WorldWideScience

Sample records for zoo animal wastes

  1. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  2. [The prevention of distemper in zoo animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, V; Matern, B; Ackermann, O; Danner, K

    1989-02-01

    The distemper virus infection of different non-domestic carnivorous zoo animals is known since long. All species involved belonged to the suborder Fissipedia. In 1988 a distemper or morbillivirus-like infection occurred in harbour seals, a member of the suborder pinnipedia. For the prophylaxis of distemper in dogs attenuated live vaccines are commonly used. In zoo animals, however, these vaccines caused distemper several times. In contrast, an inactivated virus vaccine proved both its safety and efficacy in more than hundred zoo animals of various species.

  3. 36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of zoo animals... Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no person shall: (a) Kill, injure, or disturb any exhibit or research animal by any means except to secure personal safety; (b) Pet, attempt to pet, handle...

  4. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichm...

  5. Visitor interest in zoo animals and the implications for collection planning and zoo education programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Andrew; Esson, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    As zoos have sought to further their conservation missions, they have become powerful providers of environmental education. Outside of "formal" education initiatives, such as those designed for school and other organized groups, or structured public talks programmes, much of the learning potential that the zoo has to offer is around the viewing of animals and the response of visitors to them. In this, zoo learning is a very personal construct, develops from the previous knowledge, and experiences and motivations of each individual. In this article, we make the assertion that learning potential, although difficult to quantify, is very much related to the attractiveness of animal species and the interest that visitors show in them. Using standard behaviorist measures of attraction and interest (the proportion of visitors that stop and for how long), we analyzed the relative interest in 40 zoo species held in a modern UK zoo and the variables that are significant in predicting that popularity. Further to this, the suggestion is made that the zoo collection planning process could use such information to make more informed decisions about which species should be housed for their educational value. Taxonomic grouping was found to be the most significant predictor of visitor interest--that is, visitors were far more interested in mammals than any other group--although body size (length), increasing animal activity and whether the species was the primary or "flagship" species in an exhibit or not, were all found to have a significant bearing on visitor interest. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Sound at the zoo: Using animal monitoring, sound measurement, and noise reduction in zoo animal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Soltis, Joseph; Perkins, Lori; Mellen, Jill D

    2017-05-01

    A clear need for evidence-based animal management in zoos and aquariums has been expressed by industry leaders. Here, we show how individual animal welfare monitoring can be combined with measurement of environmental conditions to inform science-based animal management decisions. Over the last several years, Disney's Animal Kingdom® has been undergoing significant construction and exhibit renovation, warranting institution-wide animal welfare monitoring. Animal care and science staff developed a model that tracked animal keepers' daily assessments of an animal's physical health, behavior, and responses to husbandry activity; these data were matched to different external stimuli and environmental conditions, including sound levels. A case study of a female giant anteater and her environment is presented to illustrate how this process worked. Associated with this case, several sound-reducing barriers were tested for efficacy in mitigating sound. Integrating daily animal welfare assessment with environmental monitoring can lead to a better understanding of animals and their sensory environment and positively impact animal welfare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. When zoo became nature. Copenhagen zoo and perceptions of animals and nature around 1900. I: Tidsskrift for Kulturforskning (NORSK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløff, Anne Katrine

    2010-01-01

    This article points out central historical themes in the debates and arguments given by the directors of Copenhagen Zoo for the zoo as an alternative to nature. When Copenhagen Zoo was founded in 1859, itsn purpose was divided equally between entertainment, enlightenment and symbolizing the glory...... of the Danish capital. During this period though, it also became possible for the Zoo to stage itself as a kinder place for animals, than "real" nature. In the early 20th century, the Zoo attracted attention from animal rights movements, wherefore the debates came to be structured around two radically different...

  8. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  9. Observing Animal Behavior at the Zoo: A Learning Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Debra B.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate students in a learning laboratory course initially chose a species to study; researched that species' physical and behavioral characteristics; then learned skills necessary to select, operationalize, observe, and record animal behavior accurately. After their classroom preparation, students went to a local zoo to observe the behavior…

  10. Perception of Scary Halloween Masks by Zoo Animals and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnott, Joan M.; Speaker, H. Anton; Powell, Laura A.; Mosteller, Kelly W.

    2012-01-01

    Zoo animals were tested to see if they perceived the scary nature of Halloween masks, using a procedure that measured the avoidance response latency to take food from a masked human experimenter. Human perception of the masks was also assessed using a rating scale, with results showing that a Bill Clinton mask was rated not scary, while a Vampire mask was rated very scary. Animal results showed that primate latencies correlated significantly with the human ratings, while non-primate latencies...

  11. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  12. The Animal Welfare Act and the zoo: A positive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Interpretations of the Animal Welfare Act and other regulations governing use of research animals in the United States are changing. Recent amendments to the Act have resulted in the inclusion of more species under the umbrella of regulation. The role of the zoo and wildlife veterinarian should be that of leading his or her institution into a positive endorsement of these regulations and their application. Recent additions to the Code of Federal Regulations spell out the roles of the veterinarian and the Animal Care and Use Committee at an institution.

  13. Occurrence and distribution of Staphylococcus aureus lineages among zoo animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Chrobak, Dorota; Moodley, Arshnee

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in animals is largely biased in favour MRSA and domestic animals. In order to generate novel information on the ecology and population structure of this bacterial species in the animal kingdom, we investigated...... the occurrence and genotypic diversity of S. aureus in a range of animal species kept at the Copenhagen Zoo. We sampled 146 animals belonging to 25 mammalian species and 21 reptiles belonging to six species. A total of 59 S. aureus isolates were found in 10 of the 25 mammalian species tested. All isolates were...... MSSA belonging to fourteen spa types, including three novel spa types. MLST revealed the occurrence of seven STs. The study of the ecology of commensal S. aureus in captive wild animals revealed that ST133 has a broader host range than previously thought....

  14. Book review: Fowler's zoo and wild animal medicine (volume 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the eighth volume of Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, the editors have returned to the original, comprehensive, taxa-based format last used in the fifth volume that was released in 2003. The book consists of 82 chapters, divided into taxonomic classes that include amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, and a general topics section. The editors deliberately selected new senior authors who are expert veterinary advisors for the various taxa. This international assemblage of authors is impressive, although the book would have benefited from a greater diversity of disciplinary expertise. Synthesis of the large and expanding body of knowledge about zoo and wild animal medicine is a Sisyphean task, but one that the editors have accomplished well. The chapters were well written and are beautifully illustrated with high-quality images and generally well referenced. Much of the information is summarized in tabular format, which I found both a blessing and a curse. Tabulation of hematologic variables and anesthetic doses is helpful; however, tabulation of information regarding infectious and parasitic diseases results in a loss of detail. For example, methods of diagnosis for some diseases are omitted from some tables. The need for succinctness results in trade-offs, and statements such as “Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis … is one of the most well described pathogens of anurans” with no further information leaves readers unsated. In addition, the book does not have any chapters on fish or invertebrates, which are notable omissions given the importance of these species. Those quibbles aside, this is a must-have book for all zoo and wild animal medicine students and practitioners. However, perhaps it is time to recognize that, during the 36 years since the first volume was published, this discipline has become too large to be contained in 1 book. This is largely because of the success of this book series, and it is a nice problem to have.

  15. Factors influencing interactions in zoos: animal-keeper relationship, animal-public interactions and solitary animals groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interactions that animals experience can have a significant influence on their health and welfare. These interactions can occur between animals themselves, but also between animals and keepers, and animals and the public. Human and non-human animals come into contact with each other in a variety of settings, and wherever there is contact there is the opportunity for interaction to take place. Interaction with companion animals are well known, but human–animal interaction (HAR (Hosey, 2008 also occurs in the context of farms (Hemsworth and Gonyou, 1997; Hemsworth, 2003, laboratories (Chang and Hart, 2002, zoos (Kreger and Mench, 1995 and even the wild (e.g. Cassini, 2001. This project proposes a permanent monitoring scheme to record animal-human interactions and animal-animal interactions in zoos. This will be accompanied by a survey of animal personality for welfare, husbandry, breeding programs and reintroduction purposes. The pilot project is currently based on direct monitoring of animal behaviour, use of time lapse cameras and animal personality questionnaires completed by experienced keepers. The goal of this project is to create a network between zoos to explore the aforementioned interactions to produce husbandry protocols and explore personality and behavioural traits in multiple species. We present provisional data regarding polar bear (Fasano Zoosafari, Italy, Sumatran tigers, Amur tigers and Asiatic lion (ZSL London and Whipsnade zoo interactions with humans and conspecifics. This data is collected across a broad range of environmental conditions and outlines the monitoring protocols developed to collect this data. The first year data show the great adaptability of these species to ex situ environments, low or absent negative impact of visitors’ presence and the relevance of individual personality in these interactions.

  16. Zoo agent's measure in applying the five freedoms principles for animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartoto, Argyo; Soemanto, Robertus Bellarminus; Zunariyah, Siti

    2017-09-01

    Animal welfare should be prioritized not only for the animal's life sustainability but also for supporting the sustainability of living organism's life on the earth. However, Indonesian people have not understood it yet, thereby still treating animals arbitrarily and not appreciating either domesticated or wild animals. This research aimed to analyze the zoo agent's action in applying the five freedoms principle for animal welfare in Taman Satwa Taru Jurug (thereafter called TSTJ) or Surakarta Zoo and Gembira Loka Zoo (GLZ) of Yogyakarta Indonesia using Giddens structuration theory. The informants in this comparative study with explorative were organizers, visitors, and stakeholders of zoos selected using purposive sampling technique. The informants consisted of 19 persons: 8 from TSTJ (Code T) and 10 from GLZ (Code G) and representatives from Natural Resource Conservation Center of Central Java (Code B). Data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and Focus Group Discussion and Documentation. Data were analyzed using an interactive model of analysis consisting of three components: Data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. Data validation was carried out using method and data source triangulations. Food, nutrition, and nutrition level have been given consistent with the animals' habit and natural behavior. Animal keepers always maintain their self-cleanliness. GLZ has provided cages according to the technical instruction of constructing ideal cages, but the cages in TSTJ are worrying as they are not consistent with standard, rusty, and damaged, and animals have no partner. Some animals in GLZ are often sick, whereas some animals in TSTJ are dead due to poor maintenance. The iron pillars of cages restrict animal behavior in TSTJ so that they have not had freedom to behave normally yet, whereas, in GLZ, they can move freely in original habitat. The animals in the two zoos have not been free from disruption, stress, and pressure due to the

  17. Seroprevalences of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlák, K; Bártová, E

    2006-03-31

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. Little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. Sera from 556 animals, from 13 Czech and Slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus), Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), fennec (Vulpes zerda), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Indian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis), fisher (Martes pennanti), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), European bison (Bison bonasus), lechwe (Kobus leche), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris), Eastern elk (C. elaphus canadensis), Vietnam sika deer (C. nippon pseudaxis) and Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Titres ranged from 1:40 to 1:2560. The highest prevalence 50% was found in family mustelidae of the order carnivora. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 193 of 556 zoo animals (34.7%) representing 72 of 114 species tested, with titres ranging from 1:40 to 1:40960. The highest prevalence 100% was found in families: hyaenidae, mustelidae, ursidae and viveridae of the order carnivora. The results of this study indicate that zoo animals have more exposure to T. gondii than to N. caninum. It is the first report of seroprevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in European zoo animals.

  18. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed,

  19. Science learning at the zoo: Evaluating children's developing understanding of animals and their habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Jensen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    science. At the same time, the research highlights the vital role of existing cultural representations of different animals and habitats which are confronted by the new ideas introduced during educational visits to the zoo. Zoos
 attract
 hundreds
 of
 millions 
of
 visitors
 every 
year 
worldwide
–
many......
 of
 new
 ideas
 about
 animals,
 habitats
 and
 the
 zoo
 amongst
 a
 sample
 of
 pupils
 attending
 ZSL
 London
 Zoo.
 Results
 indicate
 the
 potential
 of
 educational
 presentations
 based
 around
 zoo
 visits,
 for
 enabling 
conceptual
 transformations 
relating 
to 
environmental 
science.......
 At
 the
 same
 time,
 the
 research
 highlights
 the
 vital
 role
 of
 existing
 cultural
 representations
 of
 different
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 habitats
 which
 are
 confronted
 by
 the
 new
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 introduced
 during
 educational
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...

  20. An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  2. Zoo agent's measure in applying the five freedoms principles for animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyo Demartoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Animal welfare should be prioritized not only for the animal's life sustainability but also for supporting the sustainability of living organism's life on the earth. However, Indonesian people have not understood it yet, thereby still treating animals arbitrarily and not appreciating either domesticated or wild animals. Aim: This research aimed to analyze the zoo agent's action in applying the five freedoms principle for animal welfare in Taman Satwa Taru Jurug (thereafter called TSTJ or Surakarta Zoo and Gembira Loka Zoo (GLZ of Yogyakarta Indonesia using Giddens structuration theory. Materials and Methods: The informants in this comparative study with explorative were organizers, visitors, and stakeholders of zoos selected using purposive sampling technique. The informants consisted of 19 persons: 8 from TSTJ (Code T and 10 from GLZ (Code G and representatives from Natural Resource Conservation Center of Central Java (Code B. Data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and Focus Group Discussion and Documentation. Data were analyzed using an interactive model of analysis consisting of three components: Data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. Data validation was carried out using method and data source triangulations. Results: Food, nutrition, and nutrition level have been given consistent with the animals' habit and natural behavior. Animal keepers always maintain their self-cleanliness. GLZ has provided cages according to the technical instruction of constructing ideal cages, but the cages in TSTJ are worrying as they are not consistent with standard, rusty, and damaged, and animals have no partner. Some animals in GLZ are often sick, whereas some animals in TSTJ are dead due to poor maintenance. The iron pillars of cages restrict animal behavior in TSTJ so that they have not had freedom to behave normally yet, whereas, in GLZ, they can move freely in original habitat. The animals in the two zoos

  3. Parasitological surveillance in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony in São Paulo Zoo animal house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Gonzalez, Irys Hany Lima; Favoretto, Samantha Mesquita; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque

    Rattus norvegicus (Mammalia: Rodentia) is a widespread and synanthropic rodent, broadly used in medical experiments. It can also be used for feeding captive animals in zoos. Parasitological surveys are important to guarantee the health of both the animals and the staff responsible for their management. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites of Rattus norvegicus offered as food to captive animals from São Paulo Zoo, and demonstrate the importance of sanitary hurdling, disease control and biosecurity. The identified protozoan parasites were Eimeria sp., Entamoeba sp., Spironucleus sp., Giardia sp., Tritrichomonas sp., Chilomastix sp., unidentified cysts and non-sporulated coccidians oocysts (Isospora/Eimeria). The following helminths were found: Syphacia muris, Rodentolepis nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera.

  4. Do Zoo Visitors Need Zoology Knowledge to Understand Conservation Messages? An Exploration of the Public Understanding of Animal Biology and of the Conservation of Biodiversity in a Zoo Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Tracy; Byrne, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the current knowledge and understanding about animal biology of zoo visitors and investigates whether knowledge of animal biology influences the ability of people to understand how human activity affects biodiversity. Zoos can play a role in the development of scientific literacy in the fields of animal biology and biodiversity…

  5. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gress, J.; Silva, E.B. da; Oliveira, L.M. de; Zhao, Di; Anderson, G.; Heard, D.; Stuchal, L.D.; Ma, L.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0–110 mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46 mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6–111 μg/100 cm 2 , typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22–7.8 μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37 mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals. - Highlights: • Daily inorganic As dose from zoo animal foods was 0.22–7.8 μg/kg bw/day. • Total As concentrations in soils of zoo animal enclosures were 1.0–110 mg/kg. • Endangered zoo animals live in soils with As above USEPA Eco-SSLs for avian and mammal species. • Dislodgeable As on CCA-wood beams where primates sit was 4.6–111 μg/100 cm 2 . • Marmoset hair had 6.37 mg/kg As compared to a reference value of 0.21 mg/kg.

  6. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gress, J. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 201146 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Silva, E.B. da; Oliveira, L.M. de [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Zhao, Di [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 201146 (China); Anderson, G. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Heard, D. [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Stuchal, L.D. [Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Ma, L.Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.edu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 201146 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0–110 mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46 mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6–111 μg/100 cm{sup 2}, typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22–7.8 μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37 mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals. - Highlights: • Daily inorganic As dose from zoo animal foods was 0.22–7.8 μg/kg bw/day. • Total As concentrations in soils of zoo animal enclosures were 1.0–110 mg/kg. • Endangered zoo animals live in soils with As above USEPA Eco-SSLs for avian and mammal species. • Dislodgeable As on CCA-wood beams where primates sit was 4.6–111 μg/100 cm{sup 2}. • Marmoset hair had 6.37 mg/kg As compared to a reference value of 0.21 mg/kg.

  7. A comparative approach to the study of Keeper-Animal Relationships in the zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstead, Kathy

    2009-11-01

    Research on intensively farmed animals over the past 25 years has shown that human-animal interactions, by affecting the animal's fear of humans, can markedly limit the productivity and welfare of farm animals. This article begins to explore some of the factors that need to be considered to investigate Keeper-Animal Relationships (KARs) in the zoo. In the mid-1990s, a large body of multi-institutional data on zookeepers and animals was collected from 46 Zoos. Using standardized questionnaires, 82 keepers rated how they behaved towards animals, their husbandry routine, how the animal responds to them and to other people, and provided information about themselves. These data include 219 individuals of four endangered species: black rhinoceros, cheetah, maned wolf, and great hornbill. At each zoo, keepers were also videotaped calling to their animals in order to directly observe animal responses to keeper behaviors. Principle Components Analysis reduced eight animal variables to three components and ten keeper variables to five components. Scores for animals and for keepers were calculated on these components and compared, according to five predictions based on models of human-animal interactions in the literature. Animal responses to keepers varied along three dimensions: Affinity to Keeper, Fear of People, and Sociable/Curious. Animal scores of Fear of People were significantly and positively correlated with independent measures of poor welfare from two later studies: fecal corticoid concentrations for 12 black rhinos and "tense-fearful" scores for 12 cheetahs. (1) Significant species differences were found for Affinity to Keeper and Fear of People, and the interaction of these two dimensions of animal response to keepers appears to be species-specific. (2) The quality of KAR is influenced by whether the zookeeper goes in the enclosure with the animal or not, the frequency and time of feeding, and keeper visibility to the animal. Among keepers who go in with their

  8. Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates from synanthropic and zoo animals and identification of a new subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, C. R.; Alfellani, M. A.; Nørskov-Lauritsen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Blastocystis isolates from 56 Danish synanthropic and zoo animals, 62 primates primarily from United Kingdom (UK) collections and 16 UK primate handlers were subtyped by PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A new subtype (ST) from primates and artiodactyls was identified and designated...... infections from primates by their handlers had occurred in these cases. Data from published studies of non-human primates, other mammals and birds were collected and interpreted to generate a comprehensive overview on the ST distribution in such animals. On the basis of information on 438 samples...

  9. Coprological study of gastrointestinal parasites of captive animals at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Khatun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in different groups of mammals housed at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh. A total of 45 fecal samples of different animals (11 carnivores, 26 herbivores and 8 primates were examined from April to September 2011 for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 60% (27/45 of which 35.6% (16/45 were helminth infections and 24% (11/45 were protozoic infections. The identified parasites included protozoa (Balantidium coli and Coccidia sp., nematodes (Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara cati, Strongyloides sp., Dictyocaulus sp., Trichuris sp. and stomach worm, cestodes (Spirometra sp. and Moniezia benedeni and trematodes (Fasciola sp.. At least one parasite was identified in the fecal samples of all animals except of the samples from bear, python, water buck and olive baboon. Mixed infections were observed in Rhesus monkey (Trichuris sp. and Balantidium coli, in deer (Strongyloides sp. and Coccidia sp. and in lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp.. Helminth infections were more common than protozoic infections in carnivores and herbivores, whereas in primates, protozoic infections were more common than helminth infections. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites found in zoo animals in this study emphasizes the importance of controlling these parasitic infections in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals and of the humans working with these animals.

  10. “You Are a Mysterious Animal, You Know”: Eco-philosophy in Sonya Hartnett’s The Midnight Zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarova, Aliona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In non-realist children’s literature, animals tend to be employed as a means of representing human issues to the extent that the animal qualities of the animal can become invisible. Despite this trend, literary animals can also inform readers about animal issues along with the meta-phoric message they supposedly carry. In Sonya Hartnett’s The Midnight Zoo, the role of animals is twofold: firstly, animals metaphorically represent human relationships – more specifically the bigotry towards the Roma as ‘other’ – and, secondly, the animals directly stand for the actual animals who are mistreated according to the same principle: for their ‘otherness’ to humans. This article adopts an eco-philosophical perspective to examine how The Midnight Zoo effectively intertwines human intolerance of other humans (the Roma with human actions towards animals to suggest that humans treat the (natural world as the Nazis treated the Roma during World War II.

  11. Sensitivity of Lyme Borreliosis Spirochetes to Serum Complement of Regular Zoo Animals: Potential Reservoir Competence of Some Exotic Vertebrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, L.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Oliver, J. H., Jr.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 13-19 ISSN 1530-3667 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Lyme disease * serum complement * exotic animals * reservoir hosts * zoo Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016

  12. Prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, J; Griffith, M; Blair, I; Cormican, M; Dooley, J S G; Goldsmith, C E; Glover, S G; Loughrey, A; Lowery, C J; Matsuda, M; McClurg, R; McCorry, K; McDowell, D; McMahon, A; Cherie Millar, B; Nagano, Y; Rao, J R; Rooney, P J; Smyth, M; Snelling, W J; Xu, J; Moore, J E

    2008-04-01

    Faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, as well as Arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in Belfast Zoological Gardens, during July-September 2006. Thermophilic campylobacters including Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (11 of 44; 25%). Yersinia spp. were isolated from seven animal species (seven of 44; 15.9%) and included, Yersinia enterocolitica (five of seven isolates; 71.4%) and one isolate each of Yersinia frederiksenii and Yersinia kristensenii. Only one isolate of Salmonella was obtained throughout the entire study, which was an isolate of Salmonella dublin (O 1,9,12: H g, p), originating from tiger faeces after enrichment. None of the animal species found in public contact areas of the zoo were positive for any gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. Also, water from the lake in the centre of the grounds, was examined for the same bacterial pathogens and was found to contain C. jejuni. This study is the first report on the isolation of a number of important bacterial pathogens from a variety of novel host species, C. jejuni from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), C. lari from a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Y. kristensenii from a vicugna (Vicugna vicugna) and Y. enterocolitica from a maned wolf and red panda (Ailurus fulgens). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the faeces of animals in public contact areas of the zoo were not positive for the bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens examined. This is reassuring for the public health of visitors, particularly children, who enjoy this educational and recreational resource.

  13. Pairing Animal Cartoon Characters With Produce Stimulates Selection Among Child Zoo Visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpyn, Allison; Allen, Michael; Marks, Samantha; Filion, Nicole; Humphrey, Debora; Ye, Ai; May, Henry; Gardner, Meryl P

    2017-08-01

    In order to address the pervasive trend of underconsumption of fruits and vegetables among children, we examined the hypothesis that children would be more likely to select fruits (apple slices, bananas, and oranges) and vegetables (baby carrots) when paired with animal cartoon image than when available without the character image. Tested in a randomized experiment using counterbalancing, products were arranged on two tables at two separate family fun nights held at a local zoo. Animal character produce parings were manipulated by placing one of two animals (tamarin or iguana) next to two of the four fruit or vegetable selections at each table, and by changing when available without the image. In total, 755 produce selections were made. Significantly more products paired with a character were selected (62.38%) than the same products, not paired (37.62%), χ 2 = 46.32, df = 1, p < .001. The odds ratio of the treatment versus control was 1.66 (i.e., 471/284), indicating that children were 66% more likely to select a snack when paired with an animal cartoon. Study findings highlight the positive impact of animal cartoons on children's fruit and vegetable snack selections, and results suggest the potential for using animal cartoons to encourage fruit and vegetable selection for children.

  14. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  15. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Širmarová, J.; Tichá, L.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, L.; Rudenko, Natalia; Nowotny, N.; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 523-527 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Lyme borreliosis * Seroprevalence * Zoo animals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  16. Survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium animal care staff attitudes regarding humane euthanasia for population management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David M; Ardaiolo, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    The humane euthanasia of animals for population management, or culling, has been suggested as one possible tool for managing animal populations for sustainability, and recent, highly publicized euthanasia of zoo animals in Copenhagen has stimulated global conversation about population management in zoos. We conducted a nationwide survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium personnel, including keepers, managers, and leaders of AZA animal programs, to assess their overall attitudes regarding population management euthanasia. The surveyed populations were generally very aware of the concept of population management euthanasia. Managers and animal program leaders were more supportive of euthanasia than keepers. We found that regardless of role, men were more supportive of euthanasia than women. Those personnel who were aware of instances of population management euthanasia at their institutions before were more supportive of it than those who were not. Support for culling varied with the kind of animal being considered for it, with three general taxon acceptability groupings emerging. Education, tenure in the profession, taxonomic expertise, and whether or not the responder took the survey before or after the Copenhagen events were not strong predictors of attitudes. Overall, the surveyed populations were approximately evenly split in terms of being in favor of euthanasia, not supporting euthanasia, or being unsure. Most responders indicated that they would be more likely to accept culling if more information was provided on its rationale. These results will form the basis for further discussions on the role of humane euthanasia for population management. Zoo Biol. 35:187-200, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Occurrence of Listeria species in different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Sarangi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria species were isolated from faecal samples collected from different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, using selective enrichment medium. The isolates were characterized based on their cell morphology, biochemical and sugar fermentation characteristics as well as culture morphology. Further, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests were carried out to assess the pathogenic potential of the isolates. Listeria were found in 24 (23.07% of the total 104 faecal samples. Listeria were isolated from the samples of tiger, bear, hyena, leopard, zebra, elephant, jackal, lion, barking deer, porcupine, chital, monkey and wild boar. Out of the 24 Listeria isolates 11 were confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The other 13 isolates included L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri and L. ivanovii. The pathogenicity study revealed that only four isolates were pathogenic. Three of these were L. monocytogenes isolated from tiger, hyena and elephant and one was L. ivanovii isolated from leopard. Antibiotic sensitivity of the 24 isolates was high towards ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, azithromycin and enrofloxacin. The isolates showed resistance towards oxytetracyclin, gentamicin, cephadroxil, penicillin- G and nalidixic acid.

  18. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception

  19. The complex relationship between personal sense of connection to animals and self-reported proenvironmental behaviors by zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajal, Alejandro; Luebke, Jerry F; Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Matiasek, Jennifer; Clayton, Susan; Karazsia, Bryan T; Saunders, Carol D; Goldman, Susan R; Mann, Michael E; Stanoss, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    The global biodiversity crisis requires an engaged citizenry that provides collective support for public policies and recognizes the consequences of personal consumption decisions. Understanding the factors that affect personal engagement in proenvironmental behaviors is essential for the development of actionable conservation solutions. Zoos and aquariums may be some of the only places where many people can explore their relations with wild animals and proenvironmental behaviors. Using a moderated-mediation analysis of a survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium visitors (n = 3588), we explored the relationship between the sense of connection to animals and self-reported engagement in proenvironmental behaviors related to climate change and how this relationship is affected by certainty that climate change is happening, level of concern about climate change, and perceptions of effectiveness in personally addressing climate change. We found a significant, directional relationship between sense of connection to animals and self-reported proenvironmental behaviors. Political inclination within the conservative to liberal spectrum did not affect the relationship. We conclude that a personal sense of connection to animals may provide a foundation for educational and communication strategies to enhance involvement in proenvironmental actions. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Streptococcus agalactiae in elephants - A comparative study with isolates from human and zoo animal and livestock origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Rau, Jörg; Westerhüs, Uta; Knauf-Witzens, Tobias; Fawzy, Ahmad; Schlez, Karen; Zschöck, Michael; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Heydel, Carsten; Sting, Reinhard; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Pulami, Dipen; van der Linden, Mark; Ewers, Christa

    2017-05-01

    Streptococcus (S.) agalactiae represents a significant pathogen for humans and animals. However, there are only a few elderly reports on S. agalactiae infections in wild and zoo elephants even though this pathogen has been isolated comparatively frequently in these endangered animal species. Consequently, between 2004 and 2015, we collected S. agalactiae isolates from African and Asian elephants (n=23) living in four different zoos in Germany. These isolates were characterised and compared with isolates from other animal species (n=20 isolates) and humans (n=3). We found that the isolates from elephants can be readily identified by classical biochemistry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Further characterisations for epidemiological issues were achieved using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, capsule typing and molecular fingerprinting (PFGE, RAPD PCR). We could demonstrate that our elephant isolate collection contained at least six different lineages that were representative for their source of origin. Despite generally broad antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae, many showed tetracycline resistance in vitro. S. agalactiae plays an important role in bacterial infections not only in cattle and humans, but also in elephants. Comparative studies were able to differentiate S. agalactiae isolates from elephants into different infectious clusters based on their epidemiological background. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An Acute Multispecies Episode of Sheep-Associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Captive Wild Animals in an Italian Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontoso, R; Autorino, G L; Friedrich, K G; Li, H; Eleni, C; Cocumelli, C; Di Cerbo, P; Manna, G; Scicluna, M T

    2016-12-01

    In July 2011, in a zoological garden in Rome, Italy, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal, systemic disease of Artiodactyla, was suspected on the basis of neurological signs and gross lesions observed in a banteng, the first animal to die of this infection. An MCF type-specific PCR with subsequent sequencing of the PCR amplicon confirmed the aetiological agent as ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2). Biological samples were collected from the dead animals for gross, histological, bacteriological, virological and serological examinations. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the source of the outbreak, as further deaths due to OvHV-2 still occurred after the removal of the acknowledged reservoirs, domestic sheep and goats. For this purpose, samples from other susceptible species and reservoir hosts were collected for virological and serological analysis. In conjunction, a retrospective sero-investigation was conducted on sera collected between 1999 and 2010 from some of the species involved in the present episode. In total, 11 animals belonging to four different species (banteng, Himalayan tahr, Nile lechwe and sika deer) died between July 2011 and October 2012. The severe gross and histological lesions were consistent with the disease, namely haemorrhages and congestion of several organs as well as lymphoid cell infiltrates and vasculitis of varying severity. The virological tests confirmed that all animals had died of sheep-associated MCF. The investigation indicated that the OvHV-2 infection could have been due to the arrival of sheep in the petting zoo, with cases commencing after first lambing and subsequent shedding of virus. This was also supported by the serological retrospective study that indicated limited previous MCF virus circulation. Further MCF cases that occurred even after the removal of the domestic sheep and goats were attributed to the mouflon. This episode confirms the importance of biosecurity measures in zoos, which house MCF

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Blastocystis sp. in Various Animal Groups from Two French Zoos and Evaluation of Potential Zoonotic Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cian

    Full Text Available Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite infecting humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. It exhibits an extensive genetic diversity and 17 subtypes (STs have thus far been identified in mammalian and avian hosts. Since several STs are common to humans and animals, it was proposed that a proportion of human infections may result from zoonotic transmission. However, the contribution of each animal source to human infection remains to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to expand our knowledge of the epidemiology and host specificity of this parasite by performing the largest epidemiological survey ever conducted in animal groups in terms of numbers of species screened. A total of 307 stool samples from 161 mammalian and non-mammalian species in two French zoos were screened by real-time PCR for the presence of Blastocystis sp. Overall, 32.2% of the animal samples and 37.9% of the species tested were shown to be infected with the parasite. A total of 111 animal Blastocystis sp. isolates were subtyped, and 11 of the 17 mammalian and avian STs as well as additional STs previously identified in reptiles and insects were found with a varying prevalence according to animal groups. These data were combined with those obtained from previous surveys to evaluate the potential risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis sp. through the comparison of ST distribution between human and animal hosts. This suggests that non-human primates, artiodactyls and birds may serve as reservoirs for human infection, especially in animal handlers. In contrast, other mammals such as carnivores, and non-mammalian groups including reptiles and insects, do not seem to represent significant sources of Blastocystis sp. infection in humans. In further studies, more intensive sampling and screening of potential new animal hosts will reinforce these statements and expand our understanding of the circulation of Blastocystis sp. in animal and human

  3. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Concentration in Household Pets and Petting Zoo Animals for Use in Exposure Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Katarina D M; Christidis, Tanya; Thomas, M Kate; Anderson, Maureen; Nesbitt, Andrea; Keithlin, Jessica; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Animal contact is a potential transmission route for campylobacteriosis, and both domestic household pet and petting zoo exposures have been identified as potential sources of exposure. Research has typically focussed on the prevalence, concentration, and transmission of zoonoses from farm animals to humans, yet there are gaps in our understanding of these factors among animals in contact with the public who don't live on or visit farms. This study aims to quantify, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter carriage in household pets and petting zoo animals. Four databases were accessed for the systematic review (PubMed, CAB direct, ProQuest, and Web of Science) for papers published in English from 1992-2012, and studies were included if they examined the animal population of interest, assessed prevalence or concentration with fecal, hair coat, oral, or urine exposure routes (although only articles that examined fecal routes were found), and if the research was based in Canada, USA, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Studies were reviewed for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis by two reviewers, compiled into a database, and relevant studies were used to create a weighted mean prevalence value. There were insufficient data to run a meta-analysis of concentration values, a noted study limitation. The mean prevalence of Campylobacter in petting zoo animals is 6.5% based on 7 studies, and in household pets the mean is 24.7% based on 34 studies. Our estimated concentration values were: 7.65x103cfu/g for petting zoo animals, and 2.9x105cfu/g for household pets. These results indicate that Campylobacter prevalence and concentration are lower in petting zoo animals compared with household pets and that both of these animal sources have a lower prevalence compared with farm animals that do not come into contact with the public. There is a lack of studies on Campylobacter in petting zoos and/or fair animals in

  4. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in zoo animals and identification of a rodent-borne strain in a Syrian brown bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, Carina; Ryll, René; Knauf-Witzens, Tobias; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Ulrich, Rainer G; Johne, Reimar

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, an emerging infectious disease of humans. HEV infections have also been described in various animal species. Whereas domestic pigs and wild boars are well-known animal reservoirs for HEV, the knowledge on natural HEV infection in zoo animals is scarce so far. Here, we analysed 244 sera from 66 mammal species derived from three zoos in Germany using a commercial double antigen sandwich ELISA. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 16 animal species, with the highest detection rates in suids (33.3%) and carnivores (27.0%). However, RNA of the human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1-4 was not detected in the serum samples from suids or carnivores. Using a broad spectrum RT-PCR, a ratHEV-related sequence was identified in a sample of a female Syrian brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus). Subsequent serum samples within a period of five years confirmed a HEV seroconversion in this animal. No symptoms of hepatitis were recorded. In a follow-up investigation at the same location, closely related ratHEV sequences were identified in free-living Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), whereas feeder rats (Rattus norvegicus forma domestica) were negative for HEV-specific antibodies and RNA. Therefore, a spillover infection of ratHEV from free-living Norway rats is most likely. The results indicate that a wide range of zoo animals can be naturally infected with HEV or HEV-related viruses. Their distinct role as possible reservoir animals for HEV and sources of HEV infection for humans and other animals remains to be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy from agricultural animal wastes. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This technology status report discusses the production of animal wastes in the UK, and the environmental problems caused by direct use of the waste as fertilisers or disposal by landfilling. The effects of the moisture content of the waste on the choice of technology is examined, and the use of anaerobic digestion for wetter wastes to produce biogas and combustion of dryer wastes to produce heat, power and phosphate- and potash-rich ash are discussed. Market opportunities, and the economics and environmental impacts of both technologies are investigated

  6. I Love Petting Zoos!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-23

    This Kidtastics podcast helps children learn about how to stay safe and healthy when visiting petting zoos and other animal exhibits.  Created: 3/23/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/23/2010.

  7. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing.

  8. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare

  9. Shedding of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 by zoo animals, and report of an unstable metronidazole-resistant isolate from a zebra foal (Equus quagga burchellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Blanco, José L; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Peláez, Teresa; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed; García, Marta E

    2014-03-14

    Clostridium difficile is an emerging and potentially zoonotic pathogen, but its prevalence in most animal species, including exhibition animals, is currently unknown. In this study we assessed the prevalence of faecal shedding of C. difficile by zoo animals, and determined the ribotype, toxin profile and antimicrobial susceptibility of recovered isolates. A total of 200 samples from 40 animal species (36.5% of which came from plains zebra, Equus quagga burchellii) were analysed. C. difficile was isolated from 7 samples (3.5% of total), which came from the following animal species: chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), dwarf goat (Capra hircus), and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica), with one positive sample each; and plains zebra, with 4 positive samples from 3 different individuals. Most recovered isolates (4/7, 57.1%) belonged to the epidemic PCR ribotype 078, produced toxins A and B, and had the genes encoding binary toxin (i.e. A(+)B(+)CDT(+) isolates). The remaining three isolates belonged to PCR ribotypes 039 (A(-)B(-)CDT(-)), 042 (A(+)B(+)CDT(-)) and 110 (A(-)B(+)CDT(-)). Regardless of their ribotype, all isolates displayed high-level resistance to the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and levofloxacin. Some isolates were also resistant to meropenem and/or ertapenem. A ribotype 078 isolate recovered from a male zebra foal initially showed in vitro resistance to metronidazole (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml), but lost that trait after subculturing on non-selective media. We conclude that zoo animals belonging to different species can carry ribotype 078 and other toxigenic strains of C. difficile showing resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used in veterinary and/or human medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Naotake

    1979-01-01

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  11. Zoo and Wildlife Libraries: An International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Linda L.; Tierney, Kaitlyn Rose

    2010-01-01

    The conservation and well-being of exotic animals is core to the mission of zoos, aquariums and many small nonprofit wildlife groups. Increasingly, these organizations are committed to scientific research, both basic and applied. To ascertain the current state of the libraries that support their efforts, librarians at the San Diego Zoo conducted…

  12. Growth and reproductive potential of Eisenia foetida (Sav) on various zoo animal dungs after two methods of pre-composting followed by vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Godínez, Edmundo Arturo; Lagunes-Zarate, Jorge; Corona-Hernández, Juan; Barajas-Aceves, Martha

    2017-06-01

    Disposal of animal manure without treatment can be harmful to the environment. In this study, samples of four zoo animal dungs and one horse dung were pre-composted in two ways: (a) traditional composting and (b) bokashi pre-composting for 1month, followed by vermicomposting for 3months. The permanence (PEf) and reproductive potential (RP) of Eisenia foetida as well as the quality of vermicompost were evaluated. The PEf values and RP index of E. foetida were higher for samples pre-composted using the traditional composting method (98.7-88% and 31.85-16.27%, respectively) followed by vermicomposting (92.7-72.7% and 22.96-13.51%, respectively), when compared with those for bokashi pre-composted samples followed by vermicomposting, except for the horse dung sample (100% for both the parameters). The values of electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, total N, available P, C/N ratio, and pH showed that both treatments achieved the norms of vermicompost (bokashi pre-composting followed by vermicomposting produced the highest values (98.7-70.7%, 97.67-96.65%, and 2.7-1.97%, respectively), when compared with the other method adapted in this study. Nevertheless, further studies with plants for plant growth evaluation are needed to assess the benefits and limitations of these two pre-composting methods prior to vermicomposting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalencia de infección por el virus del Nilo Occidental en dos zoológicos del estado de Tabasco Prevalence of West Nile Virus infection in animals from two state zoos Tabasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hidalgo-Martínez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por el virus del Nilo Occidental (VNO en animales, mosquitos y personal que labora en dos zoológicos del estado de Tabasco, en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Con la utilización de ELISA de bloqueo se detectaron anticuerpos en sueros de animales: se buscó un fragmento del genoma del VNO por RT-PCR en el suero de animales, empleados y mosquitos. RESULTADOS: En el zoológico "La Venta" se encontró una seroprevalencia de 25.67% (19/74 en aves y de 85.71% (6/7 en reptiles. En el zoológico "Yum-Ká", 31.25% (50/160 de las aves y 34.48% (16/29, de los mamíferos, tuvieron anticuerpos contra el VNO. En un grupo de mosquitos (Culex quinquefasciatus se detectó el genoma del virus. CONCLUSIONES: La detección de anticuerpos contra el VNO en animales de ambos zoológicos y del genoma viral en mosquitos demuestra la presencia del virus, lo cual representa un riesgo potencial de infección para animales y humanos.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of West Nile Virus (WNV infection in animals, mosquitoes and employees from two zoos of Tabasco state, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: WNV antibodies were detected by blocking ELISA in serum samples from animals. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR from mosquitoes and serum samples from employees at "Yum-Ká" zoo. RESULTS: Seroprevalence in birds was 25.65% (19/74 and 85% (6/7 in reptiles from "La Venta" zoo. Thirty-one percent of birds (50/160 and 34.48% mammals (16/29 at the "Yum-Ká" zoo, were seropositive. All human serum samples from Yum-ká zoo were negative by RT-PCR. A pool of mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus was positive for WNV. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of WNV antibodies in animals from both zoos and the detection of viral genome in mosquitoes demonstrate the presence of WNV in this region and indicates a potential risk of infection in animals and humans.

