, modelled firn temperature increases are highest in the lower accumulation zone and are primarily caused by the exceptional melt season of 2012. On the eastern side, simulated firn temperature increases are more gradual and are associated with the migration of firn aquifers to higher elevations.

  7. Future projections of the Greenland ice sheet energy balance driving the surface melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simulations at 25 km resolution are performed over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, using the regional climate model MAR forced by four RCP scenarios from three CMIP5 global circulation models (GCMs, in order to investigate the projected changes of the surface energy balance (SEB components driving the surface melt. Analysis of 2000–2100 melt anomalies compared to melt results over 1980–1999 reveals an exponential relationship of the GrIS surface melt rate simulated by MAR to the near-surface air temperature (TAS anomalies, mainly due to the surface albedo positive feedback associated with the extension of bare ice areas in summer. On the GrIS margins, the future melt anomalies are preferentially driven by stronger sensible heat fluxes, induced by enhanced warm air advection over the ice sheet. Over the central dry snow zone, the surface albedo positive feedback induced by the increase in summer melt exceeds the negative feedback of heavier snowfall for TAS anomalies higher than 4 °C. In addition to the incoming longwave flux increase associated with the atmosphere warming, GCM-forced MAR simulations project an increase of the cloud cover decreasing the ratio of the incoming shortwave versus longwave radiation and dampening the albedo feedback. However, it should be noted that this trend in the cloud cover is contrary to that simulated by ERA-Interim–forced MAR for recent climate conditions, where the observed melt increase since the 1990s seems mainly to be a consequence of more anticyclonic atmospheric conditions. Finally, no significant change is projected in the length of the melt season, which highlights the importance of solar radiation absorbed by the ice sheet surface in the melt SEB.

  8. Integrating tree-ring and wine data from the Palatinate (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konter, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Tree-ring growth of conifer trees originating from central European low mountain ranges often reveal indistinct growth-climate relationships. Temperature variations can play a crucial role, whereas water availability can also control the annual growth and become the main dominating factor. The low mountain range Pfälzerwald in the Palatinate region represents the largest contiguous forested area in Germany and features at its most eastern limitation a unique ecological setting due to its sandy soils and reduced water availability. In addition, its north-south orientation and associated lee-effects due to predominating westerlies together with altitudinal differences of more than 300 m lead to higher temperatures, lower precipitation amounts, and, as a forest management consequence, to a proportion of up to 80 % of pine trees. Despite these exceptional ecological and climatological prerequisites, calibrating tree-ring width data from 487 Pinus sylvestris core samples against regional meteorological stations (1950-2011) and gridded data (1901-2011) confirm alternating climate control mechanisms. Comparison with drought-related indices (scPDSI), combining precipitation and temperature, unfolds highest correlations with May-July conditions (r=0.34, psugar content, acidity, alcohol content, and sugar-free extracts in Riesling, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, and Silvaner wines, originating from 15 wineries adjoining the forested area into the plain. Correlation of Riesling must sugar content against regional April-August temperature data reveals a highly significant signal (r=0.73, pSugar-free extract variations of Pinot Gris are significantly controlled by March-September precipitation (r=0.76, psugar content and sugar-free extract data from Riesling and Pinot Gris wine can further elucidate our understanding of longer-term climate variability in the Palatinate region.

  9. Encapsulación de polifenoles para su aplicación como fungicidas

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo Freire, Diego

    2015-01-01

    La podredumbre gris, causado por Botrytis cinerea, ha sido considerada una enfermedad secundaria que no causaba perdidas económicas. Por efecto de una epidemia de filoxera (insectos succionadores de savia) cobró importancia causando pérdidas económicas en Europa. Se han realizado varios estudios para la obtención de compuestos más amigables al ambiente, el objetivo del presente trabajo es medir el efecto de la concentración del principio activo (resveratrol) encapsulado en diferentes matri...

  10. Greenland Ice sheet mass balance from satellite and airborne altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Bevis, M. G.; Wahr, J. M.

    Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is dominated by loss in the marginal areas. Dynamic induced ice loss and its associated ice surface lowering is often largest close to the glacier calving front and may vary from rates of tens of meters per years to a few meters per year over relatively...... short distances. Hence, high spatial resolution data are required to accurately estimate volume changes. Here, we estimate ice volume change rate of the Greenland ice sheet using data from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter during 2003-2009 and CryoSat-2 data during 2010...

  11. Detección de características en imágenes basadas en el tensor de color

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Filadelfio; Sebastian y Zuñiga, Jose Maria

    2009-01-01

    La correspondencia entre dos imágenes sigue siendo un de los aspectos más críticos de la visión por computador. Su resolución se emplea en numerosas tareas, entre las que destacan: Reconocimiento de objetos o escenas, resolver una estructura 3D entre múltiples imágenes, correspondencia estéreo, y seguimiento de objetos. El descriptor Sift ha demostrado ser el mejor detector de características invariantes en imágenes en escala de gris; sin embargo cuando la imagen tiene una pobre ilu...

  12. Wheat Rust Information Resources - Integrated tools and data for improved decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodson, David; Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Lassen, Poul

    giving access to an unprecedented set of data for rust surveys, alternate hosts (barberry), rust pathotypes, trap nurseries and resistant cultivars. Standardized protocols for data collection have permitted the development of a comprehensive data management system, named the Wheat Rust Toolbox....... Integration of the CIMMYT Wheat Atlas and the Genetic Resources Information System (GRIS) databases provides a rich resource on wheat cultivars and their resistance to important rust races. Data access is facilitated via dedicated web portals such as Rust Tracker (www.rusttracker.org) and the Global Rust...

  13. Estado del arte de la limnología de lagos de planos inundables (Ciénagas) en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Moreno Yimmy; Aguirre R Néstor

    2011-01-01

    Colombia es uno de los países con mayor diversidad de especies y de ecosistemas en el planeta. Los lagos ubicados en llanuras de inundación o «ciénagas» (como comúnmente se las conoce en Colombia) comprenden un tipo de ecosistema acuático, que, no obstante su elevada riqueza específica, han sido someramente estudiados. Las investigaciones básicas en estos ambientes son escasas, en su mayoría se hallan publicadas en la «literatura gris» y no existe una compilación actualizada de los di...

  14. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Toro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Más allá de las consideraciones e intereses políticos y/o económicos que tratan de convencer a la opinión pública que el fenómeno del Calentamiento global no existe, o de dirigentes que basándose en alguna publicación gris argumentan que las actividades antropogénicas no contribuyen al aumento de la temperatura planetaria, el cambio climático global es una realidad, cuyas consecuencias directas estamos sufriendo y cuyo alcance total no podemos predecir.

  15. Surface mass balance and runoff modeling using HIRHAM4 RCM at Kangerlussuaq (Søndre Strømfjord), West Greenland, 1950-2080

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    A regional atmospheric model, the HIRHAM4 regional climate model (RCM) using boundary conditions from the ECHAM5 atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM), was downscaled to a 500-m gridcell increment using SnowModel to simulate 131 yr (1950-2080) of hydrologic cycle evolution in west...... Greenland's Kangerlussuaq drainage. Projected changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) and runoff are relevant for potential hydropower production and prediction of ecosystem changes in sensitive Kangerlussuaq Fjord systems. Mean annual surface air temperatures and precipitation...

  16. Texto y figuras preparatorios del Capítulo 11 (Tomo I) de la Histología del Sistema Nervioso de Cajal: [ESTRUCTURA DE LA SUBSTANCIA BLANCA DE LA MÉDULA].

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    [ESTRUCTURA DE LA SUBSTANCIA BLANCA DE LA MÉDULA]. Tubos nerviosos, [fibras sin mielina,] células neuróglicas y colaterales nerviosas. ─ Variedades de colaterales distinguidas por el área gris en que se terminan ─ Fibras nerviosas terminales. ─ Fascículos dislocados de la substancia blanca. [Ver: Freire, Miguel. Metodología usada en la presente edición. Metodología e historia de la edición en la correspondencia de Cajal. https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/150245

  17. Brief communication: Getting Greenland's glaciers right - a new data set of all official Greenlandic glacier names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, A. A.; Kruse, L. M.; Michaelsen, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Place names in Greenland can be difficult to get right, as they are a mix of Greenlandic, Danish, and other foreign languages. In addition, orthographies have changed over time. With this new data set, we give the researcher working with Greenlandic glaciers the proper tool to find the correct name for glaciers and ice caps in Greenland and to locate glaciers described in the historic literature with the old Greenlandic orthography. The data set contains information on the names of 733 glaciers, 285 originating from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and 448 from local glaciers and ice caps (LGICs).

  18. Pastores en el 'Quijote'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Estrada

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alonso Quijano become to be don Quixote, when the reading of some books of knight-errantry makes him mad. But don Alonso reads also pastoral literature. Sancho confess the was a rustician shepherd. Dulcinea is a name nearly to the pastoral literature. Don Quixote pronounces a pastoral lecture, adressed to others shepherds. In Sierra Morena, during the Grisóstomo's funeral, Marcela enunciate & discourse in favor of love liberty. Don Quixote attends to Camacho's wedding and he intervenes in the facts of this act. Finally, Don Quixote regains his mind, and he dies like a christianman being Alonso Quijano.

  19. Transnational Activities of Chinese Crime Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    constantly change their routes and connections according to ambient conditions. A much- used asset is the institution of “flying money,” an informal exchange...1998. 105 The higher figure is reported in Mariano César Bartolomé, “Amenzas a la Seguridad de los Estados: La Triple Frontera coma ’Area Gris’ en...institute> Bartolomé, Mariano César. “Amenzas a la Seguridad de los Estados: La Triple Frontera Coma ‘Area Gris’ en el Cono Sur Americano” [Threats to

  20. Mamíferos silvestres de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel en Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F. Wild mammals of Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Ciudad Universitaria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F.

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Hortelano-Moncada; Fernando A. Cervantes; Aída Trejo-Ortiz

    2009-01-01

    Se realizó un inventario de las especies de mamíferos que habitan en la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA). Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de registros de colecciones científicas, de recolectas recientes en el área y de consultas en literatura especializada. Los resultados comprenden 628 registros acumulados desde 1943 y corresponden a 33 especies, agrupadas en 28 géneros, 15 familias y 6 órdenes de mamíferos. La ardilla gris (Sciurus aureogaster nigrescens) y el ratón del ...

  1. GPCR Mutation information - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us GRI...s and exposed in molecular surface. Data file File name: gripdb_mutation_info.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/gri...pdb/LATEST/gripdb_mutation_info.zip File size: 766 bytes Si...mple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/gripdb_mutation_info#en Data acquisition method P... Site Policy | Contact Us GPCR Mutation information - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Genética evolutiva y molecular de la familia Ursidae: una revisión bibliográfica actualizada

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez-Casillas, Luis Antonio; Varas, Cora

    2011-01-01

    No se conoce con precisión la relación taxonómica que guardan las ocho especies actuales de la Familia Ursidae. Sin embargo, de manera consistente los análisis demuestran tres principales grupos. El primero es la línea que origina al panda gigante, el segundo lleva a la aparición del oso de anteojos, y el tercero es una divergencia politípica que deriva en seis especies (negro americano, negro asiático, gris, polar, bezudo y malayo). La historia evolutiva de algunas especies de los osos no es...

  3. Kaolin clays from Patagonia - Argentina. Relationship between the mineralogy and ceramic properties; Arcillas caolinicas de la Patagonia argentina. Relacion entre la mineralogia y las propiedades ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Factorovich, J.C.; Badino, D. [Piedra Grande S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cravero, F.; Dominguez, E. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Dept. de Geologia

    1997-12-31

    The mineralogy, grain size distribution, chemical composition, S and C contents, plasticity, and cationic exchange capacity are determined in the sedimentary kaolinitic clays from the clay pits Puma Negra, Puma Gris, Tincar Super; and Chenque and Cardenal located in Santa Cruz and Chubut Provinces. Mineralogy and Particle size distribution of > 5, 5-2 and <2{mu} fractions are determined. Modulus of rupture, 1100 and 1250 deg C shrinkage and water absorption and whiteness are found. It is accomplished a statistics correlation between the characteristics of grain size distribution, mineralogy, and other physical properties with the main ceramic properties to understand its influence in the ceramic process. (author) 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Análisis y caracterización de genes de Botrytis cinerea cuya expresión se induce in planta en la interacción B.cinerea-tomate

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Pescador, David

    2010-01-01

    [ES] Botrytis cinerea es un hongo fitopatógeno causante de la podredumbre gris y considerado como uno de los principales microosganismos responsables del deterioro de frutas y hortalizas durante su cultivo y en postcosecha y, por tanto, responsable de grandes pérdidas económicas. Es un patógeno generalista que puede atacar especies de la mayoría de las familias de dicotiledóneas. B. cinerea es un hongo necrotrofo que requiere la muerte de las células vegetales para poder alimentarse y desarro...

  5. Mejora y ampliación del proceso de una instalación de clasificación, reciclaje y valorización de residuos municipales

    OpenAIRE

    Gordaliza Baguena, Marc

    2010-01-01

    En este proyecto se propone la mejora de una instalación de clasificación, reciclaje y valorización de residuos (Ecoparque). Tiene como función la recepción, tratamiento y recuperación de residuos urbanos (materia orgánica, residuos de envases de plástico y de metal, voluminosos, etc.). El proyecto se basa en el estudio de los diferentes procesos, tanto los actuales como las modificaciones, que completan el Ecoparque: las líneas de pretratamiento de bolsa gris y envases, la ...

  6. Kaolin clays from Patagonia - Argentina. Relationship between the mineralogy and ceramic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factorovich, J.C.; Badino, D.; Cravero, F.; Dominguez, E.

    1997-01-01

    The mineralogy, grain size distribution, chemical composition, S and C contents, plasticity, and cationic exchange capacity are determined in the sedimentary kaolinitic clays from the clay pits Puma Negra, Puma Gris, Tincar Super; and Chenque and Cardenal located in Santa Cruz and Chubut Provinces. Mineralogy and Particle size distribution of > 5, 5-2 and <2μ fractions are determined. Modulus of rupture, 1100 and 1250 deg C shrinkage and water absorption and whiteness are found. It is accomplished a statistics correlation between the characteristics of grain size distribution, mineralogy, and other physical properties with the main ceramic properties to understand its influence in the ceramic process. (author)

  7. La mucosa en áreas dentadas y en áreas perimplantarias

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Vasquez, Segundo Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Las fibras de colágeno se disponen paralelas a la superficie del titanio o se orientaban perpendicularmente al implante, en implantes de superficie lisa, la mayoría de las fibras transcurren más o menos en dirección paralela al implante, el uso de titanio para implantes y pilares puede verse cambios de color de los tejidos blandos peri implantares, el resultado puede llevarnos a deficiencias estéticas que pueden ser inaceptables para pacientes y clínicos. Para mitigar el color gris de los pil...

  8. Impact of improved Greenland ice sheet surface representation in the NASA GISS ModelE2 GCM on simulated surface mass balance and regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P. M.; LeGrande, A. N.; Fischer, E.; Tedesco, M.; Kelley, M.; Schmidt, G. A.; Fettweis, X.

    2017-12-01

    Towards achieving coupled simulations between the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE2 general circulation model (GCM) and ice sheet models (ISMs), improvements have been made to the representation of the ice sheet surface in ModelE2. These include a sub-grid-scale elevation class scheme, a multi-layer snow model, a time-variable surface albedo scheme, and adjustments to parameterization of sublimation/evaporation. These changes improve the spatial resolution and physical representation of the ice sheet surface such that the surface is represented at a level of detail closer to that of Regional Climate Models (RCMs). We assess the impact of these changes on simulated Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB). We also compare ModelE2 simulations in which winds have been nudged to match the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim reanalysis with simulations from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) RCM forced by the same reanalysis. Adding surface elevation classes results in a much higher spatial resolution representation of the surface necessary for coupling with ISMs, but has a negligible impact on overall SMB. Implementing a variable surface albedo scheme increases melt by 100%, bringing it closer to melt simulated by MAR. Adjustments made to the representation of topography-influenced surface roughness length in ModelE2 reduce a positive bias in evaporation relative to MAR. We also examine the impact of changes to the GrIS surface on regional atmospheric and oceanic climate in coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations with ModelE2, finding a general warming of the Arctic due to a warmer GrIS, and a cooler North Atlantic in scenarios with doubled atmospheric CO2 relative to pre-industrial levels. The substantial influence of changes to the GrIS surface on the oceans and atmosphere highlight the importance of including these processes in the GCM, in view of potential feedbacks between the ice sheet

  9. Implementación de política de seguridad en las redes Wi-Fi de las Aulas del Conocimiento de Hogar de Cristo

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Sangacha Tapia, Lady Mariuxi

    2017-01-01

    El presente tema tiene como objetivo de elaborar políticas de accesos a las redes inalámbricas puesto que se propone disminuir los riesgos de ataques de usuario de sombrero blanco, gris o negro, así mismo en completar los niveles básicos y medios de seguridad en la implementación de una red de este tipo. Se da a conocer los pasos para mantener controlado el acceso a la red, mitigando los riesgo de usuarios no autorizados, se describen los elementos que participan en la solución, los protoc...

  10. Didáctica de la Música: Manual para maestros de Infantil y Primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Espinosa, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Sin arte, sin música, la sociedad se convierte en un lugar gris, uniforme, habitado por seres alienados. Por eso resulta tan importante potenciar la educación musical de los alumnos desde sus primeros años de escuela, enriqueciendo su desarrollo personal como individuos libres y conscientes. Debemos transmitir a los alumnos las virtudes de la música como forma de comunicación trascendente que les permita expresar su más profunda vinculación con la realidad, fomentando así además su dimens...

  11. Stable oxygen isotope variability in two contrasting glacier river catchments in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Jacob C.; Knudsen, Niels T.; Steffensen, Jørgen P.

    2016-01-01

    the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). At the Mittivakkat Gletscher river, a small river draining a local temperate glacier in southeast Greenland, diurnal oscillations in δ18O occurred with a 3 h time lag to the diurnal oscillations in run-off. The mean annual δ18O was -14.68±0.18‰ during the peak flow period...... event. Overall, a comparison of the δ18O compositions from glacial river water in Greenland shows distinct differences between water draining local glaciers and ice caps (between -23.0 and -13.7 ‰) and the GrIS (between -29.9 and -23.2 ‰). This study demonstrates that water isotope analyses can be used......Analysis of stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) characteristics is a useful tool to investigate water provenance in glacier river systems. In order to attain knowledge on the diversity of δ18O variations in Greenlandic rivers, we examined two contrasting glacierised catchments disconnected from...

  12. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shfaqat A; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A; Wahr, John; Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Kjær, Kurt H

    2015-04-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance and to ice discharge, which are forced by internal or external (atmospheric/oceanic/basal) fluctuations. Regardless of the measurement method, observations over the last two decades show an increase in ice loss rate, associated with speeding up of glaciers and enhanced melting. However, both ice discharge and melt-induced mass losses exhibit rapid short-term fluctuations that, when extrapolated into the future, could yield erroneous long-term trends. In this paper we review the GrIS mass loss over more than a century by combining satellite altimetry, airborne altimetry, interferometry, aerial photographs and gravimetry data sets together with modelling studies. We revisit the mass loss of different sectors and show that they manifest quite different sensitivities to atmospheric and oceanic forcing. In addition, we discuss recent progress in constructing coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere models required to project realistic future sea-level changes.

  13. MuSICa image slicer prototype at 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.; Vega Reyes, N.

    2014-07-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy is an innovative technique that is being implemented in the state-of-the-art instruments of the largest night-time telescopes, however, it is still a novelty for solar instrumentation. A new concept of image slicer, called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera), has been designed for the integral field spectrograph of the 4-m European Solar Telescope. This communication presents an image slicer prototype of MuSICa for GRIS, the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope located at the Observatory of El Teide. MuSICa at GRIS reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 24.5 arcsec into a slit of 0.367 arcsec width by 66.76 arcsec length distributed horizontally. It will operate together with the TIP-II polarimeter to offer high resolution integral field spectropolarimetry. It will also have a bidimensional field of view scanning system to cover a field of view up to 1 by 1 arcmin.

  14. Reconciled freshwater flux into the Godthåbsfjord system from satellite and airborne remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Forsberg, René

    2015-01-01

    IS hamper in situ observations. Here, we evaluate available data from remote sensing and find a drainage basin in rapid change. An analysis of data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites shows a mean seasonal freshwater flux into Godthåbsfjord of 18.2 ± 1.2 Gt, in addition......, from various remote-sensing data sets, estimate the freshwater flux from the GrIS into a specific fjord system, the Godthåbsfjord, in southwest Greenland. The area of the GrIS draining into Godthåbsfjord covers approximately 36,700 km2. The large areal extent and the multiple outlets from the Gr...... to an imbalance in the mass balance of the drainage basin from 2003 to 2013 of 14.4 ± 0.2 Gt year−1. Altimetry data from air and spaceborne missions also suggest rapid changes in the outlet glacier dynamics. We find that only applying data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission...

  15. Rational Design of Glucose-Responsive Insulin Using Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakh, Naveed A; Bisker, Gili; Lee, Michael A; Gong, Xun; Strano, Michael S

    2017-11-01

    A glucose responsive insulin (GRI) is a therapeutic that modulates its potency, concentration, or dosing of insulin in relation to a patient's dynamic glucose concentration, thereby approximating aspects of a normally functioning pancreas. Current GRI design lacks a theoretical basis on which to base fundamental design parameters such as glucose reactivity, dissociation constant or potency, and in vivo efficacy. In this work, an approach to mathematically model the relevant parameter space for effective GRIs is induced, and design rules for linking GRI performance to therapeutic benefit are developed. Well-developed pharmacokinetic models of human glucose and insulin metabolism coupled to a kinetic model representation of a freely circulating GRI are used to determine the desired kinetic parameters and dosing for optimal glycemic control. The model examines a subcutaneous dose of GRI with kinetic parameters in an optimal range that results in successful glycemic control within prescribed constraints over a 24 h period. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the modeling approach can find GRI parameters that enable stable glucose levels that persist through a skipped meal. The results provide a framework for exploring the parameter space of GRIs, potentially without extensive, iterative in vivo animal testing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Calculation of mass discharge of the Greenland ice sheet in the Earth System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Rybak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass discharge calculation is a challenging task for the ice sheet modeling aimed at evaluation of their contribution to the global sea level rise during past interglacials, as well as one of the consequences of future climate change. In Greenland, ablation is the major source of fresh water runoff. It is approximately equal to the dynamical discharge (iceberg calving. Its share might have still larger during the past interglacials when the margins of the GrIS retreated inland. Refreezing of the melted water and its retention are two poorly known processes playing as a counterpart of melting and, thus, exerting influence on the run off. Interaction of ice sheets and climate is driven by energy and mass exchange processes and is complicated by numerous feed-backs. To study the complex of these processes, coupling of an ice sheet model and a climate model (i.e. models of the atmosphere and the ocean in one model is required, which is often called the Earth System Model (ESM. Formalization of processes of interaction between the ice sheets and climate within the ESM requires elaboration of special techniques to deal with dramatic differences in spatial and temporal variability scales within each of three ESM’s blocks. In this paper, we focus on the method of coupling of a Greenland ice sheet model (GrISM with the climate model INMCM having been developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of Russian Academy of Sciences. Our coupling approach consists in applying of a special buffer model, which serves as an interface between GrISM and INMCM. A simple energy and water exchange model (EWBM-G allows realistic description of surface air temperature and precipitation fields adjusted to a relief of elevation of the GrIS surface. In a series of diagnostic numerical experiments with the present-day GrIS geometry and the modeled climate we studied sensitivity of the modeled surface mass balance and run off to the key EWBM-G parameters and compared

  17. Molecular and serological detection of Leishmania spp. in captive wild animals from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil Detecção sorológica e molecular de Leishmania spp. em animais selvagens do zoológico de Ilha Solteira, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mariza Gomes Jusi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease that affects 12 million people worldwide. Several mammalian species can serve as a reservoir for this disease. Dogs are the main reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas, which has become a serious public health concern in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. in captive wild animals from Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil. Blood and various tissues samples were collected from animals of five different species: Speothos venaticus, Chrysocyon brachyurus, Cerdocyon thous, Pseudalopex vetulus, and Procyon cancrivorus. Antibodies against Leishmania spp. were detected in three wild canids by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. PCR analyses of blood and bone marrow from all animals were negative, but Leishmania DNA was found in the tissues and skin of seropositive animals. Positive PCR samples were also positive for Leishmania donovani complex. Analysis of sequenced PCR products showed similarities with different regions of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi kinetoplastids. Measures to control visceral leishmaniasis in wild animals kept in Brazilian zoos should be established, as no disease control programs are currently available.Leishmaniose é uma doença zoonótica que afeta cerca de 12 milhões de pessoas no mundo todo. Várias espécies mamíferas podem servir de reservatório para a doença. Os cães são considerados os principais reservatórios para a leishmaniose visceral em áreas urbanas, o que tem se tornado um sério problema de saúde pública no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de Leishmania spp. em animais selvagens mantidos no zoológico de Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brasil. Foram coletados amostras de sangue e tecidos de cinco espécies diferentes: Speothos venaticus, Chrysocyon brachyurus, Cerdocyon thous, Pseudalopex vetulus, e Procyon

  18. Occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept in captivity at the zoo from Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Márcia Marques de Campos Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Control of oral lesions contributes directly to the health, survival and welfare of captive animals. In order to investigate the occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept at the zoo at the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá, we evaluated 31 oral cavities from three families of carnivores (Felidae, Canidae and Procyonidae between July 2012 and June 2013. Twelve coatis (Nasua nasua, three raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus, two maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, six crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, three ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, one cougar (Puma concolor and three wild cats (Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii and Leopardus colocolo were reviewed. The most frequent lesions were dental absences 21/31 (67.7%, dental fractures 20/31 (64.5% and tooth wear 19/31 (61.3%, which were suggestive of trauma caused from stress. Of lesser importance, we also observed occurrence of dental calculus grade I in 18/31 (58%, caries 1/31 (3.2%, foreign bodies 2/31 (6.4%, orofacial fistulas 1/31 (3.2%, hyperplasia in the oral mucosa 1/31 (3.2%, dental dimming 3/31 (9.7% and chafing of the soft tissue 5/31 (16.1%. Therefore, it was concluded that environmental enrichment strategies and oral routine evaluation must be implemented to ensure the welfare of these animals, reducing local and systemic adverse effects of oral lesions. The diet has been successful in preventing periodontal disease, suggesting that this diet for the captive animals in the institution should be maintained.

  19. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Ríos, Galo; Branch, Lyn C

    2018-01-01

    Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km) were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus), puma (Puma concolor), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus), and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus)]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species.

  20. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Zapata-Ríos

    Full Text Available Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus, puma (Puma concolor, striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus, and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species.

  1. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.

  2. REPRODUCCIÓN DE Trachemys callirostris callirostris(EMYDIDAE EN AMBIENTES GENERADOS POR LA MINERÍA EN LA GUAJIRA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Leguizamo Pardo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La tortuga hicotea (Trachemys callirostris callirostris es una subespecie sometida a una alta extracción en Colombia, de la cual no se conoce nada sobre su reproducción en zonas altamente alteradas con bajo impacto por la cacería. Para ello, en tres ambientes acuáticos generados por la minería de carbón en la mina del Cerrejón, departamento de La Guajira, estudiamos algunas características reproductivas de la hicotea durante el periodo reproductivo de 2011 (marzo a junio. Solamente en las lagunas de estabilización registramos un éxito de eclosión positivo (56,9 %. En el embalse de minería, la tasa de depredación de 100 % fue el factor limitante del éxito de eclosión, por lo que recomendamos el aislamiento de los nidos del principal depredador (zorro patón: Procyon cancrivorus y el traslado de nidadas para su incubación ex-situ. La baja anidación registrada en la zona rehabilitada pudo haberse debido a una extracción de hembras adultas, a factores limitantes del hábitat que influyen en el crecimiento de los individuos, o por factores de tipo demográfico. Las diferentes variables estudiadas a nivel de los huevos y los neonatos en los tres sectores, evidencian la posibilidad de que las hembras anidantes posean tamaños mayores que las de otras poblaciones de Colombia sometidas a la cacería. Sin embargo, para establecer el grado de variación geográfica, es necesario determinar la variación temporal de las características reproductivas en la población del Cerrejón.

  3. VICHADA: LA HOSPITALIDAD DEL ORINOCO. Pag. 150-157

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Velandia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Donde el cielo y la sabana se unen en el infinito, se vislumbra una sola montaña en la lejanía, parece un gigante, antiguo y oscuro al final de la inmensidad un “Tepuye”, después de unas cuantas horas de camino se acerca este gran anciano que data del precámbrico, pero no está solo. Se observan algunos compañeros iguales a él, se podrían considerar como los guardianes del imponente y hermoso Orinoko, considerado en lengua Sikuani como la gran serpiente enroscada acompañada de una gran riqueza paisajística cultural y biodiversa; bosques de galería, diferentes tipos de sabana, esteros, lagunas, morichales, bosques inundables, las que recorren aguas blancas, negras y mixtas, rodeadas por diferentes etnias y grupos indígenas como Piaroas, Sikuanis – Guahibos, Cuibas y Amoruas, que viven en forma pacífica con llaneros y colonos, orgullosos de estas tierras, amables y hospitalarios que desde hace muchos años comparten este paraíso con: bagres, pirañas, anguilas, rayas, arawanas, anacondas, ranas, sapos, caimanes, babos, iguanas, tortugas, loros, búhos, guacamayas, azucareros, pavones, paujiles, águilas, zamuros, aulladores, armadillos, ocarros, chigüiros, osos hormigueros, ocelotes, jaguares, nutrias, murciélagos, cuerpo espines, zorros, venados y delfines, que pasan sus días entre; cedros, moriches, saladillos, caraños, yarumos, laureles, caimos, guaduas, guamos, alcornoques, chaparros, arepillos, palmiches y gualtes.

  4. Assessing modeled Greenland surface mass balance in the GISS Model E2 and its sensitivity to surface albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patrick; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Koenig, Lora S.; Tedesco, Marco; Moustafa, Samiah E.; Ivanoff, Alvaro; Fischer, Robert P.; Fettweis, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) plays an important role in global sea level change. Regional Climate Models (RCMs) such as the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) have been employed at high spatial resolution with relatively complex physics to simulate ice sheet SMB. Global climate models (GCMs) incorporate less sophisticated physical schemes and provide outputs at a lower spatial resolution, but have the advantage of modeling the interaction between different components of the earth's oceans, climate, and land surface at a global scale. Improving the ability of GCMs to represent ice sheet SMB is important for making predictions of future changes in global sea level. With the ultimate goal of improving SMB simulated by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Model E2 GCM, we compare simulated GrIS SMB against the outputs of the MAR model and radar-derived estimates of snow accumulation. In order to reproduce present-day climate variability in the Model E2 simulation, winds are constrained to match the reanalysis datasets used to force MAR at the lateral boundaries. We conduct a preliminary assessment of the sensitivity of the simulated Model E2 SMB to surface albedo, a parameter that is known to strongly influence SMB. Model E2 albedo is set to a fixed value of 0.8 over the entire ice sheet in the initial configuration of the model (control case). We adjust this fixed value in an ensemble of simulations over a range of 0.4 to 0.8 (roughly the range of observed summer GrIS albedo values) to examine the sensitivity of ice-sheet-wide SMB to albedo. We prescribe albedo from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MCD43A3 v6 to examine the impact of a more realistic spatial and temporal variations in albedo. An age-dependent snow albedo parameterization is applied, and its impact on SMB relative to observations and the RCM is assessed.

  5. Dendrological Characterization as Inspection Resources of Caatinga Wood Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayssa de Medeiros Morais

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to distinguish five native forest species of the Caatinga Biome from the exotic invasive algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC., considering dendrologic characteristics of bark and wood, in order of providing subsidies for the inspection of the wood market in this Biome. The native species studied were jurema-preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir., angico branco (Anadenanthera colubrina var. colubrina (Vell. Brenan, angico vermelho (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Gris. Alts., aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allem and braúna-do-sertão (Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl.. Studied species were recognized using dendrology identification records, containing characteristics of bark, heartwood and sapwood coloration; and the organoleptic proprieties like color, smell and taste, used for safe wood logs identification. The macroscopic characteristics, organized in dichotomous key, allowed the differentiation among the species, available in logs, during inspection.

  6. Performance Analysis of Information Services in a Grid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The Information Service is a fundamental component in a grid environment. It has to meet a lot of requirements such as access to static and dynamic information related to grid resources, efficient and secure access to dynamic data, decentralized maintenance, fault tolerance etc., in order to achieve better performance, scalability, security and extensibility. Currently there are two different major approaches. One is based on a directory infrastructure and another one on a novel approach that exploits a relational DBMS. In this paper we present a performance comparison analysis between Grid Resource Information Service (GRIS and Local Dynamic Grid Catalog relational information service (LDGC, providing also information about two projects (iGrid and Grid Relational Catalog in the grid data management area.

  7. Pre-announcements of price increase intentions in liner shipping spot markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Rytter, Niels G M; Jiang, Liping

    2017-01-01

    competition perspective, which will indirectly indicate whether carriers are able to manipulate spot rates following GRI announcements. Taking the Far East–North Europe trade between 2009 and 2013 as an example, the paper first reveals the gradual increase of GRI frequency and size, which reflects carriers...... factors, in sequence of explanation power, are the total capacity of GRI carriers, the idling fleet size, the spot rate level, and the average ship-loading factor. Clearly the latter three factors are market fundamentals, which are unlikely to be influenced by an individual carrier in the short term....... In actual fact, the conclusion reached is that there is little evidence that carriers can manipulate and distort spot rates through GRIs...

  8. Meltwater chemistry and solute export from a Greenland ice sheet catchment, Watson River, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Jacob C.; Knudsen, N. Tvis; Hasholt, Bent

    2014-01-01

    –2010 for the Watson River sector of the GrIS that drains into the fjord Kangerlussuaq. The hydrochemistry is dominated by Ca2+ and HCO3− with a relatively high molar K+/Na+ ratio of 0.6 ± 0.1, typical for meltwaters draining a gneissic lithology. Low molar Ca2+/Na+ and Mg2+/Na+ ratios indicate that weathering....... However, when normalized by discharge the denudation rates are comparable to other Arctic sites. When extrapolating the results from the Watson River catchment to the entire Greenland for 2007–2010, the solute export from Greenland meltwater varied between 7.1 × 106 and 7.8 × 106 tons, whilst the major...

  9. Dissolved black carbon in the global cryosphere: Concentrations and chemical signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Alia L.; Wagner, Sasha; Jaffe, Rudolf; Xian, Peng; Williams, Mark; Armstrong, Richard; McKnight, Diane

    2017-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) is derived from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and can enhance glacial recession when deposited on snow and ice surfaces. Here we explore the influence of environmental conditions and the proximity to anthropogenic sources on the concentration and composition of dissolved black carbon (DBC), as measured by benzenepolycaroxylic acid (BPCA) markers, across snow, lakes, and streams from the global cryosphere. Data are presented from Antarctica, the Arctic, and high alpine regions of the Himalayas, Rockies, Andes, and Alps. DBC concentrations spanned from 0.62 μg/L to 170 μg/L. The median and (2.5, 97.5) quantiles in the pristine samples were 1.8 μg/L (0.62, 12), and nonpristine samples were 21 μg/L (1.6, 170). DBC is susceptible to photodegradation when exposed to solar radiation. This process leads to a less condensed BPCA signature. In general, DBC across the data set was composed of less polycondensed DBC. However, DBC from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GRIS) had a highly condensed BPCA molecular signature. This could be due to recent deposition of BC from Canadian wildfires. Variation in DBC appears to be driven by a combination of photochemical processing and the source combustion conditions under which the DBC was formed. Overall, DBC was found to persist across the global cryosphere in both pristine and nonpristine snow and surface waters. The high concentration of DBC measured in supraglacial melt on the GRIS suggests that DBC can be mobilized across ice surfaces. This is significant because these processes may jointly exacerbate surface albedo reduction in the cryosphere.Plain Language SummaryHere we present dissolved black carbon (DBC) results for snow and glacial melt systems in Antarctica, the Arctic, and high alpine regions of the Himalayas, Rockies, Andes, and Alps. Across the global cryosphere, DBC composition appears to be a result of photochemical processes occurring en route in the atmosphere or in situ on the

  10. Impact of ice cover and freshwater discharge on the pelagic food web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    -scale ocean and the ice sheet - for two reasons. First, it is plausible that a sizable portion of the observed glacier acceleration and retreat was triggered by increased submarine melting of the glaciers’ margins. Second, the melt water from Greenland must transit through the fjord before reaching Greenland......Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) quadrupled over the past two decades owing to increased surface melt and the widespread retreat and speedup of marine-terminating glaciers. These physical changes have sparked interest in Greenland’s glacial fjords - the conduits between the large......’s continental shelves - where it can impact the ocean circulation and the downstream marine ecosystems. Using data collected from several Greenland fjord/glacier systems we show that the freshwater discharge in these coastal waters is mediated by a complex interplay of atmospheric forcing, subglacial processes...

  11. Algoritmo PSO para identificación de parámetros en un motor DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Duarte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta la aplicación del algoritmo Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO como estrategia de búsqueda para determinar los parámetros de un sistema tipo caja gris. Este proceso de identificación se ilustra utilizando la respuesta a un escalón de un motor DC en lazo abierto. Para agilizar la identificación del sistema a través del uso de PSO, se limita el espacio de búsqueda usando la información que puede extraerse de la respuesta en el dominio del tiempo del sistema a identificar. Los resultados del proceso de identificación de los parámetros del motor se obtienen utilizando la herramienta PSOt disponible para entorno Matlab® desarrollada por Brian Birge.

  12. Chemical composition of essential oils from needles and twigs of balkan pine (Pinus peuce grisebach) grown in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukos, P K; Papadopoulou, K I; Patiaka, D T; Papagiannopoulos, A D

    2000-04-01

    The composition of essential oils from twigs and needles of Balkan pine (Pinus peuce Gris.) grown in northern Greece was investigated. The compounds were identified by using GC-MS analysis. The twig oil was rich in alpha-pinene (7.38%), beta-pinene (12.46%), beta-phellandrene (26.93%), beta-caryophyllene (4.48%), and citronellol (12.48%), and the needle oil was rich in alpha-pinene (23.07%), camphene (5.52%), beta-pinene (22.00%), beta-phellandrene (6.78%), bornyl acetate (9.76%), beta-caryophyllene (3.05%), and citronellol (13.42%). The mean oil yield was 2.85% for twigs and 0. 57% for needles.

  13. Modelling the behavior of Jakobshavn glacier in the last century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muresan, Ioana Stefania; Khroulev, Constantine; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    2014-01-01

    overview and for the purpose of increasing the resolution to 2 km, our study focuses only on the Jakobshavn glacier. In order to determine the locations of the flow for the regional model, a drainage basin mask was extracted from the surface elevation data based on the gradient flow. While inside the basin......Current model estimates of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are almost entirely based on coarse grids (>10km) and constrained by climate models that span from 60s to present. To improve the projection of future sea level rise, a long-term data record that reveals the mass balance beyond decadal...... mask the full PISM model is applied, outside the basin mask the boundary conditions are taken as captured by the whole Greenland initialization. Considering the surface mass balanced reconstruction where the monthly accumulation rates are assumed to be 1/12 of the annual accumulation, a yearly 1900...

  14. Modelling the behavior of the Jakobshavn glacier since the end of the Little Ice Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muresan, Ioana Stefania; Khroulev, Constantine; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    2014-01-01

    . For a better overview and for the purpose of increasing the resolution to 1 km, our study focuses only on the Jakobshavn glacier. In order to determine the locations of the flow for the regional model, a drainage basin mask was extracted from the surface elevation data based on the gradient flow. While inside......Current model estimates of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are almost entirely based on coarse grids (>10km) and constrained by climate models that span from 60s to present. To improve the projection of future sea level rise, a long-term data record that reveals the mass balance beyond decadal...... the basin mask the full PISM model is applied, outside the basin mask the boundary conditions are taken as captured by the whole Greenland initialization. Considering the surface mass balance reconstruction where the monthly accumulation rates are assumed to be 1/12 of the annual accumulation, a yearly 1850...

  15. GPS based surface displacements – a proxy for discharge and sediment transport from the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Bent; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Mikkelsen, Andreas Bech

    2014-01-01

    winter precipitation correlated fairly well with surface depression (R2=0.69). The relationships are based on seven years of runoff and sediment transport observations from the Watson River (2007–2013), winter precipitation from Kangerlussuaq Airport and GPS observations at Kellyville. GPS recordings...... of surface subsidence and uplift from 1996–2013 are used to calculate 18 years time series of annual runoff, sediment and solute transport and 10 winter precipitation. Runoff and related transport of sediment and solutes increase over the period, while winter precipitation (land depression) tends to decrease......The elastic respond of the Earth’s surface to mass changes has been measured with Global Positioning System (GPS). Mass loss as accumulated runoff and sediment transport from a 10000 km2 segment of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) correlated very well (R2=0.83) with GPS measured uplift. Accumulated...

  16. Conservación del bosque y fauna del Colegio Liceo Nacional como estrategia de educación ambiental en Ibagué, Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cubillos

    2005-07-01

    más de 70 especies vegetales (excluyendo arbustos y herbáceas, y 25 especies animales entre aves, mamíferos y reptiles, destacándose la presencia del tití gris (Saguinus leucopus. Además, se llevaron a cabo cuatro talleres teóricoprácticos donde las alumnas conocieron las especies vegetales y animales que existen en el colegio, así como algunas nociones de taxonomía de aves, anfibios y reptiles presentes en el departamento del Tolima, Colombia. Con estas actividades se logró incentivar el sentido de pertenencia, conciencia ecológica y conservacionista en las alumnas y docentes por el bosque y fauna del colegio Liceo Nacional.