  14. Solutions for energy recovery of animal waste from leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe; Pană, Constantin; Mihaescu, Lucian; Cernat, Alexandru; Negurescu, Niculae; Mocanu, Raluca; Negreanu, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal fats in blend with diesel fuel for energy valorification through combustion. • Animal waste from tanneries as fuel and for biogas production. • Experimental tests using animal fats as fuel for diesel engines. • Experimental tests modifying the characteristic parameters. - Abstract: Secondary products from food and leather industries are regarded as animal wastes. Conversion of these animal wastes into fuels represents an energy recovery solution not only because of their good combustion properties, but also from the viewpoint of supply stability. A tannery factory usually processes 60–70 t/month of crude leathers, resulting in 12–15 t/month of waste. Fats, which can be used as the input fuel for diesel engines (in crude state or as biodiesel), represent 10% of this animal waste, while the rest are proteins that can be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. Herein, we analyse two approaches to the use of animal waste from tanneries: as fuel for diesel engines and for biogas generation for heat production. Diesel fuelling and fuelling by animal wastes are compared in terms of the engine performance and pollutant emissions. The effects of animal waste usage on the pollutant emissions level, exhaust gas temperature, indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, and engine efficiency are analysed. The energy recovery technologies for animal waste, which are analysed in this work, can be easily implemented and can simultaneously solve the problem posed by animal wastes by using them as an alternative to fossil fuels. Animal fats can be considered an excellent alternative fuel for diesel engines without major constructive modifications.

  15. MRI zoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    The basic idea was to use MRI to produce a sequence of 3D gray scale image slices of various animals, subsequentlyimaged with a clinical CT system. For this purpose, these animals were used: toad, lungfish, python snake and a horseshoe crab. Each animal was sacrificed according to standard...... visually inspected, both in 2D and 3D, and compared with photographs and anatomy atlases found at library and on the internet....

  16. Co-Combustion of Animal Waste in a Commercial Waste-to-Energy BFB Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Moradian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of animal waste, in waste-to-energy boilers, is considered a method to produce both heat and power and to dispose of possibly infected animal wastes. This research conducted full-scale combustion tests to identify the impact of changed fuel composition on a fluidized-bed boiler. The impact was characterized by analyzing the deposit formation rate, deposit composition, ash composition, and emissions. Two combustion tests, denoted the reference case and animal waste case, were performed based on different fuel mixes. In the reference case, a normal solid waste fuel mix was combusted in the boiler, containing sorted industry and household waste. In the animal waste case, 20 wt% animal waste was added to the reference fuel mix. The collected samples, comprising sampling probe deposits, fuel mixes, bed ash, return sand, boiler ash, cyclone ash and filter ash, were analyzed using chemical fractionation, SEM-EDX and XRD. The results indicate decreased deposit formation due to animal waste co-combustion. SEM-EDX and chemical fractionation identified higher concentrations of P, Ca, S, and Cl in the bed materials in the animal waste case. Moreover, the risk of bed agglomeration was lower in the animal waste case and also a decreased rate of NOx and SO2 emissions were observed.

  17. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF QUARANTINE AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO QUARANTINE ISOLATION AND TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Chelsea; Marinkovich, Matt; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    Quarantine is designed primarily to prevent the introduction of transmissible diseases to zoological collections. Improvements in preventive medicine, disease eradication, and comprehensive pathology programs call into question current industry quarantine standards. Disease risk analysis was used at the San Diego Zoo (SDZ) and the SDZ Safari Park to eliminate quarantine isolation and transmissible disease testing for animals transferred between the two institutions. To determine if a risk-based approach might be valid between other institutions and SDZ, we reviewed quarantine data for animals arriving at SDZ from 81 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 124 other sources (e.g., non-AZA-accredited institutions, private breeders, private dealers, governmental bodies) over a 5-yr period (2009-2013). No mammal or herptile failed quarantine due to transmissible diseases of concern. Approximately 2.5% of incoming birds failed quarantine due to transmissible disease; however, all 14 failed individuals were obtained from three nonaccredited sources (private breeders, confiscation). The results of our study suggest that a risk-based approach could be used to minimize or eliminate quarantine for the transfer of animals from institutions with comprehensive disease surveillance programs and/or preshipment testing practices. Quarantine isolation with testing remains an essential defense against introducing transmissible diseases of concern when there is a lack of health knowledge about the animals being received.

  18. Bezoekersprognose Wad & Zoo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, Karel Jan; Wever, Jan

    Wad & Zoo is een attractie over het natuurlijke leven in de Eems, van bron tot Wad en Noordzee. Oorspronkelijk was de gedachte dat deze attractie in Delfzijl zou komen, maar hij is nu gepland bij de veerboot naar Borkum in de Eemshaven.Marklinq is door het Bestuur van de Stichting Wad & Zoo gevraagd

  19. Combustion of animal or vegetable based liquid waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus

    2002-04-01

    In this project experiences from combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products have been compiled. Legal aspects have also been taken into consideration and the potential for this type of fuel on the Swedish energy market has been evaluated. Today the supply of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products for energy production in Sweden is limited. The total production of animal based liquid fat is about 10,000 tonnes annually. The animal based liquid waste products origin mainly from the manufacturing of meat and bone meal. Since meat and bone meal has been banned from use in animal feeds it is possible that the amount of animal based liquid fat will decrease. The vegetable based liquid waste products that are produced in the processing of vegetable fats are today used mainly for internal energy production. This result in limited availability on the commercial market. The potential for import of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products is estimated to be relatively large since the production of this type of waste products is larger in many other countries compared to Sweden. Vegetable oils that are used as food or raw material in industries could also be imported for combustion, but this is not reasonable today since the energy prices are relatively low. Restrictions allow import of SRM exclusively from Denmark. This is today the only limit for increased imports of animal based liquid fat. The restrictions for handle and combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products are partly unclear since this is covered in several regulations that are not easy to interpret. The new directive for combustion of waste (2000/76/EG) is valid for animal based waste products but not for cadaver or vegetable based waste products from provisions industries. This study has shown that more than 27,400 tonnes of animal based liquid waste products and about 6,000 tonnes of vegetable based liquid waste products were used for combustion in Sweden

  20. Knowledge, Interest, and Value of Youth Zoo Visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Alexandra M.

    In the face of massive global extinction, the mission of zoos for conservation education has increasing importance. Zoos are in a unique position to affect the development of youth in ways that are consistent with cultivating pro-environmental behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine three intrinsic traits of youth important to the goals of conservation education: knowledge about animals, interest in animals, and value for animals. In particular, I explored the relationship between these three traits and the utterances and behaviors of youth zoo visitors during their visit. Using an embedded correlational data transformation mixed methods design, this study examined the experiences of 37 youth attending the zoo. Data collection sources included a drawing activity meant to assess the knowledge of youth about animals, Likert-type questionnaires meant to assess the youth's interest and value, and a semi-structured interview meant to ascertain critical moments from the youth's visit. The results of these instruments were paired with extensive video data of the youth's entire zoo visit. Results of the study indicated that youth organize their knowledge about animals around ecological and morphological concepts and that this forms the basis for their value of animals. The knowledge, interest, and value of youth zoo visitors did seem to correlate with some utterances and behaviors in the zoo, but learning talk was rare. Results also indicated that certain critical moments during the youth's visit were social in nature and centered on the behaviors of animals. These moments may be the most promising for influencing the development of knowledge, interest, and value. The discussion and implications sections of the study focus on the practical use of the findings for zoo education. The study points to the importance of studying intrinsic traits of youth as well as the important influences of the social and physical context on the development of these traits during

  1. IQ Zoo and Teaching Operant Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihm, Elson M.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Lammers, William J.; Huffman, Stephanie P.

    2010-01-01

    Psychology texts often cite the work of Marian and Keller Breland and their business, Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE), to demonstrate operant conditioning and the "misbehavior of organisms" from an evolutionary perspective. Now available on the Internet at the official IQ Zoo website (http://www3.uca.edu/iqzoo/), the artifacts of ABE's work, in…

  2. Dallas Zoo hunts for escaped vulture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shows eating off the antelopes that lions kill and everything,” Mr Brown said. The African White-backed vultures have been at the zoo since August. They're expected to be part of an exhibit that is undergoing renovations. Mr Brown said vultures are hardy, resourceful animals. When the missing bird becomes hungry,.

  3. Seal Formation Mechanism Beneath Animal Waste Holding Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, A.; Tyner, J. S.; Wright, W. C.

    2005-12-01

    Infiltration of animal waste from holding ponds can cause contamination of groundwater. Typically, the initial flux from a pond decreases rapidly as a seal of animal waste particulates is deposited at the base of the pond. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the seal formation. Twenty-four soil columns (10-cm diameter by 43-cm long) were hand-packed with sand, silty loam or clay soils. A 2.3 m column of dairy or swine waste was applied to the top of the each column. The leakage rate from each column was measured with respect to time to analyze the effect of seal formation on different soil textures and animal waste types. We tested our hypothesis that seal growth and the subsequent decrease of leachate production adheres to a filter cake growth model. Said model predicts that the cumulative leakage rate is proportional to the square root of time and to the square root of the height of the waste.

  4. Evaluating children's conservation biology learning at the zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Millions of children visit zoos every year with parents or schools to encounter wildlife firsthand. Public conservation education is a requirement for membership in professional zoo associations. However, in recent years zoos have been criticized for failing to educate the public on conservation issues and related biological concepts, such as animal adaptation to habitats. I used matched pre- and postvisit mixed methods questionnaires to investigate the educational value of zoo visits for children aged 7-15 years. The questionnaires gathered qualitative data from these individuals, including zoo-related thoughts and an annotated drawing of a habitat. A content analysis of these qualitative data produced the quantitative data reported in this article. I evaluated the relative learning outcomes of educator-guided and unguided zoo visits at London Zoo, both in terms of learning about conservation biology (measured by annotated drawings) and changing attitudes toward wildlife conservation (measured using thought-listing data). Forty-one percent of educator-guided visits and 34% of unguided visits resulted in conservation biology-related learning. Negative changes in children's understanding of animals and their habitats were more prevalent in unguided zoo visits. Overall, my results show the potential educational value of visiting zoos for children. However, they also suggest that zoos' standard unguided interpretive materials are insufficient for achieving the best outcomes for visiting children. These results support a theoretical model of conservation biology learning that frames conservation educators as toolmakers who develop conceptual resources to enhance children's understanding of science. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Development of a Zoo Walk Navigation System using the Positional Measurement Technology and the Wireless Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Ishida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose and evaluate a Zoo Walk Navigation System consistings of the Animal Contents Registering and Editing Web Management System and the Animal Contents Browsing and Acquiring Smartphone Application. The Animal Contents Registering and Editing Web Management System for zoo staff enables to register/edit various animal contents. Thereby, this web management system provides real-time and flesh zoo information to the Animal Contents Browsing and Acquiring Smartphone Application. On the other hand, the Animal Contents Browsing and Acquiring Smartphone Application for zoo visitors enables to browse various animal contents which zoo staff registered through the Animal Contents Registering and Editing Web Management System. The Animal Contents Browsing and Acquiring Smartphone Application has the animal guide browsing function, the animal quiz function, the beacon notification browsing function, the zoo map navigating function, and the AR camera function. Zoo visitors can enjoy a zoo park using this smartphone application. This system is the new type navigation system which zoo staff can renew contents to avoid contents obsolescence. And, this system always provides new information to zoo visitors in real time by the beacon notification function.

  6. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  7. Apache ZooKeeper essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Haloi, Saurav

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a novice to ZooKeeper or already have some experience, you will be able to master the concepts of ZooKeeper and its usage with ease. This book assumes you to have some prior knowledge of distributed systems and high-level programming knowledge of C, Java, or Python, but no experience with Apache ZooKeeper is required.

  8. Blood-feeding ecology of mosquitoes in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuten, H C; Bridges, W C; Paul, K S; Adler, P H

    2012-12-01

    To determine if the unique host assemblages in zoos influence blood-feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), a sampling programme was conducted in Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos, South Carolina, U.S.A., from April 2009 to October 2010. A total of 4355 female mosquitoes of 14 species were collected, of which 106 individuals of nine species were blood-fed. The most common taxa were Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Anopheles punctipennis (Say), Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab), Culex pipiens complex (L.) and Culex restuans (Theobald). Molecular analyses (cytochrome b) of bloodmeals revealed that mosquitoes fed on captive animals, humans and wildlife, and took mixed bloodmeals. Host species included one amphibian, 16 birds, 10 mammals (including humans) and two reptiles. Minimum dispersal distances after feeding on captive hosts ranged from 15.5 m to 327.0 m. Mosquito-host associations generally conformed to previous accounts, indicating that mosquito behaviour inside zoos reflects that outside zoos. However, novel variation in host use, including new, exotic host records, warrants further investigation. Zoos, thus, can be used as experiment environments in which to study mosquito behaviour, and the findings extrapolated to non-zoo areas, while providing medical and veterinary benefits to zoo animals, employees and patrons. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. The particle zoo

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079223

    2016-01-01

    What is everything really made of? If we split matter down into smaller and infinitesimally smaller pieces, where do we arrive? At the Particle Zoo - the extraordinary subatomic world of antimatter, neutrinos, strange-flavoured quarks and yetis, gravitons, ghosts and glueballs, mindboggling eleven-dimensional strings and the elusive Higgs boson itself. Be guided around this strangest of zoos by Gavin Hesketh, experimental particle physicist at humanity's greatest experiment, the Large Hadron Collider. Concisely and with a rare clarity, he demystifies how we are uncovering the inner workings of the universe and heading towards the next scientific revolution. Why are atoms so small? How did the Higgs boson save the universe? And is there a theory of everything? The Particle Zoo answers these and many other profound questions, and explains the big ideas of Quantum Physics, String Theory, The Big Bang and Dark Matter...and, ultimately, what we know about the true, fundamental nature of reality.

  10. Method and apparatus for treatment of animal waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R R

    1977-12-15

    Animal wastes (fresh manure and urine) are converted to products useful on farmland or in animal feed by treating them with alkali metal hydroxides or carbonates and/or alkaline earth hydroxides to give slurries with pH 9.0 to 12.0, thus deactivating urease. Thus, a slurry of swine manure and urine adjusted with CaO to pH 11 has urea content 27.0 and 26.5 mg/L after 0 and 10 days, respectively, at 20/sup 0/, compared with 22.0 and 0, respectively, in the absence of base.

  11. Usage of Farm Animal Waste for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankina, O. V.; Chernysh, A. P.; Sankin, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    The article considers problems connecting with the development of cattle breeding in Russia, especially the utilization of animals and poultry waste products. Basing on the foreign scientists’ experience, it has been proposed different solutions to this problem in terms of the Russian Federation, conducted the study, and presented the results of the undertaken experiments. Recommendations on the use of substances, that speed up fermentation processes at certain temperatures, has been developed.

  12. Modelling animal waste pathogen transport from agricultural land to streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Pramod K; Soupir, Michelle L; Ikenberry, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water

  13. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  14. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a

  15. Microbial contamination level of air in animal waste utilization plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Tymczyna, Leszek; Drabik, Agata; Krzosek, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was evaluation of microbial contamination of air within and in the vicinity of animal waste disposal plants. Air samples were analyzed to determine total bacterial and fungal counts as well as microbial species composition. Measurements of climate conditions (temperature, humidity, air motion) and total dust concentration were also performed. Total numbers of bacteria and fungi surpassed the threshold limit values for production halls. The most abundant bacteria detected were those consisting of physiological microflora of animal dermis and mucosa. Fungal species composition proved to be most differentiated in the air beyond the plant area. Aspergillus versicolor, a pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus, was isolated only inside the rendering plant processing hall. The measurement results showed a low sanitary-hygienic state of air in the plant processing halls and substantial air pollution in its immediate vicinity.

  16. Zoos through the Lens of the IUCN Red List: A Global Metapopulation Approach to Support Conservation Breeding Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A.; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K.; Jones, Owen R.

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful. PMID:24348999

  17. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  18. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia A Conde

    Full Text Available Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23% terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  19. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascotto Ernesto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium, pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection.

  20. Dry-distillation of experimental animal wastes containing radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Hideo; Saito, Kazumi; Kurihara, Norio

    1988-01-01

    Mice were dry-distilled at 800deg C for 10 min, after [ 32 P]orthophosphate or L-[4,5- 3 H]leucine was intraperitoneally administered. Phosphorus-32 was quantitatively recovered in the residual solid, whereas 95% of 3 H was found in the distillate (condensed water). When 14 C (L-[U- 14 C]malic acid or L-[U- 14 C]leucine) was administered to mice and they were dry-distilled, 14 C-radioactivity was distributed into two fractions; residual solid and exhaust gas. In these cases, the recovery percentage of 14 C in residual solid was not very high but increased as the treating temperature decreased. It reached about 40% of the administered 14 C at 400deg C for 120 min. By the dry-distillation of animals, their weight was reduced to about 10% in every animal tested (mice, rats and rabbits). The volume was reduced to about 20% in cases of mice and rats, and about 30% in case of rabbits. It was concluded that the dry-distillation can be useful as a pre-treatment for disposal of animal wastes containing radioisotopes. (author)

  1. Crude oil degradation potential of bacteria isolated from oil-polluted soil and animal wastes in soil amended with animal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voke O. Urhibo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of animal wastes on crude oil degradation potential of strains of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis isolated from animal wastes (poultry and pig droppings and petroleum-polluted soil was compared in laboratory studies. Both bacterial strains were selected for high crude oil degradation ability after screening many isolates by the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol method. Analyses by gas chromatography (GC showed that degradation of crude oil was markedly enhanced (88.3–97.3% vs 72.1–78.8% in soil amended with animal wastes as indicated by the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH. TPH reduction by animal waste bacterial strains in animal waste-amended soil was more than the reduction by strains from soil contaminated with petroleum (P < 0.001. The greatest reduction of TPH (96.6–97.3% vs 80.4–95.9% was by poultry waste strains and it occurred in soil amended with poultry waste. GC analyses of n-alkanes showed that although shorter chains were preferentially degraded [32.0–78.5% (C8–23 vs 6.3–18.5% (C24–36] in normal soil, biodegradation of longer chains increased to 38.4–46.3% in animal waste-amended soil inoculated with the same animal wastes’ strains. The results indicate that these animal waste strains may be of potential application for bioremediation of oil-polluted soil in the presence of the wastes from where they were isolated.

  2. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Meehan

    Full Text Available Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people's views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos' mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant's zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare

  3. ZOO: la piattaforma WPS libera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Delluchi

    2010-03-01

    ZOO libraries, and the API, Javascript based libraries for creating and managing WPS services. While an exhaustive description of ZOO is beyond the scope of this paper, we do hope to stimulate discussion bout possibilities and challenges of webbased analysis of geospatial data.

  4. ZOO: la piattaforma WPS libera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Delluchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ZOO: WPS serverZOO is a WPS server with powered calculus abilities on geospatial data directly in the web, deriving from the international collaboration of French and Japaneseresearchers. ZOO is composed by three main parts: the Kernel, i.e. the core of the software, the Services, i.e. program processes allowing to connect the differentZOO libraries, and the API, Javascript based libraries for creating and managing WPS services. While an exhaustive description of ZOO is beyond the scope of this paper, we do hope to stimulate discussion bout possibilities and challenges of webbased analysis of geospatial data.

  5. Interpretive signs designed to trigger naturalist intelligence at two American zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Martha

    An investigation of interpretive graphics was conducted in 2005 at two mid-sized AZA-accredited zoos, Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa, Florida and Knoxville Zoo, Knoxville, Tennessee. The Lowry Park Zoo study investigated signs at a red-tailed hawk and sandhill crane exhibit. Combination signs and wordless signs were more effective helping visitors see animals, increasing holding time, and number of engagements than treatments of no signs, or signs with words only. A second study, at Knoxville Zoo, tested combination and wordless signs in a children's zoo, investigating 31 signs at a 3.5-acre exhibit. Comparisons of visitors seeing the animals/using interactive exhibit elements, holding time, and engagement activities, showed wordless signs were more effective than combination signs. Differences in gender ratio, age, group size, and other demographics were not significant. Visit motivation differed between zoos, with visitors from Lowry Park Zoo more often articulating reason for a visit as wanting to see animals. Visitors at Knoxville Zoo most often said they wanted to spend time with family and friends. Differences in potential for naturalist intelligence were probably related to local practices rather than to innate differences in naturalist intelligence. The number of communities in Florida that regulate pet ownership and provide lawn service could account for the lower number of people who have pets and plants. At both institutions, behaviors supported educational theories. The importance of signs as advanced organizers was shown where signs were removed at the bird exhibit at Lowry Park Zoo, with fewer visitors seeing the animals. Social interaction was noted at both zoos, with intra- and inter-group conversations observed. If naturalist intelligence is necessary to see animals, visitors run a continuum. Some are unable to see animals with signs and assistance from other visitors; others see animals with little difficulty. The importance of honing naturalist

  6. Evaluation of biochemical factors from mixed animal wastes feedstock in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane ...

  7. Effect of biochemical factors from mixed animal wastes feedstock in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane...

  8. On the anthropocentric view: a man in the zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Speck de Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to question the primacy of human beings and their domination over nature based on a critique of the obsolescence of zoos as reinforcers of boundaries between humans and animals. The analysis was conducted of the anthropocentric assumption and of the nature of zoos as places of forced marginalization and animal confinement. In order to achieve the established goals, the historical, deductive and explanatory method is applied. Books, papers and journals have been used as bibliographical sources. Tom Regan’s Theory of Animal Rights and Sônia T. Felipe’s Animal Ethics have been adopted to demonstrate the most adequate “solution” for these and so many other cases of animal exploration: empty cages and animal freedom.

  9. Field scale manure born animal waste management : GIS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive beef backgrounding often accumulate manure born soil nutrients, microbes, and pharmaceuticals at different site locations. Unless properly managed, such waste materials can pollute surrounding soil and water sources. Soil sampling from these sites helps determining waste material levels bu...

  10. Salmonella prevalence among reptiles in a Zoo education setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hydeskov, H. B.; Guardabassi, Luca; Aalbæk, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Clinically healthy reptiles may shed Salmonella and therefore act as a potential zoonotic threat. Most people in Northern European countries are rarely exposed to reptiles, but many zoos have education departments where children have direct contact with this group of animals. The objectives...... of this study were to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of Salmonella among reptiles in the Education Department (n = 55) at Copenhagen Zoo and compare it to the Zoo's main reptile collection (n = 145) to evaluate the zoonotic risk. Salmonella was isolated from cloacal swabs by selective...... enrichment, and a single isolate from each positive sample was further identified by biochemical tests and serotyped. The overall prevalence was 35% (69/200) with significant difference between the Education Department (64%, 35/55) and the main reptile collection (23%, 34/145). A total of 28 serotypes were...

  11. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Kim, Mi Hyung; Balmford, Andrew; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment. This study investigates the potential benefits of diverting food waste for pig feed in the UK. A hybrid, consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental and health impacts of four technologies for food waste processing: two technologies of South Korean style-animal feed production (as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed) were compared with two widespread UK disposal technologies: AD and composting. Results of 14 mid-point impact categories show that the processing of food waste as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed have the best and second-best scores, respectively, for 13/14 and 12/14 environmental and health impacts. The low impact of food waste feed stems in large part from its substitution of conventional feed, the production of which has substantial environmental and health impacts. While the re-legalisation of the use of food waste as pig feed could offer environmental and public health benefits, this will require support from policy makers, the public, and the pig industry, as well as investment in separated food waste collection which currently occurs in only a minority of regions.

  12. DETOMIDINE AND BUTORPHANOL FOR STANDING SEDATION IN A RANGE OF ZOO-KEPT UNGULATE SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bouts, Tim; Dodds, Joanne; Berry, Karla; Arif, Abdi; Taylor, Polly; Routh, Andrew; Gasthuys, Frank

    2017-01-01

    General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied...

  13. Molecular Sex Determination of Captive Komodo Dragons (Varanus komodoensis at Gembira Loka Zoo, Surabaya Zoo, and Ragunan Zoo, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SULANDARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Captive breeding of endangered species is often difficult, and may be hampered by many factors. Sexual monomorphism, in which males and females are not easily distinguishable, is one such factor and is a common problem in captive breeding of many avian and reptile species. Species-specific nuclear DNA markers, recently developed to identify portions of sex chromosomes, were employed in this study for sex determination of Komodo dragons (Varanus Komodoensis. Each animal was uniquely tagged using a passive integrated micro-transponder (TROVAN 100A type transponders of 13 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter. The sex of a total of 81 individual Komodo dragons (44 samples from Ragunan zoo, 26 samples from Surabaya zoo, and 11 samples from Gembira Loka zoo were determined using primers Ksex 1for and Ksex 3rev. A series of preliminary PCR amplifications were conducted using DNA from individuals of known sex. During these preliminary tests, researchers varied the annealing temperatures, number of cycles, and concentrations of reagents, in order to identify the best protocol for sex determination using our sample set. We thus developed our own PCR protocol for this study, which resulted in the amplification of band A in females and band C in males. Results from band B, however, turned out to be non-determinative in our study because, for females, band B was not always visible, and for males sometimes a similar, but lighter band was also amplified, making interpretation difficult. In this study, sex determination was based mainly on the difference in size between the female-specific 812 bp fragment and the homologous, longer fragment amplified for males.

  14. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  15. Teaching Operant Conditioning at the Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Kristen E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a partnership between Zoo Atlanta and the Georgia Institute of Technology in teaching the principles of operant conditioning to students in an experimental psychology class. Maintains that the positive training techniques used in zoos are models of applied operant conditioning. Includes a discussion of zoo training goals. (MJP)

  16. Salmonella prevalence among reptiles in a zoo education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydeskov, H B; Guardabassi, L; Aalbaek, B; Olsen, K E P; Nielsen, S S; Bertelsen, M F

    2013-06-01

    Clinically healthy reptiles may shed Salmonella and therefore act as a potential zoonotic threat. Most people in Northern European countries are rarely exposed to reptiles, but many zoos have education departments where children have direct contact with this group of animals. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of Salmonella among reptiles in the Education Department (n = 55) at Copenhagen Zoo and compare it to the Zoo's main reptile collection (n = 145) to evaluate the zoonotic risk. Salmonella was isolated from cloacal swabs by selective enrichment, and a single isolate from each positive sample was further identified by biochemical tests and serotyped. The overall prevalence was 35% (69/200) with significant difference between the Education Department (64%, 35/55) and the main reptile collection (23%, 34/145). A total of 28 serotypes were detected. Ten serotypes were isolated from more than one specimen and four from more than one species. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Eastbourne was the predominant serotype (32%, 22/69) and was also the serotype isolated from most reptile species (n = 7). Transmission of serotypes from one department to another was very limited indicated by the serotype distribution. Despite the relative high prevalence observed among the reptiles in the Zoo's Education Department compared to the reptiles in the Zoo's main reptile collection, no Salmonella cases have been linked to the Zoo, and Salmonella ser. Eastbourne is very rarely isolated from humans in Denmark. Simple hygienic procedures such as hand washing which is consistently carried out following handling of reptiles at the Education Department may reduce the risk and therefore contribute to this low prevalence. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Pilot project "The zoo goes to school", enriching the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental education does not only occur in formal institutions, and yes has been widely disseminated among non formal spaces of education, which complements its ecological and social nature. Zoos are the institutions that play an important role in environmental education, raising awareness and preparing citizens to act in the critically and ethical society, committed to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental perception of students in 7th grade of elementary school in Municipal Elementary School Jardelino Ramos, in partnership with the Zoo, University of Caxias do Sul. Twenty-four questionnaires were applied in order to diagnose the environmental perception of students through four questions regarding activities at the zoo. After it was contextualized and discussed on the topics: zoos and their history, function, animals and their enclosures, technical education and environmental enrichment. To complement the enrichment technique discussed in class, the students sewed materials that were later added to the precincts of animals chosen for themselves. A week after the project is completed was held again the questionnaire to verify the results obtained from the project. These were analyzed, discussed and compared through graphs, which show that the objectives were achieved and the didactics used was efficient, as described in the article.

  18. Utilization of crop residue and animal wastes among agropastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 7 (2009) > ... Quantitative data collection method was used with the aid of a well structured questionnaire with both open and close ended ... But their wives and children used chicken waste as manure on vegetable farms.

  19. Animal encounters at the Helsinki zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Ojalammi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest urban centre in Finland, the city of Helsinki, has a population of approximately 620,000 at the turn of the year 2016, and the whole metropolitan area has about 1,5 million human inhabitants. Helsinki is also a home to 46 wild mammal species (City of Helsinki 2016. Over 120 bird species nest in Helsinki (City of Helsinki 2016 and the city hosts a vibrant bird watcher community. Reptiles and frogs instead have declined (City of Helsinki 2016.

  20. Understanding attitudes towards native wildlife and biodiversity in the UK: the role of zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Consorte-McCrea, A.; Bainbridge, A.; Fernandez, A.; Nigbur, D.; McDonnell, S.; Morin, A.; Grente, O.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper draws from a study of the role of zoos in forming attitudes towards biodiversity and native wild carnivores that are considered for reintroduction. The project is being developed by an interdisciplinary team (wildlife conservation, psychology, education) working towards the development of a questionnaire to investigate this topic in the UK.\\ud \\ud Research suggests that experiences with live animals in zoos may encourage empathy, through personal connection, which in turn fa...

  1. Simple Processing Method for Recycling Poultry Waste into Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry wastes (PW) namely broiler litter (BL), caged-‐layer droppings (CLD) and layer litter (LL) were evaluated for nutrient composition and microbial loads in order to select the most suitable for use as a feedstuff. Broiler litter had the highest amount of crude protein (16.8%) and a phosphorus content of 0.49%. There were ...

  2. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  3. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Yamatani, Shoich; Watahara, Masashi; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  4. Evaluation of Odor-Reducing Commercial Products for Animal Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Shuchi S.

    1997-01-01

    Six odor-reducing commercial products were tested for their efficacy in reducing odors from dairy and swine wastes. A sensory panel method was utilized for odor evaluations, in which the panel played an important part. Comparisons between products were made for agitated and unagitated conditions and effect of storage time (three weeks in which experiments were performed). Cotton pieces tied to the mouth of the sample jars were useful in absorbing the odors. Odor-treated jars were observed and...

  5. Kinetics and economics of anaerobic digestion of animal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaddy, J L; Park, E L; Rapp, E B

    1974-06-01

    The initial excursion into kinetics was made to calculate the necessary detention time required in a two-stage digestion system which would reduce steer manure of BOD/sub 5/ 15,000 mg/l to 1,000 mg/l, the effluent to be treated in an aerated lagoon. The authors conclude that a system which would treat the wastes from 100,000 cattle would require an initial investment of $520,000 and yield an annual revenue of $1,020,000 before taxes by the sale of the gas produced. Only the slightest substantiation of their calculations is given.

  6. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal waste: swine manure and tuna fish waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, L.; Alvarez, J. A.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion has become an established and proven technology for the treatment of solid wastes. Co-digestion offers several possible ecological, technology and economical advantages. Anaerobic co-digestion can increase CH{sub 4} production of manure diesters in a 50-200% according to the operation conditions and the co-substrates used. Last September 2007, PROBIOGAS project started up with the objective of improving the production and use of biogas from co-digestion of farming, agricultural and industrial waste. Our research group takes part in the study of co-digestion of swine manure firstly with tuna fish waste and secondly with glycerine (bio diesel production waste). (Author)

  8. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety.

  9. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Colchero, Fernando; Pearce-Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates......Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List...... that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos...

  10. Conservation caring: measuring the influence of zoo visitors' connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibins, Jeffrey C; Powell, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Zoos in the 21st century are striving to make effective contributions to conservation. Although zoos are extremely popular and host over 600 million visitors worldwide, one challenge zoos face is how to effectively engage visitors and raise awareness and action for conservation. To this end, zoos commonly rely on charismatic megafauna, which have been shown to elicit a connection with zoo visitors. However, little is known about how to measure a connection to a species or how this connection may influence conservation behaviors. This study had two sequential objectives. The first was to develop a scale to measure visitors' connection to a species (Conservation Caring). The second was to investigate the relationship of Conservation Caring to pro-conservation behaviors, following a zoo experience. Pre- (n = 411) and post-visit (n = 452) responses were collected from three sites in order to assess the reliability and validity of a scale to measure Conservation Caring. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between Conservation Caring and pro-conservation behaviors. Conservation Caring was deemed a valid and reliable scale and was a strong predictor of species oriented behaviors (β = 0.62), for example, "adopting" an animal, but a weak predictor for biodiversity oriented behaviors (β = 0.07), for example, supporting sustainability policies. Results support the role zoos can play in fostering a connection to wildlife and stimulating pro-conservation behaviors. Additionally, visitors connected to a wide array of animals. On the basis of these results, zoos may recruit a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Tropical Animal Tour Packet. Metro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro Washington Park Zoo, Portland, OR. Educational Services Div.

    This packet is designed to assist teachers in creating a tropical animals lesson plan that centers around a visit to the zoo. A teacher packet is divided into eight parts: (1) goals and objectives; (2) what to expect at the zoo; (3) student activities (preparatory activities, on-site activities, and follow-up activities); (4) background…

  12. Risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P

    2004-07-17

    Uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the Animal By-Products Regulations. This paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. The factors controlling the level of risk are the separation of the meat at source, the efficiency of the composting process, and the decay and dilution of the pathogens in soil. The net pathogen destruction by the composting process is determined largely by the degree of bypass, and to accommodate the possibility of large joints or even whole carcases being discarded uncooked to catering waste, a time/temperature condition of 60 degrees C for two days is recommended. Where data are lacking, worst-case assumptions have been applied. According to the model, classical swine fever virus constitutes the highest risk, but the assessment shows that a two-barrier composting approach, together with a two-month grazing ban, reduces the risk to one infection in pigs every 190 years in England and Wales. This work defined the operational conditions for the composting of catering waste as set out in the Animal By-Products Regulations 2003 (SI 1482).

  13. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium

  15. Impact of animal waste application on runoff water quality in field experimental plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Dagne D; Owens, William E; Tchoounwou, Paul B

    2005-08-01

    Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate) characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium. Bacteria numbers

  16. Biological conversion of poultry and animal waste to a feedstuff for poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Boushy, A.R.; Klaassen, G.J.; Ketelaars, E.H.

    1985-06-01

    Poultry and animal waste can be converted into a high protein feed-stuff by biological digestion and degradation, oxidation or by the action of micro-organisms and algae. These processes might help to solve the accummulating problem of disposal of poultry and animal waste, which in some cases are not suitable as soil fertilizers and cause pollution problems. International co-operation between advanced industrialized countries and developing areas is not only desirable but essential to overcome malnutrition by increasing the animal protein supply in the form of meat and eggs. Only a limited number of published data are available but nevertheless five types of treated waste are considered useful under certain conditions as feedstuffs for poultry: 1. housefly pupae meal - caged layer manure degraded by housefly larvae; 2. earthworm meal - another biodegradation of caged layer manure; 3. liquor and residue from a ditch used for oxidizing swine liquid manure; 4. aerobic fermentation of poultry manure; and 5. meals produced from algae grown in ponds of sedimented animal waste and sewage. 46 references.

  17. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    , but information on its effect on GHG emissions, especially nitrous oxide (N2O), is still limited. This thesis investigated the main processes and factors affecting the physicochemical composition of the compost and emissions of GHG and NH3 during composting of animal manure and other organic waste products...... organic wastes has been proposed as a potential strategy to reduce gaseous emissions, and is increasingly being used to handle large volumes of surplus manure in areas of intensive livestock production. Composting appears to have the potential for minimising gaseous emissions from organic wastes....... Laboratory studies showed that differences in the initial physical properties (moisture, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity) of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSF) had a considerable impact on the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 o C) and the time required (2...

  18. Finnish expert report on best available techniques in slaughterhouses and installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, E.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide information about Finnish slaughterhouses and installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste. The Finnish slaughterhouses slaughter mainly pigs, cattle, and poultry. Rendering plants and fur animal feed production plants treat animal derived waste generated in Finland. The slaughterhouses and installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste consume a lot of electricity and heat, whereas they can save energy by recovering residual heat in-situ. Slaughtering consumes a lot of water and produces a high amount of wastewater. Wastewater has a high biological oxygen demand (BOD) because it contains a lot of proteins and fat. To minimize the pollution load it is important to avoid blood and fat entering the drainage. All the slaughterhouses and most of the installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste discharge their wastewater to the municipal sewer after pre-treatment. The use of boilers to produce hot water and industrial steam is the main source of air emissions. The storage, handling and treatment of by-products and wastes as well as wastewater treatment and singeing are potential sources of foul odours. (orig.)

  19. Potential of producing renewable hydrogen from livestock animal waste. Paper no. IGEC-1-143

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen economy and fuel cell technology have become increasingly recognized as means for maintaining a sustainable energy supply as well as a sustainable environment. Simultaneously, solutions are being sought to effectively manage the animal wastes from livestock farming of cattle, cow, hog, and poultry to ensure an environmentally sustainable method of food production. This discussion examines the potential of producing hydrogen from livestock waste on a scale that can effectively solve a waste management problem for the livestock industry and provide significant quantities of renewable hydrogen to the clean energy industry. The green energy derived from animal waste is considered to be carbon-neutral because animal feed is largely grown from photosynthesis of carbon dioxide. Electricity and heat thus generated will offset those generated from fossil fuels and can be rewarded with greenhouse gas emission reduction credits. Two groups of well proven technologies: biochemical processes such as anaerobic digestion (AD), and thermochemical processes such as gasification are considered in this paper. A theoretical analysis of the potential of reforming the biogas and syngas from these reactions has been conducted using mathematical models of AD, gasification, steam reforming and water-gas shift reactions, and the results indicate that significant quantities of renewable hydrogen can be generated to fuel clean energy technologies such as the fuel cell. Practical considerations are presented to complement the theoretical analysis and future research directions are also discussed. (author)

  20. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge using reactor waste to obtain acceptable fertilizer or animal supplement feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    This document is a report of the Beneficial Uses Program. This program consists of a number of activities at Sandia Laboratories to develop the necessary technology for cost-beneficial use of a maximum amount of radioactive waste. Major activity is currently concentrated in the Waste Resources Utilization Program which has as its objective the use of cesium-134/137 as a gamma radiation source, coupled with modest heating, to treat sewage sludge to rid it of pathogenic organisms so that it may safely be used as a fertilizer or a feed supplement for ruminant animals. (author)

  1. Occupational zoonoses in zoo and wildlife veterinarians in India: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Chethan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoos and biological parks are considered as a hub for public ecreation and education. This is highlighted by the fact that visitors to the zoos are increasing year by year and they generate sizeable revenue. Veterinary professionals play a pivotal role in health management of wild animals in zoos and biological parks. Since veterinarians work in close contact with wild animals, there is a potential risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases from wild animals to humans and vice versa. There are approximately 1415 infectious agents causing diseases in humans, out of which 868 (61% are known to be zoonotic in nature. It is also important to note that more than 70% of the emerging zoonotic diseases have wild animals as reservoir hosts. The major zoonotic diseases that are transmitted from wild animals to humans include rabies, anthrax, leptospirosis, Q-fever, psittacosis, hendra virus, nipah virus, herpes B encephalitis, toxoplasmosis, etc. Hence, it is imperative for veterinarians and zoo staff to be fully aware of the knowledge pertaining to the source, transmission, pathogenicity, treatment and control of zoonotic diseases. In this manuscript, we provide key information regarding zoonotic diseases and also recommend important measures for their control and prevention. The information provided here will be highly beneficial for personnel who work in close association with wild animals

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in Wrinkled Hornbill and other birds in the Kuala Lumpur National Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohela, M; Lim, Y A L; Jamaiah, I; Khadijah, P Y Y; Laang, S T; Nazri, M H Mohd; Nurulhuda, Z

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of a coccidian parasite, Cryptosporidium, among birds in the Kuala Lumpur National Zoo was investigated in this study. A hundred bird fecal samples were taken from various locations of the zoo. Fecal smears prepared using direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique were stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Samples positive for Cryptosporidium with Ziehl-Neelsen stain were later confirmed using the immunofluorescence technique and viewed under the epifluorescence microscope. Six species of bird feces were confirmed positive with Cryptosporidium oocysts. They included Wrinkled Hornbill (Aceros corrugatus), Great Argus Pheasant (Argusianus argus), Black Swan (Cygnus atratus), Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides), Marabou Stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus), and Moluccan Cockatoo (Cacatua moluccencis). These birds were located in the aviary and lake, with the Moluccan Cockatoo routinely used as a show bird. Results obtained in this study indicated that animal sanctuaries like zoos and bird parks are important sources of Cryptosporidium infection to humans, especially children and other animals.

  3. Responses of urban crows to con- and hetero-specic alarm calls in predator and non-predator zoo enclosures.

    OpenAIRE

    BÍLÁ, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    I investigated if urban crows respond to con- and heterospecific alarm signals in predator and non-predator contexts in enclosures in the ZOO of Vienna. Crows responded strongly to the crow and also jackdaw alarms in both types of contexts, but also responded to the singing of great tit (control) in the predator context. This suggests that crows are aware of the danger the wolf and bear represent but are generally very cautious at the exotic Zoo animals.

  4. Chloride/bromide ratios in leachate derived from farm-animal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Results have important implications for identifying animal sources of contaminated groundwater. - Ratios of conservative chemicals have been used to identify sources of groundwater contamination. While chloride/bromide ratios have been reported for several common sources of groundwater contamination, little work has been done on leachate derived from farm-animal waste. In this study, chloride/bromide ratios were measured in leachate derived from longhorn-cattle, quarter-horse, and pygme-goat waste at a farm in Abilene, Texas, USA. (Minimum, median, and maximum) chloride/bromide ratios of (66.5, 85.6, and 167), (119, 146, and 156), and (35.4, 57.8, and 165) were observed for cattle, horses, and goats, respectively. These ratios are below typical values for domestic wastewater and within the range commonly observed for oilfield brine. Results of this study have important implications for identifying sources of contaminated groundwater in settings with significant livestock and/or oil production

  5. Rad World -- computer-animated video radiation and hazardous waste-management science curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, B.