  17. Measuring Innovative Capacities of the Georgia Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gogodze

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available European Union (EU experience reveal that the composite indicators are probably the most useful instruments for measuring the innovative capacities at the regional (sub-national level. However, some gap exists in the current literature with respect to the elaboration of composite indicators for regional innovation systems (RISs of developing countries. This article introduces the composite indicators GRIS and GCLS for measuring the regional innovative capacities (for GNUTS1 and GNUTS2 territorial classification levels, respectively. Georgia is a useful case-subject because its smallscale developing economy presents special challenges for elaborating the composite indicators for RISs. This article also includes a brief analysis using these composite indicators and indicates the significant heterogeneity among the innovative capacities of the Georgian regions.

  18. Tratamiento de la periostitis tibial en corredores: revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Idígoras, Anko

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN: Objetivo: el propósito de este trabajo es realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura actual sobre las técnicas de tratamiento de la periostitis tibial y valorar así su efectividad y calidad. Material y métodos: Para la elaboración de esta revisión se ha efectuado una búsqueda exhaustiva de las principales bases de datos de ciencias de la salud (PubMed, PEDro, ScienceDirect, Cochrane y LILACS) además de búsquedas manuales y de literatura gris. Los parámetros de búsqueda fueron...

  19. Greenland uplift and regional sea level changes from ICESat observations and GIA modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spada, G.; Ruggieri, G.; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    2012-01-01

    ‐resolution GrIS mass balance, we study the time‐variations of various geophysical quantities in response to the current mass loss. They include vertical uplift and subsidence, geoid height variations, global patterns of sea level change (or fingerprints), and regional sea level variations along the coasts...... of Greenland. Long‐wavelength uplifts and gravity variations in response to current or past ice thickness variations are obtained solving the sea level equation, which accounts for both the elastic and the viscoelastic components of deformation. To capture the short‐wavelength components of vertical uplift...... in response to current ice mass loss, which is not resolved by satellite gravity observations, we have specifically developed a high‐resolution regional elastic rebound (ER) model. The elastic component of vertical uplift is combined with estimates of the viscoelastic displacement fields associated...

  20. Wiedemann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Jaramillo

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Al mirar la obra de Guillermo Wiedemann lo que de entrada sorprende es la dificultad, si no imposibilidad de compararlo con otros pintores en Colombia. Wiedemann llega a nuestro país a la edad de 34 años y poco conocemos de su vida pasada. Al morir en 1969 deja una obra trunca en un momento de transición, interrumpiéndose un proceso que apenas comenzaba. Estos dos hechos enmarcan su obra en una nebulosa gris, en una especie de limbo. Ante la imposibilidad de juzgar a un artista independientemente de toda comparación, se impone encontrar algunos puntos que permitan reflexionar sobre la obra de nuestro pintor.

  1. Cantharellus gallaecicus (Blanco-Dios Olariaga, comb. & stat. nov (Cantharellaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olariaga, Ibai

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cantharellus gallaecicus comb. & stat. nov. is proposed, after the examination of its holotype and additional material. Based on the characters observed in all the studied material (i.e., thinwalled hyphae of the pileipelis, minute basidiomata with white to grey pileus, and surface that turns yellow when bruised it is considered that C. gallaecicus is more closely related to C. romagnesianus than to C. cibarius.Se propone Cantharellus gallaecicus comb. & stat. nov. tras revisar su holótipo y material adicional disponible. Dado que todo el material examinado posee hifas del pileipelis de pared delgada, basidiomas pequeños con píleo de blanco a gris, y superficie que vira a amarillo al roce, se considera que C. gallaecicus es una especie más estrechamente relacionada con C. romagnesianus que con C. cibarius.

  2. El blog en el aula. Modelos de actividades para niveles avanzados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Madrona Fernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available No pertenezco a la denominada cultura digital; no nací con un ordenador debajo del brazo, apenas un pan, como sucedía antes; la videoconsola más sofisticada que existía consistía en una pantalla gris con una línea en medio haciendo las veces de red de una pista de tenis; y en la primera clase del primer curso de informática al que asistí nos enseñaron a formatear disquetes, ya que estos venían impolutos e inmaculados. Se perdían horas antes de poder empezar a escribir y a guardar.

  3. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  4. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  5. Freshwater discharge and sediment transport to Kangerlussuaq Fjord, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Andreas Peter Bech

    the deep inner basin of Kangerlussuaq Fjord. Different melt models were applied to the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 water routing models in order to simulate the proglacial water flows. The best melt model was a surface energy balance model. The routing model improved the modelled proglacial discharge......The main objectives of this PhD study have been to quantify the large-scale hydrological and geomorphological processes and implications related to three large proglacial rivers draining into Kangerlussuaq Fjord from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). These rivers are Watson, Umivit and Sarfartoq...... River. Hydrological processes studied are: proglacial discharge volumes and timing of this, creation of runoff (i.e. melt), storage and release features such as ice dammed lakes (jökulhlaups lakes), the role of supraglacial lakes, storage and release inside or beneath the ice and the role of the so...

  6. Selection of perching site background color by Hamadryas feronia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in Costa Rica: Implications for industrial melanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Murillo-Hiller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the increased frequency of melanic forms in moths of the genus Biston in Great Britain after the industrial revolution lead to the development of the theory of industrial Melanism. Nonetheless, arguments against that interpretation of the experimental evidence have polarized acceptance of the concept. New evidence based on diurnal butterflies is more credible because it involves behavior that can be seen in action, during daylight, and because the natural history of the selected species is well known. An experiment was carried out in which three substrate colors (white, black, and gray were employed to test the landing preferences of Hamadryas feronia. A marked preference was observed for landing on white and gray, and a chi-square (N=644 tests showed evidence of a preference by males to land on white, and for females to land on gray. Black was rejected perhaps because it provides very little background matching with the butterfly’s colors. The butterfly habit of perching selectively on particular color substrates is a genetically fixed behavior, where the males possibly choose white as a tactic to be noticed by females and attract them, whereas females prefer gray to enhance crypsis and avoid attracting predators.Observaciones en el incremento de la frecuencia de las formas melánicas de la polilla Biston de Gran Bretaña después de la revolución industrial, llevó al desarrollo de la teoría del melanismo industrial. Sin embargo, se originaron argumentos en contra de la interpretación experimental de dicho fenómeno que llevaron a polarizar su aceptación general. Nueva evidencia basada en mariposas diurnas genera nuevas perspectivas puesto que incluye el comportamiento, que puede ser apreciado durante el día. Además, la especie seleccionada es bien conocida desde el punto de vista de su historia natural. El experimento que desarrolle consiste en tres sustratos de diferente color (blanco, negro y gris en donde se pone a

  7. Self-inhibiting growth of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langen, Peter Lang; Solgaard, Anne Munck; Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2012-01-01

    The build-up of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from ice-free conditions is studied in an ice sheet model (ISM) driven by fields from an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) to demonstrate the importance of coupling between the two components. Experiments where the two are coupled off-line...... are augmented by one where an intermediate ice sheet configuration is coupled back to the GCM. Forcing the ISM with GCM fields corresponding to the ice-free state leads to extensive regrowth which, however, is halted when the intermediate recoupling step is included. This inhibition of further growth is due...... to a Föhn effect of moist air parcels being lifted over the intermediate ice sheet and arriving in the low-lying Greenland interior with high temperatures. This demonstrates that two-way coupling between the atmosphere and the ice sheet is essential for understanding the dynamics and that large scale...

  8. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of agricultural by-products from wine production/ Atividade antioxidante e conteúdo fenólico do resíduo agroindustrial da produção de vinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Marta Kuskoski

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties of byproducts derived from wine production. The varieties of PINOT GRIS and COUDERC 13 grapes, collected in Videira-SC, were analyzed as natural sources of polyphenols and other prophylactic agents (antioxidants for application in food and phytochemical industries. The biomass used for extracts was ground and dried in different temperatures (45oC, 60oC e 80oC, using acetone 80% as solvent. The phenolic compounds were quantitatively evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the results expressed in mg/100g of Gallic acid. For the flavonoids analysis, it was applied DMACA (p- Dimethylaminocinnamaldehye method and the results were expressed in equivalent mg of catechin/100g sample. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by spectrophotometric method through the discoloration of ABTS•+ radical (2,2'-azino-bis[3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] with potassium persulphate and by DPPH method, which is based on the reduction of DPPH• radical absorbance by antioxidant substances; the results were expressed in TEAC (antioxidant activity equivalent to Trolox and VCEAC (antioxidant activity equivalent to vitamin C. It was observed a better antioxidant activity on extracts obtained from PINOT GRIS grapes, in which the 45 oC dried extracts presented a higher number of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as well as a better antioxidant activity in both varieties. These information become useful for phenolic compounds identifying and for a possible using of these extracts as a secure additive in food industry.Este trabalho propõe uma investigação do potencial antioxidante do resíduo no processamento de uvas das variedades COUDERC 13 e PINOT GRIS, ambas coletadas em Videira-SC, como fonte natural de polifenóis e outros agentes profiláticos (antioxidantes para aplicação nas indústrias alimentícia e de fitoterápicos. A biomassa utilizada para obtenção dos extratos foi triturada

  9. Modelling seasonal meltwater forcing of the velocity of land-terminating margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Conrad P.; Arnold, Neil

    2018-03-01

    Surface runoff at the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) drains to the ice-sheet bed, leading to enhanced summer ice flow. Ice velocities show a pattern of early summer acceleration followed by mid-summer deceleration due to evolution of the subglacial hydrology system in response to meltwater forcing. Modelling the integrated hydrological-ice dynamics system to reproduce measured velocities at the ice margin remains a key challenge for validating the present understanding of the system and constraining the impact of increasing surface runoff rates on dynamic ice mass loss from the GrIS. Here we show that a multi-component model incorporating supraglacial, subglacial, and ice dynamic components applied to a land-terminating catchment in western Greenland produces modelled velocities which are in reasonable agreement with those observed in GPS records for three melt seasons of varying melt intensities. This provides numerical support for the hypothesis that the subglacial system develops analogously to alpine glaciers and supports recent model formulations capturing the transition between distributed and channelized states. The model shows the growth of efficient conduit-based drainage up-glacier from the ice sheet margin, which develops more extensively, and further inland, as melt intensity increases. This suggests current trends of decadal-timescale slowdown of ice velocities in the ablation zone may continue in the near future. The model results also show a strong scaling between average summer velocities and melt season intensity, particularly in the upper ablation area. Assuming winter velocities are not impacted by channelization, our model suggests an upper bound of a 25 % increase in annual surface velocities as surface melt increases to 4 × present levels.

  10. A characterization of Greenland Ice Sheet surface melt and runoff in contemporary reanalyses and a regional climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eCullather

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS, large-scale melt area has increased in recent years and is detectable via remote sensing, but its relation to runoff is not known. Historical, modeled melt area and runoff from Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-Replay, the Interim Re-Analysis of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-I, the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR, the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR, and the Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR are examined. These sources compare favorably with satellite-derived estimates of surface melt area for the period 2000-2012. Spatially, the models markedly disagree on the number of melt days in the interior of the southern part of the ice sheet, and on the extent of persistent melt areas in the northeastern GrIS. Temporally, the models agree on the mean seasonality of daily surface melt and on the timing of large-scale melt events in 2012. In contrast, the models disagree on the amount, seasonality, spatial distribution, and temporal variability of runoff. As compared to global reanalyses, time series from MAR indicate a lower correlation between runoff and melt area (r2 = 0.805. Runoff in MAR is much larger in the second half of the melt season for all drainage basins, while the ASR indicates larger runoff in the first half of the year. This difference in seasonality for the MAR and to an extent for the ASR provide a hysteresis in the relation between runoff and melt area, which is not found in the other models. The comparison points to a need for reliable observations of surface runoff.

  11. Modeling the response of subglacial drainage at Paakitsoq, west Greenland, to 21st century climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaud, Jerome R.; Banwell, Alison F.; Arnold, Neil S.; Willis, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    Although the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is losing mass at an accelerating rate, much uncertainty remains about how surface runoff interacts with the subglacial drainage system and affects water pressures and ice velocities, both currently, and into the future. Here, we apply a physically based, subglacial hydrological model to the Paakitsoq region, west Greenland, and run it into the future to calculate patterns of daily subglacial water pressure fluctuations in response to climatic warming. The model is driven with moulin input hydrographs calculated by a surface routing model, forced with distributed runoff. Surface runoff and routing are simulated for a baseline year (2000), before the model is forced with future climate scenarios for the years 2025, 2050, and 2095, based on the IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Our results show that as runoff increases throughout the 21st century, and/or as RCP scenarios become more extreme, the subglacial drainage system makes an earlier transition from a less efficient network operating at high water pressures, to a more efficient network with lower pressures. This will likely cause an overall decrease in ice velocities for marginal areas of the GrIS. However, short-term variations in runoff, and therefore subglacial pressure, can still cause localized speedups, even after the system has become more efficient. If these short-term pressure fluctuations become more pronounced as future runoff increases, the associated late-season speedups may help to compensate for the drop in overall summer velocities, associated with earlier transitioning from a high to a low pressure system.

  12. Ice-ocean interaction and calving front morphology at two west Greenland tidewater outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauché, N.; Hubbard, A.; Gascard, J.-C.; Box, J. E.; Bates, R.; Koppes, M.; Sole, A.; Christoffersen, P.; Patton, H.

    2014-08-01

    Warm, subtropical-originating Atlantic water (AW) has been identified as a primary driver of mass loss across the marine sectors of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), yet the specific processes by which this water mass interacts with and erodes the calving front of tidewater glaciers is frequently modelled and much speculated upon but remains largely unobserved. We present a suite of fjord salinity, temperature, turbidity versus depth casts along with glacial runoff estimation from Rink and Store glaciers, two major marine outlets draining the western sector of the GrIS during 2009 and 2010. We characterise the main water bodies present and interpret their interaction with their respective calving fronts. We identify two distinct processes of ice-ocean interaction which have distinct spatial and temporal footprints: (1) homogenous free convective melting which occurs across the calving front where AW is in direct contact with the ice mass, and (2) localised upwelling-driven melt by turbulent subglacial runoff mixing with fjord water which occurs at distinct injection points across the calving front. Throughout the study, AW at 2.8 ± 0.2 °C was consistently observed in contact with both glaciers below 450 m depth, yielding homogenous, free convective submarine melting up to ~200 m depth. Above this bottom layer, multiple interactions are identified, primarily controlled by the rate of subglacial fresh-water discharge which results in localised and discrete upwelling plumes. In the record melt year of 2010, the Store Glacier calving face was dominated by these runoff-driven plumes which led to a highly crenulated frontal geometry characterised by large embayments at the subglacial portals separated by headlands which are dominated by calving. Rink Glacier, which is significantly deeper than Store has a larger proportion of its submerged calving face exposed to AW, which results in a uniform, relatively flat overall frontal geometry.

  13. Exploring the Potential Impact of Greenland Meltwater on Stratification, Photosynthetically Active Radiation, and Primary Production in the Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Hilde; Luo, Hao; Castelao, Renato M.; van Dijken, Gert L.; Mattingly, Kyle S.; Rosen, Joshua J.; Mote, Thomas L.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Rennermalm, Åsa K.; Tedesco, Marco; Yager, Patricia L.

    2018-04-01

    In July 2012, the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) melted to an extent unprecedented over the last 100 years; we questioned the potential for such an extreme melt event to impact marine phytoplankton offshore. We hypothesized that stratification from meltwater could reduce light limitation for phytoplankton, and used a suite of numerical models to quantify the impact for 2003-2012. Because much of the 2012 meltwater discharged from southern Greenland, our study focused on the southwestern and southeastern coasts of Greenland, and the Labrador Sea. A 1-D phytoplankton model used output from a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled with a Regional Climate Model and a hydrological model of meltwater from runoff sources on the ice sheet, peripheral glaciers, and tundra. ROMS was run with and without meltwater to test the sensitivity of phytoplankton photosynthetic rates to the meltwater input. With meltwater, the pycnocline was shallower during late summer and early fall and thus light limitation on photosynthesis was reduced. Averaged over all years, added meltwater had the potential to increase gross primary production by 3-12% in the summer (July-August), and 13-60% in the fall (September-October). This meltwater effect was amplified when light was more limiting, and thus was greatest in the fall, under cloudier conditions, with higher self-shading, and with more light-sensitive phytoplankton groups. As the GrIS melt is projected to increase, late summer primary production in this region has the potential to increase as well, which could constitute an important biosphere response to high-latitude climate change.

  14. Efecto de Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole en la producción de fresa (Fragaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alexander Luis-Ayala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cundinamarca ha sido un gran productor de fresa(Fragaria sp,en comparación con los demás departamentos de Colombia; pero uno de sus mayores limitantes es la pérdida de fruta causada por el moho gris, enfermedad desarrollada por el agente Botritis cinerea; por esta razón, se aplicó Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole® a los cultivos, en tres dosis, y se compararon con un testigo regional, Carbendazim®, teniendo como variables de estudio: producción, calidad, grados Brix, pH, acidez titulable y la incidencia de la enfermedad sobre el cultivo. Los resultados obtenidos y analizados por medio del software SAS y aplicando las pruebas de comparación de Tukey demostraron que la dosis de Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole® de 80cc/200L presentó la mayor producción de fruta de segunda, tercera y total, y la menor cantidad de fruta dañada, junto con la dosis de 120cc/200L. La menor producción total y por calidad se obtuvo con la dosis de Carbendazim® (250cc/200L. En cuanto a los grados Brix, no se encontraron diferencias significativas, pero sí un aumento durante las cuatro semanas de cosecha. Los valores más altos de pH y ATT se obtuvieron con las dosis de Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole®, y los menores valores, con las aplicaciones de Carbendazim® (250cc/200L.Se recomienda hacer aplicaciones de estos ingredientes en el manejo de la enfermedad moho gris.

  15. QUANTIFYING REGIONAL SEA LEVEL RISE CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE GREENLAND ICE SHEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diandong Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study projects the sea level contribution from the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS through to 2100, using a recently developed ice dynamics model forced by atmospheric parameters derived from three different climate models (CGCMs. The geographical pattern of the near-surface ice warming imposes a divergent flow field favoring mass loss through enhanced ice flow. The calculated average mass loss rate during the latter half of the 21st century is ~0.64±0.06 mm/year eustatic sea level rise, which is significantly larger than the IPCC AR4 estimate from surface mass balance. The difference is due largely to the positive feedbacks from reduced ice viscosity and the basal sliding mechanism present in the ice dynamics model. This inter-model, inter-scenario spread adds approximately a 20% uncertainty to the IPCC ice model estimates. The sea level rise is geographically non-uniform and reaches 1.69±0.24 mm/year by 2100 for the northeast coastal region of the United States, amplified by the expected weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC. In contrast to previous estimates, which neglected the GrIS fresh water input, both sides of the North Atlantic Gyre are projected to experience sea level rises. The impacts on a selection of major cities on both sides of the Atlantic and in the Pacific and southern oceans also are assessed. The other ocean basins are found to be less affected than the Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Numerical simulation of extreme snowmelt observed at the SIGMA-A site, northwest Greenland, during summer 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Niwano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface energy balance (SEB from 30 June to 14 July 2012 at site SIGMA (Snow Impurity and Glacial Microbe effects on abrupt warming in the Arctic-A, (78°03' N, 67°38' W; 1490 m a.s.l. on the northwest Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS was investigated by using in situ atmospheric and snow measurements as well as numerical modeling with a one-dimensional multi-layered physical snowpack model called SMAP (Snow Metamorphism and Albedo Process. At SIGMA-A, remarkable near-surface snowmelt and continuous heavy rainfall (accumulated precipitation between 10 and 14 July was estimated to be 100 mm were observed after 10 July 2012. Application of the SMAP model to the GrIS snowpack was evaluated based on the snow temperature profile, snow surface temperature, surface snow grain size, and shortwave albedo, all of which the model simulated reasonably well. Above all, the fact that the SMAP model successfully reproduced frequently observed rapid increases in snow albedo under cloudy conditions highlights the advantage of the physically based snow albedo model (PBSAM incorporated in the SMAP model. Using such data and model, we estimated the SEB at SIGMA-A from 30 June to 14 July 2012. Radiation-related fluxes were obtained from in situ measurements, whereas other fluxes were calculated with the SMAP model. By examining the components of the SEB, we determined that low-level clouds accompanied by a significant temperature increase played an important role in the melt event observed at SIGMA-A. These conditions induced a remarkable surface heating via cloud radiative forcing in the polar region.

  17. Medicinal use of wild fauna by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo Biosphere Reserve (San Juan, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jorge; Campos, Claudia M; Borghi, Carlos E

    2015-01-21

    Wild and domestic animals and their by-products are important ingredients in the preparation of curative, protective and preventive medicines. Despite the medicinal use of animals worldwide, this topic has received less attention than the use of medicinal plants. This study assessed the medicinal use of animals by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo MaB Reserve by addressing the following questions: What animal species and body parts are used? What ailments or diseases are treated with remedies from these species? To what extent do mestizo people use animals as a source of medicine? Is the use related to people's age? We conducted semi-structured interviews with 171 inhabitants (15-93 years old) of four villages close to the Reserve: Tudcúm, Angualasto, Malimán and Colangüil. We calculated the informant consensus factor and fidelity level to test homogeneity of knowledge and to know the importance of different medicinal uses for a given species. The medicinal use of animals was reported by 57% of the surveyed people. Seven species were mentioned: Rhea pennata, Lama guanicoe, Puma concolor, Pseudalopex sp., Lama vicugna, Lepus europaeus and Conepatus chinga. Several body parts were used: fat, leg, bezoar-stone, stomach, feather, meat, blood, feces, wool, and liver. The fat of R. pennata was the most frequently used animal part, followed by the bezoar stone and the leg of L. guanicoe. Animals were used to treat 22 ailments, with respiratory and nervous system disorders being the most frequently treated diseases with a high degree of consensus. Old people used animals as remedies more frequently than young residents, showing some differences among villages. A low number of animal species was mentioned as used for medicinal purposes, which could be explained by the perception of strong control related the legislation that bans hunting and the erosion of traditional knowledge produced by mestizaje. However, the presence of a traditional medicine is deeply

  18. Knowing for controlling: ecological effects of invasive vertebrates in Tierra del Fuego Conocer para controlar: efectos ecológicos de vertebrados invasores en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA A SILVA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tierra del Fuego (TDF archipelago is recognized as part o the last places on Earth that may still be considered wild. However, this condition may be threatened by the large number of invasive species present on the archipelago. These species can have significant effects on the ecology of the invaded ecosystems, at the genetic as well as at population, community and ecosystem levels. The aim of this study is to, by a bibliographic review, systematize existing information on the ecological impacts these species would be having on the TDF archipelago and detect information gaps in order to orient future research and effective management programs on these species. We restricted our review to vertebrate, non-marine invaders. We determined which species have invaded TDF, described their impacts on the archipelago and evaluated their potential impacts; this last issue was determined by reviewing some of the impacts these species have had in other geographic areas. Our findings indicate that at least nine vertebrate species (Salmo trutta, Salvelinus fontinalis, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Castor canadensis, Ondatra zibethicus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Pseudalopex griseus, Mustela vison and Sus seroja have wild populations established away from human settlements in TDF. There is some scientific evidence on ecological impacts on the area for only five of these invaders, with the American beaver (Castor canadensis being the species monopolizing the greatest number of studies. These results contrast with the recognition, both in TDF and worldwide, of the potential of most of these species to cause significant ecological impacts, which makes it unlikely that the lack of verified impacts on TDF reflects an absence of significant effects of these invaders on the archipelago. We suggest that future research should focus on determining population density and distribution of these and other (i.e., feral species invasive vertebrates, as well as their impacts mainly on

  19. Control of Botrytis cinerea in Eucalyptus globulus Mini-Cuttings Using Clonostachys and Trichoderma Strains Control de Botrytis cinerea en miniestacas de Eucalyptus globulus Utilizando Cepas de Clonostachys y Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Zaldúa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. causes the disease known as gray mold in more than 200 hosts. It is one of the most important pathogens in Chilean forest nurseries and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is one of the most susceptible species, especially in vegetative reproduction systems. Clonostachys and Trichoderma strains were selected as potential biocontrol agents of gray mold in previous research by the authors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antagonistic fungi to control B. cinerea in E. globulus mini-cuttings. Five fungi strains were tested and applied weekly, two Clonostachys and three Trichoderma (5 x 10(6 conidia mL-1. In addition, comparison treatments were also used: absolute control (water and fungicide application. The experiment was carried out under operational conditions to produce E. globulus mini-cuttings. The Clonostachys UDC-A10 and UDC-A11 strains reduce mini-cutting mortality caused by B. cinerea in 54 and 71%, respectively, and with effects similar to those achieved by fungicides. Clonostachys UDC-A11 reduces the disease progression rate with the same statistical results as fungicides. A negative effect of applying fungicides on rooting of the surviving mini-cuttings was also confirmed. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of Clonostachys as a control agent against gray mold disease in E. globulus mini-cuttings.Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. ocasiona la enfermedad conocida como moho gris en más de 200 hospederos. En Chile es uno de los patógenos más importantes en viveros forestales, siendo Eucalyptus globulus Labill. una de las especies más susceptibles, especialmente en los sistemas de reproducción vegetativa. En investigaciones previas, realizadas por los autores, se seleccionaron cepas de Clonostachys y Trichoderma como potenciales agentes de biocontrol del moho gris. El objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia de hongos antagonistas en el control de B. cinerea en mini-estacas de E

  20. The role of the microfissuration of the rock matrix in the abrasion resistance of ornamental granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Angel; Sanchez-Delgado, Nuria; Camino, Clara; Calleja, Lope; Ruiz de Argandoña, Vicente G.; Setien, Alexia

    2015-04-01

    The microcrack density and the abrasion resistance of five ornamental granites (Albero, Gris Alba, Mondariz, Rosa Porriño and Traspieles) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been quantified as part of a research aimed to interpret the cuttability of the rocks in relation to the petrophysical properties of the rock matrix. Large blocks from the quarries have been cut with an industrial saw and the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance have been measured in two surfaces: H, parallel to the cut surface; T, perpendicular both to the cut surface and the cutting direction. Both planes are perpendicular to the rift plane, as it is known in quarry works. The microcrack density has been quantified following an stereological procedure applied to polished sections imaged under scanning electron microscopy. The magnification of the images allowed the study of microcracks as narrow as 2 microns in aperture. The density has been quantified in terms of length of microcrack traces per surface unit so possible anisotropies of the microcrack network could be detected. The obtained values are in the typical range for this type of rocks although the Traspieles granite shows a higher value due to its weathering degree (H: 5.11, T: 5.37 mm/mm2). The values measured in the two surfaces (H and T) are quite similar in four of the rocks; only the Albero granite shows a marked anisotropy (H: 2.76 T: 3.53 mm/mm2). The abrasion resistance of the rocks has been measured following the european standard EN 14157:2004 using the capon method. The rocks can be classified in two groups according to their abrasion resistance. Rosa Porriño, Gris Alba and Mondariz granites are the more resistant to abrasion with values around 16-17 mm. Albero and Traspieles granites are less resistant with values higher than 19 mm. The results show a good correlation between the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance. As can be expected the rocks with high microcrack density show low abrasion resistance. The

  1. Tecnología de desulfuración de fundiciones grises con el fin de obtener hierro con grafito esferoidal // A desulfuration technology for gray iron in order to obtain spheroidal graphite iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Batista Cabrera

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo se describe una tecnología de desulfuracíon del hierro fundido gris, tomando como base el ya conocidométodo de Volianik (1. En este caso se modificaron algunos parámetros del citado método, adecuándolos a las condicionesexistentes en la Empresa de Fundición de Hierro y Acero de Holguín.( E.F. H. A.Como agente desulfurante se empleó carburo de calcio empleado por Volianik. Como agente activador del desulfurante seutilizó aire comprimido seco. El desulfurante con la granulometría apropiada fue introducido en la cazuela con hierro fundido a1460 oC, por medio de un dispositivo diseñado y construido para este fin.Una gráfica con la dependencia entre el tiempo de soplado y el rendimiento fue obtenida. Como resultado se logró estableceruna tecnología de desulfuración que permite disminuir el contenido de azufre en el hierro fundido desde 0,067 hasta 0,0148%para un rendimiento de 78%.Palabras claves: Hierro gris, desul furación, hierro nodular._____________________________________________________________________AbstractA desulfuration technology for gray cast iron is shown based on the well-known Volianik’s desulfuration method. In this casesome of its parameters were modified, for fitting them to the existent conditions in the Empresa de Hierro Fundido y Acero deHolguín (E.F. H. A..As desulfuration agent calcium carbide was used instead of lime, as it is usually employed by Volianik.Dry compressed air was used as activating agent for the calcium carbide. This one, with the proper grain size it was introducedin a ladle containing 160 RG of melted gray iron at 1460 oC, by means of a mixing device designed and constructed by theauthors.A graphic dependence between air compressed blowing time and desulfuration efficiency was obtained.As a result, a desulfuration technology which permits decrease melted gray iron sulfur contain, from 0,067 till 0,0148 %, wasobtained for a yield of 78 %.Key words: Gray iron, desul

  2. Emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en sistemas agrícolas de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinisa Saynes Santillán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura es el sustento para la alimentación de una población mundial creciente. La agricultura es la cuarta causa de emisiones de GEI, y emite grandes cantidades de los llamados “gases que no son CO2” incluyendo al N2O y el CH4 con un poder de calentamiento 265 y 28 veces, respectivamente, mayor en comparación con el CO2. En México la información de las emisiones de GEI se reporta en diversos foros y desde diferentes perspectivas. En este trabajo se recopiló información de las emisiones de GEI de las Comunicaciones Nacionales y el Primer Informe Bienal, de publicaciones arbitradas por pares y de la literatura gris. Las emisiones del sector agrícola reportadas en las diferentes Comunicaciones presentan inconsistencias debido a factores como falta de información y de acceso a esta en las primeras dos Comunicaciones y a cuestiones de tipo metodológico en las Comunicaciones subsecuentes. De acuerdo con las estimaciones más actuales (Informe Bienal, las actividades agropecuarias son la tercera causa de generación de emisiones de GEI con una contribución del 12% a las emisiones nacionales. Dentro de esta categoría la mayor parte de las emisiones se generan por la fermentación entérica, el manejo del estiércol y por el uso de fertilizantes en los suelos agrícolas. Los principales retos para mejorar las estimaciones y reducir su incertidumbre es la generación de factores de emisión nacionales para lo cual es esencial contar con mayor información de las fuentes clave. En este trabajo se encontró que existe información relevante que sería de utilidad pero se encuentra dispersa por lo que falta síntesis y organización de la información sobre todo de la que se encuentra en la literatura gris.

  3. Efecto de tres coberturas plásticas y dos sistemas de siembra en la fenología de la cebolla de bulbo Effect of three polyethylene mulchs and two plant systems on the phenology of the common onion (Allium cepa L. at the Sabana de Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondón Sandra Yaneth

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Tibaitatá CORPOICA, se cultivo cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. híbrido Yellow Granex PRR, en siembra directa y trasplante, sobre tres coberturas plásticas (negra, gris y blanca, un testigo en suelo desnudo y un testigo absoluto, durante el segundo semestre de 1995 y los meses de Enero y Febrero de 1996. Para ambos sistemas de siembra, con las coberturas y sin elias, las plantas de cebolla presentaron las mismas fenofases, las cuales fueron: Emergencia, primera hoja verdadera, plántula, iniciación del llenado del bulbo, máximo desarrollo vegetativo y terminación del llenado del bulbo. La duración de cada fenofase fue diferente entre tratamientos, pues las plantas bajo coberturas emergieron primero que en el testigo (suelo desnudo y en el semillero. Para siembra directa, el inicio del llenado del bulbo ocurrió antes que en el transplante; este atraso se relacionó con el estrés causado por el cambio del semillero al lugar definitivo y la adaptación al mismo. En la terminación del llenado del bulbo, los coberturas plásticas negra y gris en siembra directa registraron mayores pesos secos del bulbo, en comparación con el acolchado blanco y el testigo (suelo desnudo.Three polyethylene mulches (black, white and gray and two planting systems (direct seeded and transplant were tested in common onion (Allium cepa L. hybrid Yellow Granex PRR, whit the objective of evaluating the duration of developmental stages. The phenophases established were: Emergence, first true leaf, young plantlet, bulb filling initiation, maximal vegetative development and bulb filling termination. There were differences among planting systems in the duration of phenophases; the least duration occurred with the black and gray polyethylene mulches. The combination of these colored plastics and direct seeding shortened the vegetative cycle in 70 days and the yield per plant was higher than in the white plastic mulch and

  4. The Effect of Topographic Shadowing by Ice on Irradiance in the Greenland Ice Sheet Ablation Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidman, S. Z.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Ryan, J.; Cooper, M. G.; Smith, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Accurately predicting runoff contributions to global sea level rise requires more refined surface mass balance (SMB) models of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). Topographic shadowing has shown to be important in the SMB of snow-covered regions, yet SMB models for the GrIS generally ignore how surface topography affects spatial variability of incoming solar radiation on a surface. In the ablation zone of Southwest Greenland, deeply incised supraglacial drainage features, fracturing, and large-scale bed deformation result in extensive areas of rough surface topography. This topography blocks direct radiation such that shadowed areas receive less energy for melting while other topographic features such as peaks recieve more energy. In this study, we quantify how shadowing from local topography features changes incoming solar radiation. We apply the ArcGIS Pro Solar Radiation Toolset to calculate the direct and diffuse irradiance in sunlit and shadowed areas by determining the sun's movement for every half hour increment of 2016. Multiple digital elevation models (DEMs) with spatial resolutions ranging from 0.06 to 5m were derived from fixed wing and quadcopter UAV imagery collected in summer 2016 and the ArcticDEM dataset. Our findings show that shadowing significantly decreases irradiance compared to smoothed surfaces where local topography is removed. This decrease is exponentially proportional to the DEM pixel sized with 5m DEMs only able to capture a small percentage of the effect. Applying these calculations to the ArcticDEM to cover a larger study area indicates that decreases in irradiance are nonlinearly proportional to elevation with highly crevassed areas showing a larger effect from shadowing. Even so, shading at higher elevations reduces irradiance enough to result in several centimeters snow water equivalence (SWE) per year of over-prediction of runoff in SMB models. Furthermore, analysis of solar radiation products shows that shadowing predicts albedo

  5. An electrochemical investigation of the corrosion behavior of Al-Si-Cu hypereutectic alloys in alcoholic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traldi, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Al-Si-Cu hypereutetic alloys produced by spray forming are mostly used in the automotive industry, especially for cylinder liners. They have the advantage of low weight associated with low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent mechanical properties - mainly wear resistance at high temperatures. The corrosion resistance of these alloys in fuels, particularly alcoholic media, however is not yet known. In this investigation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and potentiodynamic polarisation have been used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of a hypereutectic Al-Si-Cu alloy in alcoholic environments. The EIS tests were carried out in pure ethanol, and ethanol with small additions (1 mM of acid and chloride, to investigate the effect of these contaminants on corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of a grey cast iron has also been evaluated in pure ethanol for comparison. The Al-Si-Cu alloy showed high corrosion resistance in pure ethanol, far superior to that of grey cast iron in the same medium.

    Aleaciones hipereutécticas producidas por conformación por spray son muy empleadas en la industria automovilística, especialmente en los revestimientos de los cilindros. Tienen la ventaja de añadir menos peso con bajo coeficiente de expansión térmica y excelentes propiedades mecánicas, sobre todo resistencia al desgaste en altas temperaturas. Todavía, la resistencia a la corrosión de estas aleaciones en combustibles no es conocida. En este estudio fueron utilizadas las técnicas de espectroscopia de impedancia electroquímica y polarización potenciodinámica, para evaluar la resistencia a la corrosión de una aleación hipereutéctica Al-Si-Cu en medio alcohólico. Las pruebas fueron conducidas en etanol puro y etanol con pequeñas adiciones (1 mM de ácido y cloruro, con la finalidad de investigar el efecto de estos contaminantes en la resistencia a la corrosión. Hierro fundido gris, también fue

  6. New marine geophysical and sediment record of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, L.; Roberts, D. H.; O'Cofaigh, C.; Lloyd, J. M.; Smith, J. A.; Dorschel, B.

    2017-12-01

    The NE Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) drains 16% of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and has a sea-level equivalent of 1.1-1.4 m. Stabilised by two floating ice shelves, 79N and Zachariae Isstrom, until recently it has shown little response to increased atmospheric and oceanic warming. However, since 2010 it has experienced an accelerated rate of grounding line retreat ( 4 km) and significant ice shelf loss that indicates that this sector of the GrIS is now responding to current oceanic and/or climatic change and has the potential to be a major contributor to future global sea-level rise. The project `NEGIS', a collaboration between Durham University and AWI, aims to reconstruct the history of the NE Greenland Ice Stream from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to present using both onshore and offshore geological archives to better understand past ice stream response to a warming climate. This contribution presents results and interpretations from an offshore dataset collected on the RV Polarstern, cruises PS100 and PS109 in 2016 and 2017. Gravity and box cores, supplemented by swath bathymetric and sub-bottom profiler data, were acquired and initial core analysis including x-radiographs and MSCL data logging has been performed. Data collection focused principally in the Norske Trough and the area directly in front of the 79N ice shelf, a sub-ice shelf environment as recently as two years ago. On the outer shelf streamlined subglacial bedforms, grounding-zone wedges and moraines as well as overconsolidated subglacial tills, record an extensive ice sheet advance to the shelf edge. On the inner shelf and in front of the 79N ice shelf, deep, glacially-eroded bedrock basins are infilled with stratified sediment. The stratified muds represent deglacial and Holocene glacimarine sedimentation, and capture the recent transition from sub-ice shelf to shelf free conditions. Multiproxy palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, including foraminifera and diatom analysis, and radiocarbon

  7. Paleoambientes lacustres en la sección inferior de la Formación Río Negro, (Mioceno - Plioceno, Río Negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Schillizzi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian paleoambientes lacustres aflorantes en un sector de la plataforma marina ubicadas en la localidad de La Lobería, Provincia de Río Negro. Los medios lagunares son buenos indicadores de las modificaciones climáticas soportadas por el ambiente. La metodología aplicada para la investigación consistió en tamizados por vía seca de las psamítas, análisis con difractometría de rayos "X" de las arcillas y observaciones paleontológicas. En la plataforma intermareal se determino la presencia de tres secciones que componen el miembro inferior de la Formación Río Negro. La sección basal esta formada por areniscas finas, gris verdoso, de origen eólico y depositadas en un medio de dunas con influencia ácuea. La sección media esta constituida por limolitas arcillosas a arenosas finas, color pardo rosado, con estratificación, moldes de bivalvos dulceacuícolas e icnitas de vertebrados. Esta sección se asocia a lagunas someras y restringidas, ambiente que se habría extendido en dirección NE. Este nivel esta cubierto por la sección superior formada por areniscas gris azuladas claras, con estratificación cruzada a horizontal, depositadas en un medio eólico. En la actualidad los ambientes lagunares descriptos soportan una fuerte erosión marina.This paper describes pond paleoenvironments from a marine platform sited in La Lobería, Río Negro Province, Argentina. Ponds are good indicators of paleoenvironmental evolution because they are very sensitive to changes in climatic conditions. The methodology used for this research consisted in dry sieving, X-ray diffractometry analysis and paleontological observations. Three sections belonging to the lower section of the Río Negro formation were determined in the intertidal platform. The lower section is composed of fine-grained greenish gray sandstones deposited in an aeolian dune environment with acueos influence. The middle section consists of stratifield pinkish brown clayey to

  8. Reconnaissance invariante d'objets 3-D et correlation SONG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sebastien

    Cette these propose des solutions a deux problemes de la reconnaissance automatique de formes: la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite et la reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint. Un systeme utilisant le balayage angulaire des images et un classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques permet d'obtenir la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels. La reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint est realisee au moyen de la correlation SONG. Nous avons realise la reconnaissance invariante aux translations, rotations et changements d'echelle d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite segmentees. Nous utilisons le balayage angulaire et un classificateur a trajectoires d'espace des caracteris tiques. Afin d'obtenir l'invariance aux translations, le centre de balayage angulaire coincide avec le centre geometrique de l'image. Le balayage angulaire produit un vecteur de caracteristiques invariant aux changements d'echelle de l'image et il transforme en translations du signal les rotations autour d'un axe parallele a la ligne de visee. Le classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques represente une rotation autour d'un axe perpendiculaire a la ligne de visee par une courbe dans l'espace. La classification se fait par la mesure de la distance du vecteur de caracteristiques de l'image a reconnaitre aux trajectoires stockees dans l'espace. Nos resultats numeriques montrent un taux de classement atteignant 98% sur une banque d'images composee de 5 vehicules militaires. La correlation non-lineaire generalisee en tranches orthogonales (SONG) traite independamment les niveaux de gris presents dans une image. Elle somme les correlations lineaires des images binaires ayant le meme niveau de gris. Cette correlation est equivalente a compter le nombre de pixels situes aux memes positions relatives et ayant les memes intensites sur deux images. Nous presentons

  9. Reconstruction of the Greenland ice sheet dynamics in a fully coupled Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Oleg; Volodin, Evgeny; Huybrechts, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    cloudiness) after applying spline interpolation. EWBM-G calculates annual surface mass balance, SMB, (further transferred as an external forcing to the GrISM) and fresh water flux (transferred to the oceanic block of the INMCM32). After receiving SMB, GrIS is integrated and returns update surface topography back to the INMCM32. The aim of the current research is to establish equilibration time of climate and GrIS in the transient coupled run and to elaborate optimum methodology for performing numerical experiments simulating glacial/interglacial transitions.