    1996-01-01

    The Rad World computer-animated video and curriculum materials were developed through a grant from the Waste-management Education and Research Consortium. The package, which includes a computer-animated video, hands-on activities, and multidisciplinary lessons concerning radiation and hazardous-waste management, was created to approach these subjects in an informative, yet entertaining, manner. The lessons and video, designed to supplement studies of energy and physical science at the middle school and high school level, also implement quality and consistent science education as outlined by the New Mexico Science Standards and Benchmarks (1995). Consistent with the curriculum standards and benchmarks, the curriculum includes library research, collaborative learning, hands-on-science, and discovery learning. Pre- and post-tests are included

  6. Effects of Different Animal Waste Treatment Technologies on Detection and Viability of Porcine Enteric Viruses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Verónica P.; Azevedo, Ana C.; Li, Xin; Williams, Mike C.; Michel, Frederick C.; Saif, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Enteric pathogens in animal waste that is not properly processed can contaminate the environment and food. The persistence of pathogens in animal waste depends upon the waste treatment technology, but little is known about persistence of porcine viruses. Our objectives were to characterize the porcine enteric viruses (porcine noroviruses [PoNoVs], porcine sapoviruses [PoSaVs], rotavirus A [RV-A], RV-B, and RV-C) in fresh feces or manure and to evaluate the effects of different candidate environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for animal waste treatment on the detection of these viruses. Untreated manure and samples collected at different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms that used conventional waste management (CWM) and five different candidate ESTs. The RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or seminested PCR; PoSaV and RV-A were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) and experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine RV-A/C infectivity in posttreatment samples. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in pretreatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pretreatment feces from three of five and four of five farms using the candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment, PoSaV RNA was detected only in the samples from the farm using CWM and not from the farms using the candidate ESTs. RV-A and RV-C RNAs were detected in four of five and three of four candidate ESTs, respectively, after treatment, but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral infectivity, was detected after treatment. Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding swine production units. PMID:17601821

  7. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the study of bituminization of simulated radwaste - spennt ion-exchange resins, borate evaporator/concentrates and animal ashes, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidizer bitumen were used. Characterization of the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weigt composition (30, 40, 50, 60% by weight of dry waste material) was carried out. The asphaltene and parafin contents in the bitumens were also determined. Some additives and were used with an aim to improve the characteristcs of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were with Cs - 134 and mixtures of resin-bitumen were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. A conventional screw-extruder, common in plastic industry, was used determine operational parameters and process difficulties. Mixtures of resin-bitumen and evaporator concentrate-bitumen obtained from differents operational conditions were characterized. (Author) [pt

  8. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the study of simulated radwaste, spent ion-exchange resins, borates/evaporator-concentrates and animal ashes, in bituminized form, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidized bitumen were used for characterizing the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weight composition 30, 40, 50, 60% by weight the dry waste material. The asphaltine and parafin contents in the bitumens were determined. Some additives and clays were used aiming best characteristics of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were loaded with Cs 134 and mixtures of resins-bitumens were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. It was used a conventional screw-extruder, used in plastic industry, to determine operational conditions and process difficulties. Mixtures resins-bitumen and concentrate-bitumen in differents operational condition were prepared and analysed. (Author) [pt

  9. Electromagnetic Processing as a Way of Increasing Microbiological Safety of Animal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, O. M.; Kolosova, M. M.; Filipovich, L. A.; Aksenov, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The article shows the possibility of using the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency (EMF UHF) for drying and disinfecting of such animal waste as pig manure and poultry droppings. The studied modes included the following options: processing exposure of 60, 90, 120 sec, the capacity of 60 kW, the frequency of 915 MHz. The method of UHF processing of manure and poultry droppings is environmentally safe and effective in neutralizing the pathogenic microflora, as well as larvae and eggs of worms. The following processing mode of animal waste in the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency was recognized as optimal: exposure of 90 seconds, the capacity of 60 kW, the frequency of 915 MHz. This option leads to the complete destruction of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, as well as the eggs and larvae of worms. As a result of this processing, a high level of microbiological safety of pig manure and poultry droppings is achieved that allows using them as organic fertilizers. The peculiarities of some species of pathogenic fungi developing on the surface of the wheat grain are shown. Pre-processed animal waste (pig manure and and poultry droppings) were applied in experimental variants. Used organic fertilizers underwent electromagnetic processing of ultra-high frequency. The qualitative composition of the microflora on the surface of the grain depends on the type of animal waste (manure or droppings) and used dose. The safest part of the microflora of grain was marked with the application of the UHF-processed pig manure and poultry droppings in doses of 10 t/ha.

  10. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  11. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production with Ralstonia eutropha from low quality waste animal fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Jahns, Stefan; Koenig, Steven; Bock, Martina C E; Brigham, Christopher J; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-11-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters considered as alternatives to petroleum-based plastics. Ralstonia eutropha is a model organism for PHA production. Utilizing industrially rendered waste animal fats as inexpensive carbon feedstocks for PHA production is demonstrated here. An emulsification strategy, without any mechanical or chemical pre-treatment, was developed to increase the bioavailability of solid, poorly-consumable fats. Wild type R. eutropha strain H16 produced 79-82% (w/w) polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) per cell dry weight (CDW) when cultivated on various fats. A productivity of 0.3g PHB/(L × h) with a total PHB production of 24 g/L was achieved using tallow as carbon source. Using a recombinant strain of R. eutropha that produces poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(HB-co-HHx)], 49-72% (w/w) of PHA per CDW with a HHx content of 16-27 mol% were produced in shaking flask experiments. The recombinant strain was grown on waste animal fat of the lowest quality available at lab fermenter scale, resulting in 45 g/L CDW with 60% (w/w) PHA per CDW and a productivity of 0.4 g PHA/(L × h). The final HHx content of the polymer was 19 mol%. The use of low quality waste animal fats as an inexpensive carbon feedstock exhibits a high potential to accelerate the commercialization of PHAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Selected Bacterial Infections Associated with the Use of Animal Waste in Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. Health concerns could arise from exposure to pathogens and excess nitrogen associated with this form of pollution. The objective was to collect and analyze health data related to selected bacterial infections associated with the use of animal waste in Louisiana. An analysis of adverse health effects has been conducted based on the incidence/prevalence rates of campylobacteriosis, E. coli O157:H7 infection, salmonellosis and shigellosis. The number of reported cases increased during the summer months. Analysis of health data showed that reported disease cases of E. coli O157:H7 were highest among Caucasian infants in the 0-4 year old age category and in Caucasian children in the 5-9 year old age category. Fatalities resulting from salmonellosis are low and increases sharply with age. The number of reported cases of shigellosis was found to be higher in African American males and females than in Caucasians. The high rate of identification in the younger population may result from the prompt seeking of medical care, as well as the frequent ordering of stool examination when symptoms become evident among this group of the population. The association with increasing age and fatality due to salmonellosis could be attributed to declining health and weaker immune systems often found in the older population. It is concluded that both animal waste and non-point source pollution may have a significant impact on human health.

  13. Applying behavior-analytic methodology to the science and practice of environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Christina A; Dorey, Nicole R; Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Leighty, Katherine A

    2017-05-01

    Environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums is often evaluated at two overlapping levels: published research and day-to-day institutional record keeping. Several authors have discussed ongoing challenges with small sample sizes in between-groups zoological research and have cautioned against the inappropriate use of inferential statistics (Shepherdson, , International Zoo Yearbook, 38, 118-124; Shepherdson, Lewis, Carlstead, Bauman, & Perrin, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 147, 298-277; Swaisgood, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 139-162; Swaisgood & Shepherdson, , Zoo Biology, 24, 499-518). Multi-institutional studies are the typically-prescribed solution, but these are expensive and difficult to carry out. Kuhar ( Zoo Biology, 25, 339-352) provided a reminder that inferential statistics are only necessary when one wishes to draw general conclusions at the population level. Because welfare is assessed at the level of the individual animal, we argue that evaluations of enrichment efficacy are often instances in which inferential statistics may be neither necessary nor appropriate. In recent years, there have been calls for the application of behavior-analytic techniques to zoo animal behavior management, including environmental enrichment (e.g., Bloomsmith, Marr, & Maple, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 205-222; Tarou & Bashaw, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 189-204). Single-subject (also called single-case, or small-n) designs provide a means of designing evaluations of enrichment efficacy based on an individual's behavior. We discuss how these designs might apply to research and practice goals at zoos and aquariums, contrast them with standard practices in the field, and give examples of how each could be successfully applied in a zoo or aquarium setting. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. DATA MINING THE GALAXY ZOO MERGERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DATA MINING THE GALAXY ZOO MERGERS STEVEN BAEHR, ARUN VEDACHALAM, KIRK BORNE, AND DANIEL SPONSELLER Abstract. Collisions between pairs of galaxies usually end in the...

  15. MoZis: mobile zoo information system: a case study for the city of Osnabrueck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ulrich

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a new project of the Institute for Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing, funded by the German Federal Foundation for the Environment (DBU, Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt www.dbu.de). The goal of this project is to develop a mobile zoo information system for Pocket PCs and Smart phones. Visitors of the zoo will be able to use their own mobile devices or use Pocket PCs, which could be borrowed from the zoo to navigate around the zoo's facilities. The system will also provide additional multimedia based information such as audio-based material, animal video clips, and maps of their natural habitat. People could have access to the project at the zoo via wireless local area network or by downloading the necessary files using a home internet connection. Our software environment consists of proprietary and non-proprietary software solutions in order to make it as flexible as possible. Our first prototype was developed with Visual Studio 2003 and Visual Basic.Net.

  16. Comparative analyses of longevity and senescence reveal variable survival benefits of living in zoos across mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidière, Morgane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vérane; Müller, Dennis W H; Bingaman Lackey, Laurie; Gimenez, Olivier; Clauss, Marcus; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2016-11-07

    While it is commonly believed that animals live longer in zoos than in the wild, this assumption has rarely been tested. We compared four survival metrics (longevity, baseline mortality, onset of senescence and rate of senescence) between both sexes of free-ranging and zoo populations of more than 50 mammal species. We found that mammals from zoo populations generally lived longer than their wild counterparts (84% of species). The effect was most notable in species with a faster pace of life (i.e. a short life span, high reproductive rate and high mortality in the wild) because zoos evidently offer protection against a number of relevant conditions like predation, intraspecific competition and diseases. Species with a slower pace of life (i.e. a long life span, low reproduction rate and low mortality in the wild) benefit less from captivity in terms of longevity; in such species, there is probably less potential for a reduction in mortality. These findings provide a first general explanation about the different magnitude of zoo environment benefits among mammalian species, and thereby highlight the effort that is needed to improve captive conditions for slow-living species that are particularly susceptible to extinction in the wild.

  17. Role of Brazilian zoos in ex situ bird conservation: from 1981 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Cristiano S; Young, Robert J; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Zoos may play an important role in conservation when they maintain and breed large numbers of animals that are threatened with extinction. Bird conservation is in a privileged situation owing to the extensive biological information available about this class. Annual inventories produced by the "Sociedade de Zoológicos do Brasil" in the years 1981, 1990, 2000, and 2005 were analyzed. Variables, such as the number of zoos per geographic region; number of birds held; number of bird species in each IUCN threat category; number of exotic and native bird species; number of potentially breeding bird species; number of bird species in each order; and number of threatened bird species breeding, were analyzed. Brazilian zoos kept more than 350 bird species. The number of bird species and specimens held by the Brazilian Zoos increased from 1981 to 2000, but decreased in 2005. The same pattern was observed for the number of species in each IUCN threat category. Results showed that the potential of the Brazilian zoos in bird conservation needs to be enhanced because they maintain threatened species but do not implement systematic genetic, reproductive, or behavioral management protocols for most species. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Complete census of the anaerobic digesters today operating in Italy on animal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilche, A; De Poli, F; Bozza, E; Calzolari, C; Ferrante, E; Massari, A

    1983-01-01

    A complete census of all the biogas plants operating or under construction today in Italy has been carried out. This shows that more than 60 full-scale plants treating animal wastes are today in operation. Then there are several pilot and experimental plants built by the numerous Italian firms that design and sell anaerobic digesters and by various research groups of the universities and of state agencies. Some plants, among which some large-size ones, have been self-built by the farmers. The great amount of collected data allowed us to focus the main technological choices regarding materials, mixing and heating systems, technological cycles and to confront them with the performance of the plants and with the principal technical issues and the problems of management that can be found on large scale plants. Then the analysis of daily biogas production allowed us to determine real parameters of specific production for various kinds of animal wastes and animal farms. Other interesting data concern the main technological means used to transform the biogas into energy: in Italy, for the presence of Flat Industries that produce the TOTEM, the prevalent choice is toward cogeneration of electricity and heat. Anyway there are interesting examples of utilization of biogas for drying forages, for steam generation in cheese factories, and compressed, as a fuel for farm tractors and cars. A complete photographic documentation of all the plants enclosed in the census is also available. 3 refs., 1 fig., 23 tabs.

  19. A microwave evaporation system for the waste treatment of radioactive animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tomoo; Nishiyama, Yumiko; Hikita, Akio; Takaoka, Ayako; Nakamura, Aiko.

    1979-01-01

    A microwave evaporation system was developed for the waste treatment of animal wastes contaminated with tritium or carbon-14. The apparatus composed of a 2450 MHz microwave range, a cooling unit, a receiver, a 3 H and 14 C sampler, an evacuating system and an automatic controller unit gave satisfactory results. The extent of evaporation can be optionally controlled in the range of 80% to 100%. The maximum rate of evaporation under reduced pressure reaches 10 g of water per minute at 480 W high frequency power level and 12.5 g per minute at 600 W. The evaporation of water in the carcass weighing 1 kg is generally completed in about 1 hour, and the weight is reduced by approximately 70%. The distribution in the apparatus of tritium or carbon-14 released from carcass by the microwave evaporation was studied using such labelled compounds as [ 3 H] water, [6- 3 H] thymidine, [methyl- 3 H] thymidine, [2- 14 C] thymidine, [U- 14 C] glutamic acid, [U- 14 C] fructose and [U- 14 C] glucose. The difference in activity trapped by the cooler and sampler was observed between the case of aqueous solutions of labelled compounds and that of animals administered with the same labelled compounds. The reason for this difference probably lies in metabolism of labelled compounds or exchange of tritium atoms within the animal body. (author)

  20. Design parameters and operating characteristics of animal waste anaerobic digestion systems - swine and poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D T

    1983-01-01

    The development and validation of a comprehensive dynamic simulation model of the anaerobic fermentation of animal waste have been described by Hill. This model has proved to be highly accurate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in predicting the steady-state methane productivity of conventional fermentation plants and in simulating the transient-state response of semi-batch fed digesters. Simulation studies using this model have been performed and results have been used to develop design recommendations for steady-state operations. These simulation studies have also produced a start-up procedure that will ensure successful initial operation of the digestion system and, more importantly, have allowed determination of the operational techniques that will provide recovery from failure due to organic overloading or excessively short detention time. This paper describes the results of these studies for swine and poultry (caged layer) waste and presents the design recommendations and operating techniques developed from the simulations. (Refs. 11).

  1. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Atsushi, E-mail: asatou@ari.pref.niigata.jp [Niigata Horticultural Research Center, 177 Mano, Seiro, Niigata 957-0111 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroyuki [Niigata Horticultural Research Center, 177 Mano, Seiro, Niigata 957-0111 (Japan); Oyanagi, Wataru [Niigata Livestock Research Center, 178 Tanahire, Sanjo, Niigata 955-0143 (Japan); Nishihara, Eiji [Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8550 (Japan); Murakami, Masaharu [Soil Environment Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  2. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oyanagi, Wataru; Nishihara, Eiji; Murakami, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  3. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An examination of environmental collective identity development across three life-stages: The contribution of social public experiences at zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, John Robert

    This research breaks ground toward a revised theory of how collective environmental identity is associated with pro-environmental behaviors. My research comprises three activities that examined the experiences of three groups of people who claim zoo visiting as an important part of their life-story. The three studied groups were; conservation biologists who describe zoo experiences as having significant formative role in their childhood development of environmental values; parents who prioritize zoo visits as an important cultural experiences for their children; and a active zoo volunteers. This research also investigated whether the group experiences these participants had at zoos contributed to the value these people place on their current collective and environmental identities. Field conservationists' interest in learning from animals was validated by parents who also valued education and helped these children develop identities that included other animals in their scope of justice. Parents used zoos instrumentally to promote caring for others as a skill that will serve their children's socio-political future as part of human society. In both cases, these experiences appeared to be shaped around developing attitudes that would include animals in these children's scope of justice in later life. Zoo volunteers included animals in their scope of justice, believing that other species were also important sources of for their knowledge development. Shared positive attitudes toward animals were central to volunteers feeling part of a community and contributing to their collective self-esteem. The group may serve a restorative function in their lives, allowing them to take on a more activist role in society, seeking to promote social norms that are more inclusive of animal rights, and helping them to change their behaviors toward more environmentally responsible ends. This research contributes to the understanding of the theory of planned behavior and the values

  5. Dose prediction for plants and animals - nuclear fuel waste management perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.; Amiro, B.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive, practical ecological radiation assessment methodology and applied it in the environmental impact statement (EIS) for evaluating the safety of Canada's nuclear fuel waste disposal concept. The methodology has four screening steps, and we focus here on the last two concerned with dose estimation for . plants and animals. We present ten classes of issues that were compiled from comments regarding our methodology from EIS review participants. Furthermore, we identify future needs and developments for improving our methodology. The issues raised by EIS participants, and the future needs and developments indicated by us are also of general importance in guiding future work. (author)

  6. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  7. Macro and microscopic study of avian tuberculosis at Savannah´s Bogotá zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Neira Rairán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian tuberculosis diagnosis was made in captive wild birds (Burhinus bistriatus and Porphyrula martinica from a zoo park at Sabana de Bogotá (Colombia. Based on this diagnosis, a surveillance approach was designed in order to demonstrate whether or not a focus of tuberculosis infection caused by Micobacterium avium was present at this zoo with the purpose to identify a possible hazard to prevent the infection of other bird population, visitors and workers of the park. Clinical, morphological (gross and microscopic are described in this article, but microbiological (culture in specific media, epidemiological (DPP and molecular (PCR studies, will be shown in other journal. In this work animals were organized en three different groups as follow: Five Hy line Brown chicken tuberculosis free coming from a commercial farm (sentinel group. A mixed group birds (102 animals from the pens around the primary focus (28 dukes, 25 “guacamayas”, 26 parrots and 23 rapacious birds, (highest risk group. Five birds within the pen in which the diagnosis was made (contaminated birds group. It was demonstrated granulomatous lesions in animals from the sentinel group as well as in those from the pen in which the first diagnosis was made. Lesions were founded in liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines and in one case in the white matter and leptomeniges of the spinal cord were affected. Ziehl – Neelsen positive rods were identified in all the affected tissues. No tuberculosis lesions were found in animals caged in neighborhood pens. It was concluded that there is an infectious focus of tuberculosis (micobacteriosis caused by M. avium in the zoo, but the focus is located only in one pen and this focus could represent a critical risk of infection with M. avium for some of the birds within the zoo, wild and eventually commercials birds and the human beings as well. It is recommended that prevention, control and eradication measurements have to be made to prevent

  8. Occurrence of male-specific bacteriophage in feral and domestic animal wastes, human feces, and human-associated wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calci, K R; Burkhardt, W; Watkins, W D; Rippey, S R

    1998-12-01

    Male-specific bacteriophage (MSB) densities were determined in animal and human fecal wastes to assess their potential impact on aquatic environments. Fecal samples (1,031) from cattle, chickens, dairy cows, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, hogs, horses, seagulls, sheep, and humans as well as 64 sewerage samples were examined for MSB. All animal species were found to harbor MSB, although the great majority excreted these viruses at very low levels. The results from this study demonstrate that in areas affected by both human and animal wastes, wastewater treatment plants are the principal contributors of MSB to fresh, estuarine, and marine waters.

  9. Electronic publication of new animal names - An interview with Frank-T. Krell, Commissioner of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature and Chair of the ICZN ZooBank Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On the 4th September 2012 the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature announced an amendment to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature allowing for electronic publication of the scientific names of animals. In this interview Frank-T. Krell discusses the implications of this amendment for authors wishing to publish descriptions of newly identified animal species in online and open access journals, and for the future of taxonomic science. PMID:22978411

  10. Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Shoji; Mutaat, H.H.; Awang, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author)

  11. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  12. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  13. Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi among captive Neotropical primates in a Brazilian zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi-Souza, Thaís Tâmara Castro; Nitz, Nadjar; Knox, Monique Britto; Reis, Filipe; Hagström, Luciana; Cuba, César A Cuba; Hecht, Mariana Machado; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2016-01-26

    Neotropical primates are important sylvatic hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Infection is often subclinical, but severe disease has been described in both free-ranging and captive primates. Panstrongylus megistus, a major T. cruzi vector, was found infesting a small-primate unit at Brasília zoo (ZooB), Brazil. ZooB lies close to a gallery-forest patch where T. cruzi circulates naturally. Here, we combine parasitological and molecular methods to investigate a focus of T. cruzi infection involving triatomine bugs and Neotropical primates at a zoo located in the Brazilian Savannah. We assessed T. cruzi infection in vectors using optical microscopy (n = 34) and nested PCR (n = 50). We used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to examine blood samples from 26 primates and necropsy samples from two primates that died during the study. We determined parasite lineages in five vectors and two primates by comparing glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6pi) gene sequences. Trypanosoma cruzi was found in 44 vectors and 17 primates (six genera and eight species); one Mico chrysoleucus and one Saguinus niger had high parasitaemias. Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was detected in three primates born to qPCR-negative mothers at ZooB and in the two dead specimens. One Callithrix geoffroyi became qPCR-positive over a two-year follow-up. All G6pi sequences matched T. cruzi lineage TcI. Our findings strongly suggest vector-borne T. cruzi transmission within a small-primate unit at ZooB - with vectors, and perhaps also parasites, presumably coming from nearby gallery forest. Periodic checks for vectors and parasites would help eliminate T. cruzi transmission foci in captive-animal facilities. This should be of special importance for captive-breeding programs involving endangered mammals, and would reduce the risk of accidental T. cruzi transmission to keepers and veterinarians.

  14. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  15. Freqüência de parasitas intestinais em felinos mantidos em zoológicos Frequency of intestinal parasites in felines kept in zoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C.K. Müller

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The endoparasites occurrence in felines confined in two Zoos, between December 1999 and April 2000, was studied. Fecal samples of 18 felines (Panthera tigris, Panthera leo, Felis serval, Panthera onca, Puma concolor, Leopardus tigrinus and Leopardus wiedii were collected and the methods of Faust, modified Baermann and Hoffmann, were used for fecal analyses. Three genera were identified in the feces: Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp. In the zoo of Pomerode, six animals (46% were infected by Trichuris spp. and/or Giardia spp. and all samples from the zoo of Brusque were infected by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp.

  16. Veterinary antibiotics in animal waste, its distribution in soil and uptake by plants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasho, Reep Pandi; Cho, Jae Yong

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic and sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock farming is and has been, a common practice worldwide. These bioactive organic compounds have short retention period and partial uptake into the animal system. The uptake effects of this pharmaceutics, with plants as the primary focus, has not been reviewed so far. This review addresses three main concerns 1) the extensive use of veterinary antibiotics in livestock farming, 2) disposal of animal waste containing active biosolids and 3) effects of veterinary antibiotics in plants. Depending upon the plant species and the antibiotic used, the response can be phytotoxic, hormetic as well as mutational. Additionally, the physiological interactions that make the uptake of these compounds relatively easy have also been discussed. High water solubility, longer half-lives, and continued introduction make them relatively persistent in the environment. Lastly, some prevention measures that can help limit their impact on the environment have been reviewed. There are three methods of control: treatment of animal manure before field application, an alternative bio-agent for disease treatment and a well targeted legalized use of antibiotics. Limiting the movement of these biosolids in the environment can be a challenge because of their varying physiological interactions. Electron irradiation and supervised inoculation of beneficial microorganisms can be effective remediation strategies. Thus, extensive future research should be focused in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm 3 ). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ZOO jako utopická vesnice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2011), s. 122-124 ISSN 0042-4544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : architecture of the 20th century * Károly Kos * Budapest ZOO Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  19. Factors influencing breeding success, ovarian cyclicity, and cub survival in zoo-managed tigers (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Sarah P; Harris, Tara; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Beck, Karen Goodrowe

    2014-01-10

    Understanding factors that influence reproduction and offspring survival in zoo populations is critical for management of threatened and endangered species. Examination of long-term data (1989-2011) compiled from the Association of Zoos and Aquarium's zoo-managed tiger breeding program provides the basis for a more thorough understanding of reproduction and scientifically based decisions for effective population management in this endangered felid. Biological and management-related factors that could influence tiger breeding success and cub survival were evaluated using logistic mixed models. Breeding success improved with female age until approximately age five, then declined thereafter. Experienced female breeders had greater breeding success than inexperienced females. Litter size was most predictive of cub survival, with average-sized litters (3-4 cubs) experiencing the highest proportional survival. Management-related factors, such as whether the breeding institution had a recent tiger litter and whether both animals were already located at the same institution, also influenced breeding success and cub survival. These results highlight the importance of institutional husbandry experience and the need to retain knowledge through staff turnovers to achieve optimal reproductive success. Using fecal estrogen data, frequency of ovarian cyclicity and mean cycle length did not differ by female age or parity; thus, lack of cyclicity and/or increased cycle duration are not likely explanations for declining breeding success with age. These results provide valuable reproductive information that should improve scientific management of zoo-based tiger populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of zoonotic infections among Auckland Zoo staff: 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, M B; Morris, A J; Sinclair, D A; Pritchard, C P

    2012-12-01

    Investigation was undertaken to assess the occurrence of zoonotic infection among staff at Auckland Zoological Park, New Zealand, in 1991, 2002 and 2010. Serial cross-sectional health surveys in 1991, 2002 and 2010 comprising a health questionnaire, and serological, immunological and microbiological analysis for a range of potential zoonotic infections were performed. Laboratory results for zoo animals were also reviewed for 2004-2010 to assess the occurrence of potential zoonotic infections. Veterinary clinic, animal handler, grounds, maintenance and administrative staff participated in the surveys, with 49, 42 and 46 participants in the 1991, 2002 and 2010 surveys, respectively (29% of total zoo staff in 2010). A small number of staff reported work-related infections, including erysipelas (1), giardiasis (1) and campylobacteriosis (1). The seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus and Toxoplasma gondii closely reflected those in the Auckland community. No carriage of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected, and most of those with anti-HBV antibodies had been vaccinated. Few staff had serological evidence of past leptospiral infection. Three veterinary clinic staff had raised Chlamydophila psittaci antibodies, all Auckland Zoo, this was uncommon and risks appear to be adequately managed under current policies and procedures. Nevertheless, ongoing assessment of risk factors is needed as environmental, human and animal disease and management factors change. Policies and procedures should be reviewed periodically in conjunction with disease monitoring results for both animals and staff to minimise zoonotic transmission. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Fate and Transport of 17β-estradiol Beneath Animal Waste Holding Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, L. A.; Tyner, J. S.; Hawkins, S. A.; Lee, J.; Buchanan, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Steroidal hormones, such as 17β-estradiol (E2), are prevalent in animal waste and are a common subject of study due to potential stream and groundwater contamination. These particular hormones are labeled as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) because of their developmental effects in reptiles and amphibians. Dairy waste at concentrated animal feeding operations is typically stored in a pond that is regulated by law to include an underlying soil liner with a minimal hydraulic conductivity to limit leaching beneath the pond, yet some studies have traced stream and groundwater contamination to these ponds. Previous studies have shown that the soil underlying earthen ponds are always unsaturated. This increases the pore water velocity relative to a given flux, which itself is dictated almost entirely by an organic seal that forms at the bottom of a waste pond. This increased velocity results in more rapid transport and less retention time within the vadose zone where E2 could biodegrade into its daughter product, estrone (E1). And since the soil is unsaturated and therefore has a negative pressure, preferential flow should not serve as a method of transport. On the contrary, E2 and E1 may sorb to mobile colloids increasing their mobility. This study will evaluate the use of biochar, an increasingly common activated carbon source, as a soil liner amendment. Biochar has a specific surface area that can exceed 1,500 m2/g and is high in organic matter, which E2 sorbs to strongly. The biochar amendment should be most effective and enduring as a layer located at the bottom of the soil liner so that the leachate has been treated by the soil prior to contact. Another proposed amendment technique is to uniformly mix the biochar within the soil liner to increase the leachate contact time with the biochar, but realistically could prove to be too costly and energy-intensive. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to analyze hormone persistence and transport processes and

  2. Investigation of Biogas Production Process by the Mixture of Landfill Leachate and Animal Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein alidadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Energy consumption is on a rapidly growing trend in the world. Accordingly, the non-renewable energy sources are expected to be run out in the future. This issue has resulted in the establishment of efforts targeted toward the development of new energy-generating methods around the world. Biogas energy is one of the new and clean energies that is produced from the anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Anaerobic digestion is a cost-effective and environment-friendly method, which facilitates fertilizer and biogas production as well as landfill leachate treatment. Given the high environmental hazards of leachate and its mixture with animal wastes, the present study aimed to estimate the possibility of producing biogas in various mixture ratios. Methods: In this pilot-scale experimental study, the landfill leachate of Mashhad, Iran, were mixed with caw fresh dung in different ratios, but same conditions, under anaerobic digestion. This was conducted to consider the ability to produce methane gas in different proportions and landfill leachate. At the beginning and end of the project, the parameters of EC, pH, VS, TS, COD, TOC, P, K, N, and Na were measured. Additionally, the composition of the gases produced under different operating conditions was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Results: Gas production began three weeks after uploading and continued for five weeks. The analysis of gas production in three ratios was indicative of the CH4 production in all three proportions. In this regard, 1/1 ratio produced the highest percentage of CH4. No gas production was observed in the two months of study. Other physical and chemical parameters, such as COD, TS, TKN, and TOC were reduced in the given mixtures during the biogas production procedure. For instance, the case with 1/1 ratio, which showed the best results, had almost 80% decrease in the given parameters. However, no gas

  3. Efficacy of Alkaline Hydrolysis as an Alternative Method for Treatment and Disposal of Infectious Animal Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Gordon; Weber, Peter; Evans, Ann; Venezia, Richard

    1998-05-01

    The efficacy of alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative for incineration or autoclaving during treatment and disposal of infectious waste was evaluated by testing for the destruction of samples of pure cultures of selected infectious microorganisms during digestion of 114 to 136-kg loads of animal carcasses in an animal tissue digestor at the Albany Medical College. Ten milliliter samples of pure cultures of each microorganism were divided among 3 dialysis bags made from narrow diameter dialysis tubing, and each of these bags was placed inside another dialysis bag made from larger diameter dialysis tubing. Each double-bagged sample was suspended from the cover of the carcass basket of the tissue digestor so that it was completely covered by hot alkaline digestion solution during the carcass digestion process. The following organisms were required by the New York State Department of Health as representative pathogens for testing sterilization capabilities of the procedure: Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, MS-2 bacteriophage, and Giardia muris. Animal carcasses included pigs, sheep, rabbits, dogs, rats, mice, and guinea pigs. The tissue digestor was operated at 110 to 120 C and approximately 15 lb/in2 (gauge) for 18 h before the system was allowed to cool to 50 C and dialysis bags were retrieved and submitted for microbial culture. None of the samples obtained from the dialysis bags after the digestion process yielded indicator bacteria or yeast. Giardia cysts were completely destroyed; only small fragments of what appeared to be cyst wall could be recognized with light microscopic examination. No plaque-forming units were detected with MS-2 bacteriophage after digestion. Samples of the hydrolyzate also did not yield growth on culture media. Animal carcasses were completely solubilized and digested, with only the inorganic components of the bones

  4. Assessing the Impact of Animal Waste Lagoon Seepage on the Geochemistry of an Underlying Shallow Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNab, W W; Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K

    2006-03-07

    Dairy facilities and similar confined animal operation settings pose a significant nitrate contamination threat via oxidation of animal wastes and subsequent transport to shallow groundwater. While nitrate contamination resulting from application of animal manure as fertilizer to fields is well recognized, the impact of manure lagoon leakage on groundwater quality is less well characterized. In this study, a dairy facility located in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California has been instrumented with monitoring wells as part of a two-year multidisciplinary study to evaluate nitrate loading and denitrification associated with facility operations. Among multiple types of data collected from the site, groundwater and surface water samples have been analyzed for major cations, anions, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved organic carbon, and selected dissolved gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, Ar, Ne). Modeling of putative geochemical processes occurring within the dairy site manure lagoons shows substantial off-gassing of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in response to mineralization of organic matter. The gas ebullition appears to strip dissolved gases, including Ar and Ne, from the lagoon water leaving concentrations that are undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The resulting fractionated dissolved gas signature serves as an effective tracer for the lagoon water in the underlying shallow groundwater and can be used to constrain inverse geochemical models that assess mixing fractions of lagoon water and local groundwater water. Together with ion exchange and mineral equilibria reactions, identification of lagoon seepage helps explain key attributes of the local groundwater chemistry, including input and cycling of nitrogen, across the site.

  5. Veterinary antibiotics in animal waste, its distribution in soil and uptake by plants: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasho, Reep Pandi, E-mail: reeplepcha@gmail.com; Cho, Jae Yong, E-mail: soilcosmos@jbnu.ac.kr

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic and sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock farming is and has been, a common practice worldwide. These bioactive organic compounds have short retention period and partial uptake into the animal system. The uptake effects of this pharmaceutics, with plants as the primary focus, has not been reviewed so far. This review addresses three main concerns 1) the extensive use of veterinary antibiotics in livestock farming, 2) disposal of animal waste containing active biosolids and 3) effects of veterinary antibiotics in plants. Depending upon the plant species and the antibiotic used, the response can be phytotoxic, hormetic as well as mutational. Additionally, the physiological interactions that make the uptake of these compounds relatively easy have also been discussed. High water solubility, longer half-lives, and continued introduction make them relatively persistent in the environment. Lastly, some prevention measures that can help limit their impact on the environment have been reviewed. There are three methods of control: treatment of animal manure before field application, an alternative bio-agent for disease treatment and a well targeted legalized use of antibiotics. Limiting the movement of these biosolids in the environment can be a challenge because of their varying physiological interactions. Electron irradiation and supervised inoculation of beneficial microorganisms can be effective remediation strategies. Thus, extensive future research should be focused in this area. - Highlights: • Use of veterinary antibiotics (VA's) in livestock farming. • The fate of VA's in soil. • Properties that make the uptake of VA's by plants relatively easy. • Effect of VA's on plants based on earlier findings. • Possible measures that are helpful in limiting the impact of VA's.

  6. Veterinary antibiotics in animal waste, its distribution in soil and uptake by plants: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasho, Reep Pandi; Cho, Jae Yong

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic and sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock farming is and has been, a common practice worldwide. These bioactive organic compounds have short retention period and partial uptake into the animal system. The uptake effects of this pharmaceutics, with plants as the primary focus, has not been reviewed so far. This review addresses three main concerns 1) the extensive use of veterinary antibiotics in livestock farming, 2) disposal of animal waste containing active biosolids and 3) effects of veterinary antibiotics in plants. Depending upon the plant species and the antibiotic used, the response can be phytotoxic, hormetic as well as mutational. Additionally, the physiological interactions that make the uptake of these compounds relatively easy have also been discussed. High water solubility, longer half-lives, and continued introduction make them relatively persistent in the environment. Lastly, some prevention measures that can help limit their impact on the environment have been reviewed. There are three methods of control: treatment of animal manure before field application, an alternative bio-agent for disease treatment and a well targeted legalized use of antibiotics. Limiting the movement of these biosolids in the environment can be a challenge because of their varying physiological interactions. Electron irradiation and supervised inoculation of beneficial microorganisms can be effective remediation strategies. Thus, extensive future research should be focused in this area. - Highlights: • Use of veterinary antibiotics (VA's) in livestock farming. • The fate of VA's in soil. • Properties that make the uptake of VA's by plants relatively easy. • Effect of VA's on plants based on earlier findings. • Possible measures that are helpful in limiting the impact of VA's.

  7. Exploring Ethograms in the Schoolyard: A Lesson on Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graszer, Christina L.; Gnau, Katie; Melber, Leah M.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights a core lesson that has been used in a number of Lincoln Park Zoo educational programs. The lesson teaches students to conduct an ethological, or animal behavior, study on a bird. This study can be implemented in a variety of outdoor settings, including a park, schoolyard, or zoo. Using an ethogram, students will practice…

  8. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  9. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, Enzo R; Johnson, Kammy R; Karpati, Adam; Rubin, Carol S; Kolpin, Dana W; Meyer, Michael T; Esteban, J Emilio; Currier, Russell W; Smith, Kathleen; Thu, Kendall M; McGeehin, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of > 100 microg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  10. Periodontal disease diagnosis in a group of captive native carnivores at Jaime Duque Zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Vásquez C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A diagnose of periodontal diseases was performed in 12 species of carnivores at Jaime Duque Zoo. 23 animals were sampled under different general anesthesia protocols. A protocol of the oral cavity examination was designed and implemented, making emphasis in the periodontal anomalies. 16 of the 23 individuals presented periodontal disease. A microbiological culture was performed from the oral cavity of 9 individuals, this results indicated mostly normal bacterial flora.

  11. Young and Exotic Stellar Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    constellation Ara (the Altar). It was discovered in 1961 from Australia by Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund, who later moved from there to become ESO Director in Chile (1970 - 74). This cluster is behind a huge interstellar cloud of gas and dust, which blocks most of its visible light. The dimming factor is more than 100,000 - and this is why it has taken so long to uncover the true nature of this particular cluster. In 2001, the team of astronomers identified more than a dozen extremely hot and peculiar massive stars in the cluster, so-called "Wolf-Rayet" stars. They have since studied Westerlund 1 extensively with various ESO telescopes. They used images from the Wide Field Imager (WFI) attached to the 2.2-m ESO/MPG as well as from the SUperb Seeing Imager 2 (SuSI2) camera on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT). From these observations, they were able to identify about 200 cluster member stars. To establish the true nature of these stars, the astronomers then performed spectroscopic observations of about one quarter of them. For this, they used the Boller & Chivens spectrograph on the ESO 1.52-m telescope and the ESO Multi-Mode Instrument (EMMI) on the NTT. An Exotic Zoo These observations have revealed a large population of very bright and massive, quite extreme stars. Some would fill the solar system space within the orbit of Saturn (about 2,000 times larger than the Sun!), others are as bright as a million Suns. Westerlund 1 is obviously a fantastic stellar zoo, with a most exotic population and a true astronomical bonanza. All stars identified are evolved and very massive, spanning the full range of stellar oddities from Wolf-Rayet stars, OB supergiants, Yellow Hypergiants (nearly as bright as a million Suns) and Luminous Blue Variables (similar to the exceptional Eta Carinae object - see ESO PR 31/03). All stars so far analysed in Westerlund 1 weigh at least 30-40 times more than the Sun. Because such stars have a rather short life - astronomically speaking

  12. Quantifying the impact of Wellington Zoo's persuasive communication campaign on post-visit behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Zoos potential to facilitate visitor conservation behavior is commonly articulated. Few studies, however, have quantified whether zoos' conservation messages result in visitors implementing the behavior. To test if zoo conservation messages are adopted at home, I implemented a persuasive communication campaign which advocated keeping cats indoor at night, a behavior that is a potential solution to cats depredating native wildlife. Furthermore, I tested if a public commitment (signing a pledge card) strengthened the relationship between on-site intention to engage in the behavior and actual implementation of the behavior at home. The conservation behavior was included in the twice-daily animal presentations in the amphitheater. A sample of 691 visitors completed a survey as they exited the amphitheater that measured their recall of the conservation behavior and intention to engage in the behavior at home. The last 311 visitors to complete the survey were asked to sign a pledge card which was publicly displayed in the amphitheater. Six weeks after their zoo trip, visitors were contacted and asked if they had implemented the behavior. Recall of the conservation behavior was high (91% for control, 100% for pledge group) and the entire pledge group had implemented the behavior whereas just half (51%) of the control group did. Furthermore, signing the pledge card strengthened the relationship between onsite intention and at home behavior (r = 1.0 of for the pledge group and r = 0.21 for the control group). Overall, the zoo's conservation message was recalled and behavior implemented at home. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Factors affecting yearly and monthly visits to Taipei Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ai-Tsen; Lin, Yann-Jou

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated factors affecting yearly and monthly numbers of visits to Taipei Zoo. Both linear and nonlinear regression models were used to estimate yearly visits. The results of both models showed that the "opening effect" and "animal star effect" had a significantly positive effect on yearly visits, while a SARS outbreak had a negative effect. The number of years had a significant influence on yearly visits. Results showed that the nonlinear model had better explanatory power and fitted the variations of visits better. Results of monthly model showed that monthly visits were significantly influenced by time fluctuations, weather conditions, and the animal star effect. Chinese New Year, summer vacation, numbers of holidays, and animal star exhibitions increased the number of monthly visits, while the number of days with temperatures at or below 15 °C, the number of days with temperatures at or above 30 °C, and the number of rainy days had significantly negative effects. Furthermore, the model of monthly visits showed that the animal star effect could last for over two quarters. The results of this study clarify the factors affecting visits to an outdoor recreation site and confirm the importance of meteorological factors to recreation use.