  10. TANNIN POTENCIAL EVALUATION OF SIX FOREST SPECIES OF BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The hide tanners of Brazil Northeast region have in Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Gris. Alts. their only source of tannins. As the activity of exploration is extractiviste without the concern of recovery of explored trees and the absence of other tannin sources, exposes the specie to exhaustion and the tanners and extractivistes family to go bankruptcy. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the tanin potential of Prosopis juliflora, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Anacardium occidentale, Mimosa tenuiflora, Mimosa arenosa and Croton sonderianus. These species, Anacardium occidentale, Mimosa arenosa and Mimosa temuiflora showed, respectively, 19.83%, 18.11% and 17.74% of tannins. The Anadenanthera colubrina showed 11.89% and was inferior them mentioned species. The Prosopis juliflora and Croton sonderianus showed 3.02% and 6.62%, respectively. The abundance of Mimosa arenosa and Mimosa tenuiflora in the Brazilian Semi-arid proposes them as potential of tannin production. However, there is need of researches to verify their technical viability for skins, as well as for other uses for tannins.

  11. Distrofia polimorfa posterior: a propósito de un caso Posterior polymorphous dystrophy: A case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeide de la C. Castillo Pérez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente del sexo femenino de 15 años de edad con antecedentes de miopía que acude a consulta para chequeo de su ametropía. En el examen biomicroscópico se observaron opacidades disciformes, pequeñas, de color blanco grisáceo, irregulares a nivel de la membrana de Descemet y del endotelio. Se realizó examen ocular completo, refracción, topografía, paquimetría, queratometría, biometría y microscopia confocal in vivo de la córnea. Finalmente llegamos al diagnóstico de distrofia polimorfa posterior.The case of a female 15 years-old patient with a history of myopia, who went to the physician´s office for an ametrophy checkout, was presented in this paper. The biomicroscopic examination revealed small white/gray-coloured irregular and diffuse opacities at the level of Descement´s membrane and of the endothelium. A complete ophthalmological examination was performed including visual acuity, refraction, corneal topography, pakimetry, keratometry, biometry and in vivo confocal microscopy of the cornea. Finally, posterior polymorphous dystrophy was diagnosed.

  12. Distrofia de la membrana basal epitelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaadia Pérez Parra

    Full Text Available La distrofia de Cogan es la distrofia corneal anterior más común, frecuente en adultos del sexo femenino, entre 40-70 años de edad. Presentamos un caso de una paciente de 50 años de edad, del sexo femenino, quien refiere visión borrosa, lagrimeo y fotofobia. Al examen de la córnea en lámpara de hendidura se observan imágenes de color grisáceo en forma de huellas dactilares y de mapa. Esta afección es causada por alteraciones de la membrana basal epitelial que provoca la separación parcial o total del epitelio corneal. Generalmente asintomática, es la causa más frecuente de erosión corneal recurrente. Las opciones terapéuticas varían desde lubricantes, soluciones hipertónicas tópicas, lentes de contacto de vendaje, desbridamiento del epitelio central, micropunciones mecánicas o diatermia y fotoqueratectomía con láser excímer.

  13. Coupling of climate models and ice sheet models by surface mass balance gradients: application to the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is notoriously difficult to couple surface mass balance (SMB results from climate models to the changing geometry of an ice sheet model. This problem is traditionally avoided by using only accumulation from a climate model, and parameterizing the meltwater run-off as a function of temperature, which is often related to surface elevation (Hs. In this study, we propose a new strategy to calculate SMB, to allow a direct adjustment of SMB to a change in ice sheet topography and/or a change in climate forcing. This method is based on elevational gradients in the SMB field as computed by a regional climate model. Separate linear relations are derived for ablation and accumulation, using pairs of Hs and SMB within a minimum search radius. The continuously adjusting SMB forcing is consistent with climate model forcing fields, also for initially non-glaciated areas in the peripheral areas of an ice sheet. When applied to an asynchronous coupled ice sheet – climate model setup, this method circumvents traditional temperature lapse rate assumptions. Here we apply it to the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS. Experiments using both steady-state forcing and glacial-interglacial forcing result in realistic ice sheet reconstructions.

  14. Queratectomía fototerapéutica en la queratopatía en banda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Guerra Almaguer

    Full Text Available Las opciones quirúrgicas con la utilización del láser excímer en determinadas entidades corneales reporta importantes beneficios. La queratopatía en banda, considerada como una degeneración de la córnea superficial caracterizada por la presencia de depósitos de calcio en la membrana de Bowman, es una de las afecciones corneales que han mostrado alentadores resultados con la realización de la queratectomía fototerapéutica. Se presenta un paciente de 68 años, del sexo femenino y piel blanca, con antecedentes de uveítis anterior. En la consulta refirió sensación de cuerpo extraño del ojo derecho. En la exploración oftalmológica del ojo derecho se apreciaron en la córnea superficial depósitos de color blanco-grisáceo de localización interpalpebral. Los estudios refractivos realizados constataron una disminución marcada de la agudeza visual de cuenta dedos en ambos ojos. Se le realizó queratectomía fototerapéutica del ojo derecho y mejoró la sintomatología ocular.

  15. Los ingenios de carpintería en la construcción del Monasterio de San Lorenzo el Real de El Escorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel José García Sanguino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La considerable altura que fue alcanzando el Monasterio de San Lorenzo el Real de El Escorial requirió la construcción de grúas de madera para elevar del suelo los pesados bloques de granito gris de la Sierra de Guadarrama. Es en este preciso momento cuando algunos de los carpinteros, que trabajaban en tan insigne obra, pusieron al servicio de Felipe II su audacia y habilidad técnica. El análisis exhaustivo y riguroso de la documentación existente en la biblioteca del Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial, esclarece la autoría de la fabricación de estas máquinas o ingenios.The considerable height that the Monastery of San Lorenzo el Real de El Escorial was reaching, required the construction of wooden cranes to raise the heavy blocks of grey granite from the Guadarrama mountains. At that precise moment, some of the carpenters who were working on this notable construction, offered their courage and skills to Felipe II. The rigorous and comprehensive analysis of the existing documentation at the Royal Library in the Monastery clarifies who was responsible for the construction of those machines or devices.

  16. de Mamonal para la evaluación de pinturas antiincrustantes en condiciones estáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Echeverría

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de reconocimiento biométrico está basado en el procesamiento digital de una imagen de una huella dactilar de 256 x 300 píxeles, la cual se toma por medio de un sensor capacitivo, y luego se transmite a un computador (PC por medio de una interfaz de comunicación. En este trabajo se presenta el diseño de un sistema donde se configura el sensor y se obtiene la imagen para comunicarla al PC. El procesamiento de la huella por medio de algoritmos de filtrado de imágenes propios; el primero de los filtros resalta los valles y crestas de la huella, y se aplica a la imagen por regiones, el siguiente algoritmo se encarga de filtrar la imagen para extraer las características más importantes, luego se lleva la imagen a sólo dos niveles de gris, las crestas a un ancho de un solo píxel (esqueletización, y por último el reconocimiento, se hace hallando la ubicación de las características o minucias de cada huella y las distancias entre ellas, generando vectores de información.

  17. Incorporation of ice sheet models into an Earth system model: Focus on methodology of coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Oleg; Volodin, Evgeny; Morozova, Polina; Nevecherja, Artiom

    2018-03-01

    Elaboration of a modern Earth system model (ESM) requires incorporation of ice sheet dynamics. Coupling of an ice sheet model (ICM) to an AOGCM is complicated by essential differences in spatial and temporal scales of cryospheric, atmospheric and oceanic components. To overcome this difficulty, we apply two different approaches for the incorporation of ice sheets into an ESM. Coupling of the Antarctic ice sheet model (AISM) to the AOGCM is accomplished via using procedures of resampling, interpolation and assigning to the AISM grid points annually averaged meanings of air surface temperature and precipitation fields generated by the AOGCM. Surface melting, which takes place mainly on the margins of the Antarctic peninsula and on ice shelves fringing the continent, is currently ignored. AISM returns anomalies of surface topography back to the AOGCM. To couple the Greenland ice sheet model (GrISM) to the AOGCM, we use a simple buffer energy- and water-balance model (EWBM-G) to account for orographically-driven precipitation and other sub-grid AOGCM-generated quantities. The output of the EWBM-G consists of surface mass balance and air surface temperature to force the GrISM, and freshwater run-off to force thermohaline circulation in the oceanic block of the AOGCM. Because of a rather complex coupling procedure of GrIS compared to AIS, the paper mostly focuses on Greenland.

  18. Gobernanza climática: Actores sociales en la mitigación y adaptación en el estado de Coahuila, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Córdova Bojórquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una evaluación de las capacidades de actores sociales de Coahuila de Zaragoza para enfrentar el cambio climático a partir de tres indicadores: 1 Social, con base en experiencias y prácticas de los actores; 2 Político, se refiere al diálogo y la legitimación del proceso político de los actores, y 3 Ambiental, con base en acciones de sustenta - bilidad ambiental. Los resultados indican que en materia social persiste la vulnerabilidad; en materia política, hay instituciones con acciones para enfrentar el cambio climático, pero sin acciones de consenso entre los actores y sectores; en materia ambiental, la agenda verde aparece avanzada, no así las agendas azul y gris las cuales deben reforzar los procesos de gobernanza para lograr anticiparse a los efectos del cambio climático por medio del incremento de medidas de mitigación y adap - tación a partir de instrumentos de gestión pública como el Programa Estatal de Cambio Climático.

  19. HUELLA HÍDRICA DE UNA FINCA GANADERA LECHERA BAJO LAS CONDICIONES AGROECOLÓGICAS DEL VALLE DEL CAUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS AUGUSTO MARTÍNEZ-MAMIAN

    Full Text Available Las altas demandas de agua para la producción agropecuaria, ha generado la necesidad de cuantificar los consumos de este recurso con el fin de establecer medidas de manejo. Por lo cual se realizó un estudio para determinar la huella hídrica de un hato lechero bajo las condiciones agroecológicas del corregimiento de Rozo Municipio de Palmira Valle del Cauca. Para la evaluación se tuvo en cuenta la metodología de Chapagain, quien establece los parámetros de medición del agua verde, azul y gris. Se aplicó una encuesta para obtener los datos productivos de la finca. Los resultados mostraron que para producir un litro de leche se necesita 1,9 m3 de agua, de las cuales 97,4% son las requeridas por cultivo (forraje para su ciclo productivo, todo lo anterior evidencia la necesidad de establecer alternativas para el uso y reuso del agua dentro del sistema ganadero

  20. On the Spatial Distribution of High Velocity Al-26 Near the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    We present results of simulations of the distribution of 1809 keV radiation from the decay of Al-26 in the Galaxy. Recent observations of this emission line using the Gamma Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) have indicated that the bulk of the AL-26 must have a velocity of approx. 500 km/ s. We have previously shown that a velocity this large could be maintained over the 10(exp 6) year lifetime of the Al-26 if it is trapped in dust grains that are reaccelerated periodically in the ISM. Here we investigate whether a dust grain velocity of approx. 500 km/ s will produce a distribution of 1809 keV emission in latitude that is consistent with the narrow distribution seen by COMPTEL. We find that dust grain velocities in the range 275 - 1000 km/ s are able to reproduce the COMPTEL 1809 keV emission maps reconstructed using the Richardson-Lucy and Maximum Entropy image reconstruction methods while the emission map reconstructed using the Multiresolution Regularized Expectation Maximization algorithm is not well fit by any of our models. The Al-26 production rate that is needed to reproduce the observed 1809 keV intensity yields in a Galactic mass of Al-26 of approx. 1.5 - 2 solar mass which is in good agreement with both other observations and theoretical production rates.

  1. CLARA-SAL: a global 28 yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riihelä

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel 28 yr dataset of Earth's black-sky surface albedo, derived from AVHRR instruments. The dataset is created using algorithms to separately derive the surface albedo for different land use areas globally. Snow, sea ice, open water and vegetation are all treated independently. The product features corrections for the atmospheric effect in satellite-observed surface radiances, a BRDF correction for the anisotropic reflectance properties of natural surfaces, and a novel topography correction of geolocation and radiometric accuracy of surface reflectance observations over mountainous areas. The dataset is based on a homogenized AVHRR radiance timeseries. The product is validated against quality-controlled in situ observations of clear-sky surface albedo at various BSRN sites around the world. Snow and ice albedo retrieval validation is given particular attention using BSRN sites over Antarctica, Greenland Climate Network stations on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS, as well as sea ice albedo data from the SHEBA and Tara expeditions. The product quality is found to be comparable to other previous long-term surface albedo datasets from AVHRR.

  2. Correlación fenotipo neuroanatómico y neurocognitivo en el síndrome de Williams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Vasconcelos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Williams (SW es un trastorno genético del neurodesarrollo que se caracteriza por una arquitectura de disociación cognitiva, en la cual importantes déficits de cognición visuo-espacial contrastan con un lenguaje relativamente preservado, buen reconocimiento de caras y buenas habilidades auditivas de memoria a corto plazo. Esta disociación cognitiva ha sido propuesta también para caracterizar la estructura cerebral en el SW. En este estudio, analizamos el fenotipo neurocognitivo y estructural en un grupo con SW y con desarrollo típico. Concretamente, analizamos la relación entre volumetría cerebral de sustancia blanca, sustancia gris y áreas de interés específico (circunvolución temporal superior e hipocampo con el funcionamiento neurocognitivo. Los resultados de este estudio muestran diferencias entre el SW y el grupo control, con respecto al tipo de correlaciones encontradas. Estas diferencias en el patrón de asociación entre variables cerebrales y cognitivas sugieren patrones alterados de desarrollo en el SW.

  3. Abuso de fármacos en medio sanitario: programas de tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Caballero Aranda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El colectivo sanitario tiene unas especiales características de carga de trabajo, estrés, turnicidad y jornada prolongada. Esto unido al fácil acceso a fármacos en su medio laboral, les hace susceptibles a posibles adicciones farmacológicas. Estas adicciones también suponen un riesgo para la salud de terceros. Existen diferentes programas de rehabilitación para conseguir la reincorporación de estos profesionales. Objetivos. Conocer la situación actual de las adicciones a fármacos, los programas de rehabilitación y sus resultados en el personal sanitario. Materiales y métodos: Se realizaron búsquedas bibliográficas en: MEDLINE (PUBMED, Scopus, Web of Knowledge (WOK, IBECS, LILACS, SCIELO y literatura gris. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de nueve artículos científicos de diversa procedencia. Los niveles de evidencia encontrados fueron bajos. Existen programas de rehabilitación y reinserción con resultados prometedores.

  4. Mélanome endobronchique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima zohra Mernissi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Le mélanome malin a un potentiel métastatique important. Les métastases pulmonaires du mélanome sont communes cependant la localisation endobronchique reste rare et pose le problème de son origine primitive ou secondaire. Nous rapportons le cas d’un mélanome pulmonaire qui présente des particularités intéressantes: une lésion cutanée présumée primitive totalement régressive, la présentation radio clinique mimant parfaitement un cancer bronchique primitif, un aspect endoscopique bourgeonnant et grisâtre dont l’étude histologique a permis de poser le diagnostic, une agressivité tumorale avec une extension intracardiaque et bourgeon tumoral intra cavitaire. A travers cette observation, les auteurs étudient les caractéristiques radio-cliniques pouvant distinguer le mélanome pulmonaire primitif du secondaire; la localisation endobronchique avec une revue de la littérature sur les métastases endo bronchiques; le bilan d’extension à entamer en cas de mélanome pulmonaire ainsi que les difficultés thérapeutiques posés par ce type de lésion dont le pronostic reste péjoratif.

  5. A Piriápolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Quijano Alpuin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Es Piriápolis una estrella prodigiosa que del cielo una noche se escapó, y escondiendo su estela luminosa entre el mar y la sierra se ocultó.   Forjador de ilusiones y de sueños, solo Piria soñando lo encontró, mas no es suyo a pesar de ser su dueño a nosotros su sueño nos legó.   Como él quisiera contemplarlo y mirarlo igual que él lo miró, a su espíritu quisiera yo pasearlo y a su sueño llevarlo entre los dos.   Recoger las horas de los desalientos y en una mochila poderlo llevar, y sobre las rocas ir dejando al viento las desiluciones que puedan quedar.   Llenarme los ojos de color y espuma gozar en la playa con él al pasar, el gris de la sierra tras la blanca bruma el azul del cielo y el verde del mar.   Luis Alberto Quijano Alpuin (1937- Poeta y folklorista uruguayo

  6. The impact of grape skin bioactive functionality information on the acceptability of tea infusions made from wine by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vern Jou; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Sedcole, Richard; Hamid, Nazimah

    2010-05-01

    The effect of information on the health benefits of bio-active compounds on the acceptability of 5 tea infusions made from grape skins generated from wine processing waste (from Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris) was investigated. Samples of tea infusions with natural additives (PNHGT25 and PGGT50) and without additives (control PN, control PG, and PNPG50) were evaluated by 45 in-home consumer panels (30 female, 15 male) before and after information on the health benefits of grape skins were provided. Information significantly increased the overall acceptability, overall aroma, flavor, and aftertaste of the infusions. The results obtained showed a clear tendency toward increased purchase intention (by 29%) when information on the health benefits of the tea infusion samples was provided to consumers. Interactions existed between gender/infusion samples and stage of information on the purchase intention. Females recorded a significant increase (by 53%) in purchase intention, whereas no change in the males' purchase intention was found after information was provided.

  7. Effects of extractives and ash on natural resistance of four woods to xylophogous termites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the natural resistance of wood of four tree species to Nasutitermes corniger Motsch. xylophogous termite attack and correlate the resistance with the amount of extract and ash in the chemical composition of the tested species. The species evaluated were Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan. var. cebil (Gris. Alts., Tabebuia aurea (Mart. Bureau., Amburana cearensis (Allem. A.C.Sm. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Test samples with dimensions of 2.00 x 10.16 x 0.64 cm (radial x longitudinal x tangential were obtained at two positions (external heartwood and sapwood of each species. The samples were exposed to action of termites for 45 days in food preference assay. The content of wood extractives was obtained through the sawdust that went through sieve of 40 mesh and were retained in the 60 mesh. The natural resistance was not associated with wood extractive contents. The wood more resistant to termite attack was the Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil in the two positions (external heartwood and sapwood and Eucalyptus camaldulensis wood presented the greatest wear. The biological resistance of wood was correlated with ash content, i.e., the species with the highest levels was the most resistant to termite attack.

  8. Efecto fungistático de extractos y aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides HBK y Thymus vulgaris L. como alternativas de manejo de Botrytis cinerea en fresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Taborda Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El moho gris de la fresa causado por Botrytis cinerea es una enfermedad que produce importantes pérdidas poscosecha. En el estudio se evaluó el efecto fungistático de extractos y aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides HBK y Thymus vulgaris L. en concentraciones de 128, 256 y 500 mg/lt sobre B. cinerea in vitro e in vivo. In vitro se determinó el porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento micelial del hongo. En estas condiciones se observó que el aceite esencial (AE de L. origanoides presentó el porcentaje de control más alto (66.2% sobre B. cinerea. In vivo, se observó que en bananos inoculados con B. cinerea después de 120 los AE controlaron eficientemente la incidencia de daño causado por el patógeno estudiado y no se encontraron diferencias significativas con el control químico utilizando el fungicida Benomil

  9. Detección automática de grietas de pavimento asfáltico aplicando características geométricas y descriptores de forma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Porras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las grietas son el principal daño en la superficie del pavimento, porque de estas se derivan los demás tipos de deterioros. La mayoría de grietas en imágenes de pavimento se encuentran con objetos no deseados y desconectadas. Para resolver este problema, se aplica el filtro mediana, para el suavizado de la imagen; el ajuste de contraste, para realzar la grieta; la segmentación, aplicando la media y la desviación estándar de los niveles de gris, para delimitar las grietas; el procesamiento morfológico, para fusionar separaciones estrechas; la eliminación de grietas falsas, aplicando características geométricas y descriptores de forma; y la conexión de grietas, para obtener grietas continuas. Los resultados experimentales fueron obtenidos de las imágenes de pavimento captadas por el sistema semiautomático y el algoritmo generador implementado. Las pruebas demostraron que las grietas fueron detectadas, con una sensibilidad de 81,72% y una especificidad de 99,96% para las imágenes captadas.

  10. Proceso de fundición en espuma perdida para la fabricación de autopartes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA FERNÁNDEZ M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de fundición a la espuma perdida (FEP, es uno de los procesos de fundición preferidos en la actualidad cuando se trata de fabricar piezas de geometría intrincada, estrechas tolerancias dimensionales y buenos acabados superficiales. Cobral Ltda. es una empresa del sector metalmecánico situada en la ciudad de Medellín que desde el año 2000 se ha dedicado a la producción de piezas automotrices en fundición gris y nodular por el proceso FEP. Sin embargo, desde la puesta en marcha del proceso se obtuvieron altos porcentajes de rechazo, entre el 20% y el 50%. El estudio de las variables del proceso y su adecuado control en las diferentes etapas, permitió la minimización de los porcentajes de rechazo y un aumento en la productividad de la planta. Se describen las etapas del proceso FEP y algunos de los aspectos más relevantes de la optimización realizada.

  11. Topógrafos de elevación en el diagnóstico del queratocono Height topographers in the diagnosis of keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oslay Mijail Tirado Martínez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó la literatura electrónica y gris en busca de características generales, de funcionamiento y configuración de los topógrafos de elevación existentes en el mercado: Orbscan (Bausch&Lomb, Rochester, NY, Pentacam (OculusOptikgerateGmbH, Wetzlar, Alemania y Galilei (ZiemerOphthalmology Co, Suiza. Fueron analizados los resultados que cada mapa aporta relacionados con el diagnóstico de queratocono. La topografía de elevación es una herramienta novedosa en la pesquisa de ectasias corneales primarias. Se da mayor importancia al análisis integral de la información que brindan estos topógrafos.Electronic and printed literature was reviewed in the search for general and operational characteristics of the height topographers existing in the market (Orbscan (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, Pentacam (Oculus Optikgerate GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany and Galilei (Ziemer Ophthalmology Co, Switzerland. The results related to keratoconus diagnosis were analyzed for each map. Height corneal topography is a novel tool for primary corneal ectasia screening, therefore, it is important to comprehensively analyze the information that they provide.

  12. Realidad, sueño y utopía en La isla desierta. Un acercamiento al mundo teatral de Roberto Arlt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho Delgado, José Manuel

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En la obra literaria del escritor argentino Roberto Arlt, la imaginación no conduce a los personajes a la liberación, sino a la derrota definitiva. Su teatro está lleno de criaturas miserables que tratan de sobreponerse inútilmente a los continuos encontronazos con la vida cotidiana. Sus obras contemplan numerosos desdoblamientos imaginativos que permiten al autor introducir diferentes niveles en la ficción y plantear el teatro dentro del teatro. En La isla desierta, una de sus piezas más breves y representadas, los personajes de una triste oficina portuaria experimentan un cambio radical en sus vidas cuando dejan de trabajar en un sótano y son trasladados a la décima planta de un inmueble. Allí, a través de un inmenso ventanal, son reclamados por un sinfín de tentaciones que se encuentran más allá del mundo gris de la oficina. Los empleados descubren los beneficios de la luz natural, la llegada de los buques, el bullicio de la calle, los reclamos de la libertad, elementos que acaban desestabilizando la rutina administrativa. No obstante, es el relato de uno de los personajes, el mulato Cipriano, cuya memoria es esencialmente literaria, el que arrastra al resto de los oficinistas a la ensoñación y a la consiguiente derrota.

  13. ESTUDIO DE MEZCLA DE NANOPARTÍCULAS SULFURADAS Y OXIDADAS DE Mo Y DE Ni SOPORTADAS EN ALÚMINA, OBTENIDAS POR EL MÉTODO DE DESCOMPOSICIÓN TÉRMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se sintetizó una mezcla de nanopartículas sulfuradas y oxidadas de Mo y de Ni por el método de descomposición térmica, empleando un sistema de reflujo, dimetil disulfuro como agente sulfidizante, nonano como disolvente y una alúmina comercial que fungía como soporte. El sólido gris resultante se eliminó primero por decantación y luego por evaporación del líquido remanente bajo condiciones de vacío con el fin de evitar cambios, específicamente en las nanopartículas obtenidas. Una vez obtenidas las nanopartículas soportadas en alúmina se determinaron sus propiedades fisicoquímicas (morfología, estructura cristalina, estado de oxidación y composición elemental empleando las técnicas de HR-TEM, XPS e ICP. Los resultados de XPS y MET-HR muestran que el sólido esta conformado por nanopartículas de los metales seleccionados en sus formas oxidadas y sulfuradas tales como MoO3, MoS2, Ni2O3 y NiS, siendo la fase mayoritaria el MoO3. En los resultados no se evidenciaron fases mixtas o aleaciones de Mo y Ni.

  14. Construcción y puesta en funcionamiento de una máquina de cilindros cruzados para la evaluación del desgaste adhesivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Báez P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se evaluó el desgaste adhesivo de cuatro metales (fundición gris, latón 60- 40, bronce fosforado y un acero AISI 1020, en un tribómetro de cilindros cruzados, bajo la norma ASTM G- 83-96. Para lograr dicho objetivo, se diseñó, construyó y puso en marcha una máquina de cilindros cruzados, la cual contiene dos probetas cilíndricas (una estática y una giratoria, que fueron maquinadas y pulidas con lijas hasta obtener una superficie con una rugosidad máxima de 0.34 mm. Con el volumen de metal perdido por cada material, se calculó su velocidad promedio de corrosión y se determinó el coeficiente de desgaste. Además, se realizaron ensayos a cada material, para determinar los perfiles de desgaste respectivos (Gramos de metal perdido vs Tiempo. En este trabajo se obtuvo un coeficiente de variación máximo, entre los cuatro metales, de 4.3%, indicando una buena correlación de los resultados obtenidos. Los coeficientes de desgaste se consideraron aceptables, puesto que sus valores corresponden y son del mismo orden a los establecidos en la literatura. Igualmente, los perfiles del desgaste mostraron las tres etapas del proceso, similares a los encontrados en otros trabajos realizados.

  15. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

  16. Hvor meget hel halm udgør tilstrækkeligt beskæftigelses- og rodemateriale til svin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Herskin, Mette S; Forkman, Bjørn

    tildeling af stigende mængder hel halm fra 10 til 1000 g/gris/dag; samt 2) heraf at udrede hvor meget hel halm der kræves for at tilgodese slagtesvins behov for beskæftigelses- og rodemateriale. Undersøgelsen fokuserede på de involverede halmmængders indflydelse på forekomsten af unormal adfærd. I......I nærværende rapport fra DCA – Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Aarhus Universitet, der er udarbejdet på anmodning fra Justitsministeriet, gennemgås resultater fra et forskningsprojekt, hvis formål var at1) beskrive et kurveforløb for forekomst af unormal adfærd hos slagtesvin ved...... undersøgelsen indgik dog også følgende sekundære variable: forekomst af skader på hale, daglig tilvækst, mængde af tilbageværende rent halm, stiklima samt mål for grisenes mavesundhed. Forskningsprojektet er udført i samarbejde mellem Aarhus Universitet, Københavns Universitet og Videncenter for Svineproduktion...

  17. Cambio climático y salud humana: una revisión desde la perspectiva colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeadran N. Malagón-Rojas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo recoger la evidencia científica sobre los efectos del cambio cli-mático sobre la salud humana con énfasis en Colombia. Se llevó a cabo una revisión en bases dedatos y repositorios de revistas por medio de un algoritmo de términosMeSH. Fueron incluidosartículos originales, revisiones sistemáticas o metaanálisis que estuvieran disponibles en textocompleto o disponible en las bases de datos y repositorios consultados. Se usaron restrictoresde idioma, tiempo e idioma. Fueron elegidos 268 títulos en las bases de datos, repositorios derevistas y trabajos de literatura gris: 29 % correspondió a trabajos sobre seguridad alimentaria,25 % a publicaciones sobre enfermedades transmisibles, 35 % a efectos sobre la calidad del airey enfermedades respiratorias y 11 % a publicaciones que abordaban varios temas. Solo fueronencontradas 17 publicaciones sobre trabajos colombianos. La evidencia científica revisada per-mite afirmar que el cambio climático tiene una afectación transversal a la población mundiala distintos niveles y escenarios. El cambio climático afecta la salud humana de forma directa eindirecta. Por otro lado, es importante resaltar que las publicaciones que dan cuenta de los efectosdel cambio climático en Colombia se centran en las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores.

  18. Nanobioética, nanobiopolítica y nanotecnología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo E. Márquez D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la bioética gira en torno a la preservación y respeto por la vida, y sus principios éticos buscan mostrar a las sociedades la importancia de la conservación y cuidado de la misma, manifiesta en sus diferentes formas. Con base en esta premisa, en este trabajo se contempla extender el estudio de la bioética (nanobioética y nanobiopolítica a las nuevas ciencias emergentes, tales como la nanotecnología, la cual dentro de muy pocos años va ha permitir crear “vida artificial” (vida gris y vida digital, cuyo panorama con respecto a la existencia de la vida natural es incierto, pues existe gran incertidumbre sobre el comportamiento de los sistemas artificiales nanotecnológicos SAN en entornos abiertos (ecosistemas, en los que presumiblemente exista una competencia entre estos dos tipos de vida por su supervivencia. De suceder esta competencia, los SAN van a adquirir autonomía propia (SCAN, haciendo que interaccionen con los organismos naturales, induciéndola a crear nuevos nichos híbridos o independientes de la vida natural.

  19. neuronales artificiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé Drozdowicz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La segmentación de Imágenes de Resonancia Magnética (IRM es su descomposición en unidades naturales, tejidos normales (sustancia gris, sustancia blanca, fluido cerebro espinal, etc. y posibles tejidos patológicos (tumores, edema, etc. Las IRM son una herramienta de diagnóstico estándar, y, a diferencia de los otros métodos de estudios por imagen (TAC, PET, etc., tienen características multidimensionales, ya que existen diferentes modalidades para generar las imágenes (T1, T2, DP, que son utilizadas para conformar los patrones empleados durante el entrenamiento y el testeo de las redes. La segmentación es particularmente importante en aplicaciones como: extracción de características anatómicas, medición volumétrica, visualización 3D, compresión de datos, planeamiento de radioterapia y planeamiento de cirugía. El objetivo de la investigación cuyos resultados se exponen fue explorar el potencial de diferentes estructuras de redes neuronales para realizar la segmentación de IRM del cerebro y analizar los diferentes procesos de preprocesamiento de datos, necesarios para obtener la mayor eficiencia de las redes.

  20. Nuances in the representation of time in the works of Miguel Delibes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Teresa De Pieri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the representation of time and its nuances in the novels and newspaper articles of Miguel Delibes. The category of time is related to an idea of existence that follows the cycles of nature; it is a natural and mythical time, both a personal and collective one, whose fleeting nature can be halted only by the power of words. In his works Delibes tries to preserve a vocabulary on the verge of extinction in today’s day and age. The ironic tone in which he reflects on the relentless fl owing of existence – such as in La hoja roja, Cartas de amor de un sexagenario voluptuoso and other articles – is juxtaposed to a more serious and careful tone adopted for instance, in Viejas historias de Castilla la Vieja (1964. Moreover, the theme of death is linked to the passing of time. In Señora de rojo sobre fondo gris Delibes analyzes it as a reflection of his tough personal experience, while in Cinco horas con Mario the author takes advantage of the absence of the male protagonist, who has just died, in order to reflect on the abyss separating the present from the past.

  1. The 1.5 meter solar telescope GREGOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W.; von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Denker, C.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, Th.; Collados, M.; Fischer, A.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Waldmann , T. A.

    2012-11-01

    The 1.5 m telescope GREGOR opens a new window to the understanding of solar small-scale magnetism. The first light instrumentation includes the Gregor Fabry Pérot Interferometer (GFPI), a filter spectro-polarimeter for the visible wavelength range, the GRating Infrared Spectro-polarimeter (GRIS) and the Broad-Band Imager (BBI). The excellent performance of the first two instruments has already been demonstrated at the Vacuum Tower Telescope. GREGOR is Europe's largest solar telescope and number 3 in the world. Its all-reflective Gregory design provides a large wavelength coverage from the near UV up to at least 5 microns. The field of view has a diameter of 150 arcsec. GREGOR is equipped with a high-order adaptive optics system, with a subaperture size of 10 cm, and a deformable mirror with 256 actuators. The science goals are focused on, but not limited to, solar magnetism. GREGOR allows us to measure the emergence and disappearance of magnetic flux at the solar surface at spatial scales well below 100 km. Thanks to its spectro-polarimetric capabilities, GREGOR will measure the interaction between the plasma flows, different kinds of waves, and the magnetic field. This will foster our understanding of the processes that heat the chromosphere and the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Observations of the surface magnetic field at very small spatial scales will shed light on the variability of the solar brightness.

  2. Centro Nacional de Investigación Atmosférica - Colorado (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Pei, Partners

    1972-04-01

    Full Text Available This building has been erected in isolation, on a small, arid plateau surrounded by large rocky promontories. A special unfaced concrete has been used in the construction. It consists of two tower blocks devoted to laboratories and offices, and two single storey blocks of a social nature, the whole being connected by covered ways, terraces and bridges, producing a diversity of well-defined volumes. In the spaces exposed to the sunlight, heat absorbing grey glass has been used.Este edificio ha sido levantado aislado, en una pequeña meseta árida rodeada de grandes promontorios rocosos. La construcción fue a base de un hormigón especial dejado «visto». Comprende dos torres dedicadas a laboratorios y oficinas y dos plantas bajas de carácter social, todo ello enlazado mediante porches cubiertos, terrazas y puentes, produciendo una diversidad de volúmenes marcadamente definidos. Se empleó cristal gris, absorbente del calor, en los huecos expuestos a la luz solar.

  3. Primer registro de Elachistocleis skotogaster Lavilla, Vaira & Ferrari, 2003 (Anura: Microhylidae para la provincia de Formosa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehr, Arturo Ignacio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre el 4 de marzo y el 25 de abril de 2011, en 6 sistemas de trampas instalados en la Provinciade Formosa, Ciudad de Las Lomitas, Departamento Patiño, Ruta Nacional N° 81, Establecimiento Sumayen 2000 (24°39'49,4" S; 60°38'29,9" O; 137 m.s.n.m.; datum WGS84, fueron colectados 32 microhílidos con vientre gris manchado de blanco, y características franjas y manchas de color naranja endiferentes partes de las patas, axilas e ingle. Dichos ejemplares, correspondientes al género Elachistocleis se encuentran depositados en la colección herpetológica del Laboratorio de Herpetología del Centro de Ecología Aplicada del Litoral. Luego de analizar los ejemplares colectados (fijados y preservados en formol al 10% consideramos que se trata de E. skotogaster por presentarlas siguientes características morfológicas externas especificadas por Lavilla et al. (2003.

  4. Reflexiones sobre la gestión "integrada" de cuencas hídricas en Buenos Aires. Las redes de organización social en las políticas de saneamiento ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Fernández Bouzo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La gestión integrada de cuencas resulta ser una directriz de los organismos internacionales. Desde la gestión local se apela a la participación social, al tiempo que las redes de organizaciones socio-territoriales reclaman mayor injerencia en procesos de control para el saneamiento de las cuencas en Buenos Aires. En cualquier caso, sobrevuelan ideas tales como "integración" (de componentes y "participación" (de grupos y sectores, que no necesariamente son concebidas unívocamente por todos los actores sociales en juego. Mientras tanto, el control de la contaminación del agua sigue siendo una zona gris en la gestión, a pesar de la creación de autoridades de cuenca. Desde un enfoque de redes, el presente trabajo rastrea en documentos de organismos internacionales, entrevistas a funcionarios locales y miembros de organizaciones territoriales, las acepciones sobre la “gestión integrada” y la “participación” en torno a cuencas metropolitanas degradadas

  5. CAREGIVING IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Poulsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios a nivel mundial en los mercados económicos han llevado a un aume nto sin precedentes de la migración global estimado en 214 millones (Organización de las Naciones Unidas-Internacional para las Migraciones, 2008. Esta migración global ha aumentado el número de familias transnacionales en todo el mundo (Dade, 2004 que ahora se enfrentan a desafíos físicos y psicológicos únicos para la facilitación de servicios a los adultos de mayor edad. Independientemente del evento precipitante, la migración global ha desafiado las definiciones de la familia, la responsabilidad famili ar y los roles generacionales (Baldassar, 2008. Como el cambio demográfico de la población mundial hacia una era gris, terapeutas familiares necesitan entender el impacto que una economía y la economía de los padres y madres en una mundo en transición tie nen sobre la vida de los miembros de la s familia s migran tes y los familiares que han quedado detrás. El objetivo de este trabajo es aumentar la base de conocimientos relativos a las familias transnacionales y hacer visibles las necesidades de las familias que brindan cuidado a través de fronteras transnacionales.

  6. Simulating and Simulated Characters, Entangled in Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Pérez de León

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the keys for understanding the ruling universe is the nature of the interconnected duality that governs it. It is neither completely monistic, neither absolutely nihilistic, according to the principle of the Platonic symploke (the Sophist 251, 255. The validity of the entanglement between “not everything are monisms” and the fact that reality is not completely “nihilist” will be used as a logic tool to understand the alternation in the understanding of the conclusions of the existences of several of the protagonists of the Quixote. On the one hand, it is the strange case of the suicidal shepherd Grisóstomo, in desperation for his loved Marcela, which is studied in the context of a similar case, the death of Anselmo in The Tale of Ill-advised Curiosity. On the other hand it is the case of the exemplary archetypical death of Don Quixote and his revival in Alonso Quijano “the good”, which presents a similar case of (misunderstanding of the symploke principle. In conclusion, the ontological tragedy arising from not understanding or questioning the Platonic principle of the symploke will contribute to explain the attachment, identification, and nature of the entanglement between reality and fiction in selected cervantine characters. This will be achieved by focusing in both their self-awareness as creative beings and their more or less voluntary inclusion in, or exclusion from, their own simulated realities.

  7. Oscuridad y zonas grises en El lápiz del carpintero y La lengua de las mariposas de Manuel Rivas. Con una coda argentina: La pregunta de sus ojos de Eduardo Sacheri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Macciuci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En La lengua de las mariposas y El lápiz del carpintero Manuel Rivas presenta conflictos y personajes inmersos en el contexto de violencia y opresión desatados por el accionar de las fuerzas franquistas triunfantes en Galicia. Por su parte, uno de los hilos narrativos desarrollados por Eduardo Sacheri en La pregunta de sus ojos, se interna en la relación entre el delito, la impunidad y el castigo en el marco de la violencia estatal que se instala en Argentina en los años anteriores al golpe militar de 1976. En los tres relatos los comportamientos indignos o criminales, cuya génesis es inseparable del terror impuesto por una dictadura u otras formas de violencia emanadas de un poder opresor, disparan interrogantes de complejas respuestas. El concepto de zona gris que acuñó Primo Levi en su obra dedicada a testimoniar su experiencia de deportado en Auschwitz ofrece una vía de reflexión para volver más inteligible la respuesta del ser humano en situaciones límite

  8. Estimation of parameters of constant elasticity of substitution production functional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaboob, B.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Sankar, J. Ravi

    2017-11-01

    Nonlinear model building has become an increasing important powerful tool in mathematical economics. In recent years the popularity of applications of nonlinear models has dramatically been rising up. Several researchers in econometrics are very often interested in the inferential aspects of nonlinear regression models [6]. The present research study gives a distinct method of estimation of more complicated and highly nonlinear model viz Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production functional model. Henningen et.al [5] proposed three solutions to avoid serious problems when estimating CES functions in 2012 and they are i) removing discontinuities by using the limits of the CES function and its derivative. ii) Circumventing large rounding errors by local linear approximations iii) Handling ill-behaved objective functions by a multi-dimensional grid search. Joel Chongeh et.al [7] discussed the estimation of the impact of capital and labour inputs to the gris output agri-food products using constant elasticity of substitution production function in Tanzanian context. Pol Antras [8] presented new estimates of the elasticity of substitution between capital and labour using data from the private sector of the U.S. economy for the period 1948-1998.

  9. TANINOS CONDENSADOS DA CASCA DE ANGICO-VERMELHO (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil EXTRAÍDOS COM SOLUÇÕES DE HIDRÓXIDO E SULFITO DE SÓDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAREZ BENIGNO PAES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the tannins extracted content of Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Gris.. Alts. bark in aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfite and hydroxide + sulfite having as comparison the amount extracted in distilled. A total of 25 g of dry sawdust and 3% of chemicals were used with relationship to dry weight of sawdust. To compare the effect of water with one of the other used solutions it was found that the addition of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfite or hydroxide + sulfite caused an increase in solid total contents (TST of 60,17%, 28,45% and 60,17%, in condensed tannin contents (TTC of 34,5%, 20,02% and 18,02% and of no-tannins of 117,34%, 47,3% and 146,6% and a reduction in the Stiasny’s index of 15,62%, 5,53% and 24,51%, respectively. Statistical analyzes showed that the sodium hydroxide solution extracted a larger amount from tannic substances when compared with the water, having the sodium sulfite and the hydroxide + sodium sulfite solutions presented middlemen results. The distilled water extracted a lower solid total content than other solutions, but the extract contained a greater Stiasny’s index than those obtained by other solutions.