  14. Toxoplasmosis in Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) in the Budapest Zoo and Botanical Garden (2006-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sós, Endre; Szigeti, Alexandra; Fok, Eva; Molnár, Viktor; Erdélyi, Károly; Perge, Edina; Biksi, Imre; Gál, János

    2012-09-01

    Smaller macropodid species (commonly referred to as wallabies) are extremely susceptible to toxoplasmosis: in most cases, infection with Toxoplasma gondii leads to death within a short time. Between June 2006 and July 2010, T. gondii was detected by immunohistochemical examination in six Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) that died in the Budapest Zoo and Botanical Garden; in another four specimens histopathology revealed T. gondii-like organisms (which could not be differentiated from Neospora caninum solely by morphology), and in another 11 animals toxoplasmosis as the possible cause of death could not be excluded. The current zoo population of 12 Tammar wallabies was tested for T. gondii IgG antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT), with negative results. We suppose that most of the deaths were due to acute toxoplasmosis resulting from a recent infection.

  15. First report on Aonchotheca annulosa Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda, Capillariidae) in a Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) from a zoo in northern Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Umur, S.; Moravec, František; Gurler, A.; Bolukbas, C.; Acici, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2012), s. 384-387 ISSN 0047-2565 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aonchotheca annulosa * baboon * Capillariidae * Turkey * zoo Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine; GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine (BC-A) Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jmp.12020/abstract

  16. Knowledge, Interest, and Value of Youth Zoo Visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Alexandra M.

    2017-01-01

    In the face of massive global extinction, the mission of zoos for conservation education has increasing importance. Zoos are in a unique position to affect the development of youth in ways that are consistent with cultivating pro-environmental behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine three intrinsic traits of youth important to the…

  17. Comparison of fermented animal feed and mushroom growth media as two value-added options for waste Cassava pulp management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakulvichean, Sivalee; Chaiprasert, Pawinee; Otmakhova, Julia; Songkasiri, Warinthorn

    2017-12-01

    Cassava is one of the main processed crops in Thailand, but this generates large amounts (7.3 million tons in 2015) of waste cassava pulp (WCP). The solid WCP is sold directly to farmers or pulp-drying companies at a low cost to reduce the burden of on-site waste storage. Using an integrated direct and environmental cost model, fermented animal feed and mushroom growth media were compared as added-value waste management alternatives for WCP to mitigate environmental problems. Primary and secondary data were collected from the literature, field data, and case studies. Data boundaries were restricted to a gate-to-gate scenario with a receiving capacity of 500 t WCP/d, and based on a new production unit being set up at the starch factory. The total production cost of each WCP utilization option was analyzed from the economic and environmental costs. Fermented animal feed was an economically attractive scenario, giving a higher net present value (NPV), lower investment cost and environmental impact, and a shorter payback period for the 10-year operational period. The selling price of mushrooms was the most sensitive parameter regarding the NPV, while the NPV for the price of fermented animal feed had the highest value in the best-case scenario.

  18. Analysis of the Potential Solid Waste Palm Oil as Animal Feed Cattle in Province Riau

    OpenAIRE

    Chalid, Nursiah; Flordeluna, Cattelya

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze the potential of solid waste as cattle feed in the Riau province where oil palm solid waste is estimated each year has increased the amount of solid waste production as the increasing production of fresh fruit bunches ( FFB ) is in if every year .The data used in this study are primary and secondary data . The method used in this peneilitan is descriptive method . To see the right strategy in the potential of oil palm solid waste as cattle feed in the p...

  19. Assessment of Animal Waste Treatment by Means of Biodigesters on Pig Farms in the Red River

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Van Duy; Vu Dinh, Ton; Lai Thi, Cuc

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out at 12 pig farms in three provinces of Hai Duong, Hung Yen and Bac Ninh. Results showed that the daily amounts of solid and liquid wastes were rather large (50 - 260 kg of solid wastes and 3 - 20 m3 of liquid wastes). The liquid waste treatment with biodigesters decreased the BOD5 and COD concentrations (BOD5 decreased by 75.0 - 80.8% at the sow houses and 75.89 – 80.36% at the growing–finishing pig houses; COD decreased by 66.85% and 64.94 - 69.73% at the sow...

  20. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  1. Interstellar colonization and the zoo hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    Michael Hart and others have pointed out that current estimates of the number of technological civilizations arisen in the Galaxy since its formation is in fundamental conflict with the expectation that such a civilization could colonize and utilize the entire Galaxy in 10 to 20 million years. This dilemma can be called Hart's paradox. Resolution of the paradox requires that one or more of the following are true: we are the Galaxy's first technical civilization; interstellar travel is immensely impractical or simply impossible; technological civilizations are very short-lived; or we inhabit a wildnerness preserve. The latter is the zoo hypothesis

  2. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies star

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24 276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4 mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3 mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into ‘bulgy’ (early-type) and ‘discy’ (late-typ...

  3. Federal Measures Against the Abuse of Wild Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Nathaniel P.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the appalling conditions associated with many zoos and with the trafficking of exotic pets, and discusses recent federal and international measures designed to reduce the abuse of wild animals. (JR)

  4. The contribution of zoos and aquaria to Aichi Biodiversity Target 12: A case study of Canadian zoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Olive

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of Aichi Biodiversity Target 12 is to prevent extinction of known threaten species, and improve the decline of the world’s most imperiled species. Governments and NGOs around the world are actively working toward this goal. This article examines the role of zoos and aquaria in the conservation of species at risk through an in-depth examination of four accredited Canadian zoos and aquaria. Through site visits, interviews with staff, and research into the programs at each institution, this paper demonstrates that captive breeding, reintroductions, and headstarting projects are each a large component of conservation efforts. Interviews with zoo staff reveal strong consensus that zoo offer two critical components for species at risk conservation: space and expertise. Overall, this article calls for greater attention to the types of conservation actives occurring and the ways in which zoos are working together to protect and recover global biodiversity.

  5. Simulation of the gasification of animal wastes in a dual gasifier using Aspen Plus®

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lopez, M.; Pedroche, J.; Valverde, J.L.; Sanchez-Silva, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The gasification of manure was evaluated using the software Aspen Plus®. • Composition and LHV of the obtained syngas depends on the operating conditions. • CO 2 net emissions for the steam and CO 2 gasification processes were calculated. • Manure steam gasification can be used as feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch. • Manure CO 2 gasification lead to a syngas suitable for energy production. - Abstract: The gasification of an animal waste biomass (manure) in a dual gasifier was studied using the software Aspen Plus®. For this purpose, a model based on a Gibbs free energy reactor was considered. Effects of the gasification temperature, the gasifying/biomass ratio and the use of steam and CO 2 as the gasifying agents on the composition and the low heating value (LHV) of the produced syngas were evaluated. In this sense, the H 2 /CO ratio and the LHV were the parameters calculated to stablish the best operating conditions for the production of either hydrocarbons via Fischer-Tropsch or energy. Furthermore, the CO 2 net emissions generated by the gasification process were also important in the selection of the best operating conditions from an environmental point of view. The obtained results showed that for both gasifying agents the H 2 and CO production was favoured at high temperatures whereas the production of CH 4 and CO 2 was favoured at low ones. On the other hand, the H 2 production was higher when steam was used as the gasifying agent and the formation of CO was enhanced when CO 2 was considered as gasification agent. An increase of the gasifying agent/biomass ratio had a negatively influence on the production of CH 4 , leading to a decrease of the LHV. Therefore, steam as the gasifying agent and high temperatures favoured the obtaining of a syngas suitable for the Fischer-Tropsch process whereas CO 2 and low gasification temperatures enhanced a syngas with a high LHV which could be used for energy production. Finally, the net CO 2

  6. Animal Contact Exhibits_Legal Epidemiology Research Procedure and Code Book_2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Animals at petting zoos and agricultural fairs can be carriers of pathogens, such as Escherichia coli. Disease outbreaks at animal contact exhibits can be prevented...

  7. Ecological ethics in captivity: balancing values and responsibilities in zoo and aquarium research under rapid global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Ben A; Collins, James P

    2013-01-01

    Ethical obligations to animals in conservation research and management are manifold and often conflicting. Animal welfare concerns often clash with the ethical imperative to understand and conserve a population or ecosystem through research and management intervention. The accelerating pace and impact of global environmental change, especially climate change, complicates our understanding of these obligations. One example is the blurring of the distinction between ex situ (zoo- and aquarium-based) conservation and in situ (field-based) approaches as zoos and aquariums become more active in field conservation work and as researchers and managers consider more intensive interventions in wild populations and ecosystems to meet key conservation goals. These shifts, in turn, have consequences for our traditional understanding of the ethics of wildlife research and management, including our relative weighting of animal welfare and conservation commitments across rapidly evolving ex situ and in situ contexts. Although this changing landscape in many ways supports the increased use of captive wildlife in conservation-relevant research, it raises significant ethical concerns about human intervention in populations and ecosystems, including the proper role of zoos and aquariums as centers for animal research and conservation in the coming decades. Working through these concerns requires a pragmatic approach to ethical analysis, one that is able to make trade-offs among the many goods at stake (e.g., animal welfare, species viability, and ecological integrity) as we strive to protect species from further decline and extinction in this century.

  8. How abnormal is the behaviour of captive, zoo-living chimpanzees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy P Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. METHODS: We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions. Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is 'normal' in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both

  9. Guidelines for zoo and aquarium veterinary medical programs and veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backues, Kay; Clyde, Vickie; Denver, Mary; Fiorello, Christine; Hilsenroth, Rob; Lamberski, Nadine; Larson, Scott; Meehan, Tom; Murray, Mike; Ramer, Jan; Ramsay, Ed; Suedmeyer, Kirk; Whiteside, Doug

    2011-03-01

    These guidelines for veterinary medical care and veterinary hospitals are written to conform with the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act, which states that programs of disease prevention and parasite control, euthanasia, and adequate veterinary care shall be established and maintained under the supervision of a veterinarian. Ideally the zoo and aquarium should be providing the best possible veterinary medical care for the animals in their collections. Many of these animals are rare and endangered and the institutions should endeavor both to provide for the long term health and well being of these animals and to advance the field of non-domestic animal medicine. It is hoped that this publication will aid in this process.

  10. Freshwater quality of a stream in agricultural area where organic compost from animal and vegetable wastes is used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria Saran

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Organic compost from biomass residues constitutes a viable alternative for partial or total replacement of mineral fertilizers for growing vegetables. This study evaluated the effects of compost on the water quality of a stream used mainly for irrigation of agricultural crops cultivated in nearby soil that has been treated with organic compost produced by carcasses, animal and vegetable waste for the last ten years. We sampled water biannually for two years, 2013 and 2014, from five locations along the stream. Physical variables and some chemical variables were analyzed. We also analyzed the total number of coliforms (Escherichia coli. Bacterial populations were compared by carbon substrate consumption. Total phosphorus contents in the samples from 2014 exceeded 0.1 mg L-1. The concentrations of other chemical species analyzed and the results for the physical variables were in accordance with the expected values compared with national and international water quality standards. The environment showed differential carbon source consumption and a high diversity of microorganisms, but our results did not show any evidence that the applied compost is changing the microbial population or its metabolic activity. This study shows that the use of the organic compost in agricultural areas seen does not negatively influence the quality of surface water in the study area. These results are important because the process of composting animal and vegetable waste and the use of compost obtained can be an alternative sustainable for adequate destination of these wastes.

  11. Behavioral thermoregulation in a group of zoo-housed colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Jason D; Kuhar, Christopher W; Lukas, Kristen E

    2014-01-01

    Although wild primates are known to modify behavior in response to thermal stress, less is known about behavioral thermoregulation in zoo-housed primates. Zoo exhibits expose individuals to unique thermal environments and may constrain the thermoregulatory strategies available to individual animals. In this study, we observed a group of seven colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) living on a concrete "Monkey Island" style exhibit that featured limited shade and limited arboreal space. Behaviors were recorded using continuous focal animal sampling (n = 63 days, 97.7 hr). Logistic regression revealed 23°C was the temperature at which monkeys began resting more in shade than in sun. When temperatures exceeded 23°C, animals spent more time in open sitting postures with limbs extended from the body; sat less frequently in closed, hunched postures; spent more time in social contact; and performed more self-directed behaviors. Exhibit use also shifted under higher temperatures, with more time spent in areas with shade and lower surface temperatures. Lastly, when provided with access to an indoor holding area, the colobus monkeys spent more than half the time indoors when temperatures exceeded 23°C, yet only 10% of their time indoors when the temperature was below this value. Although postural changes have been reported in wild colobus, the postural and other behavioral changes observed in the current study occurred at temperatures lower than expected based on the published thermoneutral zone of colobus monkeys and highlight the importance of considering the specific thermoregulatory responses of zoo animals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive cellulosic and animal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Strandberg, G.W.; Patton, B.D.; Harrington, F.E.

    1983-02-01

    A preliminary process design and a cost estimate have been made for a volume reduction plant for low-level, solid radioactive wastes generated at ORNL. The process is based on extension of existing anaerobic digestion technology and on laboratory studies indicating the feasibiity of this technology for digestion of the organic portion of low-level, solid radioactive wastes. A gaseous effluent (CO 2 and CH 4 ) is vented in the process, and a liquid ffluent containing undigested solids is filtered to remove solids, which are buried. The liquid is discharged to the low-level liquid waste system at ORNL. Overall volume reduction of solid waste by this process is estimated to be approximately 20:1. Costs appear to be comparable to costs for compaction. The process design is conservative, and several potential improvements which could increase efficiency are discussed in this report

  13. Fruit and vegetable waste (FV) from the market places: A potential source for animal feeding?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo, J.; Yepes, S. A.; Yepes, A. M.; Bustamante, G.; Mahecha, L.

    2009-01-01

    The generation of organic solid waste and its inappropriate management is considered one of the main environmental problems in the world associated with emissions of methane from landfill sites, with emission of dusts, odors and hazardous gases, and with contamination of water. There are different sources for the generation of solid wastes; the market places are considered one of then on a global scale. (Author)

  14. Biodiesel production from waste animal fat and improvement of its characteristics by synthesized nickel and magnesium additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerue, Metin; Artukoglu, Bursev Dogan; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce trimethyl ester from waste animal fat at optimum conditions and improve its characteristics by synthesized nickel and magnesium additives. In this study, a two step catalytic process for synthesis of biodiesel was studied by reacting waste animal fats with methanol. The temperature, amount of methanol and type and amount of catalyst are investigated as parameters, and the changes in viscosity and flash point of animal fat biodiesel were determined. Furthermore, the effects of organic based Ni and Mg additives on the methyl ester pour point were specified. Optimum producing conditions were determined experimentally. At the end of these experiments, the maximum yield of 89% was obtained in two steps with total 0.35 (w/w) methanol/fat, at 62 ± 1 deg. C reaction temperature for 2 h reaction period and by catalysing with 0.08 (w/w) H 2 SO 4 /fat and 0.01 (w/w) NaOH/fat ratios. Organic based metal compounds were synthesized by reacting abietic acid in the tall oil resinic acid with NiO and MgO compounds in order to improve the animal fat methyl ester characteristics. Reduction of the pour point was achieved by adding organic based nickel and magnesium compounds to biodiesel at a ratio of 12 μmol/l oil methyl ester. Also, the blend of animal fat methyl ester-Diesel fuel was tested in a direct injection Diesel engine. The maximum effect of the new fuel blend on the engine performance was reached at 2200 min -1 of engine torque. The lowest specific fuel consumptions were obtained at 2200 min -1 for both fuels

  15. Biodiesel production from waste animal fat and improvement of its characteristics by synthesized nickel and magnesium additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerue, Metin; Artukoglu, Bursev Dogan [Gazi University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 06570 Ankara (Turkey); Keskin, Ali [Mersin University, Technical Education Faculty, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Koca, Atilla [Gazi University, Technical Education Faculty, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to produce trimethyl ester from waste animal fat at optimum conditions and improve its characteristics by synthesized nickel and magnesium additives. In this study, a two step catalytic process for synthesis of biodiesel was studied by reacting waste animal fats with methanol. The temperature, amount of methanol and type and amount of catalyst are investigated as parameters, and the changes in viscosity and flash point of animal fat biodiesel were determined. Furthermore, the effects of organic based Ni and Mg additives on the methyl ester pour point were specified. Optimum producing conditions were determined experimentally. At the end of these experiments, the maximum yield of 89% was obtained in two steps with total 0.35 (w/w) methanol/fat, at 62 {+-} 1 C reaction temperature for 2 h reaction period and by catalysing with 0.08 (w/w) H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/fat and 0.01 (w/w) NaOH/fat ratios. Organic based metal compounds were synthesized by reacting abietic acid in the tall oil resinic acid with NiO and MgO compounds in order to improve the animal fat methyl ester characteristics. Reduction of the pour point was achieved by adding organic based nickel and magnesium compounds to biodiesel at a ratio of 12 {mu}mol/l oil methyl ester. Also, the blend of animal fat methyl ester-Diesel fuel was tested in a direct injection Diesel engine. The maximum effect of the new fuel blend on the engine performance was reached at 2200 min{sup -1} of engine torque. The lowest specific fuel consumptions were obtained at 2200 min{sup -1} for both fuels. (author)

  16. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. T. Cu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4 production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  17. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  18. AnimalCatcher: a digital camera to capture various reactions of animals

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukada, Koji; Oki, Maho; Kurihara, Kazutaka; Furudate, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    People often have difficulty to take pictures of animals, since animals usually do not react with cameras nor understand verbal directions. To solve this problem, we developed a new interaction technique, AnimalCatcher, which can attract animals' attention easily. The AnimalCatcher shoots various sounds using directional speaker to capture various reactions of animals. This paper describes concepts, implementation, and example pictures taken in a zoo.

  19. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal-waste-impacted Farm Soil: From Molecular Mechanisms to Microbial Evolution and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem worldwide and the routine use of antibiotics in industrial animal production has sparked debate on whether this practice might constitute an environmental and public health concern. At a broiler farm, electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveying assisted soil sampling from a chicken-waste-impacted site and a marginally affected site. Consistent with the EMI survey, disparity existed between the two sites with regard to soil pH, tetracycline resistance (TcR) levels among heterotrophic culturable soil bacteria, and the incidence/prevalence of a number of tet and erm genes in the soils. No significant difference was observed in these aspects between the marginally affected site and several sites in a regional state forest that has not been in agricultural use for decades. Shortly after our sampling, the farm closed down and all the waste was removed. This unique change in situation offered us an unusual opportunity to examine the reversibility of any impact of the chicken waste on the soil microbial community. Two years after the event, several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were still detected in the waste-impacted soil, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) data showed that their relative abundance remained at substantial levels. A mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pSU1, was identified in several chicken-waste-exposed soil bacteria of three different genera. Quantification of the plasmid's mobilization gene suggested that pSU1 had contributed to the prevalence and persistence of tet(L) in the waste-impacted soil. A second mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pBSDMV9, isolated from the same soil, contained a region with 98.8% nucleotide identity to pSU1. The mosaic structure of the plasmids and the highly conserved nature of the tet(L) genes suggested that plasmid rearrangement favoring the acquisition of tet(L) may have occurred in the soil relatively recently. Additionally, in one chicken-waste

  20. Farm scale electrical power production from animal waste. Volume I. Final report, 30 June 1981-30 December 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, P.A.

    1984-01-31

    A 1 1/2 (dry) tons per day biodigester cogeneration plant has been designed and constructed. This project is part of a federal program to promote energy conservation and the use of non-conventional energy resources. The main purpose of the project is to demonstrate that a dairy farm can generate its own power and supply excess power to a local utility. Such a facility can produce significant energy savings to livestock farms and small communities by allowing them to get energy from raw animal and human waste. Also, an odorless by-product is produced that is nearly pathogenically free and has the possibility of several end uses such as: fertilizer and soil conditioner, protein-rich animal refeed, livestock bedding material, and aquatic food for fish farming. 53 references, 18 figures, 4 tables.

  1. An experimental study on the thermal valorization of municipal and animal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamvuka, Despina; Sfakiotakis, Stelios [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Crete (Greece); Panopoulos, Kyriakos D. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas / Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4th klm. Nat. Rd. Ptolemais-Kozani-P.O. box 95 – GR 50200 Ptolemais (Greece)

    2013-07-01

    Poultry wastes and refused derived fuel disposal through thermochemical processes, such as combustion, has been proposed. These fuels have calorific values that in many cases exceed 20MJ kg-1. An extensive analysis has been performed of pyrolysis and combustion results obtained by thermal analysis measurements. The weight loss data were recorded continuously, under dynamic conditions, in the range 25-1300 deg C. A first order parallel reactions model and a power low model fitted the experimental results accurately for pyrolysis and combustion, respectively. The pyrolysis of poultry waste was a complex process, occurring up to 1300 deg C with high activation energies.

  2. Polar ring galaxies in the Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Ido; Funes, José G.; Brosch, Noah

    2012-05-01

    We report observations of 16 candidate polar-ring galaxies (PRGs) identified by the Galaxy Zoo project in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base. Deep images of five galaxies are available in the SDSS Stripe82 data base, while to reach similar depth we observed the remaining galaxies with the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope. We derive integrated magnitudes and u-r colours for the host and ring components and show continuum-subtracted Hα+[N II] images for seven objects. We present a basic morphological and environmental analysis of the galaxies and discuss their properties in comparison with other types of early-type galaxies. Follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations will allow a kinematic confirmation of the nature of these systems and a more detailed analysis of their stellar populations.

  3. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Serosurvey of Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in rats captured from two zoos in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Maysa; Conrado, Francisco de Oliveira; Martins, Camila Marinelli; Joaquim, Sâmea Fernandes; Ferreira, Fernando; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2017-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are zoonotic reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, and influence diseases in urban areas. Free-ranging and laboratory-raised rats from two zoos in southern Brazil were tested for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii using microscopic agglutination and modified agglutination tests, respectively. Overall, 25.6% and 4.6% free-ranging rats tested positive for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii, respectively, with co-seropositivity occurring in two animals. For laboratory-raised rats, 20% tested positive for Leptospira spp. Also, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc and Leptospira noguchii serovar Panama were found. Serosurveys can show the environmental prevalence of zoonotic pathogens.

  5. An analysis of zoo and aquarium provided teacher professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubarek-Sandor, Joy

    Informal science institutions are a significant provider of science teacher professional development. As pressure continues to critically analyze the work of teachers and their effectiveness in the classroom, it is important to understand how informal science institutions contribute to effective change in teacher science content knowledge and pedagogy. This research study analyzed zoo and aquarium provided teacher professional development to respond to the research questions: How do zoos and aquaria determine and assess their goals for teacher professional development? How do these goals align with effective teacher change for science content knowledge and pedagogy? Theoretical frameworks for high quality teacher professional development, effective evaluation of teacher professional development, and learning in informal science settings guided the research. The sample for the study was AZA accredited zoos and aquariums providing teacher professional development (N=107). Data collection consisted of an online questionnaire, follow-up interviews, and content analysis of teacher professional development artifacts. Analysis revealed that by and large zoos and aquariums are lacking in their provision of science teacher professional development. Most professional development focuses on content or resources, neglecting pedagogy. Assessments mismatch the goals and rely heavily on self-report and satisfaction measures. The results demonstrate a marked difference between those zoos and aquariums that are larger in capacity versus those that are medium to small in size. This may be an area of research for the future, as well as analyzing the education resources produced by zoos and aquariums as these were emphasized heavily as a way they serve teachers.

  6. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation Of Electricity Generation From Animal Based Wastes In A Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duduyemi Oladejo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Electric current from organic waste of poultry droppings were generated with A Microbial Fuel Cell MFC technology to evaluate affects of temperature 30 to 50oC 100gl 300gl and 500gl slurry concentrations prepared with the distilled water and inoculated when introduced into the anodic chamber. A constant concentration of 50gl of the oxidizing agent Potassium ferricyanide at the cathode chamber was prepared to evaluate the voltage and current generated by the set up for 7 days in each case. Higher slurry concentrations were observed to generate higher initial current and voltage than in lower concentrations. Higher slurry concentrations also demonstrated sustained power generation up to the day 6 before decline. A maximum current of 1.1V and 0.15 mA was achieved while the temperature variation was observed to have minimal effect within the range considered at low concentration. A MFC is a biochemical-catalyzed system capable of generating electricity as a by-product also providing an alternative method of waste treatment. Application Alternative power source and waste treatment.

  8. Combustible gas and biochar production from co-pyrolysis of agricultural plastic wastes and animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers report that manure-derived biochar has considerable potential both for improving soil quality and reducing water pollution. One of obstacles in obtaining manure biochar is its high energy requirement for pyrolyzing wet and low-energy-density animal manures. The combustible gas produced f...

  9. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into `bulgy' (early-type) and `discy' (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or fDeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of `bulgy' spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of `discy' spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disc ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with discy spirals at Mr ~ -21.5mag having the most reddening - more than twice as much as both the lowest luminosity and most massive, bulge-dominated spirals. An increase in dust content is well known for more luminous galaxies, but the decrease of the trend for the most luminous has not been observed before and may be related to their lower levels of recent star formation. We compare our results with the latest dust attenuation models of Tuffs et al. We find that the model reproduces the observed trends reasonably well but overpredicts the amount of u-band attenuation in edge-on galaxies. This could be an inadequacy in the Milky Way extinction law (when applied to external galaxies), but more likely indicates the need for a wider range of dust-star geometries. We end by discussing the effects of dust on large galaxy surveys and emphasize that these effects will become important as we push to higher precision measurements of galaxy properties and their clustering. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than

  10. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  11. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  12. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, Jordan; Lintott, C.; Bamford, S.; Land, K.; Locksmith, D.; Murray, P.; Nichol, B.; Schawinski, K.; Slosar, A.; Szalay, A.; Thomas, D.; Vandenberg, J.; Andreescu, D.

    2008-05-01

    We have developed Galaxy Zoo, a citizen science project in which volunteers classify images of galaxies by shape. The site has been hugely successful in reaching large numbers of people - more than 125,000 people have signed up. As a result, each galaxy has been classified more than 30 times, resulting in high-quality science results. We are studying the motivations of these volunteers to determine what about our site made it so captivating. We have some ideas - people enjoy helping science, looking at beautiful galaxy images, and the "game" nature of the interface. But we want to study the motivations systematically, to learn who thinks what, and how this affects what they do. We have designed a methodology in which we begin with interviews, asking open-ended questions of volunteers about their motivation. Then, we design a survey to collect motivation data for a larger sample. Lastly, for volunteers who agreed to give us their site username, we examine how they classified galaxies to look for correlations between motivation and behavior. In this poster, we describe our methodology and present preliminary results of our research.

  13. Management and Level of Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus Illinger, 1815 as Display Animal in Indonesia Conservation Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfa Hansyari Ar-Rasyid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education and breeding become main reasons for asian small-clawed otter placement as display animal in zoo. Proper management is needed to maintain asian small-clawed otter welfare. This research objectives were to examine and assess asian small-clawed otter welfare in three Indonesia zoos. The study was conducted from December 2016 to February 2017 in Bandung Zoo, Ragunan Zoo and Ocean Dream Samudra Ancol. The methods of this research were literature review, interview and field observation. Data were analyzed using the suitability of management and animal welfare assessment. The result showed that there were three main management activities conducted at the three study locations, i.e., nutrition, housing, and health management. Bandung Zoo achieved the lowest score of asian small-clawed otter welfare (45,24% compared to Ragunan Zoo (62,24% and Ocean Dream Samudra (65,90%. Asian small-clawed otter welfare in three institutions were relatively low to fair category, this was due to the unfilled quality of food and water i.e.,  the type, amount, feeding frequency, diet and preparing of food; the unavailability of suitable and favorable environmental conditions; the care facilities provided could not ensure the health of animal; the appearance of abnormal behavior that affected the growth and breeding of animal; and animal had no freedom to behave as in their natural habitat. Keywords: animal display, animal welfare, Asian small-clawed otter, zoo 

  14. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Bacterial Infections Associated With the Use of Animal Wastes in Louisiana for the Period 1996-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential non-point source of water degradation. Human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. Health concerns could exist from exposure to pathogens and excess nitrogen associated with this form of pollution. The objective of this study was to collect and analyze health data related to Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacterial infections associated with the use of animal waste in Louisiana for the years 1996-2004. An analysis of adverse health effects associated with the use of animal waste in Louisiana was conducted based on the incidence/prevalence rate for the studied years. The number of reported cases increased during the summer months. Analysis of health data of the studied years showed that the number of reported disease cases of E. coli O157:H7 were highest among Caucasian infants in the 0-4 year old age category and in Caucasian children in the 5-9 year old age category. Although the number of cases declined with age, a slight increase in rates was seen among the elderly population. While the rate of reported cases per 100,000 people remained the same for the years of 1999 and 2000, the rate decreased by 60% from the year 2000 to 2001. A slight decline of the number of cases that was also reported for the years 2002 and 2003. The high rate of identification in the younger population may result from the prompt seeking of medical care when symptoms become evident among infants and young children as well as the frequent ordering of stool examination when symptoms become evident in this population group. It was also noted that areas that had a higher number of reported cases also had a greater

  15. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  16. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A., E-mail: aidabenhassen@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Kraiem, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Naoui, S. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Belayouni, H. [Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  17. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A.; Kraiem, T.; Naoui, S.; Belayouni, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy

  18. Eating to save wild-life: is a truly conservation-minded zoo/aquarium a vegan zoo/aquarium?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Birkved, Morten; Gamborg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    are to work for sustainability and species conservation – should food served in zoos be part of considerations – and to what extent? To answer this question the paper presents the goals of EAZA along with environmental impact profiles, relying on previously published life cycle assessments of the entirety (i......According to the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria their mission is ‘to facilitate cooperation … towards the goals of education, research and conservation’. Livestock production is one of the leading causes of often-irreversible land use changes, greenhouse gas emissions, loss...... of biodiversity and different types of environmental degradation – all affecting wildlife negatively, and hence undermining conservation policies that aim to protect individuals, populations and species. But what is the link between livestock production and zoos and aquariums? One link, putting it a bit boldly...

  19. Eating to save wild-life: is a truly conservation-minded zoo/aquarium a vegan zoo/aquarium?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Birkved, Morten; Gamborg, Christian

    are to work for sustainability and species conservation – should food served in zoos be part of considerations – and to what extent? To answer this question the paper presents the goals of EAZA along with environmental impact profiles, relying on previously published life cycle assessments of the entirety (i......According to the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria their mission is ‘to facilitate cooperation … towards the goals of education, research and conservation’. Livestock production is one of the leading causes of often-irreversible land use changes, greenhouse gas emissions, loss...... of biodiversity and different types of environmental degradation – all affecting wildlife negatively, and hence undermining conservation policies that aim to protect individuals, populations and species. But what is the link between livestock production and zoos and aquariums? One link, putting it a bit boldly...

  20. DETERMINANTS OF VISITORS' PREFERENCE FOR WILD ANIMAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omotesho

    Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ilorin, Ilorin,. Nigeria, PMB ... Key words: Determinants, wildlife preference, University of Ilorin, Zoo. INTRODUCTION ..... (1996).Regarding animals. Philadelphia: Temple University. Press. Bart, W.M. (1972). ... National Parks and Protected. Areas ...

  1. Disease patterns in the Detroit Zoo: a study of the avian population from 1973 through 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneene, J B; Taylor, R F; Sikarskie, J G; Meyer, T J; Richter, N A

    1985-12-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate disease patterns in birds at the Detroit Zoo from 1973 through 1983. Data were derived from the zoo's medical and animal census records; the mean (+/- SD) population of birds during the study period was 469 +/- 42. Overall annual morbidity rates were 12.5% to 21.5%, with spring months having the highest morbidity rates. Annual mortality rates were 3.1% to 15.2%; 23.9% of the deaths were caused by microbial agents (particularly Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, hemolytic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Aeromonas spp and Proteus spp), 15.4% by trauma, and 42.5% by nondetermined causes. The mute swan (Cygnus olor), mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropus), common rhea (Rhea americana), and red-billed hornbill (Tockus erythrorhynchus) were the 5 species most frequently affected of the 1,032 deaths from 1973 through 1983. The most frequently isolated parasites were Microtetramere spp, coccidian species, Diplotriaena spp, and Trichomonia spp.

  2. Haplotype variation in founders of the Mauremys annamensis population kept in European Zoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Somerova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Annam leaf turtle Mauremys annamensis faces extinction in nature. Because of that, the conservation value of the population kept in European zoos becomes substantial for reintroduction programmes. We sampled 39 specimens of M. annamensis from European zoos and other collections (mainly founders, imports and putatively unrelated individuals, and also four specimens of Mauremys mutica for comparison. In each animal, we sequenced 817 bp of the mitochondrial ND4 gene and 940 bp of the nuclear R35 intron that were used as phylogenetic markers for Mauremys mutica-annamensis group by previous authors. The sequences of the R35 intron, which are characteristic for M. annamensis and which clearly differ from those characteristic for M. mutica and/or other Mauremys species, were mutually shared by all of the examined M. annamensis. They also possessed mitochondrial haplotypes belonging to the annamensis subclades I and II, distinctness of which was clearly confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Thus, both nuclear and mitochondrial markers agreed in the unequivocal assignment of the examined individuals to M. annamensis. Although no obvious hybrids were detected within the founders of the captive population, further careful genetic evaluation using genom-wide markers is required to unequivocally confirm this result.

  3. Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Jacobsen, Krista L; Slifka, Kerri A; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Langman, Craig B; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diets at each institution met the probable dietary requirements for each species except for the pallas cat. Blood samples were collected from each animal (n = 69) and analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), vitamin D metabolites [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D)], vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Species differences were found for all except triacylglycerides and 1,25(OH)(2)D. Genus differences were found for retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Circulating nutrient concentrations for many of the species in this study have not been reported previously and most have not been compared with the animals' dietary intakes. The large number of animals analyzed provides a substantial base for comparing the serum nutrient concentrations of healthy animals, for both wild and captive exotic species.

  4. Agualuza’s Zoo(Poethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Barossi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n2p83 The works The Book of Chameleons and General Theory of Oblivion, by José Eduardo Agualusa, present animal characters and relations between humans and non-human animals that go against traditional philosophical and interpretative theories, allowing perspectives that break with the notions created by the Cartesian and structuralist matrix theories. Donna Haraway suggested that the cyborg appears in myth precisely where the boundary between human and animal is transgressed, just as the indiscernibility lines created by Agualusa’s characters, which establish an animal (poethics and, therefore, cyborg. This paper aims to discuss some of these animal – or animots – occurences in Agualusa’s works.

  5. Motivations of Citizen Scientists Participating in Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Georgia; Raddick, M. J.; Gay, P. L.

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy Zoo is an online citizen science project involving over 170,000 volunteers who have classified the morphologies of hundreds of thousands of galaxies. In this study, we examine the motivations of Galaxy Zoo participants - what reasons do they give for offering their time classifying galaxies? Interviews were conducted with randomly-chosen participants, and the transcripts were independently analyzed to discover motivations for participation. A systematic method of classifying the motivations was used independently by each member of the research team. A list of 14 motivation categories was agreed upon by the researchers, and this list is presented here along with illustrative quotes from the interviews. Using similar methods of classification, motivations were also taken from the Galaxy Zoo Forum and compared to the motivations from the interviews. This technique can be generalized to study other populations of new media participants. We find that data from the Forum supports the original classification scheme developed from the interviews, and we present details of a planned survey that will continue this research with a larger sample. Finally, we present some possible implications of these results on other citizen science projects, including upcoming Galaxy Zoo projects, and we outline plans for our own future research in this area.

  6. DETOMIDINE AND BUTORPHANOL FOR STANDING SEDATION IN A RANGE OF ZOO-KEPT UNGULATE SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouts, Tim; Dodds, Joanne; Berry, Karla; Arif, Abdi; Taylor, Polly; Routh, Andrew; Gasthuys, Frank

    2017-09-01

    General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied for standing sedation in a range of zoo animals, allowing a number of minor procedures. The combination was successfully administered in five species of nondomesticated equids (Przewalski horse [ Equus ferus przewalskii; n = 1], onager [ Equus hemionus onager; n = 4], kiang [ Equus kiang ; n = 3], Grevy's zebra [ Equus grevyi ; n = 4], and Somali wild ass [ Equus africanus somaliensis; n = 7]), with a mean dose range of 0.10-0.17 mg/kg detomidine and 0.07-0.13 mg/kg butorphanol; the white ( Ceratotherium simum simum; n = 12) and greater one-horned rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis ; n = 4), with a mean dose of 0.015 mg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol; and Asiatic elephant bulls ( Elephas maximus ; n = 2), with a mean dose of 0.018 mg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol. In addition, the combination was successfully used for standing sedation in six species of artiodactylids: giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata; n = 3), western bongo ( Tragelaphus eurycerus eurycerus; n = 2), wisent ( Bison bonasus ; n = 5), yak ( Bos grunniens ; n = 1), water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ; n = 4) and Bactrian camel ( Camelus bactrianus ; n = 5). The mean dose range for artiodactylid species except bongo was 0.04-0.06 mg/kg detomidine and 0.03-0.06 mg/kg butorphanol. The dose in bongo, 0.15-0.20 mg/kg detomidine and 0.13-0.15 mg/kg butorphanol, was considerably higher. Times to first effect, approach, and recovery after antidote were short. The use of detomidine and butorphanol has

  7. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-01-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wastes by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EBF) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13% and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30 o C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran. (author)

  8. The Narrativization of an Unusual Event at the Belgrade Zoo: A Semiotic Analysis of The Story of Gabi the Dog and the Jaguar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Žakula

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a semiotic analysis of the narrative of Gabi the dog and the jaguar in the form in which the story appears on the website of the Belgrade zoo. I believe that it is valid to assume that an analysis of this narrative can provide a window into the ways in which meanings of concepts such as ‘wildness’, ‘domesticity’, ‘freedom’, ‘captivity’ and ultimately, ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ are articulated within the context of this institution. On the one hand, I will base the paper on ideas articulated in the field of human-animal relations, and on the other on the methodological postulates of semiotic analysis introduced by Algirdas Julien Greimas and further developed by Dragana Antonijević. The aim of the paper is to, by applying semiotic analysis to the way in which an unusual event at the zoo was narrativized, uncover the deeper structure of thought which underlies the story and reflects and shapes not just the discourse of the Belgrade zoo, but the implicit understanding of the role and function of zoos in Serbia up until the present day.

  9. Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, vitamins A and E, and carotenoids in six canid and four ursid species at four zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissey, S; Ange, K; Slifka, K; Bowen, P; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M; Langman, C; Sadler, W; Ward, A

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional status for six captive canid species (n=34) and four captive ursid species (n=18) were analyzed. The species analyzed included: African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), gray wolf (Canis lupus), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baleiyi), red wolf (Canis rufus), brown bear (Ursus arctos), polar bear (Ursus maritimus), spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), and sun bear (Ursus malayanus). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diet for each species at each institution met probable dietary requirements. Blood samples were collected from each animal and analyzed for vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D, vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Family differences were found for 25(OH)D, retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol. Species differences were found for all detectable measurements. Carotenoids were not detected in any species. The large number of animals contributing to these data, provides a substantial base for comparing the nutritional status of healthy animals and the differences among them.

  10. Ocular oxyspirurosis of primates in zoos: intermediate host, worm morphology, and probable origin of the infection in the Moscow zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, only two cases of ocular oxyspirurosis were recorded in primates, both in zoos, and two species were described: in Berlin, Germany, Oxyspirura (O. conjunctivalis from the lemurid Microcebus murinus, later also found in the lorisid Loris gracilis; in Jacksonville, Florida, O. (O. youngi from the cercopithecid monkey Erythrocebus patas. In the present case from the Moscow zoo, oxyspirurosis was recorded in several species of Old World lemuriforms and lorisiforms, and some South American monkeys. i The intermediate host was discovered to be a cockroach, as for O. (O. mansoni, a parasite of poultry. The complete sequence identity between ITS-1 rDNA from adult nematodes of the primate and that of the larval worms from the vector, Nauphoete cinerea, confirmed their conspecificity. ii Parasites from Moscow zoo recovered from Nycticebus c. coucang were compared morphologically to those from other zoos. The length and shape of the gubernaculum, used previously as a distinct character, were found to be variable. However, the vulvar bosses arrangement, the distal extremity of left spicule and the position of papillae of the first postcloacal pair showed that the worms in the different samples were not exactly identical and that each set seemed characteristic of a particular zoo. iii The presence of longitudinal cuticular crests in the infective stage as well as in adult worms was recorded. Together with several other morphological and biological characters (long tail and oesophagus, cockroach vector, this confirmed that Oxyspirura is not closely related to Thelazia, another ocular parasite genus. iv The disease in the Moscow zoo is thought to have started with Nycticebus pygmaeus imported fromVietnam, thus the suggestion was that Asiatic lorisids were at the origin of the Moscow set of cases. The natural host(s for the Berlin and Jacksonville cases remain unknown but they are unlikely to be the species found infected in zoos

  11. Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.

  12. Haemochromatosis in a Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in an Australian zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, A; Raidal, S R; Blake, A H; Atkinson, M M; Atkinson, P R; Eggins, G P

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old Brazilian, or lowland, tapir with a 6-month history of loss of body condition developed clinical signs and laboratory findings consistent with liver failure. The animal was euthanased and a diagnosis of hepatic haemochromatosis was made based on histopathology. Two other healthy tapirs in the same collection had chronically elevated serum and tissue iron concentrations. The excessive accumulation of iron in tissues with resultant tissue damage (i.e. haemochromatosis) has been reported in a range of captive species. This and other reported cases of haemochromatosis in the Brazilian tapir would suggest that this condition is an important consideration in the management of this species in zoos. Further research into the endogenous regulation of iron metabolism, especially the role of hepcidin, in tapirs and other species at risk of iron storage disorders may be helpful in the prevention of this condition. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. How Do Zoos "Talk" to Their General Visitors? Do Visitors "Listen"? A Mixed Method Investigation of the Communication between Modern Zoos and Their General Visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew; Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Modern zoos utilise a variety of education tools for communicating with visitors. Previous research has discussed the benefits of providing multiple education communications, yet little research provides an indication of what communications are being employed within zoos today. This research is a two-phased, mixed-methods investigation into the…

  14. Emerging infectious diseases in free-ranging wildlife-Australian zoo based wildlife hospitals contribute to national surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cox-Witton

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly originating from wildlife. Many of these diseases have significant impacts on human health, domestic animal health, and biodiversity. Surveillance is the key to early detection of emerging diseases. A zoo based wildlife disease surveillance program developed in Australia incorporates disease information from free-ranging wildlife into the existing national wildlife health information system. This program uses a collaborative approach and provides a strong model for a disease surveillance program for free-ranging wildlife that enhances the national capacity for early detection of emerging diseases.

  15. Reproduction of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome in an animal disease model as a tool for vaccine testing under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillen, John; McNair, Irene; Lagan, Paula; McKay, Karen; McClintock, Julie; Casement, Veronica; Charreyre, Catherine; Allan, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Snatch farrowed, colostrum deprived piglets were inoculated with different combinations of porcine circovirus 2, porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae candidate vaccines. 10 piglets were mock-vaccinated. Following virus challenge with a combined porcine circovirus 2/porcine parvovirus inoculum, all animals were monitored and samples taken for serology, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. At 24 dpc all non-vaccinated animals remaining were exhibiting signs of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Details of the study, analysis of samples and performance of the candidate vaccines are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  17. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters) as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications. PMID:24048207

  18. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Makaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  19. Microbial anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters) as an approach to the decontamination of animal wastes in pollution control and the generation of renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-09-17

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  20. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Nugroho, R. A.; Pinandoyo; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Media culture is an important factor for the growth and quality of Daphnia magna nutrient value. This study has purpose to find the increasing of nutritional content, biomass production and growth performance of D. magna using different animal wastes fermented by probiotic bacteria. This study conducted using completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments and 3 replicates. Those media used different animal manures such as chicken manure, goat manure and quail manure mixed by rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 24 days. The results showed that the media which used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D.magna about 2111788.9 ind/L for population; 342 grams biomass production and 68.85% protein content. The highest fatty acid profile is 6.37% of linoleic and the highest essential amino acid is 22.8% of lysine. Generally, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna’s life. This research has conclusion that media used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D. magna.

  1. Weather sensitivity for zoo visitation in Toronto, Canada: a quantitative analysis of historical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Gough, William A.

    2016-11-01

    Based on a case study of the Toronto Zoo (Canada), multivariate regression analysis, involving both climatic and social variables, was employed to assess the relationship between daily weather and visitation. Zoo visitation was most sensitive to weather variability during the shoulder season, followed by the off-season and, then, the peak season. Temperature was the most influential weather variable in relation to zoo visitation, followed by precipitation and, then, wind speed. The intensity and direction of the social and climatic variables varied between seasons. Temperatures exceeding 26 °C during the shoulder season and 28 °C during the peak season suggested a behavioural threshold associated with zoo visitation, with conditions becoming too warm for certain segments of the zoo visitor market, causing visitor numbers to decline. Even light amounts of precipitation caused average visitor numbers to decline by nearly 50 %. Increasing wind speeds also demonstrated a negative influence on zoo visitation.

  2. NEOPLASIA IN SNAKES AT ZOO ATLANTA DURING 1992-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Karjian, Annie; Hahne, Megan; Leach, Kate; Murphy, Hayley; Lock, Brad; Rivera, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to review neoplasia of captive snakes in the Zoo Atlanta collection from 1992 to 2012. Of 255 snakes that underwent necropsy and histopathologic examination at Zoo Atlanta during the study period, 37 were observed with neoplasia at necropsy. In those 37 snakes, 42 neoplastic lesions of 18 primary cell types were diagnosed. Thirty-five of those neoplasms (83.3%) were malignant, and of those, 19 were of mesenchymal origin, whereas 14 were of epithelial origin. The median annual rate of neoplasia at necropsy was 12.5% (interquartile range = 2.8-19.5%) over the 21-yr study period. The mean estimated age at death for snakes with neoplasia was 13.2 yr (range, 1-24 yr). Investigating the incidence and clinical significance of neoplasia in captive snakes is vital for developing effective preventative and treatment regimes.

  3. Canine distemper in Siberian tiger cubs from Zagreb ZOO: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Konjević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper is a contagious, potentially lethal disease of mainly domestic and wild canids, but also of many other mammalian species including large felids. In February 2004, two Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica cubs at the age of six months died at the Zagreb ZOO. The animals were presented for necropsy with two days history of severe digestive disorders, characterized mainly by haemathemesis. Dissections revealed catarrhal to pseudomembranous gastroenteritis (depending on the animal accompanied with haemorrhagic oedema of the lungs. Necrotic tonsillitis and disseminated depletion of the lymphocytes were the most prominent histological findings in both examined animals, while intranuclear and intracytoplasmatic inclusion bodies were found in the samples of the tongues and intestines. Representative portions of the livers, intestines, tonsils and lymph nodes were submitted for bacteriological and mycological analysis. The presence of Clostridium spp., Campylobacter coli and Escherichia coli was detected in gut samples, coli-like bacteria were found in samples of liver, tonsils and lymph nodes, while Candida sp. was found in the gut and pharynx samples. Toxicological analysis excluded anticoagulant and organophosphorous intoxication as the cause of death. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for canine distemper virus. Based on all this, epizootiological, clinical and additional findings, canine distemper was recognized as the cause of the observed condition in these animals.

  4. [Cyptococcus gattii isolated from a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the National Zoo of Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo Leal, Jorge Luis; Fernández Andreu, Carlos Manuel; Martínez Machín, Gerardo; Illnait Zaragozi, María Teresa; Perurena Lancha, Mayda Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Cryptoccosis--systemic mycosis caused by Cryptococcus species--has considerably raised its incidence in the last years, mainly associated with the human immunodeficiency virus infection. It has also been described in animals, but rare cases. a case of a female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) kept in the Nacional Zoo of Havana was presented. The animal came from South Africa. She began losing weight, and suffering asthenia, anorexia and breathing problems with abundant nasal secretion. mycological testing of these secretions disclosed the presence of serotype B Cryptococcus gattii. Because of the origin and captive condition of the animal, it was believed that the infection had been latent for 16 months at least. up to the present, in Cuba, all clinical Cryptococcus isolates were C. neoformans var. grubii, so it is considered that the infection was caught in the country of origin of the female cheetah. This is the first C. gattii isolate in Cuba from an animal coming from South Africa where this fungus is endemic.

  5. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda’s potentially dangerous behavior.

  6. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda's potentially dangerous behavior.

  7. Motivation of Citizen Scientists Participating in Moon Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shanique; Gay, P. L.; Daus, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Zoo is an online citizen science project with the aim of providing detailed crater counts for as much of the Moon's surface as possible. In addition to focusing on craters, volunteers are encouraged to remain vigilant for sightings of atypical features which may lead to new discoveries. Volunteers accomplish these tasks by exploring images captured by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) which has a resolution of 50cm per pixel. To be successful, Moon Zoo needs to attract and retain a large population of citizen scientists. In this study, we examine the factors motivating Moon Zoo participants who invest many hours exploring these images. In this, the first of a two-phased study, we conducted a qualitative analysis using semi-structured interviews as a means of data collection. A stratified sample of participants was used in an attempt to uncover the driving forces behind decisions to participate from a wide-range of participants. Inquiring and probing questions were asked about factors which led volunteers to Moon Zoo as well as reasons which kept them committed to exploring the Moon's surface through this online portal. Responses were then categorized using a grounded theory approach, and frequency distributions are calculated where appropriate. Aggregate results from these interviews are presented here including the demographics of the sample and motivators as per the content analysis. The information gathered from this phase will be used to guide the development of an online survey to further explore volunteers’ motivation based on the presented classification schemes. The survey will then be used to guide future research and development in the area of citizen science in the field of astronomy. These findings will also be useful in charting new boundaries for future research.

  8. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  9. Epidemiology of clinical feline herpesvirus infection in zoo-housed cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Carmel L; Lamberski, Nadine; Rideout, Bruce A; Vaida, Florin; Citino, Scott B; Barrie, Michael T; Haefele, Holly J; Junge, Randall E; Murray, Suzan; Hungerford, Laura L

    2017-10-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of and risk factors for clinical feline herpesvirus (FHV) infection in zoo-housed cheetahs and determine whether dam infection was associated with offspring infection. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 144 cheetah cubs born in 6 zoos from 1988 through 2007. PROCEDURES Data were extracted from the health records of cheetahs and their dams to identify incident cases of clinical FHV infection and estimate incidence from birth to 18 months of age. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for correlations among cheetahs with the same dam, were used to identify risk factors for incident FHV infection. RESULTS Cumulative incidence of FHV infection in cheetah cubs was 35% (50/144). No significant association between dam and offspring infection was identified in any model. Factors identified as significant through multivariable analysis varied by age group. For cheetahs up to 3 months of age, the most important predictor of FHV infection was having a dam that had received a preparturition FHV vaccine regimen that included a modified-live virus vaccine versus a dam that had received no preparturition vaccine. Other risk factors included being from a small litter, being born to a primiparous dam, and male sex. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided the first population-level characterization of the incidence of and risk factors for FHV infection in cheetahs, and findings confirmed the importance of this disease. Recognition that clinical FHV infection in the dam was not a significant predictor of disease in cubs and identification of other significant factors have implications for disease management.

  10. Visitor effects on a zoo population of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Amber J

    2018-04-19

    The effects of visitor presence on zoo and aquarium animals have become increasingly well studied, using measures such as behavioral responses and exhibit usage. Many taxa remain underrepresented in this literature; this is the case for marine mammals, despite widespread public concern for their welfare in managed care settings. The current study therefore used behavioral activity budgets and exhibit usage to assess the responses of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to visitors at the Seal Cove exhibit at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, Vallejo CA. Data was collected via focal follow video recordings over the summer season of 2016, and analyzed using MANCOVAs, discriminant analyses, and modified Spread of Participation Indices. The sea lions showed no significant changes in behavior when visitors were present, but did show greater preference for the water bordering visitor viewing areas during these times. Two sea lions gave birth during the study period, and showed greater preference for land areas both adjacent to and out of sight of visitors when nursing compared to while pregnant. In contrast, the harbor seals showed significant behavioral changes in the presence of visitors, including increased vigilance and feeding. This was associated with increased preferential use of water areas adjacent to the visitor viewing area. Visitors were able to purchase fish to throw to the animals, which likely contributed to the differences observed. Overall, this study found little evidence for negative visitor impacts on two pinniped species in a zoo setting. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of summer microclimates on behavior of lions and tigers in zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tory; Finegan, Esther; Brown, Robert D.

    2013-05-01

    The surrounding thermal environment has a direct influence on the well-being of an animal. However, few studies have investigated the microclimatic conditions that result from outdoor zoo enclosure designs and whether this affects where animals choose to spend time. Two African lions ( Panthera leo) and two Siberian/Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) were observed for a total of 18 full days during the summer and fall of 2009. Their activities and locations were recorded to the nearest minute of each test day. Simultaneous on-site microclimate measurements were taken of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind. Observations indicated that the locations where the animals chose to spend time were influenced by the microclimatic conditions. All subjects spent more time in the shade on their sunny warm days than on other days and differed from one another in their choice of shade source on all days. Temperature-comparable sunny and cloudy days showed a greater use of sun on the cloudy days. Species-specific differences between the lions (whose native habitat is hot) and the tigers (whose native habitat is temperate with cold winters) were observed with the tigers displaying more cooling behaviors than the lions in terms of solar radiation input and evaporative heat loss. The tigers were also more active than the lions. The results of this study provide new insight into how lions and tigers respond to microclimatic conditions in a captive environment.

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species.

  13. Effect of nine years of animal waste deposition on profile distribution of heavy metals in Abeokuta, south-western Nigeria and its implication for environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, J O; Adekunle, I O; Atiku, O O; Akande, K B; Jamiu-Azeez, S O

    2009-09-01

    Uncontrolled deposition of waste from animal farms is a common practice in south-western Nigeria, and the presence of heavy metals in soil constitutes environmental and health hazards by polluting the soil, ground water, adjoining streams and rivers. The study investigated the profile distribution of Mn, Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni and Cr in some tropical Alfisols in south-western Nigeria after nine years disposal of animal wastes. The amount of these metals in the soil horizons was high enough to cause health and phytotoxic risks. All the metals except Zn and Cr increased down the profile, while Mn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Cu and Ni accumulated at 80-120 cm depth. The increment of these metals at this depth over the top soil were 26%, 143%, 72%, 47%, 328% for Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni, respectively. It thus, shows their mobility and the possibility of polluting ground water. The Mn content at the poultry and cattle waste sites increased by 127% and 25%, respectively over the control, while that of cattle and swine dump site for Cd content were 9.82 and 15.63 mg kg(-1), respectively. Lead content also increased by 8.52 and 5.25 mg kg(-1), respectively. There was the accumulation of Zn and Cu at the swine dump site while the cattle dump site had the highest amounts of nickel and chromium. The least amount of Fe was recorded at the swine waste dump site. The reduction in organic matter with depths together with the reduced pH might have favored the mobility of the metals. The ranking of pollution among the sites was poultry>swine>cattle>sheep and could be due to the type of ration fed, the vaccination programmes, sanitation programmes and other management practices.

  14. ZooQuest: A mobile game-based learning application for fifth graders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, G.; Sandberg, J.A.C.; Maris, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ZooQuest, a mobile game that supported fifth graders in the process of learning English as a second language. ZooQuest embedded the Mobile English Learning (MEL) application and was compared to MEL as a stand-alone application. Two groups were compared in a quasi-experimental

  15. Experiencing polar bears in the zoo: feelings and cognitions in relation to a visitor's conservation attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marseille, M.M.; Elands, B.H.M.; Brink, van den M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores which feelings and cognitions are involved in visitor experiences of zoo polar bears and how this experience relates to a visitor's conservation attitude. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with 30 visitors in two Dutch zoos. Most respondents believed that a

  16. The educational claims of zoos: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Andrew; Esson, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    Zoos exude a certain self-confidence regarding their roles as education providers. Indeed, the education outputs of zoos are, at face value, pretty impressive, with most investing in learning opportunities for leisure visitors, education groups and in some cases, as part of their in situ programs. However, these outputs are not necessarily reliable indicators of the educational achievements of zoos. Quantity does not necessarily equate to quality, just as outputs do not necessarily lead to outcomes. Zoo-accreditation organizations such as the AZA and EAZA offer us clear insight into the strategic vision underpinning the education goals for zoo visitors; a heightened appreciation of the value of biodiversity and a connectedness with the natural world. Unsurprisingly, most zoos have educational goals that ally neatly with the vision of their respective accreditation body. Consequently, we are left with fairly narrow, top-down educational goals. This does not necessarily sit well with what we know about the unpredictability of "free choice" learning in environments such as zoos and aquariums, or what is known about public science communication. Research that seeks to explore the impacts of zoo visits often focuses on evaluating performance based on educational goals and the findings are used as a means of providing evidence of institutional achievement. However, any visitor outcome that falls outside of this narrow range could well be missed by the research. In this article, we propose that research that takes unpredictable and unexpected outcomes into account is necessary and overdue. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Why Should I Care? Exploring the Use of Environmental Concern as a Frame of Communication in Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocco, Victor S.; Bruskotter, Jeremy; Wilson, Robyn; Heimlich, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Effectively communicating environmental issues to motivate visitors' behavior is critical for zoos to accomplish their missions. We examined the relationship between zoo visitors' environmental concern and agreement with messages framed by environmental concern. Findings from two zoos (N = 298; N = 400), using two message formats, provided nearly…

  18. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Janice; Narayan, Edward J; Dileep Kumar, R; Thenmozhi, K; Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy; Baskaran, Nagarajan

    2017-01-01

    India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12%) than leopards (7%) during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g) had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g). Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was significantly

  19. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Vaz

    Full Text Available India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12% than leopards (7% during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g. Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was

  20. Mathematical models with singularities a zoo of singular creatures

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    The book aims to provide an unifying view of a variety (a 'zoo') of mathematical models with some kind of singular nonlinearity, in the sense that it becomes infinite when the state variable approaches a certain point. Up to 11 different concrete models are analyzed in separate chapters. Each chapter starts with a discussion of the basic model and its physical significance. Then the main results and typical proofs are outlined, followed by open problems. Each chapter is closed by a suitable list of references. The book may serve as a guide for researchers interested in the modelling of real world processes.

  1. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We als...

  2. Cultural Pragmatics in Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodhy S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article engages debates on how changing cultural values impinge on the behavioral patterns of an individual by considering social actions as distinctly mobile engagement with the environment. Cultural Pragmatics is essential for a close examination of Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story. This article attempts to investigate how intentions of interactants are culture driven and culture related. People are led to a state of disorientation due to collapse of cultural values and discontinuity of conventional view points and beliefs. The speaker’s discourse highlights the character’s inability to communicate to suggest the emptiness of hackneyed social intercourse resulting in psychopathological diseases among individuals.

  3. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  4. Subspecies identification of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (Primates: Hominidae from the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago, Chile, using mitochondrial DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Vega

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural populations of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes are declining because of hunting and illegal live animal trafficking. Four subspecies of Chimpanzee have been reported: Pan troglodytes troglodytes, P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. ellioti, which have remained geographically separated by natural barriers such as the rivers Niger, Sanaga and Ubangi in central Africa. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been used for the determination of these subspecies, which indirectly can also suggest their geographic origin. It was decided to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of three captive chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile, by analyzing their mitochondrial DNA. DNA was extracted from the saliva of three adult chimpanzees (two males and one female. After the analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial hypervariable region (HVI, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using mitochondrial sequences of known Pan troglodytes subspecies. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are likely to belong to three different subspecies: P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. troglodytes. Identification of subspecies of the three chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile was possible due to mtDNA analysis. Future identification of chimpanzees will allow the development of a studbook for the chimpanzee subspecies in other Latin American zoos.

  5. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals. © 2015, Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants: Management factors predicting leptin levels and the glucose-to-insulin ratio and their associations with health parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Screening for metabolic-related health problems can enhance animal welfare, so the purpose of this study was to conduct the first metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants and use epidemiological methods to determine how factors in the captive environment were associated with metabolic hormone concentrations. In addition, we examined relationships between metabolic status and several fitness parameters: foot health, musculoskeletal health, reproductive cyclicity, and body condition. Two blood samples were collected 2 weeks apart from 87 Asian (Elephas maximus and 105 African (Loxodonta africana elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for analysis of serum leptin, insulin, glucose and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I. In females, mean (± SD leptin concentrations and the G:I were lower (P0.05. As mean leptin concentration increased there was an increase in the odds of a female being non-cycling (P = 0.0083. The G:I was associated inversely with body condition (P = 0.0002; as the G:I increased there was a decreased risk of BCS = 4 or 5 as compared to the ideal, or BCS = 3. Neither leptin nor G:I were predictive of foot or musculoskeletal health scores. Factors related to walking and feeding practices were most influential in predicting metabolic status, whereas social and housing factors showed smaller, but significant effects. The metabolic health benefits of walking were detected if the time spent in staff-directed walking was 7 hours or more per week. The most protective feeding practices included implementing a random rather than predictable feeding schedule and limiting the number of methods presentation methods. Results indicate that leptin levels and G:I can be used as predictors of both ovarian cycle function and body condition, and are affected by zoo management in elephants.

  7. [The effect of the multiyear agricultural use of animal husbandry wastes on the infectious morbidity of the local population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, V A; Tarabarova, S B; Dan'ko, O P; Kikot', V I

    1995-01-01

    The report presents results of study of relationship between the longterm practice of utilization of waste matter from livestock industry (solid, liquid portions of manure, redundant active silt) in the crop-growing of the steppe, forest-steppe zones as well as of those of woodlands in Ukraine, on the incidence of acute infective diseases of the intestine in the community. The soil of farm lands was found out to be affected by an extensive bacterial contamination due to the above wastes being utilized on a wide scale. The degrees of risk of acute intestinal infection morbility in population areas located in those zones having utilization fields, are significantly higher than beyond their bounderies. Significant direct relationship between the size of the utilization fields and the incidence of acute intestinal infection in the community was established.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products and slaughterhouse waste: main process limitations and microbial community interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Palatsi Civit, Jordi; Viñas, Marc; Guivernau, Miriam; Fernández García, Belén; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Fresh pig/cattle slaughterhouse waste mixtures, with different lipid-protein ratios, were characterized and their anaerobic biodegradability assessed in batch tests. The resultant methane potentials were high (270–300 LCH4 kg 1 COD) making them interesting substrates for the anaerobic digestion process. However, when increasing substrate concentrations in consecutive batch tests, up to 15 gCOD kg 1, a clear inhibitory process was monitored. Despite the reported severe inhibition, related to l...

  9. Techno-economic analysis of a food waste valorization process via microalgae cultivation and co-production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed from algal biomass and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Venus, Joachim; Pommeret, Aude; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-12-01

    A techno-economic study of food waste valorization via fungal hydrolysis, microalgae cultivation and production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed was simulated and evaluated by Super-Pro Designer®. A pilot-scale plant was designed with a capacity of 1 metric ton day(-1) of food waste with 20 years lifetime. Two scenarios were proposed with different products: Scenario (I) plasticizer & lactic acid, Scenario (II) plasticizer & animal feed. It was found that only Scenario I was economically feasible. The annual net profits, net present value, payback period and internal rate of return were US$ 422,699, US$ 3,028,000, 7.56 years and 18.98%, respectively. Scenario II was not economic viable due to a deficit of US$ 42,632 per year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the price of lactic acid was the largest determinant of the profitability in Scenario I, while the impact of the variables was very close in Scenario II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of the proposed reintroduction program for the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and the role of conservation organizations, veterinarians, and zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul; Stack, David; Harley, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Impact of Environmental Policies on the Adoption of Animal Waste Management Practices in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Jeff; Ribaudo, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the ERS-NASS ARMS surveys to compare the use of best management practices on poultry and livestock farms inside the watershed and outside the watershed. Animal operations within the Chesapeake Bay States were found to be adopting some important manure management practices at a greater rate than operations outside the watershed. Adoption was taking place before the implementation of the TMDL, indicating that farmers may have been acting in response to building public pressure ...

  12. Health assessment of free-living eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in and around the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovicz, Laura; Bronson, Ellen; Barrett, Kevin; Deem, Sharon L

    2015-03-01

    Health data for free-living eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore were analyzed. One hundred and eighteen turtles were captured on or near zoo grounds over the course of 15 yr (1996-2011), with recapture of many individuals leading to 208 total evaluations. Of the 118 individuals, 61 were male, 50 were female, and 7 were of undetermined sex. Of the 208 captures, 188 were healthy, and 20 were sick or injured. Complete health evaluations were performed on 30 turtles with physical examination records, complete blood counts (CBCs), and plasma biochemistry profiles. Eight animals were sampled more than once, yielding 40 total samples for complete health evaluations of these 30 individuals. The 40 samples were divided into healthy (N=29) and sick (N=11) groups based on clinical findings on physical examination. Samples from healthy animals were further divided into male (N=17) and female (N= 12) groups. CBC and biochemistry profile parameters were compared between sick and healthy groups and between healthy males and females. Sick turtles had lower albumin, globulin, total protein (TP), calcium, phosphorous, sodium, and potassium than healthy animals. Sick turtles also had higher heterophil to lymphocyte ratios. Healthy female turtles had higher leukocyte count, eosinophil count, total solids, TP, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, and phosphorous than healthy males. Banked plasma from all 40 samples was tested for antibodies to Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One sample from a clinically healthy female was antibody positive for M. agassizii; none were positive for M. testudineum. This study provides descriptive health data for eastern box turtles and CBC and biochemistry profile information for T. carolina carolina at and near the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore. It also reports low serologic evidence of exposure to mycoplasmosis.

  13. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  14. Coprological prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in carnivores and small mammals at Dhaka zoo, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.R.U. Raja

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the coprological prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites using 94 faecal samples from different carnivores (n=32 and small mammals (n=15 was undertaken from January to May 2012 at Dhaka Zoo. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 78.72%, with a prevalence of 51.06% for helminths and 27.66% for protozoa. The identified parasites included—Toxascaris leonina (9.57%, Balantidium coli (25.53% Spirometra sp. (10.64%, Toxocara cati (12.76%, Hook worm (4.26%, unidentified strongyles (3.19%, Trichuris sp. (7.45%, Coccidia sp. (2.12%, Capillaria sp. (1.06%, Trichostrongylus sp. (1.06%, and Physaloptera sp. (1.06%. Mixed infection was observed in Indian Lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp., Royal Bengal Tiger (Balantidium coli and Toxocara cati, Spotted Hyena (Balantidium coli and hook worm, Leopard (Balantidium coli and Spirometra/I> sp., Rhesus Macaque (Trichuris sp. and Coccidia sp., Pig-tailed Macaque (Balantidium coli and Trichuris sp., Hamadryas Baboon (Balantidium coli and Trichuris sp., Golden Mangabey (Trichuris sp., Balantidium coli and unidentified strongyles, Large Indian Civet (Balantidium coli and unidentified strongyles, Torior Dog (Balantidium coli and Physaloptera, Rabbit (Balantidium coli and Hook worm, Hanuman Langur (Balantidium coli and Capillaria sp.. Due to the high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites, the present study suggests to apply control measures against these parasites in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals, especially in case of threatened species.

  15. An alert of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of rhesus macaques in a wild zoo in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Yang, Yourong; Luo, Yi; Li, Ning; Bai, Xuejuan; Liu, Yinping; Zhang, Junxian; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Chenglin; Wu, Xueqiong

    2017-10-30

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB), is becoming increasingly recognized as an important cause of fatal chronic illnesses in China. In this study, we report an infectious disease among 84 rhesus macaques at a Chinese zoo. Their clinical signs and symptoms were very similar with the manifestations of TB in humans. To determine the potential pathogens of this outbreak, many methods were used. First, tuberculin skin tests showed that none of the monkeys displayed significant skin reactions. Subsequently, the sera were tested for specific antibody IgG; 29 (34.5%) and 39 (46.4%) blood samples tested positive by TB-IgG and TB-DOT, respectively. Radiographic examination showed characteristic imageology changes in 14 (16.7%) monkeys. One individual determined as positive by the above three methods was euthanized, and histopathological analysis demonstrated typical granulomas and caseous necrosis in the lung, liver, spleen, and intestine. Furthermore, the pathogenic mycobacteria were isolated from lung lobe, cultured on acidic Lowenstein-Jensen culture medium, and identified as M. tuberculosis by real-time PCR and DNA sequencing. Nevertheless, the origin of the infection remained unknown. These findings emphasize the need to strengthen the management and training of staff, especially those working at animal shelters.

  16. The Moon Zoo citizen science project: Preliminary results for the Apollo 17 landing site

    OpenAIRE

    Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Bamford, Steven; Tar, Paul; Thacker, Neil; Crawford, Ian A.; Joy, Katherine H.; Grindrod, Peter M.; Lintott, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Moon Zoo is a citizen science project that utilises internet crowd-sourcing techniques. Moon Zoo users are asked to review high spatial resolution images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), onboard NASA’s LRO spacecraft, and perform characterisation such as measuring impact crater sizes and identify morphological ‘features of interest’. The tasks are designed to address issues in lunar science and to aid future exploration of the Moon. We have tested various methodologies and...

  17. Elephant Management in North American Zoos: Environmental Enrichment, Feeding, Exercise, and Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Greco

    Full Text Available The management of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants' nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant management in North America, we collected survey data from zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, developed 26 variables, generated population level descriptive statistics, and analyzed them to identify differences attributable to sex and species. Sixty-seven zoos submitted surveys describing the management of 224 elephants and the training experiences of 227 elephants. Asian elephants spent more time managed (defined as interacting directly with staff than Africans (mean time managed: Asians = 56.9%; Africans = 48.6%; p<0.001, and managed time increased by 20.2% for every year of age for both species. Enrichment, feeding, and exercise programs were evaluated using diversity indices, with mean scores across zoos in the midrange for these measures. There were an average of 7.2 feedings every 24-hour period, with only 1.2 occurring during the nighttime. Feeding schedules were predictable at 47.5% of zoos. We also calculated the relative use of rewarding and aversive techniques employed during training interactions. The population median was seven on a scale from one (representing only aversive stimuli to nine (representing only rewarding stimuli. The results of our study provide essential information for understanding management variation that could be relevant to welfare. Furthermore, the variables we created have been used in subsequent elephant welfare analyses.

  18. Elephant Management in North American Zoos: Environmental Enrichment, Feeding, Exercise, and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Brian J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Miller, Lance J; Shepherdson, David J; Morfeld, Kari A; Andrews, Jeff; Baker, Anne M; Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    The management of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants' nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant management in North America, we collected survey data from zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, developed 26 variables, generated population level descriptive statistics, and analyzed them to identify differences attributable to sex and species. Sixty-seven zoos submitted surveys describing the management of 224 elephants and the training experiences of 227 elephants. Asian elephants spent more time managed (defined as interacting directly with staff) than Africans (mean time managed: Asians = 56.9%; Africans = 48.6%; pyear of age for both species. Enrichment, feeding, and exercise programs were evaluated using diversity indices, with mean scores across zoos in the midrange for these measures. There were an average of 7.2 feedings every 24-hour period, with only 1.2 occurring during the nighttime. Feeding schedules were predictable at 47.5% of zoos. We also calculated the relative use of rewarding and aversive techniques employed during training interactions. The population median was seven on a scale from one (representing only aversive stimuli) to nine (representing only rewarding stimuli). The results of our study provide essential information for understanding management variation that could be relevant to welfare. Furthermore, the variables we created have been used in subsequent elephant welfare analyses.

  19. Behavioral Monitoring of Big Cats Involved in ‘Behind-the-Scenes’ Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Szokalski, Monika S.; Foster, Wendy K.; Litchfield, Carla A.

    2013-01-01

    While interactive tours have been argued to hold great conservation potential for zoo visitors, the influence on the participating animal’s behavior is often ignored. To investigate this, we observed the behavior of one Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and three African lions (Panthera leo leo) involved in a protected contact tour, as well as that of three cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) involved in a hands-on tour, at Zoos South Australia. Instantaneous scan sampling (30-s intervals) wa...

  20. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Jacobson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to

  1. A SURVEY ON THE PRESENCE OF ANIMALS SLAUGHTERED IN SARCOCYSTIS IN PUGLIA AND BASILICATA AND CORRELATIION WITH THE NATIONAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Carosielli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to verify the presence of Sarcocystis in muscle samples of sheep, goats, pigs, horses, cattle and buffalo, slaughtered in the province of Foggia, and Sarcocystis in histological samples of uretrhal muscles, during the histological monitoring of prostate on the occasion of National residue plan 2010. Seventy eight cattles aged between 5 and 24 months slaughtered in Puglia and Basilicata were tested, taken from animals of domestic or foreign born but farmed in Italy. Also taken pieces of masseter muscles, diaphragm, esophagus and heart to perform the microscopic survey. Macroscopically there were 6 cases positive in esophagi of sheep coming from Parco del Gargano and four cases from a herd of Manfredonia and Bovino (FG. In cattles microscopically positivity was 68% (53 positive including 9 with presence of three or more cystis in the microscopic field. The urethral muscles of cattle, included in monitoring residual plan, was interested by a very high positivity, less finding in horse (8 of 40 and pigs (18 of 98 even if animals come from small, rural and promiscuous farm, but not in sheep (44 of 54, goats (27 of 35 and buffalo (18 of 25. Is desirable, as well as epidemiological survey carried out by us, to educate the farmers on this zoonosic patology, proposing to estabilish a farm file where the farmer report the finding of sarcocystis together with other conditions found at the slaughterhouse.

  2. An Interpretive Study of Meanings Citizen Scientists Make When Participating in Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, T. S.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2011-09-01

    As the Web 2.0 world lurches forward, so do intellectual opportunities for students and the general public to meaningfully engage in the scientific enterprise. In an effort to assess the intrinsic motivation afforded by participation in Galaxy Zoo, we have inductively analyzed more than 1,000 contributions in the Galaxy Zoo Forum and coded posts thematically. We find that participants overwhelmingly want to meaningfully contribute to a larger scientific enterprise as well as have seemingly unique access to high quality, professional astronomical data. While other citizen science projects work through large data sets, Galaxy Zoo is unique in its motivations and retention abilities. Many of these motivations originate in the aesthetic power of astronomical images, which Galaxy Zoo successfully harnesses, while not compromising the scientific value of the project. From the data emerged several trends of motivation, the primary being the sense of community created within the project that promotes professional-amateur collaboration; fulfilling a dream of being an astronomer, physicist, or astronaut; tapping into a potential well of interest created during the space race era; the spiritual aspect generated when the imagination interacts with Galaxy Zoo; and, uniting them all, the aesthetic appeal of the galaxy images. In addition, a very powerful tool also emerged as a method of retention unique to Galaxy Zoo. This tool, known as variable ratio reinforcement in behavioral psychology, uses the most appealing images as positive reinforcement to maintain classification rates over time.

  3. Evaluating mood changes in response to anthropogenic noise with a response-slowing task in three species of zoo-housed primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Cronin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the zoo environment, anthropogenic noise is common as sound levels fluctuate due to visitors, construction, habitat design, and special events. In this study, changes in the mood of three species of zoo-housed primates in response to a loud annual event were evaluated with the response-slowing paradigm. In this paradigm, animals experiencing anxiety slow responses on simple cognitive tasks when emotional content is displayed. Following a previously validated approach, we measured latencies to touch potentially threatening (conspecific faces with directed gaze and non-threatening (conspecific faces with averted gaze images overlaid on a grey square, relative to neutral control images (grey squares only on a touchscreen. In Experiment 1, four Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata were tested in two conditions: during a baseline (non-stressful period and opportunistically during three days during which loud jets frequently flew overhead. Results indicated a significant effect of condition, with an increase in latency to touch images of conspecific faces relative to control images during the days of the loud event. In Experiment 2, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, n = 4 and western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, n = 2 were tested during the same loud event following a similar methodology. The results revealed subtle changes across conditions; however, this was likely driven by the apes increasing their response speed to face stimuli relative to control stimuli over time (habituation. These findings suggest that the macaques, but not the apes, underwent detectable affective changes during the loud event. With additional development, this relatively simple paradigm may be an effective and feasible way to evaluate real-time changes in the mood of zoo-housed animals.

  4. How should the psychological well-being of zoo elephants be objectively investigated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Georgia J; Veasey, Jake S

    2010-01-01

    Animal welfare (sometimes termed "well-being") is about feelings - states such as "suffering" or "contentment" that we can infer but cannot measure directly. Welfare indices have been developed from two main sources: studies of suffering humans, and of research animals deliberately subjected to challenges known to affect emotional state. We briefly review the resulting indices here, and discuss how well they are understood for elephants, since objective welfare assessment should play a central role in evidence-based elephant management. We cover behavioral and cognitive responses (approach/avoidance; intention, redirected and displacement activities; vigilance/startle; warning signals; cognitive biases, apathy and depression-like changes; stereotypic behavior); physiological responses (sympathetic responses; corticosteroid output - often assayed non-invasively via urine, feces or even hair; other aspects of HPA function, e.g. adrenal hypertrophy); and the potential negative effects of prolonged stress on reproduction (e.g. reduced gametogenesis; low libido; elevated still-birth rates; poor maternal care) and health (e.g. poor wound-healing; enhanced disease rates; shortened lifespans). The best validated, most used welfare indices for elephants are corticosteroid outputs and stereotypic behavior. Indices suggested as valid, partially validated, and/or validated but not yet applied within zoos include: measures of preference/avoidance; displacement movements; vocal/postural signals of affective (emotional) state; startle/vigilance; apathy; salivary and urinary epinephrine; female acyclity; infant mortality rates; skin/foot infections; cardio-vascular disease; and premature adult death. Potentially useful indices that have not yet attracted any validation work in elephants include: operant responding and place preference tests; intention and vacuum movements; fear/stress pheromone release; cognitive biases; heart rate, pupil dilation and blood pressure

  5. Combustion of a fuel mix containing animal waste, industry and household waste in FB-boilers; Foerbraenning av en braenslemix bestaaende av animaliskt avfall, industri- och hushaallsavfall i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Anita; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Moradian, Farzad

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this project is to evaluate how the operation conditions and the combustion chemistry is changed in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) Boiler when adding approx. 20 wt-% Biomal into the fuel mixture. The following issues were addressed in the project: 1. How does the new chemical composition of the fuel mix influence bed agglomeration, deposit growth, ash flows, flue gases and particle size distribution? 2. Is it possible to run the boiler at a reduced bed temperature of about 750 deg C due to the increased moisture content originating from the biomal fuel? The project is based on combustion tests in the two Waste to Energy boilers at 20 MWth each owned by Boraas Energy and Environment AB (BEM). Furthermore, results from the Waste Refinery Project 'Reduced bed temperature in FB-boilers burning waste - part II' has been used as reference in some cases. At normal conditions the boilers are run on a fuel mixture containing 80 % sorted industrial waste and 20 % household waste. This fuel mixture consists mainly of paper, plastics and wood. In Boraas the organic part of the household waste is sorted out and used for biogas production. With the addition of biomal, which consists of animal by-products crushed to a pumpable fuel, the chemical composition of the fuel mixture is changed to some extent. The results from the combustion tests shows that biomal influences the chemical fuel composition, but also that there are large variations in the ordinary waste fuel composition as well. The most evident changes with addition of biomal are: 1. Increased moisture. 2. Reduced heat value. 3. Increased amount nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. 4. Decreased amount lead due to the low concentration in biomal. However, there were no changes in sodium, potassium, sulphur and chlorine, elements important for increased/reduced fuel related problems, derived from biomal. The increase of calcium and phosphorus with biomal derive from bone and the calcium

  6. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

    1993-10-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

  7. Possible additional exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds from waste incineration. Biomonitoring using human milk and animal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Murk, A. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    In the ambit of an Environmental Health Survey Program relative to a MSW facility, which has been operating near to Lisbon since 1999 a biomonitoring study using human breast milk has been performed. Specific aims of this study were: (1) determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases dioxin maternal body burden and accordingly perinatal (intra-uterus and lactacional) exposure; (2) to investigate the possibility of increased human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds via locally produced food items from animal origin. Therefore, levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been determined in human milk samples collected in the vicinity of the incinerator and in a control area, for comparison. From the same areas, cow and sheep milk and eggs from free-range chickens have also been collected to get an indication of possible local additional exposure to air-borne dioxins via the food chain. Analyses of TCDD-equivalents (TEQs) were mainly performed with a reporter gene assay for dioxin-like activity, the DR-CALUX bioassay (Dioxin Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression).To determine congeners profile, some human milk samples have also been analysed for PCDD/Fs and relevant dioxin-like PCBs, by using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Both the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, and of the Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa have approved the study protocol.

  8. Recumbence Behavior in Zoo Elephants: Determination of Patterns and Frequency of Recumbent Rest and Associated Environmental and Social Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Holdgate

    Full Text Available Resting behaviors are an essential component of animal welfare but have received little attention in zoological research. African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus rest includes recumbent postures, but no large-scale investigation of African and Asian zoo elephant recumbence has been previously conducted. We used anklets equipped with accelerometers to measure recumbence in 72 adult female African (n = 44 and Asian (n = 28 elephants housed in 40 North American zoos. We collected 344 days of data and determined associations between recumbence and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. African elephants were recumbent less (2.1 hours/day, S.D. = 1.1 than Asian elephants (3.2 hours/day, S.D. = 1.5; P < 0.001. Nearly one-third of elephants were non-recumbent on at least one night, suggesting this is a common behavior. Multi-variable regression models for each species showed that substrate, space, and social variables had the strongest associations with recumbence. In the African model, elephants who spent any amount of time housed on all-hard substrate were recumbent 0.6 hours less per day than those who were never on all-hard substrate, and elephants who experienced an additional acre of outdoor space at night increased their recumbence by 0.48 hours per day. In the Asian model, elephants who spent any amount of time housed on all-soft substrate were recumbent 1.1 hours more per day more than those who were never on all-soft substrate, and elephants who spent any amount of time housed alone were recumbent 0.77 hours more per day than elephants who were never housed alone. Our results draw attention to the significant interspecific difference in the amount of recumbent rest and in the factors affecting recumbence; however, in both species, the influence of flooring substrate is notably important to recumbent rest, and by extension, zoo elephant welfare.

  9. Motivations of Citizen Scientists Participating in Galaxy Zoo: A More Detailed Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, Jordan; Bracey, G. L.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Our ongoing research program is examining the motivations of participants in the Galaxy Zoo citizen science project. At the 2009 AAS summer meeting, we presented preliminary results from a survey taken by more than 10,000 participants of the original Galaxy Zoo. We are continuing to analyze data from this survey. Galaxy Zoo is an online citizen science project in which more than 230,000 participants have classified the morphologies of galaxies. The original Galaxy Zoo, in which participants classified galaxies as elliptical or spiral, has led to more than a dozen science journal papers published or in peer review. In our research, we have found that Galaxy Zoo participants are mostly male and represent a wide range of ages and educations. They are primarily motivated by a desire to contribute to scientific research (40%), interest in astronomy (13%), and looking at beautiful galaxy images (10%). In this poster, we present results from free response data. Each question about motivation included an "Other" response where participants could indicate that their motivation for participating was not included in the survey instrument. By analyzing these "Other" responses, we can ensure that we have a complete list of motivations present in the Galaxy Zoo participant population, and we can also gain insight into what other populations might be recruited to participate in Galaxy Zoo. We have had multiple raters analyze these "Other" responses. We have uncovered new motivations at a very low level in our sample - for example, a "religious/spiritual" motivation that was indicated by 5 of the 205 people who entered text in the "Other" field (from among the 10,000 survey respondents). In this poster, we will present results from this analysis of the "Other" motivations, as well as results from analyzing our full dataset.