  10. 21st century projections of surface mass balance changes for major drainage systems of the Greenland ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, M; Fettweis, X

    2012-01-01

    Outputs from the regional climate model Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale at a spatial resolution of 25 km are used to study 21st century projected surface mass balance (SMB) over six major drainage basins of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). The regional model is forced with the outputs of three different Earth System Models (CanESM2, NorESM1 and MIROC5) obtained when considering two greenhouse gas future scenarios with levels of CO 2 equivalent of, respectively, 850 and >1370 ppm by 2100. Results indicate that the increase in runoff due to warming will exceed the increased precipitation deriving from the increase in evaporation for all basins, with the amount of net loss of mass at the surface varying spatially. Basins along the southwest and north coast are projected to have the highest sensitivity of SMB to increasing temperatures. For these basins, the global temperature anomaly corresponding to a decrease of the SMB below the 1980–99 average (when the ice sheet was near the equilibrium) ranges between +0.60 and +2.16 °C. For the basins along the northwest and northeast, these values range between +1.50 and +3.40 °C. Our results are conservative as they do not account for ice dynamics and changes in the ice sheet topography. (letter)

  11. Índice de reflectancia solar de revestimientos verticales: potencial para la mitigación de la isla de calor urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Liliana Alchapar

    Full Text Available La condición artificial del medio urbano modifica el consumo de energía y el confort térmico. El incremento de las temperaturas de una ciudad en relación a las áreas periféricas conduce a la formación de una Isla de Calor Urbana. Es por ello, que trabajar sobre las propiedades termofísicas de los materiales (techos, pavimentos y fachadas es una estrategia de mitigación viable para disminuir las temperaturas de una ciudad. El objetivo principal de éste trabajo es estudiar la capacidad de 80 revestimientos para fachadas disponibles regionalmente para mitigar los efectos negativos de la Isla deCalor Urbana, mediante la determinación del Índice de Reflectancia Solar (SRI. El material que posee el comportamiento más eficiente es el Acrílico Rulato Travertino fino marfil (SRI = 100%, Temp. Sup.= 35 ºC, mientras el más ineficiente es el Acrílico Llaneado fino gris plomo (SRI = 29%, Temp. Sup.= 74 ºC. No obstante existen alternativas intermedias que resultan del efecto combinado de la composición del material, su color y textura. Esta situación demuestra que es posible mitigar el efecto de isla de calor a partir de una adecuada selección de revestimientos verticales.

  12. Mortandad de aves marinas durante "El Niño 1997-98" en el litoral sur de San Juan de Marcona, Ica -Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Apaza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1997 y abril de 1998, se evaluó, al sur de la punta guanera de San Juan de Marcona, la mortandad de las poblaciones de aves marinas. Especies de alimentación exclusivamente pelágica y de distribución restringida al ámbito de la Corriente Peruana, como las aves guaneras Pelecanus thagus, Sula variegata y Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, el pingüino Spheniscus humboldti y el zarcillo Larosterna inca, mostraron una correlación significativa en el comportamiento mensual, relacionados con la temperatura superficial del mar y con la ausencia del recurso anchoveta Engraulis ringens durante el evento "El Niño". Otras especies consideradas en el análisis presentaron una mortandad diferente, como la gaviota de Franklin Larus pipixcan y la gaviota gris Larus modestus, en ambos casos, las especies se alimentaron de recursos alternativos, como Calosoma sp. y Emeríta analoga, respectivamente.

  13. Application of mutagenesis for improvement of grapevines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The objectives of our mutation breeding programme are to improve good clones in a limited number of characteristics. One year old grafted vines were treated with x-rays during dormancy just before bud burst. Root stocks and base of the grafted vines were shielded. Among varieties irradiated with 2-6 kR were the following: 'White Riesling' clone 239-25 Gm, 'White Riesling' clone 110-18 Gm, 'Mueller-Thurgau' clone 6-8 Gm, 'Rulaender' (Pinot gris) clone 2 Gm, 'Blauer Spaetburgunder' (Pinot noir) clone 20 Gm and 'Trollinger'. Grafted and rooted vines were found to tolerate higher doses of radiation than unrooted cuttings. In M 1 V 2 many chimeric and non-chimeric variant shoots could be observed. Two stable periclinal chimeras were obtained in 'White Riesling' and 'Trollinger' after irradiation. Out of irradiated 'Rulaender', mutants of 'Weisser Burgunder (Pinot blanc)' type were selected. In another experiment using 1500 rad of fast neutrons mutants with the characteristics of 'Blauer Spaet-Burgunder (Pinot noir)' were found. Within progenies of irradiated 'Blauer Spaetburgunder' early ripening types with dark skin berries were discovered. New mutant clones under evaluation show interesting properties with regard to stem rot, Botrytis, yield and quality. (author)

  14. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  15. Una especie nueva de Strombocactus (Cactaceae del río Moctezuma, Querétaro, México A new species of Strombocactus (Cactaceae from Moctezuma River, Querétaro, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Arias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Strombocactus corregidorae S. Arias et E. Sánchez, nueva especie del cañón del Infiernillo, en el río Moctezuma, en los límites del estado de Querétaro con Hidalgo. Difiere de S. disciformis por presentar cuerpos más prominentes, con espinas de mayor tamaño, rígidas, gruesas, persistentes y de color negro grisáceo, flores amarillas, así como semillas con células de paredes periclinales planas, microrrelieve finamente reticulado y la región hilo-micropilar no está cubierta por un estrofíolo. Se incluye una clave taxonómica para la identificación de las especies de Strombocactus , con base en caracteres del tallo, flor y la semilla.Strombocactus corregidorae S. Arias et E. Sanchez, from the Infiernillo Canyon, in the Moctezuma River, at the border between the Mexican states of Querétaro and Hidalgo, is described and illustrated. It differs from S. disciformis by its massive body, larger, strong, thick, persistent, black-gray spines, yellow flower, seeds with flat periclinal wall cells, finely reticulate micro-relief, and hilum-micropylar region not covered by a strophiole. An identification key to Strombocactus species, based on stem, flower, and seed characters is included.

  16. Soldabilidad de fundiciones grises con materiales de aporte tipo RbCuZn-A, ErCuAl-A2 y ErNiFe-CI-A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimy Unfried Silgado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación, a través de una propuesta experimental que incluye el diseño de un cuerpo de ensayo y por la selección de procedimientos de soldadura adecuados, se estudió la influencia de los materiales de aporte tipo: RBCuZn–A, ERNiFe-CI-A y ERCuAl-A2, aplicados sobre una fundición gris no aleada clasificada dentro de la especificación ASTM A-48. Dicha influencia se estudió a través de la extracción de probetas de ensayo que se usaron para la evaluación de propiedades mecánicas: tracción, dureza, microdureza y doblez; así como, a través de observaciones metalográficas de las uniones soldadas. Con esto se logró determinar la existencia o no de diferentes zonas y regiones en las juntas soldadas y la influencia de esta presencia sobre la Soldabilidad en el metal de base escogido.

  17. Consideraciones sobre Botrytis cinerea pers., agente causal de la pudrición de las flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés de Granada Emira

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available El "moho gris" de las flores, ocasionado por el hongo
    Botrytis cinerea Pers., es una enfermedad de la cual
    se desconocen muchos aspectos fundamentales. Sin embargo y a pesar de esta carencia de conocimientos, frecuentemente se aplican fungicidas que, muchas veces, no resultan efectivos para el control adecuado de la enfermedad e, incluso, se exagera en uso, lo cual significa un aumento de costos y un efecto en el ambiente. Esta enfermedad es muy común en muchas flores de exportación, como rosa, clavel, crisantemo, estatice y gypsophila. Staby y Naegele (1985 opinan que las plantas pueden ser atacadas en el campo, en el transporte o en el almacenamiento. La penetración del patógeno se realiza directamente a través de heridas causadas por insectos o por medios mecánicos. En condiciones muy favorables, el hongo puede penetrar
    directamente en sus hospedantes a través de la cutícula, mediante la producción de enzimas que degradan los componentes de ésta.

  18. El yacimiento de Lezetxiki (Gipuzkoa, País Vasco. Los niveles musterienses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Baldeón

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available El yacimiento de Lezetxiki (Gipuzkoa, Pais Vasco. España encierra en sus 10 m. de sedimentos una serie interesante de niveles musterienses culminados por otros del Paleolítico Superior. Son los niveles musterienses el objeto de este estudio. La excavación, dirigida por J.M. de Barandiaran entre 1956 y   1968 permitió establecer ocho niveles (I-VIII. Estudios multidisciplinares -sedimentológicos, paleontológicos, palinológicos, antropológicos e industriales-, nos permiten acercarnos a la historia de una de las más antiguas presencias humanas constatadas en el País Vasco. Este estudio pretende   situar Lezetxiki en los códigos metodológicos al uso integrándose en las referencias de las provincias culturales cántabra y aquitana. La secuencia musteriense de Lezetxiki se inicia en una fase   templada del Riss con la aparición de un húmero humano neardenthalense. El nivel VII acoge las primeras industrias humanas; presencias esporádicas en una época fría en la que dominan los restos de oso y otros carnívoros sobre los ungulados, caza habitual del hombre. El nivel VI refleja un momento templado y húmedo, con desarrollo de amplios bosques de frondosas. Un bagage de utensilios lítico y óseo muy variado relaciona este nivel con el Musteriense Típico, que debió desarrollarse en el interglaciar de Eém (Riss-Würm. Durante las oscilaciones del Würm antiguo se dan en Lezetxiki las ocupaciones del nivel V, frío en la base que contiene el material arqueológico, con industrias parecidas al nivel anterior aunque ahora se cazan especies menores, y el nivel IV que por primera vez refleja una frecuentación repetida de la cueva. La industria lítica es ahora distinta, mostrando piezas de bordes muy reaprovechados y dominio de raederas que adscriben este nivel al Charentiense. A destacar la presencia de reno, la permanencia de Pliomys lenki y el predominio de ciervo. Todavía son frecuentes los osos y los carnívoros lobo, zorro y

  19. EL SITIO HESHKAIA 35: NUEVOS DATOS SOBRE LA ARQUEOLOGÍA DE MOAT (TIERRA DEL FUEGO, ARGENTINA / Heshkaia 35 site: new data on the archaeology of Moat (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilio Francisco Zangrando

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available arqueológicos recuperados en el sitio Heshkaia 35 (costa sur de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Este sitio se ubica en un ámbito costero en la sección media de la cuenca del río Moat y registra ocupaciones durante el Holoceno Tardío (ca. 800-500 AP. La diversidad tecnológica y el registro zooarqueológico señalan el desarrollo de actividades múltiples. Los artefactos líticos dominan el conjunto tecnológico. Los desechos líticos indican un fuerte énfasis hacia los estadios finales de talla, puesto de manifiesto en la baja presencia de artefactos con corteza y la elevada frecuencia de lascas de formatización y de reactivación de filos. El conjunto zooarqueológico se compone mayormente de restos óseos de guanacos. Los moluscos también habrían cumplido un rol significativo en la dieta. Restos óseos de mamíferos marinos, zorros, aves y peces están representados por frecuencias bajas. La composición artefactual y arqueofaunística estaría indicando que el aprovisionamiento de recursos se habría articulado principalmente desde el ámbito costero y no necesariamente en el mar. Se discuten las implicaciones de esta evidencia para las pautas conductuales de cazadores-recolectores en la costa sur de Tierra del Fuego. Palabras Clave: Arqueología de costas, Cazadores-recolectores, Tierra del Fuego, Holoceno Tardío   Abstract This paper presents and discusses the archaeological evidence from Heshkaia 35 site (southern coast of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. This site is located in a coastal setting in the middle section of the Moat River Basin and records occupations during the Late Holocene (ca. 800-500 BP. Technological diversity and the zooarchaeological record point to the development of multiple activities. Lithic artifacts dominate the technological assemblage. Lithic debitage indicates a strong emphasis towards final stages of reduction, shown by the lower occurrence of artifacts with cortex and the high frequency resharpening

  20. Epidemiología molecular de la rabia urbana en Colombia, 1994-2004. La rabia en ecosistemas silvestres como amenaza para la población humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Boshell

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia la rabia ocurre en dos ciclos epidemiológicos principales: la rabia urbana con el perro como principal reservorio y transmisor principalmente a humanos, y la rabia silvestre con especies animales de la vida silvestre como los quirópteros y zorros entre otros, como reservorios y transmisores principalmente a especies ganaderas y eventualmente a humanos que se convierten en víctimas accidentales. Durante los últimos años la rabia silvestre en Colombia ha cobrado mayor relevancia como problema de salud pública que la rabia urbana, a juzgar por el número de víctimas humanas. Con el fin de perfeccionar el diagnóstico y la tipificación del virus de la rabia en Colombia, el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia del Instituto Nacional de Salud estandarizó técnicas para amplificar y secuenciar un fragmento de ADN complementario (cADN a una fracción de 902 nucleótidos seleccionados del ARN del virus, con el fin de adelantar estudios de epidemiología molecular. La fracción mencionada contiene secuencias que codifican para los aminoácidos 447-525 de la glicoproteína y 1-35 de la proteína L. Además contiene la región intergénica no codificante conocida como Pseudogen Psi.

    Las técnicas estandarizadas fueron las siguientes: a extracción de ARN total a partir de cerebro de ratón infectado. b amplificación molecular por transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. c secuenciación del fragmento amplificado.

    Mediante estas técnicas de epidemiología molecular viral se determinó que durante 1994-2004, la rabia urbana se concentró en tres regiones geográficas definidas, con epizootias en el antiplano cundiboyacense, departamento de Arauca y la región Caribe. Las dos primeras se controlaron

  1. La flor de mi secreto (Almodóvar, 1995: La literatura como seducción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Carazo, Cristina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The multiple references to writing in Pedro Almodovar’s La flor de mi secreto (1995 have arguably made this film his most literary. Reading and writing function as the structural axis of the movie because they define the existence of the main character - Leo/Amanda Gris. But beyond the constant literary allusions, what makes the “literarity” of this film is, on the one hand, the construction of the protagonist according to literary models and on the other the exploration of her subjectivity through her writing. Leo as a character is created as a replica of the tormented writers that she admires. In their stereotypical tradition, she is an alcoholic, addicted to sleeping pills, suicidal, obsessed with her loneliness and installed in her writing as a survival space. Furthermore, the spectator accesses her subjectivity through her career as a writer because her melodramatic life gets entangled with her novels. Almodóvar projects his literary ghosts in La flor de mi secreto and in the process, subverts the parameters of literature, the canon, the gender and genre categories and the question of authorship. He also resists a stable definition of literature as art by inserting it in a filmic text, favoring a complex intertextuality which contributes to dissolving the frontiers between high and low culture and to opening a common ground for the arts.Las múltiples referencias a la escritura presentes en La flor de mi secreto (1995 han llevado a etiquetar esta película como la más literaria de Pedro Almodóvar. La lectura y la escritura funcionan como hilo conductor de la película en la medida en que articulan la existencia de la protagonista, Leo/Amanda Gris. Pero más allá de este despliegue de alusiones literarias, lo que en realidad determina la literaridad del film es, por un lado, la construcción de dicho personaje a partir de modelos literarios y por otro la exploración de su subjetividad a partir de la escritura. Leo se perfila como

  2. The effect of surface finishes on outdoor granite and limestone pavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Martínez, J.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two types of ornamental stones, namely granite (Blanco Rafaela or Zarzalejo Granite and microcrystalline limestone (marble known commercially as Gris Pulpis, treated for different surface finishes, were tested for suitability as paving slabs. The finishes tested in both stones were polishing, hammering, honing and flaming, while acid treatment and abrasion were applied to limestone only and sawn finishes were only studied in granite.The stones were tested for the three physical properties that determine suitability for use as paving slabs; flexural strength under a concentrated load, and abrasion and slip resistance. Laboratory freeze-thaw cycle ageing tests were also conducted and flexural strength subsequently evaluated. Stone water sorption proved to be substantially unaltered by the type of finish employed. Finish barely affected flexural strength, except in the case of limestone flaming, where it was lower. Hammering was found to provide good slip resistance in both stones. The best slip performance for granite, however, was found for flamed specimens. Finish was shown to have no effect on abrasion resistance in either of the stone materials. Polished limestone suffered the least damage in freeze-thaw cycles, whereas freeze-thaw resistance was similar in all the granite specimens, regardless of the finish used.Se han estudiado, para su utilización como baldosas de pavimentos, granito (Blanco Rafaela o Granito de Zarzalejo y caliza microcristalina (mármol comercial Gris Pulpis con diferentes acabados. Estos acabados son: pulido, apomazado, abujardado y flameado en ambas rocas y además acabado al ácido y amolado en la caliza. Se han determinado mediante ensayos estandarizados las tres propiedades físicas de mayor interés para el uso de la piedra natural como baldosa en pavimentos de exteriores: resistencia a la flexión bajo carga concentrada, a la abrasión y al deslizamiento. Se han realizado ensayos de durabilidad por ciclos de hielo

  3. Tipos de miosinas de linhagens de frangos de corte criados em sistemas de confinamento e semiconfinamento Types of myosin of chickens of different strains reared in confinement and semi-confinement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Madeira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o peso vivo, o peso de pernas, os aspectos morfológicos das fibras musculares do músculo flexor longo do hálux e o perfil eletroforético das miosinas de cadeia pesada de quatro linhagens de frangos de corte criados nos sistemas de confinamento e semiconfinamento. Foram utilizados 1.440 pintos distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualisado em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, composto de quatro linhagens (Ross 305, Máster Gris, Label Rouge e Vermelhão Pesado e dois sistemas de criação (confinamento e semiconfinamento, cada combinação avaliada com quatro repetições. Aos 28 e 84 dias de idade, foram abatidas quatro aves por tratamento, totalizando 64 aves. A eletroforese identificou a presença das três isoformas de miosinas, tipo MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa e MyHC-IIb, no músculo flexor longo do hálux dos frangos de corte. Com aumento da idade, a isoforma de miosina MyHC-II aumenta, enquanto a MyHC-I diminui. Somente aos 84 dias de idade, a expressão das isoformas de miosina do tipo MyHC-II foram influenciadas pela linhagem, confirmando o reflexo da seleção na linhagem Ross no músculo mais glicolítico.A linhagem Ross apresenta maior peso vivo, peso de perna, peso e área do músculo flexor longo do hálux em comparação às linhagens tipo caipira.The objective was to evaluate body weight, leg weight and morphologic aspects of the muscle fibers of the flexor hallucis longus muscle and electrophoretic profile of myosin heavy chain of four strains of broilers, reared in confinement and semi-confinement systems. 1440 chicks were randomly assigned in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement: four strains (Ross 305, Master Gris, Label Rouge and Vermelhao Pesado, two production systems (confinement and semi-confinement, with four replicates for each treatment. Four birds were sacrificed for each treatment, at 28 and 84 d, totaling 64 animals. Electrophoresis technique identified the presence of three myosin heavy

  4. Exploring the Potential use of Photo-Selective Nets for Fruit Growth Regulation in Apple Explorando el uso Potencial de Mallas Foto-Selectivas para la Regulación del Crecimiento de Fruto en Manzano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Bastías

    2012-06-01

    espectro azul (B, 400-500 nm, rojo (R, 600-700 nm y rojo lejano (FR, 700-800 nm sobre crecimiento de fruto y respuestas fisiológicas asociadas en manzano. Árboles de manzano 'Fuji' de 3 años de edad fueron cubiertos con mallas foto-selectivas azul y roja al 40%, y neutras gris al 40% y blanca al 20% (control. Las mallas azul y roja redujeron en la misma proporción (27% la radiación fotosintéticamente activa respecto al control. Sin embargo, la malla azul incrementó en 30% y redujo en 10% las relaciones de luz B:R y R:FR, respectivamente. La tasa máxima de crecimiento de fruto bajo las mallas azul y gris fue 1520% mayor que el control. El peso de fruto bajo la malla azul fue 17% mayor que el control, pero no se encontraron diferencias significativas de peso de fruto entre la malla roja y el control. La fotosíntesis de la hoja y área foliar total bajo la malla azul fueron 28% y 30% mas altas que el control, respectivamente; con un consiguiente efecto positivo sobre la asimilación neta de C por el árbol y producción de materia seca total. Los resultados sugieren que cambiar la composición de luz B, R, y FR a través de mallas foto-selectivas podría ser una herramienta útil para manipular los procesos fotosintéticos y morfo-genéticos que regulan la disponibilidad de carbohidratos para el crecimiento de fruto en manzano.

  5. The region of the Piedra Berroqueña: A potencial Global Heritage Stone Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    , Crema Valdemanco. In Cadalso de los Vidrios it is marketed under the commercial name of Gris Cadalso and Rosa Cadalso. Biotite granites without cordierite or amphibole and the most representative historic quarries are in San Lorenzo del Escorial, Valdemorillo, Robledo de Chavela, Colmenar de Arroyo, Chapinería and Navas del Rey. In Zarzalejo is marketed under the commercial name of Gris Escorial. Leucogranites in Manzanares el Real, San Martín de Valdeiglesias or La Cabrera there are historical quarries. In the Cadalso de los Vidrios is exported under the commercial name Blanco Ártico, Blanco Cristal and Oro Cristal. The Piedra Berroqueña province meets the requirements proposed to be nominated for GHSP. This nomination will contribute to better understanding and dissemination of an area with attractive economic aspects that focuses on the use of its resources. Thus, the Piedra Berroqueña remains part of the heritage of the province, whether used as a replacement stone for restoration of heritage buildings or when used for new buildings. Acknowledgements This study was funded by the Community of Madrid under the GEOMATERIALS 2 project (S2013/MIT-2914). The authors are members of the Complutense University of Madrid's Research Group: "Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio" (ref. 921349).

  6. Menuiseries des xviie et xviiie siècles Door and window casings in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Paris and Saint Denis. Colours observed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mouton

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Les couleurs anciennes des menuiseries des portes et des fenêtres de l’architecture des xviie et xviiie siècles se trouvent par sondages sur les témoins d’origine encore conservés. Des observations ont été effectuées systématiquement lors de travaux de restauration et ont livré des résultats très cohérents. Pour les menuiseries des fenêtres, le gris assez soutenu est la règle. L’évolution de l’intensité ne paraît pas, en revanche, suivre une tendance bien affirmée. Rares sont les cas de menuiseries laissées « au naturel ». Les recherches sur les portes cochères sont plus limitées mais confirment l’usage de couleurs très sombres.The original colours of doors and windows in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century buildings can be discovered by carrying out probes on original samples that have survived. Observations were systematically recorded during restoration work and have produced very coherent results. In window casings, a fairly deep grey is the rule. Changes in intensity do not appear to follow a clear trend, however. Few elements of window joinery have been left ‘au naturel’. Research on portes-cochères (carriage gates was more limited but confirms the use of very dark colours.

  7. en ingeniería de tejido óseo. Fase I: estudios de biocompatibilidad-efectos del hidróxido de calcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gallego

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existe una creciente e insatisfecha demanda de substitutos óseos con buen desempeño, tanto desde el punto de vista biológico como mecánico. Basados en las excelentes propiedades mecánico-estructurales del cemento pórtland, se plantea un estudio exploratorio de biocompatibilidad de este material. Se prepararon substratos de cemento pórtland gris tipo I bajo diferentes tratamientos (neutralizado-SN, carbonatado-SC, y no neutralizado-SnN, los cuales fueron luego sometidos a un ensayo de contacto directo con células CHO y HOS durante 24 h. Los substratos se caracterizaron por SEM, y tinciones con fnolftaleía para determinar su pH; mientras que la evaluación del estado del cultivo fue realizada por microscopía de contraste de fase. Los resultados indican que el pH fue mayor para SnN (> 12,0, seguido de SN, y finalmente de los SC (≈ 7,4; de igual manera se observó que la citotoxicidad de los substratos disminuyó en proporción al valor del pH. Se postula que el Ca(OH2 formado durante la hidratación del cemento es el causante del efecto tóxico de éste, y que al agotar las fuentes de Ca(OH2, ya sea por carbonatación o neutralización, se afecta de manera positiva la biocompatibilidad del cemento pórtland.

  8. Un aporte para el desarrollo de tecnologías verdes en el Parque Tecnológico Universitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Judith Paredes Ch.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio es analizar los avances en tecnologías verdes, producto de los aportes del capital intelectual que se gesta en la Universidad del Zulia y promovido conjuntamente con el Parque Tecnológico (PTU-Zulia; donde la innovación y el desarrollo de la Planta de Presurización y Despresurización Ambiental PDA, se considera como una innovación tecnológica de impacto ambiental positivo; por lo cual, se prevé que su estrategia de inserción en el mercado verde, contribuirá a una mayor integración del sector académico, gubernamental y productivo. Sin lugar a dudas, es un desarrollo tecnológico que soporta el cumplimiento de una de las funciones fundamentales de las instituciones de educación superior, como lo es, maximizar la relación Universidad - Industria. Para el desarrollo del mismo, se efectuó la revisión de literatura gris que sustentan los avances de las innovaciones e investigaciones ejecutadas en el PTU- Zulia y fuentes bibliográficas, cuyos aportes permitieron concluir que a mediano plazo, esta fundación coadyuvará no sólo a la generación, transferencia de conocimientos y nuevos desarrollos; sino también, es capaz de mercadear sus tecnologías con perspectiva comercial, convirtiéndose en un ente potencial de recursos extraordinarios capaz de autogestionarse. Asimismo, el desarrollo de tecnologías verdes y la transferencia de conocimiento; contribuirán a la sustitución progresiva de las tecnologías contaminantes, aspecto considerado desde una perspectiva de responsabilidad social avalada por legislaciones que regulan la materia ambiental

  9. Fundiciones aleadas para piezas de repuesto. // Alloy foundries for spare parts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hernández de la Torre

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aborda la concepción de mejorar las piezas mediante el análisis cuidadoso de las propiedades quelas mismas deben poseer, para responder a las severas exigencias del trabajo y en base a ello seleccionar la aleación y lasvías para mejorar sus cualidades y por ende su durabilidad. Como vías, en el caso de las fundiciones, se seleccionan laaleación en la carga y la modificación en la cazuela; en ambos casos con elementos aleantes que influyen sobre la matrizmetálica y la forma, tamaño y distribución del grafito. Se ejemplifica en base a piezas, como cuchillas centrales paramolinos azucareros.Palabras claves: fundición gris aleada, matriz metálica, grafito, cuchillas centrales._________________________________________________________________________________Abstract:This paper deals with the improvement of spare parts by means of a careful analysis of their properties, to face the hardexploitation conditions. Based on this analysis, the type of alloy and the ways to improve its properties and durability arefound. Two ways were applied for cast iron; the addition of alloy elements in the charge and the modification of moltenmetal in the ladle. In both cases, alloy elements are used to influence on the metallic matrix and the graphite distribution,size and form. The research is applied in spare parts such as central knives for sugar mills.Key words: alloy gray cast iron, metallic matrix, graphite, central knifes.

  10. Effect of uncertainty in surface mass balance–elevation feedback on projections of the future sea level contribution of the Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Edwards

    2014-01-01

    Régional: Fettweis, 2007 climate projections are for 2000–2199, forced by the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate models (GCMs under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. The additional sea level contribution due to the SMB–elevation feedback averaged over five ISM projections for ECHAM5 and three for HadCM3 is 4.3% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 1.8–6.9% at 2100, and 9.6% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 3.6–16.0% at 2200. In all results the elevation feedback is significantly positive, amplifying the GrIS sea level contribution relative to the MAR projections in which the ice sheet topography is fixed: the lower bounds of our 95% credibility intervals (CIs for sea level contributions are larger than the "no feedback" case for all ISMs and GCMs. Our method is novel in sea level projections because we propagate three types of modelling uncertainty – GCM and ISM structural uncertainties, and elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty – along the causal chain, from SRES scenario to sea level, within a coherent experimental design and statistical framework. The relative contributions to uncertainty depend on the timescale of interest. At 2100, the GCM uncertainty is largest, but by 2200 both the ISM and parameterisation uncertainties are larger. We also perform a perturbed parameter ensemble with one ISM to estimate the shape of the projected sea level probability distribution; our results indicate that the probability density is slightly skewed towards higher sea level contributions.

  11. Adaptación del algoritmo MARACAS para segmentación de la arteria carótida y cuantificación de estenosis en imágenes TAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Hernandez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describen las adaptaciones hechas al algoritmo MARACAS para segmentar y cuantificar estructuras vasculares en imágenes TAC de la arteria carótida. El algoritmo MARACAS, que está basado en un modelo elástico y en un análisis de los valores y vectores propios de la matriz de inercia, fue inicialmente diseñado para segmentar una sola arteria en imágenes ARM. Las modificaciones están principalmente enfocadas a tratar las especificidades de las imágenes TAC, así como la presencia de bifurcaciones. Los algoritmos implementados en esta nueva versión se clasifican en dos niveles. 1 Los procesamientos de bajo nivel (filtrado de ruido y de artificios direccionales, presegmentación y realce destinados a mejorar la calidad de la imagen y presegmentarla. Estas técnicas están basadas en información a priori sobre el ruido, los artificios y los intervalos típicos de niveles de gris del lumen, del fondo y de las calcificaciones. 2 Los procesamientos de alto nivel para extraer la línea central de la arteria, segmentar el lumen y cuantificar la estenosis. A este nivel, se aplican conocimientos a priori sobre la forma y anatomía de las estructuras vasculares. El método fue evaluado en 31 imágenes suministradas en el concurso “Carotid Lumen Segmentation and Stenosis Grading Grand Challenge” 2009. Los resultados obtenidos en la segmentación arrojaron un coeficiente de similitud de Dice promedio de 80.4% comparado con la segmentación de referencia, y el error promedio de la cuantificación de estenosis fue 14.4%.

  12. Evaluación de bolsa atmósfera modificada y concentraciones de anhídrido sulfuroso aplicadas sobre frutos de arándano alto (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Emerald

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rodríguez Beraud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las técnicas de atmósfera modificada y aplicación de anhídrido sulfuroso sobre parámetros de calidad de postcosecha en frutos de arándanos (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Emerald, se realizó un experimento de seis tratamientos, dados por la combinación de dos factores, atmósfera modificada (con y sin, y diferentes concentraciones de anhídrido sulfuroso (generadas por 0, 1 y 2 g de metabisulfito de sodio durante 7, 14, 21 y 28 días a 0 °C. Con la dosis de 2 g de metabisulfito de sodio en atmósfera modificada no se presentaron pudriciones, a diferencia del tratamiento testigo que presentó un 4,86% luego de 28 días de almacenaje. Los resultados indican que la incidencia de pudrición gris disminuyó significativamente (p ≤ 0,05 con anhídrido sulfuroso en bolsa atmósfera modificada, existiendo un efecto de interacción entre ambos factores, no obstante, el gas causó daños de blanqueamiento de frutos, el que correspondió a un 11,66% con una dosis de 2 g de metabisulfito de sodio, luego de 28 días de almacenaje. El uso de bolsa de atmósfera modificada redujo significativamente (p ≤ 0,05 la pérdida de peso por deshidratación (en promedio un 4% respecto a los tratamientos donde esta tecnología no fue utilizada. La concentración de sólidos solubles no fue influenciada por los tratamientos, manteniéndose entre 13 y 14%.

  13. An ice flow modeling perspective on bedrock adjustment patterns of the Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Olaizola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch in 2002 of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites, several estimates of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS have been produced. To obtain ice mass changes, the GRACE data need to be corrected for the effect of deformation changes of the Earth's crust. Recently, a new method has been proposed where ice mass changes and bedrock changes are simultaneously solved. Results show bedrock subsidence over almost the entirety of Greenland in combination with ice mass loss which is only half of the currently standing estimates. This subsidence can be an elastic response, but it may however also be a delayed response to past changes. In this study we test whether these subsidence patterns are consistent with ice dynamical modeling results. We use a 3-D ice sheet–bedrock model with a surface mass balance forcing based on a mass balance gradient approach to study the pattern and magnitude of bedrock changes in Greenland. Different mass balance forcings are used. Simulations since the Last Glacial Maximum yield a bedrock delay with respect to the mass balance forcing of nearly 3000 yr and an average uplift at present of 0.3 mm yr−1. The spatial pattern of bedrock changes shows a small central subsidence as well as more intense uplift in the south. These results are not compatible with the gravity based reconstructions showing a subsidence with a maximum in central Greenland, thereby questioning whether the claim of halving of the ice mass change is justified.

  14. Agencia de la Banca Sud-americana del Brasil, S.A. en Capivari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi, Primo

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available This building has two blocks, one for the Banks' installations and the other is the manager's house. The building has a concrete and steel compound structure. The walls are brick, the flooring is a reinforced concrete slab and hollow bricks, and the roof consists of corrugated fibrocement sheeting. The bank block walls have been faced, both internally and externally, with cement tiles, 15 x 15 cms in size, of the same type that are employed for the flooring. The design is grey on white background. The ceiling of the bank hall is fitted with acoustical material (2.5 cms of glass wool on Duralex perforated slabs, to reduce reverberation. This measure was necessary because of the relatively large height of the hall. The walls are cylindrically curved and have a smooth and hard surface.El edificio consta de dos cuerpos: uno para las instalaciones de la Banca, y el otro para la vivienda del gerente. La estructura es mixta, a base de hormigón armado y acero; los muros, de ladrillo; el techo, ejecutado en losa de hormigón armado y ladrillos huecos, y la cubierta es de flbrocemento ondulado. Los muros de los cuerpos de la Banca han sido revestidos, interior y exteriormente, con baldosas de cemento, de 15x15 cm, del tipo empleado para el suelo. El dibujo es gris sobre fondo blanco. El techo de la sala de la Banca va acondicionado con material acústico (a base de 2,5 cm de lana de vidrio sobre placas perforadas de Duralex para reducir la reverberación. Esta medida venía impuesta dada la altura relativamente grande y los muros en curva revestidos de material liso y duro.

  15. Policondritis recidivante y compromiso neurológico Neurologic involvement in relapsing polychondritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Requena

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La policondritis recidivante (PR es un trastorno autoinmune multisistémico, de etiología desconocida, que se caracteriza por episodios recurrentes de inflamación y destrucción progresiva de las estructuras cartilaginosas y el tejido conectivo, pero que también puede afectar las estructuras con proteinglicanos como ojos, corazón, riñón y vasos sanguíneos produciendo vasculitis. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con criterios clínicos de policondritis recidivante con convulsiones, y una resonancia nuclear magnética de cerebro con imágenes hiperintensas en T2 y FLAIR, multifocales tanto en la sustancia gris como blanca, sugerentes de lesiones isquémicas, que mejoró con dosis altas de glucocorticoides. Se señala en esta enfermedad de muy baja prevalencia la presentación inusual de manifestaciones neurológicas reversibles con tratamiento.Relapsing polychondritis is a multysistemic inflammatory disease, of unknown etiology. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation with progressive destruction of cartilaginous structures and connective tissue. It may also affect tissues that contain proteoglycans like eyes, heart, kidney, and blood vessels causing a picture of vasculitis. We report here the case of a patient with relapsing polychondritis and seizures. The magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed multiple hyperintense signals in the T2 weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (flair, suggesting ischemic injuries, that improved with high doses of glucocorticoids. We remark the unusual presentation with neurological involvement in this uncommon disease that has improved with treatment.

  16. The Role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on Recent Greenland Surface Mass Loss and Mass Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, M.; Alexander, P.; Porter, D. F.; Fettweis, X.; Luthcke, S. B.; Mote, T. L.; Rennermalm, A.; Hanna, E.

    2017-12-01

    Despite recent changes in Greenland surface mass losses and atmospheric circulation over the Arctic, little attention has been given to the potential role of large-scale atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal variability of mass loss and partitioning of the GrIS mass loss. Using a combination of satellite gravimetry measurements, outputs of the MAR regional climate model and reanalysis data, we show that changes in atmospheric patterns since 2013 over the North Atlantic region of the Arctic (NAA) modulate total mass loss trends over Greenland together with the spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss partitioning. For example, during the 2002 - 2012 period, melting persistently increased, especially along the west coast, as a consequence of increased insulation and negative NAO conditions characterizing that period. Starting in 2013, runoff along the west coast decreased while snowfall increased substantially, when NAO turned to a more neutral/positive state. Modeled surface mass balance terms since 1950 indicate that part of the GRACE-period, specifically the period between 2002 and 2012, was exceptional in terms of snowfall over the east and northeast regions. During that period snowfall trend decreased to almost 0 Gt/yr from a long-term increasing trend, which presumed again in 2013. To identify the potential impact of atmospheric patterns on mass balance and its partitioning, we studied the spatial and temporal correlations between NAO and snowfall/runoff. Our results indicate that the correlation between summer snowfall and NAO is not stable during the 1950 - 2015 period. We further looked at changes in patterns of circulation using self organizing maps (SOMs) to identify the atmospheric patterns characterizing snowfall during different periods. We discuss potential implications for past changes and future GCM and RCM simulations.

  17. Instituto de Química Fisiológica de Tübingen, Alemania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Seidlen, Peter C.

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available The total built up area of this Institute is 11,800 m2. Of this, 6,850 m2 correspond to the laboratories, special facilities, lecture rooms, offices, and library. 990 m2 are devoted to storage space, 2,560 m2 are taken up with circulation zones, and 1,400 m2 are available for installations. In addition to the very satisfactory design of the external elevations, this Institute is relevant because of the high standard of its technical and service installations, which have been planned with a long term view of future needs. The interior of the building has been protected from the direct action of the sun through the fitting of grey glazing canopies above the windows.La superficie útil total construida asciende a 11.800 m2: 6.850 m2 están destinados a laboratorios, locales especiales, aulas, administración, biblioteca, etc.; 990 m2, a almacenes; 2.560 m2 se dedican a zonas de tránsito; y 1.400 m2, a locales para las instalaciones, etc. Destaca en este edificio, además de la acertada composición estética de las fachadas, el número y calidad de sus instalaciones técnicas y de servicio, diseñada con vistas muy amplias, de cara a futuras necesidades. El interior del edificio ha sido protegido de la acción directa de los rayos solares, mediante la utilización de parasoles de vidrio de color gris en la parte superior de los voladizos.

  18. Eggs and hatchlings of the Mexican salamander Pseudoeurycea cephalica (Caudata: Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bille

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Eggs and hatchlings of Pseudoeurycea c. cephalica from Parque Nacional Lagunas de Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico are described for the first time. The eggs are similar to eggs of P. cephalica manni and P. belli in being unstranded. Egg capsules resemble P. nigromaculata and P. juarezi in having two gelatinous envelopes. The embryos have extensively webbed hands and feet with a continuous reduction in webbing during embryogenesis, supporting the hypothesis that webbing of the feet is a paedomorphic character. The hatchlings are uniform grayish-black dorsally and slightly paler ventrally. They are robust with broad heads and short tails and lack both vomerine and maxillary teeth. Lack of dentition has previously been found in juveniles of P. belli.Se describe por primera vez huevos y recién nacidos de Pseudoeurycea cephalica cephalica procedentes del Parque Nacional Lagunas de Zempoala, Morelos, México. Los huevos se paracen a los de P. cephalica manni y P. belli en que no están unidos entre sí por ningún cordón. Se parecen en cuanto a constitución a los de P. nigromaculata y P. juarezi en tener dos capas gelatinosas. Los embriones tienen los pies y manos palmeados, produciéndose una reducción de la superficie palmeada a lo largo de la embriogénesis, lo cual confirma que el palmeado de pies y manos es un carácter pedomórfico. Los recién nacidos son de color gris negruzco, uniforme dorsalmente y de color más claro ventralmente. Son robustos, con cabeza ancha, cola corta y carecen de dientes tanto vomerinos como maxilares. Esta falta de dentición ya fue encontrada anteriormente en juveniles de P. belli.

  19. Influence of temperature fluctuations on equilibrium ice sheet volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgeholm Mikkelsen, Troels; Grinsted, Aslak; Ditlevsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Forecasting the future sea level relies on accurate modeling of the response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to changing temperatures. The surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has a nonlinear response to warming. Cold and warm anomalies of equal size do not cancel out and it is therefore important to consider the effect of interannual fluctuations in temperature. We find that the steady-state volume of an ice sheet is biased toward larger size if interannual temperature fluctuations are not taken into account in numerical modeling of the ice sheet. We illustrate this in a simple ice sheet model and find that the equilibrium ice volume is approximately 1 m SLE (meters sea level equivalent) smaller when the simple model is forced with fluctuating temperatures as opposed to a stable climate. It is therefore important to consider the effect of interannual temperature fluctuations when designing long experiments such as paleo-spin-ups. We show how the magnitude of the potential bias can be quantified statistically. For recent simulations of the Greenland Ice Sheet, we estimate the bias to be 30 Gt yr-1 (24-59 Gt yr-1, 95 % credibility) for a warming of 3 °C above preindustrial values, or 13 % (10-25, 95 % credibility) of the present-day rate of ice loss. Models of the Greenland Ice Sheet show a collapse threshold beyond which the ice sheet becomes unsustainable. The proximity of the threshold will be underestimated if temperature fluctuations are not taken into account. We estimate the bias to be 0.12 °C (0.10-0.18 °C, 95 % credibility) for a recent estimate of the threshold. In light of our findings it is important to gauge the extent to which this increased variability will influence the mass balance of the ice sheets.

  20. Temperatura neutral y rangos de confort térmico para exteriores, período cálido en clima cálido seco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Bojórquez

    Full Text Available El estimar las temperaturas de confort térmico en espacios exteriores permite obtener información que sirve de base para generar propuestas de diseño, cuyas condiciones ambientales propicien el confort térmico de los usuarios. Se presenta la estimación de temperatura neutral y rangos de confort térmico para espacios exteriores de un parque recreativo, en el período cálido en un clima desértico. El estudio fue desarrollado en Mexicali, Baja California, México. Se diseñó un cuestionario basado en la escala de sensaciones térmicas de ISO 10551, se midieron temperatura de bulbo seco, temperatura de globo gris, humedad relativa y velocidad de viento. Se aplicaron 822 encuestas en julio y agosto del 2008. Se estimaron temperatura neutra y rangos de confort con el método de medias por intervalo de sensación térmica. El análisis se hizo para tres niveles de actividad: pasiva, moderada e intensa y uno combinado con los tres niveles. Los valores de temperatura neutra obtenidos son aproximadamente simétricos con respecto a sus rangos de confort térmico. Las temperaturas neutras obtenidas muestran que los sujetos en actividad intensa, con práctica periódica de ejercicio y hábitos apropiados a las condiciones de clima, tienen una temperatura de confort térmico similar a aquellos con actividad pasiva.