  10. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Prado-Oviedo

    Full Text Available This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian; sex (male vs. female; and origin (imported vs. captive-born. Mean age distributions differed (p<0.05 between the categories: African elephants were 6 years younger than Asian elephants, males were 12 years younger than females, and captive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (p<0.05. Other differences (p<0.05 included a 96% higher rate of offspring births for captive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications.

  11. Galaxy Zoo: constraining the origin of spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ross E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Keel, William C.; Kruk, Sandor J.; Masters, Karen L.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Smethurst, Rebecca J.

    2018-05-01

    Since the discovery that the majority of low-redshift galaxies exhibit some level of spiral structure, a number of theories have been proposed as to why these patterns exist. A popular explanation is a process known as swing amplification, yet there is no observational evidence to prove that such a mechanism is at play. By using a number of measured properties of galaxies, and scaling relations where there are no direct measurements, we model samples of SDSS and S4G spiral galaxies in terms of their relative halo, bulge and disc mass and size. Using these models, we test predictions of swing amplification theory with respect to directly measured spiral arm numbers from Galaxy Zoo 2. We find that neither a universal cored or cuspy inner dark matter profile can correctly predict observed numbers of arms in galaxies. However, by invoking a halo contraction/expansion model, a clear bimodality in the spiral galaxy population emerges. Approximately 40 per cent of unbarred spiral galaxies at z ≲ 0.1 and M* ≳ 1010M⊙ have spiral arms that can be modelled by swing amplification. This population display a significant correlation between predicted and observed spiral arm numbers, evidence that they are swing amplified modes. The remainder are dominated by two-arm systems for which the model predicts significantly higher arm numbers. These are likely driven by tidal interactions or other mechanisms.

  12. Ultraviolet Extinction in Backlit Galaxies - from Galaxy Zoo to GALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, A.; Holwerda, B. W.; Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2012-01-01

    We examine the ultraviolet extinction of galaxies on large scales, combining optical and GALEX UV data on backlit galaxies (most found in the Galaxy Zoo citizen-science project). We analyze the images in matching ways, modelling both foreground and background galaxies by symmetry or elliptical isophote families as appropriate, and using the non-overlapping regions of the galaxies to estimate errors in the derived transmission T=e-κ. Spirals appear less symmetric in the UV, as star-forming regions become more dominant, so that our most reliable results are mean values across multiple regions and multiple galaxies. Our mean effective extinction curve is dominated by the contribution of luminous spirals,and shows a fairly flat gray" extinction law into the ultraviolet. For example, the median of κNUV/κB in spiral arms is only 1.3. Along with previous high-resolution HST studies of a few nearby backlit galaxies, this suggests that on kpc scales the effective extinction is dominated by the dust clumping rather than the intrinsic reddening law. This implies that extrapolation of local properties to short wavelengths, a step toward the history of dust in galaxies through comparison of local properties with a similar analysis in deep HST fields, can be done without introducing much additional error. This work was supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX10AD54G.

  13. Free-Ranging Synanthropic Birds (Ardea alba and Columba livia domestica) as Carriers of Salmonella spp. and Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in the Vicinity of an Urban Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Mirela C V; Camargo, Beatriz Q; Cunha, Marcos P V; Saidenberg, Andre Becker; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Matajira, Carlos E C; Moreno, Luisa Z; Gomes, Vasco T M; Christ, Ana P G; Barbosa, Mikaela R F; Sato, Maria I Z; Moreno, Andrea M; Knöbl, Terezinha

    2018-01-01

    The presence of free-ranging urban birds is a risk factor for transmitting pathogens to captive animals and humans alike, including Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Cloacal swabs from 156 synanthropic Great egrets (Ardea alba) and feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) that inhabit the surroundings of an urban zoo were processed for the identification of Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Bacterial species identification and genotypic characterization employed the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and PCR techniques, respectively, comparing their phylogenetic profiles through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. A total of 11 birds were positive for Salmonella Typhimurium (7%) and 9 individuals (5.8%) for diarrheagenic E. coli (enteropathogenic E. coli/Shiga-toxin producing E. coli [EPEC/STEC]) strains. S. Typhimurium strains presented highly similar AFLP profiles (85-100%), whereas EPEC/STEC strains showed more polymorphism. The results show free-ranging birds as carriers for both microorganisms in a zoo environment in Brazil for the first time and suggest these species as possible sources of infection to other animals as well as exposing personnel and visitors to potential zoonotic microorganisms. The presence of carriers highlights the importance of a surveillance system and the need for preventive measures to avoid attracting growing number of synanthropic avian species.

  14. A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbert, Jarod; Sands, M.; Fay, J.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images from the world's best telescopes, including the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. WorldWide Telescope provides a fantastic sense of size and distance that is hard to experience in Galaxy Zoo. Creating tours from favorite galaxies directly from Galaxy Zoo aims to solve this dilemma.The incorporation of Galaxy Zoo and WorldWide telescope provides a great resource for users to learn more about the galaxies they are classifying. Users can now explore the areas around certain galaxies and view information about that location from within WorldWide Telescope. Not only does this encourage self-motivated research but after tours are created they can be shared with anyone. We hope this will help spread citizen science to different audiences via email, Facebook, and Twitter.Without the WorldWide Telescope team at Microsoft Research this project would not have been possible. Please go start exploring at http://wwt.galaxyzoo.org. This project was funded through the Microsoft Research Academic Program.

  15. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using animal waste; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (chikusan haikibutsu riyo) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To introduce the power generation system fueled by animal waste (excrements), one of the so-called industrial waste, its feasibility has been studied in Koyu and surrounding area located in Miyazaki Prefecture. This report includes the technical feasibility of available quantity of animal waste, chemical analysis of the waste, and basic design of the power generation system containing the furnace model and also its economical feasibility. The available quantity of animal waste in Koyu area is about 169,000 tons a year, which can generate 10.5 MW of electric power. That including the surrounding area is about 219,000 tons a year, which can generate 15.0 MW. The heating values of animal excrements in average and as received are 970 kcal/kg for pigs and 1,230 to 2,700 kcal/kg for broilers. In the case of combustion of mixed broiler and pig excrements, both of the stoker and fluidized-bed model furnaces become refractory furnace construction and provide with heat recovery boiler due to their high moisture content. In addition, the stoker furnace model requires an excrement dryer system as pre-treatment of fuel. For the fluidized-bed furnace of 15 MW grade power plant using the mixed fuel of 50% broiler excrements and 50% pig excrements, the power generation efficiency of 23% can be expected at generator end. The generating cost is around 10 yen/kWh. 27 refs., 61 tabs.

  16. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Holdgate

    Full Text Available Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33 and Asian (n = 23 elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare.

  17. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Matthew R; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Lance J; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33) and Asian (n = 23) elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare.

  18. Social relationships existing among gelada (Theropithecus gelada males in Zoo Zlín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Hanuláková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the monitoring of behaviour and complex social relationships existing among gelada (Theropithecus gelada monkeys. The study involved a group of five males that were raised in captivity in the Zoo Zlín – Lešná. Ethological monitoring was performed by means of photographing of the group behaviour of these animals. Studied were the basic forms of social behaviour, i.e. food collection (foraging, free movement, (locomotion observing of the neighbourhood (watching, grooming, climbing on trees, playing, aggressive behaviour (fighting, and resting. The temporary point of view, foraging was the most important time-consuming activity (55.3 ± 2.0 % of the study time; its maximum frequencies occurred in time intervals of 9 and 11 a.m. and 1 to 3 p.m.. The second place was occupied by the locomotion (15.3 ± 4.1 % of the study time and its maximum frequencies were recorded between 9 and 11 a.m. and between 2 and 3 p.m. Grooming was the third most important activity (8.5 ± 4.8 % of the study time. The distribution of periods of rest (7.5 ± 3.1 % of the study time was relatively uniform and its maxima were observed between 10:30 a.m. and 4 p.m. Observing of the neighbourhood and climbing on trees occupied 5.6 ± 3.3 % and 3.6 ± 3.0 % of the time, respectively and playing was the least frequent activity (2.2 ± 9.0 % of the study time, similarly as the aggressive behaviour (2.0 ± 23.0 % of the study time.

  19. Metagenomic analysis of a tropical composting operation at the são paulo zoo park reveals diversity of biomass degradation functions and organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Farage Martins

    Full Text Available Composting operations are a rich source for prospection of biomass degradation enzymes. We have analyzed the microbiomes of two composting samples collected in a facility inside the São Paulo Zoo Park, in Brazil. All organic waste produced in the park is processed in this facility, at a rate of four tons/day. Total DNA was extracted and sequenced with Roche/454 technology, generating about 3 million reads per sample. To our knowledge this work is the first report of a composting whole-microbial community using high-throughput sequencing and analysis. The phylogenetic profiles of the two microbiomes analyzed are quite different, with a clear dominance of members of the Lactobacillus genus in one of them. We found a general agreement of the distribution of functional categories in the Zoo compost metagenomes compared with seven selected public metagenomes of biomass deconstruction environments, indicating the potential for different bacterial communities to provide alternative mechanisms for the same functional purposes. Our results indicate that biomass degradation in this composting process, including deconstruction of recalcitrant lignocellulose, is fully performed by bacterial enzymes, most likely by members of the Clostridiales and Actinomycetales orders.

  20. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the…

  1. Wild Origins: The Evolving Nature of Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ifigenia

    For billions of years, evolution has been the driving force behind the incredible range of biodiversity on our planet. Wild Origins is a concept plan for an exhibition at the National Zoo that uses case studies of animal behavior to explain the theory of evolution. Behaviors evolve, just as physical forms do. Understanding natural selection can help us interpret animal behavior and vice-versa. A living collection, digital media, interactives, fossils, and photographs will relay stories of social behavior, sex, navigation and migration, foraging, domestication, and relationships between different species. The informal learning opportunities visitors are offered at the zoo will create a connection with the exhibition's teaching points. Visitors will leave with an understanding and sense of wonder at the evolutionary view of life.

  2. Galaxy Zoo: An Experiment in Public Science Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, Jordan; Lintott, C. J.; Schawinski, K.; Thomas, D.; Nichol, R. C.; Andreescu, D.; Bamford, S.; Land, K. R.; Murray, P.; Slosar, A.; Szalay, A. S.; Vandenberg, J.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2007-12-01

    An interesting question in modern astrophysics research is the relationship between a galaxy's morphology (appearance) and its formation and evolutionary history. Research into this question is complicated by the fact that to get a study sample, researchers must first assign a shape to a large number of galaxies. Classifying a galaxy by shape is nearly impossible for a computer, but easy for a human - however, looking at one million galaxies, one at a time, would take an enormous amount of time. To create such a research sample, we turned to citizen science. We created a web site called Galaxy Zoo (www.galaxyzoo.org) that invites the public to classify the galaxies. New members see a short tutorial and take a short skill test where they classify galaxies of known types. Once they pass the test, they begin to work with the entire sample. The site's interface shows the user an image of a single galaxy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The user clicks a button to classify it. Each classification is stored in a database, associated with the galaxy that it describes. The site has become enormously popular with amateur astronomers, teachers, and others interested in astronomy. So far, more than 110,000 users have joined. We have started a forum where users share images of their favorite galaxies, ask science questions of each other and the "zookeepers," and share classification advice. In a separate poster, we will share science results from the site's first six months of operation. In this poster, we will describe the site as an experiment in public science outreach. We will share user feedback, discuss our plans to study the user community more systematically, and share advice on how to work with citizen science projects to the mutual benefit of both professional and citizen scientists.

  3. Frequency of parasites and Salmonella infection in captive maned-wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, kept in Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilioli R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 from 11 Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened to investigate the presence of parasites and Salmonella infection by parasitological diagnostic methods and fecal selective culture. The most frequent ecto and endoparasites found were Ctenocephalides felis (56.2%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (12.5%, Ancylostoma caninum (45.1%, Strongyloides sp. (29.0%, Uncinaria stenocephala (3.2%, Capillaria sp. (3.2%, Entamoeba sp. (22.9%, Sarcocystis sp. (29.0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (19.3%, Eimeria sp. (19.3%, Giardia sp. (9.6% and Isospora sp. (3.2%. Four different serotypes of Salmonella were identified in six animals (25%. Only one infected animal showed clinical signs of diarrhea. The ability to harbor Salmonella spp. as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation of this specie.

  4. Molecular evidence for sustained transmission of zoonotic Ascaris suum among zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Betson, Martha

    Chimpanzees in the Copenhagen Zoo frequently excrete ascarid worms onto the cage floor inspite of a regular anthelmintic treatment program. Previously it had been shown that the source of the infections was of pig origin. However, it was unknown whether the recurrence of the infection was due...... analysis of the cox1 gene (‘barcoding') on expelled worms followed by cluster analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are infected with pig A. suum which now, in spite of control efforts, has stabilized into a permanent transmission cycle in the Zoo's chimpanzee troop...

  5. Moon Zoo: Educating side-by-side with Doing Science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.; Moon Zoo Team

    2010-12-01

    The Moon Zoo citizen science project (http://www.moonzoo.org) engages individuals - primarily members of the public - in identifying geological (and sometimes technological) features on the lunar surface. Using a flash-based interface that runs in a web browser, users can mark craters, linear features, and even left-behind lunar landers on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images. These science tools are embedded in an environment designed to encourage learning and collaboration. On the main Moon Zoo site users can explore educational content, including video tutorials, articles, glossary terms, and flash interactive activities. Additionally, there is a blog and a forum to encourage collaboration and social learning, and a twitter feed for general communications. Through this suite of software Moon Zoo users can contribute to science while learning about the Moon and geology. The Moon Zoo educational content is designed with one purpose in mind: To make sure that a curious user can find information quickly, easily, and on (or within 1-click of) the Moon Zoo site. The Internet is filled with many excellent lunar educational products, and many high-quality digital products exist in offline archives. Finding desired resources, however, can sometimes be a challenge even for professional educators. In order to make finding content easier, we developed a glossary list and a basic concept map for our website that addresses geology, lunar exploration, observing, and the moon in history and culture, and then we populated these terms and concepts with already available materials. We also do things in a way that encourages both doing science tasks and learning at the same time! Specifically, we use pop-out audio and video players that allow users to listen, learn, and classify the lunar surface all at once. To try and understand our users better we are conducting both learning and motivations studies while also monitoring site usage. Our learning assessments use an assessment tool

  6. Effects of daily management changes on behavioral patterns of a solitary female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in a zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Nao; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Eguchi, Yusuke; Uetake, Katsuji; Tanaka, Toshio

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of changes in daily management on behavior of a solitary female elephant in a zoo. The activity budget and space utilization of the subject and the management changes were recorded for 1 year after the conspecific male died. The observation days could be categorized into five clusters (C1-C5) by the characteristic behavioral pattern of each day. C1 had the highest percentage of resting of all clusters, and was observed after the loss of the conspecific and the beginning of use of the indoor exhibition room at night. C2, which had the highest percentage of stereotypy of any cluster, was observed after the beginning of habituation to the indoor exhibition room. Also, when the time schedule of management was changed irregularly, the subject frequently exhibited stereotypic pacing (C2, C4). The subject tended to rest when exhibiting lameness in the left hind limb (C3). In C5, activity reached a high level when she could utilize a familiar place under a stable management schedule. These results indicate that management changes affected the mental stability of an elephant in the early stage of social isolation. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. It's the Way You Tell It! What Conversations of Elementary School Groups Tell Us about the Effectiveness of Animatronic Animal Exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    1999-01-01

    Compares the content of conversations generated by elementary school groups at animatronic animal displays in a temporary zoo exhibit and in a permanent natural-history museum exhibit. Finds that moving animal models in themselves are insufficient to induce many visitors to talk about them in other than a superficial, cursory manner. Contains 17…

  8. Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penev, L.; Agosti, D.; Georgiev, T.; Catapano, T.; Miller, J.; Blagoderov, V.; Roberts, D.; Smith, V.S.; Brake, I.; Ryrcroft, S.; Scott, B.; Johnson, N.F.; Morris, R.A.; Sautter, G.; Chavan, V.; Robertson, T.; Remsen, D.; Stoev, P.; Parr, C.; Knapp, S.; Kress, W.J.; Thompson, F.C.; Erwin, T.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of semantic tagging and its potential for semantic enhancements to taxonomic papers is outlined and illustrated by four exemplar papers published in the present issue of ZooKeys. The four papers were created in different ways: (i) written in Microsoft Word and submitted as non-tagged

  9. Implementing a low-starch biscuit-free diet in zoo gorillas: the impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, E H; Lukas, K E; Bergl, R; Ball, R; Kuhar, C W; Lavin, S R; Raghanti, M A; Wensvoort, J; Willis, M A; Dennis, P M

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, western lowland gorillas consume a diet high in fiber and low in caloric density. In contrast, many gorillas in zoos consume a diet that is high-calorie and low in fiber. Some items commonly used in captive gorilla diets contain high levels of starch and sugars, which are minimal in the natural diet of gorillas. There is a growing concern that captive gorillas may qualify as obese. Furthermore, the leading cause of death for adult male gorillas in zoos is heart disease. In humans, a diet that is high in simple carbohydrates is associated with both obesity and the incidence of heart disease. In response to these issues, we implemented a biscuit-free diet (free of biscuits and low in fruit) and measured serum biomarkers of obesity and insulin resistance pre- and post-diet change at three institutions: North Carolina Zoological Garden, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, and Columbus Zoo and Aquarium. We also added a resistant starch supplement to gorilla diets at two of the above institutions. We anticipated that these diet changes would positively affect biomarkers of obesity and insulin resistance. Both diet manipulations led to a reduction in insulin. Resistant starch also decreased overall serum cholesterol levels. Future research will examine these health changes in a greater number of individuals to determine if the results remain consistent with these preliminary findings. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. How Full Is Your Luggage? Background Knowledge of Zoo Visitors Regarding Sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, João Pedro Correia; Monteiro, Rute Cristina Rocha

    2013-01-01

    For the general population, sharks have a reputation that does not really fit with their biological and ecological nature. Informal surveys often classify sharks as dangerous, aggressive and/or man-eaters. This apparent common knowledge seems difficult to detach from the conscience of many worldwide zoo visitors, even with the help of…

  11. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Greco

    Full Text Available Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus] at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding, making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 4.087; nighttime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 8.015. For both species, spending time housed separately (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.009, and having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.175, increased the risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy during the day, while spending more time with juvenile elephants (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 0.985, and engaging with zoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988. At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987 and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752 corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115 increased this risk. Overall, our results

  12. Dreamers, Poets, Citizens, and Scientists: Motivations for Engaging in GalaxyZoo Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S. J.; Mankowski, T.; Slater, T. F.; CenterAstronomy; Physics Education Research Caper Team

    2010-12-01

    A particularly successful effort to engage the public in science has been to move the nearly countless galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to citizen scientists in a project known widely as Galaxy Zoo (URL; http://www.galaxyzoo.org). To everyone’s surprise, the unexpectedly large participation in the website has caused the data set, numbering over a million images, to be classified multiple times, quicker than the project leader anticipated, and continues to boast a high hit count on the website (15 classifications per second). Within 24 hours of launch, the site was receiving 70,000 classifications an hour, and more than 50 million classifications were received by the project during its first year, from almost 150,000 people. In a parallel effort, the Galaxy Zoo forum was created to handle the flood of emails that occurred alongside the flood of classifications, the team hoping that it would encourage the participants to handle each others' questions. By examining the motivations, methods and appeal of Galaxy Zoo to the participating public, other models of citizen science might be purposefully formulated to take advantage of the success exhibited in Galaxy Zoo. In addition, we want to understand the reasons people engage in science in informal settings in order to better enhance teaching methods in formal settings. Although in the past citizen science has primarily been used as a data collection method, there are many new opportunities contained in citizen science motivations and methods that we can use in future applications. This new and innovative method of online citizen science creates data for researchers of galaxies, but there is a parallel set of underlying data that has not yet been deeply analyzed: the motivations and underlying themes within the population of citizen scientists that could lead us to improve future citizen science projects. To address this, we pursued an investigation of the underlying reasons for the success of Galaxy Zoo

  13. A turtle cognition research demonstration enhances visitor engagement and keeper-animal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Andrew C; Leighty, Katherine A; Pittman Courte, Victoria L; Grand, Alison P; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2017-07-01

    Environmental enrichment techniques present animals with cognitive challenges while providing them opportunities to make choices and exert control over their environment. In this way, cognitive research and training is enriching to animals and can be used as a form of enrichment in zoos and aquariums. Cognitive research demonstrations also provide an opportunity to enhance visitor experience, as well as foster interactions between animals and keepers. We investigated how cognitive research sessions involving eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at Disney's Animal Kingdom ® impacted both the rate of visitors coming to the exhibit and the amount of time they spent engaged. Further, we used a questionnaire to assess the impact of keeper participation in these sessions on their relationships with and perceptions of the turtles. While visitation rate to the exhibit was not impacted, cognitive research sessions held visitor attention for longer than keeper interpretation or at times during which no keepers or researchers were present. We also found that keepers that had worked with the turtles for longer and keepers that regularly participated in cognitive research sessions reported stronger bonds with the turtles. Our research suggests that use of cognitive research and training demonstrations for guest viewing in zoos and aquariums may enhance visitor learning opportunities by increasing the amount of time they spend at the exhibit. Our study also provides evidence that participation in such demonstrations by zoo and aquarium professionals can be related to improved keeper-animal bonds, potentially resulting in better husbandry and enhanced animal welfare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. BILIRUBIN CONCENTRATIONS IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY AND DISEASED CAPTIVE WATERBUCK (KOBUS ELLIPSIPRYMNUS) AT THE SAN DIEGO ZOO SAFARI PARK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Ryan A; Lamberski, Nadine; Christopher, Mary M

    2016-06-01

    Captive waterbuck ( Kobus ellipsiprymnus ) that appear clinically healthy have been noted to have high serum bilirubin concentrations compared with other ruminants; however, questions remain about the physiologic factors affecting bilirubin concentration and its potential association with underlying disease and icteric serum or mucous membranes. Serum bilirubin concentrations of healthy and diseased waterbuck housed at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park from 1989 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed to determine any link between icteric serum, total bilirubin concentration (tBili), and disease entities in this species. Total bilirubin and direct (dBili) bilirubin concentrations and the prevalence of icteric serum were compared by subspecies, age group, and health status; associations with complete blood count and biochemical results and clinical diagnosis were assessed. No significant differences were found in tBili or dBili between Ellipsen (n = 32) and Defassa (n = 29) subspecies or in juveniles (n = 22) versus adults (n = 39). Clinically healthy waterbuck (n = 40) had significantly higher tBili (mean ± 2SD, 7.9 ± 1.2 mg/dl; P bilirubin (2.2-6.2 mg/dl). These results suggest healthy waterbuck have relatively high tBili and dBili compared with related species. Icteric serum may be seen in up to 15% of healthy animals in the absence of icteric tissues.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Captive Wildlife at Zhengzhou Zoo, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqiang; Qi, Meng; Chang, Yankai; Wang, Rongjun; Li, Tongyi; Dong, Haiju; Zhang, Longxian

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are common gastrointestinal protists in humans and animals. Two hundred and three fecal specimens from 80 wildlife species were collected in Zhengzhou Zoo and their genomic DNA extracted. Three intestinal pathogens were characterized with a DNA sequence analysis of different loci. Cryptosporidium felis, C. baileyi, and avian genotype III were identified in three specimens (1.5%), the manul, red-crowned crane, and cockatiel, respectively. Giardia duodenalis was also found in five specimens (2.5%) firstly: assemblage B in a white-cheeked gibbon and beaver, and assemblage F in a Chinese leopard and two Siberian tigers, respectively. Thirteen genotypes of E. bieneusi (seven previously reported genotypes and six new genotypes) were detected in 32 specimens (15.8%), of which most were reported for the first time. A phylogenetic analysis of E. bieneusi showed that five genotypes (three known and two new) clustered in group 1; three known genotypes clustered in group 2; one known genotype clustered in group 4; and the remaining four genotypes clustered in a new group. In conclusion, zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi are maintained in wildlife and transmitted between them. Zoonotic disease outbreaks of these infectious agents possibly originate in wildlife reservoirs. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  16. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (pElephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (pelephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-valueelephant welfare outcomes.

  17. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columbia livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and fr...

  18. Zoos through the Lens of the IUCN Red List: A Global Metapopulation Approach to Support Conservation Breeding Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Dalia A.; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K.; Jones, Owen R.

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threate...

  19. Immunocontraception for Animals: Current Status and Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rajesh K; Saver, Ashley E

    2016-04-01

    An alternative to surgical sterilization for fertility control of animals (wild, zoo, farm, and domestic) is needed to prevent problems related to overpopulation, including culling and relocation. A PubMed and Google Scholar database search was conducted using the keywords 'contraceptive vaccine animals,' 'immunocontraception animals,' 'non-surgical sterilization animals,' 'PZP vaccine,' and 'GnRH vaccine.' The searches from 1972 to 2015 yielded over 1500 publications. These articles were read, and 375 were selected for detailed analysis. Articles referenced in these publications were also thoroughly examined. PZP and GnRH contraceptive vaccines (CVs) have been extensively investigated for fertility control of wild, zoo, farm, and domestic animal populations. Both vaccines have shown tremendous success with PZP vaccines taking the lead. Novel technologies and targets are being developed to improve existing vaccines and generate second-generation CVs. Single-shot vaccines, which can be delivered remotely, will greatly advance the field of immunocontraception for animal use with potential human application. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  1. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the self-determination theory, therefore, we used a group-based, hands-on learning environment. To address this questions, we used a treatment—control design (BACI) with different treatments and a control group. Pre-, post- and retention tests were applied. All treatments led to a substantial increase of learning and retention knowledge compared to the control group. Immediately after the zoo visit, the zoo-guide tour provided the highest scores, while after a delay of 6 weeks, the learner-centered environment combined with a teacher-guided summarizing scored best. We suggest incorporating the zoo as an out-of-school environment into formal school learning, and we propose different methods to improve learning in zoo settings.

  2. A Cosmic Zoo in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    galaxy can be included. Dozens of clusters of young stars can be seen as well as traces of glowing gas clouds. Huge numbers of faint stars fill the image from edge to edge and in the background, more galaxies, far beyond the LMC, are visible. Globular clusters are collections of hundreds of thousands to millions of stars bound by gravity into a roughly spherical shape just a few light-years across. Many clusters orbit the Milky Way and most are ancient, over ten billion years old, and composed mainly of old red stars. The LMC also has globular clusters and one is visible as the fuzzy white oval cluster of stars in the upper right part of the image. This is NGC 1978, an unusually massive globular cluster. Unlike most other globular clusters, NGC 1978 is believed to be just 3.5 billion years old. The presence of this kind of object in the LMC leads astronomers to think that the LMC has a more recent history of active star formation than our own Milky Way. As well as being a vigorous region of star birth, the LMC has also seen many spectacular stellar deaths in the form of brilliant supernova explosions. At the top right of the image, the remnant of one such supernova, a strangely shaped wispy cloud called DEM L 190, often also referred to as N 49, can be seen. This giant cloud of glowing gas is the brightest supernova remnant in the LMC, and is about 30 light-years across. At the centre, where the star once burned, now lies a magnetar, a neutron star with an extremely powerful magnetic field. It was only in 1979 that satellites orbiting Earth detected a powerful gamma-ray burst from this object, drawing attention to the extreme properties of this new class of stellar exotica created by supernova explosions. This part of the Large Magellanic Cloud is so packed with star clusters and other objects that astronomers can spend entire careers exploring it. With so much activity, it is easy to see why astronomers are so keen to study the strange creatures in this heavenly zoo

  3. The Welfare of Bears in Zoos: A Case Study of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślak, Robert; Sergiel, Agnieszka; Bowles, David; Paśko, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of captive bears became a big issue of concern in Poland when a case of a bear being ill-treated became a high-profile case in the media. This case created a challenge to verify, study, and understand the main problems associated with bear keeping so that zoos could significantly improve the conditions in which they keep bears or ensure they keep bears at the minimum required standards. The results presented here are from 1 of the few countrywide studies of captive bear conditions conducted in all the captive institutions in Poland that keep bears. Thirteen institutions kept bears at the time of the study (2007-2009), including 54 individuals of 5 species. Major welfare problems were identified, and the results have been used to challenge zoos to address the changes required and focus the government's attention on areas that require legislative improvement.

  4. Moon Zoo: Making the public part of a crater survey algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.; Brown, S.; Huang, D.; Daus, C.; Lehan, C.; Robbins, S.

    2011-10-01

    The Moon Zoo citizen science website launched in May 2010 and invited the public to annotate images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). Tasks included marking the edges of craters with an ellipse tool, indicating where linear features (e.g. scarps) and special types of craters (e.g. dark haloed) are located with a box, and rating the number of boulders in an image. The goal of this project is to create crater and feature catalogues for large areas of the moon. In addition to doing science, Moon Zoo also seeks to educate its audience through educational content, to engage them through social media, and to understand them through research into their motivations and behaviors.

  5. 9 CFR 55.6 - Mortgage against animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against animals. 55.6 Section 55.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Indemnification Program § 55.6 Mortgage against animals. When cervids have...

  6. Galaxy Zoo: A Catalog of Overlapping Galaxy Pairs for Dust Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna; Holwerda, Benne W.; Mezzoprete, Massimo; Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin; Gay, Pamela; Masters, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of galaxies with overlapping images offers a direct way to probe the distribution of dust extinction and its effects on the background light. We present a catalog of 1990 such galaxy pairs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by volunteers of the Galaxy Zoo project. We highlight subsamples which are particularly useful for retrieving such properties of the dust distribution as UV extinction, the extent perpendicular to the disk plane, and extinction in the inner parts of...

  7. Produção animal e o meio ambiente: uma comparação entre potencial de emissão de metano dos dejetos e a quantidade de alimento produzido Animal production and environment: a comparison between potential of methane emission from waste and quantity of produced food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi efetuar a comparação das principais espécies de interesse agropecuário, em relação à eficiência de conversão das dietas em produtos de origem animal (carne ou ovo, produção de resíduo e potencial de emissão de metano, a partir da fermentação dos resíduos. Para isso, foram selecionadas cinco espécies de animais durante a fase de produção: 1 suínos, do nascimento ao abate (peso vivo (PV final de 90 kg ; 2 bovinos, do desmame ao abate (PV: 520 kg; 3 caprinos, do desmame ao abate (PV: 30 kg; 4 aves, durante toda a fase de postura (14,7 kg de ovos; 5 frango de corte, do nascimento ao abate (PV: 3,1 kg. Para a estimativa dos parâmetros propostos, foram medidos os dados do desempenho e efetuou-se a biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos produzidos pelos animais. De maneira geral, os dejetos dos ruminantes apresentaram altas concentrações de fibra e baixos potenciais de produção de biogás; no entanto, o menor desempenho destes animais na conversão do alimento em produto e a maior produção de dejetos fizeram com que eles apresentassem maiores produções de metano por kg de alimento produzido.The aim of this study was to compare the main species of husbandry interest, in relation to the efficiency of food conversion into animal origin products (meat and egg, residue production and potential of methane emission from residue fermentation. This way, five species of animal during production phase were selected: 1 pigs, from birth to slaughter (final live weight (LW of 90 kg; 2 cattle, from weaning to slaughter (LW: 520 kg; 3 goat, from weaning to slaughter (LW: 30 kg; 4 poultry, during the complete phase of laying (14.7 kg of eggs; 5 broiler, from birth to slaughter (LW: 3.1 Kg. For estimating proposed parameters, data of performance were measured and anaerobic digestion of produced waste by animals was done. In a general way, ruminant waste showed height concentration of fiber and low potential of biogas

  8. The Galactic Club or Galactic Cliques? Exploring the limits of interstellar hegemony and the Zoo Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan H.

    2017-10-01

    The Zoo solution to Fermi's Paradox proposes that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) have agreed to not contact the Earth. The strength of this solution depends on the ability for ETIs to come to agreement, and establish/police treaties as part of a so-called `Galactic Club'. These activities are principally limited by the causal connectivity of a civilization to its neighbours at its inception, i.e. whether it comes to prominence being aware of other ETIs and any treaties or agreements in place. If even one civilization is not causally connected to the other members of a treaty, then they are free to operate beyond it and contact the Earth if wished, which makes the Zoo solution `soft'. We should therefore consider how likely this scenario is, as this will give us a sense of the Zoo solution's softness, or general validity. We implement a simple toy model of ETIs arising in a Galactic Habitable Zone, and calculate the properties of the groups of culturally connected civilizations established therein. We show that for most choices of civilization parameters, the number of culturally connected groups is >1, meaning that the Galaxy is composed of multiple Galactic Cliques rather than a single Galactic Club. We find in our models for a single Galactic Club to establish interstellar hegemony, the number of civilizations must be relatively large, the mean civilization lifetime must be several millions of years, and the inter-arrival time between civilizations must be a few million years or less.

  9. Patterns of wounding in hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) in North American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jodi N; Leeds, Austin; Carpenter, Kamisha D; Kendall, Corinne J

    2018-03-01

    In North American zoos, hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) have traditionally been housed as single one-male units (single male groups). In recent years, efforts have been made to house hamadryas in groups composed of multiple one-male units (multi-male groups) to more closely mirror their natural social structure, in addition to all-male or bachelor groups to manage surplus males. Given that the majority of social conflict in hamadryas occurs between males during the acquisition and defense of females, it was thought that managing hamadryas in these multi-male groups would result in increased rates of wounding. To assess this, incidences of wounding were recorded over one year across seven zoos (10 social groups, 59 individuals). Overall, we found no difference in wounding rates between group types, or by sex, and group type. These data provide evidence that managing hamadryas in multi-male and bachelor groups is an effective husbandry practice that does not negatively impact the welfare of the individuals, in addition to providing a more species-appropriate social setting for hamadryas in zoos. As the management of hamadryas in multi-male and bachelor groups continues and expands, additional research will be needed to understand what factors contribute to optimal cohesion, and welfare of groups and if wounding rates change as group size continues to increase. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evidence of public engagement with science: visitor learning at a zoo-housed primate research centre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M Waller

    Full Text Available Primate behavioural and cognitive research is increasingly conducted on direct public view in zoo settings. The potential of such facilities for public engagement with science is often heralded, but evidence of tangible, positive effects on public understanding is rare. Here, the effect of a new zoo-based primate research centre on visitor behaviour, learning and attitudes was assessed using a quasi-experimental design. Zoo visitors approached the primate research centre more often when a scientist was present and working with the primates, and reported greater awareness of primates (including conservation compared to when the scientist was not present. Visitors also reported greater perceived learning when the scientist was present. Installation of information signage had no main effect on visitor attitudes or learning. Visitors who interacted with the signage, however, demonstrated increased knowledge and understanding when asked about the specific information present on the signs (which was related to the ongoing facial expression research at the research centre. The findings show that primate behaviour research centres on public view can have a demonstrable and beneficial effect on public understanding of science.

  11. An outbreak of salmonellosis among children attending a reptile exhibit at a zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, C R; Torigian, C; Shillam, P J; Hoffman, R E; Heltzel, D; Beebe, J L; Malcolm, G; DeWitt, W E; Hutwagner, L; Griffin, P M

    1998-05-01

    In January 1996, an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Salmonella Enteritidis occurred in children attending a Komodo dragon exhibit at a metropolitan zoo. We sought to determine the extent of the outbreak and mode of transmission. A case-control study was conducted. Controls were randomly selected from zoo membership lists and matched to patients by age group and date of exhibit visit. Of 65 patients identified, 39 had confirmed and 26 had suspected cases. The median age was 7 years (range, 3 months to 48 years); 55% were enrolled in the case-control study. No patients and two (4%) controls reported touching a dragon; however, 83% of patients but only 52% of controls touched the wooden barrier that surrounded the dragon pen (odds ratio = 4.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 13.9). Washing hands at the zoo after visiting the dragons was highly protective (OR = 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.7). Cultures from the patients, one dragon, and the exhibit barriers yielded Salmonella Enteritidis, phage type 8. On the basis of an attack rate of 4.3% among exhibit attendees under 13 years old on whom data were collected, we estimate that 315 additional cases of salmonellosis occurred among visitors in this age group. This large outbreak demonstrates the importance of environmental contamination in the transmission of Salmonella from reptiles, and the protective value of hand washing. Recommendations regarding reptile exhibits and reptilian pets should emphasize this indirect route.

  12. Lion, ungulate, and visitor reactions to playbacks of lion roars at Zoo Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Angela S; Allard, Stephanie M; Kelling, Nicholas J; Sandhaus, Estelle A; Maple, Terry L

    2012-01-01

    Felids in captivity are often inactive and elusive in zoos, leading to a frustrating visitor experience. Eight roars were recorded from an adult male lion and played back over speakers as auditory enrichment to benefit the lions while simultaneously enhancing the zoo visitor experience. In addition, ungulates in an adjacent exhibit were observed to ensure that the novel location and increased frequency of roars did not lead to a stress or fear response. The male lion in this study roared more in the playback phase than in the baseline phases while not increasing any behaviors that would indicate compromised welfare. In addition, zoo visitors remained at the lion exhibit longer during playback. The nearby ungulates never exhibited any reactions stronger than orienting to playbacks, identical to their reactions to live roars. Therefore, naturalistic playbacks of lion roars are a potential form of auditory enrichment that leads to more instances of live lion roars and enhances the visitor experience without increasing the stress levels of nearby ungulates or the lion themselves, who might interpret the roar as that of an intruder.

  13. Galactic rings revisited - I. CVRHS classifications of 3962 ringed galaxies from the Galaxy Zoo 2 Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buta, Ronald J.

    2017-11-01

    Rings are important and characteristic features of disc-shaped galaxies. This paper is the first in a series that re-visits galactic rings with the goals of further understanding the nature of the features and for examining their role in the secular evolution of galaxy structure. The series begins with a new sample of 3962 galaxies drawn from the Galaxy Zoo 2 citizen science data base, selected because zoo volunteers recognized a ring-shaped pattern in the morphology as seen in Sloan Digital Sky Survey colour images. The galaxies are classified within the framework of the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage system. It is found that zoo volunteers cued on the same kinds of ring-like features that were recognized in the 1995 Catalogue of Southern Ringed Galaxies. This paper presents the full catalogue of morphological classifications, comparisons with other sources of classifications and some histograms designed mainly to highlight the content of the catalogue. The advantages of the sample are its large size and the generally good quality of the images; the main disadvantage is the low physical resolution that limits the detectability of linearly small rings such as nuclear rings. The catalogue includes mainly inner and outer disc rings and lenses. Cataclysmic (`encounter-driven') rings (such as ring and polar ring galaxies) are recognized in less than 1 per cent of the sample.

  14. Evidence of public engagement with science: visitor learning at a zoo-housed primate research centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Bridget M; Peirce, Kate; Mitchell, Heidi; Micheletta, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Primate behavioural and cognitive research is increasingly conducted on direct public view in zoo settings. The potential of such facilities for public engagement with science is often heralded, but evidence of tangible, positive effects on public understanding is rare. Here, the effect of a new zoo-based primate research centre on visitor behaviour, learning and attitudes was assessed using a quasi-experimental design. Zoo visitors approached the primate research centre more often when a scientist was present and working with the primates, and reported greater awareness of primates (including conservation) compared to when the scientist was not present. Visitors also reported greater perceived learning when the scientist was present. Installation of information signage had no main effect on visitor attitudes or learning. Visitors who interacted with the signage, however, demonstrated increased knowledge and understanding when asked about the specific information present on the signs (which was related to the ongoing facial expression research at the research centre). The findings show that primate behaviour research centres on public view can have a demonstrable and beneficial effect on public understanding of science.

  15. LIMITATIONS OF LEGAL ENFORCEMENT IN BIO – MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra Kumari

    2017-01-01

    Bio medical is generated by the hospital during the diagnosis, treatment of human beings or animals. The form of biomedical waste is solid as well as liquid form. The basic components of bio medical waste consist of human anatomical waste, micro biology and bio technology waste, waste sharps, discarded medicines and cytotoxic drugs, soiled waste, solid waste, liquid waste generated from any of the infected areas, animal waste, incineration ash, chemical waste etc. The bio medical waste gener...

  16. Zoo-sanitary aspects of goat husbandry in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Maria Guimarães Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the largest one out of the four states that comprise the southeastern region of Brazil, with the bigest goat herd of this region. The characterization of health aspects of dairy goat husbandry was done in 84 dairy herds in 81 municipalities and 200 beef herds in 70 municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. A questionnaire was filled out for each herd, requesting data regarding the farm, the herd and the farmer by the veterinarians within the Agriculture and Livestock Institute of Minas Gerais (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária – IMA. A data bank was developed in Windows Excel and analyzed using the Epi-Info system. Comparisons of categorical variables were based on Chi-square test. The individual identification of the animals was done at 73.8% of dairy farms and at 7.5% of beef farms, use of quarentine at 15.5% and 4.0%, isolation of sick animals at 30.9% and 11.0%, requisition of sanitary certificate in the acquisition of new animals at 28.6% and 1.5%, regular veterinary monitoring at 52.4% and 1.5%, respectively. The main health problems reported at dairy and beef farms, respectively, were abortion (50.0% and 49.5%, mastitis (41.7% and 19.0%, pneumonia (37.4% and 16.5%, diarrhea (34.5% and 16.5% and caseous lymphadenitis (20.2% and 43.0%.

  17. Leptospirosis on captive wild animals in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Anahi S; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2017-12-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide bacterial infection, being more prevalent in tropical regions. Human beings, domestic animals and wildlife species are susceptible to a wide variety of serovars. Zoos have a great importance in keeping endangered species, increasing populations and accumulating knowledge on these species. Although some studies describe the occurrence of leptospirosis in captivity animals, a systematic review regarding the infection in these animals in tropical areas has never been conducted. Thus, the objective of this study was to systematically gather and analyze data regarding leptospirosis among captive wild animals in Latin America. A total of 141 species were studied, 93 genus, 44 families and 15 orders from three classes. Median seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 52% and predominant serogroups were Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae for mammalian, and Sejroe for reptiles. One important outcome is that, when kept on zoos, wildlife is more frequently infected by incidental strains instead of adapted strains. Preventive measures should consider periodic serosurvey of all animal species in captivity, as well as the use of commercial vaccines to reduce leptospiral infection and its hazards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  19. Measuring the impact of informal science education in zoos on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher David

    Despite the emphasis in modern zoos and aquaria on conservation and environmental education, we know very little about what people learn in these settings, and even less about how they learn it. Research on informal learning in settings such as zoos has suffered from a lack of theory, with few connections being made to theories of learning in formal settings, or to theories regarding the nature of the educational goals. This dissertation consists of three parts: the development and analysis of a test instrument designed to measure constructs of environmental learning in zoos; the application of the test instrument along with qualitative data collection in an evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of a zoo's education programs; and the analysis of individually matched pre- and post-test data to examine how environmental learning takes place, with respect to the constructivist view of learning, as well as theories of environmental learning and the barriers to pro-environmental behavior. The test instrument consisted of 40 items split into four scales: environmental knowledge, attitudes toward the environment, support for conservation, and environmentally responsible behavior. A model-driven approach was used to develop the instrument, which was analyzed using Item Response Theory and the Rasch dichotomous measurement model. After removal of two items with extremely high difficulty, the instrument was found to be unidimensional and sufficiently reliable. The results of the IRT analyses are interpreted with respect to a modern validity framework. The evaluation portion of this study applied this test instrument to measuring the impact of zoo education programs on 750 fourth through seventh grade students. Qualitative data was collected from program observations and teacher surveys, and a comparison was also made between programs that took place at the zoo, and those that took place in the school classroom, thereby asking questions regarding the role of

  20. Learning Achievement and Motivation in an Out-of-School Setting—Visiting Amphibians and Reptiles in a Zoo Is More Effective than a Lesson at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschmann, Stephanie; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian; Itzek-Greulich, Heike

    2017-06-01

    Interventions in out-of-school settings have been shown in previous studies to be effectively increase students' science knowledge and motivation, with mixed results on whether they are more effective than teaching at school. In this study, we compared an out-of-school setting in a reptile and amphibian zoo (Landau, Germany) with a sequence of classroom teaching and a control group without teaching on the topic. We compared learning at school (School) and out-of-school learning (Reptilium), which were tested in a randomized field setting with a focus on knowledge and motivation. Sixty-five elementary students participated in either the School group, Reptilium group or control group. We measured knowledge on the topics reptiles and amphibians with a newly developed two-factorial test, calibrated with item response theory, before the intervention, immediately afterwards (posttest) and 2 weeks later (follow-up). Motivation was measured immediately after the intervention. Data analyses were performed using SPSS and Mplus. We conclude that the two interventions appeared highly superior to the control group and that the out-of-school setting in the Reptilium was more effective than the school-only program. Concerning motivation, perception of choice was higher in the Reptilium than in the School group. There were gender-by-treatment interaction effects for knowledge in the posttest and follow-up, for perceived competence and for pressure/tension. Concerning knowledge, boys performed better in the School group than girls but this gender gap was not significant in the Reptilium group. Boys perceived themselves as more competent in the School group while girls reported less pressure/tension in the Reptilium group. In conclusion, encountering living animals in a formal zoo learning arrangement is encouraged in primary school since it supports self-determination (free choice), leads to higher achievement and closes gender disparities in achievement.

  1. Impressions and purchasing intentions of Japanese consumers regarding pork produced by 'Ecofeed,' a trademark of food-waste or food co-product animal feed certified by the Japanese government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Aizaki, Hideo; Motoyama, Michiyo; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2011-02-01

    Impressions and purchasing intentions of Japanese consumers regarding pork produced by 'Ecofeed', a trademark of food-waste or co-product animal feeds certified by the Japanese government, were investigated by a questionnaire on the Internet. 'Ecofeed' did not elicit specific impressions as compared to domestic, imported, Kurobuta (in Japan), and specific pathogen-free (SPF) pork. Purchasing intent for 'Ecofeed' pork was the second lowest of the five pork products. Knowledge and purchasing experience regarding 'Ecofeed' pork was the lowest of the five pork products. Respondents were classified into four categories according to their impressions of 'Ecofeed' pork. The largest category of respondents did not have any specific impression of 'Ecofeed' pork and had little knowledge of pork farming. A category that had a positive impression for 'Ecofeed' pork had high knowledge of the pork farming system. In order to establish 'Ecofeed' pork in Japan, our results suggest that information disclosure and education about 'Ecofeed', its certification system, environmental benefits and the current self-efficiency ratio of animal feed, are needed. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Captive breeding and reintroduction of the oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) in Khao Kheow Open Zoo, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyarat, Rattanawat; Kongprom, Urarikha; Manathamkamon, Darika; Wanpradab, Sunan; Sangarang, Satean

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two related issues of the captive breeding and reintroduction of the Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) in order to increase its population in the natural habitats. Oriental pied hornbills were bred in Khao Kheow Open Zoo. Three pairs were separated and kept in breeding cages. Females occupied artificial nests between February and April 2005-2007. Eggs were laid and incubated between February and March each year from 2005 to 2007. Nestlings hatched in late March and left the nest in late April 2005-2007. Each breeding pair was fed with approximately 400 g of food each day. All three pairs reproduced resulting in mature offspring of seven in 2005, six in 2006, and five in 2007. Four of sixteen 3-year-old birds were randomly selected and equipped with a GPS receiver on their backs. Activities of the birds attached and unattached with GPS were not significantly different. The first two birds (one female, one male with GPS) were reintroduced on August 5, 2006, and another nine birds (four birds with GPS) were reintroduced on December 26, 2006. The average home range of these reintroduced birds was 0.13 km(2) . Their foods consisted of wild plants and animals in the home range. The first reintroduced pair was able to breed naturally by laying and hatching eggs in an artificial nest. Two juveniles left the nest in April 2008. These results indicate that both captive breeding and reintroduction are potentially important ways to increase the population of the Oriental pied hornbill in natural habitats. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fat-soluble vitamin and mineral comparisons between zoo-based and free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Debra A; Pye, Geoffrey W; Hamlin-Andrus, Chris C; Ellis, William A; Bercovitch, Fred B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Chen, Tai C; Holick, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    As part of a health investigation on koalas at San Diego Zoo, serum samples were analyzed from 18 free-ranging and 22 zoo-based koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus. Serum concentrations of calcium, chloride, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, zinc, and vitamins A, E, and 25(OH)D3 were quantified. Calcium, chloride, molybdenum, selenium, and vitamin E concentrations were significantly higher in zoo-based koalas than in free-ranging koalas, whereas magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc concentrations were significantly higher in the free-ranging koalas. No significant differences were found between genders. The results from this study will help to establish a starting point for determining target circulating nutrient concentrations in koalas.

  4. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  5. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  6. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  7. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  8. Is painting by elephants in zoos as enriching as we are led to believe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan English

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the activity of painting and performance of stereotyped and other stress-related behaviour was investigated in four captive Asian elephants at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. The activity involved the elephant being instructed to paint on a canvas by its keeper in front of an audience. Painting by elephants in zoos is commonly believed to be a form of enrichment, but this assumption had not been based on any systematic research. If an activity is enriching we would expect stress-related behaviour to be reduced but we found no evidence of the elephants anticipating the painting activity and no effect on the performance of stereotyped or other stress-related behaviour either before or after the painting session. This indicates that the activity does not fulfil one of the main aims of enrichment. However, if an elephant was not selected to paint on a given day this was associated with higher levels of non-interactive behaviour, a possible indicator of stress. Behavioural observations associated with ear, eye and trunk positions during the painting session showed that the elephant’s attentiveness to the painting activity or to the keeper giving instruction varied between individuals. Apart from positive reinforcement from the keeper, the results indicated that elephants gain little enrichment from the activity of painting. Hence, the benefits of this activity appear to be limited to the aesthetic appeal of these paintings to the people viewing them.

  9. Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story: Echo/es of Contemporary Subversive Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqibun Nabi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The post-world war II American social and cultural setting was ambiguously featured with enforced conformity in the name of prosperity and Americanization of the nation. Despite of this fact, American writers, especially, dramatists conveyed their message against this fixation through variety and intellectuality. Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story is one of those literary assets which dedicatedly cut through the illusions of contemporary American social and cultural ethos. Here, his characters are seen struggling constantly with their insecurities and existential angst in the society. He presents America, the so-called ‘Land of Free and Home of Braves’ (note 1, in such a portrayal that unveils the traps of cages and confinement underneath. The target of this paper is to trace Edward Albee’s heightened awareness about the post-war American socio-cultural reality evident in The Zoo Story. It also looks for the voice in which the text echoes out the anti-communist, materialistic, gender-coded boundaries, coupled with paradoxical media representations, religious bordering and how Albee challenges these issues with an anti-establishment tone. Keywords: subversive culture, anti-communism, media, religion and homosexuality

  10. GALAXY ZOO MORPHOLOGY AND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that one can accurately derive galaxy morphology from particular primary and secondary isophotal shape estimates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging catalog. This was accomplished by applying Machine Learning techniques to the Galaxy Zoo morphology catalog. Using the broad bandpass photometry of the SDSS in combination with precise knowledge of galaxy morphology should help in estimating more accurate photometric redshifts for galaxies. Using the Galaxy Zoo separation for spirals and ellipticals in combination with SDSS photometry we attempt to calculate photometric redshifts. In the best case we find that the root-mean-square error for luminous red galaxies classified as ellipticals is as low as 0.0118. Given these promising results we believe better photometric redshift estimates for all galaxies in the SDSS (∼350 million) will be feasible if researchers can also leverage their derived morphologies via Machine Learning. These initial results look to be promising for those interested in estimating weak lensing, baryonic acoustic oscillation, and other fields dependent upon accurate photometric redshifts.

  11. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Meehan

    Full Text Available We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience, environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001. Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001. Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001. There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138 and Asian (N = 117 species or between males (N = 54 and females (N = 201. The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05. The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes.

  12. Museums, Zoos, and Gardens: How Formal-Informal Partnerships Can Impact Urban Students' Performance. Working Paper #04-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Meryle; Whitesell, Emilyn Ruble; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide the first rigorous evidence of the impact of a partnership between public middle schools and informal science institutions (ISIs), such as museums and zoos, on student outcomes. This study focuses on Urban Advantage (UA), a program in New York City (NYC) that explicitly draws upon the expertise and resources of the city's…

  13. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clères, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

  14. How Do Visitors Relate to Biodiversity Conservation? An Analysis of London Zoo's "BUGS" Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmin-Pui, Lauriane Suyin; Perkins, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using a case study of London Zoo's BUGS (Biodiversity Underpinning Global Survival) exhibit, this article assesses the role of experiential learning in raising biodiversity knowledge, concern and potential pro-conservation actions. Using Personal Meaning Mindmapping, a novel method in visitor research, the study examines how adult visitors relate…

  15. The Role of Post-Visit Action Resources in Facilitating Meaningful Free-Choice Learning after a Zoo Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueddefeld, Jill N. H.; Van Winkle, Christine M.

    2018-01-01

    Places like zoos, where free-choice learning is encouraged, are important for conveying climate change and sustainability issues to the public. Free-choice learning that targets environmentally focused sustainable behavior changes must be meaningful in order to encourage actual behavior change post-visit. However, visitors often fail to translate…

  16. Methane production from farm wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Leake, H

    1952-01-01

    The economics of scale which would justify the wider use of biogas are stressed. The collection of village waste and night soil to be used with other organic wastes in community systems is proposed. It is suggested that sugar cane trash and bagasse be stored, to be fermented with animal wastes and excess molasses at the sugar factory.

  17. Microbiology of Animal Bite Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  18. Creating Learning Experiences that Promote Informal Science Education: Designing Conservation-Focused Interactive Zoo Exhibits through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenda, Peter

    Research on exhibit design over the past twenty years has started to identify many different methods to increase the learning that occurs in informal education environments. This study utilized relevant research on exhibit design to create and study the effectiveness of a mobile interactive exhibit at the Seneca Park Zoo that promotes socialization, engagement in science, and conservation-related practices among guests. This study will serve as one component of a major redesign project at the Seneca Park Zoo for their Rocky Coasts exhibit. This action research study targeted the following question, "How can interactive exhibits be designed to promote socialization, engagement in science, and real-world conservation-related practices (RCPs) among zoo guests?" Specific research questions included: 1. In what ways did guests engage with the exhibit? 2. In what ways were guests impacted by the exhibit? a) What evidence exists, if any, of guests learning science content from the exhibit? b) What evidence exists, if any, of guests being emotionally affected by the exhibit? c) What evidence exists, if any, of guests changing their RCPs after visiting the exhibit? Data were collected through zoo guest surveys completed by zoo guests comparing multiple exhibits, interviews with guests before and after they used the prototype exhibit, observations and audio recordings of guests using the prototype exhibit, and follow-up phone interviews with guests who volunteered to participate. Data were analyzed collaboratively with members of the zoo's exhibit Redesign Team using grounded theory qualitative data analysis techniques to find patterns and trends among data. Initial findings from data analysis were used to develop shifts in the exhibit in order to increase visitor engagement and learning. This process continued for two full action research spirals, which resulted in three iterations of the prototype exhibit. The overall findings of this study highlight the ways in which

  19. Behaviour and fate of animal waste nitrogen and soluble ions in the agricultural environment with particular reference to rice. Part of a coordinated programme on agricultural nitrogen residues with particular reference to their conservation as fertilizers and behaviour as potential pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.

    1976-11-01

    The fate of residual nitrogen and its fertilizer efficiency following application to rice plants in pots under controlled laboratory conditions have been studied. Nitrogen was applied as 15 N labelled fecal waste from goat and hog, and as chemical fertilizer (ammonium sulphate) respectively. Animal waste nitrogen was less effective than ammonium sulphate nitrogen in terms of rice yield. On the other hand residual nitrogen in the high soil layers was much higher for the organic nitrogen application and there appeared to be lower losses by volatilization (20-30% for animal waste N, 30-40% for ammonium sulphate nitrogen). Leaching losses were minimal and similar for both kinds of N-application (ca. 1%). Similar results were obtained under field conditions with alluvial, and ''sandy'' soils respectively. Plant recovery of N was greater from ammonium sulphate than from animal waste but overall losses in total balance studies appeared greater for N applied as ammonium sulphate under otherwise comparable conditions (30-40% of N applied as ammonium sulphate and 19-32% of N applied as fecal waste)

  20. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  1. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  2. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  3. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  4. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  5. Animal study on biological responses by radon inhalation making use of waste rock which contains feeble activity of uranium (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimori, Yuu; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Nishiyama, Yuichi

    2013-06-01

    Okayama University and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have carried out the collaborative study of physiological effects of inhaled radon for the low-dose range. Main assignments were as follows. Based on the clinical knowledge, Misasa Medical Center (Okayama University Hospital) clarified the issues that should be addressed. Graduate School of Health Sciences (Okayama University) supervised the research and studied the biological responses. The JAEA made the development and control of a facility for radon inhalation experiments and the investigation of biokinetics and absorbed doses of radon. From 2007 to 2011, the following results were obtained. (1) Literature on effects of radon for the low-dose range was surveyed to determine the present tasks. (2) The first Japanese large-scale facility was developed for radon inhalation experiments with small animals. (3) Relationships between radon concentration and inhalation time were widely examined to understand the change in antioxidative functions due to radon, which are the most basic parameters. (4) Inhibitory effects of radon on oxidative damages were observed using model mice with reactive oxygen- or free radical-related diseases like alcohol-induced oxidative damages and type I diabetes. (5) In order to discuss biological responses quantitatively following radon inhalation, the biokinetics of inhaled radon was examined and the model for calculation of absorbed doses for organs and tissues was obtained. (author)

  6. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Winery and Olive Mill Waste Mixtures into Lignocellulolytic Enzymes and Animal Feed by Aspergillus uvarum Using a Packed-Bed Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    Wineries and olive oil industries are dominant agro-industrial activities in southern European regions. Olive pomace, exhausted grape marc, and vine shoot trimmings are lignocellulosic residues generated by these industries, which could be valued biotechnologically. In the present work these residues were used as substrate to produce cellulases and xylanases through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01. For that, two factorial designs (3(2)) were first planned to optimize substrate composition, temperature, and initial moisture level. Subsequently, the kinectics of cellulolytic enzyme production, fungal growth, and fermented solid were characterized. Finally, the process was performed in a packed-bed bioreactor. The results showed that cellulase activity improved with the optimization processes, reaching 33.56 U/g, and with the packed-bed bioreactor aeration of 0.2 L/min, reaching 38.51 U/g. The composition of fermented solids indicated their potential use for animal feed because cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and phenolic compounds were partially degraded 28.08, 10.78, 13.3, and 28.32%, respectively, crude protein was increased from 8.47 to 17.08%, and the mineral contents meet the requirements of main livestock.

  7. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  8. Differences Between Japanese and U.S. Children's Performance on "Zoo U": A Game-Based Social Skills Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley B; DeRosier, Melissa E; Watanabe, Yayoi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether and how performance on a digital game-based social skills assessment tool, "Zoo U" (3C Institute, Durham, NC), differed for children in the United States and Japan across six core social skills. "Zoo U" was administered to 497 third and fourth grade children from the United States and Japan (46 percent Japanese) by teachers and researchers, respectively. U.S. children received the original version of "Zoo U," and Japanese children received a fully translated Japanese version of the program. Scoring of each of the six social skills is built into the "Zoo U" software, with specific scoring algorithms for each grade level that provide both a continuous scale score and cutoffs for three distinct performance categories: high, average, and low. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to assess differences by cultural group on each of the six continuous social skill scores, controlling for gender and grade level. Results revealed significant differences on four of the six skills in expected directions. Chi-squared and odds ratios analyses were then conducted on the assignment of children into each of the performance categories by cultural group, revealing additional nuance to the cultural differences identified in the MANOVA consistent with existing literature. We were able to replicate known cultural differences between U.S. and Japanese children with a simple direct translation of a Web-based social skills assessment game, "Zoo U." Our results provide preliminary support for the potential of game-based assessment methods to provide efficient and valid social skill assessments to children around the world.

  9. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul; Ipema, Bert

    2014-03-17

    It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA) facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry), recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

  10. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  11. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  12. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  13. Occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept in captivity at the zoo from Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Márcia Marques de Campos Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Control of oral lesions contributes directly to the health, survival and welfare of captive animals. In order to investigate the occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept at the zoo at the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá, we evaluated 31 oral cavities from three families of carnivores (Felidae, Canidae and Procyonidae between July 2012 and June 2013. Twelve coatis (Nasua nasua, three raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus, two maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, six crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, three ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, one cougar (Puma concolor and three wild cats (Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii and Leopardus colocolo were reviewed. The most frequent lesions were dental absences 21/31 (67.7%, dental fractures 20/31 (64.5% and tooth wear 19/31 (61.3%, which were suggestive of trauma caused from stress. Of lesser importance, we also observed occurrence of dental calculus grade I in 18/31 (58%, caries 1/31 (3.2%, foreign bodies 2/31 (6.4%, orofacial fistulas 1/31 (3.2%, hyperplasia in the oral mucosa 1/31 (3.2%, dental dimming 3/31 (9.7% and chafing of the soft tissue 5/31 (16.1%. Therefore, it was concluded that environmental enrichment strategies and oral routine evaluation must be implemented to ensure the welfare of these animals, reducing local and systemic adverse effects of oral lesions. The diet has been successful in preventing periodontal disease, suggesting that this diet for the captive animals in the institution should be maintained.

  14. Protozoan parasites of four species of wild anurans from a local zoo in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, K N; Badrul, M M; Mohamad, N; Zainal-Abidin, A H

    2013-12-01

    The parasitic protozoan fauna in sixty-six anurans comprising of Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Phrynoidis juxtaspera, Hylarana erythraea and Polypedates leucomystax collected from Zoo Negara Malaysia was investigated. The distribution and prevalence rate of parasitic species in the digestive tract and blood were examined. Seven species of intestinal protozoa (Opalina ranarum, Cepedea dimidiata, Nycthetorus cordiformis, Entamoeba ranarum, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endamoeba blattae, and Tritrichomonas sp.) and two species of blood protozoa (Lankesterella sp. and Trypanosoma sp.) were recorded. Opalina ranarum was the most common protozoan found in the rectum and intestine (prevalence rate: 34.8%) infecting all host species, with P. juxtaspera heavily infected with the parasite, whereas Tritrichomonas sp. was the least prevalent intestinal species infecting only D. melanostictus. Both Lankesterella sp. and Trypanosoma sp. were found in the blood of H. erythraea.

  15. Galaxy Zoo 1: data release of morphological classifications for nearly 900 000 galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linott, C.; Slosar, A.; Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.; Bamford, S.; Slosar, A.; Land, K.; Thomas, D.; Edmondson, E.; Masters, K.; Nichol, R.C.; Raddick, M.J.; Szalay, A.; Andreescu, D.; Murray, P.; Vandenberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Morphology is a powerful indicator of a galaxy's dynamical and merger history. It is strongly correlated with many physical parameters, including mass, star formation history and the distribution of mass. The Galaxy Zoo project collected simple morphological classifications of nearly 900,000 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, contributed by hundreds of thousands of volunteers. This large number of classifications allows us to exclude classifier error, and measure the influence of subtle biases inherent in morphological classification. This paper presents the data collected by the project, alongside measures of classification accuracy and bias. The data are now publicly available and full catalogues can be downloaded in electronic format from http://data.galaxyzoo.org.

  16. Fantasy, A Means to Propagate Ideologies: A Foucauldian Reading of Albee's The Zoo Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahee Hadaegh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fantasy is a genre in literature which embodies wishes and desires of human beings. Due to such features, it has been turned into a means by which different discourses utilize fantasy as a way to propagate their ideologies. This happens because fantasy is capable of providing each discourse with a concrete image of their promises to their subjects. The aim of this essay is to delve into Albee’s The Zoo Story, using a Foucauldian reading, to show that American dream as a discourse is not the only existing discourse within the society of America, but there are other marginalized voices in the form of fantasies in which power circulates. Peter, the mouthpiece of American dominant discourse, has a fantasy created by that discourse which is in stark contrast to that of Jerry, the marginalized discourse existing along with the dominant one, which threatens the dominant discourse and struggles to reach the peak in the power structure.

  17. The Cosmic Zoo: The (Near) Inevitability of the Evolution of Complex, Macroscopic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, William; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth provides a unique biological record from single-cell microbes to technologically intelligent life forms. Our evolution is marked by several major steps or innovations along a path of increasing complexity from microbes to space-faring humans. Here we identify various major key innovations, and use an analytical toolset consisting of a set of models to analyse how likely each key innovation is to occur. Our conclusion is that once the origin of life is accomplished, most of the key innovations can occur rather readily. The conclusion for other worlds is that if the origin of life can occur rather easily, we should live in a cosmic zoo, as the innovations necessary to lead to complex life will occur with high probability given sufficient time and habitat. On the other hand, if the origin of life is rare, then we might live in a rather empty universe. PMID:27376334

  18. The Cosmic Zoo: The (Near Inevitability of the Evolution of Complex, Macroscopic Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bains

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Life on Earth provides a unique biological record from single-cell microbes to technologically intelligent life forms. Our evolution is marked by several major steps or innovations along a path of increasing complexity from microbes to space-faring humans. Here we identify various major key innovations, and use an analytical toolset consisting of a set of models to analyse how likely each key innovation is to occur. Our conclusion is that once the origin of life is accomplished, most of the key innovations can occur rather readily. The conclusion for other worlds is that if the origin of life can occur rather easily, we should live in a cosmic zoo, as the innovations necessary to lead to complex life will occur with high probability given sufficient time and habitat. On the other hand, if the origin of life is rare, then we might live in a rather empty universe.

  19. Survey of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for potential pathogens at three Michigan zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollamby, Simon; Sikarskie, James G; Stuht, John

    2003-12-01

    Blood samples collected from 31 free-roaming peafowl from three zoos in Michigan were tested serologically. Antibody titers were present against avian adenovirus and Bordetella avium in 19.3% and 61.3% of the samples, respectively. Serum plate agglutination tests were positive for Mycoplasma meleagridis and Mycoplasma synoviae in 3.2% and 38.7% of the samples, respectively. All birds were seronegative for avian influenza, Newcastle disease virus, West Nile virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Giardia sp. No parasites were seen in blood smears. Cloacal swabs were cultured for anaerobic, aerobic, and microaerophilic bacteria. Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli were cultured most frequently from 64.5% and 29% of the samples, respectively, whereas Salmonella sp. and Campylobacter sp. were not isolated. Fecal samples contained moderate numbers of ascarid and Capillaria sp. ova and coccidian oocysts. Female biting lice (Goniodes gigas) were identified on three birds.

  20. Chandra Observations of Galaxy Zoo Mergers: Frequency of Binary Active Nuclei in Massive Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Oh, Kyuseok; Bonning, Erin W.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 1011 M that already have optical AGN signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N(sub H) approx merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGN in these mergers are rare (0-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  1. Solving leadership problems by going to the zoo: the pull of diverse experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2010-01-01

    Being confronted with a diversity of thinking can break up the old models in our head and open new pathways to innovation. In health care, it is extremely important to be exposed to very different situations that can potentially create very different answers for us; hence the trip to the zoo, to a factory known for quality outcomes, or other venues that will open new vistas in our mind. Anytime we try to do something that worked in the last 5 years, we are flirting with disaster. Health care is constantly changing and if we attempt to cover the present with the templates of the past, we will fail. Immersing people in situations where they can share openly with very diverse people and ideas will create the culture consistent with behaviors that eagerly engage in seeking diverse answers to the issues of the future.

  2. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  3. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  4. Stress in the zoo: Tracking the impact of stress on memory formation over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Schwabe, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Although stress is well known to modulate human memory, precisely how memory formation is altered by a stressful encounter remains unclear. Stress effects on cognition are mainly mediated by the rapidly acting sympathetic nervous system, resulting in the release of catecholamines, and the slower acting hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis secreting cortisol, which induces its effects on cognition through fast, non-genomic actions and delayed, genomic actions. Importantly, these different waves of the physiological stress response are thought to dynamically alter neural processing in brain regions important for memory such as the amygdala and the hippocampus. However, the precise time course of stress effects on memory formation is still unclear. To track the development of stress effects on memory over time, we tested individuals who underwent a stressful experience or a control procedure before a 2-h walk through a zoo, while an automatic camera continuously photographed the events they encoded. In a recognition memory test one week later, participants were presented with target photographs of their own zoo tour and lure photographs from an alternate tour. Stressed participants showed better memory for the experimental treatment than control participants, and this memory enhancement for the stressful encounter itself was directly linked to the sympathetic stress response. Moreover, stress enhanced memory for events encoded 41-65min after stressor onset, which was associated with the cortisol stress response, most likely arising from non-genomic cortisol actions. However, memory for events encoded long after the stressor, when genomic cortisol actions had most likely developed, remained unchanged. Our findings provide novel insights into how stress effects on memory formation develop over time, depending on the activity of major physiological stress response systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementing a low-starch biscuit-free diet in zoo gorillas: the impact on behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, E H; Bergl, R; Ball, R; Dennis, P M; Kuhar, C W; Lavin, S R; Raghanti, M A; Wensvoort, J; Willis, M A; Lukas, K E

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, western lowland gorillas travel long distances while foraging and consume a diet high in fiber and low in caloric density. In contrast, gorillas in zoos typically consume a diet that is low in fiber and calorically dense. Some items commonly used in captive gorilla diets contain high levels of starch and sugars, which are present at low levels in the natural diet of gorillas. Diet items high in simple carbohydrates are associated with obesity and heart disease in humans. Typical captive gorilla diets may also encourage undesirable behaviors. In response to these issues, we tested the behavioral impact of a diet that was biscuit-free, had low caloric density, and which was higher in volume at five institutions. We hypothesized that this diet change would reduce abnormal behaviors such as regurgitation and reingestion (R/R), decrease time spent inactive, and increase time spent feeding. The biscuit-free diet significantly reduced (and in the case of one zoo eliminated) R/R and may have reduced hair-plucking behavior. However, an increase in coprophagy was observed in many individuals following the diet change. The experimental diet caused a general increase in time the gorillas spent feeding, but this increase did not occur across all institutions and varied by individual. Interestingly, the overall time gorillas spent inactive actually increased with this diet change. Future research will examine these behavioral changes in a greater number of individuals to determine if the results remain consistent with these preliminary findings. Additionally, future research will examine the physiological impact of this diet change. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Zoo U: A Stealth Approach to Social Skills Assessment in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa E. DeRosier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and evaluation of Zoo U, a novel computer game to assess children’s social skills development. Zoo U is an innovative product that combines theory-driven content and customized game mechanics. The game-like play creates the opportunity for stealth assessment, in which dynamic evidence of social skills is collected in real time and players’ choices during gameplay provide the needed data. To ensure the development of an engaging and valid game, we utilized an iterative data-driven validation process in which the game was created, tested, revised based on student performance and feedback, and retested until game play was statistically matched to independent ratings of social skills. We first investigated whether the data collected through extensive logging of student actions provided information that could be used to improve the assessment. We found that detailed game logs of socially relevant player behavior combined with external measures of player social skills provided an efficient vector to incrementally improve the accuracy of the embedded assessments. Next, we investigated whether the game performance correlated with teachers’ assessments of students’ social skills competencies. An evaluation of the final game showed (a significant correlations between in-game social skills assessments and independently obtained standard psychological assessments of the same students and (b high levels of engagement and likeability for students. These findings support the use of the interactive and engaging computer game format for the stealth assessment of children’s social skills. The created innovative design methodologies should prove useful in the design and improvement of computer games in education.

  7. Radio Galaxy Zoo: Machine learning for radio source host galaxy cross-identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, M. J.; Banfield, J. K.; Ong, C. S.; Rudnick, L.; Wong, O. I.; Wolf, C.; Andernach, H.; Norris, R. P.; Shabala, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the problem of determining the host galaxies of radio sources by cross-identification. This has traditionally been done manually, which will be intractable for wide-area radio surveys like the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU). Automated cross-identification will be critical for these future surveys, and machine learning may provide the tools to develop such methods. We apply a standard approach from computer vision to cross-identification, introducing one possible way of automating this problem, and explore the pros and cons of this approach. We apply our method to the 1.4 GHz Australian Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) observations of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) and the ESO Large Area ISO Survey South 1 (ELAIS-S1) fields by cross-identifying them with the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. We train our method with two sets of data: expert cross-identifications of CDFS from the initial ATLAS data release and crowdsourced cross-identifications of CDFS from Radio Galaxy Zoo. We found that a simple strategy of cross-identifying a radio component with the nearest galaxy performs comparably to our more complex methods, though our estimated best-case performance is near 100 per cent. ATLAS contains 87 complex radio sources that have been cross-identified by experts, so there are not enough complex examples to learn how to cross-identify them accurately. Much larger datasets are therefore required for training methods like ours. We also show that training our method on Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications gives comparable results to training on expert cross-identifications, demonstrating the value of crowdsourced training data.

  8. First insights into the social organisation of Goodman's mouse lemur (Microcebus lehilahytsara)--testing predictions from socio-ecological hypotheses in the Masoala hall of Zurich Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürges, Vivian; Kitzler, Johanne; Zingg, Robert; Radespiel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Following current socio-ecological hypotheses, the social organisation of a species is mainly determined by resource quality and distribution. In the case of Microcebus spp., a taxon-specific socio-ecological model was formulated earlier to explain their variable social organisation. The aim of this study was to test predictions from this model in Goodman's mouse lemur based on a data set from animals living in the semi-free colony of Zurich Zoo. During a 2-month study, we observed 5 females and 5 males using radiotelemetry. We collected data on space use and social behaviour, on sleeping sites and on sleeping group composition. Predictions were only partly confirmed. As expected, Goodman's mouse lemurs were solitary foragers with an increased level of sociality due to crowding effects at the feeding stations. In contrast to the prediction, females and males formed unisexual sleeping groups, which were stable in females and of a fission-fusion type in males. Whereas the formation of sleeping groups by both sexes may be triggered by thermoregulatory benefits, the formation of unisexual sleeping groups may result from divergent interests of the sexes. We conclude that the existing model for the evolution of mouse lemur social organisation needs to be refined. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Animated Reconstruction of Forensic Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Hala, Albert; Unver, Ertu

    1998-01-01

    An animated accident display in court can be significant evidentiary tool. Computer graphics animation reconstructions which can be shown in court are cost effective, save valuable time and illustrate complex and technical issues, are realistic and can prove or disprove arguments or theories with reference to the perplexing newtonian physics involved in many accidents: this technology may well revolutionise accident reconstruction, thus enabling prosecution and defence to be more effective in...

  10. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  11. ["Artificial animals etc." Popular natural history and bourgeois curiosity around 1900].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the 19th and early 20th century zoological gardens ranged among the most prominent places of popular natural history While aristocratic owners of earlier menageries installed animal collections mostly to symbolize their power over nature as well as to display their extensive diplomatic relations, the zoological gardens founded from the 1830s onwards all over Europe by members of the local bourgeois elites were supposed to mediate their social and political values by "enjoyably educating" a broader public. The new zoos were introduced as places at the antipodes of the frenzy, noise and motion of modern urban life, as spaces of pure, authentic nature whose observation would teach people a reasonable and responsible way of life in a civilised bourgeois community. Taking the Berlin Zoo as an example this paper questions these programmatic imaginations by showing how popular Naturkunde (natural history) was informed by cultures of urban entertainment and spectacle. It discusses the numerous relations and productive tensions that evolved out of the establishment of a "realm of nature" in the middle of the ever growing modern metropolis and investigates the consequences the zoo's rise as "the city's most important attraction" around the turn of the century had for the public perception of natural history as well as for the institution's scientific program.

  12. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  13. Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  14. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  15. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  16. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  17. A Community-Based Sensory Training Program Leads to Improved Experience at a Local Zoo for Children with Sensory Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Kong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing difficulties are common among many special needs children, especially those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The sensory sensitivities often result in interference of daily functioning and can lead to social isolation for both the individual and family unit. A quality improvement (QI project was undertaken within a local zoo to systematically implement a sensory training program targeted at helping special needs individuals with sensory challenges, including those with ASD, Down’s syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and speech delay. We piloted the program over a 2-year period. The program consisted of staff training, provision of sensory bags and specific social stories, as well as creation of quiet zones. Two hundred family units were surveyed before and after implementation of the sensory training program. In this pilot QI study, families reported increased visitation to the zoo, improved interactions with staff members, and the overall quality of their experience. In conclusion, we are able to demonstrate that a sensory training program within the community zoo is feasible, impactful, and has the potential to decrease social isolation for special needs individuals and their families.

  18. Gut microbiome composition is associated with cardiac disease in zoo-housed western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krynak, Katherine L; Burke, David J; Martin, Ryan A; Dennis, Patricia M

    2017-08-15

    Cardiac disease is a leading cause of mortality in zoo-housed western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). The gut microbiome is associated with cardiac disease in humans and similarly the gut microbiome may be associated with cardiac diseases in close relatives of humans, such as gorillas. We assessed the relationship between cardiac disease and gut bacterial composition in eight zoo-housed male western lowland gorillas (N = 4 with and N = 4 without cardiac disease) utilizing 16S rRNA gene analysis on the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. We found bacterial composition differences between gorillas with and without cardiac disease. Bacterial operational taxonomic units from phyla Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were significant indicators of cardiac disease. Our results suggest that further investigations between diet and cardiac disease could improve the management and health of zoo-housed populations of this endangered species. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 21 CFR 58.43 - Animal care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... testing facility shall have a sufficient number of animal rooms or areas, as needed, to assure proper: (1... (4) routine or specialized housing of animals. (b) A testing facility shall have a number of animal... shall exist for the collection and disposal of all animal waste and refuse or for safe sanitary storage...

  20. Solid Waste/Disease Relationships, A Literature Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thrift G.

    Presented is a comprehensive survey of the literature on the relationships between disease and solid wastes. Diseases are grouped on the basis of waste type or disease vector, such as chemical waste, human fecal waste, animal fecal waste, rodent-borne disease, mosquito-borne disease and miscellaneous communicable disease. The following format is…

  1. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  2. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Angerman, J.M.; Keenan, W.G.; Linsley, J.G.; Poole, C.M.; Sallese, A.; Simkins, R.C.; Tolle, D.

    1981-01-01

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60 Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60 Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  3. Animal-Assisted Interventions in Dutch Nursing Homes: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Lonneke; Enders-Slegers, Marie-Jose; Verheggen, Theo; Schols, Jos

    2016-07-01

    Animal-assisted interventions (AAI) have become more and more popular in nursing homes in the past decade. Various initiatives for using animals in nursing homes have been developed over the years (eg, animal visiting programs, residential companion animals, petting zoos) and, on the whole, the number of nursing homes that refuse animals on their premises has declined. In this survey, we aimed to determine how many Dutch nursing homes offer AAIs, what type of interventions are used, and with what aim. We also focus on the use of underlying health, hygiene, and (animal) safety protocols. Using an online Dutch nursing home database, we invited all listed (457) nursing home organizations in the Netherlands (encompassing a total of 804 nursing home locations) to participate in our digital survey, powered by SurveyMonkey. The survey consisted of a total of 45 questions, divided into general questions about the use of animals in interventions; the targeted client population(s); and specific questions about goals, guidelines, and protocols. The results were analyzed with SPSS Statistics. In the end, 244 surveys, representing 165 organizations, were returned: 125 nursing homes used AAI in one way or another, 40 did not. Nursing homes that did not offer AAI cited allergy and hygiene concerns as the most important reasons. Most nursing homes offering AAI used visiting animals, mostly dogs (108) or rabbits (76). A smaller number of nursing homes had resident animals, either living on the ward or in a meadow outside. Almost all programs involved animal-assisted activities with a recreational purpose; none of the participating nursing homes provided animal assisted therapy with therapeutic goals. Psychogeriatric patients were most frequently invited to participate. A total of 88 nursing homes used alternatives when animals were not an option or not available. The most popular alternative was the use of stuffed animals (83) followed by FurReal Friends robotic toys (14). The

  4. Pilot-Plant for Energy Recovery from Tropical Waste Food Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimental unit for obtaining gaseous methane from waste food materials is discussed and results are presented for experimental tests with animal wastes and tropical waste food materials. The tropical waste food considered include garri, boiled beans and plantains. As expected, the animal wastes produced higher ...

  5. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  6. Wastes options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, M.

    1992-01-01

    After a description of the EEC environmental policy, some wastes families are described: bio-contaminant wastes (municipal and industrial), hospitals wastes, toxic wastes in dispersed quantities, nuclear wastes (radioactive and thermal), plastics compounds wastes, volatiles organic compounds, hydrocarbons and used solvents. Sources, quantities and treatments are given. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  7. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  8. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human enteric viral infections are considered to be predominantly associated with human wastes, as opposed to animal wastes, and a distinction between these has benefits for water quality control and risk assessment. A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  11. Attitudes of Australian and Turkish veterinary faculty toward animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirli, Serdar; Phillips, Clive J C

    2012-01-01

    The attitudes of veterinary faculty toward animal welfare were surveyed in four Australian and three Turkish veterinary schools. The former were considered to be typical of modern Western schools, with a faculty of more than 40% women and a primary focus on companion animals, whereas the latter were considered to represent more traditional veterinary teaching establishments, with a faculty of 88% men and a primary focus on livestock. A total of 116 faculty responded to the survey (42 Australian and 74 Turkish faculty members), for response rates of 30% and 33%, respectively. This survey included demographic questions as well as questions about attitudes toward animal-welfare issues. Women were more concerned than men about animal-welfare issues, especially the use of animals in experiments, zoos, entertainment, and sports and for food and clothing. Total scores demonstrated different concerns among Turkish and Australian faculty. The study demonstrates that the veterinary faculty of these two countries have different concerns for animal welfare, concerns that should be acknowledged in considering the welfare attitudes that students may adopt.

  12. Galaxy Zoo: the dependence of the star formation-stellar mass relation on spiral disc morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kyle W.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D.; Masters, Karen L.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Melvin, Thomas; Wong, O. Ivy; Nichol, Robert C.; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J.; Fortson, Lucy

    2015-05-01

    We measure the stellar mass-star formation rate (SFR) relation in star-forming disc galaxies at z ≤ 0.085, using Galaxy Zoo morphologies to examine different populations of spirals as classified by their kiloparsec-scale structure. We examine the number of spiral arms, their relative pitch angle, and the presence of a galactic bar in the disc, and show that both the slope and dispersion of the M⋆-SFR relation is constant when varying all the above parameters. We also show that mergers (both major and minor), which represent the strongest conditions for increases in star formation at a constant mass, only boost the SFR above the main relation by ˜0.3 dex; this is significantly smaller than the increase seen in merging systems at z > 1. Of the galaxies lying significantly above the M⋆-SFR relation in the local Universe, more than 50 per cent are mergers. We interpret this as evidence that the spiral arms, which are imperfect reflections of the galaxy's current gravitational potential, are either fully independent of the various quenching mechanisms or are completely overwhelmed by the combination of outflows and feedback. The arrangement of the star formation can be changed, but the system as a whole regulates itself even in the presence of strong dynamical forcing.