  1. Aspectos éticos en la investigación cualitativa con niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Moscoso Loaiza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La incorporación de los niños como participantes de estudios investigativos es una práctica más frecuente en la actualidad debido a la necesidad de conocer y entender su visión acerca de las experiencias de vida, lo que plantea nuevos retos y responsabilidades que se centran principalmente en las consideraciones éticas y metodológicas de la investigación. Este artículo describe los aspectos éticos que deben ser tenidos en cuenta en la investigación cualitativa con niños. Es un artículo de revisión con búsqueda sistemática en bases de datos, incluyendo artículos científicos, libros y literatura gris. Asimismo, se abordan las consideraciones éticas que se encuentran implicadas desde la vinculación de los niños como participantes, hasta la obtención de la información y la socialización de los resultados. Para la investigación se seleccionó la información relevante en torno a ocho temas conforme al proceso investigativo. Con esto se evidenció que la cuestión ética constituye un aspecto central en el momento de iniciar y desarrollar cualquier estudio investigativo, por lo que está presente desde su planteamiento hasta su finalización. Pudo concluirse que el cumplimiento de los criterios de rigor metodológico, como la dependencia, credibilidad, transferibilidad y confirmación, asegura la calidad de la investigación cualitativa con niños, y esto permite la adecuada aplicación de los principios éticos de beneficencia y no maleficencia, justicia, autonomía y confidencialidad.

  2. Efecto del tratamiento térmico en la morfología y conductividad térmica de cenizas volantes de la combustión de carbón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peña-Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el efecto del tratamiento térmico en la conductividad térmica efectiva (ke a temperatura ambiente de polvos de cenizas volantes provenientes de la combustión de carbón de la Central Termoeléctrica de Termotasajero S.A. Dicho parámetro termofísico fue medido usando el sistema KD2Pro® Thermal Properties Analyzer, el cual funciona con el principio físico de flujo lineal transitorio de calor. El tratamiento térmico de las muestras se realizó usando una mufla eléctrica Ney® Vulcan D-130 para el rango de temperaturas de 1050, 1100, 1130, 1200, 1250 y 1300 °C. La porosidad y densidad aparente fue hallada usando la norma NTC 4321-3. La morfología superficial de las muestras fue analizada usando Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (MEB. Los resultados muestran que a medida que se incrementó la temperatura en el tratamiento térmico, las muestras cambiaron de color de gris oscuro a beige; disminuyó el porcentaje de porosidad, debido a su proceso de vitrificación, y se aumentó la densidad y, por ende, la conductividad térmica efectiva. Los valores reportados de ke son muy importantes en los cálculos del coeficiente de transmitancia térmica en los procesos de transferencia de calor donde se utilicen estas cenizas.

  3. Metodología para el diseño de un biorreactor secuencial - Methodology for the Design of a Sequential Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Nel Martínez Henao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta la metodología de diseño de un Biorreactor secuencial SBR requerido en el proceso de tratamiento de aguas residuales. El proceso aeróbico empleado ayuda a la oxigenación del agua para que las bacterias realicen la degradación y procesamiento de material particulado y generen los lodos activados, que es un material que puede ser reutilizado para compostaje en procesos de agricultura orgánica. La medición de PH en el agua ayuda al control de bacterias que se hace mediante el suministro de aire y/o levadura en el agua. El proyecto es desarrollado con la participación de estudiantes de los programas de Ingeniería Ambiental e Ingeniería Industrial, adscritos al semillero de investigación SIDI en el marco del proyecto de iniciación científica PIC-ING-2252, financiada por la Universidad Militar Nueva Granada [UMNG]. La metodología de diseño a emplearse en el diseño del SBR es la expuesta por Arzola [1] y Martínez [2], abordando inicialmente la matriz de despliegue de función de calidad (QfD, en el que se registran inicialmente los requerimientos del cliente para poderlos traducir a las especificaciones técnicas de ingeniería: posteriormente se desarrolla el diseño conceptual (caja gris, donde se plantean alternativas que dan cumplimiento a los requerimientos y a las especificaciones técnicas de ingeniería. Seleccionada la alternativa más viable, se procede al modelamiento, cálculo y selección de componentes a ser utilizados en el concepto seleccionado como alternativa de desarrollo. Finalmente, se realiza la ingeniería de detalle mediante modelamiento CAD.

  4. Qualidade da carne de frangos caipiras abatidos em diferentes idades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.R. Souza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas as características físico-químicas e de composição centesimal da carne de frangos machos de três linhagens utilizadas para criação semi-intensiva: Redbro Cou Nu - Vermelho de Pescoço Pelado (Pescoço Pelado; Redbro Plumé - Vermelho de Pescoço Emplumado (Pesadão e Gris Barre Plumé (Carijó. Foram analisadas diferenças em relação à linhagem e à idade de abate (70, 85 e 110 dias. Na carne do peito, não foi verificado efeito de linhagem sobre os parâmetros de cor (L*, a* e b* e pH final. Houve comportamento diferenciado para as aves em relação a qualidade da carne do peito, com menores valores de maciez para linhagem Pesadão e de Perda de Peso por Cozimento para linhagem Carijó. A linhagem Carijó apresentou, para a carne de peito aos 110 dias, os menores valores de umidade e as maiores médias de proteína. Os valores de proteina reduziram para linhagem Pescoço Pelado a partir de 85 dias. Na coxa, a partir de 110 dias, foi verificada redução dos valores de L* (luminosidade e aumento das médias de a* (vermelho. Os valores de força de cisalhamento e extrato etéreo aumentaram para peito e coxa a partir dos 110 dias. As linhagens Pesadão e Pescoço Pelado apresentaram de forma geral, melhores aspectos físico-quimicos, que são os atributos de maior preferência pelo consumidor em função deste tipo de produto.

  5. El cuadro clínico de la intoxicación ocupacional por plomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto V Ramírez

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Al plomo, metal pesado grisáceo y ubicuo, se le ha encontrado en lugares tan inverosímiles como los hielos fósiles de Groenlandia. Egipcios y hebreos lo usaron. Los fenicios c. 2000 AC trabajaron menas de plomo en España. Al final del s XX, en países desarrollados, la intoxicación por plomo pasó de problema ocupacional a problema de salud pública. Entre nosotros aún es frecuente la intoxicación ocupacional. El diagnóstico pasa por reconocer la existencia de plomo en el ambiente laboral y en tomar una buena historia clínica y ocupacional. El diagnóstico diferencial considera cuadros dolorosos neurológicos y abdominales. Plomo-sanguíneo y zinc-protoporfirina son análisis cruciales y fidedignos. En expuestos, el plomo-sanguíneo suele llegar a 40 ug/100 mL, aunque en trabajadores de industrias insalubres puede alcanzar 80 ug/100 mL y la zinc-protoporfirina ser mayor de 4 ug/g de hemoglobina. El tratamiento se basa en quelar el plomo casi específicamente con edetato disódico monocálcico, sin olvidar la penicilamida ni los nuevos ácido dimercapto-succínico y ácido dimercapto-propano-sulfónico, que han mejorado las opciones terapéuticas, son menos tóxicos y más fáciles de administrar. Se resalta la importancia del problema plomo como prioritario en salud pública y ocupacional, además de coadyuvar al grave problema ecológico actual.

  6. Granites employed in Ávila-Spain. I. Chemical composition of the different types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Talegón, J.

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the different types of granite employed in the Cathedral and buildings of historic and artistic interest in Avila (Spain is studied. The differences among the various fades studied (grey, ochre and bloodstone granites are explained in terms of their different mineralogical composition, a result of the profound paleoweathering that occurred in the Iberian Hercynian Basement. The chemical differences between quarry stone and the samples taken from different parts of the buildings are due to weathering processes that occurred on the buildings. Among these, the precipitation of salts in humid zones and the effect of alkaline mortar on the varieties rich in opal are striking.

    Se estudia la composición química de los distintos tipos de granito empleados en la Catedral y otros edificios de interés histórico-artístico de Ávila. Las diferencias entre las distintas facies estudiadas (granito gris, ocre y piedra sangrante, se justifica por su diferente composición mineralógica, producto de las profundas paleoalteraciones ocurridas en el Zócalo Hercínico Ibérico. Las diferencias químicas entre la piedra de cantera y las muestras tomadas de distintas partes del monumento son debidas a los procesos de alteración ocurridos en el mismo, entre los que destaca la precipitación de sales en zonas con humedad e influencia de los morteros alcalinos en las variedades ricas en ópalo.

  7. Intraspecific variation in essential oil composition of the medicinal plant Lippia integrifolia (Verbenaceae). Evidence for five chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcial, Guillermo; de Lampasona, Marina P; Vega, Marta I; Lizarraga, Emilio; Viturro, Carmen I; Slanis, Alberto; Juárez, Miguel A; Elechosa, Miguel A; Catalán, César A N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Lippia integrifolia (incayuyo) are widely used in northwestern and central Argentina for their medicinal and aromatic properties. The essential oil composition of thirty-one wild populations of L. integrifolia covering most of its natural range was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. A total of one hundred and fifty two terpenoids were identified in the essential oils. Sesquiterpenoids were the dominant components in all but one of the collections analyzed, the only exception being a sample collected in San Juan province where monoterpenoids amounted to 51%. Five clearly defined chemotypes were observed. One possessed an exquisite and delicate sweet aroma with trans-davanone as dominant component (usually above 80%). Another with an exotic floral odour was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenoids based on the rare lippifoliane and africanane skeletons. The trans-davanone chemotype is the first report of an essential oil containing that sesquiterpene ketone as the main constituent. The absolute configuration of trans-davanone from L. integrifolia was established as 6S, 7S, 10S, the enantiomer of trans-davanone from 'davana oil' (Artemisia pallens). Wild plants belonging to trans-davanone and lippifolienone chemotypes were propagated and cultivated in the same parcel of land in Santa Maria, Catamarca. The essential oil compositions of the cultivated plants were essentially identical to the original plants in the wild, indicating that the essential oil composition is largely under genetic control. Specimens collected near the Bolivian border that initially were identified as L. boliviana Rusby yielded an essential oil practically identical to the trans-davanone chemotype of L. integrifolia supporting the recent view that L. integrifolia (Gris.) Hieron. and L. boliviana Rusby are synonymous. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. La couleur des palais royaux espagnols du xvie au xviiie siècle The colour of Spanish royal palaces from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hernández Ferrero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available En Espagne, l’architecture des châteaux royaux, monochrome, n’accorde aucune véritable importance esthétique à la couleur. Ainsi, le monastère de l’Escurial, également palais royal, utilise le gris (teinte quelque peu modifiée de nos jours comme élément conférant une uniformité architecturale. Mais, au cours du xviie siècle, les façades du nouveau palais du Buen Retiro reçoivent une coloration discrète qui vise à les mettre en valeur. La couleur intègre alors le vocabulaire des architectes pour finalement s’affirmer dans l’usage au xviiie siècle, comme nous le verrons avec les palais royaux de Madrid, du Pardo, de Riofrío et de La Granja de San Ildefonso. Ainsi se trouve contredite la théorie initiale d’absence de couleur dans les résidences royales d’Espagne. Cette évolution est le fruit de l’influence européenne sur l’art espagnol.In Spain, the monochromatic architecture of royal chateaux placed no real aesthetic importance on colour. The El Escurial monastery, also a royal palace, used the colour grey (a tone somewhat modified today to provide an architectural uniformity. But during the seventeenth century the facades of the new Buen Retiro palace were given a discreet colouring that aimed to enhance them. Colour began to be used by architects, and widely so in the eighteenth century, as we will see with the royal palaces of Madrid, El Pardo, Riofrío and La Granja de San Ildefonso – contradicting the initial theory that colour was absent from the royal residences of Spain. This development was a result of the European influence on Spanish art.

  9. El impacto de la crisis fiscal en el trabajo en negro: las provincias de noroeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Panaia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se enmarca dentro de los estudios de génesis, crecimiento y dinamismo del sector informal y aumento o disminución de la propensión a trabajar en condiciones de informalidad, ya sea por la forma de contrato (precariedad; por la falta de pago (evasión previsional o comunmente llamado «en gris» o « en negro» por su característica de clandestinidad (ilegalidad o por realizarse en unidades económicas informales. En el contexto económico de la década del '90, en la Argentina, con las nuevas medidas que construyen un nuevo perfil del mercado de trabajo, se analizan los determinantes del mercado de trabajo sin aportes utilizando los datos de la construcción de un mapa de propensión al trabajo en negro, en base a un método de análisis de inobservables de fenómenos de multiples causas y múltiples consecuencias. El mapa construido para todo el país, en una investigación anterior, sirve de base para un análisis más profundo de la zona del Noroeste Argentino, una de las regiones más desfavorecidas del país y donde la propensión al aumento del trabajo en negro es más intensa, contrastándolo con los del total del país.

  10. Deterioro de la percepción visual en el envejecimiento: Mecanismos cerebrales compensadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Rodríguez-Ferrer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Se han estudiado los efectos del envejecimiento normal en la percepción visual y la existencia de posibles mecanismos cerebrales compensadores. En tres grupos de 30 personas con edad media de 19,6, 42,6 y 65,7 años, se midieron los tiempos de respuesta a la presentación de estímulos (un círculo gris de 0.5 grados de diámetro de forma secuencial en 24 posiciones del campo visual, distribuidas en 8 coordenadas polares y 3 excentricidades (2.15, 3.83 y 5.53 grados de campo visual. El estímulo se presentó durante 100 milisegundos, con bajo y alto contraste (6% y 78%, respectivamente. Los experimentos se realizaron con y sin atención encubierta a los estímulos. Se observó un incremento progresivo de los tiempos de respuesta con la edad para los estímulos del 6% de contrate y de los presentados en la excentricidad de 5.53º. La atención redujo los tiempos de respuesta en los tres grupos de edad, especialmente en jóvenes y mayores. Los resultados muestran que durante el envejecimiento se produce un deterioro selectivo y progresivo en la percepción de estímulos de bajo contraste y que este deterioro es mayor en las zonas periféricas maculares. A partir de los sesenta años se potencia el desarrollo de mecanismos compensadores que implican una mayor eficacia de la atención visual.

  11. Is Hopkins’ “The Windhover” about Christ? A Negative Response, with a Whimsical Postscript Le poème de Hopkins « The Windhover » évoque-t-il le Christ ? Une réponse négative, avec un post-scriptum capricieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Feeney

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available On pense souvent que le célèbre sonnet de Hopkins « The Windhover » (1877, avec sa dédicace « Au Christ notre Seigneur », évoque autant le Christ que le faucon. Mais ce n’est qu’en 1884 que fut ajoutée la dédicace et le texte ne mentionne jamais le Christ. En outre, le poème peut parfaitement être compris comme une description du vol de l’oiseau comme un ravissement – d’abord sans heurts puis luttant contre le vent. Le spectateur admire l’oiseau et le trouve particulièrement glorieux dans sa lutte, le comparant à une charrue qui brille d’un vif éclat alors aux prises avec la terre et à de gris charbons ardents qui rougeoient quand ils se brisent en tombant dans l’âtre. Cette métaphore faite de trois éléments dans le sonnet célèbre donc la gloire de la lutte douloureuse et du triomphe sur l’adversité. Certains lecteurs ajoutent un quatrième élément à la métaphore – le Christ, mais le poème fait pleinement sens sans cet ajout, ce qui montre que le poème n’évoque finalement pas le Christ. Une dernière surprise : ce poème très grave est léger et enjoué dans l’incongruité comique des trois (ou quatre éléments de la métaphore.

  12. Análisis del color en los websites de productos sobre flamenco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Antonia Hurtado Guapo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El flamenco se ha convertido en los últimos años en un nicho de mercado en alza, tanto en España como fuera de ella. Teniendo en cuenta esto y la ya demostrada importancia del comercio electrónico, proliferan en Internet los sitios webs donde se venden, o al menos se exponen para su posterior venta, productos relacionados con el mundo del flamenco. El objetivo de esta investigación es el análisis del color de los websites de productos sobre flamenco, atendiendo a la percepción social y cultural del mismo, para orientar al diseñador web en el uso de los mismos en las páginas webs que realice con enfoque empresarial. En el siguiente estudio, se realiza una recuperación de tiendas en línea de venta de productos de flamenco exclusivamente, recuperándose 108 websites en el año 2014. Una vez localizadas las mismas se procede al análisis del color predominante como parte de la primera fase del comportamiento humano de la información. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el color elegido para el diseño de los sitios son el blanco (18,5%, seguido del negro (13% y el gris (10,2%. Se concluye que el color es una característica muy importante a tener en cuenta por el diseñador de tiendas on line de productos de flamenco.

  13. Les ailes de glossines, une carte d'identité de l'insecte ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De La Rocque S.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans les études de dynamique de population des glossines, vecteurs des trypanosomoses en Afrique, la taille de l'insecte peut être mise en relation avec leur longévité et leur capacité vectorielle. La taille des individus est généralement appréciée par la mesure de nervures remarquables de l'aile. Un logiciel semi-automatique a été développé par le Cirad et l'IRD pour réaliser une série de mesures à partir de photos numérisées des ailes. Il a été utilisé sur des populations sauvages de Glossina tachinoides Westwood et G. palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera : Glossinidae capturées autour de Bobo Dioulasso, au Burkina Faso. A partir d'une photo de l'aile, réalisée sous une loupe binoculaire et numérisée, le logiciel calcule la longueur des segments alaires, le rapport entre ces segments, la surface de la cellule "en hache" caractéristique des glossines et le niveau de gris de la membrane. Ces variables ont révélé leur intérêt taxonomique pour la diagnose entre ces espèces, mais également apportent des informations sur les caractéristiques physiologiques de la population étudiée.

  14. Estimación de la huella hídrica para un cultivo de pitahaya amarilla (Selenicereus megalanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alexandra Sánchez Bautista

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente proyecto evaluó el impacto de la huella hídrica dentro del proceso productivo de pitahaya amarilla (Selenicereus megalanthus. La huella hídrica es un indicador multidimensional que cuantifica el volumen de agua utilizado para la producción de un bien. El objetivo del presente estudio es cuantificar el consumo del recurso hídrico, para concientizar a los habitantes del municipio de Palestina, Huila sobre la importancia de la administración adecuada y eficiente del mismo. Adicional a esto, se diseñó un sistema de captación de agua para suplir las necesidades de la población en época de sequía y, de esta manera, no parar las actividades económicas por falta del recurso. Cada tipo de huella hídrica se determinó a partir de valores teóricos e información secundaria suministrada por un cultivador del municipio de Palestina. Estos valores se utilizaron como base para determinar las huellas azul, verde y gris del cultivo de pitahaya amarilla en su fase productiva. El estudio se realizó por medio del manejo del software CropWat 8.0 (propuesto por la FAO en el año 2010, el cual es un programa informático que permite calcular las necesidades hídricas de los cultivos, con base en la tierra, el clima y los datos del mismo cultivo.

  15. Requerimiento hídrico de la berenjena Solanum melongena L. bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez V. Carlos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar los requerimientos hídricos de dos genotipos de berenjena Solanum melongena L. bajo riego por goteo en el valle del Sinú medio, en época seca. El estudio se hizo en el Centro de Investigación Turipaná, de Corpoica, ubicado en Cereté, Córdoba, en un suelo clasificado como eutropet. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con un arreglo factorial de parcelas divididas, con dos genotipos de berenjena (Morada y Lila gris bajo cinco dosis de riego 1, 2, 4, 6 y 8 l∙planta -1∙día-1. Los resultados  demostraron que los genotipos de berenjena morada y lila gris se comportaron similarmente, sin presentar diferencias significativas. Hubo diferencias altamente significativas en las variables altura de planta, diámetro del tallo y rendimiento. El tratamiento de riego de 8 l∙planta

  16. Evaluación del Cisticerco Longicollis de Taenia Crassiceps como Fuente de Antígeno para el Diagnóstico de la Neurocisticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Humberto Botero Garcés

    2004-03-01

    >

    La sensibilidad del inmunoblot se ha visto afectada por el diseño metodológico, la evolución de la enfermedad y principalmente el tipo de antígeno utilizado Para evitar estos inconvenientes, algunos grupos de investigadores han realizado un gran esfuerzo por buscar cisticercos de otras Taenias que compartan moléculas con T. solium y puedan ser utilizados como antígenos heterólogos para las pruebas inmunológicas, por lo que se ha planteado la posibilidad de emplear el cisticerco longicollis de Taenia crassiceps. Taenia crassiceps es un metacéstodo que infecta de forma natural a los zorros rojos (Vulpes vulpes, lobos (Canis lupuis y otros pequeños roedores hasta ahora reportados en Europa y Ontario (20, presenta una alta tasa de reproducción, la cual se debe a la propiedad de reproducirse asexualmente por gemación en la zona opuesta al éscolex tanto en la parte externa como en la parte interna del cisticerco, una característica que muy pocos parásitos pueden desarrollar (4.

    Cuando se realizan infecciones orales experimentales de hospederos intermediarios incluyendo al ratón, los huevos ingeridos se desarrollan como metacéstodos en la fascia, el tejido muscular, el tejido peritoneal, el riñón, el pericardio, etc, mientras que cuando se realizan infecciones por inoculación intraperitoneal, los cisticercos se quedan confinados en la cavidad abdominal (4.

    Algunos estudios comparativos entre cisiticerco longicollis y cisticerco cellulosae han demostrado que los antígenos de T. crassiceps pueden ser tan sensibles y específicos como los de T. solium (1,9-12. García y colaboradores sugieren que el antígeno obtenido de T. solium puede ser sustituido por el antígeno obtenido de T. crassiceps pues además de reaccionar cruzadamente con los péptidos de c. cellulosae en las pruebas inmunológicas y de obtenerse una muy buena reproducibilidad, ofrece varias ventajas por cuanto puede ser fácilmente mantenido en animales de laboratorio, lo que representa la

  17. January: IBM 7094 programme for the resolution of cell problems in planar, spherical and cylindrical geometry using the double P{sub n} approximation; Janvier: programme de resolution sur IBM 7094 des problemes de cellules en geometrie plane, spherique et cylindrique dans l'approximation double P{sub n}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouyal, A; Tariel, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    milieux physiques < 100, nombre de regions geometriques <100, nombre de points <1000. 6) Approximations physiques: conditions aux limites reflexion, corps noir ou corps gris (restriction pour les geometries spherique et cylindrique). La diffusion peut comporter un terme d'anisotropie en geometrie cylindrique, 2 termes dans les autres geometries. Entree des donnees macroscopiques. 7) Duree: temps de calcul pour un maillage de 100 points: geometrie plane et spherique: Double P 1 = 1 seconde, D P 3 = 4 secondes; geometrie cylindrique: double P 1 = 2 secondes, D P 2 = 4 secondes. A ces temps il convient d'ajouter 3 secondes de temps de sorties. 8) Etat du programme: en production. (auteurs)

  18. Influence of temperature fluctuations on equilibrium ice sheet volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Mikkelsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting the future sea level relies on accurate modeling of the response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to changing temperatures. The surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS has a nonlinear response to warming. Cold and warm anomalies of equal size do not cancel out and it is therefore important to consider the effect of interannual fluctuations in temperature. We find that the steady-state volume of an ice sheet is biased toward larger size if interannual temperature fluctuations are not taken into account in numerical modeling of the ice sheet. We illustrate this in a simple ice sheet model and find that the equilibrium ice volume is approximately 1 m SLE (meters sea level equivalent smaller when the simple model is forced with fluctuating temperatures as opposed to a stable climate. It is therefore important to consider the effect of interannual temperature fluctuations when designing long experiments such as paleo-spin-ups. We show how the magnitude of the potential bias can be quantified statistically. For recent simulations of the Greenland Ice Sheet, we estimate the bias to be 30 Gt yr−1 (24–59 Gt yr−1, 95 % credibility for a warming of 3 °C above preindustrial values, or 13 % (10–25, 95 % credibility of the present-day rate of ice loss. Models of the Greenland Ice Sheet show a collapse threshold beyond which the ice sheet becomes unsustainable. The proximity of the threshold will be underestimated if temperature fluctuations are not taken into account. We estimate the bias to be 0.12 °C (0.10–0.18 °C, 95 % credibility for a recent estimate of the threshold. In light of our findings it is important to gauge the extent to which this increased variability will influence the mass balance of the ice sheets.

  19. Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and Categories (BCCs) in Three Dialects of the Spanish Language: Interaction Between Cultural and Universal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Julio; González-Perilli, Fernando; Prado-León, Lilia; Melnikova, Anna; Álvaro, Leticia; Collado, José A.; Moreira, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to identify and compare the Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and the Basic Color Categories (BCCs) included in three dialects (Castilian, Mexican, and Uruguayan) of the Spanish language. Monolexemic Elicited lists were used in the first experiment to identify the BCTs of each dialect. Eleven BCTs appeared for the Spanish and the Mexican, and twelve did so for the Uruguayan. The six primary BCTs (rojo “red,” verde “green,” amarillo “yellow,” azul “blue,” negro “black,” and blanco “white”) appeared in the three dialects. This occurred for only three derived BCTs (gris “gray,” naranja “orange,” and rosa “pink”) but not for the other five derived BCTs (celeste “sky blue,” marrón “brown,” café “brown,” morado “purple,” and violeta “purple”). Color transitions were used in the second experiment for two different tasks. Extremes naming task was used to determine the relation between two different dialects' BCTs: equality, equivalence or difference. The results provided the first evidence for marrón “brown” and café “brown” being equivalent terms for the same BCC (brown in English) as is the case of morado “purple” and violeta “purple.” Uruguayan celeste “sky blue” had no equivalent BCT in the other two dialects. Boundary delimitation task required the selection of the color in the boundary between two categories. The task was used to reasonably estimate the volume occupied by each BCC in the color space considering its chromatic area and lightness range. Excluding sky blue (celeste “sky blue”) and blue (azul “blue”), the other BCCs color volumes were similar across the three dialects. Uruguayan sky blue and blue volumes conjointly occupied the portion of the color space corresponding to the Castilian and Mexican blue BCC. The fact that the BCT celeste “sky blue” only appeared in Uruguayan very probably derived from specific cultural factors (the use of the

  20. RubriCalc. Un sistema gestor de evaluación transparente y formativa basado en rúbricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Domingo Galán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available RubriCalc es un gestor de evaluaciones diseñado para facilitar una evaluación formativa de calidad. Se basa en parte en el concepto de rúbrica o matriz de criterios de evaluación y niveles de consecución, pero extiende mucho sus posibilidades y versatilidad. Los criterios se pueden distribuir en partes e integrar anotaciones, matices o valoraciones relativas. Incorpora un algoritmo de cálculo de puntuación numérica muy flexible. Todo el programa se ha desarrollado combinando PHP, MySQL y AJAX, pensando siempre en la usabilidad para mejorar la experiencia de usuario en todos los aspectos, como facilidad de uso, rapidez de respuesta o automatismo de acciones repetitivas. A diferencia de otras herramientas relacionadas, la elaboración y edición de partes, criterios y niveles es muy sencilla y puede refinarse con el uso y la experiencia. La versión actual permite también el uso desde tabletas y dispositivos móviles e incorpora un sofisticado sistema para hacer llegar al alumno el resultado e informe. Una evaluación formativa de calidad necesita aportar información rica y detallada al alumno sobre su actuación en la actividad evaluada. La transparencia y objetividad en la evaluación cimenta la confianza y el propio valor formativo del proceso de evaluación. La generación de informes de evaluación detallados es compleja, consume tiempo y es casi inviable si aumenta el número de alumnos y/o de actividades evaluadas. El envío del resultado a los alumnos también genera mucho trabajo gris, tedioso para el evaluador pero invisible para el evaluado. La aplicación se ha diseñado desde la experiencia directa como docente, para resolver deficiencias observadas en otros productos, ampliar la versatilidad sobre el concepto básico e integrar todas las etapas del proceso hasta la recepción final del informe de evaluación. RubriCalc se viene utilizando durante más de cinco años, por distintos profesores y en diversas asignaturas, desde

  1. Evaluación de la Huella Hídrica del Lirio Japonés (Hemerocallis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri S. Vanegas Rojas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Colombia es uno de los países que se caracteriza por su gran riqueza en biodiversidad y fuentes hídricas; así mismo es uno de los 10 países con mayor disponibilidad de este recurso en el mundo. Los seres humanos consumen agua diariamente en todo lo que realizan (bienes, productos, servicios. Es así, como la huella hídrica se utiliza como un indicador del consumo directo o indirecto del agua, tanto en el ámbito doméstico como en el industrial. Esta permite determinar el volumen total de agua dulce que se emplea para la elaboración de bienes, en servicios consumidos por los individuos o en una actividad en particular. El objetivo de esta investigación se centró en evaluar la huella hídrica para la producción de flores de Lirio Japonés (Hemerocallis en un predio del municipio de Rondon – Boyacá (Colombia. La propuesta metodológica planteada por los autores para este estudio consta de tres fases: el diagnostico, el modelamiento y el análisis de resultados. El resultado obtenido para la huella hídrica azul es 1.76×10-4L/tallo, para la huella verde es 1×10-8l/tallo y para la huella gris es 2.06x10-4L/ tallo. Finalmente, una huella hídrica total es de 3,82×10-4L/tallo. En conclusión, la huella hídrica total del cultivo de Lirio Japonés (7.64x10-3m3/ton en comparación con la huella hídrica por producción de flores (900m3/ton, aporta tan solo el 0.00085% del total, por lo cual se puede afirmar que este cultivo es uno de los que tiene un menor aporte en dicha huella total para la producción de flores en Colombia.

  2. Determinación de la Huella Hídrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D. Díaz Fonseca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La huella hídrica es un indicador en el ámbito mundial por ser la principal herramienta para identificar de manera cuantitativa la relación del hombre con el agua, y sus posibles impactos sobre el recurso hídrico. Esta investigación se desarrolló con el objetivo de determinar la huella hídrica del cultivo de algodón en un predio del municipio de Natagaima localizado en el departamento de Tolima. Se optó por una metodología cualitativa y cuantitativa, seccionada en tres fases, con el fin de determinar la presión ejercida sobre el recurso hídrico debido a la actividad agrícola del cultivo de algodón. La primera fase consistió en el diagnóstico de los ciclos de consumo de agua en el proceso productivo del cultivo de algodón. En la segunda fase, mediante la simu- lación del programa CropWat 8.0, se calculó la huella hídrica total (azul, verde y gris del cultivo de algodón teniendo en cuenta los datos de la estación meteorológica Anchique, facilitados por el IDEAM. Y, por último, en la fase 3, se realizaron los respectivos análisis, para así reconocer los procesos antrópicos que afectan en cada tipo de huella las actividades agrarias para un cultivo de algodón. Se propuso la implementación del sistema de riego para la compensación hídrica del cultivo de algodón en las épocas más críticas, recomen- dando el sistema de riego por goteo por tener este un mayor rendimiento y ser más eficiente en la distribución del agua con mínimos costos de inversión, lo que genera mayor cobertura al campo de cultivo de algodón.

  3. Edificio de oficinas para el Sacramento Municipal Utility District – Smud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyfuss & Blackford, Arquitectos

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available This building takes advantage of the uneveness of the ground, and seeks to enhance the attractiveness of the landscape. It includes a cafeteria, an auditorium for 190 persons, exhibition hall, space for the various departments, and other facilities. Allowance has been made for a 30% increase in the staff. One floor level has been constructed, but is not fully completed, and there is the possibility of adding another one. There is parking space for 720 automobiles. The glass walls are specially fitted with a protection, whereby the sun does not shine on the office tables. The external colour of the building changes continuously, for the aluminium reflects or absorbs the sun, depending on the time of day and the season of the year: this colour changes from bronze to quartz tone, under the effect of the sun, and from white to grey in the shade. The green turf emphasizes the delicate tones of the building. The basic requirements have been satisfied by means of a beautiful and harmonious design, which constitutes an altogether important architectural unit.Ha sido construido aprovechando los desniveles del ter reno para crear un paisaje interesante. Dispone de: cafetería, auditorio para 190 personas, sala de exposición, espacios para los distintos departamentos, etc. Se ha previsto pueda servir para un aumento de un 30% de empleados, existiendo una planta construida, pero no acabada, y la posibilidad de construir otra. Estacionamiento con capacidad para 720 coches. Toda la zona acristalada está protegida mediante dispositivos que impiden a los rayos solares incidir sobre las mesas de trabajo. El color exterior del edificio cambia continuamente, ya que el aluminio refleja o absorbe el sol, según las horas del día o la época del año, pasando de un tono bronceado a un blanco cuarcífero. En la sombra, del blanco al gris. Las fajas verdes de césped destacan la brillante delicadeza de las paredes. En forma bella y armoniosa han sido satisfechas las

  4. Mamíferos silvestres de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel en Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F. Wild mammals of Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Ciudad Universitaria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Hortelano-Moncada

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario de las especies de mamíferos que habitan en la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de registros de colecciones científicas, de recolectas recientes en el área y de consultas en literatura especializada. Los resultados comprenden 628 registros acumulados desde 1943 y corresponden a 33 especies, agrupadas en 28 géneros, 15 familias y 6 órdenes de mamíferos. La ardilla gris (Sciurus aureogaster nigrescens y el ratón del altiplano (Peromyscus melanophrys melanophrys se registran por primera vez para la REPSA; asimismo, existen 2 registros que están publicados pero no listados en los inventarios previos a la reserva, el murciélago colorado, Lasiurus blossevillii teliotis, y el cuinique, Spermophilus adocetus adocetus; en las categorías de riesgo se encuentran como amenazadas 2 especies y 1 en la de protección especial, y hay 7 endémicas de México. La Reserva es uno de los últimos reductos de material genético de especies cuya localidad tipo se encuentra en la cuenca de México. El componente mastofaunístico de la zona es importante para el mantenimiento de la biodiversidad, por lo que el estudio y la protección de este ecosistema al interior de la ciudad de México debe continuarse.This paper documents the mammals from the Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel. Data were gathered from records in mammal collections, the specialized literature, and through collecting efforts in the area. Records spanning 1943 to the present document the presence of 33 species, 28 genera, 15 families, and 6 orders of mammals. One squirrel and one mouse (Sciurus aureogaster nigrescens, and Peromyscus m. melanophrys are reported for the first time for the reserve. Two addtional records have been previously published but have not been included in previous inventories for the reserve: the red bat, Lasiurus blossevillii teliotis and the cuinique, Spermophilus adocetus

  5. Mansion Nolan en Worcester Park - Surrey - Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout & Litchfield, Arquitectos

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available The site is the end plot in a cul-de-sac of new houses, in the immediate neighbourhood of an old convent. The house is designed as two identical flats: — on the ground floor the entrance hall, the children's bedrooms, bathroom, dining room and kitchen, — on the first floor the parents bedroom with bathroom suite and living room, both open onto a roof terrace. The walls are constructed of while sandlime bricks with white pointing, cavity and light-weight concrete insulating blocks internally. The roofs are externally clad with natural slate and internally with Columbian Pine boarding. The slope of the roof is exposed internally. Walls are white painted throughout and the floors are covered with grey haircord carpet. The staircase is made of Columbian Pine and is open tread. Heating is by gas fired ducted warm air.Esta vivienda se ha construido en la parcela final de un fondo de saco, situado en las proximidades de un antiguo convento. El edificio consta de dos plantas: - en la baja se han dispuesto, además de la entrada, los dormitorios de los niños, un cuarto de baño, el comedor y la cocina, y - en la primera, el dormitorio de los padres, con cuarto de baño y una sala de estar, abiertos ambos sobre amplias terrazas. Sistema constructivo: muros exteriores construidos con ladrillo blanco, rejuntados con mortero blanco; los muros interiores y huecos se realizaron con placas o bloques de hormigón ligero aislado, pintados de blanco posteriormente. En el interior se respetó la inclinación de la cubierta, revistiéndola con un entablado de pino colombiano; en el exterior se utilizó un recubrimiento de pizarra natural. Los suelos están enmoquetados, con alfombras de pelo, de color gris. La calefacción se consigue por conducciones de aire caliente, producido por estufa de gas.

  6. The Macael landscape in the context of a possible candidate as Global Heritage Stone Province (Almería, SE of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Domínguez, Rafael; Pereira Gómez, Dolores; Carrillo, Gloria; Cruz, Anasol

    2017-04-01

    The beginning of the marble extraction activity in the Macael Area (Almería, South of Spain) date back 4000 years ago, and since then, it has been used in several and important monuments, principally, in Spain. The quality of the works carried out is more than proven. During this time, the extraction has alternated periods of activity with others of lesser or none-activity, ruling both the lives of the inhabitants of the region, and its landscape. The most well-known material extracted in the region, with international recognition, is marble "Blanco Macael" (White Macael), traditionally compared with "Carrara marble". But there are other marbles such as "Amarillo Macael", "Gris Macael" or "Anasol", as well as serpentinites that are referred as "Verde Macael" or "Verde Almería". All of them have been employed in many recent important buildings, at national and international level. The problem of this intensive activity through the years, from the point of view of the preservation of the old landscapes, is that the modern quarries have replaced the old ones, leaving few remains of the old quarries. In some cases it is possible to see Muslim vestiges (e.g. "Puntilla"), but this is an exception. Notwithstanding, the landscape of the region has a high value due to the combination of high mountains, high faces with a lot of banks, waste dumps and full restored areas. Nowadays, the surface occupied by mining exploitation, only in the closer area to Macael village, is more 8.5 km2, with more than forty active quarries and many abandoned ones. These features have helped to configure a singular and beautiful landscape, possibly unique in Spain, in relation with an historic mining activity. This is an important added value to the possible candidature of the "Blanco Macael" as a "Global Heritage Stone Resource" and the "Macael Region" as a "Global Heritage Stone Province", mostly if we consider that these designations must take into consideration the social importance of the

  7. Monitoring meteorological spatial variability in viticulture using a low-cost Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matese, Alessandro; Crisci, Alfonso; Di Gennaro, Filippo; Primicerio, Jacopo; Tomasi, Diego; Guidoni, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    In a long-term perspective, the current global agricultural scenario will be characterize by critical issues in terms of water resource management and environmental protection. The concept of sustainable agriculture would become crucial at reducing waste, optimizing the use of pesticides and fertilizers to crops real needs. This can be achieved through a minimum-scale monitoring of the crop physiologic status and the environmental parameters that characterize the microclimate. Viticulture is often subject to high variability within the same vineyard, thus becomes important to monitor this heterogeneity to allow a site-specific management and maximize the sustainability and quality of production. Meteorological variability expressed both at vineyard scale (mesoclimate) and at single plant level (microclimate) plays an important role during the grape ripening process. The aim of this work was to compare temperature, humidity and solar radiation measurements at different spatial scales. The measurements were assessed for two seasons (2011, 2012) in two vineyards of the Veneto region (North-East Italy), planted with Pinot gris and Cabernet Sauvignon using a specially designed and developed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The WSN consists of various levels: the Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation; the Farm/Server level takes care of storing data on a server, data processing and graphic rendering. Nodes level is based on a network of peripheral nodes consisting of a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The system was able to monitor the agrometeorological parameters in the vineyard: solar radiation, air temperature and air humidity. Different sources of spatial variation were studied, from meso-scale to micro-scale. A widespread investigation was conducted, building a factorial design able to evidence the role played by any factor influencing the physical environment in the vineyard, such as the surrounding climate

  8. Seasonal monitoring of melt and accumulation within the deep percolation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet and comparison with simulations of regional climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Achim; Eisen, Olaf; MacFerrin, Michael; Tedesco, Marco; Fettweis, Xavier

    2018-06-01

    Increasing melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) recorded over the past several years has resulted in significant changes of the percolation regime of the ice sheet. It remains unclear whether Greenland's percolation zone will act as a meltwater buffer in the near future through gradually filling all pore space or if near-surface refreezing causes the formation of impermeable layers, which provoke lateral runoff. Homogeneous ice layers within perennial firn, as well as near-surface ice layers of several meter thickness have been observed in firn cores. Because firn coring is a destructive method, deriving stratigraphic changes in firn and allocation of summer melt events is challenging. To overcome this deficit and provide continuous data for model evaluations on snow and firn density, temporal changes in liquid water content and depths of water infiltration, we installed an upward-looking radar system (upGPR) 3.4 m below the snow surface in May 2016 close to Camp Raven (66.4779° N, 46.2856° W) at 2120 m a.s.l. The radar is capable of quasi-continuously monitoring changes in snow and firn stratigraphy, which occur above the antennas. For summer 2016, we observed four major melt events, which routed liquid water into various depths beneath the surface. The last event in mid-August resulted in the deepest percolation down to about 2.3 m beneath the surface. Comparisons with simulations from the regional climate model MAR are in very good agreement in terms of seasonal changes in accumulation and timing of onset of melt. However, neither bulk density of near-surface layers nor the amounts of liquid water and percolation depths predicted by MAR correspond with upGPR data. Radar data and records of a nearby thermistor string, in contrast, matched very well for both timing and depth of temperature changes and observed water percolations. All four melt events transferred a cumulative mass of 56 kg m-2 into firn beneath the summer surface of 2015. We find that

  9. Wine from the Netherlands: investigating the effect of soil-type on taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, Geert-Jan; Maljers, Denise; Beurskens, Stan

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade professional viticulture has seen a strong increase in the Netherlands, reaching 270 ha in 2015. Although on a European scale this is a small area, the number of prize-winning quality wines is steadily growing. This growth can largely be ascribed to new grape varieties from Germany and Switzerland, that are better adapted to the cooler and moister climate at the northern fringe of the viticultural zone, as well as to increasing viticultural expertise. The distribution of vineyards across the Netherlands shows that they occur on a plethora of substrates. Dutch substrate is dominated by typical lowland deposits such as fluvial and marine sands and clays and aeolian sands. Unlike many European countries, bedrock is scarce. Only in the south-eastern extremity and in the east of the country, carbonate bedrock is present at or near the surface. This wide variety of substrate triggered our interest in the effect of the various soil-types on the smell and taste characteristics of wines. An effect which is often mentioned concerning well-known foreign wines. We wondered whether an Auxerrois wine from carbonate rocks tastes significantly different from a wine from the same grape variety from loess. And how about a Johanniter wine from fluvial deposits versus windblown sands? And what happens if you make wine in exactly the same way with the same grape variety and from the same vineyard, but with three different yeast types? To answer our questions, we selected ten Dutch vineyards with varying soil-types and the grape varieties Auxerrois and Johanniter. In October 2014 we harvested the grapes and wine was made under controlled identical conditions (in a double setup). The wines were scientifically tested at the institute of Viticulture and Oenology in Neustadt, Germany. The results show no significant effect of soil-type on the smell and taste of Dutch wines in our experiment. Varying yeast types (Cryarome, 3079, VL2) used on Souvignier Gris grapes from

  10. Efectividad de las visitas domiciliarias en ancianos sobre el estado funcional, mortalidad e ingreso en residencias de larga estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rubio Acuña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregunta clínica: ¿en adultos mayores, las visitas domiciliarias comparadas con el control habitual son efectivas para evitar la declinación de la funcionalidad, disminuir la mortalidad y el ingreso a residencias de larga estancia? Artículo: Huss A, Stuck A, Rubenstein L, Egger M, Clough-Gorr K. Multidimensional Preventive Home Visit Programs for Comunity-Dwelling Olders Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008; 63 (3: 298-307. Resumen del estudio: revisión sistemática que pretende resumir el efecto de los programas de visitas domiciliarias en el ingreso en residencias de larga estancia, el estado funcional y mortalidad. Las visitas domiciliarias no mostraron efectividad en la admisión en residencias de larga estancia [OR 0,86 (0,68- 1,10]. El deterioro funcional se redujo solo cuando incluía una valoración multidimensional y examen clínico inicial [OR 0,64 (0,48-0,87]. Solo existió una disminución de la mortalidad en los adultos mayores 77 años que recibían visitas domiciliarias [OR 0,74 (0,58 a 0,94]. Comentario: el estudio presenta suficiente validez, la estrategia de búsqueda fue amplia y completa, sin restricción de idioma e incluyó literatura gris. Fue evaluada la calidad de los estudios considerando la randomización, ocultamiento de la secuencia y ciego. Para valorar la heterogeneidad se utilizó un indicador de medición de inconsistencia y el valor p. A pesar de que los resultados de esta RS son bastantes modestos en relación a la funcionalidad y la mortalidad, crear un programa de visitas domiciliarias en ancianos seria beneficioso, considerando la importancia de la funcionalidad en la calidad de vida de estos.

  11. Educación para la prevención del VIH destinada a jóvenes: un análisis desde la Determinación Social de la Salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harold Estrada Montoya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: en América Latina, l@s jóvenes son el grupo quepresenta mayor crecimiento de prevalencia de VIH o del riesgo deadquirirlo. La gente joven es particularmente vulnerable debidoa sus comportamientos sexuales; uso de drogas ilícitas; falta deacceso a los servicios educativos y de salud; factores culturales,económicos y sociales; violencia estructural, marginalización ypobreza. Metodología: se realizó una revisión sistemática de laliteratura sobre evaluaciones de programas educativos sobre VIHdestinados a jóvenes en las bases de datos internacionales durantecuatro años. Se consultaron libros especializados en educación,documentos primarios y secundarios, y literatura gris, paraidentificar los principales factores considerados exitosos y quepuedan ser implementados en América Latina, teniendo en cuentasu contexto histórico y político. Resultados: la revisión identificó120 documentos relacionados con la evaluación de programaseducativos sobre VIH. Los programas fueron consideradosexitosos si: excedían la metodología ABC (Abstinencia, Ser fiel yUso de condón; estaban soportados por autoridades nacionaleso regionales; usaban métodos de instrucción participativa;presentaban información comprensiva; incluían educacióngeneral sobre VIH, prácticas de reducción de riesgo, métodos decontracepción y uso de condón, respeto por la diversidad sexual yde género; y finalmente garantizar la adherencia y permanencia delos jóvenes en los programas. Conclusiones: los programas exitososen VIH, promueven la adquisición de procesos y comportamientosprotectores enfocándose en los procesos históricos, contextuales,psico-sociales y sexuales que afectan el comportamiento y lasalud. Una educación comprometida con la reconstrucción dela ciudadanía de l@s jóvenes contribuirá a la contención de lapandemia y sus impactos.

  12. Clinical outcomes, health resource use, and cost in patients with early versus late dual or triple anti-platelet treatment for acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Howard; Mollon, Patrick; Lian, Jean; Navaratnam, Prakash

    2013-08-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) guidelines recommend early dual anti-platelet therapy (thienopyridines + acetylsalicylic acid [aspirin]). However, triple therapy (thienopyridines + aspirin + glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors [GRIs]) has shown benefit in clinical trials. This study assessed real-world ACS treatment patterns and outcomes in the acute care setting. A retrospective analysis of patients admitted to hospital with ACS (index event) from January 2007 to December 2009 was conducted (Thomson's MarketScan Hospital Drug Database). Eligible patients were ≥18 years of age, of either sex, and had primary admission and discharge diagnoses of ACS. Cohorts were defined by anti-platelet treatment and then by the timing of treatment initiation (early initiation: within ≤2 days of admission; late initiation: ≥2 days post-admission). Patient characteristics, clinical outcomes, resource utilization, and costs were assessed using descriptive statistics. A total of 249,907 eligible patients were placed into four treatment cohorts (aspirin assumed for all patients): aspirin only; clopidogrel only (dual therapy); GRI only (dual therapy); and clopidogrel + GRI (triple therapy). Patients in the 'clopidogrel-only' cohort were more likely to be older, female, and have more co-morbidities than those in other cohorts; stroke (6.2 %) and re-hospitalization (15.4 %) rates were higher than in the 'GRI-only' and 'triple therapy' cohorts. The GRI-only cohort had higher major bleeding rates (3.3 %), mortality (7.6 %), and costs ($US21,975 [year 2010 values]) than the clopidogrel-only and triple-therapy cohorts. Late initiation cohorts were more likely to be older, female, and have more co-morbidities than early initiation cohorts. Major bleeding was more likely with GRI-only patients (regardless of initiation timing) than with other cohorts. Late-treated clopidogrel-only patients had higher rates of stroke (6.9 %), ACS-related re-admissions (6.1 %), and all

  13. Somatic embryogenesis from seeds in a broad range of Vitis vinifera L. varieties: rescue of true-to-type virus-free plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Pedro, Tània; Gammoudi, Najet; Peiró, Rosa; Olmos, Antonio; Gisbert, Carmina

    2017-11-29

    Somatic embryogenesis is the preferred method for cell to plant regeneration in Vitis vinifera L. However, low frequencies of plant embryo conversion are commonly found. In a previous work we obtained from cut-seeds of a grapevine infected with the Grapevine leafroll associated viruses 1 and 3 (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3), high rates of direct regeneration, embryo plant conversion and sanitation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of this procedure for regeneration of other grapevine varieties which include some infected with one to three common grapevine viruses (GLRaV-3, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV)). As grapevine is highly heterozygous, it was necessary to select from among the virus-free plants those that regenerated from mother tissues around the embryo, (true-to-type). Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration were achieved in a first experiment, using cut-seeds from the 14 grapevine varieties Airén, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Mencía, Merlot, Monastrell, Petit Verdot, Pinot Blanc (infected by GFLV and GFkV), Pinot Gris, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Tempranillo (infected by GFLV), and Verdil. All regenerated plants were confirmed to be free of GFkV whereas at least 68% sanitation was obtained for GFLV. The SSR profiles of the virus-free plants showed, in both varieties, around 10% regeneration from mother tissue (the same genetic make-up as the mother plant). In a second experiment, this procedure was used to sanitize the varieties Cabernet Franc, Godello, Merlot and Valencí Blanc infected by GLRaV-3, GFkV and/or GFLV. Cut-seeds can be used as explants for embryogenesis induction and plant conversion in a broad range of grapevine varieties. The high regeneration rates obtained with this procedure facilitate the posterior selection of true-to-type virus-free plants. A sanitation rate of 100% was obtained for GFkV as this virus is not seed-transmitted. However, the presence of GLRaV-3 and GFLV in

  14. Análisis de la absorción de hidrógeno y de su influencia en el comportamiento mecánico de cinco aleaciones férreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albístur-Goñi, A.

    2008-04-01

    espectroscopía óptica de descarga luminiscente (EODL para evaluar la concentración de hidrógeno absorbido por las muestras en función del tiempo y de la profundidad. Se puede deducir del innovador uso de esta técnica no sólo que la difusividad del hidrógeno en las fundiciones dúctiles es mayor que en los aceros o que en la fundición gris, sino también que el hidrógeno interacciona con distintos lugares de atrapamiento.

  15. A propósito de la Bartonelosis en una Máscara Ecuatoriana Precolombina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Sotomayor Tribín

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción

    La bartonelosis, llamada también enfermedad de Carrión, fiebre de Oroya y Verruga peruana, se diagnosticó por primera vez, fuera del Perú, en Colombia, departamento de Nariño, y Ecuador, provincia de Loja, en los años de 1939 y 1940 por Patiño y Montalván, respectivamente.

    El bacilo fue llamado por Strong en 1915 Bartonella bacilliformis en honor al médico peruano Alberto Barton que lo vio por primera vez en 1909.

    Los vectores principales son algunos insectos Phebotomus.

    La enfermedad confinada a los Andes entre las latitudes 2 norte y 13 sur y altitudes de 800 a 3.000 metros, con seguridad azotó a los pueblos precolombinos de esas zonas, como se ve en estatuillas cerámicas preincaicas peruanas que aparecen reproducidas en textos de Historia de la Medicina 1,2.3,4.

    El propósito del presente trabajo es mostrar otra evidencia de esa enfermedad en el arte precolombino pero ya no procedente del Perú sino del Ecuador y no de una estatuilla sino de una máscara.

    Material
    Se presenta una máscara completa del rostro humano, propiedad del autor, de cerámica gris terracota, de 21.5 cm de ancho, 17 cm de alto, cóncava en su superficie posterior, con agujeros redondos en el sitio correspondiente a las pupilas y escleras completas, nariz, boca entreabierta y orejas de forma triangular. Tiene nariguera. En toda la superficie facial están representados 47 nódulos umbilicados de un promedio de 0.6 cm de diámetro con restos de pintura azul.

    La máscara avalada en su autenticidad por varios expertos de arte precolombino, pertenece a la cultura Jama Coaque del Ecuador, al sur de la ciudad de Esmeraldas y al norte de la Bahía de Caraquez, en la costa, que floreció como un Desarrollo Regional entre los 400 años a.C. y los 500 d.C.5...

  16. Basic Color Terms (BCTs and Categories (BCCs in Three Dialects of the Spanish Language: Interaction Between Cultural and Universal Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Lillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to identify and compare the Basic Color Terms (BCTs and the Basic Color Categories (BCCs included in three dialects (Castilian, Mexican, and Uruguayan of the Spanish language. Monolexemic Elicited lists were used in the first experiment to identify the BCTs of each dialect. Eleven BCTs appeared for the Spanish and the Mexican, and twelve did so for the Uruguayan. The six primary BCTs (rojo “red,” verde “green,” amarillo “yellow,” azul “blue,” negro “black,” and blanco “white” appeared in the three dialects. This occurred for only three derived BCTs (gris “gray,” naranja “orange,” and rosa “pink” but not for the other five derived BCTs (celeste “sky blue,” marrón “brown,” café “brown,” morado “purple,” and violeta “purple”. Color transitions were used in the second experiment for two different tasks. Extremes naming task was used to determine the relation between two different dialects' BCTs: equality, equivalence or difference. The results provided the first evidence for marrón “brown” and café “brown” being equivalent terms for the same BCC (brown in English as is the case of morado “purple” and violeta “purple.” Uruguayan celeste “sky blue” had no equivalent BCT in the other two dialects. Boundary delimitation task required the selection of the color in the boundary between two categories. The task was used to reasonably estimate the volume occupied by each BCC in the color space considering its chromatic area and lightness range. Excluding sky blue (celeste “sky blue” and blue (azul “blue”, the other BCCs color volumes were similar across the three dialects. Uruguayan sky blue and blue volumes conjointly occupied the portion of the color space corresponding to the Castilian and Mexican blue BCC. The fact that the BCT celeste “sky blue” only appeared in Uruguayan very probably derived from specific cultural factors (the

  17. Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and Categories (BCCs) in Three Dialects of the Spanish Language: Interaction Between Cultural and Universal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Julio; González-Perilli, Fernando; Prado-León, Lilia; Melnikova, Anna; Álvaro, Leticia; Collado, José A; Moreira, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to identify and compare the Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and the Basic Color Categories (BCCs) included in three dialects (Castilian, Mexican, and Uruguayan) of the Spanish language. Monolexemic Elicited lists were used in the first experiment to identify the BCTs of each dialect. Eleven BCTs appeared for the Spanish and the Mexican, and twelve did so for the Uruguayan. The six primary BCTs ( rojo "red," verde "green," amarillo "yellow," azul "blue," negro "black," and blanco "white") appeared in the three dialects. This occurred for only three derived BCTs ( gris "gray," naranja "orange," and rosa "pink") but not for the other five derived BCTs ( celeste "sky blue," marrón "brown," café "brown," morado "purple," and violeta "purple"). Color transitions were used in the second experiment for two different tasks. Extremes naming task was used to determine the relation between two different dialects' BCTs: equality, equivalence or difference. The results provided the first evidence for marrón "brown" and café "brown" being equivalent terms for the same BCC (brown in English) as is the case of morado "purple" and violeta "purple." Uruguayan celeste "sky blue" had no equivalent BCT in the other two dialects. Boundary delimitation task required the selection of the color in the boundary between two categories. The task was used to reasonably estimate the volume occupied by each BCC in the color space considering its chromatic area and lightness range. Excluding sky blue ( celeste "sky blue") and blue ( azul "blue"), the other BCCs color volumes were similar across the three dialects. Uruguayan sky blue and blue volumes conjointly occupied the portion of the color space corresponding to the Castilian and Mexican blue BCC. The fact that the BCT celeste "sky blue" only appeared in Uruguayan very probably derived from specific cultural factors (the use of the color in the flags and the arrival of an important number of Italian immigrants

  18. Mindfulness. Una propuesta de aplicación en rehabilitación neuropsicológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jimena Sarmiento-Bolaños

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de la meditación, las personas se hacen conscientes de lo que sucede en su cuerpo y en su mente, aceptando las experiencias presentes tal y como estas son y logrando una mejor comprensión de la verdadera naturaleza de las cosas. Las prácticas de meditación y su inclusión como técnica de intervención han generado gran interés por identificar los mecanismos cerebrales a través de los cuales dichas prácticas actúan. Diferentes estudios plantean que la práctica de la meditación se asocia con la utilización de diversas redes neuronales así como con cambios en la estructura y el funcionamiento cerebral, representados en mayor concentración de sustancia gris en estructuras como el hipocampo y la ínsula anterior derecha, corteza órbito-frontal y mayor participación de la corteza cingulada anterior (ACC. Estos estudios y otros no relacionados muestran las múltiples implicaciones de la práctica regular de mindfulness en las estructuras y funciones del cerebro y su relación con ciertos estados observables y subjetivos en las personas que lo practican. Dicha evidencia propició la inclusión de mindfulness en la terapia psicológica, en la cual se han desarrollado múltiples aplicaciones y estudios dirigidos a probar su efectividad en el tratamiento de problemas afectivos, emocionales, manejo de crisis, habilidades sociales, creatividad verbal, adicciones y manejo del craving, estrés en familiares y/o cuidadores de pacientes con demencia, entre otros. No obstante, en rehabilitación neuropsicológica no hay propuestas formales de intervención, siendo este el objetivo del presente trabajo y teniendo como base el modelo histórico cultural en neuropsicología y las posturas de A. R. Luria.

  19. Ariadne´s house (Pompeii, Italy wall paintings: A multidisciplinary study of its present state focused on a future restoration and preventive conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, M.C.

    2013-09-01

    modernos de anteriores restauraciones afectaban a las pinturas, también se describe una fina capa superficial de tonalidad grisácea procedente de contaminantes ambientales.

  20. Isolation and Selection of Epiphytic Yeast for Biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea Pers. on Table Grapes Aislación y Selección de Levaduras Epífitas para el Biocontrol de Botrytis cinerea Pers. en Uva de Mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea Pers., the causal agent of gray mold, infects more than 200 plant species. This pathogen has traditionally been controlled by fungicides. However, with the increasing demand for pesticide-free foods new control strategies are needed. The objective of this study was to isolate and select grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. epiphytic yeasts for the biocontrol of B. cinerea in table grapes. Of the total isolated yeasts (n = 256, 32 exhibited mycelial growth inhibition in dual cultures with a halo > 4 mm, and eight of these isolates inhibited > 90% of conidial germination. When evaluating increasing concentrations on conidial germination inhibition, a dose-dependent response was observed with EC90 values from 0.45 x 10(5 to 0.22 x 10(8 cells mL-1. The antagonistic activity of six yeasts against B. cinerea in table grape berries 'Flame Seedless' increased as the yeast colonization time increased from 1 to 24 h on the berries, resulting in a higher biocontrol activity on B. cinerea. These results show the effectiveness of grapevine epiphytic yeasts as biocontrol agents of B. cinerea on table grapes.Botrytis cinerea Pers., agente causal de la pudrición gris, infecta a más de 200 especies vegetales. Tradicionalmente, este patógeno ha sido controlado con fungicidas; sin embargo, la creciente demanda de alimentos libres de pesticidas hace necesario el uso de nuevas estrategias de control. El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar y seleccionar levaduras epífitas de vid (Vitis vinifera L. para el biocontrol de B. cinerea en uva de mesa. Del total de levaduras aisladas (n = 256, 32 presentaron inhibición del crecimiento micelial, en cultivos duales, con un halo > 4 mm y ocho de estos aislamientos inhibieron la germinación de conidias > 90%. Al evaluar concentraciones crecientes de levaduras sobre la inhibición de la germinación de conidias, se observó una respuesta dosis-dependiente, con valores de CE90 de 0,45 x 10(5 a 0,22 x 10(8 c

  1. Mineralogy of the silica-epidote mineralized zone (SEMZ) in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir, B.C., Mexico; Mineralogia de la zona mineralizada de silice-epidota (ZMSE) del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Georgina; Aragon, Alfonso; Portugal, Enrique; Arellano; Victor M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: gim@iie.org.mx; Leon, Jesus de; Alvarez, Julio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, B.C. (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    The distribution of hydrothermal minerals, mineral assemblages and fluid inclusion data were taken from drill cuttings from the production zone of wells all over the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The production zone has been termed the silica-epidote mineralized zone (SEMZ), and is located in the deep part of the gray shale where thick layers of sandstone are found. Common mineral assemblages show three temperature ranges in the SEMZ: <200 degrees Celsius, 200-250 degrees Celsius and 250-300 degrees Celsius. The first range is characterized by clays, calcite and quartz; the second by quartz, epidote, chlorite and mica, and the third by epidote, amphibole, illite and chlorite. The study of fluid inclusions in authigenic grain quartz has shown two-phase fluid inclusions (liquid + vapor) of different salinities. A wide range exists of homogenization temperatures (Th) and for some wells there is a good agreement between Th and direct temperature measurements. [Spanish] Se determino la distribucion de minerales hidrotermales y las asociaciones parageneticas y se realizo el estudio microtermometrico de inclusiones fluidas a partir de recortes de perforacion de pozos de las distintas areas del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto. Las muestras de recortes y nucleos de perforacion estudiados provienen de la zona de produccion a la que se le ha denominado Zona Mineralizada de Silice-Epidota (ZMSE), que se encuentra en la parte profunda de la lutita gris con importantes horizontes de areniscas. En esta zona las asociaciones parageneticas mas comunes han mostrado tres intervalos de temperatura para la ZMSE: <200 degrees Celsius, 200-250 degrees Celsius, 250-300 degrees Celsius. El primer intervalo esta caracterizado principalmente por arcillas, calcita y cuarzo; el segundo por cuarzo, epidota, clorita y micas, y el tercero por epidota, anfiboles, illita y clorita. El estudio de inclusiones fluidas en fragmentos de cuarzo autigenico mostro la presencia de inclusiones de dos fases

  2. Granuloma central de células gigantes Giant cells central granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelén María Portelles Massó

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El granuloma reparativo central de células gigantes es una lesión proliferativa no neoplásica de etiología desconocida. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 40 años de edad, portador de prótesis parcial superior. Fue remitido al Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "V. I. Lenin" por presentar aumento de volumen en reborde alveolar superior, de color rojo grisáceo y que provocaba expansión de corticales óseas. Una vez analizados los exámenes clínicos, radiográficos e histopatológicos se diagnosticó un granuloma reparativo central de células gigantes Se realizó exéresis quirúrgica de la lesión y extracción de dientes adyacentes con una evolución satisfactoria sin señales de recidivas luego de tres años del tratamiento. El granuloma reparativo central de células gigantes se presentó como respuesta a un trauma. La correcta interpretación de los datos clínicos, radiográficos e histopatológicos nos permitió llegar al correcto diagnóstico y plan de tratamiento.Giant-cell central reparative granuloma is non neoplastic proliferative lesion of unknown etiology. We report a 40 years old male patient who was admitted at the Maxillofacial Service of the "V. I. Lenin" Hospital. The patient had partial upper prosthesis and was complaining of red-grey volume increase lesion in upper alveolar ridge which led to the expansion of cortical bone. Having analyzed clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings the case was concluded as a giant-cell central reparative granuloma. Surgical exeresis and adjunct tooth extraction were done. After three years of treatment, satisfactory follow up without recurrence is reported.

  3. Estimación del estado del motor de reluctancia conmutada MFR132.5 mediante Filtro Desaromatizado de Kalman. State estimation of the switching reluctance motor MFR132.5 using an Unscented Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Omar Cepero Díaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La determinación de la posición angular instantánea del rotor es parte integral del control en los accionamientos de Motores de Reluctancia Conmutada. La medición directa de esta variable adiciona complejidad y costo al sistema y no siempre brinda buenos resultados, lo que ha motivado el desarrollo y prueba de algoritmos de estimación de la posición angular del rotor. En este trabajo se presenta el empleo de un Filtro Desaromatizado de Kalman para estimar la velocidad y la posición angular del rotor del motor MFR 132.5, basado en un modelo de caja gris de dicho motor que también es presentado en este trabajo. Los resultados demuestran que este estimador ofrece estimaciones satisfactorias del estado del motor, lo mismo durante el arranque que durante el funcionamiento regular, aún bajo la presencia de perturbaciones en el torque de la carga y errores en la estimación inicial de la posición angular del rotor.  The measure of the instant angular position of the rotor is integral part of the control of Switching Reluctance Motors drivers. The direct measurement of this variable adds complexity and cost to the system and it doesn’t give good results sometimes. That has motivated the development and test of algorithms for estimating the rotor angular position of the motor. In this work is presented the use of an Unscented Kalman Filter for estimating the speed and rotor angular position of the motor MFR 132.5, based on a grey box model of the motor which is also presented in this work. The results show that this kind of estimator gives good estimations of the state of the motor, as well during the starting as during the regular operation, even under the presence of perturbations of the load torque and errors in the initial estimation of the angular position.

  4. Estudio de corrosión galvánica en pares latón/acero inoxidable y latón/fundición de hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohanian, M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion attack in heat exchanger systems is a topic of main interest for the maintenance in each industrial plant. These are multigalvanic systems with particular geometric and fluidodynamic complexity. Corrosive damages include zinc selective dealeation in copper alloys. In order to explain zinc dealeation attack, this paper deals with laboratory scale testing, characterization and interactions between two copper and zinc alloys (Yellow brass –UNS C268– and Admiralty brass –UNS C443– compared to AISI 316 stainless steel and cast iron. The tests were performed at 20 °C in 1.5 % NaCl and 1.5 % Na2SO4 solutions, pH 8 and each material was characterized by potentiodynamic sweeps. The couples are analyzed by studying transient galvanic currents. We conclude about the cause of the analyzed pathology, brass protection potential ranges and its coupling compatibility with other metals.

    El ataque por corrosión en los sistemas intercambiadores de calor constituye un problema para el mantenimiento de cualquier planta industrial. Se trata de sistemas multigalvánicos con particular complejidad geométrica y fluidodinámica. Las patologías corrosivas incluyen el fenómeno de dealeación selectiva de cinc en las aleaciones de cobre. A fin de explicar un caso particular de ataque por decinficación (deterioro en placa de intercambiador de calor de tubos de inoxidable, el presente trabajo aborda en ensayos a escala de laboratorio, la caracterización e interacciones entre dos aleaciones de cobre y cinc, (Yellow brass –UNS C268– y Admiralty brass –UNS C443–, respecto a acero inoxidable AISI 316 y fundición gris de hierro. Los ensayos se realizan a 20 °C en disoluciones de NaCl 1,5 % y Na2SO4 1,5 % y pH 8. Se caracterizan electroquímicamente las aleaciones y materiales involucrados mediante barridos potenciodinámicos. Los pares galvánicos formados se analizan mediante el

  5. Compaction and Collapse Characteristics of Dune Sand Stabilized with Lime-Silica Fume Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y. Fattah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to assess the suitability of dune sands as construction materials. Moreover, such a goal is considered beneficial in determining appropriate methods for soil stabilization or ground improvement and to assessing the suitability of dune sands as subgrade layer for carrying roads and rail foundation. Dune sand samples were collected from a region in Baiji area in Salah-Aldeen governorate, North of Iraq. A grey-colored densified silica fume (SF and lime (L are used. Three percentages are used for lime (3%, 6%, and 9%, and four rates are used for silica fume (3%, 6%, 9% and 12% and the maximum percentage of silica fume is mixed with the proportions of lime. Unsoaked California Bearing Ratio (CBR on compacted dune sands treated dune sands with L-SF by mixing and cured for one day. The increasing in CBR ranged between 443 – 707% at 2.54 mm penetration and 345 – 410% at 5.08 mm penetration.     Resumen El propósito de esta investigación es evaluar el uso de arena de dunas como materiales de construcción. Además, este objetivo permite determinar los métodos apropiados para la estabilización del suelo, el mejoramiento del terreno y la evaluación de pertinencia de la arena de dunas en capas subbase para carreteras y cimientos férreos. Se recolectaron muestras de arena de dunas en el área de Baiji, del comisionado Salah-Aldeen, al norte de Irak. Se utilizó vapor de óxido de silicio (SF, en inglés, grisáceo y densificado, y óxido de calcio (L. Se utilizaron tres porcentajes para el óxido de calcio (3 %, 6 % y 9 %, y cuatro para el óxido de silicio (3 %, 6 %,  9% y 12% y el máximo porcentaje del óxido de silicio se mezcló con las proporciones de óxido de calcio. Se realizó en seco el Ensayo de Relación de Soporte de California (del inglés California Bearing Ratio, CBR en arena de dunas compactada y tratada con la mezcla L-SF curada durante un día. El incremento en el ensayo CBR osciló entre 443

  6. Caracterización morfométrica de la gallina de cuello desnudo (Gallus domesticus nudecollis en la región ch'ortí de Chiquimula, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jáuregui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron morfométrica, faneróptica y morfológicamente a gallinas y gallos de cuello desnudo (324 hembras y 60 machos en los cuatro municipios de la región ch’ortí de Chiquimula. Las variables evaluadas fueron 18 cuantitativas para la hembra y 16 para el macho, nueve cualitativas y ocho índices zoométricos. El análisis delas variables zoométricas se realizó a través del procedimiento análisis univariado, con medidas de tendencia central y medidas de dispersión, y para analizar la proporcionalidad y armonía entre las diversas regiones corporales mediante la correlación de Pearson. Los resultados principales son: peso de 1.84 kg/hembra y 2.29 kg/macho; alzada 27.84 cm/hembra y 32.51 cm/macho; metatarso 10.25 cm/hembra y 11.76 cm/macho; ambos tienen más alzada que longitud, inclinados hacia adelante; en cuanto a sus perímetros, el abdominal es el mayor y curvado característica de las gallinas ponedoras y una grupa alargada con dorso plano. Sus índices corporales son aves alargadas, con capacidad reproductiva (índice pélvico 71.82% y poca formación de músculo para la producción de carne (índice compacidad 6.80%/hembra y 7.03%/macho, cabeza alargada, tórax elíptico y miembros fuertes y altos. Las características morfológicas y fanerópticas describen un ave de piel blanca, metatarso amarillo, plumas en garganta, cresta simple con barbilla y orejuelas, los colores de pluma son la combinación de marrón, negro, gris y blanco, el color de la cáscara varia del blanco al marrón claro y con una armonización corporal hasta del 61% lo que le da una homogeneidad medianamente aceptable a la morfoestructura de la gallina.

  7. Balance entre riesgos y beneficios del tamizaje mamográfico de cáncer de mama: ¿apoyaría su recomendación en mujeres peruanas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Posso

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es valorar, en base a un análisis crítico y estructurado de la evidencia, si el tamizaje mamográfico de cáncer de mama en Perú es una intervención recomendable. El análisis se realizó utilizando los criterios propuestos por el sistema GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura en Medline y en otras fuentes de información nacional (literatura gris. Para el desarrollo de la recomendación, a favor o en contra del tamizaje, se utilizó la mejor evidencia disponible sobre los beneficios, riesgos, costos y preferencias de la población. Los resultados incluyeron cinco revisiones sistemáticas (RS que evaluaron los riesgos y beneficios del tamizaje; dos evaluaciones económicas realizadas en Perú y un estudio que valoró indirectamente las preferencias de las mujeres peruanas. La calidad de la evidencia a partir de las RS fue moderada a favor del tamizaje en mujeres de 50 a 69 años. El balance entre riesgos y beneficios mostró una mayor probabilidad de sobrediagnóstico comparado con el beneficio en la reducción de la mortalidad. La estrategia más costo- efectiva fue la mamografía trienal. La percepción de barreras podría comprometer seriamente la participación de las mujeres. En conclusión, la recomendación a favor del tamizaje mamográfico en Perú es débil, más aun si se tienen en cuenta otras necesidades poblacionales más urgentes. En caso de llevarse a cabo, la estrategia de tamizaje más adecuada para la población peruana consistiría en realizar una mamografía trienal en mujeres de 50 a 69 años.

  8. An Emerging Wine Region in Nova Scotia, Canada: Terroir Trials and Tribulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, B. I.; Ketter, B. S.; Karakis, S.

    2012-12-01

    Nova Scotia, strategically located on Canada's east coast, is an emerging wine region, whose distinctive wines are garnering international acclaim. Nova Scotia has a long and rich tradition of growing grapes for wine dating back as far as 1611. Nova Scotia's mesoclimates, glacial soils, and proximity to the Atlantic Ocean form a complex alliance to create a unique and expressive terroir. Tidal Bay is a new appellation wine for Nova Scotia stylistically defined as a fresh, crisp and high-acid blend of white grapes. There are four main wine-growing regions in Nova Scotia, all influenced by the warming effects of the Bay of Fundy and Atlantic Ocean: Malagash Peninsula, Annapolis Valley, Bear River Valley and the South Shore. Nova Scotia currently has 14 producing wineries with many more in the development stage. Nova Scotia grape growers not only have had success developing mature and consistent hybrids, but in recent years several vinifera have flourished in this cool climate area. The white hybrids include L'Acadie Blanc, New York Muscat, Seyval Blanc, and Vidal Blanc. The white vinifera include chardonnay, riesling, pinot gris, and sauvignon blanc. Red hybrids are Baco Noir, Leon Millet, Lucie Kuhlmann, and Marechal Foch, whereas the only red vinifera is pinot noir. Nova Scotia has nearly perfect climatic conditions for making world class icewines and sparkling wines. A preliminary GIS analysis of climate, topographic, geology and soil data helps to define Nova Scotia's terroir. Annual precipiatation varies from 10 to 21.6 cm/year with a vast majority of the wineries located in regions with the lowest rainfall. Daily average temperature ranges from 5.5 to 7.5°C, degree growing days above 5°C from 1382 to 1991, and mean August temperature from 15.6 to 19.3 °C. Wineries cluster in the warmest regions based on these temperature measures to assist grape ripening. Soils in these diverse wine regions can range from silty, sandy and clay loams to more gravel-rich sandy

  9. Eficiencia en la prescripción enfermera en Andalucía. Un paso atrás en el sistema sanitario tras anulación por Real Decreto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Ruiz Sánchez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Objetivos: Analizar la eficiencia en la prescripción enfermera en Andalucía, España, entre 2009-2015, de productos sanitarios inherentes a su labor asistencial. Asimismo, analizar las alegaciones de la Organización Médica Colegial al Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad al anteproyecto de ley de prescripción enfermera. Diseño: Revisión. Fuentes de datos: Se revisaron bases de datos bibliográficas de habla latina, española y extranjera: Fundación Index, Hemeroteca Doyma y Medline. Google Scholar con los mismos términos de búsqueda, añadiendo el término «Andalucía»: «prescripción enfermera» AND «eficiencia» OR «Andalucía». Se buscó también en la literatura gris utilizando los mismos criterios en la web del Servicio Andaluz de Salud (SAS. Se complementó con una entrevista con la directora de cuidados del SAS. Extracción de datos: Se localizaron 617 artículos, de los que se seleccionaron 20. En la literatura gris se encontraron 52, de los cuales quedaron 4. Resultados: Los estudios sobre eficiencia en prescripción enfermera en Andalucía son escasos pero contundentes, como los datos aportados por la Dirección de Cuidados del Servicio Andaluz de Salud sobre los productos sanitarios inherentes a su profesión. La modificación del anteproyecto del Real Decreto 954/2015, por presiones de la Organización Médica Colegial, deja la competencia de prescripción enfermera exclusivamente a la indicación médica, quien diagnostica y prescribe y la elimina sin argumentación avalada por evidencia científica. Conclusiones: Podemos corroborar que la incorporación de la prescripción enfermera al sistema sanitario publico ha supuesto una mejora en la eficiencia del mismo. Por otro lado, las alegaciones de la Organización Medica colegial critican este acto sanitario sin que sus argumentos tengan una base científica. Abstract: Objectives: To analyse the efficiency of nurse prescription of the health

  10. Barreras y facilitadores de acceso a la atención de salud: una revisión sistemática cualitativa Health care access barriers and facilitators: a qualitative systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Hirmas Adauy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar si las barreras y los elementos facilitadores de acceso a la atención de salud son transversales a distintas poblaciones, países y patologías, e identificar en qué etapas del proceso de acceso a la atención sanitaria se presentan con más frecuencia. MÉTODOS: Revisión sistemática cualitativa de literatura publicada durante el período 2000-2010. Se consultaron seis fuentes internacionales: Fuente Académica, Medline en texto completo, Base de datos académica multidisciplinaria en texto completo (Academic Search Complete, PubMed, SciELO y LILACS. Se aplicaron criterios de valoración científica del Programa CASPe y la declaración STROBE. En paralelo se revisó literatura gris. RESULTADOS: Se seleccionaron 19 de 1 160 resultados de la revisión de artículos científicos, y 8 de 12 documentos de la revisión de literatura gris. Se identificaron 230 barreras y 35 facilitadores en países con diferentes contextos y grados de desarrollo. Las 230 barreras se clasificaron acorde al modelo de Tanahashi: 25 corresponden a la dimensión disponibilidad, 67 a accesibilidad, 87 a aceptabilidad y 51 a contacto. La mayor proporción de barreras correspondió a la dimensión de aceptabilidad y de accesibilidad. Los elementos facilitadores identificados tienen relación con factores personales, relación entre prestadores y usuarios, apoyo social, información sobre la enfermedad y adaptación de los servicios al paciente. CONCLUSIONES: La identificación de barreras y facilitadores se realiza mayoritariamente en personas que han contactado los sistemas sanitarios y en todas las etapas del proceso de acceso a la atención de salud. Se identificaron pocos estudios orientados a quienes no contactan los servicios. Las barreras y facilitadores identificados están socialmente determinados, y la mayoría son expresión de inequidades sociales que existen en los países y requieren una acción conjunta con otros sectores distintos de

  11. Drogadicción, Fármaco-Dependencia o Drogadicción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1994-09-01

    13adrenérgicos y a los histamínicos. Actualmente se admite la existencia de seis grupos de estos receptores opioides en el cerebro, de los cuales uno regula la conducta emocional, otro la percepción del dolor y la analgesia, otro las alucinaciones y la disforia, etc. Aparece claramente definido que el sistema nervioso central y también el periférico, las a encefalinas actúan como neurotransmisores, mientras que las 13endorfinas actúan como neuro-hormonas.

    Se admiten 15 roles a los péptidos opioides endógenos, entre los cuales es conducente citar: percepción del dolor, drogadicción opiácea, liberación de hormonas, memoria, conducta sexual e integración y respuesta al estrés.

    El estudio de los receptores opiáceos realizado por Hiller y asociados, ha demostrado que la más alta densidad del “binding” o ligazón ocurre en el sistema límbico, en las áreas asociadas con la percepción del dolor y/o su modulación (tálamo, sustancia gris periacueductal, cuerno gris dorsal de la médula espinal y también en el nervio vago, la médula suprarrenal, la placentay el tracto gastrointestinal.

    El papel de los receptores opiáceos en el desarrollo de la tolerancia, adicción o abstinencia está en estudio; el conocimiento actual sugiere que su fisiopatología puede estar más relacionada con los efectos posreceptor, a ejemplo de la alteración del ciclo adenosina monofosfato.

    Agentes Neurotóxicos
    Está médicamente demostrado que las drogas estimulantes o euforizantes pueden dar intoxicación, con daño temporal o permanente, por varios mecanismos tales como la inactivación de enzimas y coenzima~ esenciales para los mecanismos de oxidación; alteración de vasos nutrientes; manifestaciones alérgicas o inmunológicas; efectos nocivos sobre los neurotransmisores; alteración en el balance ácido-base o en las concentracions iónicas. Algunos casos llegan a simular entidades neurológicas o a acentuar una pre

  12. Mineralogía de arcillas y nanofósiles calcáreos de las formaciones Jagüel y Roca en el sector oriental del lago Pellegrini, Cuenca Neuquina, República Argentina Clay mineralogy and calcareous nannofossils from Jagüel and Roca formations in the eastern sector of Pellegrini Lake, Neuquen Basin, República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Musso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan nuevos datos mineralógicos, sedimentológlcos, y micropaleontológlcos de las sedimentitas de las formaciones Jagüel (Maastrichtiano Tardío-Daniano temprano y Roca (Daniano, en el sector oriental del lago Pellegrini, provincia de Río Negro, República Argentina. En función de las características físicas de las sedimentitas que integran estas formaciones y su edad, se definieron dos litofacies siliciclásticas y una litofacies carbonática: litofacies de fangolitas calcáreas amarillas grisáceas maastrichtianas, litofacies de fangolitas calcáreas gris oliva claro danianas y litofacies de rocas carbonáticas danianas. Las rocas pertenecientes a las litofacies siliciclásticas, que constituyen la mayor parte de los perfiles estudiados, se clasificaron como fangolitas aloquímicas y están constituidas principalmente por argilominerales y, en menor proporción, por calcita. La asociación de minerales arcillosos se encuentra dominada por un interestratificado illita/esmectita (I/S tipo R0 (70-90% Sm acompañado por proporciones menores de illita y caolinita. La mineralogía y microfábrica de las fangolitas reflejan que los sedimentos no habrían sido modificados significativamente por diagénesis. Los minerales arcillosos serían de origen detrítico y el predominio del I/S altamente esmectítico a lo largo de todas las secciones estaría asociado al vulcanismo activo existente en el arco magmático situado al oeste de la Cuenca Neuquina, durante el Cretácico Tardío y Paleoceno. El análisis micropaleontológico de las litofacies definidas confirmó la presencia del límite Cretácico-Paleógeno (K/P en las sedimentitas de la Formación Jagüel. Los nanofósiles calcáreos hallados permitieron establecer una correspondencia entre edades y tipos de asociaciones mineralógicas. De esta manera, fue posible detectar que en posiciones estratigráficas próximas al límite K/P existe un incremento de caolinita (>10% que disminuye

  13. Cloisonné kidney in mouflon sheep (Ovis orientalis musimon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervás, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a case of cloisonné kidney associated with infection by Babesia ovis in a wild mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimonj found dead in year in eastern Sierra Morena (Andalusia, Spain. The major macroscopic lesions were a icteric coloration in ocular and oral mucosa, and b dark metal coloration on the kidneys' external surface. Intense dark coloration alternating with intense greyish strips was observed on renal cortex sections. Blood samples were collected for haematological and parasitological analyses, as well as samples from various organs for histopathological examination. Infection by B. ovis was confirmed by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction test (PCR. Histopathological examination revealed tubulonephrosis associated with thickening of the basal membrane of the convoluted portions of the renal tubules (both proximal and distal, which took on an intense brownish pigmentation. These renal lesions have been described as "cloisonné" kidney. Cloisonné kidneys show uncommon coloring of the renal tubular system, associated with ferritin and hemosiderin deposits in these structures resulting from a chronic hemolitic process (hemoparasites, toxins, etc.. In our case, hemolitic phenomena are associated with infection by B. ovis. The seroprevalence of this hemoparasite in wild mouflon populations in other regions of Spain (Catalonia is up to 15%.

    [fr]
    Nous étudions un cas de rein cloisonné associé à l'infection par Babesia ovis sur un mouflon sauvage (Ovis orientalis musimon qui a été trouvé la même année dans la partie orientale de la Sierra Morena (Andalousie, Espagne. Les principales lésions macroscopiques étaient: a coloration ictérique sur les muqueuses oculaire et orale, et b coloration métallique foncée sur la partie extérieure du rein. Cette coloration foncée intense alternait avec des bandes grisâtres dans les sections du cortex rénal. Nous avons pris

  14. Les couleurs de Moscou et de Saint-Pétersbourg The colours of Moscow and Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréi Éfimov

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Moscou et Saint-Pétersbourg ont connu une évolution chromatique similaire mais les différences en matière de plan, d’urbanisme et d’influences culturelles, et leurs rôles alternés de capitale ont déterminé leurs particularités chromatiques propres. Le Moscou en bois du xiiie siècle s’est enrichi d’un ensemble de cathédrales blanches aux coupoles dorées entourées par la muraille en brique rouge du Kremlin. Le style baroque a introduit dans l’architecture de Moscou et de Saint-Pétersbourg les couleurs bleu foncé, orange et verte. À l’époque du classicisme, on utilisait la palette officielle de teintes pastel à dominante ocre. L’achromatisme devient ensuite un trait distinctif de l’éclectisme en Russie. Au début du XXe siècle, l’Art nouveau ranime les villes grâce aux couleurs verte, orange et violette. Dans les années 1920 et 1930, les constructivistes utilisent les tons gris mais tentent d’élaborer un code chromatique homogène. L’architecture soviétique, quant à elle, reprend l’esthétique du classicisme « ocre ». La construction de masse des années 1960 aux années 1980 méconnaît la couleur, mais à la charnière des XXe et XXIe siècles apparaissent des approches professionnelles qui visent à créer un milieu chromatique similaire pour les deux villes.Moscow and Saint Petersburg experienced similar evolutions in colour, but the differences in their plans, urbanity and cultural influences, and their alternating roles as capitals, determined the particularities of their palettes. The wooden Moscow of the thirteenth century was enriched by a group of white cathedrals with golden domes, surrounded by the red brick wall of the Kremlin. Baroque, as an architectural style, introduced Moscow and Saint Petersburg to the colours dark blue, orange, and green. The official palette of classicism was pastel, predominantly ochre, while the period of eclecticism in Russia was achromatic. At the

  15. Application of the axial tomography computed for the detection of bags of dampness in dry wood of Gmelina arborea (Roxb.); Aplicacion de la tomografia axial computarizada para la deteccion de bolsas de humedad en madera seca de Gmelina arborea (Roxb.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya R, Roger; Munoz A, Freddy [Inst. Tecnologico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingenieria Forestal, Apdo. 159-7050, Cartago 7050(Costa Rica); Escalante, Ivan [Clinica Santa Fe, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2006-07-01

    detectar y establecer los limites de la presencia de humedad en la madera de Gmelina arborea al lado de la exploracion de tomografia computarizada (CT-escaner), una tecnica aplicada en el diagnostico medico. Junto con las bolsas humedas, en la CT-del escaner se presentan imagenes de color gris y con valores bajos de la Unidad Hounsfield (UH) o numero CT. Cuando estos valores fueron transformados a la densidad de la madera, se determino que las bolsas humedas estaban a una densidad de unos 190 kg/m{sup 3}, un valor superior al normal de la madera. Ademas, fue posible observar el crecimiento de anillos de arboles en la CT-del escaneo de imagenes, una caracteristica importante para la investigacion dendrocronologica. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron demostrar que es posible aplicar esta tecnica en el proceso de produccion de madera, para detectar las zonas con un alto MC en el secado de la madera de Gmelina arborea. (autor)

  16. As cores no ambiente de terapia intensiva: percepções de pacientes e profissionais Los colores en el ambiente de cuidados intensivos: percepciones de pacientes y profesionales Colors in the intensive therapy environment: perceptions of patients and professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Barbosa Boccanera

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização das cores no ambiente da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva - UTI pode interferir no bem-estar dos profissionais e clientes. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar percepções de profissionais e pacientes quanto às cores utilizadas no ambiente de terapia intensiva, identificando aquelas consideradas agradáveis e desagradáveis. Trata-se de pesquisa descritivo-exploratória, com enfoque quanti-qualitativo. A amostra foi constituída de clientes internados e profissionais que trabalham em três UTIs de hospitais públicos localizados em Goiânia. As cores consideradas mais agradáveis para serem utilizadas em UTI foram o azul-claro e o verde-claro. Além dessas, apontaram o amarelo-claro, palha, cinza, rosa e goiaba. O vermelho e o preto foram consideradas as cores mais desagradáveis para um ambiente de UTI. Os profis-sionais e clientes referem preferência por cores variadas, as quais podem ser utilizadas no sentido de melhorar o clima da UTI.La utilización de los colores en el ambiente de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos - UCI puede interferir en el bienestar de los profesionales y clientes. En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo analizar las percepciones de profesionales y pacientes en cuanto a los colores utilizados en el ambiente de cuidados intensivos, identificando aquellas consideradas agradables y desagradables. Se trata de una investigación descriptivo-exploratoria, con enfoque cuanti-cualitativa. La muestra estuvo constituida de clientes internados y de profesionales que trabajan en tres UCIs de hospitales públicos localizados en Goiânia. Los colores considerados más agradables para ser utilizadas en UCI fueron el celeste y el verde claro. Además de ellos, señalaron el amarillo, paja, gris, rosado y guayaba. El rojo y el negro fueron considerados los colores más desagradables para un ambiente de UCI. Los profesionales y clientes refirieron preferencia por colores variados, los cuales pueden ser utilizados en el

  17. Relación de medidas bovinométricas y de composición corporal in vivo con el peso de la canal en novillos Brahman en el valle del Sinú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez F. L. A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En dos hatos de cría y ceba de la costa caribe de Colombia (50 msnm, 28°C y 65% de humedad relativa se formaron dos grupos contemporáneos de machos Brahman para evaluar el crecimiento posdestete y producción de carne (pesos, bovinometría, medidas de composición corporal y canal: Un grupo de 17 Brahman Rojo (BR y otro de 23 Brahman Gris (BG fueron cebados en praderas de Angleton Dichantium aristatum. El Peso Ajustado al Destete (PAD, Peso Ajustado al Año (PAA, Peso Ajustado a los 18 meses (PA18, Peso Ajustado a los 24 meses (PA24 para machos BG y BR fueron respectivamente: 211, 229, 418 y 477 kg; y 240, 246, 386 y 432 kg. Diferencias en crecimiento posdestete fueron encontradas entre variedades Brahman (< 0.05. También hubo diferencias significativas (<0.05 para medidas de Longitud Corporal y Perímetro torácico. En Medidas de Área de Ojo de Lomo (AOL18 se hallaron diferencias significativas (<0.05. En general, se observaron correlaciones altas entre medidas de peso y medidas bovinométricas. Las correlaciones más altas (> 0.80 entre medidas in vivo y en Canal fueron entre Peso de Canal/Total Carne Aprovechable (PCC/TCA y PA18, AOL18 y PCC/TCA, y estas fueron predictivas, sirviendo para obtener modelos de regresión que calcularon el PCC y TCA. ABSTRACT Relationship between linear and body composition measurements with carcass weight In Brahman steers in the Sinu valley. In two finishing ranches located at the caribean coast of Colombia at 50 m.a.s.l., 29°C and relative humidity of 65%, was carried out a postweaning growth and beef production study (weight, body, composition and carcass measurements using two comtemporary groups of Brahman steers. A group made up of seventeen pure Red Brahman RB and the other of 23 pure Grey Brahman GB was finishing in grazing system on pasture Dichantium aristatum. Body weight at Weaning Weight WW, Yearling Weight YW, 18 months, weight 18W and 24 months weight 24W for GB and RB respectively

  18. Mejoras en la construcción de camisas de cilindro de motores de combustión interna ciclo diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Pérez, F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the different types of wear as well as other parameters present in the tribological system pistonsegment- cylinder in a combustion engine. By means of engineering methods were defined the wear rates in the three components of the system. The biggest wear in the analysis resulted in the cylinder shirt. Specialized methods applied were used to analyze the prevailing metallographic characteristics in its original construction, obtaining a gray melted iron with perlitic matrix. A new material with bainitic matrix has been proposed for increasing wear resistance. To demonstrate the efficiency of this new product, the experimental techniques carried out, were based on a dynamometric testing in a internal combustion engine diesel cycle Scania of 150 kW. It was exposed to a full charge during 500 h with 30 % of potency rising. Compared with the perlitic one, it has been proved that the bainitic matrix allows a better result. Besides, a superior dimensional stability was obtained. The piston segments had a similar wear rate in both materials in reference to the original tribological pair of the project.El análisis del sistema tribológico pistón-segmentos-cilindro durante el funcionamiento de un motor de combustión, permitió valorar las características, mediante el empleo de métodos de ingeniería usados en el mundo, para calcular las tasas de desgaste y otros parámetros resultantes en cada uno de los componentes del sistema antes mencionado. Se definió la camisa de cilindro, como elemento fundamental de los usados en el sistema tribológico y se analizaron las características metalográficas predominantes en su construcción actual de aleaciones de hierro fundido gris con matriz perlítica, lo que permitió proponer una nueva aleación con matriz bainítica que brindara una mayor resistencia al desgaste. Para demostrar el rendimiento de este nuevo producto propuesto se llevó a cabo una técnica experimental basada en el

  19. Estudio digital radiográfico y densitométrico en mandíbulas de cerdos sometidos a osteotomía con alta y baja velocidad, con refrigeración líquida Digital and densitometric radiographic study in swine jaws subjected to osteotomy using high and low drilling speeds with liquid cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Marcela Monti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó por medio de la radiografía digital y la densitometría, la influencia de un dispositivo de rotación para el corte en el proceso de curación del hueso después de osteotomías en mandíbulas de cerdos, a tiempos controlados. Se realizaron dos secciones transversales en la base de la mandíbula derecha, una con una alta velocidad de rotación y otra por la acción de baja velocidad, ambos con el líquido de irrigación. Tras los tiempos preestablecidos, los animales fueron sacrificados y sus mandíbulas retiradas para los estudios radiográficos y de densitometría radiológica con los sistemas digitales Cromox, Digora y ODR. En los períodos iniciales (7 y 28 días el equivalente a la densitometría en milímetro de aluminio y la media de niveles de gris fueron más altos en la región de osteotomías hechas con alta rotación, y en los períodos finales (60 y 90 días las mayores densitometrías fueron para osteotomías hechas con baja velocidad, lo que indica una mejor cicatrización final del hueso cuando se hace uso de la baja velocidad. El análisis cualitativo del proceso de reparación fue realizado por el ODR, lo que permitió la recopilación de imágenes digitales en color y en tres dimensiones, para la comparación del espesor del hueso con una cuña de aluminio, indicando que en los 28 días de curación del hueso, ya estaba evidente la completa reparación.The influence of the type of rotary cutting instrument on bone repair after osteotomy in swine jaw, was evaluated using digital and densitometric radiographic examinations, at controlled times. Two cross-sectional dissections were made through the base of the right jaw, one using a high speed rotary instrument and the other using low speed, both with liquid cooling. After established periods the animals were sacrificed and their jaws removed for direct and indirect digital radiographic and densitometric studies using the CROMOX, DIGORA and ODR systems. In the initial

  20. Fundamentos ecológicos y biogeográficos de la rareza de la avifauna madrileña: Una propuesta de modificación del catálogo regional de especies amenazadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrascal, L. M.

    2006-05-01

    ático – ‘Sensible a la Alteración de su Hábitat’; Calandria – descatalogarla; Mirlo Acuático - ‘Sensible a la Alteración de su Hábitat’; Colirrojo Real - ‘Sensible a la Alteración de su Hábitat’ o ‘Vulnerable’; Papamoscas Gris - ‘De Interés Especial’; Alcaudón Real Meridional – descatalogarla; Picogordo – ‘De Interés Especial’.

  1. Cultivo in vivo y método de almacenamiento para juveniles infectivos de Steinernema feltiae (Rhabdita: Steinernematidae Cultivation in vivo and method of storage for infective juveniles of Steinernema feltiae (Rhabdita: Stenemematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáenz Adriana

    2000-12-01

    otros dos tratamientos.The entonematode Steinernema feltiae, affects mainly plagues associated with soil. This nematode has two generations and a great number of infective juveniles (J3 when innkeeper insects are used for cultivation. Production of J3 was evaluated with starting suspensions of 100, 300, 500, 700 and 100013 in larvae of last urge ofbigger moth of Galleria mellonella and with larvae of smaIler moth of Achoria grisella. Pathogeny ofthe infective juveniles was studied using concentrations of 10,000, 30,000 and 50,000 J3, in sterilized, pasteurized and natural soil (without treatrnent for six months. A completed random design with factorial  arrangement of 3x6 with ten repetitions, was used for in vivo cultivation of G. mellonella for A. grisella a completed random design with six treatments and ten repetitions was used. For storage variable, a completed random design with factorial arrangement of 3x3 was analyzed. The results from in vivo cultivation presented differences in larvae size and weight ofthe bigger moth ofthe beehives. Small infective juveniles produced the smaller size in production (510.55 13/larvae. In A. gris ella, there were not differences between the concentrations and the quantity of infective juveniles gathered. The survival in soil of juvenile ones presented significant differences for concentration and time of storage, also the treatrnent to the soil did not influence in the 13's survival. However, to recover the 13 starting from this storage form is low, nevertheless, the recovered of 13's pathogeny is superior in pasteurized soil than the others two treatrnents.

  2. Moessbauer Effect Study of the Isomeric De-Excitation in Sn{sup 119m}; Etude, par Effet Moessbauer, de la Desexcitation Isomerique dans {sup 119m}Sn; 0418 0417 0423 0427 0415 041d 0418 0415 041c 0415 0421 0421 0411 0410 0423 0415 0420 0421 041a 041e 0413 041e 042d 0424 0424 0415 041a 0422 0410 041f 0420 0418 0418 0417 041e 041c 0415 0420 041d 041e 041c 0421 041d 042f 0422 0418 0418 0412 041e 0417 0411 0423 0416 0414 0415 041d 0418 042f 0412 041e 041b 041e 0412 0415 -119{sup m}; Estudio de la Desexcitacion Isomerica del {sup 119m}Sn Mediante el Efecto Moessbauer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herber, R. H.; Stoeckler, H. A. [School of Chemistry, Rutgers, State University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1965-04-15

    an unlabelled Sn Empty-Set {sub 4} absorber. In addition there is a contribution to the resonance pattern by a broad line (or quadrupole split resonance) absorption that reflects the filling of K or L shell vacancies by valence electrons. Direct bond rupture due to recoil is unable to produce this effect since (in the non-relativistic approximation) the recoil energy must be less than {approx}0.3 keV ({approx}7 kcal/mole{sup -1}), which is well below the chemical bond energies involved. (author) [French] Comme dans le cas de la desintegration de {sup 57}Co avec capture K et emission gamma, il est possible d'etudier les consequences chimiques de la decroissance isomerique de {sup 119m}Sn par les procedes de la spectroscopie de Moessbauer. La desexcitation de l'etat caracterise par un spin de 11/2 et une periode de 245 j, se fait par emission de rayons gamma de 65,3 keV (M4) et de 23t 8 keV (M1-E2) en cascade. Trois grands effets chimiques de transformations nucleaires peuvent etre etudies au moyen des techniques Moessbauer: a) les consequences du processus {sup 118}Sn(n, {gamma}) {sup 119m}Sn et les effets de l'emission concomitante de rayons gamma, au cours de l'exposition en pile; b) les effets de recul qui accompagnent la desintegration de M4; c) les effets de conversion interne de la desintegration de M4. Ces effets ont ete etudies dans l'oxyde stannique, dans l'etain gris et dans le tetraphenyl- etain, tous marques avec 119msn. Dans 119mSn02, ni l'exposition aux rayons gamma pendant l'irradiation en pile ni l'emission (et la conversion interne) de rayons de 65,3 keV n'ont entraine de changements observables dans la forme et la position de la raie de resonance. C'est la un fait qui contraste avec la situation analogue observee lors dela desintegration (capture K et emission de rayons gamma) de {sup 57}CoO. Dans l'un et l'autre cas, on connait deux etats d'oxydation de l'oxyde metallique [soit respectivement Fe(II) et Fe(III), Sn(II) et Sn(IV)3 mais c'est seulement

  3. Estudio de actinomicetos marinos aislados de la costa central del Perú y su actividad antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus Meticilina Resistentes y Enterococcus faecalis Vancomicina Resistentes Study of marine actinomycetes isolated from the central coast of Peru and their antibacterial activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el potencial antimicrobiano de actinomicetos marinos frente a cepas S. aureus meticilino-resistentes (MRSA y E. faecalis vancomicina-resistentes (VRE. Materiales y métodos. En dos medios de cultivo se sembraron 29 cepas de actinomicetos aislados de sedimento marino. Se evaluó la capacidad inhibitoria mediante pruebas de antagonismo in vitro para MRSA y VRE. Se procesó los extractos orgánicos de tres actinomicetos seleccionados para determinar la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI del compuesto activo. Resultados. La mayoría de los actinomicetos aislados correspondieron a un grupo homogéneo de blanco-grisáceos (62% con buen nivel de crecimiento en agar marino. Los porcentajes inhibitorios fueron superiores a 85% para ambos patógenos con halos de inhibición mayores a 69 y 78 mm de diámetro para MRSA y VRE respectivamente. Los extractos diclorometánicos de tres de los actinomicetos aislados (I-400A, B1-T61, M10-77 mostraron gran potencial inhibitorio de ambos patógenos, siendo M10-77 la cepa de actinomiceto de mayor actividad antibiótica frente a S. aureus ATCC 43300 resistente a meticilina y E. faecalis ATCC 51299 resistente a vancomicina con una Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI de 7,9 y 31,7 μg/ mL respectivamente. El análisis filogenético de la cepa M10- 77 presenta un 99% de similaridad con la especie marina Streptomyces erythrogriseus. Conclusiones. El sedimento marino de la costa central del Perú es fuente promisorio de cepas de actinomicetos con gran capacidad de producir compuestos bioactivos capaces de inhibir patógenos tipificados como multidrogo-resistentes tales como S. aureus meticilino resistentes y E. faecalis vancomicina resistentes.Objectives. To determine the antimicrobial potential of marine actinomycetes against drug-resistant pathogens represented by strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE. Materials and

  4. EL SLUSSEN COMO PARADIGMA. ARQUITECTURA E INFRAESTRUCTURA EN CINCO EPISODIOS / Slussen as a paradigm. Architecture and infrastructure in five stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Clúa Uceda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El proyecto del Slussen diseñado por el arquitecto Tage William-Olsson y el ingeniero Gösta Lundborg entre 1929 y 1935 en Estocolmo expresa sintéticamente la irrupción del automóvil en la ciudad europea de principios de siglo XX. El conjunto de más de treinta propuestas anteriores ilumina la evolución de un espacio en contraste confrontación entre la infraestructura y los intentos por dotar de una configuración urbana a un lugar estratégico entre Gamla Stan y Södermalm. El artículo sintetiza estas declinaciones en cinco episodios sucesivos: del Slussen como discusión de ingeniería hidráulica a sus primeras consideraciones urbanas, del Slussen como arquitectura organizadora del espacio a las primeras irrupciones de las formas del viario, del Slussen como “máquina del tráfico” al hallazgo de una estética propia, del Slussen gris a la arquitectura encajada en sus intersticios y, finalmente, la comprensión del Slussen como una pieza frágil e inestable en el paisaje urbano de la “Venecia del Norte”. Dicha evolución permite destacar el Slussen como un registro paradigmático de la implosión del tráfico sobre la ciudad europea y un ejemplo pionero en la relación interesante entre infraestructura y urbanidad. SUMMARY The Slussen urban project designed by architect Tage William-Olsson and engineer Gösta Lundborg between 1929 and 1935 in Stockholm, synthetically expresses the emergence of the automobile in the European cities at the beginning of the 20th century. The combination of more than thirty previous proposals highlight the evolution of a space in contradicting confrontation with infrastructure and the attempts to give an urban form to a strategic place between Gamla Stan and Södermalm. This article will summarise these declines in 5 successive stages: from the Slussen as a discussion in hydraulic engineering to its first urban considerations, from the Slussen seen as a matter of architectural composition

  5. Descripción de una especie nueva de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del subgénero Eurymeloe Reitter, 1911 (Coleoptera, Meloidae del norte de Marruecos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-París, M.

    2009-12-01

    Marruecos y se localizaron en hábitat forestal hiperhúmedo de montaña. La nueva especie se caracteriza por presentar: coloración negro mate con tonalidad grisácea; pilosidad blanquecino-amarillenta, muy corta, curvada y poco densa que no forma mechones; pronoto transverso, subrectangular, con surco medio longitudinal y depresiones longitudinales a ambos lados; punteado de cabeza y pronoto impreso y subconfluente; élitros apenas rugosos; artejos tarsales con cepillos pilosos poco desarrollados; edeago con lóbulos paramerales curvados con depresiones laterales y terminados en punta aguda, y lóbulo medio con el diente distal de la zona ventral cercano al ápice. El nuevo taxon es fenéticamente afín a M. nanus, M. baudueri y M. flavicomus, pero diferenciado de ellos tanto por los caracteres morfológicos externos como del edeago indicados. Esta especie, conocida únicamente de la localidad tipo, comparte área geográfica general con M. murinus, M. nanus y posiblemente M. baudueri, si bien hasta el momento no se ha detectado simpatría estricta con ninguna de ellas. El tipo de hábitat en el que se localiza la especie nueva, áreas de montaña con formaciones forestales mixtas de Pinus pinaster hamiltonii var. maghrebiana, P. nigra mauritanica y Abies maroccana (exclusivas del Rif calizo noroccidental, contrasta con los señalados para esas otras especies de Eurymeloe del subgrupo de M. (E. murinus.

  6. Contribution to the use of marble in Central-Lusitania in Roman times: The stone architectural decoration of Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taelman, Devi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a quantitative and qualitative study of the imported architectural decorative stone of the Roman town of Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal, located centrally in the province of Lusitania. All studied ornamental stones were counted, weighed, classified and their provenance was determined. Six types of stone were used for the architectural decoration at Ammaia: white marble, pink–purple limestone, grey– white marble, two marble breccias and granite. Granite was the most widely used building stone and was used for the production of columns and capitals. Previous studies have established a local source for the Ammaia granite (Taelman et alii in press. The provenance of the remaining ornamental stones is primarily regional (the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Only the two marble breccia varieties were imported from the Mediterranean: africano from Teos (Turkey and breccia di Sciro from the island of Skyros also (Greece. The predominant use of regionally available stones is observed in other Roman towns located in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula, such as Emerita Augusta, Asturica Augusta and Munigua, and results mainly from the geographic location of the sites, remote from any seaport and/or navigable river.El presente trabajo presenta los resultados de una valorización cuantitativa y cualitativa de la utilización de las piedras decorativas arquitectónicas importadas de la ciudad romana lusitana de Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal. Todas las piedras decorativas estudiadas fueron contadas, pesadas, clasificadas y su procedencia fue determinada. En la época romana se utilizaron seis tipos de piedra para la decoración arquitectónica de la ciudad de Ammaia: mármol blanco, caliza morada–rosa, mármol blanco y gris, dos brechas compuestas de fragmentos de mármol blanco y granito. El granito fue la piedra de construcción principal en Ammaia. Además, el granito se utiliz

  7. Politique et esthétique dans L’enfance d’un chef de Sartre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliocha Wald Lasowski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1964, Deleuze évoque Sartre comme un de « nos maîtres », un de « ceux qui savent inventer une technique artistique et littéraire et trouver les façons de penser correspondant à notre modernité, c'est-à-dire à nos difficultés comme à nos enthousiasmes diffus. » (Arts Sartre est sans cesse aux points de passage de la modernité politique et esthétique. L'enfance d'un chef, la dernière et la plus longue des cinq nouvelles qui composent le recueil intitulé Le mur, paru en janvier 1939, participe de cette actualité. Véritable petit roman dans l'oeuvre à construire du philosophe écrivain, cette parodie cruelle du roman d'apprentissage saisit, par des exemples fictionnels et existentiels, l'analyse conceptuelle des essences. Dans ce récit, contemporain de La Nausée par sa chronologie et par les thèmes qu'il aborde, brille une écriture violente et individualiste, faite de cassures et d'abandons : L'enfance d'un chef s'insère dans un mouvement spéculatif, conteste l'ordre de la représentation anthropologique ou politique. A partir de Lucien Fleurier et du vide brumeux de son existence, Sartre dessine une subjectivité ouverte, une figure inhumaine de l'anti-héros : le « salaud », le « chef » et l’« antisémite ». Par une description phénoménologique rigoureuse, le philosophe précise le réseau de métaphores et d'images qui parcourt L'enfance d'un chef et constitue une poétique du bleu, entre Walter Benjamin – « Rêver de la fleur bleue, ce n'est plus de saison » (Neue Rundschau, n°38, janvier 1927 - et Roland Barthes – « Le bleu est à la mode cette année » (Revue française de sociologie, n°2, avril 1960 -. Le malconfort du personnage principal ne peut pas se concevoir en termes de noir et de blanc, d'ombre et de lumière : sa difficulté d'être se décline plutôt en gris bleu et en teinte violette, sur le mode de l'inauthenticité, rappelant les obsessions sartriennes du non-être et de la

  8. L’exposition contrôlée à la lumière et à l’obscurité ajuste le rythme du cortisol salivaire chez les travailleurs de nuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Casademont

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude réalisée sur le terrain et en laboratoire, nous avons testé l’efficacité d’une intervention consistant à contrôler l’exposition à la lumière/obscurité de façon à favoriser l’adaptation circadienne au travail de nuit. Six travailleurs permanents de nuit (moyenne d’âge 37,1 ± σ : 8,1 ans avaient comme consigne de s’exposer de façon intermittente à une lumière blanche vive plein spectre (~2 000 lux au cours des 6 premières heures de leur quart de travail de 8 heures. Il leur était demandé de se protéger de la lumière solaire du matin avec des verres teintés (densité gris neutre, transmission visuelle de la lumière 15 % et de maintenir des épisodes réguliers de sommeil/obscurité dans une pièce très sombre. Ces épisodes devaient commencer 2 heures après la fin de chaque quart de travail de nuit. Cinq travailleurs du groupe contrôle (41,1 ± σ : 9,9 ans ont été étudiés alors qu’ils devaient uniquement maintenir un horaire régulier de sommeil/obscurité. Des procédures de routine constante, réalisées avant et après une série d’environ 12 quarts de travail de nuit s’échelonnant sur 3 semaines, ont montré chez les travailleurs du groupe traitement une variation significative dans l’heure d’apparition du pic de cortisol ainsi qu’un ajustement de ce rythme à un horaire de travail de nuit. Un plus petit changement de phase a été observé dans le groupe contrôle, ce qui suggère une adaptation partielle à l’horaire de travail de nuit. Nos résultats démontrent l’efficacité d’une exposition judicieuse à la lumière et à l’obscurité pour favoriser l’adaptation des rythmes physiologiques au travail de nuit.The efficacy of a light/darkness intervention designed to promote circadian adaptation to night shift work was tested in this combined field and laboratory study. Six permanent night shift workers (mean age: 37.1 / s: 8.1 years were instructed to

  9. Biblioteca Brynmor Jones en la Universidad de Hull - Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castle Park Dean Hook, Arquitectos

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available Castle Park Dean Hook, architects Consulting engineers: Ove Arup and Partners The second stage of construction is described, consisting of a new ten-storey building and the four-storey extension of the old library, thus increasing the book capacity from 250,000 to 1,000,000, and the capacity of readers from 250 to 1,650, with provision for eventually reaching 6,000 as maximum capacity. The tall building was constructed with reinforced concrete structure and outside finish consisting of brown glazed tiles on the lower floors and stainless steel panels with grey vitreous enamel on the five upper storeys, the windows of which have double glass with frames arranged at a 60° angle. The four-storey extension was carried out with brick walls with reinforced concrete frame-work. The same type or brick as that used in the old library was employed in order to maintain aesthetic continuity. On the inside, nylon felt carpet was used for covering the floors. The supports and structural walls are plastered; wood-work and partitions are painted. The ten-storey building is completely airconditioned, while this system in the other building is located only in the book deposit and the reading room.Se describe la segunda etapa de construcción, que consiste en un edificio nuevo de diez plantas y en la ampliación de cuatro plantas de la antigua biblioteca, con lo cual la capacidad de libros aumentó de 250.000 a 1.000.000 y el número de plazas de lectores de 250 a 1.650, estando prevista para llegar hasta 6.000 como capacidad máxima. El edificio alto se realizó con estructura de hormigón armado, y acabado exterior a base de baldosas vidriadas de color marrón en las plantas bajas y de paneles de acero inoxidable con esmalte vitreo de color gris en las cinco superiores, cuyas ventanas son de cristal doble con cercos dispuestos en ángulo de 60°. La ampliación de cuatro plantas se hizo con muros de carga de ladrillo visto y forjados de hormigón armado. Se

  10. A incorporação da responsabilidade social e sustentabilidade: um estudo baseado no relatório de gestão 2005 da companhia paranaense de energia - COPEL Sustainability business: a study based on the 2005 report of the Paraná state energy management company - COPEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Ines Bassetto

    2010-01-01

    practices as part of its Social Responsibility and Sustainability management. In this sense, we proposed the following specific objectives: a identify and characterize COPEL's indicators and accounting reports to measure and present the results of its sustainable management and b Identify and analyze the sustainable actions performed by the company. The 2005 Management Report was used as an analysis tool. The analysis indicated COPEL's great deal of effort to meet social responsibility requirements by incorporating the concept of the Instituto Ethos Institute to develop its management model and, as sustainable business, implementing actions through the following platforms: as a signatory of the Global Compact, as a company sustainable through BOVESPA ISE-2005, and the adoption of certain principles of the Millennium Development Goals and AA 1000 standard. The main indicator used in the analysis was in accordance with the GRIs. By meeting all principles of GRI to prepare the report, although being the first report, the analysis indicated that COPEL is very advanced in terms of implementation of indicators. For an environment that requires that the economic result are obtained by integrating social and environmental actions, the data collected failed to identify the integration of social and environmental actions with the economic results since the guidelines GRI (INSTITUTO ETHOS, 2002 have not yet advanced to that degree of detail.

  11. Peut-on cartographier des taches urbaines à partir d’images Google Earth ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Baro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L’étude présentée ici expose les résultats d’un traitement d’images Google Earth dont le but est la cartographie des agglomérations d’Afrique de l’Ouest de plus de 500 000 habitants. Les images accessibles ne disposant pas d’informations spectrales précises (s’agissant de simples images couleur RVB, la méthodologie développée pour l’identification des agglomérations se base sur l’exploitation d’images en teintes de gris pour en extraire les caractéristiques texturales des zones densément bâties. Certaines images couvrant les agglomérations étudiées résultent de la composition en mosaïque d’images satellites acquises dans des conditions différentes. Avant toute exploitation des images, un prétraitement d’égalisation est nécessaire afin d’obtenir une vue uniforme à partir de la mosaïque. Plus précisément, il s’agit d’annuler les différences entre les luminances sur chaque morceau de mosaïque. Nous présentons ici une méthode d’égalisation inspirée de l’algorithme « Midway ». Cet algorithme a originellement été proposé pour uniformiser les luminances sur des paires d’images stéréo. Dans le cas présent, la difficulté consiste à adapter cette technique dans le cas d’images ne présentant pas strictement la même information. Le principe d’égalisation va consister à repérer et à apparier les histogrammes de zones semblables sur les sous-images composant la mosaïque. L’extraction des taches urbaines à partir des images prétraitées est ensuite réalisée par la mise en œuvre de séquences d’opérateurs de la Morphologie Mathématique. Les résultats obtenus ont été validés par une comparaison avec les agglomérations qui ont été cartographiées par photo-interprétation à partir d’images Google Earth et présentées dans la base de données Africapolis.

  12. Carcinoma broncogénico epidermoide en un hombre de 21 años Epidermoid bronchogenic carcinoma in a 21 year old black man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Duque Alzate

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hombre de 21 años de edad de raza negra, natural del Chocó (Colombia, quien ha desempeñado diversos oficios; presentó un síndrome de dificultad respiratoria de dos meses de evolución, dolor pleurítico derecho, insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva y síntomas sistémicos. En la necropsia se encontró una masa tumoral blanco-grisácea de 10 x 8 cm, homogénea, con áreas de necrosis, originada en el bronquio principal de los lóbulos inferior y medio derechos y que invadió por vecindad en forma de coraza todo el pericardio causando una pericarditis constrictiva tumoral. El estudio microscópico correspondió a un carcinoma broncogénico tipo epidermoide bien diferenciado. El carcinoma broncogénico se asocia frecuentemente con el consumo de cigarrillo pero su incidencia ha c.umentado entre las personas no fumadoras, lo que sugiere la posibilidad de otros factores que influyen en su presentación como son los contaminantes atmósféricos, la predisposición genética, la dieta deficiente en vitamina A y carotenos, la presencia de ciertos virus y cambios inmunológicos. Este tumor constituye el 16% de todos los cánceres en el hombre y e113% en las mujeres; aparece con mayor frecuencia entre los 40 y los 70 años y sólo del1 al 5% de los casos se presenta en menores de 40 años. A 21 year cid black man, native from Chocó (Colombia, variously employed, who presented with a respiratory difficulty syndrome of two months of evolution, right pleuritic pain, congestive cardiac failure and systemic symptoms. A homogeneic white .grayish tumor measuring 8 by 10 cm with necrotic areas was found at necropsy. The tumor originated in the main bronchial tube of the lower and middle lobes of the right lung and invaded the entire pericardial vicinity forming a cuirass and causing tumoral constrictive pericarditis. Microscopic studies revealed a well differentiated squamous type bronchogenic carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinomas are frequently associated with

  13. Versailles, un palais paré d’ocre, de pourpre et d’or Versailles: A palace clad in ochre, crimson and gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Didier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Versailles a toujours été considéré comme un palais aux deux visages : polychrome côté ville, mariant les tons de la pierre, de la brique et de l’ardoise, monochrome, côté jardins, dans sa majestueuse enveloppe de pierre ; archaïque dans ses contrastes côté ville, novateur dans son unité côté jardins. Des découvertes récentes sur le bâtiment lui‑même, corroborées par des recherches en archives, nous autorisent aujourd’hui à nuancer cette dichotomie par trop simpliste qui ne saurait rendre compte de l’histoire du goût sous le règne de Louis XIV, puis de ses successeurs, où la couleur a sa place dans la composition architecturale.Du Trianon de porcelaine au Trianon de marbre, des bosquets du Petit Parc au Hameau de Marie‑Antoinette, ces jeux ont été recherchés et cultivés dans toute leur expressivité. À la trilogie « bleu, blanc, rouge » du château de Louis XIII, Louis XIV n’hésite pas à ajouter l’éclat de l’or et des marbres. Au‑delà, le traitement de finition de ces matières atteste de ce goût pour les contrastes les plus affirmés : plombs dorés et étamés, briques repeintes en ocre rouge à joints blancs, et surtout les menuiseries de fenêtres, dont la teinte franche ocre jaune d’origine est bien éloignée du « ton pierre » actuel qui a succédé au gris perle du XIXe siècle.Ainsi se révèle petit à petit une image de Versailles sensiblement différente de l’idée reçue du palais classique « à la française ».Versailles has always been seen as a palace with two faces: polychrome on the town side, in its blend of tones of brick, stone and slate; and monochrome on the gardens side, in its majestic envelope of stone; archaic in its contrasts on the town side, and innovative in its unity on the gardens side. Recent discoveries on the building itself, corroborated by archival research, enable us to qualify this over-simplistic view, which does not reflect the

  14. Modifications in concrete superficial properties due to the use of different formworkrelease agents and plastic additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltramone, A.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The actual research study, carried out in the Laboratory of Construction Materials of the ETSAM., analyses the modifications in superficial properties (regarding colour and texture of grey Portland cement mortars due to the use of different formworks release agents (car oil, mineral oil and paraffin and to the addition of plastic superplasticiser to the mixture (Bettor and Sika trademarks. Once the test samples were obtained, a digital registration was made by giving them values in terms of colour and texture observed changes using computer programmes, referring those values to the test specimen (only cement, no additives. A migration of the polymeric particles of the additives towards the surface was observed, presenting the following modifications: Colour: darker hues than those of the test specimen sample were registered in the specimens with additives. Texture: the texture of the test specimen containing additives such as modified polycarboxilic ethers, polycarboxilic ethers; modified organic polymers and modified synthetic melamine were much smoother than the one in test specimen. Test specimens containing melamine, condensed naftalensulphate and polycarboxilic derivatives were a bit rougher but still smoother than the test specimen. The same variation of results as for the colour properties was obtained for the texture as regards to the use of formworks release agents, varying from smoothest to roughest with the car oil.

    El presente estudio experimental, realizado en las instalaciones del Laboratorio de Materiales de Construcción de la ETSAM, analiza las modificaciones de las propiedades superficiales observadas (en cuanto a color y textura en morteros de cemento portland gris, por la utilización de desencofrantes diversos (aceite de automóvil, aceite mineral y desencofrante parafínico, y la incorporación de aditivos superfluidificantes plásticos en la mezcla (de las marcas Bettor y Sika. Una vez obtenidas las diferentes

  15. Zarzalejo granite (Spain). A nomination for 'Global Heritage Stone Resource'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; José Varas-Muriel, María

    2015-04-01

    Escorial Monastery, which shows the building material used during its construction. There is currently an active quarry of this dimension stone which continues to be sold under the commercial name of "Gris Escorial". Zarzalejo granite is mainly exported to Turkey, Italy and Saudi Arabia. Today this stone is used primarily in flooring. Other uses include cobblestones, funeral art, and building and monument restoration and rehabilitation. Sculptures have also built in recent years, notably the great monoliths in Salvador Dalí Square (1989) in Madrid. There are also small historic family-run quarries intermittently continuing this dimension stone carving tradition. Given its characteristics, Zarzalejo granite meets the requisites proposed to be nominated as a GHSR. This nomination will contribute to raising awareness and disseminate key aspects for conservation and thus ensure its use as a replacement stone in restoring heritage buildings where it was used as a building stone. Acknowledgements This study was funded by the Community of Madrid under the GEOMATERIALS 2 project (S2013/MIT-2914). The authors are members of the Complutense University of Madrid's Research Group: "Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio" (ref. 921349).

  16. Modelado de Control de Nivel en Molde para Vaciado Continuo de Palanquillas de Acero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo González Yero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo presenta un modelo del sistema de control de nivel en molde de una máquina de vaciado continuo de palanquillas de acero. El objetivo fue realizar el modelado de cada elemento del sistema incluyendo las perturbaciones y transformaciones de la planta que más afectan la calidad del control. Se obtuvo y validó un modelo aproximado, utilizando leyes físicas, la identificación experimental mediante señales especiales e identificación paramétrica fuera de línea. En el modelo se incluyen de forma explícita los fenómenos de obstrucción y erosión en la válvula, que tienen una incidencia significativa en el funcionamiento de la planta. Para el servosistema hidráulico de la instalación se logró un modelo de caja gris que contribuye a un mejor entendimiento del comportamiento del proceso y a evaluar la incidencia de una implementación multifrecuencia bajo esquema convencional. Con el modelo obtenido es posible estudiar la operación del sistema a escala de simulación y la efectividad de soluciones de control avanzadas. El trabajo desarrollado es parte de un proceso de I+D que en el transcurso de más de 10 años ha contribuido a que en la acería donde se realiza la investigación, exista un sistema de control de nivel en molde que tiene impacto positivo sobre la calidad del acero producido. Abstract: This paper presents a model of system for the mould level control in a continuous casting machine for steel billets. The objective was to carry out the modeling of each element of the system including disturbances and transformations of the plant that affect the quality of control in the installation study object. It was obtained and validated an approximate model of the control system using physical laws governing the same one, experimental identification by special signals and parametric identification off- line. The model explicitly includes the phenomena of obstruction and erosion of the valve which have a

  17. Obtención de espumas a partir de residuos de pizarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambronero, L. E. G.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is the recovery of slate wastes into a raw material for the ceramic industry. Foams are obtained without any addition of foaming agent thanks to the transformation of component present on the slate during heating. A glass base material with a closed porosity, gray color and density value around to 0,3g/cm3 has been obtained. Raw material is the slate waste as slurry, after cutting roofing slates. After drying, the slate powders were die pressed to achieve green samples, which were sintered in N2-5%H2 atmosphere at different temperatures, as well as in air as reference material at 1150ºC. Dilatometer behavior was studied on die pressed slate powders under both atmospheres as well as XRay diffraction in order to determine the crystalline phases on sintered materials. Sintered density decreases as temperature increases under non-oxidant atmosphere, which leads to decrease the mechanical properties with the temperature when the foam structure is developed (over 1075ºC on N2-5%H2 atmosphere.

    La transformación de los residuos de pizarra de techar en materias primas no tradicionales de la industria cerámica, es el objetivo del presente trabajo. Sin la adición de agentes espumantes, mediante la alteración que sufren los componentes de la pizarra cuando la misma es sometida a un calentamiento en atmósfera no oxidante, se han alcanzado espumas de poro cerrado o cerámica porosa de color gris oscuro con densidades próximas a 0,3 g/cm3 en las que las paredes están formadas principalmente por una fase vítrea. La materia prima empleada se obtiene por secado de lodos procedentes de las operaciones de corte de la pizarra para techar. Los compactos en verde obtenidos en matriz flotante se sinterizaron en atmósfera de N2-5% H2 a distintas temperaturas, así como en aire a 1150ºC como material de referencia y se empleó la difracción de rayos X para determinar las fases cristalinas presentes en los materiales

  18. Measuring the performance of health care services: a review of international experiences and their application to urban contexts Medir el desempeño de los servicios de salud: revisión de las experiencias internacionales y su aplicación a contextos urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna García-Altés

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of performance assessment is to provide governments and populations with appropriate information about the state of their health care system. The objective of this paper is to present the most recent developments in performance assessment and their application in urban contexts. Methods: Literature review in PubMed (1970-2004. We identified additional papers and grey literature from retrieved references. Results: Performance assessment initiatives were identified in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand. The World Health Report 2000 is one of the best known examples of a transnational approach to performance assessment. Conclusion: The best developed initiatives to date are those that define precise categories, criteria and indicators with which to analyse and assess health care systems, based on a solid conceptual framework. Performance assessment fits perfectly in urban contexts, as it is a useful tool for designing and monitoring policies, assessing the quality of the services provided, and measuring the health status of city dwellers. Barcelona and Montreal are currently collaborating together on a project to assess the performance assessment of their respective health care services.Objetivos: El objetivo de la evaluación del desempeño es dar información apropiada a los gobiernos y las poblaciones sobre el funcionamiento de su sistema sanitario. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar los desarrollos más recientes en la medida del desempeño y su aplicación en contextos urbanos. Métodos: Revisión de la bibliografía en PubMed (1970-2004. Se identificaron artículos adicionales y bibliografía gris y de las referencias de los artículos seleccionados. Resultados: Se identificaron iniciativas de medida del desempeño en Australia, Canadá, Reino Unido y Nueva Zelanda. La iniciativa transnacional del Informe sobre la salud en el mundo 2000 de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS es una

  19. Hepatocerebral degeneration: report of a pediatric case Degeneración hepatocerebral: reporte de un caso pediátrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José William Cornejo Ochoa

    2003-01-01

    ayudan a diferenciarla de la enfermedad de Wilson, su fisiopatología no se conoce claramente. Estos pacientes tienen hiperamonemia, pruebas anormales de tolerancia al amonio y concentraciones de manganeso elevadas. Algunos de los signos neurológicos como disartria, ataxia, temblor y demencia se presentan en el curso de la enfermedad hepática crónica con episodios recurrentes de encefalopatía hepática. Además los signos de piramidalismo están presentes en la mayoría de estos pacientes. En las imágenes de T1 de resonancia magnética se observa hiperintensidad en los ganglios basales y el cerebelo aparece normal. También pueden encontrarse señales bilaterales anormales en el núcleo dentado en T2, las cuales son indistinguibles de las imágenes encontradas en la enfermedad de Wilson. Estos hallazgos en la sustancia gris pueden deberse al depósito de sustancias paramagnéticas en el putamen, globus pallidus, región subtalámica, núcleo rojo, placa cuadrigémina y porción anterior de la hipófisis. Se describe el caso de un niño de tres y medio años con un tumor miofibroblástico hepático de un año de evolución. El examen neurológico y el estado mental del paciente eran normales, excepto por la presencia de reflejo palmomentoniano bilateral. Sin embargo, el paciente tenía los hallazgos de resonancia magnética en T1 característicos de la DHCA.

  20. The influence of stress on substrate utilization in skeletal muscle fibres of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Essén-Gustavsson

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Moderate stress in connection with handling, sampling and herding of reindeer caused a very pronounced depletion of glycogen in mainly type IIA and IIB fibres. Also intramuscular triglyceride levels decreased but mainly in type I fibres. Muscle lactate levéls increased in all animals but not to the levels found in pigs exposed to stress or exertion. Reindeer muscles appeared to have a great capacity to oxidize both carbohydrates and lipids. All animals showed increased Cortisol, urea and AS AT values. A marked depletion of glycogen and lipids in many of the fibres may be a factor involved in the development of skeletal muscle degeneration in connection with mental stress and exertion as there seems to be a correlation between high ASAT values and substrate depleted musclefibres. A connection may therefore exist between high instramuscular substrate stores and the ability of a muscle to tolerate stress.Av stress påverkat substratutnyttjande i skelettmuskelfibrer hos renAbstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Måttlig stress betingad av hantering, provtagning och drivning av ren orsakade en mycket kraftig minskning av muskelglykogen i fråmst typ IIA och typ IIB fibrer. Aven triglycerider minskade framfor allt i typ I fibrer. Muskellaktatnivåerna okade i samtliga undersokta djur, men inte till nivåer som ses hos gris utsatta for stress eller fysisk anstrångning.Renens muskler uppvisade en mycket hog kapacitet att oxidera, forbranna, både kolhydrat och fett. Alla djur uppvisade forhojda Cortisol, urea och ASAT varden. Den mycket kraftiga tomningen av kolhydrat och fett i många muskelfibrer kan vara en faktor medverkande till muskeldegeneration i samband med mental stress och anstrangning då hoga ASAT-vården synes vara korrelerade till uttomda muskelfibrer. Ett samband mellan hog instramuskulår substratupplagring och formåga att tåla stress kan således foreligga.Stressin vaikuttaneen poron substraattihyvåk-sikåytto luurangon lihaksiston

  1. Palacio de correos, telégrafos y oficinas públicas, en Cortina D'Ampezzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gellner, Edoardo

    1964-03-01

    auxiliar. En la otra parte de este piso, disponiendo de accesos independientes, está ubicada la sala de Audiencias del Juzgado. Se desarrollan en el segundo piso las dependencias del Juzgado: oficinas del juez, de los secretarios, sala de abogados, de estadística, archivo y registro. En el tercer piso están las oficinas de Hacienda y seguridad públicas. Y en el ático, los salones del círculo artístico, capaces para 120 personas, con bar, oficinas y aseos. El edificio ofrece toda su estructura de hormigón armado vista y abujardada. La policromía de los paneles de cerramiento, pintados de color azul celeste y rojo, y los revestimientos de alerce, con su color natural rojizo, contribuyen a romper el tono gris uniforme de la masa de hormigón armado y dan vivacidad a las fachadas.

  2. Les couleurs de Rome et de Florence The colours of Rome and Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Lolli Ghetti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La couleur est un sujet d’actualité en Italie, en raison des intérêts économiques liés à la réutilisation, précédée de la restauration, des bâtiments des centres historiques, et aux phénomènes de dégradation des matériaux de construction des façades. Certaines interventions sur des monuments célèbres ont fait l’objet d'une importante couverture médiatique et ont déclenché un phénomène en chaîne dont les conséquences sont très surprenantes. La couleur chaude de Rome et celle, bien plus froide, de Florence sont modifiées de manière très sensible. À Rome, on assiste à un éclaircissement général de la couleur vers les tons du travertin ou de la couleur de l’air, au détriment des rouges et des jaunes ocres habituels. À Florence, on commence à voir des couleurs vives sur les façades des bâtiments, caractéristiques du xixe siècle ou bien des verts et des azurs plus typiques du xviie siècle, qui viennent de remplacer la bichromie traditionnelle du blanc de l'enduit et du gris de la pierre serena. Le rôle de l'architecte chargé de la conservation de ces monuments est le contrôle et la juste orientation de ces changements du goût.Colour is an ongoing concern in Italy due to the economic benefits that can be obtained from the restoration and re-use of buildings at historical sites, and because of the deterioration of the construction materials used in facades. Some of the work carried out on famous monuments has received considerable media attention and triggered a chain reaction, the consequences of which are very surprising. The warm colours of Rome and the colder tones of Florence have been modified to a considerable degree. In Rome, colours have been generally lightened towards that of travertine, or that of the air, to the detriment of the usual reds and yellow ochres. In Florence, bright colours are appearing on facades, either those characteristic of the nineteenth century or else greens and blues

  3. A micromorphological evaluation of pedogenesis on Isla Santa Cruz (Galápagos Estudio micromorfológico de la edafogénesis en la Isla Santa Cruz (Galápagos Avaliação micromorfológica da génese de solos da Ilha de Santa Cruz (Galápagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Stoops

    2013-07-01

    coastal area are not considered as palaeosoils (roots of tropical soils, but as modern soils developed in colluvium on the lower slopes, which was deposited on totally eroded surfaces (marine terraces?. On the slopes the distribution of units is not only determined by hypsometric zones, as suggested in literature, but is rather clustered according to types of parent material. The soils on Santa Cruz are supposed to be formed after the last interglacial period, different from the red soils of San Cristóbal which are older.Se analizaron láminas delgadas de unos 200 horizontes o capas procedentes de 60 perfiles de suelos localizados en el área costera y en las laderas de barlovento de la Isla Santa Cruz (Islas Galápagos. En base a la contextura, la composición de la masa basal y la presencia de edaforasgos en las capas individuales u horizontes, se realizaron clusters de material similar y se distinguieron 7 unidades y 3 subunidades. La demarcación de estas unidades en un mapa permite obtener una buena perspectiva de la distribución espacial de los distintos materiales de suelo, que expresan diferentes combinaciones de material parental y precipitación. En la zona costera y en las laderas más bajas, con un clima con verano seco, se observan, respectivamente, materiales rojizos o grisáceos y materiales pardos con una distribución relacionada c/f tipo porfídica y contexturas birrefringentes estriadas, y frecuentemente aparecen con revestimientos de arcilla iluvial fragmentados. El material grueso contiene principalmente fragmentos de basalto holocristalino, sin meteorizar en la zona costera, o minerales individuales derivados de basalto. La micromasa tiene una composición haloisítico-esmectítica. En las laderas más elevadas, con un clima permanentemente húmedo, los materiales también tienen una distribución relacionada c/f tipo porfídica o mónica fina, pero la contextura birrefringente es indiferenciada y no aparecen rasgos iluviales, los rasgos gibs

  4. Descripción, distribución, anatomía, composición química y usos de Mimosa tenuiflora (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lucía Camargo-Ricalde

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una serie de catástrofes ocurridas en México durante la década de 1980, se popularizó el uso de la corteza del "tepescohuite" contra heridas y quemaduras de la piel. Los medios de comunicación masiva manejaron la escasa información hasta entonces conocida y desinformaron a la sociedad, propagando una serie de mitos alrededor de esta planta. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la identidad taxonómica e investigar la distribución y anatomía de la corteza y de la madera de esta especie. También se investigaron sus usos actuales e históricos y se recopiló información sobre la farmacología y toxicidad de la corteza. Su identidad taxonómica se determina como Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae. Florece y fructifica de noviembre a junio y se localiza en México (estados de Oaxaca y Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela y Brasil, en altitudes de 0-1110 (-1520 msnm. En México se establece en selvas bajas, matorrales espinosos, en bosques de Pinus y de Pinus-Quercus, pudiendo formar matorrales casi puros de esta especie, así como a la orilla de caminos y en terrenos de cultivo en descanso o abandonados. Su distribución es agregada en los bosques y en las selvas y uniforme en los matorrales. Presenta una densidad promedio de 9 individuos por m², con 0.45 individuos de frecuencia por cuadrante y una cobertura promedio de 1.69 m²; además, tiene una gran amplitud de tolerancia a factores climáticos y edáficos, ratificando que es una especie de carácter oportunista y típicamente secundaria. Regionalmente, se utiliza como fuente de madera para combustible y postes para cercas, en medicina popular se usa contra heridas y quemaduras de la piel (infusión, polvo y/o pomada a partir de la corteza; además, se comercializan diversos productos como champúes, cremas, cápsulas, jabones, etc. La corteza es rugosa, de color café rojizo a grisácea, de textura

  5. Non-pharmacological interventions to promote the sleep of patients after cardiac surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fernanda de Souza; Souza, Regina Claudia da Silva; Poveda, Vanessa Brito; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira

    2017-09-12

    foram incluídos na revisão. Constatou-se que as intervenções não farmacológicas agruparam-se em três categorias principais, a saber: técnicas de relaxamento, dispositivos ou equipamentos para minimizar a interrupção do sono e/ou induzir o sono e estratégias educacionais. Houve melhoria significativa nos escores de avaliação do sono entre os estudos que testaram intervenções como tampões de ouvidos, máscara de olhos, relaxamento muscular, treinamento de postura e relaxamento, produção sonora e estratégia educacional. Em relação à qualidade metodológica dos estudos, não foram encontrados estudos considerados de alta qualidade pelo escore de Jadad. houve melhora significativa nos escores de avaliação do sono em estudos que avaliaram intervenções como tampões de ouvidos, máscara de olhos, relaxamento muscular, treinamento de postura e relaxamento, produção sonora e estratégia educacional. analizar las evidencias disponibles en la literatura sobre las intervenciones no farmacológicas, eficientes para el tratamiento de la alteración del patrón del sueño en pacientes sometidos a una cirugía cardíaca. revisión sistemática realizada mediante búsqueda en las bases de datos de la Librería Nacional de Medicina (National Library of Medicine), de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (National Institutes of Health), del Registro Central Cochrane de Ensayos Controlados (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), de la literatura latinoamericana y del Caribe, en Ciencias de la Salud, Scopus, Embase, Índice Acumulado de Enfermería y Literatura en Ciencias de la Salud, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) y PsycINFO, y en la literatura gris. se incluyeron en la revisión diez ensayos clínicos controlados y aleatorizados. Se constató que las intervenciones no farmacológicas se agruparon en tres categorías principales: técnicas de relajación, dispositivos o equipos para minimizar la interrupción del sue

  6. Historia del tratamiento de la Sífilis The history of Syphilis´ treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M C Leitner

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El nombre sífilis proviene del griego siph: cerdo y philus: amor. Recuerda al personaje de una obra, llamado Syphilo, que fue castigado por los dioses a sufrir una terrible enfermedad. Se analizan los datos sobre la sífilis en la antigüedad (que difieren según su fuente. Su mención en la Edad Media, su controversial origen, la ayuda de los paleopatólogos para encontrarlo. Luego de la Revolución Francesa y el inicio de la Edad Contemporánea, el porcentaje de enfermos fue creciendo y se acentuó la segregación de los mismos por la sociedad. Desde el año 1500 hasta principios del siglo XX el tratamiento de la sífilis dependía del mercurio. Tenía una gran variedad de formas de aplicación. La vía tópica: el ungüento gris, en calomelano o tabletas, en inyecciones, en fricciones y fumigaciones en donde el mercurio se introducía en el cuerpo por lo pulmones. Se adjudicó a la madera del guayaco pretendidas características curativas, que no poseía. Los ioduros se utilizaron para el terciarismo. Ehrlich en 1907, patentó el compuesto 606 o Salvarsan y en 1910, el Neo-Salvarsan o Arsfenamina (compuesto 914. Por estos descubrimientos recibió el Premio Nobel. En 1887, Julios Wagner Jauregg sugirió que la fiebre terapéuticamente inducida era útil en el tratamiento de enfermos psicóticos. En 1912 publicó sus satisfactorios resultados al tratar la paresias con una combinación de mercurio-iodo y tuberculina de Koch. En 1917 ingresó a su servicio un enfermo de malaria, con cuya sangre escarificaron la piel palúdica de tres paréticos, en lugar de darle inmediatamente quinina. Por ello fue galardona con el Premio Nobel. Se utilizó luego el bismuto, a partir de 1922, pero posteriormente fue sustituido por las sulfamidas, de aplicación dificultosa. El avance terapéutico más importante ocurrió en 1943, año en que se comenzó a utilizar la penicilina por Mahoney y colaboradores. Luego se confirmó la eficacia de la tetraciclina para

  7. La introducción de tecnologías en los sistemas sanitarios: del dicho al hecho The introduction of technologies in health care systems: from saying to doing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna García-Altés

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias (ETS es un instrumento basado en la evidencia científica para la toma de decisiones sobre la inclusión de avances tecnológicos en los sistemas sanitarios. Ahora bien, hay múltiples condicionantes y elementos, provenientes tanto de la propia ETS como de profesionales, políticos y de la sociedad, que influyen en que los resultados de la ETS se lleven a cabo. El objetivo de este artículo es describir los principales elementos que condicionan la aplicación de la ETS en la práctica y su uso en el ámbito clínico y en la política sanitaria. Métodos: Se ha realizado una búsqueda bibliográfica en la base de datos biomédica PubMed. Se revisaron las referencias seleccionadas, así como la bibliografía adicional y la literatura gris identificada a partir de las referencias, que trataba de temas relacionados con la práctica de la ETS. Los resultados se presentan de manera descriptiva, haciendo un análisis de los estudios agrupados por los distintos aspectos de la ETS. Resultados: Algunos elementos clave en los que hay posibilidades de mejora son la estandarización del proceso de evaluación, la descripción de la misión de la organización, la priorización de tecnologías a evaluar, la claridad en la presentación de los resultados, la inclusión de valores sociales y de coste-efectividad, y el aumento de la coordinación internacional. Conclusiones: Para muchos, la razón de ser de la ETS es su función explícita en la toma de decisiones, aunque esto no está exento de problemas. Todo parece indicar que el futuro inmediato de la ETS pasa por explicitar los procesos de evaluación y la clara inclusión de la ETS en la toma de decisiones, con todo lo que ello supone de priorización de tecnologías, establecimiento de límites en cuanto al consumo de recursos económicos y vinculación con los procesos políticos.Introduction: Health technology assessment (HTA is a tool based on

  8. Les couleurs de Peterhof The colours of Peterhof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Vernova

    2008-05-01

    pierres de couleur naturelle furent choisies pour la décoration des façades : granit rouge foncé et calcaire gris, ainsi que des briques vernissées.Peterhof, the ‘Russian Versailles’, is the emperors’ summer residence founded by Peter the Great on the shores of the Gulf of Finland. From the first stage of its construction, in the early eighteenth century, a chromatic range was established, as the colours of an imperial residence had great importance. The first palace, Monplaisir (1714–22, located in the Lower Gardens, imitated Dutch houses, with brick masonry and white mortar joints, roofs painted the colour of terracotta tiles and facades featuring light-coloured details. These same colours also appear on the facades of the Hermitage and the Great Orangery. Built in the same period, the Grand Palace, Marly Palace and later the Catherine II wing were also in stuccoed brick painted in a yellow ochre colour. Later, despite numerous restorations, these buildings retained this hue and yellow ochre became the principal colour of the imperial buildings of Peterhof. Almost all the monuments built in the nineteenth century (the Cottage, Nicholas I Palace, the Farm, Alexander II Palace have rendering of this colour: yellow surfaces with white motifs. Several edifices did not follow this chromatic pattern, however, such as the monochrome grey neo-Gothic chapel built after a project by the German architect Karl-Friedrich Schinkel, and the pink-coloured Tsaritsyn pavilion reminiscent of Pompeian buildings. In the twentieth century other colours related to new building materials were introduced. All the technical innovations and new finishing materials were used in the last palace built at Peterhof, Nicolas II's Dacha. Natural-coloured stone was used for the cladding of the facades: dark red granite and grey limestone, and varnished bricks.

  9. MicroCT vs. Hg porosimetry: microporosity in commercial stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Barberini, V.; Galimberti, L.

    2009-04-01

    Decay of rocks, due both to extrinsic and intrinsic factors, can show up in several different forms, such as neoformation of minerals, decohesion of grains and/or crystals, magnification of previous defects, new discontinuities, etc. Intrinsic factors include the type of material, its properties and microstructure, in particular porosity and microporosity. Extrinsic factors relate to atmosphere and usage of the material itself. Rock degradation has several heavy consequences for commercial stones, such as increase of permeability, loss of material, loss of mechanical strength; these consequences are of crucial importance for conservation of historical buildings. Aim of this study is to compare microporosity of some massive commercial stones by means of X ray microtomography, a non destructive technique, and Hg porosimetry. Nine of the most used Spanish limestones and dolostones have been analysed. The lithotypes have been chosen for their homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and for their low porosity; some of them have been widely used in Spain for historical buildings. Different lithotypes have been described in thin section: Ambarino (A) and Beige Serpiente (BS): brecciated dolostone, composed by microcrystalline dolomitic clasts, in a dolomitic and/or calcitic microcrystalline matrix. Amarillo Triana (AT): yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides. Blanco Alconera (BA): a white-pink homogeneous limestone, with veins. Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble, without any fissures and/or fractures. Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone, characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%). Gris Macael (GM): a calcitic marble wiht darker and lighter beds, conferring a strong anisotropy. Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone with white calcitic veins. Travertino Blanco (TB): a massive white calcitic travertine. Prismatic samples of about 2x1x1 cm

  10. Characterization of the main types of marble extracted in the area of Macael (Almeria, southeastern Spain) and its historical importance; Caracterización de los principales tipos de mármol extraídos en la comarca de Macael (Almería, sureste de España) y su importancia a lo largo de la historia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, R.; Cruz, A.S.; Arriaga, L.; Baltuille, J.M.

    2017-09-01

    optimizing its use by marketing companies and by consumers. [Spanish] El mármol de Macael es una de las rocas ornamentales más importantes de España. Se ha empleado para la realización de elementos tanto decorativos como de construcción, especialmente la variedad “Banco Macael”. Las evidencias de su uso se remontan a más de 4000 años. Uno de los ejemplos más destacados es el Patio de los Leones en la Alhambra (Granada), pero también se pueden observar algunos elementos en el anfiteatro romano de Mérida (Badajoz), en Itálica (Sevilla), en el Palacio de Medina Azahara (Córdoba) o en el Palacio Real de Madrid, entre decenas de palacios o iglesias por todo el país. En el presente trabajo se describe la utilización que ha tenido este material a lo largo de la historia y se indican las principales características y propiedades de las diferentes variedades: “Blanco Macael”, “Gris Macael”, “Anasol” (mármoles calcíticos) y “Amarillo Macael” (mármoles dolomíticos). Todos ellos presentan unas cualidades mineralógicas y físico-mecánicas que los hacen apropiados para prácticamente todos los usos. Los mármoles calcíticos presentan porosidad, absorción y densidad más bajos que los dolomíticos, mientras que los mármoles dolomí- ticos presentan mayor resistencia a la compresión, una resistencia a la flexión similar, algo inferior, y una resistencia a los anclajes inferior que los calcíticos. Los valores de resistencia a la abrasión son también mejores en los dolomíticos, mientras que la resistencia al deslizamiento es similar en todos los casos. En cuanto a la alteración los dolomíticos, con la excepción de la variedad Amarillo Triana, se alteran más en los ciclos de hielo/deshielo. En lo referente a la alteración por cristalización de sales, la que menos alteración presenta es la variedad Blanco Macael Río (calcítica), pero en conjunto, los mármoles dolomíticos presentan menos alteración que los calcíticos. En cuanto al

  11. An approach to automated chromosome analysis; Etudes pour une methode d'automatisation des analyses chromosomiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Go, Roland

    1972-05-03

    d'une automatisation des differentes etapes de l'analyse chromosomique. Il est divise en trois tomes dont la matiere est decrite ci-apres. Dans le tome 1 est decrite l'etude d'un selecteur automatique de metaphases. Cet appareil doit realiser au cours du scanning d'une preparation, un processus de decision aboutissant a rejeter toutes images ininteressantes et a conserver les images pertinentes (bonnes metaphases). Ce probleme a ete aborde au moyen d'une etude sur ordinateur par un programme de simulation. La realisation de ce programme a permis d'etablir des algorithmes de selection dont la replique pourra etre realisee dans des circuits logiques electroniques. Dans le tome 2 est traite le probleme de l'automatisation de l'etude morphologique des chromosomes presents dans une metaphase. Cette automatisation necessite le traitement des photographies de metaphases par un appareil convertisseur optique-numerique qui extrait l'information-image et la transcrit sous la forme d'un fichier numerique. Ce fichier comporte pour une image de metaphase, environ 200 000 valeurs de gris, codees selon une echelle a 16, 32 ou 64 ni veaux. Ce fichier numerique est traite par un programme de reconnaissance de forme, qui isole les chromosomes et en recherche les traits caracteristiques: sommets de bras et region centromerique, dans le but d'obtenir des mensurations equivalentes aux longueurs des quatre bras. Le tome 3 etudie un programme d'etablissement automatique du caryotype humain, par appariement optimise des chromosomes. Les donnees proviennent de la numerisation directe des longueurs de bras, effectuee au moyen d'un lecteur digital BENSON. Le programme etablit une liste des appariements, un document graphique imprime representant les paires constituees, dans l'espace: longueur - index centromerique; enfin un document graphique obtenu sur traceur BENSON dans lequel l'auteur donne une representation personnelle des chromosomes, sous forme de croix a bras orthogonaux, dont chaque

  12. Acción expansiva de la illita en Vélez-Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveros Rives, Fernando

    1963-04-01

    observed damages. As a solution it has been proposed to build reinforced concrete foundations on the blue clay, and place them on compacted gravel. The latter would absorb the volumetric expansion of the soil, thus neutralizing their action, if it should take place. The foundation should be protected by non active clay, which should serve as a waterproof protection against the access of water to the base, since this might initiate an expansive process.En la zona costera central de la provincia de Málaga son muy frecuentes los casos de existencia de suelos expansivos y se han escogido los situados al S. E, de Vélez-Málaga, para realizar sobre ellos un estudio detallado en el presente trabajo. Sobre tales suelos están edificados unos bloques de viviendas que se encuentran gravemente dañados, como consecuencia de la acción de dichos suelos sobre su cimentación, daños que se ofrecen a la vista del observador. La constitución arcillosa de tales suelos es debida a la formación geológica del pizarral silúrico que la bordea. El suelo consiste en unas arcillas azules que adoptan la coloración grisácea en su primera fase de alteración para terminar en amarillentas. La oxidación avanza en profundidad. De los análisis roentgenográficos efectuados se deduce que estas arcillas están constituidas fundamentalmente por ilita, carbonato cálcico y cuarzo en la proporción de 1:2:3, además de montmorillonita, dolomita y otros elementos. Así, pues, la ilita es el mineral arcilloso predominante, hecho que ha sido confirmado por el análisis térmico diferencial y, por tanto, es el elemento que ha provocado los efectos expansivos del suelo. La potencia de hinchamiento se observa más elevada en los estratos superiores, correspondientes a las arcillas amarillas, que en las azules de base. Este hecho es, en parte, debido a la riqueza de carbonato cálcico que posee la arcilla azul, y que llega a ser superior al doble de la superficial. La abundancia de CO3Ca en la arcilla

  13. Los límites de la acción pública: los matrimonios forzados y combinados The boundaries of public action: arranged and forced marriages I confini dell'azione pubblica: matrimoni forzati e combinati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Danna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En este articulo me enfrento el dilema político y cultural de la distinción entre matrimonio de conveniencia y matrimonio forzado. Después de realizar una revisión de la literatura, me baso en las entrevistas realizadas en el 2009 en la región italiana de la Emilia-Romagna para  presentar las opiniones de los participantes en la investigacion. Con la ayuda de la herramienta teórica del materialismo cultural, argumento que la cuestión de la distinción se puede abordar desde dos puntos de vista diferente: por una parte, la distinción es clara cuando se basa en el reconocimiento (aunque sea tardío de una imposición a través de la violencia física o psicológica por parte del sujeto, mientras que, por otra parte, el análisis sociológico del proceso de construcción y expresión del consenso presenta un amplia área gris, que es tema de debate tanto en la literatura científica como en la vida cotidiana.Sólo la primera definición de matrimonio forzoso, la subjetiva, puede legitimar el inicio de una acción de intervención concreta por parte de los poderes públicos -pero tal intervención no puede cerrar el debate sobre el valor efectivo del consenso que en muchos casos se da en los matrimonios de conveniencia.In this article I deal with the political and cultural dilemma of the distinction between arranged and forced or imposed marriages. After a review of the literature, interviews collected in 2009 in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna are used to illustrate the views of the participants to the research. With the help of the theoretical tool of cultural materialism, I argue that the question can be approached from two different points of view: on the one hand, the distinction is clear as it is based on the recognition (even a late one of an imposition by physical or psychological violence on the part of the subject; on the other hand sociological analysis of the process of construction and of expression of consent reveals a

  14. El Legado de Albert Schweitzer - RESUMEN DE VOCABULARIO DE LA SENSIBILIDAD PROFUNDA Y SUPERFICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cardenas Escovar

    1990-08-01

    , discriminativa y cortical. La primera comprende las siguientes: a táctil; b térmica, y c dolorosa. A la profunda consciente o balreslesia corresponden: a el sentido muscular que nos da cuenta de las actitudes activas o pasivas; b la sensibilidad de los movimientos; c la sensibilidad ósea; d la propiocepcián que nos permite apreciar la posición, el equilibrio y sus cambios, especialmente en la locomoción; e la sensibilidad vibratoria o palestesia; f la eSlereognosia o percepción de la forma de los objetos. La sensibilidad profunda inconsciente comprende: a el tono muscular; b la coordinación, y c la estabilidad.

    La sensibilidad superficial se transmite de los órganos correspondientes de la piel o papilas a unas primeras neuronas, cuyas células se encuentran en los ganglios de las raíces posteriores de los nervios medulares. Al penetrar a la médula espinal, las fibras se subdividen así: las que conducen las sensibilidades dolorosa y térmica y parte de la táctil hacen sinapsis en los cuernos posteriores con una segunda neurona sensitiva, que cruza la médula y va hasta el tálamo, integrado por tres núcleos voluminosos de sustancia gris: uno interno, otro externo y un tercero medio anterior, los cuales limitan lateralmente con el ventrículo medio y forman el piso de los laterales.

    Las fibras que conducen la sensibilidad profunda y otra, parte de la táctil, ascienden por los cordones posteriores homolaterales de la médula hasta el bulbo raquídeo, y terminan allí en los núcleos de Goll y Burdach, donde hacen sinapsis con una segunda neurona que pasa al lado opuesto del órgano y asciende hasta el tálamo. La tercera neurona que empieza en este último lleva todas las formas de sensibilidad descrita a la corteza cerebral, lóbulo parietal, circunvalación postrolándica. Es allí donde la información discrimina las primeras formas de sensibilidad y las integra en complejos, merced a lo cual identificamos el Sitio de contacto, diferenciamos entre dos

  15. Genio y Drama: La Sordera de Beethoven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García Gómez

    2003-08-01

    examen histopatológico del hueso temporal. Lamentablemente la descripción que existe de su autopsia es pobre en relación con las lesiones del oído medio.

    Personalmente en Viena acometimos una investigación relacionada con la autopsia y consultamos los archivos para conocer la descripción original de Wagner.

    Pudimos comprobar con estas consultas que sus restos, inhumados el 27 de marzo de 1827, fueron trasladados al Central Friedhall junto con los restos mortales de Schubert el 22 de junio de 1898.

    El 13 de octubre de 1863 a petición de la dirección de Los Amigos de la Música de Viena, sus restos fueron examinados en presencia de varias personas y se comprobó que faltaban ambos huesos temporales, confirmándose así que el doctor John Wagner en la autopsia había removido parte del cráneo del maestro. El acto de la necropsia original es insuficiente para concluir sobre ella y definir un diagnóstico etiológico. Dice así:

    “El conducto auditivo externo, sobre todo al nivel del tímpano, estaba engrosado y recubierto de escamas brillantes. La Trompa de Eustaquio estaba muy engrosada, presentando una mucosa edematosa y un poco retraída al nivel de la porción ósea. Adelante de su orificio, en la dirección de las amígdalas, se nota la presencia de pequeñas depresiones cicatrizoides.

    Las células visibles de la apófisis mastoidea, se presentaban recubiertas de mucosa fuertemente vascularizada, y la totalidad del yunque aparecía surcada por una marcada red sanguínea sobre todo el nivel del caracol cuya lámina espiral se apreciaba levemente enrojecida. Los nervios de la cara eran de espesor considerable. Los nervios auditivos, al contrario, adelgazados y desprovistos de la sustancia medular. Los vasos que los acompañan, esclerosados...

    El nervio auditivo izquierdo mucho más delgado, salía por tres ramas grisáceas muy finas, mientras que el derecho estaba formado apenas por un cordón más fuerte y de un blanco

  16. Heavy Element Staining of Sedimentary Organic Matter Functional Groups for Backscattered Electron Imaging Marquage par éléments lourds de la matière organique sédimentaire pour la microscopie électronique en électrons rétrodiffusés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belin-Geindre S.

    2006-11-01

    , 1992. Son imagerie est basée sur les contrastes de numéro atomique (Z existant entre les divers constituants. La matière organique apparaît noire et les minéraux gris. Cependant il n'est pas possible de distinguer plusieurs types de matière organique avec le MEB/ER. Afin de mettre en évidence des contrastes au MEB/ER entre différentes matières organiques, les échantillons ont été marqués par des éléments lourds qui ont la particularité de se fixer de manière sélective et spécifique sur les groupes fonctionnels. Cette méthode est largement employée par la biologie cellulaire pour révéler divers corps organiques (Soligo et Lambertenghi-Deliliers, 1987; Langsdorff et al. , 1990; Clark, 1991; Namimatsu, 1992 ou bien par la science des matériaux dans le domaine des polymères (Sawyer et Grubb, 1987; Ohlsson et Törnell, 1990; Sue et al. , 1991; Janik et al. , 1992. L'application à la géologie et à la pétrographie est restée jusqu'à présent assez réduite : sédiments argileux (Whitlatch et Johnson, 1974; Green et al. , 1979; Bishop et al. , 1992; Hillier et Clayton, 1992, charbons (Corcoran et Stephens, 1987; Sommerfeld et al. , 1992, sols (Foster, 1981. Les éléments lourds utilisés pour le marquage sont très variés et présentent une spécificité plus ou moins large (Reynolds, 1963; Lewis et Knight, 1976; Takeuchi et Takeuchi, 1990. La matière organique sédimentaire est un mélange complexe de macromolécules dont la composition dépend de la nature de la matière organique originelle et de son degré d'évolution (Tissot et Welte, 1984. La matière organique peu évoluée possède de nombreuses variétés de groupes fonctionnels (Rouxhet et al. , 1980; Béhar et Vandenbroucke, 1987. La faisabilité de la méthode a d'abord été testée sur des polymères contenant des fonctions chimiques susceptibles d'exister dans les kérogènes naturels (tableau 1. Puis elle a été appliquée à des sédiments presque exclusivement formés de

  17. Informe sobre reptiles colombianos. III: investigaciones sobre la anatomía craneal; distribución geográfica y ecología de Crocodylus Intermedius (Graves en Colombia Informe sobre reptiles colombianos. III: investigaciones sobre la anatomía craneal; distribución geográfica y ecología de Crocodylus Intermedius (Graves en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medem Fred

    1958-09-01

    hide-hunting Cr. intermedius was practically exterminated in large areas and became rather scarce even in remote regions. 1. Se presenta una investigación detallada sobre la anatomía craneal, distribución geográfica y ecología de Crocodylus intermedius en Colombia. 2. El material que forma la base para estos estudios, consiste en 16 cráneos y 54 huevos que contienen fetus, coleccionados en los ríos Guaviare, Ariari, Güejar y Cunimía en 1955-56 y 1956-57.     3. La descripción anatómica craneal fue hecha a base de cráneos de 25.4 centímetros a 70.7 centímetros de largo (tabla 2.                                   4. Se hicieron estudios detallados sobre el escamado, incluyendo el 4 de fetus (tabla 1. Existe una sola hilera de Occipitalia que contiene entre 2 y 6 escamas y dos de Cervicalia de las cuales la primera contiene 4 y la segunda 2 escamas. Los Dorsalia estan formados por 16 0 17 hileras transversales; el número de escamas en una de ellas es de 5 a 6. Hay 25 a 27½ hileras transversales de los Ventralia; el número de escamas en una hilera está entre 14 y 18. La cresta caudal doble contiene entre 17 y 19 segmentos, y la sencilla un número igual.                                             5. La coloración varía entre gris claro, verde y carmelita claro. Existen diferencias entre jóvenes y adultos.    ��                                                                    6. La distribución geográfica abarca los territorios entre el rio Arauca por el oriente y el río Duda por el occidente. En el Vaupés, Caquetá y Putumayo afluentes del Amazonas no existe C. intermedius (mapa. En el Orinoco (Venezuela se extiende hasta la región de San Fernando de Atabapo únicamente, pero no entra al Amazonas por el Casiquiare y el Rio Negro por razones aún desconocidas. 7. Los estudios sobre la ecolog

  18. Artificial chinampas soils of Mexico City: their properties and salinization hazards Suelos artificiales de chinampas de la Ciudad de México: propiedades y riesgos de salinización Solos artificiais da cidade do México- Chinampas: propriedades e riscos de salinizaçao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Krasilnikov

    2011-11-01

    alkaline reaction of soils is caused by exchangeable Na rather than by free sodium carbonates. The restoration of chinampas requires a complex approach, combining soil, water and ecosystems remediation.

    La agricultura de chinampas es una práctica tradicional de uso del suelo en el Valle de México desde la época prehispánica. Los suelos de chinampas fueron construidas por la excavación de sedimentos del lago que resultó en la creación de un sistema de islas separadas por canales. La productividad agrícola de estos suelos artificiales fue alta; también las prácticas de uso del suelo incluyeron la silvicultura, la pesca y la caza. Actualmente, los suelos de chinampas están afectados por una salinidad excesiva. Se estudiaron 10 perfiles de suelos representativos de la zona de chinampas de la Ciudad de México con el objeto de caracterizar sus propiedades y origen, obtener su clasificación, evaluar la salinización del suelo, la distribución vertical de las sales y su composición química. Los suelos se caracterizan por presentar una estructura en capas, de color gris oscuro uniforme, y una irregular distribución vertical de carbono orgánico y arcilla. Algunos suelos muestran un aumento de la materia orgánica con la profundidad y otros perfiles presentan un contenido alto de esta en las capas superficiales y en el subsuelo. La dinámica de la sedimentación como resultado de la disminución de la materia orgánica en las capas superiores de los sedimentos lacustres se debe al aumento reciente en la tasa de erosión y al consiguiente aumento en la proporción de partículas minerales en los sedimentos. El alto contenido de materia orgánica en las capas superficiales de algunos suelos se debe a la acumulación de material del subsuelo rico en materia orgánica obtenida del fondo de los canales. La concentración de sales solubles en los horizontes superficiales, expresada como conductividad eléctrica, varía de 5 a 50 d

  19. El HTLV-I y la PET/HAM un modelo de investigación en virología y biología molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe García Vallejo

    2004-03-01

    >

    Para la segunda pregunta hemos aportado evidencia importante sobre la existencia de una respuesta inmune diferencial y una mayor carga proviral en la mucosa oral de pacientes PET/MAH en comparación con los ATL y los seropositivos asintomáticos (5(6. Se determinó la existencia de un mimetismo molecular entre una proteína de 98-100 kDa de astrocitos primarios humanos y dominios de la proteína viral gag p24; de otra parte, en las zonas motoras de la médula espinal y principalmente en la zona gris de las regiones motoras y sensoriales de las láminas X y XII de la región lumbosacra, en la médula espinal de ratas Wistar no infectadas con ningún retrovirus, se determinó una reacción cruzada con un anticuerpo monoclonal para la proteína tax p40 (7-10.

    En la tercera pregunta, los análisis de los patrones de expansión clonal y de secuenciación de 123 clones IPCR, que contienen porciones de ADN celular flanqueantes al sitio de inserción proviral, obtenidos de pacientes PET/ MAH, ATL y seropositivos asintomáticos, mostraron que existe una mayor expansión clonal en pacientes PET/MAH en comparación con los ATL y los seropositivos asintomáticos y una riqueza en CG en secuencias celulares flanqueantes (11-13; este resultado es importante puesto que establecimos que la integración proviral del HTLV-I en linfocitos humanos no es al azar, sino que está restringida a aquellas áreas genómicas ricas en GC principalmente de los cromosomas 8 y 18 que contienen una densidad génica relativamente alta.

    Finalmente nuestros estudios moleculares mas recientes sobre la integrasa del HTLV-I han permitido, no solamente caracterizarla estructuralmente, sino producirla como proteína recombinante en el modelo de baculovirus (14.

  20. Geoarchaeologic and paleopedologic evidences for the holocene paleoenvironmental evolution of the Crisuri plain (Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Josan

    2007-12-01

    appartenant au passage du Néolithique à l'Âge du Bronze inférieur. La vérification de cette hypothèse nécessiterait l'utilisation de méthodes modernes de datation. L'horizon grossier contenant les restes d'arbres est surmonté par un horizon argilo-sableux épais de 100 cm environ, dont la granulométrie indique une diminution de l'intensité des processus morphogénétiques. Au-dessus encore, un horizon de couleur gris foncé, épais de 30 cm environ, contient des céramiques attribuées à la période Daco-romaine. Il apparaît donc qu'au début de l'ère chrétienne, le climat est devenu plus chaud et plus sec. C'est à ce moment que, dans les plaines alluviales, le niveau des nappes phréatiques s'est abaissé et qu'une pédogenèse favorable à la formation d'un horizon de sol d'accumulation biologique s'est développée. Après cette courte période de stabilité, une nouvelle période d'érosion s'est produite, qui a fossilisé le sol daco-romain sous un dépôt argilo-sableux épais de 170 cm. Il faut souligner que, du point de vue temporel et phénoménologique, ces mutations enregistrées sur la bordure orientale du bassin pannonique se corrèlent très bien avec la géochronologie élaborée en Allemagne du Sud (bassin de la rivière Lahn par R. URZ et al. (2002.En conclusion, les données présentées ci-dessus constituent de bons arguments pour élaborer un scénario des changements climatiques de l'Ouest de la Roumanie pendant l'Holocène moyen et supérieur. Ils pourraient être complétés par des données quantitatives : micro-morphologie, sédimentologie, datations absolues, etc. Dans une région où la tectonique est pourtant active, ce sont les variations climatiques qui ont joué le rôle essentiel durant la période considérée.