  13. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF GALAXY ZOO MERGERS: FREQUENCY OF BINARY ACTIVE NUCLEI IN MASSIVE MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Stacy H. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Bonning, Erin W. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lintott, Chris J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Oh, Kyuseok [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cardamone, Carolin N. [Harriet W. Sheridan Center for Teaching and Learning, Brown University, P.O. Box 1912, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Keel, William C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 206 Gallalee Hall, 514 University Boulevard, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-034 (United States); Simmons, Brooke D. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Treister, Ezequiel, E-mail: stacy.h.teng@nasa.gov [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-07-10

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} that already have optical active galactic nucleus (AGN) signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N{sub H} {approx}< 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (<40 counts per nucleus; f{sub 2-10keV} {approx}< 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGNs in these mergers are rare (0%-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  14. Galaxy Zoo: A Catalog of Overlapping Galaxy Pairs for Dust Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Mezzoprete, Massimo; Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin; Gay, Pamela; Masters, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of galaxies with overlapping images offers a direct way to probe the distribution of dust extinction and its effects on the background light. We present a catalog of 1990 such galaxy pairs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by volunteers of the Galaxy Zoo project. We highlight subsamples which are particularly useful for retrieving such properties of the dust distribution as UV extinction, the extent perpendicular to the disk plane, and extinction in the inner parts of disks. The sample spans wide ranges of morphology and surface brightness, opening up the possibility of using this technique to address systematic changes in dust extinction or distribution with galaxy type. This sample will form the basis for forthcoming work on the ranges of dust distributions in local disk galaxies, both for their astrophysical implications and as the low-redshift part of a study of the evolution of dust properties. Separate lists and figures show deep overlaps, where the inner regions of the foreground galaxy are backlit, and the relatively small number of previously-known overlapping pairs outside the SDSS DR7 sky coverage.

  15. Serum protein electrophoresis values for free-ranging and zoo-based koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Geoffrey W; Ellis, William; Fitzgibbon, Sean; Opitz, Brian; Keener, Laura; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    In a clinical setting, especially with species of special interest, it is important to use all clinical pathology testing options for general health monitoring and diagnosis. Protein electrophoresis (EPH) has previously been shown to be an important adjunct tool in veterinary medicine. Serum samples from 18 free-ranging and 12 zoo-based koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) were subject to EPH analysis. Significant differences were found between the two groups for the following values: total protein, albumin, beta globulins, and albumin-globulin ratio (P < 0.05). By using the combined data, the minimum-maximum values for the EPH fractions were as follows: total protein 5.0-7.8 g/dl, albumin 2.8-4.7 g/dl, alpha-1 globulins 0.5-1.1 g/dl, alpha-2 globulins 0.3-0.7 g/dl, beta globulins 0.4-1.0 g/dl, gamma globulins 0.2-1.0 g/dl, and albumin-globulin ratio 1.0-2.1.

  16. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  17. Avaliação do cultivo de Pleurotus sajor-caju (fries sing. sobre o resíduo de algodão da industria têxtil para a produção de cogumelos e para alimentação animal Evaluation of the cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju (fries sing. on cotton textile mill waste for mushroom production and animal feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenderson Corradi de Mattos Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O resíduo proveniente do beneficiamento do algodão em lixadeiras na indústria têxtil é um material rico em lignocelulose, tem baixa digestibilidade e é pobre em proteínas e minerais, o que dificulta seu uso 'in natura' na alimentação de ruminantes. Neste tarbalho, objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade e eficiência biológica deste resíduo de algodão na produção do cogumelo comestível Pleurotus sajor-caju e avaliar as alterações promovidas no resíduo para alimentação de ruminantes. Foram realizados 5 tratamentos: T1- 80% de serragem de eucalipto + 20% de farelo de trigo (testemunha; T2- 50% de resíduo de algodão + 50% de serragem; T3- 45% de resíduo + 45% serragem + 10% de farelo; T4- 40% de resíduo + 40% serragem + 20% de farelo e T5- 80% de resíduo + 20% de farelo. O T5 apresentou os melhores resultados para produtividade (22,46% e eficiência biológica (71,48% do Pleurotus sajor-caju. O fungo alterou a constituição dos substratos nos estágios de produção do cogumelo, principalmente os constituintes da fibra e agregou N ao substrato. Dessa forma, o uso do resíduo de lixadeira de algodão no cultivo de Pleurotus sajor-caju pode se tornar uma alternativa viável para produção de cogumelo e melhorar a qualidade deste resíduo para alimentação animal.The waste coming from cotton processing in mills in the textile industry is a lignocellulose-rich material, but has low digestibility, and is poor in proteins and minerals, making it inappropriate for ruminant feeding. This study was intended to evaluate the productivity and biologic efficiency of cotton textile mill waste in the production of the edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju, and to evaluate the alterations brought about in the waste for use in ruminant feeding. Five treatments were undertaken in the following manner: T1- 80% eucalyptus sawdust + 20% wheat bran (control; T2- 50% waste + 50% sawdust; T3- 45% waste + 45% sawdust + 10% wheat bran; T4- 40% waste

  18. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  19. Animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ellen A

    2010-01-01

    As clinical studies reveal that chemotherapeutic agents may impair several different cognitive domains in humans, the development of preclinical animal models is critical to assess the degree of chemotherapy-induced learning and memory deficits and to understand the underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, the effects of various cancer chemotherapeutic agents in rodents on sensory processing, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned emotional response, passive avoidance, spatial learning, cued memory, discrimination learning, delayed-matching-to-sample, novel-object recognition, electrophysiological recordings and autoshaping is reviewed. It appears at first glance that the effects of the cancer chemotherapy agents in these many different models are inconsistent. However, a literature is emerging that reveals subtle or unique changes in sensory processing, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval that are dose- and time-dependent. As more studies examine cancer chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination during repeated treatment regimens, the animal models will become more predictive tools for the assessment of these impairments and the underlying neural mechanisms. The eventual goal is to collect enough data to enable physicians to make informed choices about therapeutic regimens for their patients and discover new avenues of alternative or complementary therapies that reduce or eliminate chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits.

  20. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest. A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40% and 5 (34% categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2. The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  1. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  2. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    transmission routes and 18 direct contact routes in the overall Danish population and in four risk groups. The risk groups (RGs) encompassed (1) people consuming raw cow milk or unpasteurized dairy products, (2) people consuming raw goat milk and unpasteurised goat and sheep products, (3) people having daily...... direct contact with farm animals, and (4) children visiting a petting zoo. Results suggest that individuals belonging to the risk groups were more exposed than the overall population, specifically (in presented order) individuals from RG1 with between 5 and 14 years of age, and other age categories...

  3. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...... household per week), (b) percentage composition of food waste based on the total food waste, and (c) percentage composition of food waste based on the total residual household waste. The Pearson correlation test showed different results when different datasets are used, whereas the log-ratio analysis showed...... was collected by sampling and sorting residual household waste in Denmark. The food waste was subdivided into three fractions: (1) avoidable vegetable food waste, (2) avoidable animal-derive food waste, and (3) avoidable food waste. The correlation was carried out using: (a) the amount of food waste (kg per...

  4. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  5. Creation and validation of a novel body condition scoring method for the magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the zoo setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Julie; Sanchez, Jessica N

    2015-11-01

    This research aims to validate a novel, visual body scoring system created for the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) suitable for the zoo practitioner. Magellanics go through marked seasonal fluctuations in body mass gains and losses. A standardized multi-variable visual body condition guide may provide a more sensitive and objective assessment tool compared to the previously used single variable method. Accurate body condition scores paired with seasonal weight variation measurements give veterinary and keeper staff a clearer understanding of an individual's nutritional status. San Francisco Zoo staff previously used a nine-point body condition scale based on the classic bird standard of a single point of keel palpation with the bird restrained in hand, with no standard measure of reference assigned to each scoring category. We created a novel, visual body condition scoring system that does not require restraint to assesses subcutaneous fat and muscle at seven body landmarks using illustrations and descriptive terms. The scores range from one, the least robust or under-conditioned, to five, the most robust, or over-conditioned. The ratio of body weight to wing length was used as a "gold standard" index of body condition and compared to both the novel multi-variable and previously used single-variable body condition scores. The novel multi-variable scale showed improved agreement with weight:wing ratio compared to the single-variable scale, demonstrating greater accuracy, and reliability when a trained assessor uses the multi-variable body condition scoring system. Zoo staff may use this tool to manage both the colony and the individual to assist in seasonally appropriate Magellanic penguin nutrition assessment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Rickets in lion cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: some new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Russell W; Hedberg, Gail

    2009-05-01

    In 1889, when Dr John Bland-Sutton, a prominent surgeon in London, England, was consulted concerning fatal rickets in more than 20 successive litters of lion cubs at the London Zoo, he evaluated the role of diet relative to the development of rickets. He prescribed goat meat and bones and cod-liver oil to be added to the lean horse-meat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets reversed, the cubs survived, and litters were reared successfully. In classic controlled studies conducted in puppies and young rats 3 decades later, the crucial role of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D in both prevention and therapy of rickets was elucidated. Later studies led to the identification of the structural features of vitamin D. Although the Bland-Sutton interventional diet obviously provides calcium and phosphate from bones and vitamin D from cod-liver oil, other benefits of this diet were not initially recognized. Chewing bones promotes tooth and gum health and removes bacteria-laden tartar. Cod-liver oil also contains vitamin A, which is essential for the prevention of infection and for epithelial cell health. Taurine-conjugated bile salts are also necessary for the intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including A and D. Moreover, unlike dogs and rats, all feline species are unable to synthesize taurine yet can only conjugate bile acids with taurine. This sulfur-containing beta-amino acid must be provided in the carnivorous diet of a large cat. Taurine-conjugated bile salts were provided in the oil cold-pressed from cod liver. The now famous Bland-Sutton "experiment of nature," namely, fatal rickets in lion cubs, was cured by the addition of minerals and vitamin D. However, gum health and the presence of taurine-conjugated bile salts undoubtedly permitted absorption of vitamin A and D, the latter promoting the cure of rickets.

  7. Spontaneous cross-species imitation in interactions between chimpanzees and zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Tomas; Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina; Madsen, Elainie Alenkær

    2018-01-01

    Imitation is a cornerstone of human development, serving both a cognitive function (e.g. in the acquisition and transmission of skills and knowledge) and a social-communicative function, whereby the imitation of familiar actions serves to maintain social interaction and promote prosociality. In nonhuman primates, this latter function is poorly understood, or even claimed to be absent. In this observational study, we documented interactions between chimpanzees and zoo visitors and found that the two species imitated each other at a similar rate, corresponding to almost 10% of all produced actions. Imitation appeared to accomplish a social-communicative function, as cross-species interactions that contained imitative actions lasted significantly longer than interactions without imitation. In both species, physical proximity promoted cross-species imitation. Overall, imitative precision was higher among visitors than among chimpanzees, but this difference vanished in proximity contexts, i.e. in the indoor environment. Four of five chimpanzees produced imitations; three of them exhibited comparable imitation rates, despite large individual differences in level of cross-species interactivity. We also found that chimpanzees evidenced imitation recognition, yet only when visitors imitated their actions (as opposed to postures). Imitation recognition was expressed by returned imitation in 36% of the cases, and all four imitating chimpanzees engaged in so-called imitative games. Previously regarded as unique to early human socialization, such games serve to maintain social engagement. The results presented here indicate that nonhuman apes exhibit spontaneous imitation that can accomplish a communicative function. The study raises a number of novel questions for imitation research and highlights the imitation of familiar behaviours as a relevant-yet thus far understudied-research topic.

  8. Chimpanzees create and modify probe tools functionally: A study with zoo-housed chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Tennie, Claudio; Ross, Stephen R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2015-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use tools to probe for out-of-reach food, both in the wild and in captivity. Beyond gathering appropriately-sized materials to create tools, chimpanzees also perform secondary modifications in order to create an optimized tool. In this study, we recorded the behavior of a group of zoo-housed chimpanzees when presented with opportunities to use tools to probe for liquid foods in an artificial termite mound within their enclosure. Previous research with this group of chimpanzees has shown that they are proficient at gathering materials from within their environment in order to create tools to probe for the liquid food within the artificial mound. Extending beyond this basic question, we first asked whether they only made and modified probe tools when it was appropriate to do so (i.e. when the mound was baited with food). Second, by collecting continuous data on their behavior, we also asked whether the chimpanzees first (intentionally) modified their tools prior to probing for food or whether such modifications occurred after tool use, possibly as a by-product of chewing and eating the food from the tools. Following our predictions, we found that tool modification predicted tool use; the chimpanzees began using their tools within a short delay of creating and modifying them, and the chimpanzees performed more tool modifying behaviors when food was available than when they could not gain food through the use of probe tools. We also discuss our results in terms of the chimpanzees' acquisition of the skills, and their flexibility of tool use and learning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Radio Galaxy Zoo: compact and extended radio source classification with deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukic, V.; Brüggen, M.; Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Rudnick, L.; Norris, R. P.; Simmons, B.

    2018-05-01

    Machine learning techniques have been increasingly useful in astronomical applications over the last few years, for example in the morphological classification of galaxies. Convolutional neural networks have proven to be highly effective in classifying objects in image data. In the context of radio-interferometric imaging in astronomy, we looked for ways to identify multiple components of individual sources. To this effect, we design a convolutional neural network to differentiate between different morphology classes using sources from the Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ) citizen science project. In this first step, we focus on exploring the factors that affect the performance of such neural networks, such as the amount of training data, number and nature of layers, and the hyperparameters. We begin with a simple experiment in which we only differentiate between two extreme morphologies, using compact and multiple-component extended sources. We found that a three-convolutional layer architecture yielded very good results, achieving a classification accuracy of 97.4 per cent on a test data set. The same architecture was then tested on a four-class problem where we let the network classify sources into compact and three classes of extended sources, achieving a test accuracy of 93.5 per cent. The best-performing convolutional neural network set-up has been verified against RGZ Data Release 1 where a final test accuracy of 94.8 per cent was obtained, using both original and augmented images. The use of sigma clipping does not offer a significant benefit overall, except in cases with a small number of training images.

  10. Gastrointestinal torsions and intussusception in northern koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) at San Diego Zoo (1976-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Roesler, Jennifer; Andrus, Chris Hamlin; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Rideout, Bruce A; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2014-03-01

    The recent classification as threatened status of the northern koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) by the Australian Government highlights the importance of the conservation and health management of this iconic Australian marsupial. This case series describes gastrointestinal torsion and intussusception in six northern koalas (three males, three females, 2-11 yr old) at the San Diego Zoo from 1976 to 2012. Two koalas died shortly after presentation. Diagnoses of ileocecal intussusception, resulting from enteritis in one case and cecal torsion in the other, were made at postmortem examination. One koala died 4 days after an exploratory laparotomy, with negative findings, and an acute double colonic intussusception was diagnosed at postmortem examination. Two small intestinal mesenteric torsion and one proximal colon mesenteric torsion cases were successfully corrected surgically. In the case of colonic mesenteric torsion, the koala had recurrent clinical signs 2 wk later, and a second surgery requiring resection and anastomosis of ischemic jejunum was performed, with the koala dying shortly afterward. One koala with small intestinal torsion had a recurrence of torsion 22 mo later and subsequently died. The koala with the second case of small intestinal torsion remains alive 14 mo postsurgical correction. All six koalas presented with signs of colic that included anorexia, lethargy, depression, acute abdominal distension, abdominal stretching, decreased fecal output, open-mouth gasping, or a combination of symptoms. Abdominal radiographs may show stacked gastrointestinal linear gas patterns and contrast stasis. Prevalence of torsion and intussusception is low at this institution (2%), although recurrence in individuals is common (50%) and overall survival is poor (83%), which emphasizes the importance of timely recognition, surgical correction, and postoperative management. While inciting etiologies were unable to be determined in these cases, monitoring generalized

  11. Human Zoos or Ethnic Shows? Essence and contingency in Living Ethnological Exhibitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Luis A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the living ethnological exhibitions. The main feature of these multiform varieties of public show, which became widespread in late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century Europe and the United States, was the live presence of individuals who were considered “primitive”. Whilst these native peoples sometimes gave demonstrations of their skills or produced manufactures for the audience, more often their role was simply as exhibits, to display their bodies and gestures, their different and singular condition. In this article, the three main forms of modern ethnic show (commercial, colonial and missionary will be presented, together with a warning about the inadequacy of categorising all such spectacles under the label of “human zoos”, a term which has become common in both academic and media circles in recent years.El objetivo del artículo es estudiar las exhibiciones etnológicas vivas, una multiforme modalidad de espectáculo público que se extiende durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y la primera mitad del XX y que presenta como característica esencial la presentación “en vivo” de individuos considerados primitivos. Aunque tales personajes, los nativos, en ocasiones ejecutan ciertas destrezas o elaboran determinadas manufacturas de cara al público, lo más habitual es que su único cometido sea mostrarse a sí mismos, exhibir sus cuerpos y sus gestos, su condición diferente y singular. Revisamos las tres principales formas de show étnico moderno (comercial, colonial y misional y advertimos sobre lo inadecuado de englobar todos estos espectáculos bajo el calificativo de “zoos humanos”, expresión que se ha extendido tanto en el ámbito académico como en el mediático durante los últimos años.

  12. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupkiewicz, J G; Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Mowery, J; Davison, S; Habecker, P; Georoff, T A; Ialeggio, D M; Dubey, J P

    2016-01-30

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and free merozoites were identified in liver. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that schizonts were in hepatocytes. A few schizonts were in spleen. PCR using S. calchasi-specific primers confirmed the diagnosis. Neither lesions nor protozoa were found in brain and muscles. This is the first report of acute visceral S. calchasi-associated sarcocystosis in naturally infected avian hosts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. SPLETNO OGLAŠEVANJE S POUDARKOM NA SOCIALNIH OMREŽJIH: PRIMER SPLETNE TRGOVINE ZOO MARKET REX

    OpenAIRE

    Duh, Tjaša

    2012-01-01

    V diplomskem seminarju z naslovom Spletno oglaševanje s poudarkom na socialnih omrežjih smo se osredotočili na metode spletnega oglaševanja, raziskali prednosti in slabosti ter teoretična izhodišča povezali s primerom spletne trgovine Zoo Market Rex. V današnjem sodobnem in konkurenčnem okolju postaja elektronsko poslovanje vse bolj razširjena oblika poslovanja. Najpogostejši obliki sta spletna trgovina in spletno oglaševanje. Internet je medij prihodnosti in prav s tega vidika je smiselna vz...

  14. The Influence of Zoo- And Phytocomponents in the Phraseology of the Pyrenean Variety of Spanish on Shaping Mexican Phraseological Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Луиза Нахидовна Гишкаева

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of one of the most fascinating and entertaining spheres of phraseology - the sphere of set phrases with “natural” components: faunistic and floristic. The analysis of the phraseological units containing zoo- and phytocomponents, is directed on comprehensive investigation of properties of set phrases, identification of essence and specificity of a national and cultural view of the Spanish and Mexican people’s world. In this research it is used complex comparative studying of phraseological units with the point of linguoculturological positions that corresponds to the modern, actual and perspective directions of communicative linguistics.

  15. Response of hatchling Komodo Dragons (Varanus komodoensis) at Denver Zoo to visual and chemical cues arising from prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiszar, David; Krauss, Susan; Shipley, Bryon; Trout, Tim; Smith, Hobart M

    2009-01-01

    Five hatchling Komodo Dragons (Varanus komodoensis) at Denver Zoo were observed in two experiments that studied the effects of visual and chemical cues arising from prey. Rate of tongue flicking was recorded in Experiment 1, and amount of time the lizards spent interacting with stimuli was recorded in Experiment 2. Our hypothesis was that young V. komodoensis would be more dependent upon vision than chemoreception, especially when dealing with live, moving, prey. Although visual cues, including prey motion, had a significant effect, chemical cues had a far stronger effect. Implications of this falsification of our initial hypothesis are discussed.

  16. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter formation of wastes and basic concepts of non-radioactive waste management are explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: People in Peril; Self-regulation of nature as a guide for minimizing and recycling waste; The current waste management situation in the Slovak Republic; Categorization and determination of the type of waste in legislative of Slovakia; Strategic directions waste management in the Slovak Republic.

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  19. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals.

  20. Galaxy Zoo: Comparing the visual morphology of synthetic galaxies from the Illustris simulation with those in the real Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Hugh; Lintott, Chris; Scarlata, Claudia; Fortson, Lucy; Bamford, Steven; Cardamone, Carolin; Keel, William C.; Kruk, Sandor; Masters, Karen; Simmons, Brooke D.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Torrey, Paul; Snyder, Gregory; Galaxy Zoo Science Team

    2018-01-01

    We present a comparision between the Illustris simulations and classifications from Galaxy Zoo, aiming to test the ability of modern large-scale cosmological simulations to accurately reproduce the local galaxy population. This comparison is enabled by the increasingly high spatial and temporal resolution obtained by such surveys.Using classifications that were accumulated via the Galaxy Zoo citizen science interface, we compare the visual morphologies for simulated images of Illustris galaxies with a compatible sample of images drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Legacy Survey.For simulated galaxies with stellar masses less than 1011 M⊙, significant differences are identified, which are most likely due to the limited resolution of the simulation, but could be revealing real differences in the dynamical evolution of populations of galaxies in the real and model universes. Above 1011 M⊙, Illustris galaxy morphologies correspond better with those of their SDSS counterparts, although even in this mass range the simulation appears to underproduce obviously disk-like galaxies. Morphologies of Illustris galaxies less massive than 1011 M⊙ should be treated with care.

  1. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  4. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  5. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Roth, Terri L; Bauer, Stuart J; Lane, Adam; Romick-Rosendale, Lindsey E

    2016-01-01

    A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD), or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3), including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4). Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30) and unhealthy (n = 13). A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for animal health

  6. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Watanabe

    Full Text Available A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD, or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3, including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4. Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30 and unhealthy (n = 13. A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for

  7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  8. An Examination of Intrinsic Existence Value towards Wildlife of Columbus Zoo and Aquariums Tourists: Evaluating the Impact of behind the Scenes Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Robert Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Changes in climate and the corresponding environmental issues are major concerns facing the world today. Human consumption, which is leading the rapid depletion of the earth's finite resources and causing a dramatic loss of biodiversity, is largely to blame (Pearson, Lowry, Dorrian, & Litchfield, 2014). American zoos and aquariums are…

  9. Learning Achievement and Motivation in an Out-of-School Setting--Visiting Amphibians and Reptiles in a Zoo Is More Effective than a Lesson at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschmann, Stephanie; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian; Itzek-Greulich, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Interventions in out-of-school settings have been shown in previous studies to effectively increase students' science knowledge and motivation, with mixed results on whether they are more effective than teaching at school. In this study, we compared an out-of-school setting in a reptile and amphibian zoo (Landau, Germany) with a sequence of…

  10. Use of ecological bag as a didactic resource of the “Quinzinho de Barros” zoo for the environmental education in non-formal learning spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Cherutti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sorocaba’s Zoo has been developing several environmental education programs for students and for the teachers’ continuing education, being one of these programs, the oriented visit. This visit has as target to promote the interaction between the public and the Zoo visitors guide during the tour by the Zoo’s different areas. In this tour the ecological bags are used with the finality of showing several concepts related to the environmental conservation, this way, educating the students for the visit. This environmental project researched the application of the ecological bag as teaching and learning resource tool during the oriented visit. Two group visits of six and eight year old students from public schools were guided and oriented. The data occurred with a group which used previously the ecological bag in their respective classrooms at school, and an other group which just visited the Zoo and did not make any use of the ecological bag. The tools used were the interview and observations performed with the zoo guide, students and teachers from both groups. After analysis of the data obtained, it was concluded that the ecological bag is an important didactical resource if linked to the school activities in the assimilation of the concepts presented in this research.

  11. A comprehensive and precise quantification of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) for intensive live feed cultures using an automated ZooImage system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Minh Thi Thuy; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2014-01-01

    culturing parameters in intensive A. tonsa culture such as hatching success, mortality rate, development rate, and reproduction output of A. tonsa can be calculated automatically. Moreover, ZooImage is set up with an inexpensive desktop scanner and computer that can easily be applied in aquaculture...

  12. Tritium monitoring equipments for animal experiment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroo

    1980-01-01

    Animal experiment facilities using tritium are described with reference to laws and regulations concerning radiological safety. Usual breeding facilities and surrounding conditions at non-radioactive animal experiments are summarized on feasible and effective designs of tritium monitors. Characteristics and desirable arrangements of various kinds of tritium monitors such as ionization chambers, proportional counters and liquid scintillation detectors are discussed from the standpoint of monitoring for room, glove-box, stack, liquid waste and personnel. (J.P.N.)

  13. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  14. Mining wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, J.

    1981-01-01

    In this article mining wastes means wastes obtained during extraction and processing of uranium ores including production of uraniferous concentrates. The hazards for the population are irradiation, ingestion, dust or radon inhalation. The different wastes produced are reviewed. Management of liquid effluents, water treatment, contamined materials, gaseous wastes and tailings are examined. Environmental impact of wastes during and after exploitation is discussed. Monitoring and measurements are made to verify that ICRP recommendations are met. Studies in progress to improve mining waste management are given [fr

  15. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  16. Durham Zoo: Powering a Search-&-Innovation Engine with Collective Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Absalom

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Durham Zoo (hereinafter – DZ is a project to design and operate a concept search engine for science and technology. In DZ, a concept includes a solution to a problem in a particular context.Design – Concept searching is rendered complex by the fuzzy nature of a concept, the many possible implementations of the same concept, and the many more ways that the many implementations can be expressed in natural language. An additional complexity is the diversity of languages and formats, in which the concepts can be disclosed.Humans understand language, inference, implication and abstraction and, hence, concepts much better than computers, that in turn are much better at storing and processing vast amounts of data.We are 7 billion on the planet and we have the Internet as the backbone for Collective Intelligence. So, our concept search engine uses humans to store concepts via a shorthand that can be stored, processed and searched by computers: so, humans IN and computers OUT.The shorthand is classification: metadata in a structure that can define the content of a disclosure. The classification is designed to be powerful in terms of defining and searching concepts, whilst suited to a crowdsourcing effort. It is simple and intuitive to use. Most importantly, it is adapted to restrict ambiguity, which is the poison of classification, without imposing a restrictive centralised management.In the classification scheme, each entity is shown together in a graphical representation with related entities. The entities are arranged on a sliding scale of similarity. This sliding scale is effectively fuzzy classification.Findings – The authors of the paper have been developing a first classification scheme for the technology of traffic cones, this in preparation for a trial of a working system. The process has enabled the authors to further explore the practicalities of concept classification. The CmapTools knowledge modelling kit to develop the

  17. Control of an exotic tick (Aponomma komodoense) infestation in a Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exhibit at a zoo in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Michael J; Simmons, Leigh-Anne; Condie, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    A protocol was developed to control an exotic tick (Aponomma komodoense) infestation on three Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) at a Florida zoo without direct application of acaricides to the lizards. With the Komodo dragons secured within their indoor pens, their outdoor enclosures and the exhibition area were sprayed with a formulation of permethrin prepared specifically for use with reptiles. Once the acaricide had dried, the Komodo dragons were allowed to return to their outdoor enclosures, whereupon the indoor pens were closed and sprayed with the same formulation. After this initial treatment, the outdoor and indoor areas were retreated every 2 wk and 8-10 wk, respectively, for 6 mo. The initial on-host and off-host tick count of 301 ticks fell to 0 ticks after 6 mo. No adverse effects of the acaricide treatment were observed on the lizards during daily monitoring.

  18. Evaluation of Trichoderma harzanium treated cassava waste on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Microbial Biotechnology and Dairy Science Laboratory, Department of Animal ... Trichoderma treated cassava waste was beneficial to lactating West African dwarf goats. .... Animals that did not show any signs of heat were.

  19. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  20. Aggressive behavior and hair cortisol levels in captive Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas) as animal-based welfare indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Marina; Temple, Déborah; Abáigar, Teresa; Cuadrado, Mariano; Delclaux, Maria; Enseñat, Conrad; Almagro, Vanessa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Carbajal, Annaïs; Tallo-Parra, Oriol; Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Amat, Marta; Lopez-Bejar, Manel; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Manteca, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    Ensuring welfare in captive wild animal populations is important not only for ethical and legal reasons, but also to maintain healthy individuals and populations. An increased level of social behaviors such as aggression can reduce welfare by causing physical damage and chronic stress to animals. Recently, cortisol in hair has been advanced as a non-invasive indicator to quantify long-lasting stress in many species. The sensitivity of social behavior and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated in several groups of dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas). Four different groups of gazelles from three different zoos were observed and the expression of intra-specific affiliative and negative social behaviors was assessed across the different groups. Hair samples were taken from sub-groups of animals and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Significant differences between groups of dorcas gazelles were found in frequency of negative social behavior and hair cortisol concentration. Despite the low sample size, these two parameters had a positive Spearman correlation coefficient (r s  = +0.80, P = 0.20). These results suggest that hair cortisol levels are sensitive to differences in the social structure of dorcas gazelles. Zoo Biol. 35:467-473, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  2. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  3. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  4. Can captive populations function as sources of genetic variation for reintroductions into the wild? A case study of the Arabian oryx from the Phoenix Zoo and the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Alexander; Wells, Stuart A.; West, Gary; Al-Smadi, Ma’en; Redondo, Sergio A.; Sexton, Sydnee R.; Culver, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) historically ranged across the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries until its extirpation in 1972. In 1963–1964 a captive breeding program for this species was started at the Phoenix Zoo (PHX); it ultimately consisted of 11 animals that became known as the ‘World Herd’. In 1978–1979 a wild population was established at the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve (SWR), Jordan, with eight descendants from the World Herd and three individuals from Qatar. We described the mtDNA and nuclear genetic diversity and structure of PHX and SWR. We also determined the long-term demographic and genetic viability of these populations under different reciprocal translocation scenarios. PHX displayed a greater number of mtDNA haplotypes (n = 4) than SWR (n = 2). Additionally, PHX and SWR presented nuclear genetic diversities of N¯AN¯A = 2.88 vs. 2.75, H¯OH¯O = 0.469 vs. 0.387, and H¯EH¯E = 0.501 vs. 0.421, respectively. Although these populations showed no signs of inbreeding (F¯ISF¯IS ≈ 0), they were highly differentiated (G′′STGST′′ = 0.580; P populations can function as sources of genetic variation for reintroduction programs, we recommend promoting mutual and continuous gene flow with wild populations to ensure the long-term survival of this species.

  5. Comparative Study of Biogas Yield Pattern in Some Animal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was a laboratory based work which compared Biogas yield patterns in some animal and household wastes. The parameters studied included dilution and concentration of substrates, the effect of available space in the digester, and the comparative biogas yield from different wastes. The method of research ...

  6. Drying equipment for radioisotope-treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikake, Toshio; Ohmori, Akira; Takada, Yukio; Nakano, Shozoh; Tamai, Shinsuke.

    1978-01-01

    The animal experiments using radioisotopes have been carried out over wide fields, accordingly, the number of radioisotope-contaminated animal cadavers has been increasing rapidly. It was decided that each establishment employing radioiosotopes dries those cadavers to such state as to be able to burn up with the device in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The animal waste-drying device meeting the above mentioned purpose was developed by the joint work of Fuji Electric General Devices Co. and Fuji Electric Co. It is known as the micro-wave drying device for animals (its nickname is Microdry). This device dehydrates at high speed by micro-wave drying method. By using along with a moisture detector, it gives the drying state as requested regardless of the water content of each animal. The animal wastes after perfect dehydration are reduced to the weight of about one-third, and the dried animal cadavers can be preserved for a long time at room temperature because of the sterilizing effect of the micro-wave heating. This device is noted for its excellent safeness, simple operation, and low treatment cost. It is anticipated that it can be further applied to other fields such as excreta, breeding materials, etc. (Kobatake, H.)

  7. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  9. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous types of waste are produced by the nuclear industry ranging from high-level radioactive and heat-generating, HLW, to very low-level, LLW and usually very bulky wastes. These may be in solid, liquid or gaseous phases and require different treatments. Waste management practices have evolved within commercial and environmental constraints resulting in considerable reduction in discharges. (UK)

  10. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  11. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  17. Waste minimisation. Home digestion trials of biodegradable waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bench, M.L.; Woodard, R.; Harder, M.K.; Stantzos, N. [Waste and Energy Research Group (WERG), Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Brighton, East Sussex BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    Minimisation of municipal solid waste and diversion from landfill are necessary for the UK to manage waste sustainably and achieve legislative compliance. A survey of householder attitudes and experiences of a trial for minimising household food waste from waste collection in the county of West Sussex, UK is described. The minimisation method used the Green Cone food digester, designed for garden installation. A postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 householders who had bought a cone during the trial and a total of 433 responses were received. The main reason for people buying the Green Cone had been concerns about waste (88%), with 78% and 67% of respondents, respectively, claiming to have participated in recycling and home composting in the last 30 days. The waste material most frequently put in the digester was cooked food (91%), followed by fruit waste, vegetable matter and bones/meat. Some respondents were using it for garden and animal waste from pets. Most users found the Green Cone performed satisfactorily. Approximately, 60% of respondents had seen a reduction of 25-50% in the amount of waste they normally put out for collection, with analysis showing reported levels of reduction to be significant (p<0.05). Additional weight surveys by householders recorded an average of 2.7kg/(hweek) diverted to the food digester.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, P N

    1984-01-01

    Farm digesters can operate satisfactorily and have a useful role on the farm. Gas production from the farm digester treating animal slurries could be boosted by adding silage liquid, old potatoes, waste cabbages and other crop wastes to the slurry, although the energy economics of maceration have not been calculated. Pollution control and types of digester are discussed. Uses of digested slurry other than for fertilizers are being tested - as protein supplement to farm animal feeds, silage making, hydroponics, fish farming and growing of worms on algae. Overall, digestion could be a contributor to power requirements especially in countries with high all year round crop production.

  19. Electronic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    E-waste amount is growing at about 4% annually, and has become the fastest growing waste stream in the industrialized world. Over 50 million tons of e-waste are produced globally each year, and some of them end up in landfills causing danger of toxic chemicals leakage over time. E-waste is also sent to developing countries where informal processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) causes serious health and pollution problems. A huge interest in recovery of valuable metals from WEEE is clearly visible in a great number of scientific, popular scientific publications or government and industrial reports.

  20. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  1. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  2. Identification of snake arenaviruses in live boas and pythons in a zoo in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqrawi, T; Stöhr, A C; Knauf-Witzens, T; Krengel, A; Heckers, K O; Marschang, R E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have described the detection and characterisation of new, snake specific arenaviruses in boas and pythons with inclusion body disease (IBD). The objective of this study was to detect arenaviral RNA in live snakes and to determine if these were associated with IBD in all cases. Samples for arenavirus detection in live animals were compared. Detected viruses were compared in order to understand their genetic variability. Esophageal swabs and whole blood was collected from a total of 28 boas and pythons. Samples were tested for arenaviral RNA by RT-PCR. Blood smears from all animals were examined for the presence of inclusion bodies. Internal tissues from animals that died or were euthanized during the study were examined for inclusions and via RT-PCR for arenaviral RNA. All PCR products were sequenced and the genomic sequences phylogenetically analysed. Nine live animals were found to be arenavirus-positive. Two additional snakes tested positive following necropsy. Five new arenaviruses were detected and identified. The detected viruses were named "Boa Arenavirus Deutschland (Boa Av DE) numbers 1-4" and one virus detected in a python (Morelia viridis) was named "Python Av DE1". Results from sequence analyses revealed considerable similarities to a portion of the glycoprotein genes of recently identified boid snake arenaviruses. Both oral swabs and whole blood can be used for the detection of arenaviruses in snakes. In most cases, but not in all, the presence of arenaviral RNA correlated with the presence of inclusions in the tissues of infected animals. There was evidence that some animals may be able to clear arenavirus infection without development of IBD. This is the first detection of arenaviruses in live snakes. The detection of arenaviruses in live snakes is of importance for both disease detection and prevention and for use in quarantine situations. The findings in this study support the theory that arenaviruses are the cause of IBD, but

  3. Radioisotope waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Tadashi

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Safety Bureau established the policy entitled ''On Common Processing System of Radioactive Wastes'' consulting with the Liaison Committee of Radioactive Waste Processing. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) had been discussing the problems required for the establishment of the common disposal facilities based on the above policy, and they started the organization in spring, 1978. It is a foundation borrowing equipments from JAERI though installing newly some of them not available from JAERI, and depending the fund on JRIA. The operation expenses will be borne by those who want to dispose the wastes produced. The staffs are sent out from JAERI and JRIA. For animal wastes contaminated with RI, formaldehyde dipping should be abolished, but drying and freezing procedures will be taken before they are burnt up in a newly planned exclusive furnace with disposing capacity of 50 kg/hour. To settle the problems of other wastes, enough understanding and cooperation of users are to be requested. (Kobatake, H.)

  4. Solid waste management - Pakistan's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    2003-01-01

    The discipline of 'Solid Waste Management' is as old as human civilization itself. The problem had been felt when the human beings commenced living together in the form of communities. The situation got worsened with ever-increasing population and growing industrialization. The developed nations have endeavored to tackle the issue of the industrial and municipal wastes according to the principles of engineering and environment. Most of the developing countries have not dealt with the 'Third Pollution' in the eco-friendly manner. Ironically Pakistan is facing this serious menace because of ever-expanding population (2.2% per annum) and ill management of the wastes and effluents being generated from multifarious activities. These pollutants are degrading the land, air and water resources at alarming rates. In Pakistan about 7,250 tonnes of solid waste is generated per day. Of this quantity only 60-70% is collected and the remaining quantity is allowed to burn indiscriminately or decay in situ. Unfortunately the industrial waste, animal dung and hospital waste are allowed to mix with the municipal waste, which adds to inefficiency of the existing 'Solid Waste Management System'. Scores of faecal, fly, rodent and mosquito born diseases are caused due to open dumping of the waste besides aesthetic impairment of the surroundings. None of the scientifically recognized methods of disposal is practiced. It is not based on administrative, financial, environmental and technical consideration. There is dire necessity of educating the masses to adopt clean habits and resort to generation of minimum waste. Further, nothing is waste as the so-called 'waste material' is the raw material after reuse and recycling for another process. (author)

  5. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  6. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  7. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  9. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... last rabies vaccination, if known any recent unusual behavior by the animal the animal's location, if known if the animal ... Scratches First Aid: Cuts First Aid: Skin Infections Cat Scratch ... Safe Around Animals Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions Rabies Cuts, Scratches, and ...

  10. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  11. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  12. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  13. Domestic Waste: Sources, Effects, and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, A.; Hegazi, N.

    1999-01-01

    Waste is any discarded material. Domestic wastes are those produced by individual activities. In common with other living organisms, humans discharge waste substances to the environment that in turn re-energize the endless cycle of nature. Human activities are closely associated with ambient environment (soil , water, or air) through accumulation of domestic waste. Such household hazardous waste deposit arise from the discharge of domestic activities in the form of municipal solid waste (household, commercial and public street wastes), night soil (human and animal body wastes, excreta, or excrement). In rural areas, night soil is one of several components of the refuse that pollute the land. The surface water may be also directly polluted by domestic wastes or agricultural wastes. But in urbanized areas, household wastes, bathroom and laundry are conveniently flushed away by water as domestic wastewater through sewerage system, and disposed onto land or into receiving water, or in some countries it is treated and re-discharged for domestic usage. Solid waste in the form of kitchen garbage and other household refuse is collected for landfill disposal or for re-industrialization. Many domestic waste influence indoor air quality in urban and rural areas as for example the fuel used for cooking, smoke from cooking and from smoking habits, modern building materials, insulation, fabrics and furniture, cleaning materials, solvents, pesticides, personal care products, organic material or vegetable origin and dander from domestic life

  14. Dominanzverhalten bei Przewalskipferden in seminatürlicher Haltung im Kölner Zoo unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Körpersprache

    OpenAIRE

    Herberz, S.

    2011-01-01

    Dominanzverhalten sichert die soziale Rangordnung innerhalb einer Pferdeherde und trägt so zur friedlichen Konfliktlösung bei. Die Körpersprache ist hierbei mit festgelegten Droh- und Unterwerfungsgesten ein wichtiges Kommunikationsmittel. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden Beobachtungen an der Przewalskipferd-Herde des Kölner Zoos durchgeführt. Dabei wurde die Körpersprache der Wildpferde analysiert und ihr Dominanzverhalten auf Abhängigkeit von Situation und Alterskonstellation untersucht.

  15. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  16. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  17. Animal experiments in radiotherapy. II. Large animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probert, J C; Hughes, D B

    1975-03-01

    A review has been made of factors of importance when using large animals for organ or partial body irradiation research. The problem has been considered from the viewpoint of the clinician. The rabbit, cat, dog, pig and monkey have been examined in detail for suitability as laboratory animals. Dosimetric and volume features have been reviewed.

  18. Waste -92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekwall, K.

    1992-11-01

    The report gives a review of waste incineration in Sweden today, including environmental and legal aspects. 21 incinerator plants are in use, producing heat to district heating network and, to a minor part, electric power. In 1991 1.31 Mton household waste and 0.35 Mton industrial waste were incinerated producing 4.4 Twh of energy. In a few cities 30-40 percent of the district heat comes from waste incineration. The theoretical and practical potentials for energy production in Sweden are estimated to 7 respective 5 TWh for household waste and 9 respective 5-6 TWh for industrial waste. Landfill gas is extracted at about 35 sites, with a yearly production of 0.3 TWh which corresponds to 3-5 percent of the potentially recoverable quantity. (8 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.)

  19. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  20. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste